Theory, Methodology And Human Development: HIV/AIDS And Education In African Countries Essay College Essay Help Near Me

Introduction The HIV pandemic is acknowledged all over the world to be the most serious health crisis in the century. HIV continues to escalate at worrying rates throughout the world, and successful efforts to contain it have been minimal. This is correct despite advances of remarkable nature in our comprehension of the virus’s molecular biology and its effects on the body; advances that have resulted to therapeutic findings in the second decade of the pandemic (Perry, 2008).

For people capable to receive treatment with antiretroviral drugs, infections of HIV have been transformed from a fatal disease to a terminal illness. This has resulted to a dramatic downturn in mortality and morbidity from the disease throughout the world in the last decade.

Despite these developments on the biomedical front, however, the pandemic continues to escalate and treatment remains scarce to overwhelming majority of masses requiring it. According to World Bank (2000), statistics reveal that, of the six million individuals currently requiring treatment in the development world, 8% only are accessing it; this figure reduces to 2% in Africa where majority of these individuals live.

These alarming statistics have made majority of international observers to declare AIDS pandemic the leading menace to growth of Africa. The most afflicted countries already experience significant reversals in their growth indicators. Despite HIV and AIDS are commonly known to be a medical and physical health condition, today there is no doubt that HIV and AID influence a series of social areas, and education is not an exception.

Studies of education systems in African countries that are the most affected by HIV/AIDS have already demonstrated that there is certain correlation between the level of HIV/AIDS prevalence and children’s academic performance (UNAIDS, 1999; UNICEF, 2002). Education is the future of each country, that is why the influence of HIV/AIDS prevalence on the educational system is an important issue to study. Despite a series of questions have been already answered, there are still many issues to work on.

Background Like every other sector of the social and economic life of countries affected by HIV/AIDS, education has also been impacted hard by the pandemic. Rising numbers of states in Sub-Saharan Africa have faced teacher shortages as the pool of qualified teachers is shrinking. The epidemic has not spared education sector administrators, planning and financial officials (UNAIDS, 1999).

HIV and AIDS have impacted the sectors of education in developing countries in a number of ways: the disease has reduced the number of skilled teachers; has affected student enrollment levels in schools; and has worsened educational quality in the affected countries. Teacher absenteeism due to HIV infections also affects the quality of education provision in affected regions (UNICEF, 2002). Teachers also tend to relocate away from HIV and AIDS prevalent areas (UNAIDS, 1999).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to UNICEF (2002), the death of children or parents directly affects school enrolment levels. This happens as a result of children dropping out due to lack of financial means to sustain their education, or they drop out to care for their siblings or sick parents. There is also possible reduction in education quality due to absentia of teachers from school (UNAIDS, 1999). They may also not offer similar quality of schooling they used to provide before they became sick (UNICEF, 2002).

Studies have been performed to find and project the effects of HIV and AIDS on the education sector in developing countries. According to the UNICEF report of 2002, developing countries face inadequacies of teaching personnel. A study conducted by UNICEF in Zambia for instance indicated that only 56,000 primary school children out of 1.7 million would have lost a teacher in 1999 to AIDS (UNICEF, 2002).

The study also revealed that the rate of teacher mortality in 1998 was equal to the loss of two thirds of the annual output of newly trained teachers (UNICEF, 2002). The demand of quality education is also being affected by HIV/AIDS. For instance, analysis of 49 case studies of families infected with AIDS throughout Zambia discovered that 56 out of 25 children had been forced to drop out of school (UNICEF, 2002).

Research Problem and Hypothesis Considering the data provided below, it is possible to assume that the indicators of African children’s academic performance themselves are not the only problem in education connected with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, bad performance is more likely to be the result of certain negative processes that take place in national educational systems.

In other words, the logical link “HIV/AIDS – bad academic performance” seems to be incomplete: in the middle of this chain, there should be certain components of educational environment that are affected by high HIV/AIDS prevalence and at the same time lead to bad academic performance.

Culture for learning is the component of educational environment that is considered to have very strong impact on students’ academic performance. It includes such components as students’ understanding of goals of learning, their awareness of importance of material that they study, their expectations for the learning process and their own achievements, and desire to improve their academic performance (Danielson, 1996).

To understand the impact of HIV/AIDS on education in African countries with high prevalence of the disease, it is necessary to work on the following research topic: impact of high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in African countries on culture for learning in these countries’ schools.

We will write a custom Essay on Theory, Methodology and Human Development: HIV/AIDS and Education in African Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Correspondingly, the following research questions should be discussed: 1) is there connection between high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in African countries and problems with culture for learning in local schools? 2) if it is, what aspects of culture for learning are impacted by HIV/AIDS prevalence and why? 3) if this impact takes place, how exactly does it influence students’ academic performance?

Having taken the abovementioned background information into account, we may formulate the following hypothesis: being affected by the consequences of high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, culture for learning in local schools creates prerequisites for students’ low academic performance.

Methodological Questions In the course of study, a series of methodological questions will need to be answered. Some of significant questions are discussed below.


To fulfill the given investigation, it is necessary to outline the circle of its participants. It is important for a researcher to define who makes the most substantial contribution to forming the culture for learning at school. On the one hand, students and teachers are undoubted and unconditional participants of the process; at the same time, it may be assumed that being affected by consequences of HIV/AIDS prevalence, students’ parents also change their view on education and its importance, and transfer this view to their children.

Methods of data collection

Considering the topic and the purpose of the investigation, there are three options that a researcher may choose from when studying the issue: a survey, observation and case study; there is neither opportunity nor need to carry out an experiment.

Each of these methods has its pluses and minuses, and each of them will help to get specific kind of information: while a survey may help to throw light on students’ (teachers’, parents’) attitudes and opinions, unobtrusive or obtrusive naturalistic observation and case study may provide more objective information about culture for learning and provide the data that a survey would not provide.

On the other hand, it is necessary to consider that though observation may help make conclusions about culture for learning, it will hardly provide specific information on such narrow issue as influence of HIV/AIDS on culture for learning. Probably, combining all methods may be reasonable.


It is necessary to decide whether the focus of the research will be on quantitative or qualitative study. More probably, qualitative study will be used, as measuring culture for learning and impact of HIV/AIDS on it gives narrow opportunity for studying the issue.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory, Methodology and Human Development: HIV/AIDS and Education in African Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cause/effect

While studying culture for learning in African schools is quite a neat task, it would be quite difficult to prove whether HIV/AIDS is exactly what has the strongest impact on it. The question will arise: maybe, there are other factors that have the strongest impact? Besides, the same question will appear considering the connection between culture for learning and academic performance.

Scientific Method: Social Sciences versus Natural and Physical Sciences There is no doubt that the research questions set in natural and physical sciences differ from those studied in social sciences. However, the question arises: does it mean that the traditional scientific method also differs from that of social sciences?

The traditional scientific method implies that a researcher takes the following steps (Bewick et al, p.8):

Identification of a research problem. A researcher decides what phenomenon requires further study and formulates a question: “what?”, “how?” et al.

Observation. A researcher collects the necessary data.

A possible answer to the question is formulated. This possible solution is called “hypothesis”.

A researcher fulfills a new observation in order to test a hypothesis.

The correspondence between the results of observation and hypothesis is studied. If the correspondence exists, a researcher may communicate the results of his/her/research and continue the study in order to collect the new data for testing a hypothesis. If there is no correspondence, a researcher needs to revise a hypothesis.

In social sciences, the scientific method includes the same steps: it is impossible to omit either formulation of a research problem, observation or any other step. For example, in the case discussed in this paper, we have also offered a research problem and have developed a hypothesis based on the existing data. However, the difference may be noticed not in “what”, but rather in “how”: a research in social science has its peculiarities which are connected with such notion as “human aspect”.

The human aspect influences the course of a research in several ways:

An object of a research is a human. His/her behavior may be influenced by a range of factors and quite unpredictable. This means that a participant of a research may refuse to provide the necessary data, or distort them, while in an experiment in chemistry, two substances will never “refuse” to react with each other.

In social sciences, it is rather difficult to make generalization: if a hypothesis has been corroborated by research results got in a group of participants, it does not mean that the same will occur in another group.

A researcher him/herself is also a human, which also influences the course and the results of a research. A researcher’s behavior and attitudes may impact the way a research is carried out; besides, being influenced by his/her own experience, a researcher may wrongly interpret the research results.

Despite there is certain difference between carrying out an investigation in social sciences and natural or physical sciences, significant similarities also exist. In both cases, a researcher should choose the optimal research methods and ground his/her choice.

In the study discussed in this paper, such methods as observation, survey and case study are expected to be used. Among these methods, only observation is used in natural sciences: for example, researchers observe behavior of animals in their natural setting. However, using this method would not be enough in our case: we would not be able to understand participants’ attitudes, thoughts and opinions without using other methods.

The second difference between social and natural or physical studies is interpretation. Describing and measuring is not enough for social sciences; the key issue is to correctly interpret the data, find cause-effect connections. Research methods used for collecting the data do not help a researcher to cope with this task.

References Bewick, S., et al. (2009). CK-12 Chemistry. USA: CK-12 Foundation.

Danielson, C. (1996). Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching. Umatilla. Retrieved from

Perry, J.,


Lawyer at Socrates Case in 399 B.C. Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction “Born in either 469 or 470 B.C. […] Socrates was son to Sophroniscus and Phainarete of Alopeke village under the jurisdiction of Athens (Brian, p.4).” He was probably a trained mason like his father but his life was more prosperous as an army hoplite supplying personal war-gears and armour.

Socrates was however poor with a low standard occupation. Arguably, his lifestyle was out of choice and one would easily locate him at marketplace or city-square, which would otherwise become the municipal of Athens. According to Brian (p.4), Socrates was a brave fighter and campaigner at various encounters from 422 to 432 B.C. His military experience made him adequately famous as a philosopher or sophists. Sophists required payment for their educational or informative services.

The accusations against Socrates was based on misleading of young minds into perceiving the wrong as right or finding better reasons from what was against the Jurisdiction.

Socrates was a man of unfathomable religious convictions and a patriot, but most of his contemporary allies regarded him with suspicion and dislike due to his attitude towards the state of Athens and the various religious convictions. In 399 B.C., Socrates faced charges of abandoning authority orders and in support of introducing new divinities, which was a reference of his own demonian. He also faced accusations of corrupting morals of the youth by swindling them against democratic principles.

The main basis for Socrates’ defence is the apology he made at the trial. He clearly vindicates the true lifestyle of his entire lifestyle by ironically placing a counter position against the ruling of Athenians legal panel of judges. He proposed that the panel must consider a small fine for the reason that he had a philosophical value and role in the society.

These alterations angered the jury and a majority votes for his death penalty, despite voting by just a small number. This situation leads to his condemnation. This paper presents an argument for the acquittal of Socrates from the death penalty. It takes the situation back to 399 B.C during Socrates trait at Athens. This advocacy is therefore in present tense but based in the past.

Socrates maintains calm and collected status and unlike the other Sophists, the self-claimed philosopher does not accept payment for teaching his students (Poppas, p.17). The vindication that he had a lot awaiting his future is evidently a conscious state of expression out of utmost good faith.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The jury must accept that he does not impose personal claims out of arrogance and pride. His lifestyle in a clear indication that his refusal for payment by the students is for the fact that, he appreciate moral uprightness and is ready to assist others garner genuine knowledge about social morality, in the true spirit of promoting literacy.

Socrates indicates that it is possible to acquire genuine wisdom from personal believes and those of others. I also wish to strongly point out that Socrates has a genuine reason to stand by his philosophical point of view. His task is not to provoke people’s way of thinking; he genuinely teaches and emphasizes full existence of knowledge for each person, through decisive ability to gather or discover existence of knowledge within the soul.

He only works to encourage people to become consciously aware of the inner reflection. Socrates has a strong personality of teaching and guiding through knowledge acquisition or discovery. A good example of his endeavours is his guidance of an untrained person to formulate the Pythagorean Theorem (Poppas, p.17).

This is a clear indication that Socrates’ is truly committed to provoking people’s inner knowledge and abilities that lie within. He is in support of a moral logic that knowledge in mainly innate within the soul, and people mainly learn from inner thinking rather than experience.

He has a unique but logical way of life where the emphasis is on the need to provoke ways of thinking, rather than teaching people systematically what they ought to learn. Socrates contribution to education is through triggering of active thoughts as a way of living as opposed to a methodical doctrine. He definitely have a clear understanding of the need for acquiring basic concepts or fundamental knowledge, and thus the reasons he emphasizes on the need for analytical examination styles for rational or critical ethical problems.

Various philosophers such as Plato are able to stand in line with Socrates’ style of administering knowledge, and thus share similar insights regarding ethics as the best and strongest choice for acquisition of information (Saillant, p.1). I wish to acknowledge that Socrates stresses the intellectual basis of identifying ethical virtues and confines them within the basic human wisdom.

In investigating his moral point of view, the exploration touches a wide range of common human problems concerning politics, natural science, governance theories, metaphysics, religious conflicts in theology, and various hypotheses of acquiring knowledge (Saillant, p.1).

We will write a custom Essay on Lawyer at Socrates Case in 399 B.C. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In line with Socrates’ apology, he has the chance of accept the ruling that the jury acquits him from the charges on condition that he stops philosophizing. He however decides to follow the order of his god and wrong the city due to what the law terms to be civil disobedience. Socrates understands the consequences of such defiance. In the apology he states that “I do know [.] that it is wicked and shameful to do wrong, to disobey one’s superior, be he god or man” (Saillant, p.1).

This statement can be ambiguous depending on the interpretation. One of the interpretations of the understanding the jury ought to consider would be that the accused is trying to consider the superiority levels and decide the side one should follow given the situation at hand. The other interpretation the jury should critically analyze is defying serving civic authority for the divine rule that seem uncommon among faithful.

Logically even when the law fails to weigh and clearly stipulate the levels of authority and the difference between divine and civil authority, the divine authority give the impression of rational superiority for most believers. From any civil interpretation, assuming that the law is clear and rule do not conflict; the higher or superior authority overrules the lesser authority.

Socrates considers that the divine authority is superior to the civil authority thus the reason he certainly consider the divine orders. If one faces two superior orders, it is only possible to obey one order at the expense of the other. Arguably, the way the accused presents his choice is interpretable to the second sense where he may appear committed to being a disgrace to his choice of the lower authority.

If the jury consider either of the interpretations, the course of action must prevail alongside the divine order. Socrates supports this action. Considering the level of superiority will nullify the rules by civil authority and the accused will not have committed civil disobedience. The jury should not consider any form of harm to the lesser authority.

There are various reasons to support Socrates point of view. Socrates’ decision postulates the existence of higher authority thus invalidating the orders of the lesser authority. I urge the jury to consider pre-empting the principle of weighing amount of disgrace over the level of authority, as the basis for deciding superiority complex.

I object to those who consider determining the level of authority as a disgrace. Socrates’ case brings less shame and disgrace to the jury, when he interprets his point of reasoning over achieving educational goals. “The amount of shame or disgrace one may endure for the achievement of a goal, […], ought not to be a deciding factor is the resulting shame or disgrace” (Pappas, p.13). In determining the orders to follow, the level of authority is the determining factor of shame.

The authority has right of command and Socrates acknowledges the policy. Since the law fails to outline clearly the cause of action for conflicting cases, the right of command must vanish in cases where two or more orders conflict. The law must therefore present all forms of authorities and weigh superiority. Socrates’ claim is only normative one indicating the existence of superiority for god or man. His apology supports the claim of divine power.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lawyer at Socrates Case in 399 B.C. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From his disagreement standpoint, “disrespecting a judgment or escaping the city or evade the death penalty is wrong because he would cheat a just agreement with the city and its laws and, thereby, harm them” (Pappas, p.13). The accused responds to divine orders to analyze his inner soul and those of others thoroughly to remove any inconsistencies. I support his point of view that the soul is divine since it reveals personality and fights ignorance.

Works Cited Brian, MacArthur. The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1996.Print.

Pappas, Nickolas. Review of Socrates’ Divine Sign: Religion, Practice and Value in Socratic Philosophy. Michigan, MI: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. 2005. Print

Saillant, Said. The Role of Inconsistency in the Death of Socrates. Prometheus.

Johns Hopkins Philosophy Journal. Vol 2, Issues 2. May 10 2009. Web.


Role of Catholic Church during Ns Regime Essay essay help free

Introduction The history of Germany has been a subject of interest to many people throughout the world. Much of this interest is usually concentrated on the period spanning from 1933-1945. During this period, Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers’ Party led the country through what later came to be known as the Nazi Regime. From the time he was appointed as the Chancellor of Germany at the beginning of 1933, Adolf Hitler had only one goal of amassing massive power to himself.

He embarked on this objective by first eliminating his political partners and later began extending the country’s borders. In order to carry out his objective without hindrance, Hitler established the “Gleichschaltung”, which was a forum to ensure that he took control of all the major institutions in the country.

However, religious leaders claimed that the church needed to be independent from the state and objected strongly to the plan. One religious organization that strongly opposed the extension of the Gleichschaltung into the realm of religion was the Roman Catholic Church. (Behrens)

The gleichschaltung, which literally translated means to make equal was a Nazi term that sought to establish a totalitarian system over every sector of the Germany society. According to historians, this coordination was done in a forceful manner. This system had the sole objective of ensuring that the whole of Germany lived under one doctrine that was dictated by the Nazi government.

Beginning from 1933, the government did everything within its power to silence any organization that would influence the masses. This influence also extended to the churches that for long had been viewed as the voice of the society. This was done through establishing systems like the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs to oversee the running of the churches. Despite these measures, the church led by the Catholic Church continued to fight for the autonomy of the church. (Bunson)

Although many Catholics are known to have ignored the actions of the Socialist Party for fear of reprisals, there are those who spoke out openly against the regime.

During the Holocaust, many Catholics were tortured in concentration camps for opposing Hitler and his policies. Just over a month after taking control of the government, Hitler and his party banned all the major Catholic papers for claims that the church was interfering with state affairs. During the following years, many priests were arrested for condemning the manner in which Jews were being treated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even before the Catholic Center Party that had the support of many Catholics could be disbanded, many of its members had been arrested and confined into concentration camps. This was carried out under “Kirchenkampf”, a legislation that sought to wage war against the church. In order not to appear to be attacking the church, the arrested Catholics were charged for disobeying the state. (Spicer 493)

Despite the numerous attacks leveled against Catholics, the Clergy led by Bishop Clemens August Count von Galen of Munster continued to oppose the Nazi regime. Throughout the whole period, Bishop von Galen was a vocal critic of the Hitler regime. His popularity earned him the nickname “Lion of Munster” for his fearless criticism.

This popularity kept him from suffering the same fate with his fellow clergy. The Munster Bishop was particularly incensed by the attacks of monasteries and the excommunication of people who held on to Catholicism. Together with other clerics, Bishop von Galen also strongly resisted the organized murder of the aged people and those who were suspected to be terminally ill.

The Bishop and his associates claimed that the concept of Euthanasia or mercy killing went against human rights and was therefore illegal. They claimed that this went against God’s command not to kill and strongly discouraged it. During this time, the Nazi government was eliminating those who were considered to be contributing little toward the progression of the Nazi cause.

This was done in the guise of killing the aged and terminally ill to ease their pain. The Catholic movement led by Bishop von Galen opposed this by claiming that death was supposed to be meted out only to people who had committed crimes worthy of death punishment. This contribution marks just a part of the struggle and opposition that the Catholic Church underwent in trying to avoid the extension of Gleichschaltung into the realm of religion. (Jauch)

Conclusion The Nazi reign was characterized by oppression and the desire to ensure that it took control of every institution. This was accomplished under the Gleichschaltung policy that sought to ensure that no institution had the capability of influencing the society. The government led by Adolf Hitler accomplished this by oppressing the institutions that it could not disband.

One of the institutions that the government failed to disband was the church. It however carried a series of attacks to ensure that the church conformed to its policies. This was strongly opposed by the Catholic Church, which claimed that the state was not allowed to have control over the church. The church also opposed the idea of mercy killing, which they termed as an abuse of human rights.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Catholic Church during Ns Regime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Behrens, Rolf. Scientists for the Regime. Jewish Political Studies Review, 2008. Web.

Bunson, Mathew. Catholic Education Resource Center. Catholic Martyrs of the Holocaust, 2009. Web.

Jauch, Gunther. The Catholics and the Third Reich, 2009. Web.

Spicer, Kevin. Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Bishop von Galen: German Catholicism and National Socialism (review), 2004. 492-495. Print.


The meaning of the word “freedom” in the context of the 1850s! Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Freedom forms the solitary foundation for the existence of the American society as it is known today. With no freedom, perhaps the great nation of America could not be present. In the 1850s, the word “freedom” was increasingly gaining new meaning to different people as the American society felt the need to avoid oppressing some of its members.

During the period, more factories were being established in the Northern part of the United States. Consequently, in order to provide cheap labor, most of the workers in the factories were enslaved. Therefore, for a once enslaved Northern worker, he or she would take the word freedom to mean the ability to have all the comforts and necessities of life without constraint from anyone.

A freed worker had the ability to enjoy the benefits of freedom because he or she was no longer oppressed neither by care nor by hard labor, as the despotism of his or her master was no longer significant. Once being free, a Northern worker was able to balance his or her time so that he or she could have adequate time for repose.

On the other hand, for industrialists (factory owners), the word freedom would connote a different meaning. As their workers became free from forced labor, they were obliged to improve the working conditions of their workers, or to allow the ones who no longer wanted to work to go and search for other means of earning income.

Consequently, the freedom of their slaves could make them to want to “die of ennui.” Freedom to the industrialists would mean that they would avoid their oppressive practices. However, they would aspire for freedom that could still give them the ability to control the Negroes. Therefore, they could not come to an agreement about the meaning of the word “freedom” with their workers since it meant different things for the two groups.

During the 1850s, life as a slave was taxing as one was forced to endure hard labor and other forms of harsh treatments. Therefore, it was a great jubilation when one walked to freedom. A slave could have the freedom to be exempted from displeasing or onerous tasks. As a result, the slave could be able to exercise freely his or her will without outside interference.

As much as the slaves considered themselves free, they still aspired another form of freedom in which they could not to be perceived to be inferior to the white race. The slaves wanted to be recognized like any other normal human being with full capabilities of taking part in the affairs of the nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For a slaveholder, freedom had a different meaning. The slaveholder no longer had the “freedom” to manipulate his or her slave the way he or she wanted without the slave’s consent. Therefore, for slave-owners, freedom meant that they were to free their slaves from the yolk of servitude that they had been subjected to.

However, the slaveholders aspired for a form of freedom in which they still had the control of the actions of their slaves. In this regard, the slaves and the slaveholders could not come to a common agreement on the meaning of “freedom” as both of them held different positions on its rightful meaning. Nonetheless, the meaning of the word “freedom” was more significant to the slaves than to any other person.


Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help

Contemporary architecture has a range of characteristic features, such as; the collision of different styles, the expression of ideas in shapes, the use of cutting-edge technologies, experiments with materials and colors, energy efficiency, interaction between indoor and outdoor space, and other peculiar trends. At the same time, contemporary architecture has one more important characteristic. It is still able to astonish people.

Contemporary architects create works that make the viewers of their designs feel controversial emotions about them. Maybe, one day the society will get accustomed to the constructions of incredible colours and shapes. However, today such buildings as London’s 30 St Mary Axe (or the Gherkin), the Sage Gateshead in north eastern England or the City Hall, the headquarters of the Greater London Authority, the U.S. Kansas City Public Library and the Aqua Building in Chicago, Illinois all engender heated discussion within society.

Australia is no exception, besides its Sydney Opera House which is famous throughout the world, this country has amazed us with Melbourne’s Federation Square, the Sidney Myer Music Bowl and many other incredible buildings. Australian architecture is considered to have its distinctive features that have no precedent in the World.

“Bright orange and curling overhead like a roller-coaster…”, “A vibrant palette of crimson, orange, bronze, gold, black and brushed silver”, “a great light and open space with curving walls, windows and ceilings” (Nma.Gov.Au), it would be quite difficult to guess what this conundrum is about. Nevertheless, this is the description of the National Museum of Australia building. It was constructed by Ashton Raggatt McDougall (ARM), one of the prominent Australian companies of architects famous of originality of their works.

In this essay, the works of ARM are discussed as the incarnation of postmodernist ideas in architecture. The purpose of the essay is observation of ARM’s style and definition of postmodernism “outside” and “inside” several projects fulfilled by them; critical reactions on the works by Ashton Raggatt McDougall are observed as well.

To advance in the discussion, it is necessary first to discuss the essence of postmodernism as a phenomenon in modern culture. The characteristic features of postmodernist culture are the switch from content to form, collision of different styles and techniques, elimination of standards, canons and the framework of traditional values, aspiration for experiments and originality, exaggerations and play with meaning (Storey, 2009, p.183).

Postmodernism tends to eliminate the borders between art and everyday life, “low” and “high” culture”, commercial and not commercial, seriousness and entertainment (ibid.). These principles turned out to be possible to embody in architecture as successfully as in other kinds of art, and the works of ARM are the evidence for this statement. Below, some of the projects by ARM are discussed from the perspective of postmodernist trends in their design.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bingham-Hall and Goad (2005) highlight that the style of ARM has no analogy in the world. They characterise it as not concerning with “orthodox notions of architectural space, linguistic conventions or tectonic truth” (p. 75). This is an eloquent illustration of how the postmodernist desire to follow to no standards and frameworks is embodied in architecture.

The authors emphasise that the ARM do not demonstrate “commitment” to a single aesthetic” (ibid.). The architects experiment with shapes and textures, meanings and contexts. Their aim is “transfiguration, transformation (visual, sensual and spiritual)” (ibid.). The description of the Storey Hall (p. 76) makes one involuntarily think about how strong the aspiration of postmodernism culture for possessing, copying, “quoting” and then fusing is.

The “devotional” building is coloured “a vivid green in honor of the Hibernian Irish Catholic Community” and “purple and white, the colours of the Women’s Political Association” (ibid.). The building has the allusions to “much loved Melbourne monuments” (ibid.). Moreover, Jackson and Johnson (2002) also mentions the resurrection of the “ideas from the Romantic period of the early Enlightening” .

Another good example of the incarnation of postmodernist ideas in architecture is the “open book” extension of the St. Kilda Library constructed in the early 1990s. Jackson and Johnson discuss the incredible “literal symbolism” of the building. In this object constructed of “bluestone grave like monumental tomes found in local cemeteries, the ARM embodied the idea about the gradual elimination of paper book publishing that existed in 1990s (ibid).

This construction is the embodiment of the postmodernism’s desire to focus on “manners” making “matters” only a source of new original ideas and associations and express ideas literally (even very literally). The idea of the Library extension makes one think about time and changes that it brings; the idea is significant and important, but the architects prefer to express it in an eloquent, clear manner, not veiling the “content”; thus, the construction is the “open book” in all senses of this expression.

Thus, it is possible to notice several distinctive features of ARM’s style, which are shifting the balance between content and shape, originality and experiments, fusion of history and the present, and “literal symbolism”. It is easy to see how these principles took shape in one of ARM’s most significant and famous projects, which is the National Museum of Australia (NMA).

“Avoiding traditional museum interpretations, the architects developed a post-modern structure reflecting the diversity of the Museum’s collection”, announces the official website of the NMA (NMA.Gov.Au).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This approach to construction of culture and scholarship facilities seems to be ARM’s favorite subject when one recollects the St. Kilda’s Library and the Storey Hall, “ARM’s architecture highlights the chaos of transforming scholarly institutions into commercial sellers of new packages of knowledge to international customers” (Johnson and Jackson, 2002).

This quotation eloquently reflects the approach of design of the NMA building: the museum is much more than a store for historical knowledge preserved by the exhibits for the select few; today, it has turned into one of the most popular places of tourism and entertainment in Australia being incredibly popular with the guests of the country. Indeed, the museum sells “packages of knowledge to international customers” (ibid.).

In the construction of the NMA, ARM’s “literal symbolism” and eagerness towards exaggeration are displayed quite eloquently. Each of its parts is connected with a certain idea. A certain part of the museum’s exhibition spaces the Garden of Australian Dreams, “a symbolic landscape” with “large sculptural forms within a body of water” (Nma.Com.Au).

It is described as “a 3D Pop Art street directory of an “other” Australia” (Bingham-Hall and Goad, p.77), the giant loop and the bright Uluru line (Nma.Com.Au).

The architects also play with colours (“crimson, orange, bronze, gold…”) and textures (“from smooth finish of the anodized aluminium panels… to the deeply patterned moulded concrete surface…) (ibid.).

Thus, the NMA has been constructed in ARM’s traditions outlined by the authors of the sources discussed above. Indeed, having constructed their “most controversial building to date” (Bingham-Hall and Goad, p.77), ARM have done their best to turn the museum into the facility that is able to successfully sell “packages of knowledge to international consumers”.

At the same time, together with the “postmodernist exterior” of the Museum, the inner space and the exhibitions offered in the NMA diverge from traditional approaches that exist in museology and incline to the ideas of postmodernism, which awakens critics’ controversial remarks but excites the majority of visitors.

The buildings discussed above have been constructed during the previous decades; it would be interesting to see how postmodernist trends show themselves in ARM’s works today. Now, it is necessary to allude to one of ARM’s latest projects, which is the so-called Portrait Building (completion due 2014) (ARM).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Postmodernist Trends in Projects by Ashton Raggatt McDougall by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During the last decades, the works architects from different countries of the world contributed to the fact that today it is quite difficult to impress citizens with design of a skyscraper. The Gherkin building mentioned in the introduction is just one example, and it is possible to recollect many others. ARM’s new project does not amaze with its strange shape or bright colors.

Nor does it imply using some peculiar technology or materials – the building is planned to be constructed of concrete. Its façade just displays… the portrait of William Barak, “the last traditional ngurungaeta (elder) of the Wurundjeri-willam Clan”, originally designed by sculptor Peter Schipperheyn (ibid.). The portrait is formed by a series of panels on the balconies and can be seen by viewers from a big distance.

The architects describe the project as the “symbolic representation of Melbourne’s indigenous culture and history” (UAP Marker), which makes one think about the expression “literal symbolism” by Jackson and Johnson mentioned above. In this project, one may see the fusion of the past and the future, everyday life and culture, painting and architecture, which is very peculiar to postmodernism.

The Portrait Building provides high-quality apartments, gives credit for a significant personality of the Australian history, and impresses the observers. In fact, the approach to design of the building is quite similar to that used in construction of the National Museum, where history and modern times, learning and entertainment co-exist and interact.

After getting familiarised with ARM’s works, one may be interested in the critical responses to them. It is quite difficult to imagine that they may not awaken hot discussion with contradicting opinions. It would be reasonable to mark that attitude to ARM’s style has been changing.

It has been marked above that there are certain similarities in approach to the design of the Museum and the Portrait Building. At the same time, the critical responses on both projects demonstrated how the viewers gradually “get used” to ARM’s postmodernist ideas.

The projects of the National Museum and the Portrait Building are separated by almost a decade; at the same time, despite the mentioned similarity between the approaches to the design, the responses on the Portrait Building are much warmer than those devoted to the National Museum.

The reviews devoted to the National Museum emphasised the presence of postmodernist trends in NMA’s design and, as well as in the approach to developing exhibitions. For example, calling the NMA a “mishmash”, Tim Lloyd discusses the exhibitions of the museum and compares it to the South Australia Museum (2003, p.68).

Lloyd emphasises the eclecticism, inconsistency and presentation of the “politically charged version of history”. However, this did not hinder for the museum to become a commercially successful project since the first years of its existence (ibid.).

Having described the landscape of the Garden of Australian Dreams, Catherin Bull makes the conclusion that it “has met one of designer’s goals, to challenge the traditions and mores of the profession, and, just as importantly, to be seen to be doing so” (Bull, Stead and Ashton, 2002).

At the same time, analogically to Lloyd, Bull mentions that the professional debate about the Garden does not hinder its popularity with children and adults who enjoy the sensation of hyperreality. Talking about the museum and museology, Naomi Stead marks the “overriding allegory – Australian nationhood as many stories tangled together” (ibid.), which sounds quite consonant with the discussion of ARM’s “literal symbolism”.

Stead nevertheless mentions that in the ways the exhibitions are organised and placed, “the relationship seems less successful” (ibid.). This makes one think about Lloyd’s statement about the inconsistence of the museum. Thus, though admitting that the NMA is popular with visitors, reviewers are somewhat critical regarding the postmodernist approach in NMA’s museology.

Postmodernist trends are considered as the way to attract attention and impress rather than deliver useful, serious information. Despite this criticism, the NMA also had a range of positive reviews – for example, Drayson says that “its value to our cultural heritage… cannot be measured in dollars and cents” (2001). When viewing the bidy of critical response as a whole skepticism was nevertheless prevailing rather than excitement and approval.

However, comparison of the NMA reviews and those devoted to the Portrait Building demonstrates that today the society is more ready to accept the architects’ ideas expressed in the “postmodernist manner”.

The reviews devoted to the Portrait Building emphasise that besides its originality, the project has a significant message which is important to deliver to the modern Australian society. In a bright, “popular” manner, the architects give viewers opportunity to think about history and keep its outstanding personalities in their memory.

“The Wurundjeri community is very moved by this gesture and appreciates the respect that both Grocon and ARM have shown in developing this exciting concept”, says Megan Goulding, the Wurundjeri Tribal Land Council CEO (CSR Wire).

The government also supports the idea of the Portrait building, “…This commemoration of the life of William Barak is one that the Victorian Government certainly applauds”, says Richard Wynne, Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Minister (ibid.). Architects also give positive evaluation to the ARM’s project, “Congratulations to ARM on an excellent site-specific integration of artwork and architecture.

It is sure to make a strong and lasting contribution to the site and the city” (UAP Marker). It is interesting that not only architects and critics give positive evaluation to the Portrait building; ordinary citizens also support the project. The poll carried out by Heraldsun (Barry) demonstrates that about two thirds of the participants (711 of 1101) like the design of the building, and only 390 participants expressed their dislike towards it.

Thus, it is reasonable to emphasize two changes that are demonstrated by the critical reviews of two abovementioned buildings. Firstly, the society is not afraid of “literal symbolism” any more; nor is it irritated by it. For a long time, absence of any allegory in art, particularly, in architecture, was considered the manifestation of bad manners.

A library building in the form of a book, a portrait on the building – yet several decades ago such approaches to expression of ideas would be evaluated as shallow and tasteless. However, today “manners” are not expected to be an unpretentious instrument used to tell about “matters”.

The second dramatic change is the reduction of the gap between education and entertainment. The National Museum was criticized by many critics, as museums were expected to provide visitors with important information and hardly be the place for fun. Today, the “educative function” of the Portrait building is beyond question for people. “…I suspect a lot of people will read a whole lot of things into this”, says Daniel Grollo, Groco chief executive (Barry).

The review of four projects developed by ARM gives us opportunity to notice eloquent manifestations of postmodernist trends in ARM’s creative works. The NMA and other designs of ARM are considered to be full of “literal symbolism”, eclecticism and aspiration for breaking the rules of architecture.

The exhibitions of the museum, despite being evaluated by some reviewers as inconsistent and politically subjective, prove to be commercially successful, which means that ARM really succeeded to construct an object that has become a “commercial seller of new packages of knowledge to international customers”. The architects do not tend to create “empty” shallow projects; each of them has its idea, a message to the community.

At the same time, ARM do not “draw a veil” over these ideas like artists of the period of modernism did; the message of ARM’s works is clear to ordinary citizens, which is the manifestation of the postmodernist elimination of the border between “elite” and “popular” art. Observation of the reviews devoted to ARM’s projects has demonstrated that the society is gradually “getting used” to the postmodernist trends in architecture and now welcomes the mentioned approaches in design of buildings.

References ARM, 2010. Portrait. ARM. Available through: .

Barry, E., 2010. Building with Portrait of Leader to Become Melbourne’s newest landmark. Heraldsun, Sept 15 2010. Web.

Bingham-Hall, P. and Goad, P., 2005. New Directions in Australian Architecture. Singapore: Periplus.

Bull, C. Stead, N. and Ashton, S., 2002. Landscape, Museology, and Alliance. Architecture Australia, 91(2). Available through: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre.

CSR Wire, 2010. Portrait Building Launched at Carlton Brewery Site. CSR Wire. Available through: .

Drayson, N., 2001. National Museum of Australia. Australian Geographic, 61. Available through: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre.

Jackson, D. and Johnson, C., 2002. Australian Architecture Now. London: Thames


The Movie “Batman Begins” – the Story About Hero Essay essay help

Table of Contents Departure




Joseph Campbell pointed out correctly that in every culture the hero’s journey can be found embedded in the stories and myths of the community. This is because the hero’s journey as Campbell understands it is a powerful commentary on human nature especially when it comes to the clamor for heroes and leaders that will make this world a better place. Campbell’s ideas when put into film is a powerful ingredient because deep down in the heart of every person is the desire to find meaning in life.

The hero’s journey is one of the tools that will help a person understand that in the great scheme of things an ordinary person can become the hero that will save the day. This can be seen in the movie Batman Begins because in this film the director and producers were able to illustrate the three major steps in the hero’s journey namely: departure, initiation, and return.

It has to be made clear that although the creators of the said film included the three elements of the hero’s journey in the movie, they made it complicated by combining the steps and repeating it all throughout the story. Some commentators said that the three major phases can be expanded into 17 steps.

This includes the call to adventure, the encouragement of a wise old man, the hero falls in love, the hero is in the belly of the whale, magic flight and help from friends, battle with evil, home and many more. These steps can be found in Batman Begins but not in the order listed. In addition the director and producers of the movie sometimes duplicated the steps or crammed them together in the beginning, middle, and end of the story which makes it more exciting to study Batman Begins.

Departure In the beginning of the film the viewers were ushered into the world of Bruce Wayne. He was a child born with a silver spoon in his mouth. He was the son of a prominent entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was the only child and therefore groomed to take over his father’s business empire. He lived in a mansion and everything that he needed was taken cared of. It can be argued that he did not want to leave this world. He had the love of his father to protect and nourish him.

All of a sudden there was a call to adventure. But it was a call that was rejected outright because the young Bruce Wayne did not understand it to be the call to adventure. In front of him was not a clear message that he was chosen. In front of him was his dead parents. His world was turned upside down. He was forced to depart his homeland to find peace, retribution, and power in a foreign land. Yet, he did not heed the call. He refused to go.

Many years had passed and the young Bruce Wayne grew up into a teenager. He was supposed to go to college but the death of his parents continued to haunt him. In his heart, hate was the main reason for living. He wanted to kill the man who murdered his father and mother. In the same stage of his journey he fell in love with a young girl. This complicated his life. He wanted to kill the murderer and moved on with his life but this love for the girl seemed to have changed the way he looked at the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the trial, Bruce Wayne, no longer a boy and not yet a man, pulled out a revolver to kill the person that he hated most. However, he was unsuccessful. It was the frustration and the anger that drove him to the edge. Love and hate proved to be an overpowering mix. Thus, the call to adventure was answered in the most unexpected way. He decided that he had to face his fears and to find a way to uproot the source of crime. Bruce Wayne left everything behind to learn more about the criminal underworld.

It is at this point of the hero’s journey where one can see how the storyteller tried to combine the elements described by Campbell. For instance his time spent in a notorious prison in China can be considered as the step wherein the hero was forced to stay in the belly of the whale. This is also the beginning of his entry into the second major phase of the journey which is the initiation stage. This is also the stage where one can see the hero traverse the road of trials.

Initiation It can be argued that Bruce Wayne went past the initiation stage when he left home and dove into the criminal world and exchanged his rich man’s robes with that of a pauper – one that is characterized by desperation, hunger, and lawlessness. He did it to learn how to destroy criminality from within. However, his initiation did not only consist of what he learned through his own cunning and sheer bravado. He was about to experience the rite of passage of a hero through the hands of a teacher.

When he was in prison he was recruited by a member of a secret organization that prides itself in the eradication of evil. The man who recruited him was Henri Ducard. Naturally, Bruce Wayne wanted to become a member of this organization and as a result he was rescued from that prison facility and transported into the lair of ninja-like assassins who maintained that they were a force for good and not for evil.

The hero spent a great deal of time learning the black arts of the assassin. It can also be argued that during his stage of the journey the hero had his first encounter with a wise old man. He learned fast and he acquired the skills that will aide him in his quest to become the hero that will save Gotham City.

He was supposed to go back to Gotham to destroy the crime syndicate that controlled the city. It was the ultimate battle of evil for him but surprisingly Bruce Wayne discovered that evil has many faces. It is not only represented by Crime Boss Carmine Falcone but also by zealots and extremists like Henri Ducard and his secret organization of shadow warriors. Thus, he had to battle it out with Ducard and his men. He was partially successful. But more importantly he was able to go to the next step.

Return His ultimate quest was not yet completed and yet he has to go home. It is in his homeland where he will have to battle the ultimate evil. He could not go home without encountering the next step of the process in becoming a hero. He needed the help of his friends and the so-called magic flight to bring him home.

We will write a custom Essay on The Movie “Batman Begins” – the Story About Hero specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He received it in the form of a private jet and the assistance of his trusted old butler. It is also interesting to note that this is his second time to receive encouragement from a wise old man and it is this encouragement that intensified his resolve to become Batman.

It is also interesting to note that Gotham City is not only his home it is also a battlefield. Furthermore, the story became more interesting because the storyteller allowed the hero to re-experience the steps mentioned above. Thus, when he assumed the mantle of authority as a true heir of the Wayne dynasty he entered into the belly of the whale.

He also went int the second phase of his initiation. This time not to learn the skills that would make him Batman but the skills needed to make him Mr. Wayne the head of a business empire. It is at this stage when he received encouragement from another old wise man, Lucius Fox who helped him transform himself into a businessman by day and Batman by night.

He had his final battle with the ultimate evil and it is a multi-headed monster. The first head symbolized the crime families, the second head symbolized the corrupt businessmen who tried to control Wayne Enterprise, and the finally the third head symbolized the secret organization headed by Ra’s Al Ghul and his right hand man Henri Ducard.

It was an intense battle. At the end he succeeded in destroying the crime syndicate. He also succeeded in defeating Ra’s Al Ghul and Henri Ducard. Finally, he took control of Wayne Enterprise. He entered the final stage, the hero wins. He comes home to rebuild his home.

Conclusion Batman Begins is an amazing film because the storyteller used the elements of the hero’s journey as described by Campbell. It was a compelling story because the producers of the film did not only create a simple presentation of the hero’s journey and proceed to tell it chronologically such as departure, initiation and return.

They made it interesting by mixing and combining the steps to keep the audience guessing what will happen next. For example the hero went home but the quest is far from complete. He did not know that he will have to battle evil in his homeland. The storyteller also repeated the process of initiation, receiving encouragement from wise old men, spending time in the belly of the whale and finally the transformation from a scared boy into a powerful hero that saved the whole of Gotham City.


Concepts of Bill Clinton Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction and Background Information

Achievements of Bill Clinton

Failures of Bill Clinton


Works Cited

Introduction and Background Information Bill Clinton is one of the democratic American presidents who will always be remembered in the American history, because of his peace initiatives and longest economic expansion in the American history. He was the 42nd president of America and ruled America for two terms from 1993 to 2001. Clinton was born in Arkansas in 1946 to parents Jefferson Blythe and Virginia Dell Cassidy.

At his birth he was named William Jefferson Blythe, III, but because of his father’s early death (three months before he was born), which forced his mother to be re-married to Roger Clinton; Clinton adopted his father’s name ‘Clinton,’ hence, his name Bill Clinton. All throughout his early schooling years, Bill Clinton attended public schools such as St. John’s Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School, where he assumed different leadership roles.

Later on he studied at Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, from where he graduated with a bachelor’s degree of Science and Foreign Service. His good performance enabled him to win a Rhodes scholarship to study as Oxford University College. After quitting his studies in Oxford, he joined Yale University, Law School where he graduated with a law degree (Miller Center of Public Affairs 1).

During his college years Clinton was an active student leader who participated in numerous activities such as the Vietnam War protests and sports. It is during his years in Yale that he met Hillary Clinton, whom he married in 1975. Although his political life began while in college, he joined politics officially in 1974, when he vied for the United State House Representatives seat, which he lost.

This never killed his political ambition, because in 1978, he was elected as a governor of the state of Arkansas, a position which he lost once and won four times; hence, giving him the a better chance of becoming the Democratic presidential candidate in 1992; which he won. During his campaigns Clinton promised to help the American economic situation to improve, to control crime, protect the environment, create employment opportunities, and control both foreign and domestic military expenditures.

As a result of his achievements in his first term, he was elected for a second term in the year 1997, with numerous promises of making America a better nation. Some of bill Clinton’s promises during his second term included reforming the healthcare system and promoting global peace initiatives (Miller Center of Public Affairs 1).

Achievements of Bill Clinton All throughout his rule, Bill Clinton main aim was to change the face of America politically, economically, and socially. With the aid of other democratic and republican leaders Bill Clinton was able to help America to achieve its dream, by rebuilding the American economy, reducing the crime rate, and restoring the global confidence on America by promoting good international relations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During his reign, the Clinton’s regime was able to help America to regain $ 350 billion economic deficit. It is during his regime that America gained one of the biggest budget surpluses of $167 billion dollars. Further, his government was able to pay back approximately $ 297 dollars public debt that had been created by previous regimes. Another economic achievement his regime made was creation of jobs for the American citizenry.

The Clinton’s government was able to create more than twenty one million job opportunities, which made his reign to be one of periods with longest and fastest real wage growth rate in the history of the American history. On the other hand, during his reign, America’s poverty rate reduced drastically in addition to the reduction of the poverty gap between races, which made the American continent.

Clinton’s administration was also able to break the cycle of dependency, by developing tools and supporting investment in urban and rural areas that aided families to shift from Welfare to work. For example, child programs gathered more than fifteen billion dollars, whereas the number of child support cases rose by fifty nine percent to 4.5 million in 1998 (Gates and British Broadcasting Corporation 1).

A second achievement that the Clinton’s regime made was to improve the quality of life of the working American citizenry. Bill Clinton’s government strengthened most American families, as his government was able to formulate policies that encouraged the reduction of taxes paid by working families, helped parents to balance between worn and family, for example the Medical Leave Act, and those that promoted improved educational standards hence, ensuring that that every American child had equal access to affordable and quality education.

During his reign, the enactment of laws such as the 1996 welfare reform law forced the government to increase its funding on child welfare programs. Further his government cared very much about the welfare of the disabled, as it was able to enact the Work Incentives Improvement Act, which made Medicaid and Medicare available to the disabled, even when they were employed.

Another achievement of the Clinton’s government was promotion of education standards in the U.S. as compared to previous governments, the Clinton government invested heavily in the education sector, by not only funding college education, but also formulating and implementing numerous scholarship programs, such as the HOPE scholarship program.

His government was also able to offer tax credits to millions of learners who were not able to pay for their college education previously and laid strong emphasis on the significance of ensuring every American child received the required quality of education. Moreover, his regime expanded work study and Pell grant programs, which gave learners an opportunity of making extra money to support their education endeavors (American White House 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Concepts of Bill Clinton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to reforming the economic and education sector, Clinton’s regime was able to reform the judicial sector, by not only controlling the crime rate, but also enacting policies that promoted justice for all. As compared with previous governments, during his reign, the crime rate in the USA reduced by approximately twenty seven percent.

In addition, his government was able to employ more security officers through increasing its funding to the COPS program. Through enacting laws such as the Brady Bill, his government was able to control the rate of crimes such as domestic abuse and felonies. For example, in 1997, his government was able to reduce the homicide rate by seven percent.

Further, his government was able to reduce drug trafficking and drug abuse rate, through developing the comprehensible anti-drug strategy, which included the funding of various anti-drug use youth campaigns all over America. Internationally, his government was considered the world greatest peace, freedom, and prosperity promoter.

Through support from other global nations, his governments was able to end ethnic clean sing in Kosovo, broke peace agreements in the Middle East, encourage the signing of the Good Friday Peace Accord in Northern Ireland, supported the Bosnia peace initiatives to end civil war, and helped to restore peace in Haiti.

Moreover, his government was also actively involved in peace and stability encouraging efforts in numerous countries such as Nigeria, Sierra Leone, East Timor, Guatemala, Burma, Sudan, India, Pakistan, and Eritrea-Ethiopia.

His government was also able to safeguard the American continent from weapons of mass destruction and security threats from countries such as Russia, India, Pakistan, North Korea, Sudan, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Clinton’s government was able to accomplish this through enacting a strong foreign policy, supporting the IMF and G-8 global security strategy, and integrating different international societies in its peace imitative (Gates 1).

Clinton’s government was not also left behind in promoting the health wellbeing of its citizens, as the government was able to enact numerous laws, which revolutionized the healthcare system. His government increased access to healthcare and increased the lifespan of the Medicare Trust Fund, which offered the sick numerous healthcare opportunities.

In addition, His government was also able to introduce healthcare reforms, which promoted the directing of more funds to yearly mammograms, colorectal and cervical cancer, and diabetes programs. Further, his government introduced programs such as the twenty four billion State Children Health Insurance (SCHIP), and outreach health programs, which were supposed to cater for the needs of children and other citizens.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Bill Clinton by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was during Clinton’s reign that acts such as the Kennedy-Kassebaum Health Insurance Portability and Accountability and 1997 FDA Modernization Acts; acts which not only promoted the welfare of business persons, but also the health wellbeing of the entire American citizenry.

On the other hand, his government enacted antifraud healthcare laws, protection laws, increased the level of security and privacy of electronic medical data, and passed different safe food laws. Bill Clinton’s government also promoted environmental protection and conservation.

His government enacted laws, which oversaw the protection of different American ecosystems for example, the land between the red canyons of rock canons to the Florida everglades, and the Yellowstone. In addition, during his reign, his government built four new national monuments, forced the National Forest Service to enact laws to protect natural ecosystems, enacted laws that accelerated toxic cleanups and Brownfield’s recycling.

On the other hand, his government also promoted global environmental protection, for example, the war on against pollution and b global warming. It is during his reign that the toughest soot and smog emitting laws were enacted and the Safe Drinking Act (White House 1).

Failures of Bill Clinton Although during his reign, Bill Clinton was able to make America shine, politically, economically, and socially, his rule failed in numerous things. To start with, although to a larger extent his government succeeded on the war on crime, his war on terrorism was a great failure. His failure to capture the world’s most wanted terrorist Osama Bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda allies, led to the present terrorism problems.

His government has numerous opportunities to capture Osama but his government misused these opportunities, something that made America and the world to suffer the wrath of terrorists, for example, the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon attacks.

As research shows, this failure was caused by his egocentric need to win power for the second term; hence, the weaknesses that were clear in his foreign policies (Weinberger 1-2). Secondly, although he assisted the American citizenry to shift from welfare to work, this move to a large extent failed to cater for the needs of the needy in America.

Such was the case primarily because; retrenching of numerous government workers and cutting social programs to the needy was a great promoter of the economic gap between the needy and the affluent. During his reign not all individuals has jobs which could support their families, therefore it was purely wrong to reduce funds towards social programs such the Welfare (Vidal 1).

In addition, the U.S. being a democratic country and one of the world’s peace brokers, it could have helped to prevent the Rwanda genocide. Instead of assisting Rwanda, Clinton’s government withdrew its forces from this volatile country and failed to mobilize other countries in to assist Rwanda, something that led to one of the biggest bloodshed in the world. On the hand, although his government helped Haiti during its crisis times, its efforts were little, because his government refused the entry of Haiti refugees into America.

This was a sign of inhumanity, as these were innocent citizens who sought for help from war. Bill Clinton also failed to maintain high moral standards, because of his involvement with Monica Lewinsky. Although the case was solved, it caused a big taint to the name of Clinton and other top government officials, more so in the judiciary; hence, putting his quest for democracy and justice at jeopardy (Vidal 1).

Conclusion In conclusion, although Bill Clinton had failures during his rule, his achievements were greater numerous. His government helped America to gain its economic position, promoted the welfare of its citizenry, encouraged racial equality, and promoted the international security initiatives. In addition, his government promoted environmental conservation initiatives, more so in tackling the biggest environmental problem, global warming.

Works Cited American White House. Keeping faith with America: A look at President Clinton’s Accomplishments during the first two years. 2010. Web.

British Broadcasting Corporation. Bill Clinton’s economic legacy. BBC. 15 Jan. 2001. Web.

Gates, Pearly. Bill Clintons Accomplishments. Tripod. 2011. Web.

Miller Center of Public Affairs. American president, an online reference resource: Bill Clinton (1946-). Miller Center. 2010. Web.

Vidal, Yinka. President bill Clinton the greatest; the historical achievements of a remarkable President. Lara Publications. 2010. Web.

Weinberger, Charles. Bill Clinton‘s failure on terrorism. The Washington Post. 1 Sept. 2003. Web.

White House. The Clinton-Gore. Administration: a record of progress. 2010. Web.


Mythological and Modern-Day Heroes Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A mythological hero

How Achilles exemplifies a mythological hero

The purpose of mythological quest to the society


Reference List

Introduction Nearly all cultures in the world have heroes. A hero is a person who in his/her exceptional character does deeds mostly geared towards saving others. His/her selfless nature, great courage, determination and brevity are the major traits that enhance the success of his/her deeds. The memories of heroes remain in communities’ cultures. Constant reminders of heroic deeds in most communities include monuments, statues, paper bills, coinages, tributes and memorials.

Others include names of streets, towns, states, institutions and buildings. These reminders help to put the heroes as pillars the society. There are two types of heroes, the mythological heroes and the modern-day heroes. The major distinction between these two types of heroes is that the modern-day heroes mainly depend on their intelligence and wit while the mythological heroes depended on their endurance, courage and strength.

A mythological hero A mythological hero, also referred to as a supernatural hero, is a hero whose deeds were extraordinary and lived during the primordial age. This is the period before the world’s industrial revolution. Myths and other forms of literature were the tools that the community used to pass the deeds of the heroes from one generation to the other.

Difficult moments in a community defined the moments when a hero would come forth in his/her attempt to bring a solution to the situation and salvation to many. It is thus evident that not everyone could stand out in his/her deeds to rescue the people from their difficulties. This is the basis of not only a mythological hero but also modern-day heroes.

Mythological heroes performed extraordinary deeds, risked their lives for the sake of others, and fell victims to a given difficult situation and managed to come out of it successfully. Most cultures believed that mythological heroes had supernatural aspects within themselves because their deeds usually lacked concrete human explanation. It is important to mention that all generations of a given community had to know about them.

This was a sign that the communities highly valued the contribution of the heroes to the success of the entire community. The word mythological hero has his origin in ancient Greece. This is to say that the Greeks were the first people in history to have mythological heroes. One of such heroes is Achilles.

How Achilles exemplifies a mythological hero Achilles is one of the mythological heroes in Greece. Historians consider him as one of the mightiest Greeks. He became a hero during the Trojan War. Her mother abandoned him when he was still a young boy leaving him under the custody of his father. According to Edwards (1985), when Achilles was a boy, the seer Calchas prophesied that the city of Troy needed help in order to take the city (p.217).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When his mother heard this prophecy she took the boy and went into hiding. She not only hid the boy but also disguised him as a young girl that people would not notice him. It did not take long before he was recognised. In the company of his friend and tutor, Achilles went to Troy to fight.

During the war, he distinguished himself as a great and an inexorable warrior. He proved this by his ability to capture twenty–three towns in the Trojan territory. He took a woman, Briseis, from Troy to his homeland. He also performed many other exploits. It is also important to mention that Achilles killed the Trojan hero and this was a great achievement to the Greeks. Achilles’ deeds were indeed heroic.

The purpose of mythological quest to the society Mythological quest is an important aspect in myths just like in other forms of literature. It refers to a journey towards a goal (Auden, 2001, p. 35). For a mythological hero, it served as a symbol that he came out successfully. To the community, it properly brought out the hero’s determination to emerge victorious through his deeds.

To the would-be heroes, it helped to inspire them to become brave and to be selfless whenever it came to bringing solutions to problems facing the society. It also helped people to develop the aspect of setting goals in their lives. Mythological quest brought a revelation to most people in the society about dedication to ones decisions.

Conclusion Every culture valued their heroes. It did not matter the situation that led to the rise of a certain hero if his deeds were selfless and geared towards saving a particular group of people or even the entire community. Many communities have improvised different types of objects to act as constant reminders of their mythological heroes. Mythological heroes on the other hand act as role models to the rest of the society. This greatly helps in bringing up generations with good traits and helpful to the wellbeing of the entire society.

Reference List Auden, H. (2001). The Quest Hero. Understanding the Lord of Rings: The Best of Tolkeim Criticism, 35-40.

Edwards, A. (1985). Achilles in the Underworld. Iliad, Odyssey, and Æthiopis, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 26, 215–227.

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Similarities and Differences between Iron Man And Super Man Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Similarities in Superman And Iron Man



Works Cited

Introduction Iron man and superman are two movies that entail characters stepping in to perform tasks that seemingly grew beyond the capacity of the security officers in the localities. In the iron man, the character Tony Stark is introduced as the man at the top helm of a “military contracting” company.

As Stark travels to Afghanistan to test a newly developed weapon, he leaves Stane to take charge of the company. Stark is however attacked and wounded. A co-captive develops an electromagnet into his chest to sustain his life from the injuries. Stark’s captor, a military group offers a deal for him to make a missile for them but he turns them down.

He escapes through a series of events and decides that his company would stop dealing with weapons. Stane, offended by the decision enters a deal with the terrorist group to supply them with weaponry as they try to kill Stark. Stane then attacks Stark, kills security agents but is finally killed by Stark who is then identified as the IRON MAN (Theiapolis 1).

Superman on the other hand is a story of a boy named Clark on adoption after he arrived from another planet. Clark has his super natural powers developed as he grows and he uses his powers to try and save people from destruction and finally delivering a dangerous criminal, Luther, to the authorities (Imdb 1).

Similarities in Superman And Iron Man The two movies had some common aspects. Significant among the similarities is the fact that the characters had some extraordinary powers. Clark is sent to his new planet as his father understood that the effects of the yellow in the new planet would give Clark powers to survive.

The child realizes his powers that developed and uses them against principals of nature. Clark for example was able to lift a car with his bare hands when the car was going to squeeze and kill the man who had just adopted her. He as well made outstanding unnatural activities like “kicking a ball into the orbit” (Imdb 1), running faster than a speeding train and catching a bullet by his unprotected hand. He also at instances flew.

These are just a few of the extraordinary things that he displayed. Stark as well is seen to exhibit extraordinary powers that helps him escape from his terrorist captors. The suit of armor helps Stark escape from the hands of the ten rings. Both Stark and Stane uses this technology to power themselves as they later meet to fight each other. Another similarity in the two movies is that the two characters used their enhanced capability for the good of humanity rather than for the bad.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Clark uses his powers to try and save people as he did to: lift the car that could have killed his father, carry off Lois to save her from the plane crash and even his last attempt to stop the destructions intended by Luthor and lastly to deliver him to the authorities. Stark similarly is seen to have used his capacity to fight Stane who had teamed up with a terror group and even killed security agents. They therefore both used their powers to counteract forces that were beyond the security personnel.

Difference A difference is however noted in the source of power of the two characters. As the power of Clark was derived from nature, catalyzed by the yellow sun, Stark had his power originating from a man made system which he developed while in captivity.

Conclusion The two stories seem to have had the same theme of some supernatural powers being used to save a generation of mankind. The source of the power may not be distinct but it is necessary to counteract some technically organized forces that terrorize humanity.

Works Cited Imdb. Synopsis for superman. IMDB, 2011. Web.

Theiapolis. Iron man. Cinema Theiapolis, 2008. Web.


Winter Ecology: Ice Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

It is a known fact that ice is a frozen phase of water being an important element of global climate. It also plays a significant role in sustaining a water cycle in nature. Due to the fact that water has a tangible impact on living organisms both at ecological and cellular levels, there are a great variety of animals and plants that adjust to these specific conditions. Particularly, the main aspects of terrestrial organisms’ survival under low temperature involve hardness, density, and depth.

For aquatic animals and plants, ice acts serves as a cover for aquatic ecosystem reducing the amount of energy, nutrients, and oxygen in the world of low temperatures. Therefore, inhabitants of northern regions have a rich vocabulary revealing all the peculiarities of ice that has an enormous ecological importance. In response, different forms of ice crystals adapt to various environments and objects.

Snow and ice undergo various processes in the course of time after formation. In general, there are different densities and hardness of snow with regard to the time of formation. At earlier stages, snow is fluffy and light; it is low in density and hardness. However, it becomes denser and harder as ice crystals combine to turn into a solid mass. Depending on the origins of metamorphism, there are different forms of ice crystal in relation to density, temperature, and hardness.

Flora and fauna of both terrestrial and aquatic spaces has also adjusted to specific qualities of ice. Due to the fact that temperatures may very in a snowpack, many terrestrial organisms benefit from insulating quality of ice by bedding by burrowing. However, the depth of snow can be also a drawback for various animals.

Similarly, temperatures and density also influence ice crystal formation and transitions. For example, the hardness of snowpack reflects the measure of strength and ability to sustain weight. Another valuable quality of ice is absorbing and retaining more amounts of oxygen in comparison with warm water. Such property is especially significant for aquatic organisms that can survive under such conditions. In particular, aquatic insects and fish use their gills to get oxygen from almost frozen water.

Aquatic organisms rely on other abilities and factors created by low temperatures. Within aquatic environment, ice acts like a protection sheet for animals and plants from lower temperatures.

At the same time, this setting is distinguished by extremely stable temperature degrees due to the limits of energy and oxygen. Such climate conditions are especially suitable for ectothermic animals whose body temperature is sustained on the account of the external heat. As a result, these organisms largely depend on temperature fluctuations that should not vary much.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ice helps to retain the temperature appropriate for low metabolism rates and small consumption of oxygen. There are also organisms that compensate for heat loss that water absorbs through heat shunting mechanisms for minimizing heat loss from feet and bare tails. In general, organisms living under such conditions cannot bear thin layers of snow and high temperatures constituting a major threat to their existence.

While observing severe laws of nature, it is hard to imagine how animals can survive the cold of winter. Entering this amazing ice world, it is hard to conceive the secrets of wildlife survival under such severe conditions.

Apart from these specific conditions, there are many other aspects that contribute to increased role of ice in sustaining life as well as preserving evidence of life. Remarkably, animals have invented sophisticated organisms and processes for siphoning oxygen from water. For example, frogs and turtles retard their heart beat in order to minimize the oxygen consumption.

While studying specific conditions under which animals and plants survive, it is possible to define what role ice plays in constructing specific ecosystems. Furthermore, ice has not only formed the landscape of north regions; it has also turned into a means of survival for living organisms.

Understanding the significance of ice, snow, and snowpack allows use to delve deeper into the problems and schemes of improving the natural landscape of our region. In addition, the knowledge will also contribute greatly to comprehending the laws of nature as well as reasons why ice and low temperatures have become integral components of comfortable existence of certain species.

Using empirical evidence and original sources is much more beneficial for obtaining information about surrounding worlds. It permits not only to identify specific patterns in nature, but understand how different ecosystems interact and co-exist with each other. While explaining the role of ice and extremely low temperatures in enriching animals’ vocabulary of survival, it is also possible to understand the basic concepts of winter ecology in northern districts.

Inhabitants of these regions are able to reveal the main qualities and peculiarities of ice, which is of great ecological significance. A major focus is made on how organisms take advantage of such specific ice property as density, hardness, depth, and temperature, which are more relevant for terrestrial organisms, and oxygen absorption needed for aquatic animals.

We will write a custom Essay on Winter Ecology: Ice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Cartopia in Portland Research Paper cheap essay help

Food carts in the Portland area has blossomed in recent years. It has become more than just a place to grab lunch from; it’s attracting tourists as this industry became a land mark in the area. History, popularity and its effect on the community will be examined in the paper, along with other vital aspects that make this business thriving.

What seems to be this new uprising of fast yet great tasting meals that you can find just about anywhere in heart of Portland? Well, let me tell you. The actual nickname for this is Cartopia which are a wide range of food carts all over the heart of Portland that provide fast yet very creative food with great amounts for cheap prices. You want something unique to try then the food carts is the place to go without having to spend an outrageous amount.

Food carts have come in different varieties from cultures to basics of food providing anywhere from breakfast to dinner (1 There are two different styles of carts mainly used which are either standing and sitting in the cart and serve the food through a window or by using all of the space in the cart for storage and to keep all of the cooking equipment such as a grilling surface).

These food carts have become very popular for students, business workers, tourists, and your everyday pedestrians. Food carts have become the new restaurant business, but now holding the title of fast food. In the Portland’s urban culture there is such a diverse range of food carts of more than (2 500 food carts, from loner to fully appointed conclaves).

Food carts have made quite the history all over the world ranging from the (3 Philippines, Canada, Europe, and the United States). People have used (4 motor less carts, mobile trucks, bicycles, and hand delivered their mobile catering business). The costs to keep these food carts running and also for rental space such as parking lots, sidewalks, and parks can be very little to nothing compared with an actual restaurant business.

Although, the profit may vary between food carts and restaurants upon popularity, cleanliness is most of all the excellent service provided to each customer. Many people have moved or live in Portland, no matter what the economy is like and how high the unemployment rate is, for the art, culture, opportunities, school, outdoor activities, but most of all the uproar of the food carts available around downtown.

A lot of young people that have moved to Portland from other states have become chefs at few of these food carts. As history is starting to proceed with this urban business of food carts, more and more will be opening into pods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Portland has accumulated as much as 500 carts and is still growing. The history behind these increasing food carts in Portland has started as far back as 1980 where there was a single cart on Fifth and Stark Street in Portland. In 1987, there were only four cart spaces available to work with that 175 food carts were competing for as said in the 2001 report of The Oregonian.

Since then, the amount of food carts have been increasing rapidly with business and because of the competition there have been bidding wars of combined prices for food cart spaces. In this history of food carts there has been great competition and great benefit in profit for each business with many different varieties that are not only used in Portland but also around the world where most has originated from (Anon. 2010).

Most of these food carts in Portland have provided such a great amount of food for such little price. With the way the economy is, business this way in the food carts is providing excellent food for very little into people’s homes and also a great profit with customers wanting to come back for more. The food carts not only provide great amounts for great prices, but they also provide it all at a timely matter.

The maximum waiting period is generally about fifteen to thirty minutes when it is busy, but usually the waiting time is not very long at all which is very beneficial for the clients that are on lunch break from work or school or just simply in a hurry (Clark, 2011). Portland food carts are now the urban fast eats of fresh authentic everyday food which has made it easier for those who are constantly on the go.

Since the history of food carts, not only all over the world but also in Portland, community support has become an aide for these businesses to better their food cart businesses. Such community support consists of article reviews or internet websites that are specifically for the food carts where Portland’s residents can provide reviews, information that they learned from meeting the chef’s or owners of the food cart, or even to provide a simple menu of each food cart for people to go and experience for themselves.

One of the best internet websites that most people and companies use is and provides a lot of insight, history, and good or bad experiences people have had with each cart along with the food and prices. With the community support, the food carts have built their reputation and respect, with that they have a larger profit and amount of customers to visit.

The community support has even let these food carts be heard, which have created popular activities through out the year that give out prizes such as free food for one whole year to teams that achieve or win the activity. Although some community support can be challenging, food carts can be more successful by listening to each critique given by a tourist or community supporter.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cartopia in Portland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If a food cart can last until now (from 1987) then there is absolutely some sort of aide that has helped them and guided them through this new industry to have come this far and so far very successful. With community support along with the support of some other food carts, there has become such a wide and diverse range of authentic, fast, and low priced foods. For some students going to college, the food carts have provided some jobs during the summers as it has been needed.

New food carts that have come along are also helped by the community support and fellow food cart owners with advice and the how-to of the new urban food cart business that has had such a big boom since the 1980’s. The community support has gone as far as getting to know each individual that works in each food cart to find out the history of the food, about the people, and why the decided to live in Portland and start a business with a food cart.

Few of the food carts sometimes have some sort of association with restaurants. Although with history some foods have either originated or have gained its popularity from food carts, when people try new foods at food carts that become their favorite dishes, they then go to restaurants for the same dish to compare between the two. Most food carts have the best originality and authenticity put within their food and service.

Food carts have also become very creative with the way they serve and also by the looks and names of their carts. With more and more food carts becoming popular in the world and mainly in Portland, the Government, specifically in Portland, has set many regulations and costs in order for food carts to run and make a production off of the streets, parks, and parking lots.

Recently, the city officials have cracked down on food carts that have had illegal structures mainly in big pods. As the food cart industry is increasing city officials have to increase costs and regulate laws of distribution, safety, and cleanliness in order to keep the residents safe and the food cart businesses successful (Bao, 2008).

The food cart industry seems to be expanding in Portland on a daily basis. It has expanded in terms of number, geographical location, and public’s consciousness. When one walks along the streets of Portland during lunch time, he notices long lines of people waiting to be served.

This signifies a thriving food culture that is evident in Portland. Information regarding these carts is now accessible from food-cart blogs, websites and local and national media. A recent post has been made by the Willamette Week concerning an “Eat Mobile” event that was held to celebrate food cart culture in Portland.

More than 800 supporters attended the event where food was never enough. This is a symbol of how the food carts have become a favorite to many people in Portland. In January 2008, the (Urban Vitality) Group merged up with the “City of Portland, and the Bureau of Planning” to take on an exploratory study of Portland’s up-and-coming food cart industry (Bauer, 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cartopia in Portland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They carried out a research on the effects of food carts on neighborhood livability, and the industry’s potential to create beneficial entrepreneurial opportunities. The results of the research point out that food carts have remarkable community paybacks to vicinity livability by fostering social interactions, walk aptitude, and by providing temporary uses for unoccupied parcels.

Moreover, carts offer excellent employment prospects for refugees and low-income individuals to embark on their own businesses, even though there are noteworthy barriers to continuous steadiness and success. The City’s shore up of the food cart business can press forward the key community values and be of advantage to all Portlanders.

Just like in many cities, restaurants in downtown of Portland tend to offer cheap meals for the cubical paroles or act as expensive account places for the management. However, many people like to eat from the food carts which are distributed allover. In the last few decades, Portland has become famous for its many food carts.

These carts and trailers can be found in parking lots all over town, with concentrations at the corner of SW Stark Street and SW Fifth Avenue. Food carts bring into being positive effects on street liveliness and neighborhood life in densely populated downtown area.

Nonetheless, if a group of food carts is situated on a private area, the concentration of use can have depressing effects on the neighboring community, primarily because of lack of rubbish cans. On the other hand, food carts provide beneficial employment opportunities not only for the immigrants, but also the residents of Portland. They also provide an enhanced quality of life and encourage social relations between owners and customers.

Portland’s food carts provide a better and yet a cheap way to discover the cultural pastiche practiced in Portland. Through the delicious food carts, one can easily understand the culture of people living in Portland. These food carts have become semi permanent kitchens-on-wheels and are more often than not clustered together in pods.

Most of the owners are recent immigrants who cannot afford the high start-up cost to put up a restaurant. Prices offered in these food carts ranges from $5 to $6, although they can go up to $10 depending on the class and location. They observe high standards of hygiene and conform to the tight city regulations (Portland (Or.) 2008).

The City of Portland formerly lacked information concerning the food cart industry, as carts are not included in the City’s annual business inventory because of their temporary and mobile nature (Kelly, 2011).

The industry has also attracted young and educated chefs who are not employed. It has proved to be a viable business undertaking and many young chefs have become entrepreneurs. They now operate their own food carts and some are employed as chefs in some of the carts located in the city center. These food carts have played a very great role in reducing the unemployment rate that has been high for a long period of time. Some young people are now aspiring to be chefs after seeing the success in these businesses.

Food carts may fill up a slot for workforce expansion strategies to provide reasonable economic prospects, which is a key endeavor of the Portland Plan. The technical working group has identified the need to “ensure economic opportunity is available to a diversifying economy.”

Currently, cities across the nation are using street vending as a way to provide diverse, affordable, and quick food options. Municipalities can utilize food carts to achieve city goals, and some have attempted to reduce conflicts by restricting the presence of carts (Samson, 2010).

When taking into consideration how to deal with the daily administration of food carts, authorities can control them based on strictly-defined rules or more flexible principles. Areas of possible regulation can consist of the spatial locality of food carts, position and space distribution on a site, number of licenses accessible, categories of goods that can be put up for sale, and cart design.

While every jurisdiction handles street vending in a different way, the City of Portland’s strategy has persuaded the current development of carts on individual land, rather than on sidewalks (Mehta, 2007).

The cost of doing business assessment points to the dissimilarities in market-entry for push carts, motionless mobile carts, and small businesses. It without a doubt exhibits the complexity of moving from even a triumphant food cart into a more unwavering storefront. This is the reason why food carts have increased significantly in Portland. The start up cost as well as the cost of production for food carts is much less as compared to that of running a stable storefront or a restaurant.

Many people argue about the future of the food carts; whether they will continue or they will be curtailed. With the current state of the economy and the rate that Portland is receiving new immigrants who are not economically stable, it is clear that the food cart industry will continue to operate in Portland for the immediate future. Nevertheless, devoid of some extent of preparation for the future of carts, the communal benefits and micro-enterprise opening they make available may be reduced, or even lost.

The market for land that can be used for the development of food carts greatly influences food carts’ viability, and dictates how and where food carts can tolerate unless inventive strategies are engaged to ascertain new ways to amalgamate them into the urban fabric of Portland (Burningham, 2010). Alternatively, over-regulating food carts can considerably reduce the community and economic benefits they provide.

As the city grows and the market circumstances that have made it uncomplicated for food carts locating on facade parking lots begin to transform, the City should distinguish extra locations where food carts can maneuver. Provide space for food carts in existing publicly owned locations and reflect on carts in projects presently under development.

Food carts promote (small scale) entrepreneurs (Shinn, 2010). Some instances of accessible or anticipated sites where food carts possibly will be situated include: city parks, the downtown bus mall, MAX stops and transportation centers, park and ride facilities.

From the above analysis, it is clear that food carts have become a popular business undertaking for many people in Portland. There are over five hundred food carts and this is an indication of how the business has grown at a very high rate. This type of business has only been realized recently and it is already bombing in many cities. Portland can be classified as one of the cities where this business has grown substantially.

It has become a preferred place for all types of people including students and office walkers. The meals are delicious and are offered at an affordable place making it easy for virtually everyone to afford. Most of the food carts are located in downtown area where the environment is good and there is fresh air. They have created many job opportunities for the young people and have even attracted many young chefs.

The future of the food carts in Portland is promising although a lot of things have to be put in place. The government has to take part in the expansion of the business by creating other suitable locations. It can also help young entrepreneurs with the start up costs in case they are stuck. This is because food carts have had a significant impact in the economy of Portland and they seem to have more contribution in future. Food carts may perhaps enlarge the availability of food to low-income neighborhoods, which might be short of grocery stores.

Reference List Anon. (2010). Portland food carts- Best Portland food carts. Web.

Bauer, M. (2010). Touring the food carts of Portland. Web.

Bao, S. (2008). Washington, Oregon and the Pacific Northwest. Lonely planet Travel Guides Regional Guide Series. New York: Lonely Planet.

Burningham, L. (2010). Portland Food Carts Push Through Recession. Web.

Clark, J. (2011). Top 10 Portland food carts. The food carts in this Oregon town are more like mobile gourmet kitchens. Web.

Kelly, (2011). This Just In! You can now find cartopia at… Web.

Mehta, V. (2007). Lively Streets: determining environmental characteristics to support social behavior. Journal of Planning Education and Research 27: 165-187.

Portland (Or.) (2008). Charter and general ordinances of the City of Portland, Oregon: in force. The New York: Public Library.

Samson, K. (2010). Frommer’s Portable Portland. Volume 234 of Frommer’s portable. Frommer’s.

Shinn, L. (2010). Northwest Kid Trips: Portland, Seattle, Victoria, Vancouver. New York: ParentMap.


The Future of Religion Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

The basis of the future of religion


Works Cited

Introduction Religion for centuries has been a very important aspect in uniting people across different cultures. This is because of the common believes that people in a given culture hold. It has also been very instrumental in enhancing the build up and retention of morals in the society.

In the course of evolution especially during industrialization as well as civilization of many nations in the world, religion has experienced many challenges that have led to changes in many religious aspects. As a result, religion holds different forms and different meanings from one generation to the other.

However, amidst all the changes, there is always a remnant in each religion that truly holds to the initial aspects and meaning of their religion. Despite the dynamism of the world, religion will remain an important social aspect. People only deviate from true religion i.e. the original religious beliefs and aspects in order to suit their lifestyles thus the future of religion. The future of religion is uncertain; however, the possibility of having one world religion is almost a reality in the light of the high rates globalization.

The basis of the future of religion Before going into the details about the future of religion, it is fundamental to establish the meaning of religion. Religion is a cultural system that establishes powerful significance to natural happenings through a system of beliefs, norms, and values. This equips humanity with the truth about everything that is in existence (Geertz 35).

It helps to understand the origin of human beings as well as their destiny. In addition, it helps people to understand the way things happen in the supernatural. It also gives meaning to the behaviour of different creatures in the world as well as their origin.

A number of religions run deep in different societies across the world. Most of the religions begun during the time when there was no concrete explanation to the origin of all forms of life or the functioning of body systems. During that period, “the nature of heavenly bodies such as the sun, stars and the moon was not clear in normal human understanding and human beings needed something to aid in explaining their existence” (Dennett 9).

This was in an attempt to find the answers to the questions that people had regarding these phenomenon. Each of these religions has its own beliefs among other aspects that differ from one religion to the other. The different religions include Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism and Judaism among others. It is important to mention that there are different numbers of followers of these religions with Christianity having the greatest percentage of followers in the world. Islam comes next in popularity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are basic characteristics of religion. One of these characteristics is the belief in the supernatural. A supernatural being, which can be a god or goddess, stands out as the most supreme feature in religion. On the other hand, there is a means of communication between the people and the supernatural. In most religions, prayers and sacrifices act as the major means of communication. The followers of a given religion observe certain sacred objects and times.

There are also ritual acts associated with the sacred objects and times. Every religion has a moral ethical code that governs the behaviour of all its followers. It is in every religion that a leader must be ordained or rather elected to lead people in observing all the religious practices. Religions are a social organization whereby religious believers come together with the goal of worshipping or even living together. Religious systems and beliefs are not only passed through families but also through the entire community of believers.

It is inevitable to rule out the role of religion in our societies as far as the future of religion is concerned. For decades, religion has been instrumental in instilling good morals to individuals and the society. It helps to build most institutions in the society ensuring that all the members of the society access most of the basics to lead a good life. It also helps to give meaning to some of the issues that are beyond ordinary human understanding such as death.

On the other hand, it is instrumental in enhancing good leadership not only within the religion but also to most governing systems. Religion also teaches people how to handle their feelings such as fear and worries. It also provides a system of values and norms that govern daily contact. When talking about the future of religion, the assumption is that religious institutions and ideas are bound to change with time.

This means that many forms of religion can be formulated depending on the interpretation of the original or rather the existing religious beliefs and systems. Almost all the religions have experienced this in the past and the same can happen in the future. Religious institutions can also change depending on the lifestyle of people in a given locality. Industrialization and civilization are some of the main factors that bring about changes in lifestyle hence changes in belief systems.

Having considered the basics of religion in the globe, the issue of the current state of religion comes in. Today, many people are gradually drifting from religion. The establishment of scientific views to explain natural phenomenon has greatly propagated this change in the society.

Owing to this, several bodies have conducted surveys to establish the magnitude to which science has influenced religious beliefs. For instance, in 2009 the Pew Research Centre in America showed that “only 33% of scientists believed in God…17% of the public did not believe that a supernatural being, God exists and 7% believed in a personal God” (Larson and Witham 313).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Future of Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many nations are investing heavily on technological inventions. Since the inventions are so great to many people, their attention on religion has declined significantly. This has transformed most scientists to social icons on the basis that they are able to bring into existence completely new things. This shows that with the current increase of scientific as well as technological inventions, religion may lose its meaning in the society.

Philosophers have tried to establish harmony between scientific and religious beliefs, “…come up with the theory of pragmatism that states that the usefulness of a set of beliefs in helping people cope with a particular context of life indicates the truth of the beliefs” (Larson and Witham 315).

In the same way, religious beliefs are useful in helping people to cope with difficult situations or in making of moral decisions. This shows that both scientific theories and religious beliefs have certain truth that is useful to people. This substantially erodes the value that religion as the only tool that can bring out the meaning and usefulness of nature.

Secularism stands out as another factor that has greatly affected the direction of religion in the society. It advocates for people to be neutral in dealing matters within the society. This makes people not to uphold the religious believes and morals. Secularism aims to separate the government from religious beliefs, practices and religious judgement…”it holds that the basis of human decisions and activities is evidence and facts but not on religious views” (Noah 14).

It is important to mention that many people view secularization as the way to modernization that entails leaving the primitive ways of doing things. In this case, primitive ways refer to the religious practices and beliefs. In most states where secularism is deeply rooted, the government makes decisions without religious basis though it advocates for the protection of religion. This has led to controversies in several issues such as abortion. Other issues include cloning, contraception as well as same-sex marriage.

Criticism is another challenge that is facing religions today. Critics of religion argue that religious facts contradict science. These are the people constantly advocating for acceptance of scientific findings in order to enhance economic development. Other non-religious people argue that, “some rules found in religious books are hard to follow” (Richard 77). In the contemporary world, such rules include those that govern the dressing of the people.

They also go ahead to say that such rules are outdated in comparison with the changing world and do not make sense. In addition, critics argue that the behaviours that the religious books advocate for are not sensible. These criticisms are an obstacle to the establishment of religion in the society. Consequently, it is hard to pass religious rules, beliefs and practices to the coming generations. This means that in future, the society will fail to observe most religious values.

There is yet another problem facing religions today, heresy. This occurs when a particular group of people within a given religion depart from the religion and form their own form of religion. These people cease following the former/traditional beliefs. Once they come together, they form new ideas, rituals and rules that will govern their group.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Future of Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They even come up with new forms of worship. This leads to the formation of cults and religious sects. Some of them, in their practices, end up violating human rights and that is not the original intention of many religions. If heresy is not controlled it would lead to the development of many cults and religious sects in the future. This in turn will lead to development of conflicts between cults and the original religion.

Bringing together different religions is underway. Religious practitioners are aiming at bringing together the common aspects of faith of the different religions together. This aims at minimising the misunderstanding between members of different religions. The religious practitioners refer this as interfaith cooperation. The holding of interfaith dialogue is instrumental in solving religious, political as well as ethnic conflicts.

Initiatives towards the establishment of interfaith cooperation include ‘A Common Word’, which was launched in 2007 and intended to bring both Christian and Muslim leaders together. The success of interfaith cooperation will give the world a new understanding of religion especially when dealing with issues that affect people in different religions.

Misinterpretation of the contents of religious books such as the Bible, the Torah and Koran is another aspect than can greatly affect the future of religion. When this happens, a very new aspect of the religion is developed. There is a possibility that the newly developed aspect will bring differences and lead to the split of a religion. It is not only the misinterpretation of the contents of religious books but also misinterpretation between the religions.

For instance, Muslims are facing the difficult of misinterpretation by the rest of the world. This happened following the bomb attacks carried on parts of the world by some Muslim faithful. On the contrary, not all Muslims are terrorists. It is also important to mention that misinterpretation of the contents can lead to inappropriate practices of religion. It is therefore important for one to understand the beliefs and values of the religions to prevent misinterpretation.

Though there are many challenges facing religions today, there is continued improvement in the spread of the top most religions in the world. This is due to the technological development around the globe. This development has enhanced the spread of these religions to most part of the world.

As a result, there has been converts from one religion to the other. It is important to note that conversion from one religion to another is a deliberate act. In the same effect, people who previously did not belong to any religion are becoming part of a religious group. This is important since more people will be under the control of a given system of norms and values within the religion that they join.

There are leaders in every religion to ensure people follow the religious beliefs and systems. They help in proper interpretation of the contents of the religious books. This is through the knowledge that they acquire during their training. They also help to solve any conflicts within the members of the religion. New converts get proper guidance from the leaders.

In order to accommodate the changes that are taking place in the world, most people argue that religion and scientific views should carry the same weight in building societies. The idea in this case is that, the two entities should not oppose each other since they both explain things that are not easily understandable under normal circumstances.

Modernization calls for opportunities for sharing the views offered by both scientists and religious leaders. This is mainly for the social field where the two tend to hold quite different grounds. Secularists argue that religion should be socially relevant but not some form of imprisonment especially to the youths.

Conclusion Religion is the single most important aspect in bringing people together. This is due to the system of norms and values as well as practices within each religion. As aforementioned, many challenges are currently facing almost all the religions around the globe. These challenges include secularism, criticism, heresy as well as the scientific and technological advancements taking place around the globe.

These are deviating people’s attention from true religion to other forms of beliefs and theories. It is of great importance to mention that the contents of the religious books and religious beliefs do not change. There are efforts by different religious practitioners to establish a common faith based on the belief systems of the major religions in the world.

This will help in solving conflicts affecting the religions. Religion remains the fundamental instrument of establishing and retaining cohesion in different cultures. However, it is important to note that religious institutions and ideas are bound to change. The future of religion is very uncertain, more people will become religious and more will become atheists. Nevertheless, the probability of having one world order with one religion seems plausible in the near future.

Works Cited Dennet, Daniel. Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. New York: Viking Adult, 2006.

Geertz, Clifford. Religion as a Cultural System. New York: Basic books, 1973.

Larson, Edward, and Witham, Larry. “Leading Scientists Still Reject God.” Nature 394.6691(1998):313.

Noah, Fieldman. Divided by God. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.

Richard, Dawkins. The God Delusion. New York: Black Swan, 2007.


Halloween is bad Essay online essay help

The Halloween celebration is bad. To begin with, the celebration is meant to commemorate the god of dead people. It signifies the time when the wall between the world of the dead or supernatural and the living was broken down. It is thought that evil spirits and spirits of the dead visit the earth during this time.

Those who strongly believe in the celebration see it as an opportunity to seek help from the devil concerning issues like marriage, the enemies, and health, among others. In reality, the ceremony exalts the devil and other spirits hence demining God’s power and his ability to save mankind from his troubles. The ceremony has strong links to pagan worship (Barth 22).

Every faith that has God or a god at the center of worship usually demands that only that God/god is to be worshipped and any divergence from that is perceived as transgression. On the contrary, Halloween acknowledges evil spirits and even the devil and as they are thought to be able to solve human problems.

In the real sense, it is only people who ascribe to Satanism that acknowledge the supremacy of Satan and any celebration that exalts the devil must be satanic. For those ascribing to the Christian faith most of the activities done on the day could be termed as anti-Christian. Given that light and darkness cannot associate, then the devil and God cannot be acknowledged at the same time.

Some of the activities carried out during the Halloween celebration include visiting those houses that are haunted by evil spirits. Black cats, the jack-o’-lanterns and bonfires are all associated with this celebration most of which owe their originality to occultism. In the ancient days during the Halloween celebration, people wore animal skins and they would dance around bonfires. Participating in the celebration is equivalent to supping with the devil.

Those who do it cautiously can be compared to those using a long spoon. In its original ancient form, the celebration was accompanied by human sacrifices and it was mostly performed by the witches. During the ceremony, demons are worshiped using the human sacrifice.

By allowing one allowing his/her children to take part in the celebration, that person is simply initiating the children to Satanism and reinforcing their belief in the spirits of the departed. Such children may end up unruly or ascribing to very weird beliefs. The celebration is mainly associated with mischievous activities, death and ghosts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The celebration has been slowly getting into people’s minds and activities and it is nowadays being perceived as any public holiday. Some celebrate it without trying to find out its significant. Some on the other hand do celebrate it due to peer pressure (Russell 100).

During the Halloween celebration, children are left wandering in the night doing activities they do not fully understand. This could jeopardize their safety and security as no one can foretell the danger that lies ahead during the night. It may therefore help to stop one’s children from wondering aimlessly in the night on purely security grounds.

The costumes worn during the ceremony are scary and might even cause nightmares to some of the young children. There is need for those who celebrate the ceremony unknowingly to research into the history of the ceremony as well as its meaning before daring to take part in it.

Works Cited Barth, Edna. Witches, Pumpkins, and Grinning Ghosts. New York: Seabury Press, 1972. Print.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. New York: Cornell University Press, 1972. Print.


Should Canada play a larger international role? Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

International role

Canada’s historical Background

The economic, social and political status of Canada

Factors influencing Canada as an international player

How Canada should play a larger international role




Introduction International role has been a heritage for every nation in the world. The recent decades have seen all countries in the world anticipate becoming the key players in the international scope. International role of a nation becomes pronounced in terms of economic, social, political, and economic aspects.

Over the years, Canada has played very crucial roles internationally as a result of its enthusiastic leaders and citizens, always committed to act as change models. Additionally, the nation has proved to have great potential in the international affairs, a factor that places the country among the global giants.

Global giants have proved themselves through their endless interest to become more prominent as well as to dominate the economic and social society of the world. However, participation in international roles becomes a success for those countries that have set themselves apart for the sake of international development. Thus, with the modern global transformations, Canada should play a larger international role than it has done previously to enhance their participation in global affairs[1].

The discussion in this paper is aimed at establishing the fact that Canada should play a larger international. It will also provide a detailed discussion to establish how Canada should play a larger international role

International role An International role is that which an individual or a nation performs for the benefit of other nations. The role need not only be played when a need arises, but at any given time and to any nation across the globe. Many countries have been enthusiastic to take part in the global development and transformation through their advancement in all aspects.

Many expand industrially like china and Japan, others in terms of agrarian revolution like South-East Asia etc. However, every nation possesses a unique cultural set up, historical background as well as political and economical backgrounds. The interplay of these factors provides a ground for each country to play a distinct role internationally. Some countries like Canada are good players when it comes to the international security and peacekeeping roles[2].

Additionally, participation in international roles depends on the historical background of a nation, since it acts as a confident driving force towards anticipated success. More over, the world needs such international players, since the international roles act as instruments for global cooperation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several roles that international players can participate in include boosting of the global economy, enhancing the global social relationships, taking part in building an ample political world as well as improving the cultures of the global nations. More over, the current world is dynamic, especially on issues regarding technological advancements[3].

Thus, nations should boost each other in order that equity in these advancements may take pre-eminence to avoid a nation’s lag behind. In addition, it takes the strategic decisions that an international player makes in order that their international roles objectives may be achieved, the reason why Canada should continue enthusiastically to play larger international roles[4].

Canada’s historical Background Canada has had an enticing type of historical background in the past years due to their active participation in the international affairs. However being ruled by some drastic and overwhelming challenges in the recent past, they have been enthusiastic to accomplish their local and global goals up to date.

The nation is well known for its long participation in international trade over the years, a factor that renders them understand global challenges in a better way. For instance, they have long traded with the United States, having been known as global giants over the years.

Additionally, Canada has been known to embrace democracy in its traditional political and governmental set up, which is manned by a parliamentary system. It is also evident from historical sources that Canada duly participated in the rampant wars that tormented the whole world in the 19th and the 20th centuries. This background has played a key role in their recent engagement in the international affairs[5].

Recent research findings have declared Canada as an active economist in the world. This is evident in the fact that they participated in international trade even before the massive destructive wars, and had even managed to construct railways in the country.

Canada has also been known as a state that values confederation and expansion in terms of economic, social, and political grounds, a major reason for their participation in the global context. The cultural background has played a great role in the growth and development of Canadian history, having been marked by a sense of oneness and democracy for all races. Issues like racism, extensive domineering has not been found to take pre-eminence even in the traditional Canada.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Should Canada play a larger international role? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of countries in the world, including South Africa and Sudan have benefited from Canada’s act of good faith in promoting global diplomacy in the recent years. More to that, contradictions in the political system are not known to have been a hindrance to the Canadian people due to everyone’s development of a receptive heart in terms of development. Therefore, the historical background of Canada gives a positive direction for it to play larger international roles in future.

The economic, social and political status of Canada The status of a country in the economic, social, and political set up plays a crucial role in terms of developments, both locally and internationally. There have been an up and down trend in these status values over the years due to the interplay of negative and positive forces.

For instance, the twentieth century saw the factors above experience drastic and sudden transformations as a result of the world wars that devastated the whole world. However, the country has been re -correcting drastically in the 21st century with an aim to restore the original status quos, and at the same time improve to the best[6].

First, Canada has been able to develop in all its economic areas, making long term and positive changes. The current economic status has all its desired areas playing key roles in the countries development, productivity, global performance, as well as sustainability. The development in agriculture, which involves cultivation of a wide variety of crops, has really manifested itself in the global context. Such are the items that are supplied to other nations, the trade partners.

In addition to that, the current Canada is tending towards becoming an industrial giant with the rapid industrialization that is taking place everyday. It is also evident that Canadians are very good at resources exploitation, and with the development of economic tools and valuable government policies, Canada is liable to become a global giant very soon, a factor that makes it suitable as a potential player of larger international roles[7].

On the other hand, the social set up of Canada, though having been drastically interrupted during the massive world wars is well established. Canadians, just like the United States do not limit the level of societal interactions.

A large number of immigrants are also allowed into the country, a factor that provides freedom for social interaction between all races. In addition, their cultures are quite flexible, since there is no fixed culture for all citizens, but mixed cultures are evident. A few social issues are questionable in the country, by either the state or the government.

More over, it is a society where all people are provided with equal participatory rights in the development processes that take place within the country. This kind of a social set up is crucial in fostering international relations as well as societal growth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should Canada play a larger international role? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More over, Canada is one of the few nations that are known to have had few political crises. They have a parliamentary government, led through a hierarchical system, which is embraced by the country citizens. Though the ruling system is also problematic, having legalized some incredible society issues in the recent years, no major governmental crises have been felt. The system is entirely democratic, thus giving every societal member to participate directly or indirectly in the governmental process.

Their tradition has always been characterized by a democratic system, a reason for their continued success in the international issues. It has been a key participant in maintaining international peace, having acted as a role model in the maintenance of local peace. Thus, it is with enthusiasm and interest that Canada should continue playing larger roles in the international arena[8].

Factors influencing Canada as an international player Contribution of Canada in the international scope is enhanced by a number of factors. First, the geographical positioning of the country is ample, since it borders with the United States, thus centrally placed for ease in penetration to other global parts. The aforediscussed political, social, and economic situations are suitable in providing a ground for Canada to participate fully in the global development.

The elapsed past has also seen Canada succeed in international trade, having established trade relations with a number of global giants, to an extent of having traditional trade relations with the immediate neighbor; the U.S. this is a factor that directly contributes to its global participation[9].

On the other hand, the past charitable global deeds have enhanced the country’s profile in the world, creating receptivity for it in all other countries including those in the African continent. First, its combination of forces with the U.S army to help combat the Afghanistan rapid wars in the recent past has helped build trust for Canada in other states.

Secondly, the key function that it performed in enhancement of diplomatic relations in the neighboring countries is a source of international credit. South Africa has sustained global friendships with Canada in the recent years. The lead role that Canada played in the abolishment of apartheid system in S. Africa in 1976 remains memorable today[10].

The assistance in the enactment of peace, security and democratic political system is approve that Canada is a global peace-creator, a factor that leads to most countries embrace the state. As is if that was not enough, Canada has enthusiastically participated in the Sudan crises, acting as an object of making peace, basing their total assistance in the pillars of peace, security, and democracy. In addition, it participated in the legalization of peace process, whose first step involved the signing of treaties of peace between Sudan and Darfur.

The compassionate and human rights international commission has recognized Canada as a campaigner for the human welfare, a factor that makes many nations to envy Canada, thus involving them in their issues. Having participated in the world wars in the 19th century has created a good ground for Canada to participate in other recent wars, thus becoming an international player through the past experience10.

How Canada should play a larger international role Canada should play a larger international role in the near future. The stability in the Canadian government system will help Canada to participate in the international affairs with a lot of ease. The political system is identified to embrace democracy, peace, and security, which will help the world in very many ways, bearing in mind the issue of international immigration[11].

Additionally, Canada anticipates getting involved in the promotion of world peace, security as well as diplomacy in all states, having served as an example in the promotion of South-African and Sudan peace in the recent past.

The experience they have gained through their active participation in the international trade with global nations is a driving factor towards their future participation in the international trade. Having long established strong trade relations with its neighboring states, Canada will have a great opportunity in establishing trade relations with the global entities in the future.

In addition, the nation is captivated towards becoming successful in the anticipated modern agrarian revolution, with an objective of producing the best crops that are a benefit to the world. This will drive the country into becoming globally famous for all nations to t desire relating with Canada[12].

On the other hand, for Canada to participate in the international roles, there is a requirement that the government system be completely evaluated in order to eliminate the vices that may act as drawbacks for future development.

The recent criticism towards the government legalization of unethical issues like similar gender marriage may be a source of rampant challenges, in the feeling that the influence may spread to other parts of the world. At the same time, it is possible to play international role in the sense that the great anticipation that the country has is to become an international role model for sustainable metropolitan development[13].

This aspiration should drive the country far in terms of economic growth, since the urbanization will also play a lead role in tourism promotion. The current project management systems are also well suited for international affairs. Canada is a leader in managing quality as the most crucial aspect in the construction and improvement of the modern transport means.

Thus, with great enthusiasm to attain the set goals, it will be easier for them to penetrate in the world. Canada is also one of the leading countries in the military strength, thus it would be crucial if the countries involve it in the peacekeeping and war combating efforts in the near future. With the recent technological advancements, it is easier for every country in the world to penetrate globally, Canada inclusive as one of the states that have really embraced global development[14].

Conclusion The recent economic, social, and political developments are contributing factors for Canada’s participation in larger international roles. Embarking on the modern technological and infrastructure developments will also play a key role in making Canada a future global entity. Therefore, it is crucial that the nation implements new international standard strategies with the main objective of enhancing productivity and performance in the international scope. Thus, Canada should play a larger international role.

Bibliography Cutler, Claire and Zacher, Mark. Canada. Canadian foreign policy and international economic regimes. N.Y. UBC Press, Inc, 1992.Web.

Liem, Simon. Canada Playing a Larger Role on International Stage. Ontario: the link newspaper, Inc, 2011. Web.

Kilgour, David. Canada’s Role in the World: New Opportunities in a Changing Global Environment. N.S: Halifax, 2005. Web.

Mahler, Gregory. New dimensions of Canadian federalism: Canada in a comparative perspective. UP: Farleigh Dickinson, Inc, 1987. Web.

OECD Publishing. Canada. Ontario: OECD Publishing, Inc, 1998. Web.

Whelan, Peter. Canada’s international role: Four political perspectives. The Ploughshares Monitor, volume 25, no. 3, 2004. Web.

Winter magazine. Business and entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Ontario: Council for Small Business


Gambling’s Positive and Negative Effects Essay college essay help: college essay help

The term gambling finds usage in many situations, which have an element of uncertainty. These vary from placing bets, participating in the lottery, stock market speculation, and even insurance and other forms of risk taking such as sky diving. In a strict sense for an event to qualify as gambling, the participants must have no further interest beyond the immediate financial reward based on the outcome of the event.

The reasons why people gamble vary from simple recreation to using it as a get rich quick strategy. In some cases such as in lotteries, the financial reward is incidental and secondary because the participants drive is to help raise funds for the course the lottery promotes. In some contexts, there is interchangeable use of the term gaming and gambling.

Gambling may be either legal or illegal. Legal gambling takes place under the watchful eyes of the authorities in places such as casinos. Other forms of legal gambling include lotteries and sports based bets where a bet is placed on such elements as which team stands the chance to win a particular match. In these situations, the government defines the rules within which gambling is legal and collects revenue from the activities. It is normal to have a body charged with overseeing the operation of gambling activities.

On the other hand illegal gambling takes place in secret. In actual practice, some illegal betting rings facilitate betting on a game or situation over which there is a legal gambling option. Illegal gambling stakes a lot more and promises better rewards for those involved- should they win.

Illegal gambling operations are the target of law enforcement agencies since they tend to promote other unacceptable situations such as match fixing, and whenever a participant does not meet their obligation due to the gamble, then they risk subjection to extralegal means such as extortion and gambling to compel them to pay up.

This happens because it is impossible to seek legal redress for a default arising out of an illegal activity. It is because of the negative possibilities that Grinols advices, “gambling must be closely watched and regulated by government if it is allowed” (19).

Gambling has both positive and negative consequences. In many countries, gambling provide valuable income for charities through lotteries. Some of the money collected pays off lucky bets but the bulk goes to predetermined charities, which would have no income otherwise. In most cases, the motive for the participants in such lotteries is not financial reward on offer. They have a desire to participate in raising funds for the charities, with the probability of a financial reward. They typically take longer and hence they cannot satiate compulsive gamblers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In some cases, gambling is a pastime that offers participants with a means to relax and while away time. As a social activity, gambling may serve as a means of bonding for friends and families seeking some common recreational activity away from their daily lives. Observers may place innocent bets on who is likely to win a game such as chess.

Another positive outcome of gambling is the provision of revenue for governments, which then use the proceeds to provide public services. A good example in the Unites States is the city of Las Vegas, which has a worldwide reputation as a gambling centre. In such places, the local authorities raise billions of dollars from gambling operations, helping them to finance their budgets.

On the other side, there are some negative consequences of gambling to both individuals and society, be it legal or illegal gambling. These dangers include problem gambling, which some experts classify as an addiction, financial irresponsibility leading to bankruptcy, and breakdown in social cohesion occasioned by family breakups and escalation of crime for the purpose of raising gambling capital or settling gambling debts, or retaliation against defaulters. Problem gambling refers to a point in a gambler’s life where they become obsessed with gambling and cannot bring themselves to stop.

They spend inordinate amounts of time and financial resources on gambling always hoping to recover their losses. This happens at the risk of their jobs and responsibilities, and even close relationships. As the problem proceeds, they end up bankrupt and heavily indebted since they can no longer afford to gamble from earned income, which by now they do not have, and they keep digging themselves deeper into the hole by taking more debt to gamble.

Gambling related crimes come from either the compulsive gambler, who having lost his source of income, finds it necessary to steal to raise more money for their indulgence. They also need all the money they can get to offset their debts.

They do not consider the consequences of their crimes, so long as it provides them with more opportunities to gamble. In the end, society looses because the person is no longer productive but requires the society’s help for rehabilitation. In addition, the gamblers families suffer, easily ending up divorced and estranged from their children.

In conclusion, while gambling may bring some positive effects to the society, there must be a high level of individual responsibility exercised if the society will survive its very powerful negative effects.

We will write a custom Essay on Gambling’s Positive and Negative Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Grinols, Earl L. Gambling in America: Cost and Benefits. New York NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004.


Concept of the Religious Identity in Society Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents How to Recognize Nonverbal Behavior

How Are Nonverbal and Verbal Communication Coordinated

Nonverbal Behavior: Eye Contact

Hot Button Words

Religious identity is very important because it portrays our diversities in worship. Religion is based on people’s background and that is why people who share common beliefs belong to the same religion. Religion is broad and thus it is divided into several groups such as Islam and Christianity, among others.

This means that religion was spread along racial lines because a close observation reveals that every religion was easily adopted in some geographical locations than others. Perhaps this was due to lack of efficient transport system and thus people had to stick to their own form of worship.

As time moved by, religion was used to draw line between people of various races and ethnicities. This has led to the emergence of a perception that religion is defined by race hence when people come across someone of a given race or ethnicity they expect that person to belong to a specific religion even when he or she is not aware of that religion.

In addition, religions have been assigned personality traits depending on what prominent people who belong to that religion engage in. For instance, if one of the most wanted criminal is a Christian, people from other religions think that all Christians are criminals.

Muslims have been suffering a lot especially after the September eleventh attacks that have made the trust that used to exist between Christians and Muslims to decline. This is because when Christians see a Muslim, they view them as terrorists and they can never trust them. This has made innocent Muslims to be subjected to humiliation because of evils that were done by their friends and relatives. Most important to note is that it is not every Muslim that supports and agrees with the arguments of terrorism groups.

How to Recognize Nonverbal Behavior Verbal communication goes together with nonverbal behavior because it helps to ensure that the message has arrived home. Even if someone does not speak by observing their nonverbal behavior we can get the message they are trying to put through. When you look at someone’s body behavior you can tell whether he or she is happy or not because in as much as someone can remain silent in order to be cautioned from being rude, their body language tells it all because its response cannot be altered.

There has been confusion in understanding nonverbal behavior because they have different meanings in various geographical locations. For instance, waving of hand may imply you are calling someone to come to where you are, whereas in another region it might mean that you are simply greeting that person because he or she is a bit far from you.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In nonverbal communication, it is tricky to discover what certain behavior means because it is only the person who does the act that knows why he or she did it, unlike in spoken communication because we can refer to relevant written materials in order to understand what the person is saying. For instance, when you buckle up someone might think that you do not have confidence in the driver while the person could only be exercising a basic safety precaution.

This implies that nonverbal communication can be misinterpreted because one action might have several meanings that can only be dictated by the person who does it. Nonverbal behavior includes written materials that are used to convey certain information. In essence, one only needs to observe each others facial expressions and gestures to understand the message that is being put across.

How Are Nonverbal and Verbal Communication Coordinated Nonverbal communication is integrated with verbal communication to put more emphasis on a point. For instance, when someone bangs the table while he or she speaks, that person is not actually angry with you but he or she bangs the table to create some kind of seriousness in what he or she is saying.

Nonverbal communication can also be used instead of verbal communication, but this applies to simple communications where the act is easy to understand. Here, the body is made to move in a certain way when verbal communication does not achieve its intended purpose.

For instance, when you are speaking with someone and you reach a point where you feel that you only need to give short responses, you nod your head up and down in agreement and shake it from sides when you do not agree to what is being said. When nonverbal communication is applied as a replacement, verbal communication cannot be used at the same time.

Nonverbal communication can also be used to clash with verbal communication by doing directly opposite of what we said verbally. For instance, if you tell someone that you will be back in a short while and fail to return later on, that person is said to be in conflict with verbal communication. When one wants to know whether there is a clash between verbal and nonverbal communication its advisable to look at the body expressions such as the eyes .

This means that when you want to know whether someone is speaking the truth you need to look that person in the eyes, and if he or she avoids the contact of eyes then what he or she is saying is not right. Nonverbal communication can be used to express what we feel about something or someone. Moreover, it can be used to draw a line between seniors and juniors at work places. For instance, a junior can never tap the back of his or her senior but it is easier for the senior to do so to the juniors.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Religious Identity in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonverbal Behavior: Eye Contact Eye contact is very important because it can be used to add emphasis to verbal communication. Eye contact cannot be used as replacement because one cannot understand the meaning of expressions of the eyes. If you want to convince someone about something, you must look at him or her straight in the eyes because looking aside means that you are not sure about what you want them to believe.

People who avoid the interlocking of eyes are thought to be hiding something because they feel guilty inside. Even in business world you have to look at your customers especially new ones for a sense of trust to be developed between the buyer and the seller. Even when you want to tell whether someone loves you or not, looking into that person’s eye will reveal a lot. We tend to look at what we like the most hence eye glances can be used to suggest interest in something.

This behavior is relevant in any cultural setup because the eye is the central focus of verbal communication. In some instances, blinking an eye is accompanied by nodding which suggests confidence or understanding. Therefore, it is important to put much emphasis on the way our eyes participate in any form of communication.

Hot Button Words Hot button words refer to the labels that are assigned to individuals in the society. The labels become their identity and they are used to differentiate such people from the rest. Each individual has a title that is used to refer to him or her because having a common title would create confusion. In communication, these titles are quite essential because they are the ones that determine the influence of the speaker.

This means that when someone who holds a highly regarded title makes a statement, people will take it seriously as opposed to when the statement is made by an ordinary person. For instance, when a lawyer speaks about the constitution it may sound logical than when a bar tender speaks about the same subject. It is important to note that it is the speaker’s title that adds emphasis to the subject but not the significance of the subject.

Some titles can be humiliating hence some people do not prefer to be addressed by them. They include terms like woman or white man among others because they sound like an insult. We can never do without our respective titles because they are the ones that enhance communication between the speaker and the person who is listening. At times the titles we use imply that we have strong feelings for the other person and also make us look and feel even. These terms include honey and sweetie among many others.


Concept of the Religious Identity in Society Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents How to Recognize Nonverbal Behavior

How Are Nonverbal and Verbal Communication Coordinated

Nonverbal Behavior: Eye Contact

Hot Button Words

Religious identity is very important because it portrays our diversities in worship. Religion is based on people’s background and that is why people who share common beliefs belong to the same religion. Religion is broad and thus it is divided into several groups such as Islam and Christianity, among others.

This means that religion was spread along racial lines because a close observation reveals that every religion was easily adopted in some geographical locations than others. Perhaps this was due to lack of efficient transport system and thus people had to stick to their own form of worship.

As time moved by, religion was used to draw line between people of various races and ethnicities. This has led to the emergence of a perception that religion is defined by race hence when people come across someone of a given race or ethnicity they expect that person to belong to a specific religion even when he or she is not aware of that religion.

In addition, religions have been assigned personality traits depending on what prominent people who belong to that religion engage in. For instance, if one of the most wanted criminal is a Christian, people from other religions think that all Christians are criminals.

Muslims have been suffering a lot especially after the September eleventh attacks that have made the trust that used to exist between Christians and Muslims to decline. This is because when Christians see a Muslim, they view them as terrorists and they can never trust them. This has made innocent Muslims to be subjected to humiliation because of evils that were done by their friends and relatives. Most important to note is that it is not every Muslim that supports and agrees with the arguments of terrorism groups.

How to Recognize Nonverbal Behavior Verbal communication goes together with nonverbal behavior because it helps to ensure that the message has arrived home. Even if someone does not speak by observing their nonverbal behavior we can get the message they are trying to put through. When you look at someone’s body behavior you can tell whether he or she is happy or not because in as much as someone can remain silent in order to be cautioned from being rude, their body language tells it all because its response cannot be altered.

There has been confusion in understanding nonverbal behavior because they have different meanings in various geographical locations. For instance, waving of hand may imply you are calling someone to come to where you are, whereas in another region it might mean that you are simply greeting that person because he or she is a bit far from you.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In nonverbal communication, it is tricky to discover what certain behavior means because it is only the person who does the act that knows why he or she did it, unlike in spoken communication because we can refer to relevant written materials in order to understand what the person is saying. For instance, when you buckle up someone might think that you do not have confidence in the driver while the person could only be exercising a basic safety precaution.

This implies that nonverbal communication can be misinterpreted because one action might have several meanings that can only be dictated by the person who does it. Nonverbal behavior includes written materials that are used to convey certain information. In essence, one only needs to observe each others facial expressions and gestures to understand the message that is being put across.

How Are Nonverbal and Verbal Communication Coordinated Nonverbal communication is integrated with verbal communication to put more emphasis on a point. For instance, when someone bangs the table while he or she speaks, that person is not actually angry with you but he or she bangs the table to create some kind of seriousness in what he or she is saying.

Nonverbal communication can also be used instead of verbal communication, but this applies to simple communications where the act is easy to understand. Here, the body is made to move in a certain way when verbal communication does not achieve its intended purpose.

For instance, when you are speaking with someone and you reach a point where you feel that you only need to give short responses, you nod your head up and down in agreement and shake it from sides when you do not agree to what is being said. When nonverbal communication is applied as a replacement, verbal communication cannot be used at the same time.

Nonverbal communication can also be used to clash with verbal communication by doing directly opposite of what we said verbally. For instance, if you tell someone that you will be back in a short while and fail to return later on, that person is said to be in conflict with verbal communication. When one wants to know whether there is a clash between verbal and nonverbal communication its advisable to look at the body expressions such as the eyes .

This means that when you want to know whether someone is speaking the truth you need to look that person in the eyes, and if he or she avoids the contact of eyes then what he or she is saying is not right. Nonverbal communication can be used to express what we feel about something or someone. Moreover, it can be used to draw a line between seniors and juniors at work places. For instance, a junior can never tap the back of his or her senior but it is easier for the senior to do so to the juniors.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Religious Identity in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonverbal Behavior: Eye Contact Eye contact is very important because it can be used to add emphasis to verbal communication. Eye contact cannot be used as replacement because one cannot understand the meaning of expressions of the eyes. If you want to convince someone about something, you must look at him or her straight in the eyes because looking aside means that you are not sure about what you want them to believe.

People who avoid the interlocking of eyes are thought to be hiding something because they feel guilty inside. Even in business world you have to look at your customers especially new ones for a sense of trust to be developed between the buyer and the seller. Even when you want to tell whether someone loves you or not, looking into that person’s eye will reveal a lot. We tend to look at what we like the most hence eye glances can be used to suggest interest in something.

This behavior is relevant in any cultural setup because the eye is the central focus of verbal communication. In some instances, blinking an eye is accompanied by nodding which suggests confidence or understanding. Therefore, it is important to put much emphasis on the way our eyes participate in any form of communication.

Hot Button Words Hot button words refer to the labels that are assigned to individuals in the society. The labels become their identity and they are used to differentiate such people from the rest. Each individual has a title that is used to refer to him or her because having a common title would create confusion. In communication, these titles are quite essential because they are the ones that determine the influence of the speaker.

This means that when someone who holds a highly regarded title makes a statement, people will take it seriously as opposed to when the statement is made by an ordinary person. For instance, when a lawyer speaks about the constitution it may sound logical than when a bar tender speaks about the same subject. It is important to note that it is the speaker’s title that adds emphasis to the subject but not the significance of the subject.

Some titles can be humiliating hence some people do not prefer to be addressed by them. They include terms like woman or white man among others because they sound like an insult. We can never do without our respective titles because they are the ones that enhance communication between the speaker and the person who is listening. At times the titles we use imply that we have strong feelings for the other person and also make us look and feel even. These terms include honey and sweetie among many others.


Venezuela and Its Membership in MERCOSUR: Benefits and Drawbacks Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction Business is a very critical venture that should be carried out carefully with many considerations being put into place. It however becomes a challenge when the business has to be conducted internationally as opposed to within the nation. This is because there exist added responsibilities in managing the trade or business ventures in foreign countries although it is also advantageous as it expands the particular business’s opportunities, for instance, in terms of the market share.

The engagement in international business requires some strategies that enhances success one of it being in some form of unions or trade blocs. This paper discusses Venezuela and its membership in MERCOSUR with much emphasis being given to the benefits and drawbacks that could be drawn from the membership by a particular business (Movie production business which is the business of choice) and the country as a whole.

A Plan for the Business, To Be Implemented As Venezuela Becomes Part of MERCOSUR

Mercosur is the leading trading bloc in the entire South America. It is a body that aims at making trade easy and affordable through the reduction of obstacles that may hinder the smooth running of the business activities within nations and most importantly across the borders.

The obstacles could take various forms for instance high rates of tariffs, inequalities in terms of income distribution within a nation and also among the nations indulging in the business ventures and technological inadequacies that limit ease of movement of products and services from one place to the other among others.

Mercosur is a trade bloc whose main purpose is to promote free trade among the member states and enhancing economic integration in the entire South American region. The member states include Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and Venezuela. The associate states on the other hand include Peru, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia (Klonsky and Hanson, 2009).

Having a business in the entertainment industry in Venezuela, the movie production business, I am pleased by the fact that my country is a member associate of Mercosur as this increases the opportunities that enhance the growth and development of my business. This is because it will now be possible to get a large market of the produced movies in various countries especially the member countries with few or no restrictions.

The aspect of Venezuela being a member of Mercosur means that the business will be able to engage in regional and international business ventures and although this is an advantage there are some considerations that need to be reflected on.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They include identification of the economic, cultural, and political backgrounds of the nations with whom to partner with. The use of language is for example very important as apart from easing communication, it will affect the products produced like in my movie production business. It will for example necessitate some translations where the target market is not well versed with the original language.

Establishment of trust with the other nations is also essential through provision of quality products in a convenient and timely manner. The different cultural aspects in the different countries involved are also an issue of concern as it helps in dealing with the people.

It will also help to tailor the movies in a manner that will not offend the people in any way so as to not only establish a market but also to retain it. Other consideration in regard to regional and international business that will arise as a result of Mercosur membership include, market and opportunities identification, methods of entry, distribution channels to be adopted, competition and competitive advantage, standardization and adaptation among others (Rose, 2009).

Benefits and Drawbacks for the Country of Venezuela As A Result Of Their Membership in MERCOSUR

Every aspect is usually linked with some benefits and drawbacks and the Venezuela’s membership in Mercosur is not an exception. The country will enjoy some benefits and at the same time suffer some drawbacks as a result of this development.

Some of the benefits include; the bringing forward of total liberalization for a majority of its products in the trading process with other members of the Mercosur, for instance, Argentina. There has also been increased trade for instance through exports and imports and increase in the market opportunities.

Mercosur also fosters cooperation among its members, which is a way that ensures that the strengths of a country is reinforced while the limitations are dealt with in a positive manner and hence improving its economic status greatly. The cooperation allows for signing of agreements concerning various sectors of the economy which enhances the chances of survival of the nations as opposed to when a nation would stand alone.

There is an increase in foreign direct investment which boosts the economy of the nations involved due to expansion of markets which in return reduces the cost of local products (Anonymous, 1999).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Venezuela and Its Membership in MERCOSUR: Benefits and Drawbacks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the drawbacks that Venezuela is likely to face as a result of being a member of the Mercosur include stiff and unfair competition that exist among the member countries as each strives to be better than the other irrespective of the consequences. Unfair competition is linked with aspects like failure of industries, unemployment, and disappointment among the citizens among other negative aspects.

Although Mercosur offers cooperation advantage, it tends to exacerbate the regional differences rather than solve it and this becomes more severe where smaller countries are involved hence Venezuela may suffer from this especially as it tries to establish the market. Trade blocs are also known to be major distraction of a county’s economic welfare, for example, by eliminating other nations that are not involved in the trade blocks which could have boosted the trade (Bassi, 2006).

Benefits and Drawbacks for the Movie Production Business As A Result Of Their Membership in MERCOSUR

The benefits and drawbacks of this particular business in Venezuela will be closely linked with and drawn from the benefits and drawbacks that are faced by the country as a whole.

Some of the specific benefits include elimination in transaction cost hence increasing the profit margin, maximum market opportunities hence enhancing growth, development and productivity as opposed to when the market would be concentrated only within the nation among others.

The cost of producing the movies is also reduced as the economies of scale allows for bulk production. The business is also deemed to enhance its efficiency due to the competition presented by the fact that producers in various countries are close together. Some of the drawbacks will therefore be those related to unfair competition and specialization as explained earlier (Coord et al., 2007).

Conclusion Various trade blocs have been formed among countries in an effort to enhance trade among the countries hence increase profitability. It is however an aspect that is controversial as many countries just expect positive impacts but end up facing a lot of challenges since the trade blocs are usually presented to be very significant on the face not explicitly showing the drawbacks. This leads to negative impression.

Reference List Anonymous. (1999). What Are the Benefits of Trade Bloc Agreements? Web.

Bassi, R. (2006). Venezuela in Mercosur: A New Mercosur? Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Venezuela and Its Membership in MERCOSUR: Benefits and Drawbacks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Coord, R.C., Coord, U.N, Bid Intal and Ricardo, M.(2007). MERCOSUR Report number 11: 2005 [second semester] – 2006 [first semester] (Subregional Integration Report Series MERCOSUR = Informes Subregionales de Integración MERCOSUR = Série Informes Subregionais de Integração MERCOSUL; n. 11). Argentina: Bid-intal.

Klonsky, J and Hanson, S. (2009). Mercosur: South America’s Fractious Trade Bloc. Web.

Rose, P. (2009). Considerations of International Trade. Web.


Air and water pollution in Los Angeles Term Paper college essay help

One of the major problems facing major cities and towns in the world is pollution; wastes from firms and households are the major causes of pollution. The United States in general is undergoing fast industrialization; the resultant is a country with high rates of pollution. Air and water pollution are the major pollution that occur in the United States cities and towns (Calhoun 68). This paper discusses air and water pollution in Los Angeles, the United Stated second largest city.

Los Angeles Los Angeles is United States of America second largest city; it was discovered by the Chinese in 1781, but upgraded to city status in 1850. It is the home of a number of ethnicity, with the white Americans being the majority at 46.9%. African American follows with 11.2%, Asians at 10.5% other small tribes that include Native American. The diversity of different tribes in the county has created a metropolitan city: the city covers an area of 3,041.3/km2. Population census conducted in 2009n recorded that the city population was four, 094,047 up from 3,694,820 in 2000(The city of Los Angeles Official Web Site).

Air and water pollution in Los Angeles

California Air Resources Board has gauged Los Angeles as one of the most polluted environments in the United States. Air is a natural occurring resource that surround human beings; pure clean air is odourless, colourless and particle free; air pollution is any activity of man or nature, which contaminates the air; contamination mean any element what so ever that is added to the atmosphere and reduces the sanity of air.

Air pollutants may be visible or invisible; the result is that there is pollution of the atmosphere. Breathing air should be pure and “holy”, but the activities of man hinder it to hold these characteristics; Los Angeles is considered as the most air polluted country in the region.

Water pollution on the other hand, involves any activities that affect the degree of purity of the water; clean water is healthy for drinking by both human beings and animals. Water is polluted if any particle whether soluble to insoluble in water has been added to it, in Los angles water can be broadly categorised in naturally flowing or the tapped water in our estates. Human activities are the major causes of water pollution; this is through disposal of solid, gaseous and liquid materials into the water bodies.

When man disposes his wastes into the water bodies, it means that some new elements that have reduced the purity of the water. The water at an ideal situation should be as pure as it is when it is coming out of the rocks. Over 70% of the earth’s service is covered with water and thus its purity is of great concern; human beings and animals for their live hood use it (Mazurek and Clarence 68).

Causes of air pollution

In 2007, a research conducted by South Coast Air Quality Management District came up with a list of possible polluters. They classified them as; household air pollutants, industries and factories air pollutants transport industry gasses emission, Electricity production (electricity is mostly produced from diesel and coal) and construction industry (South Coast Air Quality Management District).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All these human factors are in the process of production of goods and services to feed the increasing population (see the appendix for current trend in air pollution).

Human activity that leads to air and water pollution

Household pollution involve the activities that take place at home as human beings try to have comfort in life, they include cooking gases emissions, burning of fossil fuels , water materials, sewage, dirty waters, burning of plastics and other wastes. When these wastes get their way in to the atmosphere, they pollute the air and water.

The transport industry is quoted as one of the sectors that pollute the environment greatly: this happens because as we move the motor vehicle produces some smoke that gets into the air and cause pollution. The motor vehicles produce carbon monoxide. When this goes into the air, it is immiscible. When in the atmosphere, it remain there for a long time, when it rains the particles are mixed with water and what is referred to as acid rain falls. When the acid rain falls, the entire emission from transport modes finds its way to the water bodies.

Industries and factories pollute air in the course of their operation: they do of through disposal of gaseous wastes, liquid and solid wastes into the environment that finds its way it to the air polluting it. Los Angeles is industrializing fast with industries in different sectors coming up; as they produce goods and services, they have some wastes materials disposed to the environment.

Such materials include smokes, dirty waters, wasted chemicals and other solid wastes disposed on land, water and into the atmosphere. Some of them are soluble in water while others are invisible when in air, thus they cause massive danger to the human beings and animals since when they drink the water they have no clue that the water may have been contaminated (Calhoun 68).

Consequences and effects of air and water pollution

When pollution occurs, it distorts the natural operation of the world resources, when nature is affected, it cuts back to human beings with some negative effects. When air has been polluted, it lacks the salinity and purity for breathing safely. When animals and human beings breathe the impure air, they suffer from disease like cancer and Asthma.

When a population is not healthy, then it will have reduced production and the expense on medical attention increased. Air is used by both animals and plants, carbon dioxide is used in the synthesis process to make plant foods, when air is polluted then the plants cannot make food that animals depend on, thus the pollution threatens life on earth. Another consequence of air pollution is the un-comfort it causes on human beings. Living in a polluted environment is not pleasant thus, people feel uncomfortable.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Air and water pollution in Los Angeles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Water is used for domestic and industrial use, when polluted, this noble use will go unsatisfied, human beings will suffer lack of clean water and when they take, the polluted ones they are likely to suffer from diseases water borne diseases like Cholera. There is life in water, when the waters are polluted, then aquatic life is affected; some aquatic animals and plants are human food thus food is affected. Finally, when living in an area that water is polluted, human beings miss an opportunity to enjoy life to the fullest.

Conclusion Human activities in Los Angeles have been blamed for causing air and water pollution; the pollutions comes from waste materials disposed into the atmosphere as households, firms, factories and industries conducts their activities. California Air Resources Board in 2010 gauged Los Angeles as one of the United States most polluted city: this has been attributed to its high population and fast industrialization. When water and air are polluted, they have negative effects on human health and threaten life.

Works Cited Calhoun, Yael. Water Pollution. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2005. Print.

Mazurek, Jan, and Clarence Davies. Pollution control in the United States: evaluating the system. New York: Resources for the Future, 1998. Print.

South Coast Air Quality Management District. Air Quality. Apr. 2010. Web.

The city of Los Angeles Official Web Site. The City of Los Angeles. 2011. Web.

Appendix (South Coast Air Quality Management District)


Ethnographic reflection Essay online essay help: online essay help

Maps and Dreams by Hugh Brody is an ethnographical account of the research which was conducted at a Beaver Indian reserve in British Columbia. Combining the chapters with the first-person narration and the parts with verified scientific data, the author implements an original approach for providing an account of his observation and the results of the experiment.

Mixing the scientific and humanistic approaches and implementing the anthropological framework and the concept of the bio-cultural triad for covering various sides of life of Beaver community, Brody uses dialogic procedures for depicting and explaining the processes in the Indigenous community.

Hugh Brody implemented a mix of scientific and humanistic approaches for covering the naturalistic issues in his ethnographic account of life of a Beaver Indian reserve. Funded by the federal government, the ethnographer has spent more than a year in northwestern British Columbia for examining the possible impact of the planned natural gas pipe upon the conditions of life of Indigenous population.

Disregarding this federal mission, Brody’s book under consideration contains not only verified data on history and economy of the Beaver reserve, but also his personal views of their lifestyles and their culture. Mixing the chapters with first-person reportage with scientific data, the author noticeably struggles with the difficulties of describing the phenomena of an unknown culture using the native language.

There is a contrast between the scientific methods implemented for studying various dimensions of the community and partially subjective manner of representation of the achieved results, which emphasizes the complexity of the processes in the reserve. The ethnographer suffers from a culture shock which can be seen in his reactions to the surrounding events and difficulties with adapting to new environment.

However, after spending some time in the reserve, the researcher undergoes the influence of this community, empathizes with Indians and understands certain cultural and linguistic phenomena which previously he perceived as weird and unthinkable.

On the other hand, the ethnographer’s presence and research had impact upon Indians’ behavior as well, even complicating the process of investigation to certain extent. Thus, supplementing the anthropological framework with additional sources of information, including even personal impressions and interpretation of the Beaver traditions and lifestyles, Brody combined scientific and humanistic approaches to exploring the Indian reserve, making his extensive observations multifaceted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taking into account the initial goal for conducting the research, it can be stated that economic data is one of the significant components of the overall investigation. Emphasizing the strong links between the Indians’ traditions and their current lifestyle, Brody shows how important is the role of hunting and fishing in their economic activities even despite the incursions of Europeans into their territories and accustomed living conditions.

It is stated that “the new frontier allowed hundreds, even thousands of Whites to hunt or fish deep inside the heartlands of many Indian hunting territories and traplines… This access causes the most direct threat to the Indian interest in northeast British Columbia” (Brody 218). In other words, examining the impact of the European intervention, the ethnographer does not separate the economic activities from the rest of anthropological framework, viewing them in the cultural and sociological contexts.

Drawing a significant part of their sustenance from hunting, Beaver people continued to hunt on moose, deer and caribou notwithstanding the changing environment and Europeans’ incursions. Establishing the links between the economic activities, traditions and beliefs of Indigenous population, Brody defined the place of economies in ethnography and the interconnected character of these disciplines.

Depicting the cultural and religious beliefs of Indigenous population in their connection to nature and anthropological issues, the ethnographer implemented the concept of bio-cultural triad for explaining the strong links between the human biology of Beaver community and their cultural choices, namely diet and modes for drawing sustenance.

Exploring the sides of the triad, Brody treats Beaver diet and eating traditions as an effective strategy of biological adaptation of the community to their natural environment. Providing valuable statistical data concerning the population size, structure, proportions and morbidity rate, Brody shows that these cultural practices were effective for using the available environmental opportunities and compensating for the existing drawbacks of the natural conditions.

Considering the impact of independent environmental features, including climate, flora, fauna and other natural resources upon the socio-natural environment and cultural choices of the Beaver community, the ethnographer emphasizes the integrity of various dimensions of community life.

Incorporating the rules of reasonable use of resources, hunting on large and small animals and watching their behavior and natural habitat into the system of their religious beliefs and ethical norms, Beaver people managed to create favorable socio-natural environment for their community which was only partially constrained by the incursions of Europeans.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethnographic reflection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Brody uses the example of differences in the maps created by White people and Indians for demonstrating the gaps between their perception of the same territories and plans for using the same resources, demonstrating their colliding interests. Along with the differences in the maps, the concept of bio-cultural triad is used by the ethnographer for depicting the high level of adaptation of Indigenous population to their natural environment and the impact of European intervention upon their lifestyle.

Expressing his personal opinion of the investigation results and impressions from living in the Indian community and attempts to understand its cultural phenomena, the ethnographer uses a reflexive perspective for presenting his account of Beaver traditions, lifestyle, economy and other anthropological parameters, involving readers into a dialogue.

Viewing the anthropological issues through his own eyes and combining scientific and humanistic approaches, the author affects his readers’ cultural beliefs and their perception of life in general. Brody’s description of Beaver system of values preconditioned with peculiarities of their natural environment and affecting their lifestyle and economic activities had impact upon my personal views of wealth, power, duty, honor and democracy.

Taking into account the concept of the bio-cultural triad, most ethical issues can be viewed from a new perspective, simplifying the debates concerning beliefs and activities of society representing them as the two interdependent sides of the processes in the community. This endless circle of the mutually-dependent phenomena emphasizes the complexity of anthropological framework, which can be implemented for exploring the methods in any community.

Application of this framework to Brody’s experiment with Beaver reserve is valuable for testing its elements as implemented for the analysis of Indians’ original lifestyle and traditions which are unique due to separation of this small community from the rest of the population of the continent.

Complimenting the statistic, historical and economic data with his own emotions, the researcher provides his personal observations as an active participant of the investigation for showing the gap between the systems of values in Europeans and Indigenous population. Thus, the chosen perspective and approaches along with the manner of presentation of the materials had impact upon my own perception of cultural beliefs and anthropological phenomena.

Mixing the scientific and humanistic approaches to presenting the results of the ethnographic research and personal observations, Brody encourages the readers’ involvement into the dialogue. Analyzing the issues discussed in the reflexive chapters of the book under consideration, it can be stated that the author partially implements the dialogic procedures (Omohundro 392).

The contrast between the ethnographer’s perception of Beaver traditions and the beliefs of Indigenous population is one of the most important dialogic questions. The methods used by Brody for collecting the materials and conducting his surveys require effective communication with the native inhabitants of the reserve and can be regarded as a part of a dialogue strategy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethnographic reflection by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Comparing and contrasting the cultural beliefs in representatives of different communities, the author touches upon the problem of their origin, trying to get to the roots of the problem. Expressing his own doubts and leaving specific questions without definite answers, the researcher encourages following debates and dialogue.

Presenting the scientific facts along with his personal observations, the researcher leaves space for readers’ counterarguments and personal views. In that regard, the methods implemented by the author as well as his manner of presentation of the facts, observations and opinion can be regarded as dialogic.

The approaches, concepts and manner of presentation of the materials chosen by Brody for depicting the variety of cultural phenomena and beliefs of the Beaver community had impact upon my understanding of the elements of anthropological framework and processes in their integrity.

Works Cited Brody, Hugh. Maps and Dreams:Indians and the British Columbia Frontier. Waveland Press, 1998. Print.

Omohundro, John. Thinking Like an Anthropologist: A Practical Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. McGraw Hill Publishing, 2007. Print.


Green Community in the United Stated Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Del Sur Green Community





Aside from worrying about the increasing costs of fossil fuels there is another problem that plagues this planet. The continuous use of fossil fuels is creating significant amounts of air pollutants. Cities will soon become uninhabitable if nothing is done to curb dependence non-renewable and carbon emitting fuels.

While pollution is an urgent concern and scientists are working hard to develop renewable sources of energy that produce zero emissions, others are thinking of other types of solutions. One of which is to develop green communities. This means that communities will be established based on the goal of reducing carbon footprint and at the same time for people to live in a healthy environment free from unwanted pollutants that can negatively affect people’s health.

This study will take a closer look at two communities established in the United States that claimed to be a green community. It will be determined at the end if indeed these communities are practicing the ideals of building an environmentally friendly community or if they are simply doing so because there is a great demand for this kind of living space.

There are two reasons why there is a need for green communities or eco-friendly houses. The first reason is to devise strategies to lessen dependence on fossil fuels. The second reason is to create communities with minimal carbon footprint and this means reduction of carbon dioxide gases released to the atmosphere. This is easier said than done, especially in societies that cannot live without cars, computers, TV, freezers, and other modern appliances that require a great deal of energy to run 365 days a year.

This is why there is a demand for green communities. Those who are well aware of the need to take care of the environment, especially those who are well-educated are the people who will pay a premium to be given the chance to live in this type of communities. Aside from that those who are knowledgeable about this issue are the same people that can afford to pay more for something that is more exotic.

Therefore, contractors and builders are racing against time to supply this demand because they realize the profitability of this type of ventures. It is therefore important to know if there is way to find out if a project is truly a green community or it is just made to appear as an eco-friendly community for the sake of profits. Thus, it is important to understand that the most ideal green community must exhibit the following features:

It is not sufficient to green just the building. The concept of green building needs to extend beyond the four corners of a structure, and a building should not be considered to be green unless it is location – and transportation – efficient, as well as resource- efficient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among other things, green building should contribute to reduced land conversion through more compact development and greater emphasis on infill and redevelopment of existing buildings and communities. It also should decrease greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and energy consumption by reducing driving – ideally by being located in a mixed use, walkable community served by transit (Pollard, 2009, p.137).

It has to be pointed out that this is the ideal green community and thus it would be a challenge to find one. This level of commitment to building green communities perhaps exist only in a few cities all over the world. Nevertheless, it is important to take a look at some examples of a green community and determine how close these examples are compared to the ideal community described by Pollard.

Del Sur Green Community The first green community that will be examined is located in San Diego, California. It is called the Del Sur Green Community (Green Eco Community, 2009, p.1). The company that built this community said that it is just 20 miles from downtown San Diego. The reason why it is called a green community is based on the fact that it builders were conscious about recycling and conservation techniques from the beginning of the construction process. Wastes were recycled and used somewhere else.

As a result the community was recognized as of the “America’s Greenest” by “the The National Association of Home Builders and it also won five awards including Sustainable community of the year as well as the Recycler of the Year by the City of San Diego Environmental Services Department in 2007” (Green Eco Community, 2009, p.1).

Del Sur has a certification from the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and this is due to the fact that at least “20% of Del Sur’s homes incorporate solar power with many neighborhoods installing solar in as many as 40% of homes” (Green Eco Community, 2009, p.1).

Del Sur saves on water because landscapers used drought-resistant plants in almost half of their landscaping needs. In addition the community also utilized low toxin paints and glues. The builders also complied with the mandatory scheme of recycling and conservation that forced them to reuse 92% of materials that was supposed to be headed to the landfill.

Altura Del Sur will be compared to another developing community that is also marketed as a green community. This one is located in Asheville, North Carolina and it is called the Altura. The builders said that it is a mere eight minutes away from the downtown area. However, it is far from major cities like Charlotte and Atlanta that it requires at least two hours travel to reach the said destination.

We will write a custom Essay on Green Community in the United Stated specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the company’ official website there is a logo of a green leaf suggesting that this project is all about healthy living and caring for the environment. Thus, the builders asserted that it is a nice place for people who wanted to get away from the hustle and bustle of the city. They also remarked that the residents will feel close to nature and that they can be assured of a sustainable philosophy that permeates their construction process. At first glance it seems that Altur is indeed an example of a green community but there is no hard evidence to prove that claim.

Analysis Using the standard given by Pollard it is clear that it is difficult to achieve perfection. Even the Del Sur community does not receive extraordinary high marks if one will use the standards of Pollard. Nevertheless, what was accomplished in Del Sur is nothing short of amazing if compared to other construction sites. It is rare to find a company that mandates recycling and conservation schemes that forced builders to re-use 92 percent of materials and waste that was designated for the landfill. This has a major environmental impact.

Del Sur’s water conservation strategies should also be admired and finally the use of solar energy to power for as at least 20% of the houses is also impressive. However, the only problem with Del Sur is that it is 20 miles from the nearest city. If this is a sub-urban enclave then this means that the residents had to drive a long way home. According to Pollard this is not an acceptable feature of a purely green community. Furthermore, the property is not mixed used and there are no stores that are accessible simply by walking.

Nevertheless, this is way better than what was featured in Altura. It seems that the company that handled Altura were only interested in marketing their property as a green community but has no commitment to use standards that will make it a real green community. There is no evidence of recycling and water conservation. The only thing that they have in terms of an eco-friendly feature is the construction of houses far away from the city and therefore near trees, mountains etc.

Conclusion It takes a lot to be considered a green community. Pollard’s standard is one of the best way to understand what is required for a project to be considered a green community. In this regard it can be argued that Del Sur is one example of how a builder has tried to create something that is gentle on the environment and one that is sustainable. There a few problems but it way better compared to Altura. The other community cannot show any feature that will make it a worthy example of a green community.

References Farrell, P., 2009. Climate Change Action in Connecticut. Journal of Environmental Law. 27, 281-291

Green Eco Community. Del Sur Green Community. [online]. Web.

Pollard, T., 2009. Building Greener Communities: Smarter Growth and Green Building. Virginia Environmental Law Journal. 27, 125-145

Not sure if you can write a paper on Green Community in the United Stated by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schmidt, C., 2008. Bringing Green Homes within Reach. Environmental Health Perspectives, 8, 248-250.


“Twenty-five Years in the Black Belt” by William James Edwards Essay scholarship essay help

William J. Edwards lived in Snow Hill, Wilcox County in Alabama. Williams’ mother married his father in 1864 and bore three children, two boys and a girl. William was born on 12 September 1869 and was the youngest. Poor education, injustice, and ignorance towards the laws of land were the causes of problems to the South.

“Twenty – Five years in the Black Belt” gives a clear picture of the conditions of the black people and the nature of race relations in Alabama at the time. In addition, the book explores William’s willpower to strengthen his race, particularly through education, through many years of transformation.

William lived in the southern part of the United States that was home for black people hence it name the ‘Black Belt.’ The south of America was highly affected by slave trade because of the presence of the cotton plantations. Poverty, poor education, poor health care, poor housing, high levels of crime and unemployment characterized many black people who settled there.

As a child, he grew up without a mother and a fathers’ love but in the hands of his grandmother from his fathers’ side. In 1880, his grandmother too died leaving him under the care her daughter Marina Rivers. William experienced child labor since he started working at a very tender age to help Marina, his poor aunt. William says, “at times we lacked food yet we had worked from the rising of the sun until dark without anything but water” (15).

Williams’ childhood was that of a typical African American in the nineteen century in the South. William visited the city and faced a life different from the one he was used to in the village. In the city, William got a job in the cotton company. Later on, he fell sick and his aunt took him back to the village. William suffered just like any other Negro in Alabama.

William enjoyed reading his grandmother the bible and his passion for reading books made him to long going to school. He planned to go to a Tuskegee school in 1888. In order to raise his fees, he rented an acre of land and worked on it to acquire the required fees. When his crop was ready, William sold his share and saved the money for his school fees only to spend the money to settle a family bill. He worked in the plantation for another year, he saved enough for his school fees, and finally, he went to Tuskegee school in 1889.

Williams’ experience in Tuskegee was eye opening; for instance, he says, “I found things there very strange indeed” (21). He saw hundreds of students going back and forth. Some were playing football; others were practicing band while others sat doing nothing. Some rough boys in the school molested him.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He felt like running away. However, he met Mr. Washington who changed his room. William loved Mr. Washington as if he was his own father. In the dinning room, William did not know how to use forks and knives. He just watched his fellow students while they ate. When it was time to sleep, he heard boys talking of nightshirts and could not figure out what they meant. William had never seen a nightshirt leave alone wearing any. He knew the idea of using a toothbrush hence it was not hard for him to use one.

Williams did different menial jobs but he enjoyed his stay in school especially given the fact that he could have three meals a day. During his senor classes, he enjoyed Mr. Washington’s lessons for he admired his subject mastery. The completion of hi studies heralded a graduation something that worried Williams greatly for he knew Marina could not afford the Commencement suit. However, he borrowed money from Mr. Simpson and bought his suit. Finally, the big day came and Williams graduated and went home to his aunt

William returned to Snow Hill where he influenced his society as taught in school. He built another room for his aunt. He helped his aunt to clear the weeds, worked for his neighbors’ for food, carried out close research on his people conditions and toured the other neighboring countries, which consisted black families.

This trip revealed to him how the blacks missed many opportunities, abused many constitutional rights; the people were ignorant and illogical. At this point, he thought of an industrial school in the Snow Hill. The school started in a one-room cabin.

Practical arts, English language, simple arithmetic, and Agriculture were the main syllabus items in the institution. According to William “the black belt was a farming area with ninety – fives percent of its habitant depended on agriculture for a livelihood” (35). The main objective of this institution was to enable its community utilize the available resources.

A lot of money was required to fund the school but with the help of his white friends, Mr. Simpson and Booker Washington, Williams e the funds. Mr. Simpson gave him several pieces of land while Booker connected him with his friends. Booker Washington invited Williams for a trip to the North.

Williams was not a singer but Washington saw it as a great opportunity for him to share his Snow Hill school idea with the society. Many of the white liked the idea and they gave him a lot of money, which he invested his school. Through Washington, Williams made a chain of friends who assisted him in raising money for his school.

We will write a custom Essay on “Twenty-five Years in the Black Belt” by William James Edwards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He also did house- to – house campaign where he says “…one meets some of the finest people that have ever lived… I don’t think that I am a very successful money raiser… on April 5th, 1906, at the 25th anniversary of Tuskegee…Mr. Andrew Carnegie gave the Snow Hill Institute ten thousand dollars” (Williams 47). Williams dream became a reality. The school moved from a rented cabin to its own land and the number of teachers increased tremendously.

One student who has excelled in music says, “…I was enabled to develop my musical talent to the extent that I was selected to play for my home church, and that inspired other students to attend Snow Hill Institute” (Williams 64). It is a clear indication that Snow Hill School produce good results just like its mentor did.

Williams used the first person narration to depict and provide a snapshot of the African – American experiences in the late nineteen and early twentieth century. Speaking from his experience makes things to appear real to the readers thus convincing them to sympathize with him on his suffering and rejoice over his successes. It is easier to touch the readers’ heart when things appear real. Williams’ style of first person speech has contributed greatly in winning his readers hearts especially when he speaks of his childhood experiences.

Conclusion ‘Twenty –Five years in the Black Belt’ is a great book since the writer, Williams is able to connect with his readers and make them enjoy and appreciate his work. As readers explore the book, they get a clear picture of what happened to Williams as he was growing up; his life challenges and what motivated him to achieve what he has accomplished in life.

According to my opinion, the book motivates the youth to work and influence their society coupled with its unrelenting mantra that even the less advantaged like Williams can still make it in life provided they weather the storms and remain focused in pursuit of their goals.

Works Cited Edwards, William James. Twenty-Five Years in the Black Belt. Boston: The Cornhill Company, 1869.


Free Speech /First Amendment Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Types of Speeches


Right to pornography


Work Cited

Introduction There were times when people would be imprisoned for speaking out their minds. Speech is one form of communication of thought, ideas and beliefs. Without the freedom of speech people can be forced to accept things that are stated by the society.

In England for instance, during the 16th century Henry VII was taken to prison for speaking his mind, at the time it was a crime that was punishable by death. Freedom of speech allows personal ideas to be expressed freely; more so the freedom of speech in the United States governed by the first amendment of the constitution other than communication also covers public acts like parades demonstration, artist expressions and pickets.

First Amendment in the United States constitution protects the freedom of speech (Tedford 123). Government condemnation and advocacy ideas that are not popular which people find without taste and against public policy for example racism and chauvinism are always unacceptable.

Child pornography laws, Miller test for obscenity and speeches that may result to lawless actions are some of the exceptions in the general protection. In these areas there are limitations of free speech and other rights like rights of inventor and authors over their copyright. In US a graduated system is followed in regulating freedom of speech. In the First Amendment diverse types of regulation are subject to analysis in court challenges.

Types of Speeches There are different types of speeches; the first is core political speech the most guarded form due to its communicative nature and its function to a republic that is functional (Mike 65). It is a speech about political issues and ideas that are not motivated by profit; the restrictions in this kind of speech must be well analyzed or else they can be struck down. Another kind of speech is commercial speech, in this kind it is not wholly protected although it is regulated by the state (Mike).

There are some exceptions to freedom of expression. Many of these have been identified by the court and in many cases without controversy. Courts justified them as speeches which could harm the public or speeches that the fore fathers had no intention of protecting or just customs that had been part of common law tradition from England where the American legal system is derived.

Exceptions Obscenity is one of the exceptions, according to the US Miller Test, obscenity is a test used by Supreme Court to determine if an expression or a speech can be termed obscene and whether it can be protected by the first amendment of the constitution (Tedford 124). This is speech that describes sexual conduct in very offensive way and it can also be described as pornography.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Defamation is another exception and consists of publication of report of a fact that is untrue and can harm the reputation of another person. The freedom of expression has restrictions where ones expressions can harm the reputation of another person. An allegation of fact is a requirement in defamation that is false while the expression of an opinion is not defamation.

Right to pornography This topic on pornography has had a lot of discussions in the United States for many years. For people would want the legislation to regulate it and would also like to have software that would filter it.

The greatest problem is that it is not easy to make laws that would go against it because by doing so someone would be challenging the first amendment. In any case so many issues have been raised that include claims that it demoralizes women and it’s filthy to be seen by the children. The main question is whether pornography is really harmful (Emerson). There are some reasons why the government finds it difficult to put restriction on pornography.

In social theory and in practice Emerson states that there is no enough reason as to why some people would find some material unpleasant and try to give restrictions on those materials (Emerson). In order to have restrictions on such materials there is need to have appropriate ground to make such laws so as to prevent the distribution of pornographic material because by looking at it from any perspective it is against the laws of free speech as outlined by the first amendment.

There is disagreement among traditional liberal defenders regarding discarding the principles of legal paternalism and legal moralism mostly in cases where people above eighteen year are concerned (Emerson). This does not mean that they approve obscenity they actually find it offensive and mindless.

Most people admit that the major function of pornography is to cause sexual arousal to viewers which can be regarded as low value speech. This is a speech that does not contribute anything that is artistic, intellectual, literal or of any political merit to the social and moral environment (Emerson).

On the contrary it does not mean that it need not be protected. It is strongly believed that mature and healthy adults are free to pursue their own pleasures privately and that the opinion of others on whether it is right or wrong to do so is intrusive or uncalled for. The implication is that what many find moral should not be allowed in law to hold back rebellious minority opinions so as to force their moral beliefs on others.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Free Speech /First Amendment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today the first amendment that protects freedom of speech is viewed by many liberals as a fundamental right that cannot be regulated by government. But it is acceptable and expected for the State to intervene and regulate speech when it is used to cause harm.

There is no known way for determining the harm caused to others so as to justify what legal action that should be taken in case of such speech. To arrive at a decision whether or not to restrict speech in such a case, the nature and impact of harm caused is weighed against the interest of those involved (Emerson). This is then compared to the benefits and costs of an alternative policy that should be undertaken. If any speech goes against the interest of the majority of the public and its benefit minimal it should be restricted.

Conclusion The first amendment is of great importance since without it, citizens in the US would not be given a chance by the US government to be heard. For democracy to change and grow the citizens should be allowed to voice their ideas. Without the first amendment there would be no words in music, it would also be difficult to print publications freely, there would be no going to groups and attending organizations and lastly everyone would belong to the same religion.

Without the first amendment US could be very corrupt since there would be no press which serves the function of a watchdog. This is because the five fundamental freedoms which are essential and accomplished through the amendment would not be possible.

Work Cited Mike, Godwin. “Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age”. New York: Times Books. 1998. Print.

Tedford, Thomas. “Freedom of speech in the United States”. Carbondale: Southern Illinois, 1985. Print.

Emerson, Thomas . “Toward a General Theory of the First Amendment.”The Yale Law Journal Company, 14.2 (1963): 123-132.


The Stages of the Creative Process Essay writing essay help

Stage One of the creative process, according to author Keith Sawyer, is Preparation. This stage offers the creative person two important tools: the language with which to create, and the context for that what he or she creates. Preparation involves research into what has come before. In the case of a painter, for example, research into the works of painters that have lived and worked before her cements her process in a historical context, and also ensures that she does not reinvent the wheel.

During this initial stage the creator keeps his mind open to ideas and suggestions and gathers clues. In Sawyer’s words, “without first learning what’s already been done, a person doesn’t have the raw material to create with. Creativity results when the individual…combines these existing elements and generates some new combination” (Sawyer 59).

Stage Two involves Incubation. In Sawyer’s mind the incubation stage represents “the least understood stage in the creative process” (Sawyer 61). Incubation typically relates to the bubbling of ideas just below the level of conscious awareness; wherein the ingredients collected from stage one are combined and given time to gestate.

Incubation of ideas also occurs when the creative person engages in activities not directly related to his work. Sawyer describes an important adjunct to the incubation stage as “cross fertilization,” wherein ideas from multiple projects simmer concomitantly.

Stage Three of the creative process according to Sawyer is Insight. Insight essentially combines the first two stages. With a thorough grounding in what has come before, the creator allows her mind to incubate ideas until one or more ideas generate a creative insight. Stage Three refers to the “subjective experience” of producing the idea (Sawyer 59). In Sawyer’s understanding “creative insight is never 100 per cent original. What makes an insight novel is the way that these existing ideas are put together” (Sawyer 67).

Stage Four refers to Verification. This stage evaluates the creative insight from the previous stage and decides if it warrants further study or elaboration. Elaboration “takes the raw insight and molds it into a complete product” (Sawyer 69). Stage Four represents the most difficult stage of the creative process, as this is the stage that becomes fully conscious.

Once conscious the fledgling idea becomes subject to the creator’s self judgment, insecurity, self doubt and lack of faith, all of which have killed many a good idea prematurely. Often the best ideas bypass the Verification stage and jump straight from incubation to elaboration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluation and verification often jettison ideas deemed commercially invalid, or those that appear complex or heavily taxing emotionally or psychologically. A committed creator often struggles in the evaluation phase, especially if his or her career flounders. To a certain extent however evaluation and elaboration work hand in hand, since as Sawyer points out “it’s often hard to tell if an insight is a good one without elaborating it at least part way” (Sawyer 70).

Creativity, though it often defies logic, does not happen in moments of magical inspiration. Creativity rather remains the result of hard work and concentrated attention. The creative person essentially prepares his life for the work to formulate, and it rarely arrives in one solid block, but rather accrues slowly and steadily over weeks and months.

Works Cited Sawyer, Robert Keith. “The Stages of the Creative Process.” Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 58-70. Print.


How Globalisation has affected the growth of international business Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Positive effects of Globalization

Negative Impacts of Globalization


Works Cited

Introduction Globalization is a term used to describe the integration of regional economies, humanity and culture through political treaties and understandings. As the world turns into one global village, it becomes important for the various governments to work together with the common goal of reaping the positive benefits of globalisation. This means that the respective governments have to pool their resources together in order to develop such infrastructures as communication lines, roads, airports, ports, and hospitals, among others.

The other area of cooperation is adoption of single unit of exchange, realignment of customs and tariffs within its borders. Globalization has resulted to the formation of the European Union, African Union, OPEC and ECOWAS just to name a few. The results of globalization have seen rapid and steadily elevated local businesses into international status.

Positive effects of Globalization Ever since the beginning of globalization, industrial advancement has taken centre stage due to the emergence of world wide production and emergence of free markets. As a result, both the human resources and natural resources have become increasingly mobile, thus making it easy for business to grow rapidly.

Shenzhen (9) identifies that globalization brings about more free markets where individuals are able to source goods and services from various locations. Similar sentiments were echoed by ILO (24). In this case, the body highlighted that that international trades ensures a perfect of market information in the global market.

The other area that has benefitted a lot from globalization is the emergence of international financial transfers. As a result, firms and organizations can now easily exchange currencies as well as obtain financial supports from such international financial institutions as The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, (Mishkin 47).

In addition, Mishkin (48) further points out that the international financial institutions have enhanced the local economy to produce to their maximum by ensuring adherence to the international standards.

Empel (65) contends that financial stability finance enhances competition both in the local as well as in the international market. This is made possible by influx in capital which encourages new entrants into the market. Therefore, sound financial directions emanating from international trade has ensured that businesses are conducted in an efficient manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other area that has been greatly influenced by globalization is human resource mobility (ILO, 89). Resource outsourcing has remained to be one of the areas that have provided the strategic competiveness for the organizations in international market. Less competitive firms are experiencing high staff turnover especially for the highly qualified managers who are given higher packages.

ILO (89) has also attributed high integration of markets to the increase in the expatriation rates for the professionals within international market. Conversely, Nayak (63) points out that high entrepreneurial turnover would only end up hampering the steady production of commodity products. Such decline in commodity production would results into negative growth of economies in less developed countries.

Moreover, globalization has played a very significant role in facilitating the rate at which information technology is evolving. The need to adopt the latest state-of-the-art technology has ensured that most governments invest highly in research and information development. According to McMahon (128) international businesses are founded on the emergence of steady and reliable technology.

Apart from facilitating increased production, technological advancement has also made it possible various companies to enter into mergers and acquisitions with other firms, both locally and internationally.

The advances in information technology has made it possible for firms to negotiate takeovers deals without necessarily having to organize for face-to-face meetings. Jeffrey (23) cites the proliferation of new goods has emanated from the development of new productions designs and simplified distribution channels for both raw materials and finished goods due to increase in technology.

Globalization has smoothed the progress of multinational organization in some countries. Since the beginning of globalizations firms’ registration and set up procedures have been streamlined by reducing bureaucracy procedure. Munck and Waterman (165) believe that globalization have ensured an international standard and procedures of registration.

Correspondingly, universal applicability of trade laws, taxation and restriction against monopoly has made it easier for firms to operate competitively. Although, many countries within a trading block assume similar business regulations some exceptional cases arise especially when a country adopts protective strategy.

We will write a custom Essay on How Globalisation has affected the growth of international business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Adoption of common currency has remained one of the major stimuli of international business. Since the countries are relieved the burden of changing from one currency to the other, the risk of loosing value is reduced. Lack of currency barriers have emerged to be vital in determining price levels and estimating the demand for the products. Single currency has played a major role in stimulating economic activities as well as fostering growth (Horn 17).

Proponents of solitary currency argue that labor market is more flexible and sensitive to changes in wages in some region like the USA (Gray


Deviant behavior: Prostitution Essay online essay help: online essay help

Deviant behavior is an act that breaches the cultural norms. Norms are considered to be the behavior standards that define the actions that are acceptable in the society. Thus they form a paradigm for predicting actions or behaviors in the society. This means that deviance is any “thought, feeling or act” (Clinard


The Dangers of Dogmatism With Approaches Adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Martin Luther King Jr.



Works Cited

Introduction Dogmatism essentially refers to strict adherence to rules and procedures at the expense of reason and alternative views. The opposite of dogmatism can therefore be referred to as rationalism. Dogmatism is essentially a leadership approach practiced by many leaders across the globe and has its own advantages and disadvantages.

This study will however focus on the dangers of dogmatism with regards to the leadership approaches adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato. This analysis will be analyzed in two segments of the study where the first approach will analyze Martin Luther King Jr and the second part will analyze Plato.

Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King contributed a lot to America’s civil rights movements and because of his contribution; he continues to receive immense acclamation to date. Some of the most memorable iconic events in King’s life were the Montgomery bus boycott and the historic march to Washington where he addressed close to a quarter million people in the “I have a dream” speech (Hall 1). Most of King’s beliefs can be traced to the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi who also fought for the same course he did (Hall 1).

King’s time as a civil rights leader was characterized by fearless fights against the government and social injustices which evidently brought him a lot of trouble in the eyes of the law and which ultimately caused him his life. Some of King’s boldest opposition against social repression and the government earned him the title of the “most effective and notorious Negro leader” who existed in his time (Hall 10).

However, it is important to note that King had an unfound positivism in reason that consequently provides the background to this study because he was in open opposition to dogmatism which was advocated by leaders who tried to silence his activities.

The letter from Birmingham is one main event which is characteristic of King’s civil rights movements. The letter from Birmingham is essentially a representation of King’s opposition to dogmatism which was also being advocated by other civil rights leaders.

The letter of Birmingham was a letter written in response to specific clergymen from Alabama who were in contempt of King’s civil rights actions which were being carried out in the streets. It was written in April 12th 1963 in response to recommendations by the clergymen that King should have undertaken his civil rights fight in court and not on the streets (Hall 17). This point of view was characteristic of dogmatism where the law was upheld at the expense of reason.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The courts signified an oppressive channel where civil rights causes could not be achieved because of the prejudice and injustices that existed in the judicial systems at the time. In fact, this sentiment was also harbored by King because in a section of the letter, he made the clergymen know that the aims of his civil rights movements could not be achieved in the courts but on the streets (Hall 17).

This viewpoint can be equated to reason because the Alabama clergymen were not heeding to reason when advising King to take his civil rights fights to court. Moreover, King justified his pursuit of justice on the streets from the fact that the protests he organized were essentially peaceful and nonviolent; meaning that all he was trying to do was get his message across to the leaders in the most peaceful manner possible.

Moreover, King justified his street actions through the letter after identifying that the courts were basically very slow and therefore, waiting to get justice through the system almost meant that the people would not get justice altogether. According to him, he was justified to protest on the streets because he was essentially advocating for the repeal of unjust laws which were repugnant to justice. In fact, the letter is quoted as having contained the famous statement, “injustice anywhere is a threat to justice anywhere” (Hall 18)

King’s refusal to pursue other means to undertake his civil rights activities exposed his inclination to reason (a diversion from dogmatism) which was blind to any alternative means to coerce him out of his main objective of liberating the oppressed. This is the scenario evidenced from the Letter from Birmingham jail where he wrote to express his opposition to people who thought that his civil rights acts were unwise and untimely (Hall 24).

In fact, his unstoppable quest to liberate the oppressed can be generally perceived as inconsistent with the will of a minority people who wanted to maintain “status quo” by denying the people justice through the courts. The diversionary tact advocated by the clergymen was blatantly illogical, considering the courts were also a means to oppress the poor and deny them justice.

Plato Plato was a world-renowned Greek philosopher who had a significant contribution to basic disciplines such as epistemology, metaphysics and other others (Hare 1). Most of the current western philosophic composition and scientific developments were basically built on Plato’s philosophies.

There is enough evidence (based on Plato’s’ life) of his open refusal to heed to unjustified claims to convict Socrates, who was one of his teacher (through an analogy of the Trial and death of Socrates). The trial and death of Socrates essentially talks of two unjustified claims that were used to try and sentence Socrates to death (Jowett 1).

We will write a custom Essay on The Dangers of Dogmatism With Approaches Adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Plato was one of Socrates’ students, Plato gives a firsthand account of the trial of Socrates, although evidently, through his narration of the trials, he portrays Socrates in a positive light. This portrayal categorizes Plato as a unique leader who essentially fights dogmatism (though not firsthand).

This fact is affirmed by the fact that Socrates’ trial and death was essentially aimed at upholding dogmatism because it was not based on reason but rather a bunch of false allegations that were aimed at silencing him. Plato’s open portrayal of this fact clearly manifests his intention to uphold reason in the midst of mediocrity.

These factors withstanding, it is important to note that Plato significantly underscores the dangers of dogmatism because they essential go against it, even though the issue in contention was essentially highly politically charged and with significant consequences. This can be evidenced from the fact that Socrates was sentenced to death on false grounds because he was also against dogmatism (Jowett 1). Plato upholds this view.

In Plato’s Republic, we can also see how Plato underscores the dangers of dogmatism when he tries to establish the concept of justice by identifying whether just people are happier than unjust people (Cornford 2). After undertaking this research, Plato identifies that justice is better than injustice.

From this point of view, we can see that Plato is more sympathetic to reason as opposed to rules and procedures which essentially define the concept of dogmatism. However, the empirical reality is that justice is not an obvious reality for most people and even though many people struggle to attain it, it comes at a high price. This is comparatively the concept Plato tried to underscore in his republican excerpt, where he advocates for justice (which comes at a high price) (Cornford 2).

Conclusion This study notes that dogmatism has a lot of dangers if it is succinctly followed. However, Plato and King actually underscore its dangers by advocating for principles that are against dogmatism. King underscores the dangers of dogmatism from the fact that he heeds to reason at the expense of bureaucracy and the law. This is evidenced from the fact that he refuses to listen to the Alabama clergymen who proposed that he takes his civil rights fights to the corridors of justice, as opposed to the streets.

He therefore writes the Letter of Birmingham to protest against this view, even though he was in jail for organizing such protests in the first place. The danger of dogmatism can be evidenced from the fact that he was jailed for organizing civil rights protests in the first place, but his quest to fight on, against all odds, is a significant diversion from the ordinary (because he was oblivious to the consequences that may befall him if he continued to do so).

Plato also exposes the same concept of anti-dogmatism approaches from the trial of Socrates because Socrates was tried and sentenced to death for advocating for reason, in spite of the fact that most people at the time were not for the idea of reason over law. Portraying Socrates in a positive light was therefore a big risk for Plato because he could have been pursued in the same manner as Socrates. The same cause is also pursued from excerpts of the Republic where Plato advocates for justice at the expense of injustice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Dangers of Dogmatism With Approaches Adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Comprehensively, we can conclude (by learning from King and Plato’s bravery in the mid of mediocrity) that though dogmatism has its dangers, it always pays to heed to reason because this is what essentially sets leaders apart from the rest. Evidently, we can see that Martin Luther King is a legend to date and Plato is equally celebrated in his own light. These acclamations are traced from their fight against dogmatism and their bravery as well.

Works Cited Cornford, MacDonald. The Republic of Plato. Plain Label Books, 1945. Print.

Hall, Michael. Martin Luther King Jr.: Civil Rights Leader. New York: ABDO, 2008. Print.

Hare, Richard. Plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. Print.

Jowett, Benjamin. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Four Dialogues. Barnes and Noble Publishing, 2004. Print.


Mixing Black and White: The Wall of Misunderstanding Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents The Way It All Started: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity

The Passing: Halfway to Freedom

The Time to Crop: Dead or Alive?

Works Cited

Success and failure are the sides of one and the same coin, and sometimes everything depends on the angle you take to look at them. The Civil Rights Movement emerged, reached its climax and slowly withered, yet it has brought its results. Only because of the fact that in the end of the great battle the issue of financing came to the forth and literally stifled the movement, there is no ground to claim that people gave up the will to fight for their rights.

The Way It All Started: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Inspired by the most rebellious and yet so natural urge to become a part of society and casting off the label of outcasts, the Afro-Americans had the heart to start the longstanding battle which brought much suffering and pain to all those involved.

It is completely incredible that even children, feeling the rebellious atmosphere, participated in the protests as far as their feeble flesh and strong spirit allowed them. Feeling that the freedom gets one step closer to them with every beating of their hearts and every word said in defense of the Afro-Americans, the black people came united to create the unparalleled movement. This was much like an escape from the prejudice and injustice of the world of white people.

Among Moody’s reminiscences there is the following one: “I was called to the front door of the church to help lead the marches in a few freedom songs.” (49) Nowadays there are probably very few people who could understand the stinging feeling of grief which Moody’s words are shot through with:

It’s a shame, it really is a shame. This morning Medgar Evers was murdered and here you sit in a damn classroom with books in front of your faces, pretending you don’t even know he’s been killed. (Moody 47)

It was clear then that the movement was to succeed. The people were so much determined that there was hardly anything that could stop them. At least, so it seemed then.

The Passing: Halfway to Freedom Things changed dramatically when the movement was considered to be “all over” by “white liberals” (Walker 81) and was supposed to be unprofitable for them. However unbelievable that might sound, this very pathetic reason drove to the cessation of the movement. There are still a lot of issues to consider about it, though. As Walker said, recollecting the old black lady and her participation in the rallies and the movement itself: “For such a woman the Civil Rights Movement will never be over as long as her skin is black.” (81)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was obvious that the movement could be called to halt as long as people remembered where they belonged to and who they really were. A matter of self-identification and the national pride, the movement could not be stopped, especially in such a trivial way. Deep in their hearts, the black people were sure that the game was worth the candles. These bloody battles did have their effect, and the positive results were to come – though, perhaps, only the descendants could see them.

The Time to Crop: Dead or Alive? No matter what politicians might say about the cessation of the movement and its uselessness, it did bring its crop, rather bitter though, with the tough battles and with shedding the blood of the innocent. Fading away as time passed, the pain subsided, but people still remember about the sufferings which they had to survive and the fights they had to take. As long as they keep all those reminiscences, the movement cannot be called a failure. The first victory in the long-lasting battle for pride and liberty, it will stay in people’s hearts for good.

Works Cited Moody, Anne. From Coming of Age in Mississippi. The Portable Sixties Reader. Ed. Ann Charters. New York, NY: Penguin, 2003. 45-51. Print.

Walker, Alice. The Civil Rights Movement: What Good Was It? The Portable Sixties Reader. Ed. Ann Charters. New York, NY: Penguin, 2003. 80 86. Print.


Are human activities behind the exacerbating level of global warming? Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature review



Reference List

Abstract Global warming has caused a lot of destruction in various ecosystems. The worse part of it is the fact that a consensus is yet to be reached on what actually causes it. This fact has led a number of individual scientists and research organizations to conduct research in a bid to establish what the causes of global warming are. Although a number of findings have came out of such research activities, most of these research activities lead to the conclusion that global warming is a result of human activities.

Introduction Global warming has, for a number of decades, been a major issue affecting humans worldwide. Its environmental effects are so adverse that it has led to the extinction of several species of both flora and fauna. Despite the controversy surrounding the causes of global warming, there has been substantial academic research showing that human activities are responsible for the continued warming of the earth’s surface.

Some critics of this fact have been arguing that the sun is continually getting warmer, but their arguments are based on speculations. This paper is a proposal for a research seeking to establish the cause of global warming, and determine if global warming is as a result of human activities (Global Warming 2009, p. 1).

Literature review As stated in the discussion above, the question of the cause of global warming has sparked a lot of controversy from both environmentalists and their critics. While most environmentalists believe that global warming is caused by human activities, their critics argue that the sun is continually getting hotter, and thus they are of the opinion that human global warming is not a result of human actions.

Despite this controversy, reliable research has shown that the production of greenhouse gases by the activities of humans is the leading cause of global warming. These are gases like carbon dioxide and methane. Their effect on the atmosphere is that once they accumulate in the atmosphere, they form a blanket of greenhouse gases that cushion heat from escaping to the atmosphere. This leads to continual heating of the earth’s atmosphere.

Some of the activities that produce greenhouse gases include burning of fossil fuels, incomplete combustion of gas in faulty automobiles, and the like.

The main problem with global warming is that it is self sustaining. For instance, global warming leads to the melting of ice caps on the highest points of mountains. These caps normally act as heat reflectors, and thus when they are molten, heat from the atmosphere has worse effects on the earth’s surface. As mentioned earlier, global warming creates harsh living conditions in a variety of ecosystems, and endangers the existence of species existing in these ecosystems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology This research can be conducted by integrating both field research, and desk research. This is because a lot of research has been conducted on this topic and it is imperative that existing knowledge on this topic be utilized.

The field research will thus be used to fill the gaps in the existing research, and also establish the truth behind the possible negative effects of past synergies in a number of research documents. This will ensure that the findings of the research are credible, and that they are guided by the most probable cause of global warming (Godfrey, 2010, p. 1).

Conclusion As evidenced in the discussion above, global warming is caused by human activities. The proposed research is bound to prove this fact, and thus be in agreement with research that has been done on this topic. The research hypothesis can thus be formulated that “global warming is not caused by human activity” so that in the end, the hypothesis is rejected.

Since global warming has been proven, by past research, to be caused by human activities, the proposed research will act as a reinforcement of this fact, and bring fresh ideas on the measures that can be taken to mitigate the effects of global warming. It is thus of essence that once this kind of research is completed, its findings and recommendations are taken seriously and implemented diligently.

Reference List Global Warming. (2009). Global warming. Web.

Godfrey, G. (2010). Global warming. Retrieved from


Concept of Consumer Society in Modern Society Essay custom essay help

Key Concepts Living in the modern world people live in the consumer society. To get a closer understanding of the notion ‘consumer society’, people should pay attention to the life style they follow. Having a lot of different goods at the market, people consume those and buy more and more other goods. One of the main characteristic features of a consumer society is that while consuming different products people do not do it independently, in vacuum.

People are inevitable participants of the consumer society, as buying products they want to buy more and more other related or dependant ones. For example, when people buy a toothbrush, they are unable to use it isolated from other objects, they need toothpaste to get the highest effect from the bought product. The same is about other products, buying some goods, people always want to buy more.


Ideology is a notion which may refer to different spheres of human life. One of the broadest meanings of this notion is the way people think. Ideology is not just the ideas people have in their minds in the relation to one specific problem. Ideology is a set of rules and norms people live with. People should not confuse ideology and culture as these are two absolutely different notions. Culture is an objective notion which just exists in the society.

Culture is created out of traditions which have been formulating for many years. Ideology is a personal subjective treatment of the surrounding world, the attitude to each other and the desire to show a piece of a picture as a whole. Ideology tends to make complex notions simple. Propaganda is one of the sides of ideology, as its main idea is the conviction of other people that his way of thinking is the only correct.


Semiotics is a notion which is aimed at exploring different signs and symbols. One of the best practical applications of semiotics is the creation of different planned or constructed languages. Living in the modern world, it is impossible to imagine contemporary life without computers.

Programming languages are an inevitable part of any computer program and software. Being divided into different branches, semiotics studies different qualities of sign systems, the relation between signs and symbols and their meaning, the connection between symbols their interpretation. Speech and language are the main objects of research in semiotics.

Envy, Desire and Belonging in Advertising

Envy, desire and belonging in advertising are the notions which can exist only in the consumer society. When people watch advertising they want what they see. The feeling of desire may be provoked by a number of reasons. It is not a problem when people want what they see because they need it, advertisement just helps them choose a brand. The problem appears when people want to buy a product because they envy those who possess it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is called an advertising belonging. No matter whether people need this product or not, they will surely buy it as their desire to possess the thing others have is too big. All these notions, envy, desire and belonging in advertising are closely related. To become free from advertising belonging, people should either stop envy those who has an opportunity to belong a specific product or should enclose themselves from the desire to buy it.

Essay Introduction

There are a number of different definitions of mass culture, and depending on the stress the author makes in his/her definition, this notion have either positive or negative connotation. Having referred a contemporary culture to both mass and popular, it is possible to compare and contrast these two different opinions.

On the one hand, “mass culture is not and can never be good” (Macdonald 43), on the other hand, being mass, “popular culture is linked, for so long, to questions or tradition, of traditional form of life” (Hall 442). Thus, identifying the notion of contemporary culture, we have faced the problem whether to consider it as a positive or a negative issue.

To answer the question whether mass and popular cultures are the elements of contemporary culture and whether they are identified as positive or negative phenomena, we are going to consider different opinions and key arguments offer by the following thinkers, Stuart Hall, F.R. Levis, Dwight Macdonald, and Raymond Williams.

“Mass Culture Is not and Can Never Be Good”

Having stated this idea, Macdonald strictly supports it with the arguments. He is sure that a culture is something individual, which is created by and provided for a human being. Mass use of culture eliminates the very idea of individuality that makes this notion lose its primary meaning.

The following idea is used in support, “a large quantity of people [are] unable to express themselves as human beings because they are related to one another neither as individuals nor as members of communities – indeed, they are not related to each other at all, but only as something distant, abstract, nonhuman”( Macdonald 43).

Looking at the problem from this angle, it is possible to agree with Macdonald, but to investigate the truth, it is important to check the meaning of the word ‘culture’ to make sure that the author considers it in a proper way. Reading an essay by Raymond Williams who tries to explore the origin and etymology of the words ‘culture’ and ‘mass’, many different definitions of the word ‘culture’ was identified. But, there was not mentioned that culture means individual expression or a possession to a specific human being.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Consumer Society in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Raymond underlines that the variations of whatever kind of the word ’culture’ “necessarily involve alternative views of the activities, relationships, and processes which this complex word indicates” (Raymond 28). Thus, the word culture does not mean a specific characteristic of one particular person, it is a set of issues which characterizes a group of people.

The Benefits of Mass Culture

According to Hall, popular culture has a positive connotation as it reflects traditions people have. To make the discussion clear, popular culture is a mass culture, as “the things are said to be ‘popular’ because masses of people listen to them, buy them, read them, consume them, and seem to enjoy them to the full” (Hall 446). The main idea of this opinion is that if the culture is mass and people like it, it is popular and there is no need to speak about negative connotation of mass culture.

But, Levis tries to contradict this point of view by means of providing some negative effect of such mass popular culture. It is not a secret that culture changes.

The changes which occur in the society may be too fast and people may not even notice those, but, if too look at the problem broadly, it can be easily noticed that parents are unable to understand their children, “generations find it hard to adjust themselves to each other, and parents are helpless to deal with their children” (Levis 34). Thus, the generations which are so close have different cultures.

The inability to have an individual or at least family culture leads to misunderstanding and conflicts. Hall can contradict this opinion stating that it is not the culture which changes and makes people become different, it is the change in the relationships. Culture changes when a specific tradition becomes dominant over another one. He states that “almost all cultural forms will be contradictory in this sense, composed of antagonistic and unstable elements” (Hall 449).

Contemporary Culture as Mass and Popular One: Personal Opinion

Having considered an opinion of different thinkers on the problem devoted to culture and its essence, I came to the conclusion that contemporary culture is a mass popular culture which denotes the present ideology of people. Thus, I definitely disagree with Macdonald and his point of view that “mass culture is not and can never be good” (Macdonald 43).

The problem of likes and having a personal opinion appears in the frames of this issue. Living in the age of mass entertainment, some people still manage to appreciate high and avant-garde culture.

So, it may be concluded that popular culture in the contemporary world is more than just an opinion of the vast majority of people, being interesting to a limited group of people, a specific culture may be popular as well. It is not the opinion of a separate individual, so it is also mass. Being in demand among a group of people, it is considered to be popular and mass. Mass in this meaning may denote something revolutionary and opposite (Williams 32).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Consumer Society in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Turning to the personal opinion, I mostly agree with Hall who states that popular culture is a mass one which expresses the ideas of people who consume the cultural products. Culture should be and is referred to the tradition. It can be even stated that culture and tradition are interconnected notions which should always come together. Still, I also agree with Levis, who highlights that culture is in crisis now (34), thus it is impossible to discuss this problem.

One may state that culture and tradition are not related as there are numerous directions in the modern culture of one specific nation. A close consideration of this problem allows us state that the culture of one specific nation is changing by means of influence and domination of different streams, but still, there is always something traditional in ach new trend which makes this very culture related to the national tradition of people.

Conclusion In conclusion, contemporary culture is both mass and popular as the characteristic features of these notions coincide with the understanding of the modern culture. I strongly believe that culture should be connected with traditions as only in this way each nations will remain particular and unique. Cultural and traditional features are the most characteristic for describing different nations.

Works Cited Hall, Stuart. “Notes on deconstructing ‘the popular.” Cultural theory and popular culture: a reader. Ed. John Storey. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 1998. 442-453. Print.

Levis, F.R. “Mass Civilisation and Minority Culture.” Popular culture: a reader. Eds. Raiford Guins, and Omayra Zaragoza Cruz. New York: SAGE, 2005. 33-38. Print.

Macdonald, Dwight. “A theory of mass culture.” Popular culture: a reader. Eds. Raiford Guins, and Omayra Zaragoza Cruz. New York: SAGE, 2005. 39-46. Print.

Williams, Raymond. “’Culture’ and ‘Masses’.” Popular culture: a reader. Eds. Raiford Guins, and Omayra Zaragoza Cruz. New York: SAGE, 2005. 25-32. Print.


The impact of mergers on consumers, industry, and the society Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction Merger is the process whereby two or more companies combine together such that all their operations are carried out as one. Over the recent past, there have been several mergers of firms within oligopolies. When two or more companies merge, the control of their assets becomes vested on under one control.

However, there are some regulations which guide the process. In this study, there is a need to distinguish between a merger and acquisition or takeover. The main difference between the two is that in the merger the company retains a shared interest in the corporation formed after merging.

On the other side, one company may buy a larger fraction of its partner’s stock which leads to imbalance in the ownership of the new formed company. The main aim for the companies to form merges is to increase their profitability. When two companies merge, the resultant company enjoys the advantages of bulk buying of the law materials, which significantly reduces its production costs.

There are several types of mergers. The first type of merger is known as vertical merger. This is the most common type of mergers in the business world. This is a form of merging where a corporation merges with its client (or suppliers) in order to build up on the chain of supply. The second type is horizontal merger.

This is a type of a merge between two companies which are direct competitors in the same market. In most cases, this involves a larger company taking the small one. After combining, the two companies can significantly reduce their operational costs as well as their financial obligations. Another type of merger is conglomerate merger. This type involves two companies in different businesses. These businesses are not related in any way. This form of a merger is fueled by the craving of a firm to get better its (financial) wealth.

The major concern with mergers is that they may eliminate competition in the industry. This leads to a situation where customers are left prone to exploitation by the producers. Different efforts have been laid to discourage the competitively harmful mergers. Commissions encourage the competitively beneficial or neutral mergers. These are not likely to cause suffering to the consumers. In other words, some form of mergers can lead to overexploitation of consumers.

Discussion In most cases, the Federal Trade Commission has to be notified in advance about any proposed merger in order to access the impacts of the merge to the consumer. This is in attempt to protect the customer from unnecessary merges which can be dangerous. The commission has the right to stop any merger which poses a major threat to the consumer’s welfare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the proposed mergers involves Keystone Holdings and Compagnie de Saint-Gobain’s Advanced Ceramics Business. This merger raised a major concern by Federal Trade Commission over its effect on the nature of competition. It was projected that the merger was likely going to affect the competition for alumina wear tile in the Northern America Market (Federal Trade Commission, 2010, Par 1). In such situations, the commission is forced to put certain restrictions in order to protect the customers.

Alumina tiles which the two companies deal with are used in a number of plants which plays a significant role in the well being of the economy. Alumina (wear) tiles are employed to insulate equipments from rasping wear by forming a (top) coating.

This type of tiles is used in a wide range of equipments used for different functions e.g. hoppers and the pipes used in ferrying ash and coal (Federal Trade Commission, 2010, Par 1). It is also used by asphalt and cement industries as well in mineral processing equipments. These tiles come in two broad categories. One category comes in different shapes while the other one is designed in order to fit unique shapes.

The commission feared that if the transactions were left to proceed as structured, the consequences would significantly affect the nature of competition in the market for these two types of tiles. This is because Saint-Goban and Keystone are the only key companies which represent a significant share of the Northern American market. Therefore, the consequence would be a significant reduction of competition in the market. These two companies also supply the best quality tiles in the market.

Reasons For and Against Mergers Over the past, mergers have impacted both negatively and positively in the economy. These impacts can be viewed in different perspectives, that is, the impacts of the mergers to the industry, society, and consumers.

Reasons against Mergers

Mergers have a significant impact on the top level management. That is, it may result in conflict of the egos. For instance, merger between Goban and Keystone can affect the management. These two merging companies were managed differently by different managers before merging. There are differences in the cultures between these companies. Consequently, managers may find themselves being forced to use strategies which may not be familiar or verified to them.

This presents a challenging environment for them. When this occurs, the company’s management attention gets diverted from the normal activities of an organization as the leaders try to settle the matters arising from organizational differences. However, the extent of these complications is determined by the skills of the managers. A qualified manager will take less time to adjust while less qualified managers may face too many complications.

We will write a custom Essay on The impact of mergers on consumers, industry, and the society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mergers have significant adverse impacts to the society, customers and the industry in general. This has raised a concern of whether mergers should be encouraged in the economy or not. Another effect of mergers lies on the employment level in the economy. Merging companies can significantly affect the employment level in the society. According to Gugler (2003), “a merger can significantly affect the quantity of labor supply (p.4)”. It has affected the employment level in different ways.

However, Gugler (2003) noted that “the effect of merges on the employment level is ambiguous (p. 5).” In other words, a merger can lead to an increase or decrease in the employment level. For instance, a merger may lead to a reduction in the level of output, which is followed by lay off.

For instance, due to an increase in power after the merge hence increasing the returns to scale which consequently leads to a fall in the level of employment. On the other hand, a merger may increase the level of output for instance due to the combined efficiency of the two merging companies. However, Gugler’s study has indicated that a company can reduce demand for labor by about 10% (2003, p. 18),

In situations where there is cross cultural mergers, the acquired organisation may sometimes be forced to lay a significant number of its employees. Again, this increases the level of unemployment hence affecting the society negatively in general.

According to the Maps of the World’s report (2000), when two companies come together, they can be able to hire less workers to perform a particular task (par 2). Consequently, the company will cut down its work force. Again, this will increase the level of unemployment in the society.

Combination of two companies affects the shareholders of the acquiring company most. The shareholders are affected to a great extent especially by the debt load. This presents a suffering to the society.

Merges also results in low innovations in a company. Merger encourages the new firm to pay less attention on its innovative efforts below the level of innovation that prevailed before the companies merge (U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission.2010, p. 26).

For instance, when Goban and Keystone forms a merger, the resultant company will pay less attention on innovating in the alumina tiles. The Northern America market will continue receiving coating tiles which are never improved. This is characterized by less attention to continued product improvement and development efforts. Since the resultant company will be dominating the market, it will pay less attention on innovations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of mergers on consumers, industry, and the society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In most cases, innovations are encouraged by competition in the market. This is because companies will not be facing competition for customers from its competitors. In competitive environment, companies will concentrate on innovations in order to please their customers. In the case of a merger, the resultant company will dominate the market which will consequently reduce their efforts to innovate.

For instance, when Gobain combines with Keystones, the resultant company will gain monopolistic power over North America’s market for alumina tiles. This is because the largest share of the market supply comes from these two companies. As we have seen, the resultant company will therefore be reluctant in encouraging innovations since it will have no threats from any competitor.

Since merging of the two companies reduces the level of competition in the market, there is a likelihood of a rise in prices. Competition will be more affected if the combining companies are dealing with less differentiated products. In this case, both Gobain and Keystone companies deals with alumina tiles which are not very much differentiated.

The newly formed company after merging will consequently raise the prices of the tiles. This consequently leads to an increase in consumer prices by the other firms. For instance, after the combination of Keystone and Saint-Gobain into one company, the company will raise the prices of the tiles. This forces the firms to raise the consumer prices altogether from their initial level.

As a result of prices manipulation through merges, there will be a reduction in consumer surplus. This oppresses the customers at the expense of the producer’s surplus. It is also important to note that mergers may have varying impacts on different consumers. This occurs when the newly formed company practices price discrimination. For instance, a company may decide to raise the prices for a certain group of consumers. In this case, some customers suffer more than others.

Mergers are likely to lead into low quality goods


Representation of Family in “A Good Man is Hard to Find” Essay college essay help near me

The short story “A Good Man is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor is one of the most appealing in the American Literature, revolving round family matters. The short story’s main actress, Bailey’s mother, commonly called grandmother dominates all the actions unfolding in the entire story.

Since she stays with her son’s family, the grandmother presents herself as a good mother, despite her being selfish. It is clearly brought out that, the nuclear family is not in coherence with the grandmother, since most of the actions the family undertakes seem to be against her wishes (Ochshorn, 131). This is reflected when she requests that they go to Tennessee, while on the other hand, Bailey’s family considers Florida as the best place to go. This paper focuses on the presentation of family as represented in the entire short story.

After the family gets involved in an accident, the famous ‘Misfit’ and his gang holds up the family and threatens to kill them. In reaction, the grandmother attempts to save her own life by pleading with the murderers to leave her alone. According to Bandy (134), the selfish nature of the grandmother and her disregard to her family is evidenced when she seems to care the safety of the other family members. Quite significantly, there seems to be weak bond of love between the grandmother and Bailey’s family.

More about A Good Man is Hard to Find What Is the Plot of a Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 42 What Are the Main Characters in a Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 17 What Are the Examples of Verbal Irony in A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 21 What Are the Literary Elements in A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 14 What Is the Style Of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 12 Who Wrote A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 13 This is reflected by her unfeeling nature of watching the entire family die around her, as she pleads for her life. As held by Ochshorn (135), the family presented in this story seems incoherent not in actual family-love bond, since there seem to be not feeling for the other(s) when they are in danger. As a result of the grandmother’s selfish nature, the entire family is killed, since if she could have kept quite, no member of the family could have died.

However, the grandmother may seem wicked in the last part of the story, but her initial personality implies that she was a good grandmother to her family. As revealed by Bandy (127) in the onset of the story, the grandmother treats the whole family with a lot of respect, in spite of their ignorance of her opinions. Even if she seems manipulative to the children to go and see a house which was not there, she said it craftily.

Though she is manipulated by the family to go to Florida against her wish, she tries to maneuver ways of avoiding Florida creatively. With reference to Ochshorn (137), the grandmother is trying to relate with her family well, though using twisted goodness. On the other hand, Barley and her family seem not to consider the wishes of the grandmother, implying their selfish nature as well.

Conclusion It should be noted that, the grandmother’s final action is by no means a charitable act of trying to defend the family from being murdered, but rather a strategy to save herself. Though it may be argued that, the grandmother’s final moment was a gracious to the entire family, but her goodness is a pretended one since she seems not to care the death of the other family members.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically, the grandmother emerges as having pretended good life by respecting her family, yet she had no actual family love for them. Generally, the unfolding of various events revolving around the grandmother brings her out as being self-centered, despite of her pretended goodness to the entire family.

Works Cited Bandy, Stephen. Means, Meaning and Meditated Space in “A Good Man is Hard to Find”. The Southern Quarterly. 44.4, (2007): 125-142.

Ochshorn, Kathleen. A Cloak of Grace: Contradictions in “A Good Man is Hard to Find”. Studies in American Fiction. 32.4, (2004): 129-138.


American History: the Greatest Generation Grows Up Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The Greatest Generation Grows Up



Introduction The circumstances that surround people govern the decisions they make in future. Kriste Lindenmeyer has concisely illustrated the condition in which American children’s had to endure when growing up. 1930’s was a period when the world was going through the Great Depression. It was a moment of reflection for the whole nation.

Many have grappled with the meaning of freedom for a very long time. Actually, freedom stands for so many things. It for instance stands for the right to do things out of free will. Though freedom may mean being allowed to do what you want to do, it is not good for one to trample on other people’s lives.

The Greatest Generation Grows Up Freedom and children has been an issue worth reflecting. Children went through many trying moments at this particular time. For example, they were subjected to hostile working condition in plantation farms and factories to complement family earnings. This therefore made it possible for them to attend school. In other words many dropped out of school as a result. Disease and starvation greatly affected this segment since their parents or guardians were no longer able to afford the necessities like food shelter and clothing too[1].

The older generation did not view freedom as the younger generation. But as time went by one can feel that they may have learnt a few things. For instance at one time one can see parents took themselves as the ones who could decide what was good for their children. They hardly differentiated between adulthood and childhood[2]. That is why Lindernmeyer talks of parents letting their children to work on farms to supplement their income.

These political, economic and ideological factors had an impact on the way the generation understands freedom. For example we are told of how there was discrimination during this period. There was poor treatment of immigrant workers. As one grows up them we can see the children then learnt the vagaries of such discrimination[3].

This could be solved through legislative solution. People were also discriminated according to gender. We are told for instance that women were allowed to stay at home and take care of children alone[4]. But during this period they could be forced somehow to work to supplement income of the family as well. It is from this period that we see nowadays laws put in place stressing non-discrimination based on gender.

In a nutshell freedom could be seen by this generation as being able to live in a free and secure environment. The government could also come in here[5].The generation must also have grown to cultivate an identity with the state. During the great depression we saw how the government worked to alleviate the situation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it was seen through electioneering period with which leader put across ideals they would pursue once elected. Such bordered on things like economy and social welfare in general[6]. For example universal healthcare was an idea highly pursued; though the New Deal failed to achieve it.

The state can help in identifying what is right, this generation might have discovered. One could see this from the way the state later on insisted on teenagers to remain in school. This showed a great relationship between the state and its children. This means that it is the duty of the state to protect such a segment. Besides, the state is expected to protect the masses by ensuring economic prosperity since failure to do this might lead to desperation of the masses, hence the suffering of the children as during the Great Depression.

Most social safety charities were overwhelmed. These charities included the Bohemian Charitable Association and the Jewish charity in Chicago[7]. The state was equally in deep trouble as it was unable to fund the overwhelming numbers of the needy. Banks and other organizations left their responsibilities to the government. This greatly caused a political anxiety as President Herbat Hoover came to symbolize failure. He dismissed any legislative measures to tackle the economy troubles that the nation faced.

The nomination of Franklin Roosevelt, a Democratic brought a new era in the United States[8]. Roosevelt promised a new beginning which he called ‘first New Deal’ for Americans. Under this were programs known as the ‘first’ and ‘second’ New Deals[9]. Roosevelt came up quite passionate about one relief program known as the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).

In this one he had a firm belief that it would impact positively to the young men in cities and even the countryside[10]. Many were engaged in road construction and trails in the national parks. Some children even worked in factories after they had dropped out school.

One mother wanted money to save her cow so that her young children could have milk. Here we can see clearly the children of starvation that was lurking in the faces of children. During the farming crisis many faced such related challenges. However, the New Deal did not do much to help the rural poor.

We are told for instance that the price supports and price controls only benefited the landowning farmers but not the peasants. The landless subsistence poor were left out. The migrant Mexican workers, black and white sharecroppers and even the far most tenants were left out. One can only guess the impact of this state to their families and children in particular.

We will write a custom Essay on American History: the Greatest Generation Grows Up specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the Great Depression children suffered a great deal since thousands of schools were forced to close down[11]. This was because there was not enough money to keep them running. Many children thus left schools. In fact many were going hungry and their parents could not afford clothes for even winter.

This means that hard choices had to be made. There were therefore modern policies that would govern the changing attitudes towards the children[12]. For instance, the responsibilities of the children were to be separated from those of the adults[13]. This meant that children were to be taken as children and shielded from the vagaries of adult responsibilities. Child welfare advocates majorly championed these.

The changing attitude towards the children played a major role towards making sure that the children grew up under a conducive environment. For instance Aid to Dependent Children Program took care of the children who were under sixteen years of age and by this children would still benefit whether they had parents or not. Thus, the caregivers were given some relief to take care of the children under their custody.

However, this amount was so little hence many still wallowed in abject poverty. Minorities and many blacks were segregated. In most cases, they were branded ‘immoral’ and therefore denied the needed aid[14]. Some segments of the society did not enjoy the freedom as enshrined in the new spirit of the nation[15]. The definition of those who deserved aid remained obscure and controversial.

The biggest question at the moment thus would be how this generation would have defined freedom. We know that during this period there were many challenges as the crisis played a big role in influencing the children and the youth. For example, children who grew up during this period can be said t be the first ones to experience the fact that it was also the responsibility of the government to protect its vulnerable members.

During this period, the state, as earlier seen, enacted legislation that protected and recognized the children and youth as being a distinct segment from adults.

I think the generation learnt that sometimes that freedom could be enshrined through regulations. But there could be some interesting exception. For instance if you give people freedom to do what they want before they reach age for decision-making. That is why Lindenmeyer stressed on the importance of education that time. Going to school is therefore important for the child and nation at large[16].

She gives the example of Cesar Chavez who worked alongside other children in the nation’s urban factories. The certain rights and requirements that were passed made sure that people could not infringe on others’ freedom to decent life like fair labor.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American History: the Greatest Generation Grows Up by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This generation might have developed expectations. For instance, government has the responsibility of shielding its citizens from any vagaries arising out of the economic situation that may be unfavorable. We saw how policies were developed to improve the livelihoods of the majority who were already suffering from the pangs of economic downturn[17]. Economic security should be what the bureaucrats should care for most as it has a lasting impact on many.

The expectations on work can be seen from what was happening in the labor market. For instance, there were challenges such as long hours of work, meager pay, employment of under-age workforce etc. This generation as it grew up may have expected that there be proper labor laws protecting mainly the worker[18]. Presently we have seen proper labor laws being enacted that cushion the employee from exploitation and general poor working conditions.

We were earlier told the type of segregation that touched on race, gender, ethnicity and even class. Lindermeyer, through various anecdotes, has illustrated how different groups faired on during the Great Depression[19]. She for instance shows a white boy playing with an erector.

This was in sharp contrast with what other minorities groups’ children were going through. We are equally told of how women were required to stay at home and sometimes-denied gainful employment in the pretext that theirs was to take care of the children. This generation that would vouch for equality[20]. This could be done through legislation.

Unlike the older generation, the ideal childhood could be seen as effort worth striving for. Since children are vulnerable to so many things, it is important that the state consider such a segment seriously through strict legislative measures.

Concisely 1930s is a period of seriously looked at protected childhood[21]. If such measures, as discussed, were not taken then the future generation could be doomed. The major step was recognizing childhood as a segment different from adulthood.

Bibliography Boydston, Jeanne and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010

Lindenmeyer, Kriste. The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005.

McGerr, Michael and others. Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes, – Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009

Footnotes Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.213

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.123

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.568

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.254

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.602

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.186

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.258

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.102

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.712

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.376

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.445

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.97

Michael McGerr and others, Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes,- Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009, P.56

Michael McGerr and others. Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes,- Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009,P. 453

Michael McGerr and others. Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes,- Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009,P. 87

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.563

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.117

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.245

Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.123

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.825

Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P. 563


Femme Noir as the Queen of the Night: Fantastical Transformations of a Woman Essay (Article) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Women played a crucial role in art and fashion in different periods of time. Some females were muses for artists and poets while others tried to break the rules established in society and introduce their own perspective of the world through their works of art. As such, it is necessary to see how women can contribute to the innovations and development of both art and fashion.

A new creative project called ‘Art Meets Fashion’ is aimed at showing the benefit of using such exhibitions for educational and informational purposes. Experience gained by the participants of the project is sure to change their perception of the art and design as well as fashion in whole. The project consists of several teams each including an artist, a fashion designer, a representative of school, and a documenter.

So, the team Femme Noir consists of an artist Duke Windsor, a fashion designer Osbaldo Ahumada, a documenter Susan Lazear, and a school representative Andrea Marx from SD Mesa College. The project Femme Noir was inspired with the image and the entire mood created by the Queen of the Night and her aria in The Magic Flute by Mozart. Fantastic and close-to-life elements can be found in the sculptures being a golden middle of the fashion and art meeting.

Femme Noir is the name of the team that emerged from the image of a woman who knows how to survive in the world of the dark middle ages. So, the team members managed to apply the historic perspective and mood of the aria to the sculpture and painting in a fashionable manner using extravagant colors and irregular shapes. The exhibition of this team’s project will take place in Dolcetti Boutique to encourage the audience to join the world of fashion through art and vice versa.

People that are interested in collaboration between representatives of different fields and development of technologies and useful ideas can find something new in this project as it is aimed at showing the transformation undergone by a queen from Mozart’s aria to fashionable issues created by the Femme Noir team.

Works Cited Art Meets Fashion. Art Meets Fashion, 2009. Web.


Information Technology and Low-Cost Airlines Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Intranet





It is very difficult to make a profit when it comes to the airline. This is because of the cost involved such as such as the purchase of aircraft and its maintenance. However, a new concept emerged that could be used to make airlines more profitable and it is by transforming a traditional organization into a low-cost carrier. This is made possible by many factors but it can be said that the most significant component is the use of information technology specifically the utilization of the Intranet and Extranet networking system.

If this company is considering a major change in order to transform an airline based on conventional systems, and turn it into a low-cost carrier, then it is imperative to look at the way technology is shaping and continue to change the business landscape. The world has gone from the Industrial Age to the Information Age in just a relatively short period of time.

For thousands of years the tools needed to conduct business and even to communicate with one another is accomplished through the use of indigenous materials and crude technology. However, when the computer was invented the whole world was turned upside down because it radically altered the way people do things. The invention of computers and the creation of massive networks connecting computer all over the nation and all over the world revolutionized all aspects of business.

The world became smaller in terms of communication through the use of instant messaging systems. Business transactions are being done through the internet, and recently through a refined system called the Intranet and the Extranet (Muller, 2002, p.343).The last two are all computer networks but engineered to work for specific organizations.

Intranet Before going any further it is important to have a clear understanding of what a network is all about. A basic definition of a network is to have two or more computers that are linked together so that information can be exchanged between them. The following are the basic components of a network: a sending device; a communication link; and a receiving device (Cox, 2007, p.10).

A sending device can be a computer or server and the receiving device can be another computer, server or equipment (Cox, 2007, p.10). The communication link is where communication signals are transmitted. In other words a network is a system that enables an airline to make easy, fast, and efficient communications.

The development of computer networks is the answer to the urgent need of airline companies to receive and send information quickly and efficiently. This is not like the manufacturing business where a slight delay is tolerated. Most of the time a passenger has a small window of time when it comes to scheduling flights. A minor error can turn a vacation into a catastrophe in terms of missed flights and missed opportunities. In this regard there is a need for a more sophisticated IT infrastructure that can help airline managers and employees make the right decisions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Robert Thierauf explains it this way, “Today’s worldwide marketplace provides not only more customers, suppliers, and competitors but also increased complexity for the decision-making process. The speed of communication simultaneously makes the environment less stable and predictable and reduces the available time for examining business information, knowledge, and intelligence” (Thierauf, 2001, p. 65).

An Intranet is one of the best tools that an airline company can use to increase its efficiency and therefore reduce costs. This in turn will allow them to evolve from an airline characterized by conventional methods into a low-cost airline. This company can only become a low-cost carrier by slashing costs. This is where the Intranet comes in.

The Intranet is basically a network that is limited to internal usage within the company. This is its limitation because the system can only be used by the employees and all the staff that works in the said organization. However, the upside to this arrangement is the significant savings that it can bring when it comes to their communication needs. Aside from that the flow of information is significantly enhanced.

This company can learn so much from looking at the Intranet model developed by Ryanair. This company is based in Europe and is an industry leader. In 2005 Ryanair invested in what they call their Cable and Wireless high-speed network. This system was worth £1.3 million to build but Ryanair said that they can easily recover their investments.

This assertion is based on the assessment of Brona Kernan, the airlines IT head who said that it is because the system is user-friendly. It is also because of its speed and capacity (The Sunday Times, 2005, p.1). Kernan also pointed out that the whole system is run by a staff of just 16 IT professionals (The Sunday Times, 2005, p.1). Kernan also added another feature of the Intranet that explains why the company saved a great deal of money and she said:

By using the Ryanair intranet, pilots, cabin crew and check-in staff carry out a range of activities from booking annual leave to obtaining the weather reports needed for each flight. Engineering staff can get the details needed to maintain the aircraft … The crews come in , use the self-service terminals to print off everything they require, such as fuel reports, go to the aircraft and fly (The Sunday Times, 2005, p.1).

This is an efficient system indeed. However, it is severely limited when it comes to scope because the customers cannot access it. Most of the time an Intranet uses computer terminals and computer networks within the company headquarters. It can also be accessed from a satellite offices or branches, however, it is still a closed system because only employees and staff can use it. This is the reason why the Extranet was developed.

We will write a custom Essay on Information Technology and Low-Cost Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Extranet The number one challenge for modern management information systems is the creation of a seamless IT architecture that can ensure an error free e-business (Cox, 2007, p.20).Shifting needs, rapid changes in technology and the increasing sophistication of hackers are the major reasons why developers and creators of a company’s IT infrastructure are having a hard time dealing with external threats.

If this company decides to use an Extranet then it has to be protected from hackers and corporate spies (Flouris


Prices of Milk Powder, Cooking Oil and Rice Report essay help: essay help

Introduction Trade industry is one of the most dynamic of all activities done by man. Price of commodities changes from time to time due to various reasons. These factors or their combination work either to increase or decrease the market price of one commodity or another. Some of these factors may be man made while others are due to the changes in nature.

Governments influence prices of commodities by regulating imports and exports, taxation and subsidies. Weather conditions either favor or affect different produce. Seasons determine planting and harvesting which in turn determine supply. Costs of production of different commodities are usually transferred to the consumer hence affecting the prices.

Customer confidence on integrity of a given commodity determines demand and thus influences the prices. Festivities such as Christmas seasons increase demand for certain commodities hence dictating their prices. These and many other factors determine whether price of a given commodity will either go up or down. This paper discusses some of the factors that affect the price of milk powder, cooking oil and rice.

Influence on price of milk powder Milk is one of the most important commodities consumed by man all over the world. Milk is used in different forms such as fresh milk, skimmed milk, milk powder, ghee among others. Milk price depends on different factors. These are some of the factors that determine the price of milk powder:

Weather Condition

Milk powder is a by product of milk a product obtained from cows. The amount of milk produced by cows depends on how well the cows are fed and the prevailing weather conditions. When there are enough rains there is more feeds to give to the cows and hence more milk.

The cost of producing milk at this time goes down and this means more milk at a low price. Due to more supply than demand the prices of milk goes down. However when there is drought or other catastrophes such as cyclones and floods as was witnessed in milk producing areas such as Australia and new Zealand cows produce little milk as there is less feed and at the same time the cost of producing milk goes up and this cost is transferred to the consumer thus the price goes up.

Disease Outbreaks and Contamination

Milk powder being a food product is vulnerable to contamination and food poisoning. When there is disease outbreak the government will always issue a ban on exportation or importation of milk and milk product hence increasing the price of the few stock of milk powder left in a country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Customer confidence may be eroded when such news of disease outbreak or milk contamination comes out. Customers are afraid to take milk and milk products and prefer other alternative sources. This was witnessed when milk from China was suspected to be contaminated and people avoided milk powder hence making the price of milk to shoot down. Disease out break may affect cows making them produce less milk hence the demand surpasses the supply causing the prices to shoot up.


Milk powder is usually more consumed when the fresh milk is scarce or more expensive. This means that when the rainy seasons come, fresh milk supply is more and at a low price thus people consume fresh milk more than milk powder due to the low cost hence the prices of milk powder goes down.

During dry seasons fresh milk becomes very expensive and people prefer powdered milk instead thus increasing demand which in turn raises the prices. Milk producers make more milk powder at time when there is plenty of fresh milk and then sell it when it gets scarce.

Government Policies

The government always has the upper hand in regulating the prices of commodities in order to protect its citizens from high prices. A very good example is the total export ban of milk and milk products from India the worlds biggest milk producer. By doing this the government has regulated the price in that country and at the same time this caused increase of the price of milk and milk products to other countries where that milk is exported.

The government may also subsidize the production of milk and thus the price of milk and milk products such as milk powder reduces. Government taxes may also affect the price of milk powder. When the government raises tax on milk and milk products the price of milk powder is likely to go up and also go down when government decides to waive taxes on milk the price goes down.


When there is inflation in a given country prices of all commodities increase. This means that the price of milk powder will go up since the cost of production will have gone high. When the opposite happens and the economy of the country improves all the costs of production goes down and hence the price of milk and milk products goes down as well.

Price of other related goods

When prices of other related products change the price of milk powder will also change. The price of other complementary goods such fresh and long life milk may change due to various reasons such as cost of production of those commodities. The price of fresh milk may be low during rainy season and high during dry season and this affects the demand of milk powder.

We will write a custom Report on Prices of Milk Powder, Cooking Oil and Rice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If their prices goes up then demand shifts to milk powder which is likely to make prices go up however when the price goes down people shift from milk powder to complementary products hence demand decreases which makes prices to go down.

Changes in the cost of production

Milk powder heavily depends on heat processes to steam the milk until all the water has evaporated. Many milk factory plants use either electricity or fuel to process milk powder.

When there are changes in the prices of electricity or fuel as it happen when global fuel prices increase the cost of production and transport increases hence raising the cost of production for milk powder resulting to increased consumer prices. The reverse happens when the cost of energy goes down. However the greatest determinant of the price of milk powder is the changes in seasons which heavily affect the supply thus affecting the prices.

COOKING OIL Cooking oil is a commodity that is very important to man due to its wide variety of uses. The price of cooking oil depends on a number of factors or a combination of factors. Some of these factors include weather conditions, cost of production change in other uses among others.

Weather factors

Cooking oil is produced from plants that produce oil seeds which are processed to make cooking oil. Some other forms of cooking oil are processed from animal products.

Weather conditions affect both plants and animals. When there is adequate rainfall and other climatic conditions that are favourable for growing of these plants then production cost increases and this increases supply hence the prices goes down. When there are droughts or other unfavourable weather conditions such as floods, supply reduce and consequently the prices go up.

Costs of production

The processing of cooking oil demands use of high temperatures during the process of hydrogenation. This implies that when the price of energy increases as it happens when global oil prices goes up the cost of production goes up and thus the price of cooking oil also goes up. When the cost of energy especially global oil goes down the cost of production goes down and thus cooking oil prices go down too. Cost of farm inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides are usually transferred to the consumer hence increasing prices of cooking oil.

Other oil products

There are different uses of vegetable oils especially in the industries such as soap, candles, cosmetics and other products. When the demand for these products increases manufactures prefer investing more on producing these products and this implies that the supply of cooking oil will reduce hence increasing the prices.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Prices of Milk Powder, Cooking Oil and Rice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic stability of cooking oil producing countries

Most of the oil consumed in the world is processed from palm and soya bean which thrive well in certain countries. United States of America is believed to be the world’s largest producer and exporter of cooking oil and other related products. This implies that the price of cooking oil will largely depend on the economic stability of the producing countries. This can be seen when cooking oil prices increased during the U.S economic crisis period. The prices later went down when the economy stabilised.

Emerging markets

It is believed that the world’s population is increasing with time due to various factors. When the population increases in certain areas especially due to urbanisation then demand for cooking oil surpasses the supply and this causes the prices of cooking oil to go up. This can be seen in countries that have recorded high urban development which have made demand to go up in those areas.

Cost of other related goods

Cooking oil is used for cooking various foods. Different kinds of food are made in different communities. When food supply is high the demand for oil to cook the food also goes up and this means that the price of cooking oil will rise up. When food supply goes down there is relatively less food to cook with the cooking oil and thus demand for cooking oil decreases making the prices to go down.

Health issues

There has been claims that some cooking fats and oils contain a substance called cholesterol that has been linked with heart and other related diseases. Due to relatively higher cholesterol levels in cooking fat than in cooking oil then the population prefer using the safer alternative and that is cooking oil.

This increases the demand of cooking oil hence increasing the prices. This is more common in markets where the consumers have the ability to spend more on the safer alternative. The same effect is usually observed when health experts intensify the campaigns towards safe cholesterol levels since customer awareness makes them to prefer cooking oil rather than fat hence increasing the demand of the latter.

Technology of producing cooking oil

A lot of input goes towards production of cooking oil. The efficiency of the production processes determines the overall cost of production. Due to the current advancement in technology new production techniques especially in crushing and hydrogenation processes have been invented and this has resulted to low production costs. This is clearly observed in the developed countries such as America where they use more efficient production technologies as compared to other oil producing countries in developing world.

This is likely to reduce the prices of cooking oil in developed countries as compared to developing countries. Market forces and other factors behind production and selling of cooking oil have resulted to relatively constant prices of cooking oil throughout the year as compared to other products such as milk which may fluctuate in different seasons of the year.

RICE Rice being a cereal is one of the most important food commodities in all communities of the world. It is a staple food for some communities a very important source of starch and energy. There are many other uses of rice such as rice Bran, husks, milk pudding and so on. Rice prices depend on many factors some of which include.

Weather conditions

Its believed that weather conditions such as the amount of rain, temperature and other factors greatly affect the production of rice which largely depends on enough water and soil moisture during the planting season and a dry weather conditions during harvest season, when these conditions are favourable the supply goes up hence the prices goes down. When there are calamities such as draught and floods then production reduces and this increases the price of rice.

Substitute products

Rice being a cereal has many substitute products such as maize and wheat. When the price of other substitute commodities goes down, consumers shift towards them as an alternative hence reducing demand of rice which results in reduction of rice prices. When prices of other substitutes go up, people shift to the cheaper alternative, demand for rice increases thus raising the prices.


Rice is heavily dependent on seasons due to its requirement of special growing conditions. The supply is usually high during harvest season and this increases supply thereby reducing the prices. The prices then shoot up during planting season when the supply is less than demand.

Government policies

Government plays a very influential role in regulating prices of commodities. Government may subsidise rice production, regulate export of rice. This in turn may reduce the cost of rice on its country and on the other hand government may ban exports of rice to other countries for various reasons. This makes the supply of rice in those countries to go up hence raising the prices.

Rice products

Rice is used for making a wide variety of products such as rice adhesives, vinegar, paper, beverages, rice milk and other products. When the demand for these products increases more rice is needed and this makes supply less than demand resulting to increase in rice prices.


Advancement in technology allows production of rice at a lower cost and this makes it possible to reduce the price of rice in the market. Other factors that may influence the price of rice include festivities such as Christmas seasons. There is more rice consumption during these times as compared to other times especially in communities where rice is not the staple food.

This makes the rice price to go up during these seasons. Competition with other rice producing countries makes the supply to increase and as different suppliers fight for the available market they reduce prices. The price of rice is dynamic and is likely to change in different seasons of the year due to different factors such as planting and harvesting seasons and festivities.


Countries that produce rice often compete for the available market. When the supply is greater than demand then the producers reduce the prices in order to capture the market this makes the prices to go down. On the other hand when there are few producers compared to the available market the producers may increase the prices if the competition is low.


Demand of rice may rise due to various reasons such as increase in population of a given community or country, urbanisation which raises population in urban centres. Demand may also increase when the economic status of the consumers increase. There are more consumers who have the potential to buy rice and these increases the demand. When demand is high the prices go up.

Conclusion There are different factors that influence the price of commodities at the market. These factors either directly or indirectly affect the price of one commodity or another. Sometimes the price is affected by a combination of many factors.

Milk powder prices have been seen to be affected by different factors such as prevailing weather conditions which affect production, disease outbreak and contamination which affects consumer confidence. Changes in seasons along the year have been observed to be the largest factor affecting milk powder production. Government policies, inflation and cost of other related goods contributed to changes of price of milk powder.

Different factors were observed to affect the price of cooking oil. These factors were seen to vary from weather conditions which increase or decrease production of cooking oil, cost of production as production process uses a lot of energy, economic stability of producing countries. Other factors include influence of emerging markets, cost of related goods, health factors and technology.

The price of rice was observed to be affected by different factors such as weather conditions during the growing season, the prices of other substitute commodities such as wheat and maize, seasons which determine supply during harvest and planting periods. Government policies such as export regulation, taxation and subsidies could affect price of rice. The cost of production, production technology and festivities were other factors that could either result to rise or fall of price of rice.

The price of cooking oil was observed to remain relatively constant along the year with probable slight fluctuations due to increased demand as observed during festive seasons. However the prices of milk powder is greatly influenced by change in season with prices going up during dry seasons when there is more demand and goes down during rainy seasons. The price of rice was also observed to be volatile rising up during planting seasons when supply is low and goes down during harvest seasons when the supply is high.


Beef, Mutton, Chicken Report essay help online

Introduction Products such as beef, mutton, and chicken have become regular staples in the diet of billions of people around the world and as such they command a significant level of consumer demand however just like any product various external influences can result in a dramatic shift in their prices especially if their means of production are directly affected.

Today, the prices of beef, chicken and mutton have invariably changed compared to what they were several decades ago. While it may be true that salaries have also risen along with the prices of certain goods the fact remains that modern means of agricultural production have greatly improved since the early to mid 1900’s resulting in a far more efficient and faster means of raising cattle, sheep and chicken.

One basic economic principle dictates that demand should match supply in order for the most efficient means of production and distribution to occur. Lately various statistical data has shown that the amount of supply created (beef, chicken, mutton) actually exceeds the amount of demand in cases with large excesses of production.

One example of this can be seen in the various countries of the E.U. due to the CARP (common agricultural policy) which has helped in creating an overabundance of certain agricultural products (beef, mutton and chicken included).

Despite this factor, prices of beef, chicken and mutton have not been going lower and in fact there is a growing trend of significant increases in their prices especially in developing and third world countries. This indicates that other factors are at work in affecting the prices of these products since despite the abundance of supply prices have not been going and instead have been increasing.

Understanding Tariffs, Protectionist policies and their effect on the importation of beef, mutton and chicken It is a well known fact that when it comes to producing certain goods or services some countries are better at it than others. A truly ideal situation would if countries focused on what they are best at making and not produce anything else.

Unfortunately various countries tend to diversify their production capabilities in order to remain, in their words, “economically competitive” when in fact their production of a plethora of various goods is not as efficient as producing what they are good at and taking the methods of production of that particular commodity to their zenith.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Various countries have their own agricultural means of raising cattle, sheep and chicken however due to their limited capacity in doing so there remains a distinct necessity to import such products from other countries in order to make up for the lack of supply.

The inherent problem with this is that most countries tend to erect protectionist policies such as limiting the amount of beef, chicken or mutton being imported into the country or imposing strict tariffs which increase the price of such products. Such measures are done in order to protect local industries from being overwhelmed by cheap foreign imports.

Mentioned earlier was the fact that some countries are basically better at producing a certain type of product as compared to others. As such the overall prices of goods that are produced can be significantly lower than that of other countries that have a harder time in producing the same type of product.

If tariffs and various other protectionist policies were not put into effect, as defined by a free-market system, then most people would prefer the obviously the cheaper and plentiful foreign imports rather than the expensive and limited locally produced products.

Taking such factors into consideration it can thus be assumed that countries with a limited production capacity for beef, chicken and mutton would thus have stringent protectionist measures in place to prevent cheap foreign imports from flooding their markets and driving local farmers out of business. In such a case beef, chicken and mutton prices are artificially raised not out of a lack of supply but rather out of the necessity to protect an inefficient system of production.

While such a system may not make sense from an economical standpoint it does from a socio-political one since the backlash from farmers who have significant influence in various political groups would cause potential problems for the government. There is also an ethical standpoint to consider since the oldest businesses in most countries are often agricultural enterprises and as such knowingly allowing them to go out of business in order to let consumers have lower prices is morally ambiguous at best.

The oil industry and the added costs of transportation For those of you that follow the news on a regular basis a distinct relationship can be seen between the price of oil and that of products such as beef, chicken and mutton. The price of oil at any given date adversely affects the price of products in the global economy which in turn affects the prices of basic commodities such as food. In order to better understand this concept it is necessary to take into account three distinct factors:

We will write a custom Report on Beef, Mutton, Chicken specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cows, chickens and sheep are usually raised in areas far from where they are actually eaten

Gasoline fueled trucks are needed in order to transport them to locations where they will be butchered and then from there to supermarkets where they will be bought for consumption

Lastly, while the international exportation of beef, chicken and mutton is cost prohibitive in certain cases there are instances where demand is so great that the added cost of tariffs is negligible

The first and second factors are easy to explain, since cows, chickens and sheep are located in farms that are beyond most city limits the added cost of transportation is factored into the price when such meat or poultry products are sold. As such there is an inverse relationship at play wherein the higher the price of gasoline gets the higher the price of meat and poultry products become despite no added value being introduced into the products themselves.

The third factor to consider deals with the fact that international oil prices affect large container ships just as much as they affect cars, trucks and buses, while container ships may be able to offset prices by adding more cargo items to their manifest the fact remains that this is only a temporary stop gap measure and eventually rising oil prices will affect the price of international transportation.

This presents a problem for international exporters since if a country has high protectionist rates for certain types of meat and poultry products and is combined with the increased cost of transportation prices of beef, chicken and mutton would of course have to be increased as a result.

The inherent problem with this lies with the fact that overly high prices would discourage consumer consumption of certain goods and since meat and poultry products rot easily there is a possibility that various exporters would lose money over the products they export.

How droughts and natural disasters affect the price of grain and corn which in turn adversely affect the price of beef, chicken and mutton In the past cows, chickens and sheep were fed natural agricultural products such as corn, maize or were merely grass fed. While such a practice continues in isolated farms up to this day a majority of farms feed their livestock using corn meal or pellet derivatives that come from corn products.

The reason behind this is that this special type of agricultural feed contains higher levels of carbohydrates which helps to easily fatten cows, chicken or sheep. As seen in numerous documentaries animals that are fed such products grow faster and are far larger than other animals fed on natural products.

One unfortunate consequence of this is that should areas that produce the corn that goes into the pellets be affected by an external force the price of the pellets go up which as a result affects the price of animals sold due to the increased cost in feeding them. Various abnormal weather patterns, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that adversely affect corn producing regions have the effect of increasing pellet prices due to affected supplies which in turn affects the price of beef, mutton and chicken.

The Status of the Global Economy and how this affects meat and poultry prices When the global economy entered into a recession following the U.S. housing collapse overall consumer demand dropped creating an adverse effect on the prices of beef, mutton, chicken as well as other commodities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Beef, Mutton, Chicken by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to show the proper relation between the recession and its effect on prices what this paper will do is conduct an examination on how consumer preference over product choice changes depending on the status of the global economy. When the 2008 global recession hit not only did this result in the collapse of multiple companies but also brought forth a concept called “consumer fear”.

This particular concept posits that a chaotic external financial environment will result in a lack of consumer confidence in the stability of companies as well as financial institutions resulting in distinct reluctance for them to spend. Such a situation was clearly seen at the start of and in the years during the financial recession where the distinct lack of consumer spending was one of the main reasons why the financial crisis continued to exacerbate the way it did.

The price of goods and various commodities are inherently linked with the rate of consumer spending, the lower the amount of people buying products at any one time the greater the likelihood of companies choosing to lower prices in order to entice customers to spend. Unfortunately lack of consumer confidence in the economy continued to worsen the stagnation of consumer spending habits resulting in even lower prices however no one was actually willing to commit to buying.

One of the reasons behind this lies with the fact that as the financial crisis worsened millions of people around the world lost their jobs and as a result lacked the appropriate amount of consumer confidence to actually buy certain amounts of meat or poultry products due to the limited amount of funds available.

An unfortunate consequence of this is that suppliers try to balance the amount of supply and demand by reducing operations, unfortunately this resulted in various supermarkets losing a vast majority it of meat and poultry inventory which gradually increased the prices of the remaining stock however in this case the continued lack of demand caused intense fluctuations in prices that they changed on an almost monthly basis.

On the other hand once the economy had recovered to a sufficient level and consumer confidence returned prices continued to remain high as the previously reduced level of operations meant that despite the higher level of demand suppliers could not match it. This resulted in another series of price fluctuations until finally both the supply and demand side stabilized as a result of an increase in operations on the side of the supplier.

It is based on this that a definite relationship can be seen between the prices of beef, mutton and chicken and the state of the global economy. On the other hand there are exceptions to this; countries such as the Philippines, South Korea, Indonesia and Taiwan were not greatly impacted by the financial crisis so as a result no great degree of price fluctuation occurred in their markets for meat and poultry.

It must be noted that while the global economy can directly impact the prices of beef, mutton and chicken the fact remains that what affects one country may not affect another and as such one of the best indicators to determine the rise or fall of prices is to look at supply side of the production line since prices of produced commodities are more likely to be affected by changes in how they are made or transported rather than the financial system where they are bought and sold.

State of the Local Economy One interesting aspect that must be mentioned is the fact that it is not only economic depreciation in the form of a recession that also affects prices but also excessive economic appreciation. When examining the prices of products sold in the U.S. with those sold in countries such as the Philippines and Taiwan it becomes apparent the basic commodities sold in the U.S. are apparently more expensive than those located in other countries despite them being exactly the same.

The reason behind this is a combination of two factors: first is the inflation of the U.S. economy over the past few decades and the set minimum wage in the country. Inflation can be described as a distinct rise in the level of prices of certain good, commodities and services within a particular economy over a set period, usually in the span of a few years.

As the price level of commodities rise the ability of currency to purchase those types of goods goes down. On the other end of the spectrum the minimum wage allotment for workers also plays a crucial role in the rise of prices as the high minimum wage rate in the U.S. compared to various Asian countries actually causes prices to go higher. Businesses have to set a certain price for goods and services that takes into account the wages given to employees of the business.

The higher the amount of the allotted minimum wage the higher the price of production and services would be. On the other hand Asian countries have a far lower rate of minimum wage as such the price of commodities such as beef, mutton and chicken is far lower as a result. As such while the purchasing power of the U.S. is high in other countries within its own borders it is actually quite low compared to what a person could get for the same amount in another country.

Understanding When Price Shifts Occur and Why When it comes to understanding how and why price shifts occur for beef, mutton or chicken over a given year it must first be stated that due to differences in overall biology price shifts for chicken are distinctly different than that of beef or mutton and as such must explained separately from there. The cattle and sheep industry actually revolves around a cyclical cycle that expands and contracts over an 8 to 12 year period due to the biological cycle of the animals.

There is actually a 3 year time lag in the time it takes a producer to receive the signal to expand herds to when calves/lambs are produced and the older cows and sheep are slaughtered by companies for various meat products. As such the cycle follows a distinct cycle of herd expansion and herd liquidation. It is due to this that price shifts naturally occur during the periods of herd expansion and herd liquidation.

If a certain year falls during a date where herd expansion is in place it is unlikely that prices would be low due to the lack of animals actually being slaughtered, on the other hand during years where herd liquidation is in effect prices would of course be lower. The thing is though periods of expansion and liquidation are not set to a particular industry standard with different producers choosing different times for either expansion or liquidation.

It is due to this that price shifts naturally occur between countries depending on the schedule animal ranchers adhere to with the price of beef and mutton either increasing, decreasing or staying the same depending on the extent of cattle operations in that particular country or on the amount of beef being imported or exported. It must be noted though that the cycle of expansion and liquidation is actually vulnerable to changes in the weather, inflation, shifts in grain prices, and changes in the overall structure of the industry it is part of.

Such changes do not reflect on that particular year but are seen later on in the succeeding year as the amount of animals actually slaughtered may be far lower due to culling measures undertaken in order to reduce the costs of operations. Chicken prices on the other hand are dictated by seasonal factors and the cost of grain or grain derivatives that are fed to chickens.

The fact is most chicken feed is derived from various form of grain and corn meal, during times of the year where grain is in abundance chicken prices usually go down however if there has been a drought the resulting increase in grain prices will adversely affect chicken prices.

Seasonal factors also play a factor in this, winter months are usually not as conducive to raising chicks as compared to spring, summer or autumn as such the chicken population suffers as a result especially during instances where an increased rate of liquidation occurs.

Variances in consumer demand over the course of a year also affect prices, holidays in particular cause sudden rises in prices as the demand for particular products exceeds that of the available supply. Consumer holidays such as Christmas, New Years, Thanksgiving and various other holidays attributed to different religions all play a part in increasing demand and as a result the price of commodities.

Beef, mutton and chicken in particular are in great demand during such occasions and as a result prices increase in order to take advantage of the demand. It must be noted though that at times prices are increased without any problems with the supply line of a particular product. Various stores are able to match or even exceed demand with stored supplies yet increase prices due to the almost assured level of profits that they would incur over the holiday period.


“Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte Essay college essay help near me

Introduction “Jane Eyre” is a tragedy and romantic novel which was written by Charlotte Bronte. It was adapted into film by Robert Stevenson in 1944. “Jane Eyre” is partly an autobiographical novel which filled with romance and tragedy in the life of Jane Eyre. At the age of nine, Jane Eyre had lost her parents and was an orphan. She went to live with her aunt Mrs. Reed. (Bailey, 115)

Mrs. Reed was a sister to Jane’s father and her family was the only family Jane had so; she went to live with them. But the Reeds did not see Jane as a blood relation rather; she was treated as an outsider. While in the home of the Reeds, Jane was physically and emotionally abused by her aunt Mrs. Reed and her children. (Niemann, 214)

This comparative essay will highlight the differences between Stevenson’s 1943 film of “Jane Eyre” and Charlotte Bronte’s novel. Apart from Stevenson’s film not maintaining a first narrator as the novel does, it is arguably the best adaptation of Charlotte Bronte’s novel.

A central theme that Stevenson’s film emphasizes which is not a prominent theme in the original story by Charlotte Bronte is Jane’s perseverance all through the story. Bronte’s original story narrates Jane’s story as an orphan who finds joy at the end of the story but Stevenson’s film tells the story of Jane as a person who went through a lot of pain and discrimination but did not give up.

The problems which Jane faced as an adult and a child will be discussed in this essay.

Comparing the film “Jane Eyre” to Bronte’s original novel “Jane Eyre” is a novel which was originally written by Charlotte Bronte and it has been adapted into film 3 times. It was adapted into film in 1913, 1915 and 1921. Out of all the adaptations, Stevenson’s 1943 adaptation is considered the best because; his adaptation has a unique and slightly different pattern of the Jane Eyre story. (Rowland, 241)

In the original novel of “Jane Eyre” written by Charlotte Bronte, Jane was portrayed as an evil child and she was treated badly for this reason. (Rowland, 281) Jane’s extended family perceived her as an evil child and this same notion of Jane been an evil child manifested again when her employer stumbled from his horse. After Jane’s employer stumbled from his horse, he accused Jane of been an evil person and the reason why he stumbled from his horse. (Niemann, 302)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Stevenson’s adaptation of the “Jane Eyre” story, the problems of Jane Eyre are shown as norms of a class-oriented society. People usually want to associate with other people who are of the same class to them. So, Jane was maltreated because her parents were dead, and she was seen as a poor girl. Life is usually tough and obstacles are always encountered in the process living. (Bailey, 400) There has never been life without problems.

With the examples given above, there is a slight difference between Robert Stevenson’s adaptation and the original novel by Charlotte Bronte. Apart from the film not maintaining a first person narrator, it also, ends a little happier that the original story and this is noticed when the adaptation is constructively compared to the original novel.

The ordeals of Jane as narrated by Robert Stevenson and Charlotte Bronte respectively Jane faced a number of problems in her life as a child and an adult respectively. (Bailey, 510) In the beginning of the story, Jane lost her parents to a deadly disease known as typhus and she became an orphan at the early age of nine. After losing both parents to the cold hands of death, she was compelled to live with her uncle’s family. Although Mrs. Reed perceived Jane as an evil child and she abused her physically and emotionally. (Rowland, 321)

After leaving the home of the Reeds’ Jane goes into another world full of hatred in Lowood institution. While in Lowood institution, Mr. Brocklehust became Jane’s new tormentor. But, Jane soon finds happiness in Lowood Institution when she meets Helen. (Rowland, 212) Jane and Helen subsequently became friends but Jane’s happiness was cut short when she lost her only friend and confidant to the cold hands of death. (Niemann, 202)

After leaving Lowood institution, Jane works as a governess for a very wicked and selfish employer, Mr. Edward Rochester. (Niemann, 412) Jane experiences a tough and difficult stay at thornfield but she and her employer Mr. Rochester eventually fell in love but they were forbidden to express it. (Bailey, 401)

All these instances mentioned where the ordeals which Jane Eyre encountered during the course of the story. In spite of the fact that, Jane found happiness at the end of the story, it was a terrible and tough experience for Jane growing up. (Bailey, 615) There was no difference in her adult age and this made the story of “Jane Eyre” a tragedy.

A central theme emphasized in Stevenson’s film that is not a prominent theme in Bronte’s novel Robert Stevenson produced the film “Jane Eyre” as a tragedy film but the central theme emphasized all through the film is the resilience and perseverance displayed by Jane. (Niemann, 815)

We will write a custom Essay on “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the tender age of nine’ Jane had lost her parents to the cold hands of death due to typhus. This seemed to be the beginning of Jane’s turmoil. Been orphaned at that tender age, could have broken any child down but Jane persevered and overcame it. (Rowland, 116)

After the death of her parents, Jane went to live with her aunt Mrs. Reed. But Mrs. Reed had her own reservations about Jane due to her daring spirit. (Niemann, 356) Mrs. Reed had expected Jane to be a withdrawn and timid child due to the fact that she had lost both parents at a tender age. But contrary to Mrs. Reed’s expectation, Jane was a daring child and not even the death of her parents affected her. (Bailey, 444)

Mrs. Reed more or less discards Jane off to Lowood institution and she had already misinformed Mr. Henry Brocklehust that Jane was an evil child. (Niemann, 358) Mr. Brocklehust was in charge and ran the school. Due to Mrs. Reed’s accusation, Mr. Brocklehust harassed Jane in an environment which was already filled with impoverished and orphaned kids. (Rowland, 718)

For other children, this could have been the breaking point because of the pain and torture they had already encountered. But in Jane’s case, the pain and torture did not deter her. This type of resilience is what is needed in our today’s worlds to survive. (Rowland, 788)

While in Lowood institution, Jane for the first time in her life found happiness through her friend and only confidant Helen. But that happiness was cut short when Helen eventually died. After leaving Lowood institution to work as a governess, Jane was still faced the challenge of been considered as an evil person. But even in the face of such torment, Jane still manages to make her hostile boss fall in love with her. (Bailey, 623)

Conclusion Charlotte Bronte’s novel portrays Jane as a character who went through a lot of pain and societal discrimination but eventually found happiness at the end of the day by marrying the man of her choice. But in Robert Stevenson’s film, the character Jane is portrayed as a person who in the face of adversary and abuse, never gave up or broke down but rather persevered and conquered. (Rowland, 514)

The central theme of the film “Jane Eyre” is resilience and perseverance. This is clearly expressed by Robert Stevenson as he highlights the problems of Jane and the things she lost while struggling to succeed. (Niemann, 611) During the course of the film, Jane endured the struggle between principle and passion.

Also, during that period, she endured and overpowered temptations of the flesh and spirit. While Bronte’s novel simply portrays Jane as someone who eventually finds happiness after societal and family abuse, Stevenson’s film portrays Jane as a character who had resilience and was never gave up even when it seemed like all hope was lost and this made Jane a conqueror and a hero who eventually finds her heart desire due to her inner strength. (Niemann, 800)

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Bailey, Hilary. Mrs. Rochester: A Sequel to Jane Eyre. New York: Sloane hall, 2010. Print.

Niemann, James. A Novel Inspired by Jane Eyre: Jane Eyre told from the first person- perspective. New York: Blackwell, 2010. Print.

Rowland, Wiley. Jane Eyre. The Graphic Novel: London: Amy, 2003. Print.


The Love Canal Tragedy and Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction The Love Canal is named after William T. Love, the man who envisioned the idea of creating an 11-km canal between the two sections of the Niagara River to produce electricity for powering his planned city in the 1890s. However, his plan failed and the pit filled with water over the years.

In 1940, Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation purchased the land for use in disposing chemicals. Nearly a decade later, the company had disposed more than 22,000 tons of toxic wastes, and the Love Canal was almost full. The land was later used to build schools and residential homes, and soon, residents started reporting strange odors and the presence of heavy metals. In 1976, heavy rains caused a large amount of chemicals to move to the surface, contaminating the whole area.

In the years that followed, the area reported abnormally high rates of stillbirths and miscarriages, and a similar number of babies born with defects. Eventually in 1978, more than 1,000 families were evacuated from the area, and an EPA study found out that of the 36 people tested, 11 had deformed chromosomes, and that of 15 babies born in the area between 1970 and 1980, just 2 were well.

In the early morning of August 19, 2006, residents of Abidjan city of Ivory Coast observed trucks with freshly painted logo dumping liquid wastes at various locations within the city, this went on for more than three weeks. A few weeks later, several residents began reporting a fowl smell, and tens of people were said to have died.

After several investigations by foreign journalists and the Ivorian government agencies, it was discovered that a Dutch company, Trafigura, had contracted a ship to dispose chemical wastes from its plants in Ivory Coast. The wastes consisted of over 500 tons of a mixture of fuel, caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide), hydrogen sulfide and phenols that Trafigura had failed to dispose in the Netherlands due to high costs. The waste had come from the process of stripping coker gasoline to obtain naphtha.

The company had then contracted a ship, Probo Koala, to deliver the wastes in Abidjan, and collaborated with a local company to dispose the wastes throughout Abidjan. The disposal is estimated to have caused the deaths of more than 17 people while close to 40,000 suffered various illnesses after inhaling the harmful gases released by the wastes.

Parties Involved Hooker Chemical factory was solely responsible for the Love Canal Tragedy, however, the government was also responsible for failing to carry out conclusive studies on the long-term effects of the wastes on the area as had been done by Dr. Robert Mobbs. Dr. Mobbs had investigated the relation between insecticides and cancer and made his reports public, but the government failed to take it up. Eventually, millions or dollars were used to clean up the area, with Hooker Company contributing almost $130 million and the rest by the government.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Ivorian case, Trafigura was at fault, however, the Dutch government through the port of Amsterdam was also at fault for allowing Trafigura to move the waste back into the Probo Koala after realizing that the disposal fee was too high. Eventually, the Ivorian government and Trafigura paid for the victims’ hospital bills, the clean up exercise and other related expenses.

The ‘Superfund’ was created in 1980 to collect funds from gas and chemical companies for use in clean-up processes identical to the Love Canal. A second legislation, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was passed in 1976 in the US to monitor the disposal of solid wastes and toxic wastes. Superfund is implemented under the EPA and has been successful in cases such as the Kaiser Aluminum


The Essentials of Initiating a Fire and Rescue Project Report best college essay help

Introduction Almost all organizations and firms find themselves in dire need to initiate a project to circumvent a particular predicament or to increase their revenues.

Quite often, projects are aimed at pursuing goals and aims of the organization in the most effective way. Project management is the practice of organizing several resources in a systematic manner with the aim of achieving predetermined goals. Mainly, managers are expected to provide guidance on the amount of human resources, money, and materials required to realize the desired results.

Regardless of the organization’s goals, the manager is required to come up with a clear blueprint to direct his actions effectively bearing in mind the risks and uncertainties, which would arise in the course of execution of the project. This report endeavors to highlight the essentials of initiating a fire and rescue project that would ensure reduction of sickness absence in an organization.

Background Almost all organizations if not all find themselves facing challenges on how to reduce sickness absence among its employees. To this respect, managers with the aim of ensuring continued production need to ensure that all their work force is available and in good health to carry out their obligations.

Launching this project would ensure the organization have the best safety tools to foster good working environment as well as reducing sickness absence. In a broader perspective, the management will strive to cater for a safer humanly working condition, safety equipment and apparatus should be equipped to ensure workers are less vulnerable to accidents. Although this project is an expensive venture but its payoffs have proved to be rewarding.

Reduction of sickness absence has facilitated continuous revenue generation through the year. Finally, analysis of the revenue foregone by sick workers has by far surpassed capital cost of launching the fire prevention project.

Objectives This report endeavors to address the following objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To ensure that the fire and rescue plan is installed in time

To ensure competent and skilled personnel’s are for the project.

To ensure that the project meets it predetermined goals.

Benefits Several benefits are derived by the project such as ensuring that the firm has a continuous production. Since the capital for initiating the project is less than the forgone revenues due to sick leave, the organization will be in a better financial condition. In addition, since this project will be able serve organization both in the short run and in the end. Once the initial capital is provided, the other stages would automatically fall in their rightful place.

Cost This entails capturing the cost items that are related to the project. These include the material costs, labor costs, transports and staffing and overhead costs. The project will involve the following cost items

Item Duration Amount($) Chief manager 11 months 25, 884 Supervisor 11 months 19, 000 Labor 13 months 47,199 Materials 54, 700 Stationery 20, 000 Other costs and fees* 200, 000 Miscellaneous (@ 10%) 34, 090 TOTAL 374, 989 Business Case This involves setting up a rescue project to help the organization in dealing with emergencies and fire outbreaks. A functional project would ensure that the firm’s reduces the sickness leave as well as safeguarding materials, machinery and other assets from fire damage and other hazard.

Initiating the project would help the firm to prevent mush of the losses and poor services delivery due the effects of damages and sickness leave. The management will ensure that all the relevant procedure and activities are carried out in the right time. The business case will also stipulate the activities and the sequence in which they would be handled. In addition, staff required to do the activities, to ensure smooth running of the activities there should be a well-laid organization structure and job description chart.

Tasks The management should ensure each staff is assigned to a single activity or a range of activities. Generally, a list of all activities is generated to ensure smooth operations stipulating the number of workers that will be able assigned to each. The task schedule should have break down as follows.

1 Activity workers 2 Write and agree PID Entire committee 3 Acquire construction material tender 4 Initiate construction 24 5 Acquire and install safety equipments 15 6 Advertise for staff HR Dept 7 Hire and train the staff 18 8 Evaluate the project functionality 5 Precedent chart This chart is a tabulation of all the activity and the duration that it is expected to take. The precedence chart is recorded in months or weeks depending on the time scale, that was used in planning.

Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 Staffing At this point, the manager is required to ensure availability of staffs that are competent to work. These staff should be recruited through advertisement of an interview to attract the best skills in the market. After the recruitment process, the management should ensure that a thorough training and orientation process is conducted.

We will write a custom Report on The Essentials of Initiating a Fire and Rescue Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The post of supervisors should be filled with highly competent and experienced persons; the bearer of the position should be able to deal with fire emergencies and rescue operations. Other positions should equally, be filled with competent and work oriented individuals.

Risk Management Plan The management should ensure the fire and rescue committee is versatile and vigilant in its dealing its mandate. However, risk aspect being uncertain makes its estimation to be difficult to ascertain. Thus, the managers should take their time in ensuring that all risks aspects are taken into consideration. Generally the rescue team should always be prepared to act incase of any emergency or risk occurrence. Finally, the amount of resources deployed should depend on the susceptibility of the organization to fire risks.

The purpose of the document The main purpose of this document is to provide a stable guidance on how and why the project should be carried out. The document also highlights some of the benefits that are associated with the project. Apart from giving a well elaborate procedure on how the fire rescue project would be developed; the document also outlines the relevant steps to be followed.

Owing to the diverse nature of the project, the document provides a simplified outline on the procedures, cost and the benefits emanating from the project. To conclude with, the document provides a well elaborate outline on all activities processes and the time scale associated with each activity.

Complex Problem solving theories Largely, many firms and organizations find themselves in a situation, which requires a prompt action to salvage their welfare of the organization from imminent danger or losses. The most devastating risk is posed by fire and rescue operations. The two calls for exigency and expertise to be able to save lives of the casualties. To this effect, renowned academicians and scholars have proposed several theories to be employed during such predicaments.

The first theory that prominently stands out among others is the “Robotic hypothesis”. Frensch and Sternberg (1991, p. 300) argue that often risk in fire operations is so complex that no realistic measures can be thought of and implemented towards averting the same. At such instances, managers are encouraged to adopt the robotic hypothesis, which allows action depending on the situation at hand. In such condition, a robot being inanimate proves to be the solution because it has no life and therefore it is able to venture even to the heart of the bonfire.

This theory has become so popular to the extent that the demand for robots has been on the increase in the previous few decades. In most cases, the theory has been proven due to the reliability of the robots in major infernos. The flexibility of the theory cannot be over emphasized due to robots diversity in application and easy of manipulation.

According to Frensch and Sternberg (1991, p. 310) the flexibility of the robots to avoid delay has also proved reliable in other calamities apart from the fire tragic. Engineers have been able to design robots to avoid delay by making the supersonic and more efficient their actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Essentials of Initiating a Fire and Rescue Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Risk management plan Fire and rescue operation Project plan

To effectively deal with the problem that is posed by fire, the management needs to set up the fire and rescue plan. The rescue plan has a hierarchical structure where commands and instructions follow a straight line downwards. The top most section comprise of chiefs who operationalizes the whole action group by issuing directions to the immediate subordinates who in response relay the same information to the junior officers and eventually to the casual laborers.

This structural foundation is important in dealing with rigidity that is often associated with complex structures that impends the urgency at which the action is carried out. The structure gives room to the policy department, which formulates the new guidelines after carrying intensive research in collaboration with the research and redevelopment (R


Youth Crime as a Major Issue in the World Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of Youth Crime

Consequences of Youth Crime

Preventive Measures to Be Taken In Regard to Youth Crime


Works Cited

Annotated Bibliography

Introduction Youth crime has become a major issue of concern worldwide because most youths have been indulging in crimes at very high rates. This has raised the need to take some steps in an effort to either minimize or avoid the involvement of youths in criminal activities. Youth crime also referred to as juvenile delinquency entails some abnormality in the youths’ behaviour in regard to societal or even legal expectations.

There are many factors that are considered to facilitate indulgence in crime by the youths for instance poor up bringing, poverty and unemployment, lack of education and peer pressure among others. This research paper will look into the various aspects that are associated with youth crime for example the causes, the delinquent behaviours involved, and the preventive measures undertaken to handle the delinquencies.

Causes of Youth Crime There is no distinct factor that can be pin pointed as the root cause of youth crime. This is because youths engage in criminal activities as a result of the different situations that they face in life. The situations could be as a result of either social, economic, cultural or even family problems.

Different economic, social and cultural conditions in different countries causes the difference in the causes although some common causes can be drawn since all hail from family relationships, the social environment and the economic situation surrounding the youths.

The relationships that exist in the families of the youths could facilitate the indulgence in criminal activities for example when the parents are involved in crime, when there is poor parental guidance and supervision, in case of neglect and isolation or harsh treatment by parents hence the development of defiant behaviour, where there exist family conflicts and the youths feel overburdened, ineffective or lack of communication between the parents and the children hence lack of forum for discussing the problems that the youths could be having, disrespect and irresponsible behaviour among family members that may make the youths take it as a normality, family break-ups and violence among others.

An economic condition on the other hand entails aspects like the political situations surrounding the youths, poverty and unemployment among other aspects (Western, Lynch and Oquilvie 45). The political situation in a nation may also lead to indulgence in crime by the youths for example in instances where there is political instability, the youths may tend to look for means through which to secure a better future hence engaging in criminal activities in search of a livelihood.

Lack of employment opportunities for the youths is also a major contributing factor towards delinquency. Some of the youths have got education but lack employment chances making them hopeless and susceptible to anything that may come their way, crime being one of them as they try to survive and establish a source of living.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poverty and inequality also contributes to criminal activities. This is because no one is ready to accept living in poor conditions especially where others have better living conditions. As the youths tend to move away from the poverty situations they find themselves engaging in criminal ventures in an effort to make life favourable and comfortable.

The social conditions that may facilitate the indulgence in criminal activities by the youths include inequalities in terms of services provision and power sharing, poor or lack of leadership in the societies hence loss of focus among the youths, discrimination among the youths, peer pressure and influence of the media for instance where the media portrays violence and crime to be prestigious making the youths to emulate people involved in crime among others. It is therefore evident that to prevent crime, the above named causes should be dealt with from the roots (McCord et al 25).

Consequences of Youth Crime There are numerous consequences that are associated with youth crime. The crimes affect not only those undertaking it but also the society at large. This is because of the uncertainty linked with the criminal activities which leads to tension and anxiety among the society members as they don’t know what may happen to them.

The crime may also be dangerous to the youths themselves for instance the abuse of drugs and other substances may lead to deterioration of their health, they may also be physically injured in the event of perpetrating the criminal activities and more so, they may get themselves behind bars facing legal sentences once they are convicted for the crimes committed hence suffering from lack of freedom and harsh treatment (Elliot, Huizinga, and Menard 29).

Preventive Measures to Be Taken In Regard to Youth Crime Since the problem of youth crime is real and in existence, there is need to establish some measures aimed at reducing or avoiding the chances of engaging in crimes by the youths. A good approach is however the identification of the root causes of the crimes and dealing with them appropriately.

The measures include reduction of inequality and poverty levels among communities. This could be achieved through aspects like effective taxation that ensures that the well-up people are able to support the less fortunate through the taxes hence reducing the inequality. Poverty can also be reduced through provision of employment opportunities and increasing the minimum earnings.

This will in the long run reduce the chances of the youths’ indulgence in crime as they will be involved in more productive activities in the economy. Reduction of the availability of drugs and other substances is also a recommended step as it reduces the number of youths who can access them hence avoiding their abuse (Blyth and Solomon 2).

We will write a custom Essay on Youth Crime as a Major Issue in the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another effective method that could be applied is the youth awareness programmes for instance on the importance of education and general positive living. Education should also be made affordable to the majority including the poor as education enhances an individual’s well being in terms of decision making and making choices as well as increasing the possibilities of securing job opportunities hence have a stable source of earning.

There should also be efforts to reinforce the law enforcement strategies with an aim of reducing chances of crime as the youths caught committing crimes are sentenced hence serving as examples to the others who may think of indulging in crime. Corruption is a contributing force towards crime execution of since the offenders feel free to commit the crimes without minding the consequences as they know they can bribe the law enforcers and get away with it.

Reduction of the corruption will in return result to reduction of crime rates as the youths will be held responsible for their criminal activities and hence they will tend to avoid it. These preventive measures among others will help reduce crime rates through dealing with the root causes of the crimes (Muhammad 9).

Conclusion It is evident that youth crime is a problem in most countries as young people are increasingly getting involved in criminal activities. The problem however lies in the establishment of the main causes of crime youth but once this is clear, the problem can be dealt with appropriately through prevention of its crimes rather than waiting for its occurrence and intervening since this is much more tasking and entails aspects like rehabilitation which can be avoided through prevention.

Works Cited Blyth, Maggie and Solomon, Enver. Prevention and Youth Crime: Is Early Intervention Working? United Kingdom: The Policy Press, 2009.

Elliot, S. Delbert, Huizinga, David and Menard, Scott. Multiple Problem Youth: Delinquency, Substance Use and Mental Health Problems. Springer: New York, 2009.

McCord, Joan et al. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. USA: National Academies Press, 2001.

Muhammad, Ali. “Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies”. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), Paper No. 17223, 2008. Mar. 4 2011.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Youth Crime as a Major Issue in the World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Western, Stuart John, Lynch, Mark and Oquilvie, Emma. Understanding Youth Crime: An Australian Study. USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003.

Annotated Bibliography The following are the additional sources to be included in the annotated bibliography.

Blyth, Maggie and Solomon, Enver. Prevention and Youth Crime: Is Early Intervention Working? United Kingdom: The Policy Press, 2009.

This book is very essential in this study as it gives an insight to the prevention of youth crime. It specifically touches on the importance of prevention rather than cure in regard to any given problem and in this case the authors give the benefits accrued to the prevention process as opposed to the cure. It focuses on the need for early intervention programmes that should be put in place in an effort to preventing the young children and the youths from engaging in criminal activities.

It is a book that incorporates contributions from various experts in their effort to examine critically the government policy in relation to early intervention programmes, which are directed towards supporting families and preventing young children and youths from being involved in crime. It generally looks into the effectiveness of early intervention as a measure towards preventing youth crime.

McCord, Joan et al. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. USA: National Academies Press, 2001.

This book has combined efforts of different authors to bring about an understanding of why the young people decide to turn into delinquent acts. The book specifically looks into the patterns of crimes undertaken by children and youth offenders. It gives a detailed insight into the contributing factors for instance parental care, peer pressure and how the society influences this.

Apart from the reasons for indulgence of the youths in crime, the book highlights some of the solutions to youth crime for instance the interventions to be implemented in the juvenile justice system, the part played by law enforcers and other preventive measures.

Muhammad, Ali. “Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies”. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), Paper No. 17223, 2008.

This is a very informative research paper as it covers a wide range of aspects in regard to the topic of study, Youth Crime. It gives in depth details in relation to the factors that may facilitate the youths’ indulgence to various criminal activities and the consequences associated with the involvement of the youths in criminal activities including those faced by the offenders themselves and the society at large.

Apart from the causes and effects of youth crime, the author recognizes the fact that the ordeal of crime is in existence and more so it is in the rise and therefore outlines in details the appropriate measures that should be adhered to in an effort to preventing and avoiding the engagement of the youths in criminal activities emphasizing that dealing with the root causes is very crucial in preventing youth crime.

Scott, S. Elizabeth and Steinberg, Laurence. Adolescent Development and the Regulation of Youth Crime. The Future of children, volume 18, Number 2, fall 2008, pp. 15 – 33.

This journal article explores the changes that have taken place in the conception of the law over the past years. The authors shows of how the youth offenders were initially treated, the same way as adults, which is not right as the youths are quite different from the adults for instance in terms of the offences they commit and the punishment they can stand.

The laws to be adopted for instance emphasizes on the application of aspects like rehabilitation as corrective measures as opposed to punishment which is employed in case of the adult offenders. It calls for attention to the application of the juvenile justice system to the delinquents as opposed to subjections to the adult courts.

Western, Stuart John, Lynch, Mark and Oquilvie, Emma. Understanding Youth Crime: An Australian Study. USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003.

The authors in this book give some good and educative information that can assist us in understanding the general overview of the aspect of youth crime. Although the case study is in the Australian population, it gives the idea of the relationship between the youths and crime. According to this book, the youths are in their transitional process from childhood to adulthood and they are susceptible to numerous troubles including criminal activities.

The book focuses on an Australian study that was carried out to determine the major social factors that are deemed to have some impacts on the general lives of young people. The study was conducted on 1,300 youths which is a total representative sample and from this a general overview is drawn which enriches our understanding of youth criminality.


Personality Theory Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Lisbeth’s Traits Based on Personality Theories


Work Cited

Introduction Personality theories are conceptions that have been propagated by psychologists and academicians from time immemorial. The attempt at defining personality is guided by the intent of trying to understand and explain the psychological distinctiveness and similarities that people exhibit. This essay will critically analyze the cause of different personalities or character traits among individuals. The analysis will put into consideration the various theories that have been posited in effort to explain the same. This essay is largely informed by chapter 11 of the book “Psychology” by Hockenbury


History of Easter Sunday Essay best essay help

Easter Sunday is a very important celebration because it marks the resurrection of Jesus. Easter originated when the first Christian missionaries started to preach the gospel in Europe in an attempt to convert the German Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.

The four gospel books in the bible offers some insight on the emotional effect the first Easter had on Jesus’ followers including his crucifixion to his miraculous rising from death. There is detailed explanation on what took place and the location but none on the time or period it happened.

The first two decades of Easter celebrations could have been celebrated by those who were present during death and resurrection of Jesus nevertheless there is no record of the services of the early anniversaries (Collins 5). There is a belief that there wer persecution of most of the earlier Christians and hence the celebrations could have been conducted secretly. Those who could worship in a free manner were satisfied to live a life similar to that of Jesus, with constant memory of the events.

Easter Sunday does not have a fixed date and for a long period of time it was celebrated at diverse times on the basis of the end of winter or the Passover feast as celebrated by Jews. In 325 A.D. there was a meeting by church leaders, the council of Nicaea, meant to harmonize the celebration by Christians and the report was handed to Emperor Constantine.

Setting the date for Easter was difficult because some Christians celebrated it along with the Passover, which is dependent on the moon’s cycle, and a resolution was arrived at that it should continue. Thus, it turned to be a flexible festival since no specific weekend could be dedicated for Easter. The range of dates is March twenty-one to April twenty-five and hence known as the movable feast but Christians from the eastern orthodox a Julian calendar.

Christians observe a lent period, forty days of prayer and fasting, as they prepare for Easter with the last week being considered sacred. The preceding Sunday is named Palm Sunday in memory of Jesus entering Jerusalem just before his crucifixion, Thursday the last supper while Good Friday is a celebration of forgiveness of sins (Laderman and Leon 605).

In America, Easter Sunday also involve celebrations that are not religious with the most popular being the yearly Egg Roll on Monday that was started by James Madison and takes place at the White House’ south lawn. Initially, these celebrations took place in the capital grounds and eggs are most important in household Easter celebrations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of eggs has its origin from Europe where springtime presents included decorated eggs and Americans made some modifications to it. Normally, hard-boiled eggs were colored and the adults would hide them in order for children to look for them in what was referred as Easter egg hunt (Laderman and Leon 605).

In Britain and Northern Europe, people used to celebrate after winter when there are long but cold days and the spring resulted to a relatively warm weather devoted to the spring gods. Some cultures celebrated the bringing of warm weather by the goddess Eostre which the missionaries converted to Easter since they could not end the pagan custom. It could simply be put that Easter was developed from one of the goddesses, Eostre, of Europe.

Works Cited Collins, A. “Stories behind the traditions and songs of Easter.” Florida: Zondervan. 2009. Print.

Laderman, G.


Impact of Control Mechanisms on the Management Functions in Boeing Company Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Control mechanisms are utilized by business organizations in order to have successful management of the businesses. The control mechanisms provide an avenue along which the managers move to bring up the level of productivity, boost innovation, and to ensure there are shared values and beliefs in the company.

One of the control mechanisms that have been successfully used by the Boeing Company is the “employee incentive programs”. According to Bateman and Snell (2009), “employee incentive programs” are utilized in order to control employee productivity and this is carried out by encouraging the employees and giving them rewards for their hard work.

The Boeing Company has taken an initiative to offer rewards as well as incentives to its employees. Among these incentives offered by the company include; “health insurance, vacations, wellness programs, and retirement benefits’ (“Boeing”, 2011).

In addition, the company also offers limited legal and financial advice to the employees at without charging them any fee. As a result of the implementation of these programs by the company, the employees have achieved satisfaction and this has made it possible for it to effectively carry out the management functions of organizing and controlling on human capital.

It is of great importance for any manager of an organization to raise the level of “employee incentives” and lead. Indeed, those business managers who are effective have also the ability to play the role of leading. The management is offered with precious opportunities by such mechanisms (employee incentives).

This control mechanism tool will develop the capability of the manager to have power over the employees and also facilitate the company’s growth. Leading, as a function of management, operates together with employee incentives and this is for the reason that incentive programs give encouragement to the employees in a number of ways.

Through these programs, the employees will be in a position to feel appreciated and at the same time, there will be increased motivation among the employees as well as increased productivity. It is quite vital for the management of an organization to make use of this control mechanism at the time it is making an effort to lead and this is because; employees want their great efforts in their work to be rewarded.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, working with motivated employees makes it easier for the management to carry out its functions. It will be easier for the management to plan for activities in the organization with an assurance that they will be effectively carried out. More so, controlling, organizing and coordinating of the activities will be effective. This is the reason why the Boeing Company has been successful in its operations through the use of the employee incentive programs as a control mechanism.

Therefore, it can be concluded that, all organizations’ management should make use of the control mechanisms. Such control mechanisms as “employee incentive programs” is the means that is used to ensure there is motivation and enthusiasm among employees. This offers several benefits to the organization and its management as well as to the employees.

The “employee incentive programs”, as a control mechanism, has a great positive impact on the management functions, especially the function of leading. This function is given a positive instrument for development and transformation by the control mechanism of employee incentives. Through the use of this control mechanism (employee incentive programs) in an effective way, the Boeing Company’s management has been able to perform its functions effectively.

Reference List Bateman, T.S. and Snell, S. (2009). Management: leading and collaborating in the competitive world (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Boeing Company. (2011). Pay and Incentives. Retrieved from


Poverty in Russia during the Late Nineteenth Century Essay best college essay help

Poverty is regarded to be one of the lowest statuses of life of people living in the world. Most individuals are not privileged enough to be of equal status as compared to those of higher status in life; thus, usually they are treated with contempt and they end up living miserable lives. In some cases, they have ended up serving as slaves because of they are considered not to be human beings.

Usually, the poor are forced to depend on those of higher status quo in life for them to earn a living and this makes them to be unfortunate individuals living in the world.

This practice was more prevalent in the past though it is still a norm in some places around the world. During the late nineteenth century in Russia, “peasants were deprived of the light of knowledge, and they suffered an oppressive poverty” (Tian-Shanskaia, 169). In the book, Village Life on Late Tsarisat Russia, the authors, Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia and David L. Ransel, depict the poverty situation in Russia before the revolution.

In writing the book, the authors had a desire to represent the life story of peasant life in Russia. The life background of Tian-Shanskaia reveals that he had this interest beforehand.

She was born in 1863 into one of the very famous and scientific families of that time. Her father, Pytor Pertovich Semyonova, was a prominent geographer, explorer and statistician; thus, he instilled these skills to his children from an early age, Tian-Shanskaia included. Worth mentioning, through the investigations he championed, he was recognized by the nation’s authorities and given many titles.

Most importantly, Pytor Pertovich Semyonova role was instrumental in the life of the peasants living before the revolution since he championed the passing of rules that were intended to guarantee the Russian peasants of their freedom. Thus, one of his children, Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia, had the desire to continue doing this by illustrating the deplorable condition of peasantry life during the late Tsarist Russia.

The social history of peasants in Russia during the pre-revolutionary period is detailed in the book. Tian-Shanskaia, an ethnographer and a painter, vibrantly illustrates the harsh living conditions of the Russian peasant families. She spent close to four years during the 1890s studying the way of life of the people in a central Russian province before coming up with one of the best ethnographic portraits of this situation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author describes the common practice at the turn of the twentieth century in which women and children were not treated with respect (Tian-Shanskaia, 142). She also tackles some other issues such as marriage engagement, sexual habits, child mortality, giving of birth, raising of children, employment issues, dietary customs, and investments among the people.

In direct opposition to the habit of depicting peasant families as living a good life by most high-class observers, the book, which is a firsthand portrait of peasant family life, illustrates the deplorable living conditions of the peasants. In addition, the book also indicates that there is usually brutality in the peasant families (Tian-Shanskaia, 148).

One element of the peasant life that is worth mentioning is the type of houses they dwelt in. The pre-revolutionary peasants lived a life that was full of insufficiency and there was evident lack of sophistication in their lives (Tian-Shanskaia, 1). More so, their conditions of living were generally unhygienic.

Their places of residences were most of the time polluted, lacked good ventilation, and did not receive enough light. Most of their houses were made such that there was a main structure for spending the night and dining. Other structures outside the main building, such as barn and cellar, were also constructed.

Since the peasants relied so much on keeping of livestock, they often build a lawn for this sake, and all their houses were constructed from either wood or clay, as they were the most readily available materials. Worth mentioning, the roof of every building in the complex was made of thatches, and the sharing of the houses between animals and people led to unhygienic living conditions.

The author makes this clear, “like the houses, threshing barns are covered with thatched roofs; the roof framing, however, is supported by studs rather than by rafters as in a house” (Tian-Shanskaia, 123).

The peasant houses were made to be one large room and the common characteristic of these houses was that they had a stove that was employed in cooking and increasing the temperature of the houses, especially during cold conditions (Tian-Shanskaia, 119). In a situation in which the stoves lacked a chimney, the houses would be filled with smoke from the burning fuel and this worsened the hygienic conditions of the dwellings; however, the places of residence that had chimneys were cleaner, less stuffy, and well aerated.

We will write a custom Essay on Poverty in Russia during the Late Nineteenth Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The dwellings of the Russian peasants had a red or attractive corner in which they placed copies of Orthodox Byzantine icons for performing religious duties (Tian-Shanskaia, 12). Concerning their sleeping arrangements, the stoves were constructed with sleeping places for at least two members of the household while the other members spent the night in a loft or on benches inside the house.

They used straws for sleeping before using them as fuel in the morning; thus, it was a major source of the unhygienic living conditions that the pleasant houses were known of (Tian-Shanskaia, 119). More so, the peasants brought in their animals inside the houses during cold temperatures and this worsened the condition further.

Comparing the deplorable living conditions of the Russian peasants to that of the modern Russia seems to be full of irony. The author says, “Russia in the late nineteenth century was a society in crisis” (Tian-Shanskaia, xi). However, during the twentieth century after the successful revolution, Russia rose to become one of the most respected countries globally.

Currently, it is still being considered as one of the nations with the best living conditions. The country takes pride in having averagely high earnings per employed person and the minimum amount of wage for its workforce is among the highest in the world. Before the turn of the century, the living condition of the Russian peasants is described as follows:

“A small hut about twelve feet (3.6m) square – with a door through which a medium-sized man can only go by stooping – the floor made of earth, the ceiling so low that a tall man cannot stand upright, tiny windows letting in little light . the whole building made of thin wood . the entire family lives in this room, sleeping on benches and on the floor all together, men, women, children and cattle”(“Modern History”, para. 3).

However, these conditions of living are incomparable with the modern housing that Russians take pride in. Currently, an average Russian stays in a house that is adequately equipped with all the necessities of life. The children, both boys and girls, are usually given their own rooms.

The parents usually have spacious rooms. In addition, the kitchen and the dining room are also well equipped with modern housing facilities. And, if the family has animals, they never share the same roof as they are usually have their own shades away from the residential area. This situation is generally diametrically opposite to how the peasants of the late nineteenth century lived their lives.

In conclusion, the book, Village Life on Late Tsarisat Russia, gives an interesting and captivating depiction of the living condition the peasants in Russia before the turn of the twentieth century.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Poverty in Russia during the Late Nineteenth Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More so, it is important to note that the book is an important basis for measuring the progress that country of Russia underwent during the better part of the twentieth century. Currently, the thought of visiting Russia is a dream that many would like to achieve.

The background of the writer together with her desire to illustrate this condition makes the account to be credible since he observed the happenings personally. In general, the book plays a pivotal role in historical evaluation of the ancient Russia and the Russia today. In the former, poverty was outstanding.

The peasants were living in abject poverty beyond what would be regarded to be reasonable in Russia today (Tian-Shanskaia, 139). Thus, poverty is the outstanding theme in the book as all other misgivings tend to revolve around this theme. Poverty is the only justifiable ground to portray the deplorable standards of living illustrated by the writer.

Works Cited “Modern History.” Sdehs. Sidney Distance Education High School, 2003. Web.

Tian-Shanskaia, Olga Semyonova. Village life in late tsarist Russia. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1993. Print.