The Unemployed And Illegal Immigrants In The United States Are More Likely To Be Involved In Crime Than The Employed And Legal Immigrants Research Paper Argumentative Essay Help

Theoretical perspective/Literature review Various researches such as the one conducted by Merton (1938) have shown that individuals tend to resort to crime if they cannot obtain decent livelihoods by legal methods (Chiricos 1987; Thornberry Christenson 1984). Illegal immigrants contribute to the increasing rates of unemployment in the United States and this therefore leads to increased crime-rates.

Camarata (2004) has shown that illegal immigrants account for over 20% of the individual in federal prisons. Studies have also shown that a very large number of accidents caused by driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol have been linked to Hispanics (Cantor and Land 1985).

An article carried in the Austin American Statesmen in 2003 reported that, “Latinos account for nearly half of 2002 Austin drunken driving arrests even though they make up only about 21 percent of Austin’s driving population” (Sum and Khatiwada 2006). Nationwide statistics from the Texas Department of public safety have also revealed that over 40% of the individuals apprehended in 2002 for DUI were Latino while 38% of the arrested individuals were unemployed (Sullivan 2006).

Aside from drug-related crimes, it is worth noting that the unemployed illegal immigrants are responsible for other types of criminal activities (Hughes and Carter 1981). In 2007, over 21% of the criminals sentenced in Arizona County were illegal immigrants. Of these criminals, 18% were accused of violent crime, 35% of kidnapping and 47% were sentenced for car theft (Swain 2007).

Illegal immigrants were also linked to almost 90% of all identity stealing cases and over 50% of document forgery. Coming towards the close of 2003, over 250,000 illegal immigrants had been charged in courts for various offences and sentences to prison. Reports have also revealed that in Los Angeles, 96% of the over 1000 warrants for murder suspects in 2002 have been for illegal immigrants and that over 90% of the individuals charged with homicide have been unemployed.

It is also important to appreciate that most of the criminal activities committed to immigrants by fellow immigrants tend to be underreported mainly because of the fear that immigration officials may be involved hence deporting both the offender and the victim (Freeman 1983; Harrison and Beck 2006; Horowitz 1997).

Study approach The research will be based on both primary and secondary data. As far as primary data is concerned, empirical data will be collected to show the impact of project management strategies in a particular institution and how it could effectively be used to serve as a guide for other organisations that would like to make the switch.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such a scientific field, the strength lies in the figures and particularly the numbers obtained from real life scenarios to support collected evidence. With this knowledge in mind, effort will be made to obtain relevant information to the particular topic in question and this will be accompanied by proper citation.

Secondary data will be extracted from books and journals. The criteria of selection for the literature will be the relevance to the research topic as well as the year of publication. Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries will be visited in order to access the data. This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field. Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay.

Information from the publications will serve to provide explanation as regards the internal machinations of financial departments of the company. This will be very crucial information that will make the research report appeal to both professionals and the general public. For the latter, it may require that some of the information obtained from the books and other publications be broken down into simple language and at the same time illustrations drawn from the most successful strategies for project management.

Reasons for Selecting the Above Methodology

For any professional topic, chances are that extensive research has been carried out by professionals in the field before. Consequently, in order to establish the backbone of a given research project, it is only necessary that extensive review of literature be carried before identifying seeking first hand information from the field.

The latter, i.e. information collected from the field is also necessary since it helps give professional credibility to the project. Combining results from both sources would serve to foster their symbiotic relationship with one offering background information and the other presenting up-to-date information on the topic.

Expected outcome

The outcome expected out of this research process is results that would make government officials appreciate the impact of unemployment and illegal immigration on the well being of the country. The research and subsequent paper will show the various loopholes which if sealed can increase the effectiveness of state security management.

Research process plan

The first step in conducting the research will come in the form of extensive review of literature from various secondary sources. Information on the topic of unemployment, illegal immigration and their linkage to criminal activity will be collected from books, state records, journals, Magazines, conference proceedings and websites.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The unemployed and illegal immigrants in the United States are more likely to be involved in crime than the employed and legal immigrants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second step in the process is the collection of data directly from the field. This will to a large extent depend on various forms of interviews including one-to-one interviews as well as the use of questionnaires. Some of the people expected to be targeted for this part of the process include security specialists and administrators from various arms of government, as well as qualified state security analysts.

The above two steps would make it easy to come up with a survey question which will guide us into the third step of the process. In this stage, an analysis of the data obtained shall be carried out and the challenges that are raised regarding the process of project management shall be picked out and effectively compared with the strategic approaches for dealing with them.

Objectives

The Objectives of the research were to:

To analyze the relation between illegal immigration and crime

To analyze the relation between unemployment and crime

Hypotheses

There is a correlation between illegal immigration/unemployment and criminal activity.

The unemployed and illegal immigrants are more likely to commit crime as compared to the employed and legal immigrants.

Research implications

If there is a direct correlation between organizational structure and project management, it is only imperative that the government establishes strategies to help in enhancing the border security and creating employment opportunities in order to reduce instances of crime rate

Research process

Quantitative methods will be used to collect data. These are basically strategies developed to help in analyzing natural phenomena. The questionnaire is one of the main instruments for gathering data using a social survey design. It is completed by the respondent. The questionnaire, which is one of the quantitative survey methods, will be used in this research in order to collect the primary data.

Because of the nature of the study only online questionnaires will be used. The reasons for using an online questionnaire are that compared with the interview, the online questionnaire is cheaper to administer, quicker to administer and convenient for respondents

Questionnaire development The development of questionnaire passed through three stages; the planning stage, design stage and pilot stage. I will, therefore, follow these stages for the questionnaire. In this research, the questionnaire was designed in relation to the literature review: the questions will be formulated as open-ended questions to answer the research questions.

The questions considered will illustrate the relationship between illegal immigration, unemployment and crime rate. All the questions will be formulated to measure (directly or indirectly) the respondent opinion of the security around him/her.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The unemployed and illegal immigrants in the United States are more likely to be involved in crime than the employed and legal immigrants by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, the layout of the questionnaire will be designed in such a way that the layout is clear as well as attractive for respondents. Industry standards like five-point scales will be used in the majority of questions to make it easer to collect the data. Some experiments recommend that demographic questions should be at the end of questionnaires because the data is sensitive; therefore the researcher will have to take that into consideration in the design of this questionnaire.

In addition, ambiguous terms will be avoided in the questions, as well as any long, repetitious, leading or double-barreled items, and negative questions which could essentially reduce the effectiveness of the project.

The scores will ranges between Almost Never True (1) – Almost Always True (5) and the results will be analyzed with regard to its Related Problem. These results will be classified as Almost Always True (5), Frequently True (4), Occasionally True (3), Seldom True (2), Almost Never True (1).

Analysis of results The number of samples should be at least 30 and the Mean and Variance of each of the three sections will be found for EACH of the Samples collected. Assuming that the Variance of each of the sections for a particular sample is small, that means all the answers gave a similar direction (for that particular sample).

If the variance of any of the sections was high, then there might be a question that is not clear or not related directly to the problem, so the answer of that question of that section in that sample should be compared with the answer of the same question in the same section of other samples and then decide to delete that question or not upon the result of the comparison.

Then, the Mean and the Variance of each of the three Sections will be found for ALL the samples. Assuming a small Variance, that means all the samples agreed on the existence or non-existence of the problem related to that section.

Accordingly, the Mean of the samples of that section will be compared to see if it is closer to (5-10) or (20-25) and then decide upon the strength and severity of the problem existence because of using the Balanced Matrix Structure. Why a Range of (5-25)? Because 5=Least Value of (1) for Five Questions in the same section. 25= Highest Value of (5) for Five Questions in the same section. Any thing between, should be analyzed (10-15 or 15-20).

Conclusion Studies have proven that criminal activity can be directly linked to both unemployment and illegal immigration. This paper has looked at various statistical data on the impact of unemployment and illegal immigration and crime rate in the United States.

The data collected has shown that individuals in employment and immigrants who enter America through legal means commit less crime as compared to their counterparts with no jobs or those who enter the country illegally. However, more research is still needed on the topic, particularly because there is a lot of data countering these researches findings.

Reference List Camarota, Steven A. 2004. The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. USA: Center for Immigration Studies.

Camarota, Steven A. 2001. Immigration From Mexico: Assessing the Impact on the United States. USA: Center for Immigration Studies.

Cantor, David and Land, Kenneth. C. 1985. “Unemployment and crime rates in the post-World War II U.S.: A theoretical and empirical analysis.” American Sociological Review, 50, 317-32.

Chiricos, Theodore. G. 1987. “Rates of crime and unemployment: An analysis of aggregate research evidence.” Social Problems, 34, 187-212.

Freeman, Richard. B. 1983. “Crime and unemployment.” Wilson James Q. (Ed.), Crime and public policy. San Francisco: ICS Press. 89-106.

Harrison, Paige M. and Alan Beck J. 2006.. Prisoners in 2004. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2005, p. 8; US Dept. of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. “Quick Facts about the Bureau of Prisons.” Washington, DC: BOP

Horowitz, Carl F. 1997. “An Examination of U.S. Immigration Policy And Serious Crime.” USA: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Urban Institute

Hughes, Michael. and Carter, Timothy. J. 1981. “A declining economy and sociological theories of crime: Predictions and explications.” K. N. Wright (Ed.), Crime and criminal justice in a declining economy. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn,

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Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Bipolar disorder

Symptoms

Schizophrenia

Similarities and differences between schizophrenia and bipolar

Differences

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are psychiatric disorders that affect youths especially in the adolescent stage. Although the two disorders have different classification, they have similar causative agents, signs and symptoms, which can lead to misdiagnosis. However, a severe schizophrenia disorder may be similar to bipolar disorder especially when the victims experience mental disturbances.

Bipolar disorder This psychiatry disorder alters the patient’s perception of normal occurrences hence increasing their temperamental levels. The cause is either through familial characteristics (genetic), psychological or environmental issues. Genetically, an alteration in the serotonin, dopamine and glutamate genes may be the cause of the disease.

However, due to inveterate inconsistent in clinical research on the condition, the real genes that affect the motor neurons in the brain are yet to be established.

Alternatively, an individual with peculiar genes may be susceptible to the disorder (Serretti and Mandelli 743). The peculiar genes occur due to mutations especially in children born to old parents. Psychologically, “an alteration and dysfunction in the brain regions like globus pallidus, prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus in the pituitary axis elevates stress” (Koehler 5).

The organelle mitochondrion is the cause of high-energy production leading to stress. Additionally, psychic trauma incurred during childhood eventually lead to stress. Awful ordeals like rape, fights amongst parents and frequent corporal punishment may lead to bipolar disorder especially in adulthood. Therefore, the close interactions of genetic, psychological and environmental factors lead to severe cases of bipolar disorder.

Symptoms A series of mood changes accompanies bipolar disorder hence altering the normal behavior of an individual. Often, one sign leads to the other; for instance, depression may lead to mania then hypomania and finally a combination of the first signs. The depression stage manifests itself through insomnia, anger, loneliness coupled with unhappiness and eventually a feeling of guilty. Hallucinatory episodes and painful feeling may lead to temptation of committing suicide.

Due to dysfunction of the mitochondria, high energy levels lead to mania. Similarly, insomnia is frequent. Victims decide to abuse drugs and become alcoholic as a way to curb the disorder hence reduces the depression levels. Hypomania is not severe in that the patient appears normal and may deny being in depression.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Psychiatrists are usually unable to diagnose a patient at this stage. However, individuals have a decrease in memory levels hence poor recalling abilities. Surprisingly, this stage can be unnoticed, which makes the victim to have severe disorder.

A combination of the mania and depression can lead to severe cases of insomnia, drug abuse, alcoholism and eventually death due to suicide. Although psychiatrists find it hard to diagnose bipolar disorder, clear observation of the signs and behavioral changes are used. American Psychological Association (APA) says that, both the clinical officer and close relatives who experience the patients’ ordeals help in the diagnosis (355). The treatment is through psychological therapy and use of drugs like anticonvulsants and mood stabilization drugs.

Schizophrenia This mental disorder alters the emotion of the individuals’ hence normal thinking. The main causes of schizophrenia are either environmental, genetic, neural dysfunction or psychological trauma. Genetically, a familial history contributes to the occurrence of schizophrenia. Additionally, possessions of certain genes cause the disorder. Researchers associate some proteins to the disorder, scientist link zinc and histone proteins genes to schizophrenia.

Various environmental factors lead to schizophrenia disorder in some individuals. Motherhood before and after birth predispose the infant to the disorder. Eating disorders and other infection predisposed to the infant during infancy may cause mental dysfunction after birth. Individuals who grow up in abuse relationships also may incur the disorder. Some factors like drug abuse due to peer pressure and lack of good parentage may be among the causes.

The use of hard drugs like cannabis and cocaine alters an individual normal thinking hence emotional perception. Most of these drugs lead to overdependence altering the functions of the neurons specifically in the brain region. Hallucinatory episodes, unclear communication, antisocial behavior are among the common signs.

Due to mood swings and unhappiness filled with anger, patients may attempt suicide to stop their suffering. Fortunately, schizophrenia has treatment, which includes psychological therapy, social therapy and use of drugs. Clozapine, perphanazine, quetiapine and risperidone among others medically curb the disorder.

Similarities and differences between schizophrenia and bipolar The two disorders affect the mental ability of the individual. They have similar causative agents and symptomatic stages. Both disorders alter the normal behavior of an individual. Psychological and brain dysfunction are the main causes of the disorders. Similarly, environmental issues like drug abuse, physical abuse and poor parental are among the causes.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, genetic factors like familial factors and hereditary of defective genes contribute to the disorders. The two disorders have similar symptoms a fact that gives psychiatrist tough time to diagnose the disorders and eventually may lead to misdiagnosis. Both symptoms manifest through hallucinations, insomnia and depression, which aggravates the patients ability to indulge in hard drugs. Sever cases of both disorders end up in suicidal cases from the victims.

After keen observation, both medical intervention and psychotherapy curb the disorders. The main obstacle in that makes patient not seek medical intervention is social stigma because relatives and neighbors perceive the patients as mad people. Parents of the victims hide indoors their children to curb shame that comes with the disease.

Differences There is administration of different drugs to patients with these disorders. However, the drugs used in schizophrenia have severe side effects, which may even lead to the death of the individual. Similarly, depending on the stage of schizophrenia a small percentage of patients mount resistance to the drugs. However, Bipolar disorder treatment has less cases of resistance mainly because the drugs used aim at inhibiting the function of aggravating genes like serotonin and dopamine.

McGlashan observes that, “sometimes, schizophrenia disorder may present in form of bipolar hence leading to difficulty in medications” (143). Therefore, in such a case, there is double diagnosis but treatment becomes a challenge due the use of different drugs. Sadly, some patients decide to forego any form of treatment and this culminates to death.

Conclusion In summary, bipolar and schizophrenia affect mental hence emotions of the individuals. Therefore, they are mental disorders, which may be fatal if untreated. Environmental, genetic, familial and psychological factors are the main causes of the diseases. The similarities in the factors causing the disorders and eventual symptoms pose a challenge to medical practitioner during diagnosis.

However, the medical interventions are through combination of both administration of drugs and psychological therapy. Sometimes, schizophrenia patients end up dying due to inability to respond to drugs hence one of the medical challenges. Finally, parental genes whether defective or not predispose their children to schizophrenia and bipolar. Therefore, there is need of gene therapy especially when the disorder is hereditary.

Works Cited APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: USA Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2000.

Koehler, Brian. “Bipolar Disorder, Stress, and the HP Axis.”The International Society for The Psychological Treatment of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses, 2005. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McGlashan, Thomas. “Testing DSM-III symptom criteria for schizotypal and borderline Personality disorders.” Journal of Archives of General Psychiatry, 1987. Web.

Serretti, Alessandro, and Mandelli, Luigi. “The genetics of bipolar disorder: genome ‘hot regions,’ genes, new potential candidates and future directions.” Molecular Psychiatry 13.8 (2008): 742–71.

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Impact on Operations Resources of JIT at Dell Computer Exploratory Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction Just- in- time (JIT) as a form of inventory processing focus on reducing futile time, costs, and improving the quality of a product during the manufacturing process. The sequence of activities during this process includes; delivery, gathering of orders and shipment to the final consumer.JIT idea was first developed by Henry Ford. But later, it was adopted by Toyoda family. The JIT approach is essential for companies as it minimizes storage costs by eliminating stock levels and aid in utilizing warehouse space.

The JITphilosophy “inventory is waste and minimizing of inventory releases tied up capital”, ensures a company manufactures what is needed and at the right time hence saving on production costs. JIT inventory system stresses on the amount of time required to produce the correct order; at the right place and the right time.JIT system helps in reducing lead-time (Jaffe et al, 2007). Lead-time is the time taken for a manufactured product to reach the final consumer.

JIT reduces product cycle hastening faster delivery to intendedconsumer. Besides, JIT system minimizes inventory redundancy and obsolescence. This is achieved by JIT facilitating direct disposal of the finished product to the customer. Further, JIT technique enhances product quality(Jaffe et al, 2007). This process is achieved through a total lean performance and quality circles which ensures a product passes the quality standard required.

JIT System at Dell Dell is one of the pioneer companies which have embraced JIT approach in its manufacturing and production activities. The Value added activities such as; a direct model is a business strategy has been possible by JIT. Dell uses the technique in customizing its production process, inventory management besides being a direct relationship with its customers and emphasized by Dell computer(Jaffe et al, 2007).

Dell has encompassed the use of JIT in computer hardware and software to provide consumers with hi-tech services, updated technology, hi-tech products, customized computer systems and affordable products. JIT is a fundamental method used by Dell. It helps the company to reduce wastes by manufacturing only what is needed, delivering at the right place and in the right time.

Summary Companies which have instituted JIT system in their production and inventory management systems have gained significant benefits which the system brings. Such benefits are direct thus helping the company save cost thus increasing profit margin. Besides, efficiency and reliability is created in the company.

Main Section Dell and Its Products

Dell is a worldwide computer company founded in 1984 by Michael S. Dell. It has strategic distributions outlets across the world. Dell is one of the leading companies embracing business strategies, innovation, and research in their business line of operation(Jaffe et al, 2007). Dell deals with a wide range of computer hardware which includes digital cameras, home theaters, servers, desktop computers, laptops, printers, monitors and CPUs. Besides, they provide customers with tailor-made Dell PC varying in prices depending on the model requested by the customer(Jaffe et al, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Outsourcing services

Dell has outsourced its computer support services to other countries such as India.Besides support services, Dell has also outsourced manufacture of computers to various countries such as; Brazil, South Africa among other countries to reduce the costs thus boosting the profit margin. Also, Dell has formed a strong relationship with its competitors such as; HP (Hewlett

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Different Subculture Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Sociology is the study of different societies. The goal of this field of study is social welfare and it can be at a personal level or at a systems level. Nowadays, sociology is molded through many channels including the internet, law, health class, religion, and military among many other disciplines.

A subculture is a group of individuals characterized by different norms and values that is unique to the rest of the broader society it constitutes. Subcultures are constantly evolving, changing with times to reflect new developments; others die off whereas others reemerge after years of being alienated.

It is therefore very difficult to assess exactly how subcultures are divided using a standard means. Some subcultures are specific to a certain geographic location while others are specific to an era. It can therefore be a mistake for a sociologist to generalize and stereotype any subculture. One must delve into the specifics of an individual subculture in order to draw conclusive and accurate information about it.

Subcultures are mostly subject to commercialization (Blair, 1993, p. 22) making them loose their specificity. Their styles are adopted by mass culture as fashion and once this happens, they tend to be assimilated into the main cultural practices loosing the title of subcultures. Alternatively, the subculture may be forced to alien itself from mainstream practice in a bid to remain relevant and avoid imminent death.

After the hip-hop subculture was adopted by businesses for commercial purposes, others started facing the same threat. It was shocking when the punk subculture’s way was introduced into the mass market because it was characterized by non-conventional ways of dressing and jewelry.

Like Duchamp’s ‘ready mades’ – manufactured objects which qualified as art because he chose to call them such, the most unremarkable and inappropriate items – a pin, a plastic clothes peg, a television component, a razor blade, a tampon – could be brought within the province of punk (un)fashion…Objects borrowed from the most sordid of contexts found a place in punks’ ensembles; lavatory chains were draped in graceful arcs across chests in plastic bin liners.

Safety pins were taken out of their domestic ‘utility’ context and worn as gruesome ornaments through the cheek, ear or lip…fragments of school uniform (white bri-nylon shirts, school ties) were symbolically defiled (the shirts covered in graffiti, or fake blood; the ties left undone) and juxtaposed against leather drains or shocking pink mohair tops (Guins and Cruz, 2005, p. 361).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The American society is very diverse in race, religion and in class. This makes it one of the most unique cultures with differing opinions and lifestyles. The subcultures of the American society can be classified according to the most popular aspects such as slang, music, arts, politics and clothing. To a large extent these aspects are the ones which almost solely divide the larger culture into smaller ones.

You are what you wear Dressing is one of the broadest areas that one can endeavor to determine the constitution of subcultures. With the fashion trends changing constantly, it is hard to determine what is most popular as it inevitably changes. There could be a massive number of subcultures defined by the wardrobe as fashion for yesteryears eventually finds its way back into the mainstream market.

There is a group of people especially those celebrities in the music industry who are defined exclusively by what and how they wear. Lowly hanging jeans, long t-shirts, baseball caps and sneakers can all be associated with hip-hop culture. Most videos released by these artists are usually characterized by bright clothes that stand out.

This subculture is defined by the choice of clothing and footwear although not exclusively. On the contrary, other artists who participate in other genres also have their signature clothing including fashion models. It is not to say that this trend is only common in the US but even in other parts of the world like in Armenia where police are investigating a group of adherents of emo music and clothing.

Dancing is our way of life

Nowadays, there are a number of competitions that strive to unearth the best dancers everywhere around the world; not just in America. Although most of these competitions are in America, the dance culture is one that is mainly observed by the younger generations everywhere.

There is a large number of youth who are so absorbed by the dancing that they hardly do anything else. Hip-hop also influences this subculture as it does that of clothing. Therefore, the conclusion is that hip-hop is not a subculture but rather a culture associated with a large number of people.

We are urban

These are small groups of people living in urban areas, who share a common ideology. They share a dress code, have the same patterns of behavior and even share the same views about matters of global interest.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Different Subculture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They seem to have an emotional attachment to each other and this gives them the unique characteristics that define them. “Urban tribes are groups of people who have never married between the ages of 25 and 45 who gather in common-interest groups and enjoy an urban lifestyle, which offers an alternative to traditional family structures” (Watters, 2003, p. 68).

Our sexual orientation defines us

In the 1960’s, there was a countercultural rejection of what society largely viewed as the sexually and gender accepted ways. These set the ground work for proliferation of subcultures that were defined by their sexual orientation and views. The trend was rampant in the urban areas in comparison to other areas where traditional sex and gender norms were still being observed. As with other subcultures, this group also had its own dress code and gestures in a bid to differentiate themselves from the mainstream society.

Homosexuals were the largest subculture that expressed itself through the gay culture. However, with its increased adaptation and expression in music and designs in the 21st century, it seems to have outgrown the limits of subcultures and is now widely regarded as mainstream hence a culture on its own.

There are however some subcultures among homosexuals and lesbians that stemmed from the queer movement (Gelder, 2007, p. 56) which rejected normal behavior and whose growth has largely been attributed to academic interests in its study and theory. An example of a subculture of homosexuals is that which some African-Americans identify with and define as being on the down-low, characterized by specific attire usually adopted from the hip-hop culture.

I’m a nerd

These people also largely referred to as geeks. They are characterized by a fascination of reading and technology. They are enthusiastic about science fiction and usually love to role play the most famous science fiction movies or just play games on the computer or other electronic gaming device.

Conclusion Studying subcultures primarily involve studying symbolism in many aspects. While clothing and music make up the largest categories associated with different people, there are others that may be as important. Symbolism is studied in comparison to how the wider society views the players (Hebdige, 1979, p. 129), and it is obvious in the discussion above that members of subcultures usually conform to the same norms be it physical outlook or mannerism.

As subcultures may go against the grain of certain organizations, there are instances where they have been legislated against.

References Blair, M.E. (1993). Commercialization of Rap Music Youth Subculture. Journal of Popular Culture 27(3), 21-33

Not sure if you can write a paper on Different Subculture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gelder, K. (2007). Subcultures: cultural histories and social practice. New York: Routledge

Guins, R and Cruz, O. Z. (2005). Popular Culture: a reader. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Hebdige, D. (1979). Subculture: The meaning of style. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd

Watters, E. (2004).Urban Tribes: Are Friends the New Family? New York: Bloomsbury Publishing

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Confucius Biography Research Paper scholarship essay help

The following is a research paper on Philosopher Confucius. The paper is divided into several sections. These sections includes the reason why I selected Philosopher Confucius, Confucius history and contributions to philosophy, key philosophies/Main concepts of Confucianism, how these concepts apply to our society both professionally and personally and a conclusion there from.

The following are the main reasons as to why I decided to do a research paper on Philosopher Confucius; Confucius was more interested in personal morality i.e. the Confucian school of thought was based on personal moral behaviors.

Confucius advocated for morality in the society as a means for peaceful coexistence among people. Confucianism connected personal behavior elements with the principles that governed institutions. Confucius argued that leaders should lead by example. He explained that there is a close connection between one’s moral virtue and proper governing.

According to him, moral virtue is the only means of ensuring that there is order in the society. Confucius believed that governing is entirely dependent on personal rectification. Once a leader has rectified him or her, then he or she is capable of rectifying others. Confucius gives the example of founding fathers of Chou dynasty as models that are able to govern well due to the fact that they have already rectified themselves (Eng, 2004, P.22).

The other reason as to why I selected Confucius Philosopher is because Confucius supported strong family loyalty. Confucius regarded family as the foundation for an effective government. Confucius was thus in support of strong family ties, respect for the elderly and above all, he favored ancestor worship. According to Confucius, wives are supposed to respect their husbands and the husbands are bound to treat their companions well.

The young should never disrespect the old i.e. older people should be respected by their younger counterparts. Confucius argued that family loyalty was ideal as far as government is concerned. He maintained that, powerful emperor was ideal but he desired that emperor’s power should be limited. He encouraged people to be honest and also to have faith that it was possible to have change (Eng, 2004, P.22).

Confucius was great Chinese Philosopher, thinker and scholar. Historians generally agree that Confucius was born in Zou village in 551 BCE and was named Kong Qiu. His father was called Kong Shu Lianghe and was a prominent military figure for his loyalty and courage. However, not much is known about Confucius mother except she was known as Yan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is believed by some historians that Confucius parents did not marry. Other historians believes that the parents were married and later on separated .Confucius parents are also believed to have died at an early age. It is believed that Confucius lost his father first and then her mother died a few years later.

Confucius birth was at a time when the Lu state was surrounded by other states. During this time, the Lu state was among three great families. There is little literature that exists concerning Confucius childhood.

However; Confucius confesses that he had a low status during his childhood. He explains that his lowly status made him to be skilled in various aspects. Confucius was unlucky in that, he never experienced his paternal love for long as he was brought up by his widowed mother. His mother however played an important role in his life by encouraging him to become a great scholar.

This implies that his home environment in early childhood was completely different from the kind of environment that existed in traditional society i.e. Confucius was brought up in a society where division of tasks did not exist. His mother thus played the role of the father in bringing up Confucius and it is through this that might have indirectly influenced Confucius to become a great thinker. Confucius was a very talented young man as he performed dramas during ceremonies.

Historians argue that Confucius was likely that he was among the lowest rank of noble class known as ‘Knights’. A knight by virtual of his nobility is capable of getting various jobs as a record keeper, overseer of music and rituals, secretary, organizer in major ceremonies e.t.c. Indeed, knights were highly rated professionals in 6th century BCE as they organized many ceremonies including marriages, funerals, sacrificial rituals e.t.c.

Confucius thus is believed to be one of the nobility members because he was able to access educational facilities probably in a neighboring school, or maybe he was able to learn through other noble children . Confucius was skilled in six fields i.e. mathematics, literature and history, charioteering, archery, music and rites and these were indeed noble accomplishments i.e. it takes extra hard work and determination to be conversant with these skills.

Confucian thus wrote six books and they being termed as six classics. These six classics included Poetry Book, History Book, Rites Book, Music Book and a book that talked about the seasonal changes i.e. spring and autumn. However, the Music Book was lost and therefore, the six classics eventually became the five classics.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Confucius Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Confucius in his middle age visited Qi which is located in the Northeast of Lu where he spoke to Qi’s king, Duke Jing. It is believed that Confucius was searching for a job in Qi state. Confucius returned to his country Lu at a time when the rebellion arose against the noble Ji family. He contemplated joining the rebellion as he believed that, the rebellion would help him gain a position where he can influence the government. This rebellion was however unsuccessful and he accepted some posts in Lu government despite the posts being minor.

He later on resigned as a result of being disgusted by dissatisfied with the behaviors of most officials in the government. This resignation rendered him jobless and in his early fifties, Confucius visited several states in search of employment. Among the states that he visited were Wei and Song where he was given minor jobs in courts and the income that he obtained helped him to meet some of his living expenses. Confucius was also married and had one child.

Scholars usually describe Confucius as a flexible person who didn’t have any egoism. This is true due to the fact that he never regarded himself as being cleverer than others. The only thing that he stated was that he loved to learn and that he was determined to seek knowledge as much as he could. He was also eager to teach others what he had acquired and in this he greatly contributed to the field of Philosophy (Rainey, 2010, P.16).

The main concepts of Confucianism are Jen, Li, Yi, Hsiao, Chih, Chun-tzu and Te. The ethics of Confucianism is constituted by Jen and Li moral principles. This moral architecture helps to define and sustain socially and acceptable conduct. Jen entails the capacity of acting in a kind and compassionate manner i.e. it signifies love and benevolence. Jen with regards to Confucianism focuses on an individual as compared to society.

Jen has a special meaning as far as Confucianism is concerned and it suggests that there is more than the difference between an individual and a group of people. According to Confucianism, the act of being human is the primary step of fulfilling love and benevolence. A person is termed to be Jen if he or she commits himself or herself to learn moral values. To be a jen, one must be human i.e. he or she must have human-heartedness, compassion, goodness, humanity, love among other virtues.

Confucius argues that these virtues are rarely fully expressed. He expressed that the true meaning of a Jen is to sacrifice one’s life in an effort to preserve these virtues. Confucius wished that people should show kindness unto others throughout the nation. According to him, Jen is the basis of all relationships and thus people should seek to show others love and benevolence i.e. jen.

The Li principle on the other hand is the code of behavior that is expected among people. According to Confucius, a prudent person does not engage in unjust actions. He argues that a wise person behaves with Li and also does not boast rather he or she is modest at all times.

According to him, Li serves four vital functions; firstly, Li helps controls the political class in their day to day activities. The government officials among them ministers should observe Li so as to effectively lead people. Li enhances loyalty and patriotism among the state officials and without Li, a nation is being subjected into chaos. Secondly, Confucius states that Li is an important socializing factor in that it enables people to exercise their control while dealing with others.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Confucius Biography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This in turn allows people to extend love to their fellow mankind. Thirdly; he states that Li serves the purpose of harmonizing both literature and arts. According to him, a man who has a detailed knowledge of arts and literature and in turn combines this knowledge with Li is unlikely to do wrong things. Lastly; Confucius states that Li plays an important role of building a person’s personality. According to him, politeness cannot be achieved if Li is not present.

The other main concepts of Confucianism are the Yi principle. Yi is the state of one being morally acceptable unto others. According to Confucius, the main purpose of Yi is to justify morality with regards to human actions. Thus, Yi is the basic law of morality as it confers the rightness or wrongness of human actions and in turn it creates a situation that satisfies people being moral agents. According to Confucian, people should perform only those actions that are deemed to be right irrespective of their consequences. He argues that acting according to Yi is like practicing Jen due to the fact that one acts due to the morality of actions and also due to respect for the humanity.

Hsiao is the other main concepts of Confucianism. According to this principle, children should learn to respect their parents for the sole reason that they originated from their parents. Parents are seen to have made much sacrifice and therefore, it is the duty of the children to make their family names to be respected.

Children are urged to consider the sacrifice that their parents made by bringing them into the world and in turn show them the much respect that they deserve. In addition, Hsiao implies that children should also accord their parents love in order that they can be blessed by their parents. Hsiao also implies that the children take over from their parents once they die by fulfilling their goals and objectives. Children are therefore required to have similar values as those of their parents.

Chih is the next main principle of Confucianism. Chih denotes moral wisdom and thus morality is the main idea behind this principle. Mencius contributed to Confucianism philosophy by arguing that everybody is born with good morals due to the fact that people recognizes the rightness and wrongness of actions by using their own mind.

According to Mencius, human beings are moral animals and thus, they are capable of doing well or to practice virtues according to Confucianism. Mencius in his view about Chih states that the survival needs by human beings are the main source of evil. In his argument, Mancius states that human beings usually feel that they disadvantaged by virtue of being moral. Human beings fail to establish the options that they have and in turn commit wrong actions.

The other principle of Confucianism is the Chun-tzu. According to Confucianism; a Chun-tzu refers to a person who possesses good moral values. In other words, a Chun-tzu person is the one who is mature. In traditional China, the society was divided with regards to decent of male lines and thus the scholars criticizes Confucius for believing that only males could become chun-tzu.

However, the term ‘gentleman’ has been considered ideal for referring to a chun-tzu as it can be applied to both males and females. According to Confucius, a person is thought to be gentleman by virtual of his birth i.e. if ones’ father was a noble or a gentleman, then the son automatically acquires the status of nobility and is thus regarded as a gentleman.

In his arguments, Confucius states that a person becomes a noble person or a gentleman as a result of steadfast learning. A gentleman is thus a person who is capable of improving a society. A gentleman should therefore act beyond his own ambitions. He should be intelligent and ready to confront any issue courageously.

Lastly, Te is the other key philosophy of Confucianism. Te refers to the ruling power i.e. the patterns which are used by the government in ruling its people. Basically, these patterns are deemed to be honest in order to ensure that the government enhances economic wellbeing of its people and also to ensure that the government has sufficient military in order to defend its citizens against any external aggression. It is also important for the government to be Te in order for the citizens to have confidence with it (Chung-Ying, 2010, P.3-17).

Confucianism principles are important to our society both professionally and personally as they are applied in the following ways; Confucianism principle plays an important role of uniting people form different backgrounds. The Jen principle in particular enables people to be personal responsible.

Confucius describes that a man ought to be strong, resolute and above all simple. This principle enables people to express love and benevolence. A to others and this in turn promotes peace in the world. Confucianism principles are humanistic implying that they are tends to understand one by focusing on him or her independently. These principles are thus applied in modern society as a means of achieving harmony through a clear understanding of individuals.

Confucianism principles enhance law and order in the society. Confucius in his principles emphasized the importance of showing respect to the authority.

He also advocated that the young should show respect to the old .Without respect, the world would be in chaos. Respect is an important value and therefore everybody deserves to respect other and also to be respected. Respect starts from an individual perspective before extending to others and therefore, Confucianism principles plays an important role in the society by ensuring that people lives harmoniously with one another (Yong, 2010, P.65-87).

Confucius principles are applicable to our society as they spread moral education throughout the society. With respect to litigation, the principles hold that everybody should be treated withy fairness and that there should be no favoritism. The principles play an important role in the modern times as they teach people that they should be guided by morality. The principles guide people to respect other people’s property. The principles argue that without rules governing property, chaos is bound to arise.

Confucianism principles advocate for sense of personal shame i.e. the Li principle. This principle is aimed at helping people to have moral shame and thus to act rightfully. This principle is important in modern society as it enables man to do just unto his fellow mankind.

Confucianism principles required that the government offices should be filled with men and women with creative judgment. This principle is applicable in modern society in that, it guides the authority to act properly in order to enhance the living conditions of the people whom they serve (Nivison, et.al., 1996, P.7).

Confucian Principles are used to enhance democracy in the world. The United States, Canada and other countries have applied the Confucian principles in ensuring that democracy is observed. This in turn has seen these countries achieve sustainable economic development and improved standards of living for their citizens.

Confucius focused his philosophy and life on how harmony can be achieved in the society. Confucius believed that maintaining proper among the members of the society was the key to peaceful coexistence.

He strongly supported core family relationships especially the relationships between fathers and their sons as well as the relationships between married couples. He believed that strong family relationships results to stability and in turn harmony would reverberate throughout the country. These facility relationships are applicable in the modern society.

Confucianism principles have been the driving force behind cultures of many nations around the world particularly China and Korea. These principles have been applied in many aspects among them in marriages, politics e.t.c. (Yao, 2000, P.56-57)

Confucius played an important role of shaping the modern society. His philosophical works are important as the concepts apply to our society both professionally and personally.

Confucius believed that peaceful coexistence among the members of the society depended on the relationships between people and thus it is important for people to love one another and also extend compassion, kindness and caring. Confucianism upholds that humanness is the key to a healthy society. For the world to survive and be free form any form of chaos, it is important that it preserve the Confucian teachings.

Reference List Chung-Ying, C. (2010). Developing Confucian Onto-Ethics in a Postmodern World/Age. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 37(1), 3-17.

Eng, P. (2004). Kungfu Basics. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing.

Nivison, T., et al. (1996).The ways of Confucianism: investigations in Chinese Philosophy. Chicago: Open Court Publishing.

Rainey, J. (2010).Confucius and Confucianism: The Essentials. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.

Yao, X. (2000). An introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yong, H. (2010). Confucius And Mencius On The Motivation To Be Moral. Philosophy East

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Stephen Sondheim Biography Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Early Life

Career

Honors and Awards

Personal Life

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Born in 1930, Stephen Sondheim is a renowned composer and lyricist with an American origin. Throughout his career, Stephen has scooped numerous awards that have made him very popular in the music industry. The numerous lyrics and scores that inundate the music industry are just but the result of his great work. No wonder Scholars say that if not the greatest, then Sondheim is one of the best artists ever known in the theatre of music. The awards he has scooped range from the Academy Award to the Pulitzer Price.

Early Life Sondheim’s Jewish parents, Herbert Sondheim and Etta Janet bore him in the city of New York back in the year 1930. His parents brought him up in Manhattan and divorced later in Pennsylvania. The career of Sondheim’s mother was the design of clothes while his father used to manufacture the same. Since he was the only son in a well-off family, Sondheim suffered so much emotional neglect in his upbringing (King 118).

While in New York, he attended Fieldston School among other schools as George school. While in Fieldston School, Sondheim wrote his first music and later graduated in the year 1940. When Sondheim’s father abandoned him, his mother ill-treated him psychologically; something that Sondheim hated so much that he refused to attend her funeral when she died.

Career When he was only ten years old, Sondheim met a man who had a great impact in his career. The man was none other than the famous lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II who later became his surrogate father. It is during a ceremony marking one of Hammerstein’s music production centres that Sondheim met Harold Prince who in later years played a major part in directing Sondheim’ shows (Secrest 120).

During the period when he was in George school, Sondheim made a breakthrough in music through a comic that reflected on the happenings in his school. Though greatly appreciated by Sondheim’s peers, Hammerstein did not like the piece and took it as an opportunity to teach him what according to Sondheim, would keep other lyricists learning in their entire lives.

Since that time, Sondheim has been active in the music theatre and this has made him collaborate with successful lyricists like Hal Prince, James Lapine and others. Besides songs, Sondheim has written many books, and anthologies. He has also played a major role in the production of many films and articles that have appeared in television world all over.

Honors and Awards On his birthday as he turned eighty, Sondheim’s works received a major positive boost; numerous concerts that mainly included Sondheim’s songs and music marked the day (Suskin 697). Some of the original performers were occasioned the birthday party, ready to perform the music and songs that Sondheim wrote.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of his work also got a boost in the film industry. Through his lyrics, songs and films, Sondheim has won many coveted awards including the Academy Award and Pulitzer Prize. He has also won several Grammy Awards, Tony Awards, Drama Desk Awards and OBIE award. Sondheim has also received honors like Kennedy Center Honors, the Hutchinson Prize, the Special Award and the Algur H Meadows Award.

Personal Life At about the age of 40, Sondheim’s life had circulated in public circles. According to King, “Sondheim was a gay, but he did not cohabit with his partner, Peter John the dramatist, until he turned 61’ (310); however, when they came together they stayed together for many years. Sondheim’s practice as a gay did not bother him in any way; he was very free and could not mind discussing that issue with the media.

Conclusion Stephen Sondheim is a successful dramatist and lyricist. Despite having many challenges in his life ranging from abandonment by his father, financial challenges in his career and a bumpy social life, he managed to scoop several awards, honors and collaborations with other successful lyricists.

Works Cited King, Robert. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. New York: Yale University Press, 1985.

Secrest, Meryle. Stephen Sondheim: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Suskin, Steven. Opening Night on Broadway: A Critical Quotebook of the Golden Era of the Musical Theatre. New York: Schirmer Books, 1990.

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The Connection between ‘Extraversion’ and ‘Need for Achievement’ Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

A class survey of 170 BBA111 students on their extraversion and ‘need for achievement’ scores, a correlation analysis was conducted to try and establish the relationship of the two variables. It was identified that there was a statistically significant correlation of r = 0.39 between ‘extraversion’ and ‘need for achievement’.

The correlation is not only positive but it is moderate. The relationship indicates that an increase in extraversion leads to an increase in ‘need for achievement’. It also implies that the extraversion is an important determinant of ‘need for achievement’.

Tosi, Mero and Rizo (2000) describe a trait as a tendency of a person to respond in a given way – both in their emotions and their behaviors and this reaction have to be somewhat stable. Extroversion as among the five well acknowledged personality traits is characterized by being sociable, assertive and proactive/energetic. When talking about extraversion as a personality trait, one essentially focuses on certain traits some of which include sociability, positive emotionality as well as assertiveness (Ulu

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Using Animals for Research Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Why Use Animals

Research Consideration

Successes of Animal Research

Ethical Issues in Using Animals for Research

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Researches have played a major role in improving the health standards of human beings and animals in general. In the past, pandemics and epidemics used to rein terror on human beings and animals. Diseases like Rinderpest, chickenpox, and plaque used to claim the lives of many individuals, however successful researches provided cures for these diseases and they no longer pose any threat. In order to find successful cures for human beings, it has proved necessary to use animals in research.

Research using animals has in turn proved to be very reliable and efficient; many of the cures that have been developed have in one way or the other involved animal research. Using animals in research should therefore not be opposed rather should be unanimously endorsed.

Why Use Animals Using animals in research, not only benefit human beings but also animals. It has been a known fact that human beings and animals are closely related and they get many of the same illnesses. Some animals are known to stand in for humans with particular diseases. In general, animal research is the type of research, survey, experiment that involves vertebrates such as mice, pigs and primates. On the other hand, clinical research is the study that entails scientists to use humans.

These studies are critical and for research to reach this stage there must have been prior extensive preliminary tests in animal research studies. It is thus logical that animals be used to improve their lives and that of human beings. The world keep on fluctuating with many new diseases reported at every historical epoch (Sharp 1).

It is thus obvious that emergence of new diseases, resistance of existing one and the need of developing vaccines makes research inevitable. These diseases and various ailments affect the immune system of animals and humans, making it weak and unable to withstand or combat the antigens. These activities take place in the body of a being and there is no way one can understand the nature of the antigens without dissecting the respective affected beings.

Since the being’s immune system has failed to prevent the body from the attacks, there is no way a sick or dead organism can become ideal for conducting successful research on devising the cure of the disease that has already defeated its immune system. The affected being is crucial in understanding the nature of the disease but another healthy being is even more important in devising a cure (Herren 67).

Based on the need to create a disease free world, it is inevitable to avoid research. Given the fact that researches in medical and scientific fields are inevitable, animals become the ideal and most appropriate specimen to use since human beings cannot be used in the preliminary researches.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human beings have also become increasingly used in researches. For a medicine or a vaccine to be verified and proved successful, then at one time, or the other, human beings must be used in the research work. If human beings can be used in the research work then there is no way that animals can be exempted (Kalat 23).

Research Consideration Contrary to what has been the main argument in opposing use of animals in research work, all medical and scientific researches are carefully planned including research with animals. Animals are not, unjustifiably exploited nor put through painful experiments without an important agenda.

The researchers weigh several sensitive considerations before approving each study. In medical research using animals as specimen, the most important aspect to take into account is the relevance of the research to human or animal health. Researchers contrary to what has been the general notion protect animals’ welfare. Researchers only use the most appropriate species and in the fewest numbers possible (Greenhaven Staff 12).

Almost all researchers in ensuring that all animals are treated in the most humane way enduring the least distress follow the federal law in the US. Animals should be used and have always been used in researches because of the various formidable reasons. Animals are used because they are in many ways like human beings especially in the normal and basic body functioning like breathing, eating, hearing and seeing.

Nature has been regarded as economical and the same processes are known to be recycled over time. By using animals, scientists are assured of finding crucial and linking comparisons with human beings. Some diseases like the one caused by tsetse fly affect both animals and human beings (Chiras 34).

Animals are thus the perfect specimen to use when in the process of conducting a research; it is impractical or unethical to use humans. Animals are also known to be susceptible to the same health problems like the one affecting human beings.

They are therefore convenient, taking into account that they also have short life cycles. Moreover, the various medical research centers are able to control and diversify the environment around the animal for example diet, temperature and lighting, something that s almost impractical to try on people. Human beings cannot be exposed to health risks for researchers to observe the course of a disease.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Using Animals for Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Successes of Animal Research Researches using animals have been very successful and there is no founded reason to stop or oppose these endeavors. Some of the most successful studies using animals have been highlighted below.

Heart disease and its related conditions affect almost a quarter of the US population costing more than three hundred billion dollars in budget allocation and is the number one killer. Using animals such as dogs and cats, the basic heart mechanism have been studied and in fact, the study with dogs immensely contributed to the basic methods of controlling heart disease being devised.

The modern heart treatment methods were also devised after successful study with dogs. Heart transplants, cardiac bypass, angioplasty and other treatments all resulted from this study with dogs; in addition, the various methods of diagnosis and treatment were also developed. These are electrocardiography, coronary blood flow measurements among others.

HIV/AIDS has become one of the most feared pandemic to, ever hit, the earth. All countries of the world are affected in one way or the other, the hardest hit being in the sub-Saharan Africa. To this date, there is no cure that has been found for the pandemic.

However various advancements have been made, the comprehensive understanding of the viruses that causes the pandemic has been derived from the study of similar viruses in monkeys, chicken and cats. Vaccines are in the process of being tested on mice and monkeys before being administered on volunteers (Research Development 2).

In the past, bacteria infections were deadly and fatal; they were the main causes of death ad other acute diseases. Although in the contemporary modern world bacterial infections are extremely common and have affected people on numerous occasions during their lifetime, they are now readily treatable with antibiotics.

With animals in research, in this case mice and other rodents, penicillin and other antibiotics were established as effective treatments for bacterial infections. Animals thus continue to provide crucial information to scientists on ways of combating certain deadly diseases (The American Physiological Society 10).

Ethical Issues in Using Animals for Research The concern over the ethical issues arising in the use of animals has always been voiced. Those that oppose the use of animals being used in researches feel that animals are living beings and if people would not wish to be subjected to pain, then, it is ethically wrong to do the same to helpless animals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Using Animals for Research by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Those people who keep animals as pets feel much offended by the use of animals in research as they describe their relationship with the animals as equivalent to that with human beings. They talk of compassion, love, loyalty and so forth. It has also been argued that students may sometimes fail to euthanize animals for research and thus subjecting them to undesirable pain. There are no measures in place to ensure such kinds of students are deterred (Herren 325).

Conclusion Using animals in research is desirable. Scientists do not conclusively understand human biology to an extent of directly applying new medical treatments on people or the daily evolving surgical procedures and processes. The desire to look for lifesaving cures cannot be overlooked as this is the desire of humanity to have a society where human suffering ad agony is minimal. Using animals especially in biomedical researches is thus inevitable and objective.

Works Cited Chiras, Daniel. Human Biology. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2010. Print.

Greenhaven staff. Should Animals Be Used in Scientific Research? Greenhaven: Greenhaven Press, 1987. Print.

Herren, Ray. The science of animal agriculture. New York: Delmar, 2000.

Kalat, James. Biological Psychology.Belmont: Wadsworth, 2008.

Research Development. ‘‘Use of Animals in Research’’ Research Development , 2009. 07 Apr. 2011.

Sharp, Richard. ‘‘Ethical issues in the use of Animals in Biomedical Research.’’ Baylor College of Medicine, 2004. 07 Apr. 2011.

The American Physiological Society. ‘‘Why do scientists use animals in research?’’ Bethesda, 2006. 07 Apr. 2011.

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Networking in Business Sector Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Business networking can be defined as the process by which business owners and/or managers leverage both their personal and business connections for the purpose of bringing their enterprises a regular supply of business.

As a result of this process, mutually beneficial relationships are proactively or otherwise created not only with other like-minded and willing-to-cooperate businesses, but with existing as well as potential customers. In essence, the socioeconomic activity that is business networking aims at searching, creating, or recognizing business opportunities and subsequently acting upon such for the benefit of the networked parties.

Creating networks in the business sphere is actually harder than it may appear. This is for the simple reason that at the core of networking are human relationships, which are quite complicated and therefore challenging to manage.

Nonetheless, strong business networks can bring a business a host of benefits. To start with, it is well established that up to three quarters of new business gained by a majority of business enterprises comes from networking or what is commonly referred to as relationship marketing/ business referrals.

In addition, this method of winning business is by far cost effective as compared to other marketing techniques such as public relations, sales promotion, and advertising. This is so because as opposed to other techniques of marketing whose success depends to a large extend on the amount of financial resources committed, a successful business network only requires personal commitment of the business owners/managers in addition to their relationship building skills.

Another benefit that can accrue to an enterprise from establishment of strong business networks is elevation of its business profile. Under this, network members get to know an enterprise even deeper in terms or its products and services, which in turn significantly expands the base of a its existing as well as potential clientele.

Moreover, an enterprise stands to benefit from significantly cheap or even free consultancy services as well as advice from more knowledgeable or more experienced members in the network. Also, an enterprise in business network can quite easily get help from fellow members during hard times. This could be through such actions as lending it cheap loans, bailing it out of the threat of financial collapse, and helping it repel off harsh takeover bids from rivals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, because each business network tend to have its own culture and set of values, a business enterprise can emulate the positive work values from the network and integrate them in its operations for its own advantage.

A business network can either be formal or informal. Up until recently, informal business networks were the norm. The trend is however changing rapidly with formal business networking companies cropping up especially on the internet. In this regard, business networking is becoming highly organized, and it is no longer strange to hear of formal weekly or monthly networking meetings organized by groups of business owners or managers in the network.

In sum, business networking is a cheap way to win new business at quick of a business, and the amount of benefits an enterprise can derive from networking highly depends on the interpersonal skills of the business owner or manager. As such, business networking must not only be focused but strategic. Moreover, business owners and/or managers must be proactive in forging business relations with like-minded firms. This way, many invaluable opportunities would open up for such managers/owners and their firms.

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Effect of the Multiple Voices on People Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Language is a soul of the nation. If people lose their language, they risk losing their national identity, connection with national traditions and cultural roots. However, is it a statement that cannot be argued? If to follow the idea of this statement, than every person who moves to a different country and speaks different language becomes a different person and changes nationality.

There are many points of view on this problem and all of them merit attention. The first one is Richard Rodriguez’s who argues that people lose their national identity when they begin speaking another language and that they alienate from their historical roots.

Another author is Marjorie Agosin who provides the idea that learning a second language provides the opportunity to understand another culture, as well as better understand the beauty and uniqueness of the native language. Agosin also emphasizes that it is very important to keep oneself close to native culture and that one should not renounce his or her cultural heritage. We are our memories, beliefs and feelings, and language is a unique means that helps us save our identity.

The two authors are Spanish speakers who live in the United States and had to learn new language to become members of a new society. They write about their hard experience of living in the United States and communication with different culture. However, they provide different points of view on this process and, even the situations in which they appeared are common, the outcomes are different and authors share their experiences and points of view with the audience in different ways.

The author of the book Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez Richard Rodriguez writes that new language helped him improve his life and become a member of a new society and new intellectual community. He refers to himself as to a person who passed the way from a child who had to face a new culture and felt himself disadvantaged because he was from a low-class people and did not know the language well.

Moreover, he was under the constant watchful eye of his family during the very first year of his education in the United States. Rodriguez adds that education caused a definite separation with his Spanish culture and provided the opportunities to become a middle class American and respectable person today.

The book of the author provides the background and analysis of the history of his education and helps understand how he became a person he is today. Rodriguez became a new man, with new habits and another vision of life. However, this “way” was not “a bed of roses” and had its consequences. As a result of his “adoption” of a new language and new culture, later he found it difficult to communicate with his family and he lost connection with his native culture and that “bridge” that kept him in touch with his family.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He says that his story is ‘‘a story of the scholarship boy who returns home one summer to discover the bewildering silence, facing his parents. This is my story. An American story’’ (Rodriguez 5). He tells the story of his life and a story of a “socially disadvantaged child” (Rodriguez 1) who turned into a “real American” by means of his education and speaking an English language instead of his native Spanish language.

But the cost of his “new life” was that he has lost the Spanish-speaking world of his childhood, his culture and his family. This journey from a child to a grown-up individual with a new identity was painful.

The author provides the idea that for bilingual people, there is a problem of choice between “family language” and “social language” and that becoming part of a new society is impossible without losing native culture and native language. He was a scholarship boy who had to live in two opposite worlds, the world of his native culture and the world of a new intellectual society (English speaking).

He wanted to achieve a success. In order to achieve his goals, he had to focus on schoolwork and cut himself off what he had been before (a Spanish speaking guy who had strong connections with his family). Education and English books were the foundation for the development of a new personality. They changed him and his outlook on life out of all recognitions. He was encouraged to speak English to achieve academic success, but when he returned to his family after graduation, he felt himself culturally separated.

The author calls himself a “comic victim of two cultures” (Rodriguez 5). He provides the idea that the individual has to choose between two extremes: “Spanish” and “English”, “native” and “foreign”, “inside” and “outside” words. Thus, the experience of the author is quite negative and his book presents “essays impersonating an autobiography; six chapters of sad, fugue like repetition” (Rodriguez 7).

He argues that assimilation is possible and it is important, as national identity is important for every person. But it is impossible to avoid consequences of this assimilation. On the one hand, a person broadens his/her intellectual horizon and becomes a well rounded individual, on the other hand, one may become a completely different person and it may be very difficult “to find place” in a new society, as well as remain a part of the native culture.

The cost of such assimilation is the rupture with national roots and impossibility to become an inseparable part of the other culture. A person remains on the border of two worlds which influence each other and create controversies in one’s life which are hard to overcome. Bilingual people will always feel alienation with two cultures which makes it difficult to be a “single” individuality, but makes a person to have a double identity.

We will write a custom Essay on Effect of the Multiple Voices on People specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As opposed to Rodriguez, Marjorie Agosin tells us how she managed to save her language and culture, moreover, English language helped her understand the beauty of Spanish. She writes that it was very difficult for her to adapt to new culture and new language environment:

“But here in the United States, where I have lived since I was a young girl, the solitude of exile makes me feel that so little is mine that not even the sky has the same constellations. The trees and the fauna the same names or sounds or the rubbish the same smell. How does one recover the familiar? How does one name the unfamiliar? How can one be another or live in a foreign language? These are the dilemmas of one who writes in Spanish and lives in translation” (Agosin 201).

With these words, she explains how the one who speaks a different language and shares different cultural values feels in the other cultural society.

Moreover, she provides that thinking in Spanish, she had to translate her thoughts and emotions into English and that it was really hard to express her feelings and the way she saw the better world with the help of the language that was not her native. It is a common problem for all writers who try to write in the language of the social community that is different from a native social community, as people see and perceive the world in different ways.

This is the same idea that was provided by Rodriguez, but Agosin found a decision to the problem. In the moment of solitude, when she belonged to herself, she read and wrote in Spanish that helped her “recover fragrances, spoken rhythms, and the passion of my own identity” (Agosin 203). Rodriguez adopted a new language as a new identity and Agosin saw English as one more means to express her Spanish identity.

Moreover, speaking English and living in different society, she did dot refuse her “cultural heritage”: “Finally, for the first time since I had left Chile. I felt I didn’t have to explain myself. My poem, expressed in another language, spoke for itself … and for me” (Agonis 204). With this statement, the author provides a solution for those who try to save their cultural identity in a foreign world, they should not forget their language and read and write it.

Thus, we can see that both authors write about the same problem, as they had similar experience in assimilation with new culture. However, the results of their experiences are different. Rodriguez lost his identity because he lost his language trying to be a part of the intellectual society with different cultural values, but Agosin managed to save her heritage, as she was able to combine speaking two languages and exploring both cultures.

Examining the works by two authors, we can see the importance of a native language, and can come to a conclusion that language is really a soul of the nation and one should not loose his/her national roots that will be helpful when assimilating with a different nation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effect of the Multiple Voices on People by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Agosin, Marjorie. “Always Living in Spanish: Recovering the Familiar, Through Language.”Multilingual USA: 201-206. Print.

Rodriguez, Richard. “Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez.” New York: Random House Publishing Group. 1983. Print.

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Impact of Trade Liberalization on American Countries Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Trade Liberalization

Impacts of Trade Liberalization between Latin American Countries

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The demise of the cold war in the 1990s was followed by a reaffirmation of ideals, principles and values of liberal democracy courtesy of the western countries thanks to the United States and her allies. Capitalism and its political values derived from liberal democracy emerged as the new socioeconomic ideology of the day. Freedom of the individual and communities from the strict control of the state was endorsed.

It was held that individuals and communities are inherently free to develop themselves as they wish by way of accumulating wealth through free trade and exchange of goods, services and ideas (Somerville, 2011). In other words, the strict control of the state of trade and industrialization advocated for by socialist enthusiasts under the leadership of USSR and her satellites during the cold war was opposed and victoriously denounced by the capitalists camp under the leadership of USA and her allies.

The role of the state was supposed to be provision of an ideal environment in which individuals, groups of individuals as well as communities would carry out their socioeconomic activities without unnecessary interference of the state provided they did so within the parameters of the law. The purpose of this research paper is to explore impacts of trade liberalization between Latin American countries.

Trade Liberalization Since time immemorial trade has been an important impetus of growth and development in virtually all societies. In other words, people from all world civilizations have always sought to engage in exchange of what they had in surplus for what they lacked and they were in need of. Rogowsky et al. (2001) argues that trade is an engine of growth because it facilitates income gain irrespective of whether the exchange takes place between individuals or between nations.

Trade like any other human activity have been underpinned by the main ideas informing human affairs at the local, national and now at the global level. In fact, the cold war was fundamentally founded on ideological differences between the West led by USA on one hand and the East led by USSR on the other hand on what ideology should underpin human activities at the national level as well as at the international level.

These differences were premised on the fact that increasingly countries could not exist in isolation politically or socioeconomically from other countries and so there was the all important question on what ideology should underpin domestic and international trade.

USA sought to spearhead the spread and embracement of her preferred capitalist ideology while USSR sought to persuade countries to adopt socialist ideology in which the state controls trade and other human activities with an iron hand. The capitalist camp won following the break up of the USSR and that marked the beginning of an entrenchment of the ideas of trade liberalization at the national level and in between and among nations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Essentially, trade liberalization derives its breath from the liberal ideas of freedom of the individual to develop as he or she wishes guaranteed they obey the laws of the society. At the international level, nations who are the main actors were deemed free to develop themselves through free exchange of goods and ideas with countries of their own choice provided they did so within the matrix of the international trade laws and statutes which regulates the conduct of countries the field of global trade.

According to Rogowsky et al (2001), supporters of trade liberalization held that removal of tariffs and other trade barriers between countries permits productive resources to move to their most efficient use in other countries. In other words, it allows countries to exchange what they have in excess with what they need from other countries.

Those who espouse trade liberalization maintain that this ensures that resources are in put in use where they are needed thereby facilitating their efficient use. Gingrich and Garber (2005) carried out a research study on the El Salvador’s agricultural sector and according to their findings, it emerged that Costa Rica had managed to attain enormous trade surplus thanks in large part to market liberation and trade. On the other hand, the agricultural sector in El Salvador witnessed a major decline due to the issue of liberalization.

Opponents of trade liberalization emphasized that the highly developed western countries would benefit more than the less developed countries owing to their mighty purchasing power. That would give them an unfair upper hand in trade negotiations. Opponents lamented that the rich countries would end up as price setters at the expense of the poor countries who would not enjoy an equal say on international trade matters.

For instance, Quiggin (2005) argues that as early as mid-nineteenth century, leading critics of capitalism Marx and Engels had already foreseen the emergence of an international economy dominated by Europe. However, despite a spirited opposition from those who were suspicious of the Western idea of trade liberalization, because it was an idea whose time had come it gradually took root in the international trade as well as domestic trade.

In fact, Western donors as well as international financial institutions (World Bank and International Monetary Fund) threatened to cut off their financial aid and loans to governments of developing countries that were keen on trade liberalization in their countries Gingrich and Garber (2010).

Measures like the so-called the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) were put in place in the developing countries to facilitate trade liberalization especially in those that the state had strong control on trade. It is against this kind of background that we are exploring the impacts of trade liberalization between Latin American countries.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Trade Liberalization on American Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Impacts of Trade Liberalization between Latin American Countries The debate about the impacts of trade liberalization between the Latin American countries revolves around questions like; has trade liberalization had positive or negative effects on the economies of these countries? Has trade liberalization enabled the Latin American countries to raise the standards of living of their citizens?

Has trade liberalization increased or decreased inequality between these countries and workers within these countries? (Quiggin, 2005). Gingrich and Garber (2010) argue that trade liberalization has had different effects upon various sectors in different countries. Some studies show positive effects while others show adverse effects.

Costa Rica liberalization led to a large increase in the agricultural trade balance of about 70% while in El Salvador liberalization caused decrease of almost 20% points (Gingrich and Garber, 2010).

These authors argue that countries that adopted trade and market liberalization made their domestic markets become less distortional and prices more closely revealed shortage values (Gingrich

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Tips On How To Make First Day of Class Productive For New Teachers Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction According to Cooper (2010), the process of teaching is rewarding and gratifying. Indeed, the teaching profession is a noble one. Many teachers take pride in helping students discover an effective learning process in school. New teachers however need to learn how to deliver more effective teaching strategies and approach as they begin their journey with their teaching profession on the first day in school.

Some challenges that new teachers need to overcome as they begin their first day in school is how to make good impression and earn the trust and respect of their students. They may find the following tips provided in this paper helpful on how they can overcome these challenges and be productive on the first day of class.

Discussion Mandel (2009) suggests that new teachers should create a relaxed environment inside the classroom on the first day of class. Teachers can take an early visit to the classroom and familiarize themselves with the facilities inside that they can use for their teaching session.

This will help a new teacher use all the resources available to start the class with better ease and facilitate better learning of the students. A warm introduction is important as a new teacher begins to put the students at ease on the first day of class. Kelly (2008) emphasizes that teachers should know their students by name on the first day of class.

Although one could not normally remember each student’s name instantly on the first day of class, a new teacher can practice getting to know each student by name with each roll call of attendance every day. This is a way of showing students that their teacher cares enough to know them by name. Planning activities in class is another way to build a small community of students in the classroom, giving opportunity for each student to know each other and to know their teacher as well.

New teachers should be able to listen to their student’s concerns too. Just as the new teacher feels anxious about the first day of class, so are the students. Allowing students to express their own expectation about the class and to ask questions to overcome their doubt is a good way for a new teacher to develop good communication with the students. It is also important for new teachers to be organized before they report to work on the first day of class.

They should be able to write down important things to do like class activities, teaching strategies, and taking down notes on what to bring in class. Teachers who show to the students that they know what to do inside the classroom will likely gain respect from their students. Advanced preparation of lesson plan before school starts is vital in delivering more effective teaching procedures for a new teacher.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They can address each student’s concern better regarding their subject and can provide a better overview on what students can expect from their class if they have a definite outline on how to proceed with their lessons. Conserva

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Marketing Mix and Marketing Strategy Term Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Approaches of Preparing a Case Study

Marketing Management

Applied Marketing

Difference between a marketing Strategy and Plan

Best Corporate Citizens

Social responsibility

Marketing to Business versus Marketing to Consumers

Works Cited

Marketing mix entails a combination of marketing activities such as production; distribution, promotion, and pricing that are controlled by firms to enable it meet the needs of customers being targeted. Goods and services are conveniently availed at favorable prices to customers who are well informed about the firm and the product itself. Generally, marketing mix facilitates satisfying exchange relationship between the producing firm and the purchasers of the firm’s products (Belohlavek 13)

Target market may include large or small groups of customers in the local or global market that seeks a single or multiple products to satisfy their needs. Marketing mix is to some extent the same as marketing strategy although marketing mix does not put into consideration external factors such as economic, technological, legal and statutory, socio-cultural, competition and political forces in the environment.

Approaches of Preparing a Case Study Preparing a marketing case study of a new product may at times be challenging and demanding thus the need to follow systematic steps to achieve positive results for the product market. New products are marketed using desirable approaches to establish a strong consumer base and generate revenue for the product in the targeted market. In marketing a new product, the following sections are important for successful penetration into the market:

The first step is researching extensively for information about competitors and the kind of products, customers, and strategies they have in the market. Irrespective of whether the new product is unique or similar to those of competitors, extensive research about competitors and their product is vital for successful marketing strategy implementation.

The firm may compare its products with those of the competitors to improve its approach for marketing its new product. Comparison can be done by impersonating the consumers of the products of competitors in questioning and comparing products as customers will do when making their purchases.

The second step is researching for information concerning the target markets of the new product. Information about consumer target groups is vital for the understanding of consumer patterns and behaviors with respect to existing and new products in the market. When new products are being launched into the market, firms should be in a position to establishing the characteristics individuals believed to have the likelihood of purchasing the new products.

The characteristics of consumer groups that purchase similar items enable the firm to capitalize on additional features of the new product. Additional features of the new products play a very important role in attracting consumer groups who have interest in similar products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third, diversifying approaches used to marketing new products is essential. Marketing strategies implemented should have a variety of options to be implemented incase one the first option fails due to trial and error nature of marketing.

Diversification of marketing approaches facilitates successful penetration of viable markets for the new products with the advantage of understanding different outcomes. A variety of marketing options enables marketers to follow up on results of an approach and apply different approaches consistent with market trends

Fourth, initially launching the product in a manner to captivate the audience follows. Initial moments of new products are vital for building a base for a journey to successful market penetration of a new product. Firms need to generate a first impression that will capture the interest of target customer groups.

Application of captivating approaches such as the media and special events with good public relations strategies can go a long way in creating a captivating first impression. However, the approaches can also incorporate the use of affordable entertaining companies to launch new products and create an effective first impression.

The fifth step is following up on the approaches and implementing alternative option in case of failure or poor results. After the initial implementation of marketing strategies, firms need to monitor the progress of the approaches and put in place corrective measures incase of deviation from expectation. Approaches should also be revised to periodically keep the advertisement and marketing strategies attractive to target groups. More so, revising the strategies continually may help in capturing untapped market.

Marketing Management Marketing management is a process through which firms undertake to enable effective and efficient exchanges by planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling marketing activities in the right direction. The firm seeks to achieve an optimum level of exchanges with utilization of minimal resource.

Marketing management is important to assess opportunities and resources, determine marketing objectives, and develop a marketing strategy to implement. The marketing structure puts in place aspects such as functions, products, regions, and customers. Effective internal communications systems are developed to coordinate marketing activities and motivate the marketing personnel.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Marketing Mix and Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After implementation of marketing strategies, the managements help in controlling the marketing processes to establish level of actual performance and compare the results realized with established standards and expectation. The marketing manager has the responsibility to direct and supervise the marketing personnel on day-to-day basis. The manager ensures that every day activities are undertaken as planned and put in place corrective measures in case results are not positive.

Applied Marketing Applied Marketing combines a set of ideas that enables firms to undertake effective marketing and customer relation to foster business growth and make extra profits. Applied marketing entails a combination of ideas in planning, marketing, motivating marketing personnel, selling firm products, and advertising in a simplified way that helps organizations achieve positive results.

Applied marketing deals with real issue of marketing on the ground and provides the ideas to companies marketing there products the whole year. The application has a variety of principles that can help firms to make adjustments where necessary with respect to new trends and concepts in the highly competitive business environment. The most effective and successful side of applied marketing is coaching of individuals for what is clearly known to them.

It enables firms achieve their goals by providing realistic solutions to specific issues being undergone by firms. Applied marketing considers strengths of firms and capitalizes on the capabilities to encourage and guide firms to realize there full potential by critically analyzing information concerning the firm. This kind of marketing helps firms achieve positive results using there past experiences and knowledge about other firms that had faced similar challenges (Blythe 215).

Difference between a marketing Strategy and Plan A marketing strategy is a plan of action for identifying and analyzing a target market and developing a marketing mix to meet the needs of that market while a marketing plan is a written document that specifies the activities to be performed and implemented. The written document also specifies the means of controlling the marketing activities of an organization.

Marketing strategies act as a control measure to marketing plans designed to satisfy market needs and enable market penetration. The strategies test the plans laid down with respect to capability of achieving desirable results. More so, the strategies are developed to be applicable over plans of multiple years with a specific measure directed at goals and objectives to be accomplished within that specific year.

However, time span of the strategies and plans vary with respect to the rate at which environmental changes are experienced. Strategies are partly planned and partly unplanned due to the uncontrollable factors in the environment. Planed strategies are laid down with respect to controllable factors within the reach of the organization.

Best Corporate Citizens Home capital group Inc, Shoppers drug mart and Toyota Canada are examples of companies that portray a good example of good corporate citizens.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Mix and Marketing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Companies that have characteristics of good corporate citizens contribute resources to the community and generally help in improving quality of life among the people. Corporate citizens are those who engage in activities and operations that do not harm the society by practicing what is right, just, and fair before all. More over, the corporate citizens operate within the rules of the game with respect to law.

Above all aspects of maintaining a positive relationship with citizens, they need to make profits and generate revenue for the benefit of the society in general. Companies that are ranked as best corporate citizens have good image in the society and therefore can easily market themselves and their products as they reap the benefits of goodwill.

Social responsibility Corporate social responsibility entails an obligation of organizations to minimize their negative impacts and maximize there positive impacts on the society. Corporate social responsibility is used in marketing through creating positive relationship with the society in which the target market exists.

The society have the desire of knowing what marketers would do to help the people to solve their problems with respect to functions, importance of products being marketed. The society strongly approves of organizations that contribute to their wellbeing given the fact that products of there organization in the same way the products satisfy their needs.

Marketing to Business versus Marketing to Consumers Marketing to business includes marketing to individuals or groups that purchase specific goods for resale, use in daily operations and for production of other products while consumer marketing includes groups or individuals who purchase the products for the purpose of consumption. Business markets differ from consumer markets in that business market orders are huge and more costly with several individuals being involved in the purchase process.

Frequency of purchase in business markets is higher than purchases by consumers. Marketing cannot be effectively done to both markets as business markets are better informed about products and demand more detailed information due to desire to achieve personal and organizational goals.

There has been an increase in international trade and marketing due to introduction of trade alliances, markets, and agreements that promote free trade, economic and technological transfer globally. The future of international trade and marketing is likely to be based on technological advancement with transactions, agreements, and markets being technologically oriented.

Market segmentation is the process through which the overall market is divided into groups with same product needs to enable marketing mixes to be designed to match those needs. An example of market segmentation is geo-demographic segmentation, which divides the target group based on their lifestyles and demographic information.

Customer Relationship management is a system with internet capabilities that is used by enterprises to help their marketing departments to manage their relationship with customer in an orderly and systematic manner. Customer relationship management is on the increase as the need for effective relations with customers becomes necessary due to the increasingly competitive environment.

Services and not for profit businesses should be marketed to enable people who are interested in an organization, product, or social services get information to access them. Marketing of services and non-profit making businesses should consider developing a distribution channel to control the flow of non-profit products and means of communication to the clients.

The internet has changed and simplified marketing from the past where consumers responded to conventional advertising and trade shows. The internet brought in a new and simpler ways of getting and advertising information about products over the web.

Past methods are less effective than the internet and more environmentally harmful with excess consumption of energy and pollution from toxic wastes. Internet is more efficient with the use of search engines and social networking sites. Internet marketing uses a combination of creative and technical factors such as the application of design in advertising, and selling out.

The use of the internet to market products of an organization may also entail the use of the media in engaging customers in the target groups. Internet marketing has been simplified by a number of applications such as the banner advertising, email marketing, and search engines.

Controllable factors of marketing are those considered in the marketing mix of a company. The factors refer to aspects of production, pricing, distribution, and promotion of the products. On the other hand, uncontrollable factors are the environmental aspects that cannot be controlled by the organization. The uncontrollable factors include politics, economics, social, technology, competition, and government regulation factors (Fisk, Grove

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Fire Protection Report scholarship essay help

Introduction Fire protection engineering is an important concept that was integrated into the design and construction of the Lowry building which is an arts center that took three years to construct beginning in 1997.

The architects and fire safety engineers of the time knew well the cost of destroying the building by accidental fires. Thus the incorporated fire safety designs solutions for the building as discussed below. The paper discusses in detail about various design strategies, continues to evaluate the difference between prescriptive design and performance based designs.

Passive and active fire protection systems are discussed, an evaluation fire fighting installations, building materials and ends with a documents used in the construction of the building. There is need, however, to conduct much research on the behavior of construction materials under different load conditions and associated thermal effects.

Fire safety designs solutions Fire safety design solutions are critical components in ensuring the integrity of a building in mitigating against hazards due to fires as was detailed by the architect (The Building, n.d).In addition to that, the fire control officer concurred with the architect reinforcing the rationale for fire safety design solutions, typical of the Lowry building (Lowry, n.d).

The architect detailed that fire safety design solutions included considering design aspects such as the provision of adequate means for escape doors in the event of a fire, integrating reliable signage mechanisms to ensure a flexibly high standard systems consistent with fire safety standards. In the building, escape mechanisms that can accommodate disabled persons and children were incorporated into the design.

The design provides for lifts and associated communication mechanisms as set out in the design and fire safety standards (The Building Regulations 2000, 2006).In a detailed discussion between the architect and the fire control officer, emergency folders as one of the cost effective approaches of fighting fires formed the basis of designing the building for fire protection.

The architect detailed that for a means of escape doors, corridor fire doors have been used to partition adjacent corridors incorporating self closing mechanisms. However, the design allows for fire resisting construction materials that measure up to the standard requirements outlined in building regulations and legal requirements (The Building Regulations 2000, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to fit a ½ hrs fire resisting door based on the fundamental principles of designing for performance, besides prescriptive design requirements. On the other hand, several circumstances allow demand that electromagnetic device integrated into doors and staircases helps to minimize damage to fires.

Through the eye of the architect, the fire control, officer could see other fire safety designs solutions to incorporate means of escape stairs. In the design, each step is designed with distinguishing edges that include contrasting nosing with an appropriate slip resistant surface. In line with construction standards, the architect revealed that escape stairs are sustainably maintained to ensure protection from adverse weather effects such as algae and frost among other factors.

Typically, the design and construction limits the use of spiral and helix stairs. However, they have been incorporated into the design for their aesthetic appeal and plenty of space (The Building. n.d). In addition to that, the architect asserted that such stairs were used to accommodate the needs of escaping children and disabled people who could be in the building in the event of a fire.

Boarding and lodging areas are installed with fire alarm systems that allow for real time reporting of the incident of a fire. These installations comply with standard architectural provisions and legal requirements. Any alarm is directly communicated to an alarm receiving office which is continuously manned by well trained and experienced technical fire fighting staff that is made up of a quick response team in the event of a fire (Information Policy Team, 2006).

Information about the occurrence of a fire is continuously relayed to the remotely located centre to provide information about the status and progress of any fire. In addition to that, the alarm center is computerize and logs all events of fires in a database for future analysis.

The design includes refugee areas that are typically provided with communication systems and staircase enclosures. That allows people who are disabled to communicate with the fire fighting personnel in the event of a fire. At this point it is evident that the architects worked consultatively with fire control officers in informing the design for fire safety protection focusing at the disabled and children.

According to the architect, the fire safety designs solutions focused at direct access to fire fighting equipments specifically including a range of equipments and devices. That was in particular inclusive of height restrictions, the weight capacity of the building according to the building codes and regulations used at the time of construction.

We will write a custom Report on Fire Protection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, fire fighting installations are in accordance with fire fighting regulations and standards discussed later on. These installations provide solutions in fighting fires by the use of extinguishing agents that are discussed elsewhere in this paper (The Building Regulations 2000, 2006).

The design of ducting and ventilation systems incorporates fire fighting equipments that were carefully integrated into the system at the design and construction stages. In addition to that, Intumescent grills were used in the compartmentalization process to attain standard escape ducts as outlined in the fire safety regulations and standards discussed elsewhere.

However, the architect agreed with the fact that both prescriptive and performance based designs borrowed from each other to form the basis of the design. Therefore, a brief comparative analysis of both approaches is necessary as discussed below.

Prescriptive and performance based design A strong distinction between performance based design and prescriptive design could further inform the research process into the fire safety designs solutions specific to the building in question (ABS. 2004). Under the prescriptive approach, designer engineers are more concerned with adhering to the specifications laid down in the building codes and regulations without caring about the ultimate performance of the design.

These codes lay stringent restrictions on designers and leave them with little or no flexibility to develop a design that incorporates fire safety elements particularly when buildings on limited space (Galati, Vollintine, Nanni, Dharani,

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Through the Prism of Culture: Human Rights as They Are Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Because of the specifics of the national character, the USA has always been struggling for justice and the fair resolution of conflicts. Therefore, the traditional idea of justice is inherited in generations, which means that the U. S. has its own approach to the conflicts solution.

However, trying to create the peaceful environment with the fair and just system to adhere to, the USA often faces misunderstandings and misconceptions. Despite the U. S., attempts to create a safer environment, several countries still consider the American idea of justice as a way of intrusion into the state affairs of the other countries.

One of the latest news concerning the USA world politics affected not only my community and me, but also the entire country. As China condemned the USA reaction to the government critics’ arrest, the Chinese leaders criticized the political position of the USA and suggested that the country is trying to intrude into the other states’ affairs. Since such supposition is nothing but an erroneous judgement carried under the spur of emotions, there is not a single grain of truth in this statement.

It seems to me that such judgement, with the arguments both far-reaching and far-fetched, discredits the image of the USA in front of the entire world, not mentioning that it sets the reason for the international conflict. Since Chinese government is making the assumptions which are likely to inflame the international scandal, it seems to me that the situation must be somewhat tackled.

There is no doubt that the U. S. system of handling the international affairs is rather peculiar, yet the other countries have no reason to claim that America is trying to intrude into the other countries’ national affairs and influence the course of the national politics.

In spite of the fact that the statement itself did not result in any harmful effect, it can trigger serious political problems in the future. Such claims are likely to hinder the international relationships among the USA and the other world countries, which means that the issue is to be handled as soon as possible, otherwise the harm caused will be irreparable.

Despite the claims of the Chinese government, the USA is able to prove the efficient and failure-proof system of handling the home and foreign policy affairs. Taking a closer look at the national system of human rights, one starts understanding that the country provides the maximum of liberty to its citizen and works to create the most comfortable environment for the dwellers of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the points of the Human Rights Laws of New York State, for instance, one can see clearly that the former have been developed to support the population and provide them with the maximum safety and at the same time maximum liberty. Taking especial care of its citizen, the Human Rights Laws of New York offer specific care and protection to all its dwellers, providing that they shall not be offended by any physical or legal person:

It shall be deemed an exercise of the police power of the state for the protection of the public welfare, health and peace of the people of this state, and in fulfillment of the provisions of the constitution of this state concerning civil rights (N. Y. Executive Law 2006, 2)

Therefore, it is clear that the U. S. system of justice and policy, both the home and the foreign one, is aimed at providing complete certainty and safety. Unless the norms of the States’ Laws are broken, the protection that the latter offer to the people will be complete.

Considering the system of Human Rights that the Chinese government suggests, and comparing it to the one introduced in the United States, one has all the rights to claim that there are certain differences between the two. However, it must be admitted that the Chinese ideas of what human rights are have been greatly changed over the past several decades. As Barbezat (2009) emphasizes,

The People’s Republic of China has experienced rapid and cardinal changes in its political, economic, and societal realms over the past thirty years. These changes, in conjunction with China’s political and economic policies abroad, have left recognizable imprints on a variety of human rights issues (4)

The abovementioned changes concerned the most crucial issues of the modern Human Rights system and included only the most essential aspects of Human Rights ideas. Therefore, it can be considered that there is certain lack of experience in establishing the system of rights into the Chinese society. Offering their help in creating the right environment for establishing Human Rights system in the Chinese society, the United States pursues the noblest ideas.

In spite of the fact that at the current stage of the relationships between China and USA there are certain problems, there is the chance that China will consider the USA actions as the attempts to lend a helping hand to the country, and the Chinese government will drop their charges to the USA.

We will write a custom Essay on Through the Prism of Culture: Human Rights as They Are specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List N. Y. Executive Law (2006) Article 15. Human Rights Law. New York, NY: New York Publishing Company.

Barbezat, S. M. (2009) Tracking of Women and the Harmonious Society: The Chinese National Plan of Action on Combating Trafficking in Women and Children within the Chinese Patriarchy and Reform. Human Rights and Human Welfare. Denver, CO: University of Denver Publishing.

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Fashion helps us to define and show who we are and what we do Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Levels of Identity

Individual Identity

Collective Identity

National Identity

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Fashion is like a kind of visual arts: people come to Karl Lagerfeld’s fashion show and express their excitement the same way they do at the Louvre when looking at da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Fashion is like sports: everybody wants to outstrip competitors and be the best.

Fashion is like a magic wand: it seems to one that he/she just needs to put on a new splendid outfit, and his/her life will change completely. Funny as it may seem, these words are hardly an overstatement: today, fashion is constantly in the spotlight in media and remains one of the most discussable things in society.

Scholars give different evaluations to the influence of fashion on contemporary people emphasizing both positive and negative social impacts; however, the fact of this influence is evident. That is why it is reasonable to continue the study of how fashion trends influence an individual’s life and how they are perceived by people.

The paper aims at describing the influence fashion has upon our lives. The key notion of this discussion is identity. It is quite broad and can be defined in different ways; there are several levels of identity, and each of them requires particular discussion (Schwartz and Pantin 4).

This approach seems to be appropriate for investigating fashion: as Loughran (4) marks, on the one hand, when people make decision about what to put on, they focus on their own principles, interests, and preferences. On the other hand, fashion trends find their origins in culture, traditions, social processes etc. and thus promote people’s integration.

The study embraces three levels of identity and implies discussion of several questions, such as:

How can be the notion of one’s identity defined?

What is the mechanism of influence of fashion on an individual’s identity?

For an individual who demonstrates interest towards fashion trends and adjusts his/her style to them, is fashion a means of demonstrating belonging to some group, or, backwards, the way to highlight his/her exceptionality?

How does the communicative function of fashion work?

What expectations do individuals have about the results of efforts they make to follow the fashion trends?

Fashion helps us to define and show who we are and what we do, and the research below aims at understanding how this help comes to be. The study includes analysis of scholars’ works and study of the cases from history and contemporary media.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Levels of Identity Scholars offer different schemes of an individual’s identity depending on the identity levels they mark out. Based on Erikson’s and Marcia’s models, Schwartz and Pantin (1-40) describe five levels of identity, which are:

Ego identity;

Personal identity;

Social identity;

Ethnic identity;

Cultural identity.

Hall (cited in Kirchner 3) offers a generalized model of one’s identity, which includes three levels:

Individual;

Collective;

National.

It is possible to state that the individual level included into this scheme corresponds to the ego identity and personal identity from the abovementioned model; the collective identity is similar to the social identity; national identity is similar to ethnic identity and cultural identity. For the aims of this study, the three-level identity model is used in analysis of the link between fashion and identity. Below, the role of fashion at each of identity levels is discussed.

Individual Identity It is reasonable to begin the study with the level of an individual identity, which can be defined as “a kind of self-identification as a human being with cognitive and social capabilities” (Kirchner 3). An individual’s appearance is considered to be an important element of his/her identity: as Craik (137) argues, “…Our body image forms the basis of our idea of self and identity as an individual, shaped both by our bodily performance and by how others perceive us”. This corroborates the reasonability of studying the “individual-fashion” link.

The notion “individual identity” includes a set of characteristics that outline who an individual is and how he/she is perceived by the other people. It seems reasonable to say that one’s identity is a priceless and inalienable asset he/she is lucky to possess. Not accidentally, an individual feels the desire to “communicate” his/her individual identity to the society (Kellner 264).

Oscar Wilde highlighted the importance of this “communication” with humor and at the same time very precisely, “It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances. The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invisible” (quoted in Davis 1).

The “messages” about one’s individual identity are numerous: style of life, interests, masculinity/femininity, ambitions, good taste, intelligence, profession, wealth, any kinds of personality traits etc. At the same time, a range of devices used in expression of these characteristics is also very wide: color and color combinations, silhouette, cut, fabric, length, style, texture and oth. (6)

We will write a custom Research Paper on Fashion helps us to define and show who we are and what we do specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different combinations of these devices provide one with an opportunity for eloquent self-expression and endless experiments. Fashion is able to express any “dramatic type” one chooses: conservative, cool, glamorous, successful, tender, intelligent, charismatic, “snobbish”, passionate and oth.; fashion specialists are always ready to offer the audience the corresponding style.

In her (2005), Reynolds provides a broad range of “fashion personality” types, for example: the “classic type” preferred by women who “want to make a good impression”, “think long term”, and “self-monitor”; the “creative sparkler” type offered to bright females who “have many different sides and like to express them all, mixing colors, moods, and textures…”; the “nature girl” type which is for women who want to emphasize their inner world and “prefer comfort over fashion”, etc (157-159).

However, keeping in mind the fact that every individual is unique and inimitable, it is reasonable to assume that a number of such “fashion personalities” is incredibly big.

Evolution of one’s identity starts at the moment of his/her birth; some characteristics are formed under the influence of the external environment (Schwartz and Pantin 8). Thus, it is interesting to answer the following question: how do one’s dressing habits form? Craik (136) offers an interesting term “prestigious imitation”: it reflects a young individual’s desire to “imitate” people whom they consider to be authoritative.

Small children copy the actions their parents take and “absorb” the knowledge about what is good and what is inadmissible. Fashion also becomes an object of “prestigious imitation”: a child understands what he/she can put on for different occasions; being provided by the external environment, this knowledge is extending.

However, this may give birth to a question: does this mean that the way an individual looks is formed by the environment only, regardless of his/her personality? Kellner disproves this statement (263) and refers to an interesting example of Madonna, a famous American singer.

Madonna’s extravagant style was not created as a means of drawing attention of the audience; the singer began forming it during her young years: being pushed by the teenage “rebel spirit”, the future star began experimenting with her clothes – as Madonna herself says, “Only because we knew that our parents didn’t like it” (265).

The abovementioned example can be evaluated from the perspective of fashion’s communicative function. Craik (137) talks about social “performing” and “projection” of bodies: an individual has a desire to communicate to the society who he/she is.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fashion helps us to define and show who we are and what we do by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fashion “equips” one with a choice “of clothes, style, and image through which one could produce an individual identity” (Kellner 264). Thus, Madonna makes her original choice in clothes and style in order to brightly and precisely demonstrate to the society who she is and how she perceives herself.

Fashion and other industries use the idea of “choice” to address customers’ individual identity and increase sales. Providing different “modifications” of the same goods, brands give customers an opportunity to show who they are thus fulfill their self-“positioning”.

Craik (138) offers an example of Nokia advertising: an illustration of an “unremarkable ear” presented phones for everyday users; a “delicate ear” was used to illustrate phones for mothers who take care of their children; an ear with many rings meant a phone for “cool guys” etc. Gadget, clothes and accessories brands give customers an opportunity to highlight the most important characteristics of their personality with the help of their products.

However, communicating personality is not the only function of fashion in one’s life. Many people consider fashion to be a means of changing one’s personality and, as a result, of changing his/her life – the term “fashion therapy” seems to quite precisely reflect this effect.

For example, talking about a “vampire trend” in fashion, Brunelli says a vampire look is not the way to communicate the society that one is a “vampire within”, but rather the way to become “less vampire” (172). Giving shape to the “shady” side of one’s personality is a step towards defending his/her tender soul and bring more peace and harmony to it.

Many fashion specialists state that changing style does bring strong positive changes into an individual’s life and issue “guidelines” for those who want to improve their lives with the help of “fashion therapy”. Reynolds says that every element of one’s look matters: your ear-rings, hairdo, shoes or bag are able to tell more than your words do; for example, the author writes, “Now, that you’ve fostered the proper shoe attitude, you’re breaking new ground in all areas of your life and loving it.

You’re using fashion statements to say to yourself and to the world that you are a woman who values her appearance, appreciates quality, changes with the times, and possesses the all-important je ne sais quoi” (219). The French expression used by Reynolds denotes some enigmatic charm that is difficult to describe with words but possible to express by means of fashion and style.

Thus, fashion is an effective tool that an individual may use in order to understand, formulate and demonstrate his/her individual identity, to emphasize his/her “extraordinary” nature. However, it is impossible to imagine billions of people who create their individual dressing styles based on their unique personalities; the notion of fashion trends comes to mind and makes this idea unrealistic. How come we are all unique but prefer to buy the same t-shirts and bags regardless of what country we live in?

The study of the sources devoted to fashion and identity gives an opportunity to make the following conclusion: paradoxically, people express their uniqueness through their belonging to certain moves and trends.

A bright example of such contradiction is a teenager who begins to copy the style of a certain informal social group or a favorite rock-band in order to communicate the characteristics of his/her inner world to the society; this imitation gives him/her the precious sense of individuality, despite the fact of copying. This leads to the study of the connection between fashion and the collective level identity.

Collective Identity Most individuals cannot exist separately from the society; they try to find groups of people who share their interests and life style or have similar characteristics of personality. The sense of an individual’s belonging to a certain social group is what scholars call his/her collective identity (Sevanen 35).

Despite people consider fashion to be a means of becoming exceptional in their own perception and that of the other people, they often follow its trends to get an opportunity to join a certain group of people through their appearance – or, at least, to get the sense of belonging to this group.

People follow different fashion trends as they want to look like representatives of groups they sympathize with: celebrities, the “middle class individuals”, feminists, “popular” high school classmates, members of informal social group, etc. The abovementioned case of Madonna at first seems to be an exception from the rule: the famous singer brought her unique style onto the stage and made her fans follow it with excitement.

However, the future fashion icon also found her inspiration in copying and imitation (Kellner 265): Madonna was inspired by the fresh fashion trends of the 1960s-70s that were revolutionary and provocative. Long-haired and informally dressed rock bands opposed their style to the conservative trends that dominated in the society earlier. “By means of such fashion moves, individuals could quickly produce their own identities through resisting dominant styles in their own ways” (Kellner 265).

Even criteria that seem to not require any “verification” through appearance, such as being a male or a female, are reflected in individuals’ looks. Male and female identities are discussed in (Crane 2000): by means of clothes, accessories and style, one demonstrates how he/she understands being a man or a woman.

Nevertheless, today the manifestations of this identity criterion become more and more blurred. Davis talks about “androgynous symbols” in fashion: men and women “exchange” the visible attributes of masculine and feminine identity (36).

Rolley studies the style of female homosexual couples who lived between the middle of the 19th century and the middle of the 20th century; the author marks that on the one hand, the desire of a couple to feel their union, and on the other hand, the intent to demonstrate it to the society made it use the language of clothes, “It could also, through the use of gendered dress, suggest heterosexual difference and the presence of active “masculine” desire within the sameness of lesbianism” (34).

At the same time, the gender criterion strongly interacts with the other ones, such as profession, wealth and social status; therefore, fashion mostly presents us not just a man or a woman but rather a successful male businessman, a charming wealthy lady, a young male freelancer fond of music and philosophy, etc.

It is of particular interest to discuss fashion regarding the collective identity of women, as their social status has been evolving for centuries, which has been reflected by trend changes in the female fashion world. Emancipation of women led to active “borrowings” from the masculine style: the difference between an outfit of an early 19th century woman and a contemporary female demonstrates that a woman:

Obtained a right to demonstrate her beauty and to choose any style she likes;

Started living a more active life full of everyday routine and obligations;

Is not afraid to be unique.

The clothes became more revealing and at the same time more convenient. On the other hand, the women’s liberation inspired females to revise their attitude to fashion itself: feminists criticized numerous manifestations of fashion and argued that women should not be “enslaved by ludicrous “beauty” standards” (cited in Hollows 140).

At the same time, female fashion is able to reflect a broader range of social tendencies than the women’s emancipation itself. Being strongly interested in fashion, women present themselves in the role of consumers of fashion industry. The opposition of the “consumption capitalism” (Hollows 138) and the society that condemns the consumption cult (Gurova 80) is reflected in women’s style.

Gurova emphasizes that in the Soviet society, simplicity and modesty in style were considered to be the main manifestations of a good taste and at the same time the sign of resistance to the “irrational consumer behavior” (80). Soviet clothes also had a role of an indicator of one’s lifestyle, position in the society etc: the totalitarian spirit advanced the possibility of quick “classifying” people based on their appearance.

Thus, at the collective identity level, the communicative function of fashion performs itself in several dimensions. Firstly, an individual demonstrates to the other people his/her belonging to a social group (or, at least, his/her sympathy to it): he/she declares that he/she shares the ideas and values of this group and is proud to be a part of it. Secondly, the style of a social group communicates these ideas and values to the rest of the society.

Rebellion, aggression, peacefulness, aspiration for changes – a range of messages that can be performed by a social group’s style is very big. In some sense, collective identity can be understood as an individual identity of a social group that, analogically to a single individual, wants to demonstrate what it is and how it positions itself. Thirdly, social groups’ style is to the great extent the reflection of the processes that take place in the society.

Recurring to the abovementioned example of Madonna (Kellner 266), it is impossible to omit the fact that the revolutionary fashion trends of 1960s-70s grew on the basis of significant social changes that took place throughout the World and especially in the USA. The growing popularity of anti-war ideas, “sexual revolution”, emergence of 1960s counterculture and particularly of hippie subculture – these social trends found their incarnation in literature, arts and, undoubtedly, fashion.

The image of a 1960s hippie is highly recognizable; it is saturated with symbols that tell one about the ideology of the hippie movement: long hair, bright informal clothes, the pacifist emblem communicate the ideas of returning back to nature, rejecting the “mainstream” values of the American society, living in harmony with he environment and the other people, avoiding aggression, feeling inner freedom and expressing one’s “self” (Craik 290).

Other subcultures, such as punk, hip-hop etc, also eloquently demonstrate the values of their representatives: as Crane writes, “The clothing behavior of street cultures has been compared to a “magnifying glass”, making it possible to observe the fluctuations in people’s attitudes and behavior that constitute the character of a particular period of time” (187).

The ideas provided above lead one to the idea about significance of historical events and social trends for evolution of fashion and one’s preferences in his/her style, and therefore corroborate the reasonability of studying the role of fashion at the broader level, which is national identity.

National Identity National identity can be presented as a specific kind of collective identity: it concerns an individual’s sense of belonging to a big, historically formed group of people united by a big range of factors. Correspondingly, the characteristics of one’s national identity are formed under the influence of external environment: they “take shape in some socially, culturally and historically specific context. To a great extent, they are products of various social, cultural and historical factors or determinants” (Sevanen 46).

The notion of national identity is connected with those of ethnical identity and cultural identity: to the great extent they are similar when ethnicity, nationality and culture of a certain community coincide; however, in the contemporary globalized World where many countries’ populations are multicultural, certain differences between these sets may exist.

For the needs of this study, we use a generalized notion of national identity which implies an individual’s belonging to a big group of people historically formed on a certain territory and united by ethnicity, values, traditions, culture, social norms etc (Kirchner 3).

These characteristics manifest themselves through a big range of visual means, such as visual arts, utensils, architecture etc. Fashion is also an important element of this range: national costumes of different ethnical groups are a subject of their pride and become a tradition that is passed from one generation to another.

Khan (61-74) provides an interesting example that illustrates the power and significance of national identity. In 1982, Zandra Rhodes demonstrated her collection based on the elements of the Indian national female costumes.

The Indian sari was quite originally interpreted by the author, “Ripped, shredded at the edges, scattered with strategic holes, it constituted, people felt, not a design but an assault” (61). The designer did not take into account cultural significance of sari for Indian women and provoked a strong negative reaction.

The key characteristic of a nation is its sense of union: people who belong to the same nation have a common history and a common culture; their task is to communicate it to the rest of the World and to their next generations. Therefore, it is not an overstatement that the function of the national identity is survival of a nation; that is why, national identity continues being expressed in fashion, despite the popularity of global style trends and growth of international fashion businesses.

Not only has not globalization eliminated local spirit in fashion, but, as it has been stated above, has brought new interesting tendencies in maintenance of national identity. It is of particular interest to study contemporary Islamic identity which is to some extent a unique case and requires separate discussion. For many centuries, the clothes of Muslim women have been communicating the image of an ideal female as it is seen by Muslim men: a wife should be tender, enigmatic and chaste.

Besides, female costumes also have been reflecting women’s role in family and society: a woman receives care, attention and protection from her man and is at the same time ready to listen to his opinions and decisions. Thus, the costume of an Islamic woman does not expose her body in public; her sexuality is covered with enigma, and only her man can enjoy it.

Today in Islamic countries, social life remains strongly influenced by religion and traditions based on religious postulates; however, in some societies, intensive process of secularization can be noticed. A bright example is Turkey where religious and secular ideas co-exist.

Turkey is an official candidate for EU entrance; democratic parties gain authority in the country; women’s rights become broader – and these tendencies inevitably incarnate in fashion: as Akpinar says, “It is possible to observe a Muslim female director of an underwear firm covering her head with a chic “turban” and wearing a fashionable Islamic-style suit while taking care of female and male models who are dressing only in underwear” (135).

This case shows how Turkish females’ collective and national identities interact: on the one hand, they communicate their belonging to the strengthening emancipation move; on the other hand, they emphasize their respect towards Turkish culture and traditions. A similar view is expressed in (Cjnar 2005): Islamic costume traditions assimilate with those secular and give birth to new interesting trends, such as “wearing elegant dresses and stylish headscarves in compliance with the Islamic dress code” (89).

It is interesting that, according to the author, not only does not this tendency blur the Turkish people’s national identity, but strengthens it: they have an opportunity to present themselves as a stylish, contemporary nation and to demonstrate the charm of Islamic fashion. A similar idea is offered in (Khan 62): after the “sari incident” described above, the attempts to make a sari an element of the up-to-date fashion style were taken by the local designers, and this experiment proved to be successful.

Having complete understanding of what is good and what is inadmissible for the Indian society regarding wearing the national clothes, the designers offered contemporary versions of Indian looks that nevertheless reflected the “Indian spirit”.

Another interesting perspective is the fashion trends of Muslim diasporas existing in different countries of the World. For example, in her essay titled To Be French, DeGroat discusses the issue of integration of local and immigrant cultures in France: while some immigrants accept the local culture and begin calling themselves “French”, big immigrant communities have been resisting to the integration, which is reflected in fashion (73-92); in this case, it is mostly spoken about Muslim immigration to France.

Like in case of collective identity, national identity can be characterized by fashion in many dimensions. For example, speaking about Hofstede’s (2003) famous classification of nations, it is possible to say that the criteria offered by him are communicated by the way the representatives of a nation look.

Particularly, the representatives of nations with high power distance will more actively demonstrate their social status and prosperity while the low level of power distance will make fashion more democratic; collectivistic societies encourage unification while those individualistic appreciate one’s individual style and originality; for nations with orientation to the past, national costumes are of big value while those oriented to the future prefer a “globalized” style.

It may seem that considering the contemporary globalization trends, national identity in fashion should gradually disappear; however, stating this is very untimely and even groundless. Scholars who study globalization in different fields noticed that global trends meet the opposition of “localization”, and offered a term “glocalization” (2007): globalization obtains its “human face” when the global trends approach different parts of the World; the global meets the local, and they enrich each other.

Thus, it is possible to imagine that soon we will be able to see Arabic women in a “global look” or Karl Lagerfeld’s collection devoted to a sari or a hijab.

Conclusion The study corroborated the statement about fashion’s ability to define and show who we are and what we do. At three levels of one’s identity, through its communicative function, fashion demonstrates the traits of an individual’s personality and his/her belonging to small and large groups of people.

At the individual identity level, one shows how he/she understands him/herself and forms the other’s perception of him/herself. Fashion does not just reflect one’s life; it is able to bring positive changes to it. At the collective level, people use fashion to demonstrate their belonging to various social groups.

Different styles used by these groups communicate their values and world-view. They also reflect the tendencies that take shape in the society. The national identity level presents a kind of collective identity with a very big community united by common territory, history and culture. Nations need national identity in order to survive, and fashion serves to this function. Despite the global trends, national fashion trends do not seem to disappear, at least in the nearest future.

Works Cited Akpinar, Aylin. “Discourses of Islam/Secularism and Identity-Building Processes among Turkish University Youth.” Ed. Haideh Moghissi. Gender, Culture and Identity. USA/Canada: Routledge, 2006. 133-150.

Brunelli, Pier P. Emotional Trend: Psyche – Creativity – Beauty to Fashion. Milano, It.: Up to Date Fashion Academy, 2008.

Cjnar, Alev. Modernity, Islam, and Secularism in Turley: Bodies, Places, and Time. Miieapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.

Craik, Jennifer. Fashion: The Key Concepts. Oxford; New York: Berg, 2009.

Crane, Diane. Fashion and Its Social Agendas: Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Davis, Fred. Fashion, Culture and Identity. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1992.

DeGroat, Judith. “To Be French: Franco-Maghrebians and the Commission de la Nationalite”. Ed. Eve Walsh Stoddard. Global Multiculturalism: Comparative Perspectives on Ethnicity, Race, and Nation. Lanham: Rowman

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Visualizing the Story: In the Eye of an Actor Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The Yearling, a novel which broke new grounds in movie making, sweeping away the boundaries between an adventure film and a drama, turned to be one of the pearls of the American movie art. As millions of people saw the characters of the famous and gripping novel in flesh and blood, the story became ever more popular. However, it is obvious that the book and the movie suggest slightly diffelent vision of the story. Though bound with the same plot, they offer different palettes of feelings, which is quite a peculiar subject to discuss.

Tracking the common details of the book and the movie, it is important to mark that the film scriptwriter did not make great changes to the plot. Surprisingly, this made the film not a pathetic imitation of a novel, but a movie that can stand on its own. Unlike most of the films based on books, The Yearling is enjoyable both as a novel and a film, incredibly exciting and moving.

Another feature which can be traced in both the original story and the movie is that each is filled with intense emotions. As soon as the reader or the spectator starts on a journey into the backwoods of Florida, where Jody lives a careless life of a little boy faces his first great grief, (s)he becomes an integral part of the story as well.

Seeing the world with the eyes of Jody, the spectator understands that the movie sucks him/her in, inviting to take the lead part in the movie – or, rather, become Judy for the next couple of hours. This is what actually happens to the reader of the book, as the plot of the story unwinds.

The third and the most important common feature of the novel and the film is that both convey the specific atmosphere of the American South, with its peculiar speech and with its spirit, filled with pride and hospitality. With help of the brilliant cast, each dialogue in the book was brought into the movie, turning it into a piece of the Southern America carved out of the Florida landscape and planted into the movie.

However, there are a plenty of differences between the movie and the book as well. It takes only a couple of glances to see all these peculiarities which make the film a piece of its own.

Among the most evident differences is the relationship between Jodi and his father. In the novel, it is only the very end of the story when Ezra “Penny” Baxter grows closer to his sin, whereas in the movie the bond growing between Jody and his father is more explicit.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the movie offers another interpretation of Penny’s character. Posed as a cool-blooded and, with Jody’s vision of the situation, almost cruel, in the movie she is depicted as a person who is guided by the clearest and the most logical reasons. Ordering Jody to go to the woods and kill the deer, Penny is not being violent, but merely trying to avoid another problem or nuisance, the movie argues.

The last, but not the least comes the evident difference in the way the book and the movie end. It seems that in the novel the passing from reality into dream is much quicker and sharper than in the movie. Though the film ending leaves the air of sadness as well, it does not have the anguish and pain which the final lines of the book are shot through.

However, it must be still admitted that the movie is a brilliant piece and a real masterpiece. With the talent of the actors and the touching plot, it became the world classic. Depicting the difficulty of choice, it will remain the symbol of friendship, loyalty and the pain of turning into an adult.

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Texas Concealed Weapons Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Bill Summary

The Pros and Cons of the Legislation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction As of 12 March, 2010, about 48 states in the United States permitted non-law enforcement individuals to carry concealed weapons such as handguns in public. However, no such legal provisions are allowed in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Washington, DC except for active and retired police officers.

Accordingly, those supporting the state concealed carry legislations (CCW) argue that the likelihood of a criminal attacking an armed person is very minimal. On the other hand, the opponents of these laws argue that allowing non-law enforcement persons to carry concealed guns would lead to increased gun crimes and inadvertent gun injuries in public places (Austin par. 3).

However, beside the high-profile shootings in Virginia Tech, University of Texas, and Northern Illinois University, different reports show that in the year 2008, there were not less than 5000 assaults, 3000 sexual assaults, and 4500 robberies in different college campus across the United States (Austin par. 7). As a result, the Texas House of Representatives introduced a legislation, which allows carrying of concealed weapons in college premises.

The bill, which was introduced by Rep. Joe Driver, seeks to give residents of Texas who are licensed to carry guns as stipulated under certain state legislations similar rights to self-defense within college campuses (Austin par. 2). Therefore, this essay provides a review of the contents of the bill, and an explanation of the pros and cons of the bill as provided by various expert groups and individuals.

Bill Summary According to the CCW legislation, a license holder is allowed to carry a concealed firearm in any institution of higher education in Texas. Moreover, the institution is not allowed to adopt any regulations, provisions or rules seeking to prohibit the license holder from carrying the weapon to college. However, in relation to subsection (e), an institution of higher education in Texas is allowed to adopt regulations regarding the storage of firearms in college premises.

In addition, the institution may adopt regulations after consultations with students and faculty members to prohibit license holders from carrying their guns in restricted premises within the institution. Besides, the legislation does not provide for license holders to carry their guns into hospitals run by the institution for higher education (Wentworth et al. 1-6).

The Pros and Cons of the Legislation Proponents of the CCW legislation give various reasons as to why they support the enactment of the law. For instance, David Burnett, the president and spokesperson of the group, Students for Concealed Carry, argues that CCW comprises of fully established laws in Texas, which provide for the right to self-defense for license holders. Besides, the process of establishing eligible persons for the CCW involves considerable deliberations on one’s age, psychological and mental status, training, and other background checks (Burnett par. 6).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the legislation states clearly that only license holders and legally-armed individuals are allowed to carry weapons in colleges. Furthermore, historical events show that ‘Gun-free Zones’ do not deter criminals from committing crime, and thus, concealed weapons would allow individuals in such zones to protect themselves and others from hostile criminals.

Additionally, studies show that over 26 colleges are currently allowing firearms in college premises without any unprecedented problems (Burnett par. 11). Therefore, the legislation does not increase the risk of gun crimes but it can help in providing the much-deserved protection in campuses.

On the other hand, opponents of the legislation argue that providing untrained or undertrained individuals with guns will pose increased risk to these individuals and their colleagues due to unintentional accidents (Burnett par. 3). Furthermore, public opinion shows that the larger population is against the presence of guns in places like sports grounds, banks, hospitals, and campuses.

Here, the opponents of the state concealed carry legislations (CCW) argue that there is the paramount need to stop the violence epidemic associated with over 30,000 deaths and 70,000 injuries annually. In addition, the CCW procedures have several rope holes, which have led to availability of too many weapons in too many public areas (Burnett par. 7). As a result, there is the need to limit access to guns in order to minimize crime and accidents in public places.

Conclusion From the foregoing discussions, we note that the state concealed carry legislation (CCW) has many benefits as well as shortcomings, which are worth the attention of the authorities responsible. However, the fact that most colleges are unable to provide sufficient protection to all students cannot be overstated.

Moreover, claims that colleges are much safer than most cities and urban establishments do not hold considering that currently, cases of crime, sexual assaults, and killings are on the rise in most institutions for higher education in the US. As a result, if these institutions have failed in providing security to students and faculty members, then there is no need to deprive them of their right to self-defense. Therefore, there will be a net positive impact in most colleges in Texas upon enactment of the legislation.

Works Cited Austin, Mark. Texas leads nation with campus carry bill. ConcealedCampus.com, 2011. 08 April 2011

We will write a custom Essay on Texas Concealed Weapons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Burnett, David. Concealed guns: should adults have the right to carry a concealed handgun? Santa Monica, CA: ProCon.org., 2010. 08 April 2011

Wentworth, et al. S.B. No. 1164: an act relating to the carrying of concealed handguns on the campuses of the institutions of higher education. The legislature of the State of Texas, n.d. 08 April 2011

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An Analysis of Films Research Paper college essay help

Three films that have been chosen for this analysis are: a) The Good The Bad and The Ugly, b) For a Few Dollars More and c) Fist Full of Dollars. They all are directed by Sergio Leone and belong to the Western genre. Clint Eastwood is the protagonist of all the three movies. They are all blockbuster movies with a huge popularity and business all over the world during sixties and seventies. Originally, these movies were made in Italy, Germany, and Spain, as the terrain was similar to northwest American terrain.

The movies present the nineteenth century American culture, the time spam of around late 1800. It was the time of exploration, development and American Civil War. They all are unique because represent the typical countryside gang wars and rivalry of bandits and the quest of the bounty hunters. In that age, Americans were influenced by other cultures of that period like the Mexicans, Hispanics, and Indians cultures.

The heroic moment of all the films is the popular ‘Mexican standoff’ of the hero. ‘Mexican standoff’ is a condition in which two or more opponents use revolver to aim each other. A person wins if he kills and shots the opponent first. The main theme of all the three movies is the same that, everyone including the hero is after the gold and money.

The bandits are looting people, robbing banks, there is rootless killing, everyone is running after the money by whatever means possible. These movies entertain us by countryside epic, the deserted terrains, horses and the hard lifestyle of the cowboys. The three movies have created many famous character, Tuco, Angel Eyes, Ramón, Indio and Client Eastwood’s character, ‘the man with no name’.

Sound Analysis Scene selected: The prison camp in the movie: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: (from 90 min to 105 min)

The prison camp scene of the movie is selected for this analysis. The scene is roughly around 10 to 15 minutes. The sound affect is very prominent in also most every clip, and the music plays important part to in the movie. The latest DVD version of this movie was released in 2003.

However, the original movie’s music was complete in itself. It demonstrated wonderful effort of designing, recording, mixing and editing of the sound. The sound crew has demonstrated professionalism and mastery of their art. These movies are considered as masterpieces. They got famous because of the lyrics and sound affect.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the other sequels of the films, the selected scene is composed using the postproduction sound. The ‘sound design’ exhibits the skillfulness of the composing crew. The director has taken especial care that the sound runs side by side with the action. An Academic Award winner Mnnio Morricone, has composed the lyrics of all the three films including the sound of the selected scene. He is known as influential sound composer in film industry.

Sergio Leone hired him for his films, to work on the ‘gunshots, whistles, jaw harps, trumpets, voices, guitars, and other orchestra arrangement’. His early budget was not enough for a full orchestra. With the major success in Sergio Leone’s two films ‘Fist Full of Dollars’, ‘For a Few Dollars More’, he was now no more restrict due to the budget.

Hence, in his major work ‘The good the Bad and the Ugly’ Mnnio Morricone’s was available with his full team of orchestra. He created the most famous lyrics, ‘The Death of a Soldier’, ‘The Ecstasy of Gold’, ‘Marcia Without Hope’ and the famous ‘Title lyrics’. He collaborated with the other sound staff of the movie in mixing his orchestral arrangement with other sounds like gunshots, gallops, cannon fires and other punching and kicking sounds.

In the selected scene, the hero and Tuco were traveling together in quest of Bill Carson’s gold. While they were on their way through a desert, Union forces captured them as prisoners. As the selected scene starts, the prison camp’s sergeant is asking the prisoners to form a ‘single file’ by saying ‘left right left right….’ The Foley artists are used in producing the sound of the solider footsteps. In the selected scene we also see the example of the both the sounds.

The whole of the film has both ‘diegetic’ and ‘nondiegetic’ sounds. It means the source of the sound is coming from within the world of the film and outside as well. As the prisoners entered the prison camp, the pitch of sound was normal.

The prison guard was calling the names of the prisoners, but suddenly the pitch and loudness of the music intensified when the sergeant called the names of the prisoners “Robert Clark, Sam Richmond, Bill Carson… Bill Carson” The theme of the movie is connected to the name of Bill Carson.

The name ‘Bill Carson’ was glorified, as frequency, loudness, and pitch of the sound gained the momentum. On the other hand, five or six different sounds are mixed to create the movie’s special effects. We could hear the soldiers march, and the raven’s sounds, the music, and other different kind of sounds of prisoners and the labors.

We will write a custom Research Paper on An Analysis of Films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The overall sound in the scene is quite ‘faithful’, however when Angel Eyes offers Tuco the Bill Carson’s tobacco from the Tobacco box, we hear a beautiful short tone as if something good is about to come. However, as Tuco raises his hand to the Tobacco box, Angle Eyes shuts it close and crushes his fingers.

Tuco screams and shouts with pain suddenly the music comes out to be unfaithful for Tuco, because at the exact moment the prisoners outside the sergeant’s room were ordered to start their music. Tuco screams with pain, as Angel Eyes interrogate him. The torture sounds overlap with the song of the soldiers. We hear the music in such a way as if it is especially written for this scene. There is no agitation in the music. He was tortured because of his own ugliness.

His fate is against him because he is not a morally good and honest person. He is been given the name ‘ugly’ in the title. Therefore, the music is not showing any sympathy to him for his abysmal situation. The violence of the scene is making an affect that the outside world is calm and nobody is bothered. The music in general is illustrating an emotional touch to the scene.

Tuco now hears this simultaneous music, now he knows that he cannot save himself without telling the secret he is hiding from Angle Eyes. The background music was normal, but due to the sound’s rising momentum, the music creates the atmosphere of tension in the movie. It helped us in distinguishing it from other sound; the prisoner’s violins are played with smooth harmonic sounds.

The hero on the other hand is also hearing this external music (originating within the film) with another perspective. This music has different meaning for him. It shows us that the fate and luck is with the hero instead of Tuco. He is standing outside the sergeant’s room, and another prisoner is telling him that ‘whenever the commander orders the prisoners to play the music, he is interrogating, torturing and beating someone in his room’.

This prisoner’s song seems nondiegetic, however it is coming from a diegetic sound source, as it was coming from onscreen prison band. In fact, it is a mini orchestral band. Many orchestral instrument were visible onscreen except the grand piano. The group of seven or eight prisoners was having flutes, violins, drum, clarinet, cornet and trombone. The sound editor has professionally dubbed Mnnio Morricone’s song,’ The Story of a Soldier’ over the prison band in the scene.

Although the movie is old, it is rich in its sound effects. There are no ‘sound narrations’ within the film. The dialogues articulate the entire story itself. Ambient sounds, as discussed earlier, are those originating from several things on the screen. In the chosen scene, we could hear dialogues and at the same time, other background sounds, like birds etc. Instead of using the traditional recorded sound tracks, Foley staff is used to create environmental sound.

These sound effects are: ‘punches of the solider and the prisoners’, ‘Tuco’s eating sounds’, ‘sounds of beating’, ‘things falling at the table’, and ‘Tuco falling on the ground’. These sound effects are created in the editing session. They are used in a way that the sounds match and correspond the action of the scene. However, prerecorded sounds are also used, for example the sound of the crows.

Not sure if you can write a paper on An Analysis of Films by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The music in the selected scene is giving a sad impression, as if it is the music of mourning. The sound composing team has chosen the sad tones for this scene. They want to show all the destruction that is taking place in the war and many men are wasting their lives. The viewer can interprets that the prisoners are enduring the troubles of war.

The selected scene starts with the song ‘Marcia’ composed by Ennio Morricone. It is beautifully overlapped with the troops shouts followed by a march. The sound editing team tried to make especial impression on the audience by increasing the frequency of the sound. The music creates special sympathy with the soldiers. The slight whistling runes over the music, and tries to provoke a feeling, as if the audience feels like they are in the ninetieth century American Civil War prison camp.

Music, sounds, and voices are used at appropriate point. The music create sympathy with the character on the screen or to increase the interest of the audience. The sounds are giving signals in the movie, when the audience hears the particular signal they are engaged in the action and excitement that is about to occur on the screen.

Bibliography Barsam, Richard Meran and Dave Monahan. Looking at Movies: An Introduction to Film. 3rd Edition. New York: W. W. Norton

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The new advancements in Cloning and the Ethical debate surrounding it Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Cloning is the generation of cells, tissues, organs, organ systems or totally independent organisms from DNA. This article will discuss the latest developments, benefits and ethical and views as regards to cloning.

Types of cloning There are three types of cloning. Molecular cloning involves use of DNA segments in areas of interest to produce specific products of DNA transcription and this has proven useful in recombinant DNA to produce many therapies like insulin, tissue plasminogen activator and erythropoietin.

Cellular cloning involves use of somatic cells to produce a cell line identical to the original cell, and this can be used to produce therapies like those of molecular cloning. Blastomere separation is advanced in that reproductive cells are used to produce independent organisms (Anon, n.d.).

Experiments done so far Many advances have been made in cloning so with more animals being cloned. The Rhesus monkey was cloned in 2000 January by embryo splitting and it was known as Tetra. In 2001, an endangered species was cloned called Gaur. Alpha and Beta are the cattle that were cloned in 2001 and 2005 respectively and they were males. The CopyCat was the female cat to be cloned in 2001. In 2004, Little Nicky was the first cat to be cloned for commercial purposes.

The first dog to be cloned was Snuppy in 2005. A rat that was first cloned in 2003 and it was named Ralph. Idaho Gem is the name of the first mule to be cloned in 2003. In May 2003, the first horse was cloned named Prometea. The first water buffalo to be cloned was named Ssmrupa in 2009 February but it died after five days because it was infected. The same year, Injaz became the first camel to be cloned(Arnold, 2009).

Views on cloning today Attempts to clone human cells face many ethical, religious and legal challenges today. Another major challenge is the difficulty in cloning human cells. Never the less, research is going on in various institutions to improve the methods and thus the outcome of cloning since it’s potentially useful in treatment of many medical conditions.

The breakthroughs of cloning Treatment of leukemia

Normal bone marrow precursors are cloned and placed in the bone marrow cavity of the leukemic patient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Treatment of eye disorders

Patients with cataracts can be potentially cured by cloning the lenses and replacing them with those with cataracts.

Treatment in heart attack patients

In patients with acute or chronic myocardial infarction, cells can be cloned and then be placed in the ischemic areas.

New Vaccines

Vaccines can be made by developing cancerous cells which can not replicate and injecting them to subjects. This can potentially generate memory in the immunity so that on second exposure, these cells are destroyed by the immune system. Another way of using cloning in vaccination is by using DNA recombinant technology where microbial DNA is used to produces toxins, which are detoxified, while retaining their immunogenicity, and introducing them in a subject, who will eliminate the microbes on second exposure.

Treatment of Parkinsonism

This has been tried in mice where dopamine producing cells are cloned and then injected into mice with Parkinsonism. Behavioral symptoms of the disease improved in the mice because the missing dopamine was produced by these cells. There is hope that this is possible with humans (Randerson, 2008).

Life saving strategies Cloning has been supported by many scientists because of these potential benefits. Other major areas of application in cloning are as follows.

Organ transplantation

Parts of an individual can be cloned to produce large tissues which can be transplanted to another part of the same individual. This has an advantage over transplantation from another individual which leads to graft rejection.

Infertile individuals, cancer and plastic surgery

Cloning processes involve switching on and off of cells, a principle which can be exploited in switching of cancerous cells. Through cloning, a vaccine of cancer may be made as previously noted. Infertile people can father by either using their reproductive cells or cloning their somatic cells and introducing them to a surrogate. Plastic surgery done using cloning has a great benefit as compared to other methods because features of the patient can be retained with no fear of graft rejection.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The new advancements in Cloning and the Ethical debate surrounding it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other applications Cloning can be used to test for genetic diseases. Nerves can be grown to enable high quality medication. Cloning can be used to grow nerves which can be replaced in individuals with spinal cord injury. Liver failure and renal failure can be cured by cloning by replacing the diseased cells. Tay Sachs disease can be prevented by eliminating genes carrying the disorder. Breast implants and soft tissue replacement can be done using cloned tissues from the same individual to eliminate changes of host verses graft disease.

Skin can be produced for use as skin flaps in patients with severe burns; lung tissue can be cloned as well. Diseases which seemed to have no cure like Alzheimer’s disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Heart failure arthritis and other degenerative diseases can be approached in this manner (Smith, 2002).

Criticisms Reasons for opposition to cloning

According to ethical and religious groups, the drawbacks on cloning are many. On average, there is only 1-10% viability of all offspring that were cloned from embryos. It has been shown that cloned animals have a higher risk of cancer, infections, mental and physical difficulties.

The animals that have been cloned have been seen to die unexpectedly, unpredictably and for unknown reasons. Human cloning is specifically opposed because it is believed that a growing human also needs emotional and intellectual development, which can not be provided by cloning.

Genetics Fact Sheet 1 indicates that a person is a product of his or her genetic make up and the environment such that a person cloned from another is not a duplicate. Social relations, responsibility and parenthood of the cloned human are difficult to achieve, which pose a challenge to cloning (Barlow

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Range of Strategies and Success of the Business Inductive Essay college essay help

The orange company In business one of the most flexible variable in and organisations long-term profitability is its strategy. Here are different conceptual generalizations that attempt to describe what a strategy is.

The most universal of these suggests that a strategy is a description of how an organization intends to manipulate and utilize its available resources to succeed amidst the whims of the competitive market. Success in the general business context can be held to mean substantial shareholder return as well as peaceful and ethical operations within the country legislative regime (Kolb, 1976).

Generally a company’s strategy entails a critical and analytical evaluation of the company from a functional approach. It therefore embraces a number of decisions made in various departmental areas of the organization. The objective here is to ensure that every effort made within the strategy leads to an increase in shareholder value.

The decisions stemming from this strategy are then implemented through further delibarettion of the decisions at lower levels of the Organization. The most important virtue in this whole process is consistency. The more consistent the decisions within a strategy the better it becomes

At the functional level the main strategies are formulated on six main levels. These include marketing, product development, operations, finance, human resources as well as the information technology function. From these segmentations two main divisions of decisions are formulated.

These majorly focus on either operations or investment. Decisions concerned with operations involve the short term achievements of the firm within the current markets. Investment options on the other hand critically evaluate the firm’s position in as far as future investment opportunities are concerned.

The firm is essentially broken into a number of functions. The different organizations may brand their functions differently but the main generic divisions include marketing, product development, operations, finance, human resources as well as information technology. Organizations have a wide variety of strategic approaches and methods in which they may develop their strategy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These techniques include the Just-In-Time and Total Quality Management. The objective of these strategies is to ensure that all the basic functions of the organizations work together. The test for the efficiency of this strategy is majorly based on the ability of the functions to collectively contribute to the overall strategy

Within 30 months of its launch the Orange Company’s Business Services segment has acquired world wide fame as a worldwide business provider. This has added to the already existing global leadership on the business to business market. It has managed to maintain a stable and consistent command of the market factors using these to steer its profitability rates.

The secret behind this success has been through its carefully elected and developed functional strategies. The process of development entails the translation of the overall strategy into subdivisions in the form of other strategies that are easy to adopt and implement at the functional level. They are majorly constructed in the form of shorter term goals as well as a tactical time frame set for the accomplishment of these sub strategies.

The company has adjusted its enterprise line of business making it into the main tool for driving the company to unmatched levels in the Orange business to business strategy. Its main strong holds have been on its financial portfolio as well as an aggressive outreach to its consumer base by maintaining and efficient customers care.

The process of leveraging the strong dynamic of Orange Business Services as well as a sustained domestic business to business activity profile within the countries in which it offers its services. The analysis results to the development of a team that manages the creation and regulation of a market strategy.

The strategy mainly seeks to embrace the demands of the 3 C’s – customers, competitors and company. In the process it serves the best interests of the market as a whole. Concentration on a single segment allows the developed strategy to adapt to customer needs that fall within the defined the 4 P’s for each segment – product, price, promotion and place.

For instance the company opened a new customer solution center has in one of its main consumer base in Singapore. The main purpose of this new creation is to facilitate a demonstration to senior executives on methods and procedures that are necessary for flexible solutions and services that target particular business and industry concerns.

We will write a custom Essay on Range of Strategies and Success of the Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has gone out of its way to contradict trends in the ICT industry as well as the methods adopted by competitors in the market. The company has responded to the market trends and the need for a sharp edged management that is responsive to the contemporary market requirements. The mobile subscribers have a general trend of being influenced by a responsive service provider. It is therefore the obligation of the producer to maintain a high level of regard for the consumer’s needs as well as those of the industry.

The adoption of this approach led to an increase in the company’s revenue by a 2 % margin within a period of 9 months as shown in the graph below

The firm has also considered the benefits that accrue from telepresence. This strategy cuts travel time and costs and allows the company to reduce the impact on the environmental footprint. However this concept is not important to the organization unless it can be modified and adjusted to improve the speed of decision making involved in the process of research and development.

In fact the concept allows people within various regions to engage in a multi-region marketing team with members with a membership that draws interest from various countries and client bases around the continent within a short span (Winther, 2009). In some cases it has been used on a weekly basis to coordinate the simultaneous coordination and management of the launch of new technology on a real-time basis without the bother of travelling across all these countries to facilitate this process.

The company has engaged in consumer based strategies in its business services segment winning its customers’ hearts and encaging their minds in their world class consumer relations and service that has targeted the consumers satisfaction as its main and only objective.

Statistics form Telemark Services one of the leading research firms and an authority on market analysis in as far as IT and telecommunication services is concerned has vouched for the company as the only supplier whose final product relates with the consumer on an emotional and rational level.

This has motivated a positive and aggressive demonstration of a high level of confidence by the consumer. This data was gathered from 745 interviews conducted in 2009 from a sample of consumers in the telecommunication market.

The company has also engaged in strategic alliances that are aimed at maintaining a competitive edge in the volatile technological environment. The company has entered into a partnership with Cisco, EMC and VMware to create an alliance dubbed Flexible 4 Business (Porter, 1985). This alliance is an attempt at providing convenience to the consumer in as far as business is concerned. The Telecoms industry market and service structure has grown tremendously over the years.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Range of Strategies and Success of the Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This advancement may be associated with the major technological advancements in the field of innovations alongside an aggressive and increasing customer demands for more a high degree of flexibility as well as converged services that can be easily and conveniently accessed from a single device.

The market has grown even more sophisticated with the consumers falling for those services that can be accessed from more than one device (Matias, 2007). The rate at which internet based new technologies have invaded the market with specific regard to the mobile market has allowed them to penetrate the market with much more vigor.

It has also created room for new and modern service providers to offer new and value creating services that can all be offered all in one go. These groupings no longer require the individualized access procedures allowing the consumer to be more flexible. The demand for internet based products is actually expected to grow exponentially over the next few years as indicated by the graph below.

It is this need that has motivated the need for a technology that offers an all inclusive package to the consumer. In the face of the new technological approach of cloud computing the company has used this partnership to further the prospects of tits benefits that include end-to-end computing services for enterprises.

The market responds very fast to nee technology and therefore the company has allowed a smooth transition for its customers to cloud computing and allowed them to take advantage of the flexibility gained form this infrastructure. The strategy also guarantees a reduction in the costs involved in transactions and convenience in the business world.

Aside from the radical technological innovations the comprehensive and liberal policies that have been set up to regulate the industry have created a comfortable environment for the entry into this market. As it were this presents more competition for the company and begs for a strategy that will allow it to maintain a head start in the market preferences (Johnson

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The Estidama Project: Towards a Sustainable Building Design Report college essay help online

Today, more than ever before, sustainability concerns are assuming a central role in any development process in most countries, in part, due to the increased challenges brought forward by a myriad of externalities such as global warming, acid rain and deforestation, among others. As a direct consequence of the germane issues demonstrated by sustainability concerns, governments around the world continue to orchestrate programmes and policy frameworks aimed at improving sustainability.

Estidama, discussed in the two articles, is one such integrated programme that has been carefully designed to renovate Abu Dhabi and make it the sustainability capital of the Middle East by the year 2030 (Estidama 2030 para. 1). It is the purpose of this essay to offer a critical summary of the two articles, in the process bringing into fore issues that are relevant to the Estidama Project.

The Estidama project is all about assuming an integrated and holistic approach to sustainable building design within the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In broad terms, the initiative aims to advance sustainability and improve livability in the emirate under the realm or domain of ‘Abu Dhabi Vision 2030’ (Estidama Advances para. 1).

Apart from devising guidelines that will ensure that any form of development within the emirate adheres to sustainable design, the initiative also aims to be a forerunner in ensuring the objective or unbiased growth of both residential and commercial developments incorporating sufficient greenery and landscaping (Estidama 2030 para. 2).

The Estidama initiative, according to experts in the construction and landscaping industry, is not only good for business, but will make Abu Dhabi a model emirate in terms of incorporating both local and built environment in the regional context. Of importance is the fact that the Estidama project, once complete, is anticipated to conserve energy and water use by up to 30 percent (Estidama 2030 para 6).

The landscaping industry is also set to benefit from the Estidama venture, and analysts predicts that business within the industry will double in volume to surpass Dhs60 bn by 2010 (Estidama 2030 para. 7). In consequence, experts within the landscaping industry agree that such a sustainable project is also beneficial to their own businesses since it will cushion them against extreme competition, dwindling profits and high expenses.

Many sustainability programs around the world have well-designed benchmarks for measuring performance, and Estidama is no exception. Indeed, Estidama is the first sustainability programme in the Arab World to launch a sustainability rating mechanism aimed at evaluating sustainability performance of a multiplicity of developments such as buildings, pavements, communities, city parks, highways, and villas (Estidama Advances para. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rating mechanism for Estidama development initiatives is known as Pearl Rating System (PRS), and encompass “…a Pearl Building Rating System (PBRS), a Pearl Community Rating System (PCRS) and a Pearl Villa Rating System (PVRS)” (Estidama Advances para. 2).

Of importance is the fact that these rating mechanisms provide a set of quantifiable strategies for rating sustainability performance of buildings, communities and villas using the four variables set out within Estidama Framework, that is, economy, environment, community and culture.

Moving on, it is also worth noting that Estidama rating mechanism addresses seven classes, namely, “Integrated Development Process, Natural Systems, Livable Communities and Buildings, Water, Energy Materials and Innovating Practice” (Estidama Advances para. 3).Credits as well as weights are awarded to each class depending on performance, with 1 credit point representing the lowest while 5 credit points represent the highest.

In measuring the sustainability performance of various types of developments, it serves the purpose of this paper to mention that the PBRS is applied to general buildings, retail outlets, institutions of learning, offices and multi-residential facilities, while PCRS is applied to facilities sustaining up to 1000 permanent residents (Estidama Advances para. 4).

Stakeholders are quick to point out that sustainability is the cornerstone of any new development and that the Estidama project will offer the necessary momentum to achieve Abu Dhabi vision 2030, hence transforming the emirate into a model of an international sustainable capital. It is also felt that the PRS will offer a dependable and consistent sustainability benchmark tool to be used in the region in line with Estidama’s cross-disciplinary strategy (Estidama Advances para. 6).

The PRS cover three stages, namely, the Pearl Design Rating (PDR), Pearl Construction Rating (PCR), and Pearl Operational Rating (POR). As the name suggests, the PDR within the Estidama framework is only engaged at the design phase of any development, not mentioning that it is applied until construction is complete.

The PCR, on its part, is applicable for two years after construction is complete whereas the POR is applied to evaluate the operational performance of an already complete project. In most occasions, POR is applied for a minimum of two years after a particular project has been completed and when such a project reaches a minimum tenancy of 80 percent (Estidama Advances para. 7).

We will write a custom Report on The Estidama Project: Towards a Sustainable Building Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All in all, it can be concluded that these rating mechanisms have not only assisted the Estidama initiative to ensure that sustainability targets are being dealt with through all stages of designing and developing projects, but they also offer a framework for meeting sustainable objectives by underlining water and energy efficiency, reduced use of motor vehicles, maximum selection of building materials, indoor and outdoor environment quality, resource preservation and conservation and, finally, reduction of waste (Estidama Advances para. 9-13).

Works Cited Estidama 2030 to make Abu Dhabi the Sustainability Capital of Middle East. 2008. Web.

Estidama Advances the Arab’s World First Sustainability Rating System. 2010. Web.

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Why use of laptops should be banned during classes Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Advantages of using of laptops in class

Disadvantages of using of laptops in class

Discussion

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Contemporary educational institutions have incorporated the use of technology in their pedagogy. This has attracted immense research from education scholars, who seek to establish the effectiveness of the use of technology tools like laptops and the internet in the classroom. It has thus been established that the use of laptops in classroom by both students and their instructor has counterproductive effects with the down-side being weightier than the benefits.

Despite this fact, a number of educational institutions still allow students to use their laptops in taking class notes. This has led to the decline in the average performance of students since the use of laptops in class is more likely to make students get fewer benefits from class work. This paper is an exploration of both the benefits and the shortfalls of using laptops in a classroom environment.

Advantages of using of laptops in class The use of laptops in class has a number of advantages. Research has shown that with the use of laptops in class, students are normally highly motivated. This is because students like technology like laptops and the internet.

This is an advantage because students will have the zeal to attend classes and participate in classroom activities. Studies, therefore, showed that, in classrooms where laptops and the internet are used in instructing the students, student attendance of classes was better than the attendance of classes in which there were no laptops.

Research has also shown that the use of laptops helps students to maintain their levels of performance since it is unlikely for the students to lose motivation in class work (Carrie, 2008). This is as contrasted with a classroom with no laptops, in which student performances tend to fluctuate.

Another importance of using laptops in class is that in some situations, laptops offer the best means for instructions. For instance, in a classroom where an inquiry process is needed by the instructor, laptops would be most appropriate.

The use of laptops has also been credited with improving the extent to which students are equipped with project-based skills (Yvonne, 2004). It is also important to note that in some courses/majors, the use of laptops and computers in general cannot be avoided. For instance, it is virtually impossible for a Computer Science class to be conducted without using laptops in classroom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, even if some theory classes may be conducted without the use of laptops in this case, practical classes must embrace the use of laptops in order for them to have the desired effect on the students. Thus as much as laptops may affect student performance in some cases, in other cases heir use is mandatory. However, a number of other studies have shown proved that the use of laptops in class in disadvantageous.

Disadvantages of using of laptops in class Both instructors and students encounter a number of problems in the classroom when they decide to attend classes with their laptops. One of the problems that come with attending classes with a laptop is lack of concentration in class. This is obviously expected since the student will be, at times, too engaged with the laptop that it will be impossible for him/her to concentrate.

One of the activities that will possibly make students lose concentration is browsing of information on the internet. However, it is easy for the instructor to spot students who engage in surfing the internet since the students will most likely concentrate on the laptop screen, without using the keyboard.

A good way to ensure that students do not lose concentration as they surf the internet is to walk around the class while teaching. Students may also lose concentration in class if they get engaged in instant messaging on the internet. This is normally a big problem since the instructor will be unable to detect it as the students will appear as if they are taking notes.

Moving from one point in the class to another, behind the students, and checking the applications that the students are using will make the instructor help most of his/her students to concentrate (Timmer, 2009). It is also of essence that the instructor makes a tactful request to the students when he/she notices that they are chatting on the internet. This will make the students fear disobeying the instructor.

Another issue that comes with using laptops in classroom is the issue of legitimacy or credibility of web sites that the instructor uses with students in class. Some of the websites that an instructor may decide to use in class for discussion purposes may not be scholarly sources. Despite this fact, the students may become so enthusiastic about the web sites that they treat them as scholarly sources, and thus they spend too much time in them (Carrie, 2008). This may ultimately affect their overall performance.

If an instructor is not careful with the way he/she uses laptops in his/her pedagogy, the instructor may overly depend on the laptops. This is disastrous since a class in which every exercise is done using laptops will not have a holistic approach to learning. This lack of a holistic result in such teaching will be as a result of insufficient time for other classroom activities like group discussions, and possibly role playing in skits (Hampton, 2004).

We will write a custom Essay on Why use of laptops should be banned during classes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of laptops connected to the internet also poses a great challenge to instructors who are not technology-savvy. In order for such instructors to be effective, it is of essence that the instructors also take classes on how to effectively use technology. This may take too much of their time that it may affect the time that the instructor spends with his/her students. The performance of the students may, in turn, be affected negatively.

Discussion More and more educational institutions are using laptops and the internet in their classroom. This has led to popularity of educational research skewed towards the use of technology in class. Virtually all the studies conducted on this subject show that the use of laptops in class has counterproductive effects on the students using the laptops.

As much as it motivates them to attend classes, maintaining a high level of student presence during classes, which may in turn translate to better and more steady grades, it also poses a number of threats to the academic welfare of the students using the laptops in the classroom (McLain, 2009).

From the discussion above, it is evident that the benefits of using laptops and the internet in the classroom are less than the treats that the use of laptops in class poses to the academic welfare of students. Despite this, many instructors are still allowing their students to enter classes with their laptops that are connected to the internet. It is of great essence that instructors analyze the benefits and shortfalls of allowing students to use laptops in their classrooms and take the necessary actions to preserve the academic welfare of the students.

For instance, in a situation where some of the tasks that the instructor wants to illustrate to students require the use of computers, the instructor may decide to allow the students to enter the classroom with their laptops. However, the instructor should be very alert to monitor how the students are using their laptops.

On the other hand, if the students want to just use the laptops in taking notes, it is advisable for the instructor to deny them the chance to enter the classroom with their laptops. This is due to the aforementioned shortfalls of attending classrooms with laptops.

In the same way, instructors should avoid coming to class with laptops unless it is extremely important to do so. This is because, like the students, the instructor may also lose concentration as he/she teaches. For instance, the instructor may forget to close some interactive programs/applications which may require his/her attention while in the classroom. For instance, if the instructor was using an instant messaging application before coming to class, and he/she forgets to close the application, a message may be sent while he/she is in class.

This may make him/her stop what he/she was doing to read the message, and thus class activities will be substantially interrupted. Additionally, the instructor may also be tempted to use the internet while in classroom (Cole, 2007). For instance, while teaching, he/she may miss a point and be tempted to look for it on the internet while in class. The instructor may also be tempted to surf the internet when students are busy working on assignments. This will limit his/her ability to help them when they get stuck.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why use of laptops should be banned during classes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Laptops should thus be used by students and instructors outside the classroom even if they use them for academic purposes. The only exception to this is if the materials being covered in class require the use of computers for the students to better understand what is being taught.

Conclusion As evidenced in the discussion above, there is a great need for educational institutions to establish the extent to which they can allow students to productively use their laptops in classrooms. This is because an alarming number of these institutions operate in total or partial disregard of the dangers that are posed by allowing students to take class notes using their laptops.

In spite of the advantages that may accrue due to this practice, academic institutions should consider the fact that the advantages are fewer and less serious than the disadvantages of the same. Students may also go to an extent of extending their addictions to the classroom. Some may be addicted to online chatting, others may be addicted to music, and there may even be others addicted to pornography.

The availability of the facilities to view these things in the classroom could have a devastating effect on the performance of the students, which could make an educational institution unpopular. In cases where laptops must be used, like in Computer Science practical classes, instructors should be very alert. This will ensure that students are effectively monitored during such classroom sessions.

Reference List Carrie, B. (2008). In-Class laptop use and its effects on student learning. Computers and Education, 50 (3), pp. 906-914.

Cole, D. (2007). Laptops Vs. Learning. Web.

Hampton, S. (2004). Miracle or Menace: Teaching and Learning With Laptop Computers in the Classroom. Educause Quarterly, 3(1). 10-17.

McLain, L. (2009). Is Permitting Student Use of Laptops in Class a Good Idea? University of Baltimore School of Law.

Timmer, J. (2009). In-class laptop use sparks backlash, possibly lower grades. Web.

Yvonne, B. (2004). Laptop Computers in the K-12 Classroom. Web.

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History of Somalia Descriptive Essay college essay help

Somalia has had no central government since after the Civil War in 1991. Only the internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government controls a small part of the country.

In the late 19th century, during the years of the European scramble for Africa, Somalia – officially the Republic of Somalia and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, located in the Horn of Africa – was colonized by four countries, namely Italy, Great Britain and France, and Ethiopia. The colonizers divided it into five parts. Two of the parts in 1960 united to form what is now Somali Republic. The other two remained under Ethiopian and Kenyan rule. The fifth part, the Republic of Djibouti was recognized as an independent state.

Break from the colonial York Somalia’s reaction to the rule of the colonial powers was led by religious leaders which had been suppressed by 1925 either through eliminating or neutralizing their leaders. As a country it has been characterized as a failed state and is one of the poorest and the most violent states in the world (Said).

As a start to the long process of creating elites, colonial powers endeavoured to employ more Somalis in the lower echelons of the colonial civil and military labour force, and opened limited schools, in which children of the traditional elite were given priority and privilege.

In the Second World War, most of the Somali territory fell under British military administration who proposed, in the four power’s conference (USA, British, USSR, and France) held in 1946, to put all territory under British administration” (Said). Whatever the real intent of the British plan for Somali unity was; it was hailed by people of Somalia and strengthened their aspirations for unity.

However, this proposal was utterly repudiated by the United States, France and Soviet Union for a variety of reasons including a strong Ethiopian lobbying at the US administration. Ethiopia, according to this plan, would have lost the Somali’s territory it had captured during 19th century. As a result, in 1949, the former Italian colony was retuned to Italy under UN trusteeship.

After 10 years and with support to Somalia from Egypt, in a haphazard way, the Somali Republic gained independence on the 1st of July 1960 (Aidid and Satya; Drysdale).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The year 1969 is the first milestone towards the failing of the Somali state. The earlier years of multiparty system and democratic culture were flawed and elections were rigged with all means possible. More than 60 parties which were sub-clan based took part in the 1969 elections. However, the ruling party of SYL rigged the election and received a majority of the seats.

Over and above this, in order to claim one party rule, SYL absorbed all members of the parliament from the opposition parties. Therefore, the nationalist SYL party of the earlier years of struggle for independence, domesticated by colonial powers in the years of 1950 till 1960, had drifted towards one party dictatorial rule in 1969.

Consequently, grievances of overt rigging of the election, rampant bureaucratic corruption, and widespread unemployment especially among the educated elite that dismayed with the lukewarm illegal government policy towards pan- somalism, had culminated in the political turmoil and the assassination of president Sharmarke.

During this period, the prestigious national army launched a coup d’etat on 21 October 1969 and received enthusiastic support from the majority of the disgruntled Somali people. It was not long before the new regime curtailed freedoms and banned all social and political organizations, exercised heavy-handedness on the opposition and practiced extra judicial detentions and persecution.

The regime adopted a new covert policy of targeting particularly specific clans and offering particular privileges to others under the pretext of promoting revolutionaries and eliminating anti-revolutionary elements. Needlessly to say, the latter developed into armed rebel factions.

With the execution of the Islamic scholars, hitherto dormant Islamic movements took on new momentum and underground organizations proliferated in every region in defence of the faith against the “Godless socialists” (Adam). From this historical moment, contemporary Islamic movements formulated their ideological foundation and launched social reformist programs.

Gradually, these two forces, stemming from the indigenous ideologies of clanism and Islamism, united in their ardent desire for regime change but disagreed on the means. Apparently, the military regime clashed with these two indigenous inviolable Somali ideologies, clanism and Islam, creating a crack in the fabric, cohesion and solidarity of Somali society (Adam).

We will write a custom Essay on History of Somalia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The coup plotters who fled had begun to form armed oppositions and received a welcoming hand from the hostile neighbours, particularly Ethiopia. Fleeing to Ethiopia the coup plotters came back with no coordination to take over power from the nationalists. “The motor forces of Somali clannish particularism overwhelmed the centripetal forces of nationalism and Islam” (Alisha).

When President Mohammed Said Barre was forced to take refuge in 1991, and the Somali state fundamentally was no longer in existence, and became characterized by the almost total absence of any coordinated governmental authority. Since that time, there have been at least fifteen attempts to establish a government in Somalia, all unsuccessful.

Similarly, since the collapse of the Somali army in 1991, there has been no meaningful security of any kind, with virtually every attempt being undermined by opposition groups, who essentially turned soldiers into domestic mercenaries. The lack of designated policing authorities has created an ongoing security vacuum. This has encouraged the clan violence and anarchy that make Somalia a global poster child for a failed state.

“During the decade which followed, some European and Asian countries took advantage of the chaos in Somalia and sent their commercial fleets to fish in Somali waters,” says Adam, Hussien (99). He adds by saying, “Roger Middleton has argued that what began as a legitimate fight by Somali fishermen against foreign exploitation has turned into a criminal enterprise once its lucrative potential was discovered.”

The current Somali government has a facade of a working cabinet but is supported by no real departments, no civil servants in staff positions, and perhaps most importantly, has an almost total lack of funds. Also missing are any of the services that working governmental departments would provide. Corruption and criminality are defining characteristics of Somali governments.

Given Somalia‘s lack of central government, there exist small fiefdoms whose rulers are always subject to change and which are inherently unstable.

The current Transitional Federal Government is an Islamist regime led by President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, who was elected by the Transitional Federal Government in January 2009. His power nominally extends no farther than the capital city of Mogadishu, and even within these confines there are multiple groups who compete politically and militarily for neighbourhoods and even particular streets.

“The effort to control Mogadishu is heightened by its status as a port, which affords those who control it considerable financial opportunities. One radical group known as The Islamic Courts Union was pushed out of Mogadishu in 2006 by Ethiopian soldiers who supported the Transitional Federal Government, and in coordination with the military wing known as al-Shabab, assumed control from the Transitional Federal Government over central and southern Somalia.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Somalia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Transitional Federal Government is now completely disconnected from central Somalia. Irrespective of ICU control, they do not hold the support of those Somalis living in these regions. The use of Sharia law and their continuing insurgent conduct have actually created greater alienation from the local population” (Adam).

The lack of a central government, and continued internal strife, has facilitated external intervention, which in turn has made the domestic conflict even worse. On December 28, 2006, Ethiopian troops captured Mogadishu from the ICU. This intervention led to more chaos and instability in the country, with humanitarian, political, and security conditions continuing to deteriorate across south-central Somalia (Alisha).

Somaliland claims independence as a sovereign nation known as the Republic of Somaliland, but has no international recognition. Puntland remains part of greater Somalia, but generally administers its own affairs through its own military and government. The two have fought for years over the Sool and Sanag regions, part of which Puntland exists on an ethnic basis, while Somaliland says they are part of its territory under the colonial border Britain left behind.

Somaliland’s capital‘ city of Hargeysa has a government which has a legislative branch, a police force, a currency and even their own passports, along with a Constitution that it ratified in 2001. The dependence of Somaliland on the Port of Berbera for revenue greatly undermines its claim for sovereign status. Since there is virtually no recognition of Somaliland as an independent state outside the region, no foreign aid or benefits of any kind are available.

There is no law and order of any kind in Somalia due to the lack of a central government, along with extreme poverty. As a result, criminal activity is rampant throughout the country. Some engage in criminal behaviour for basic survival, while others have created what amounts to a professional criminal enterprise. Those who participate in criminal activities are more apt to resist any efforts to establish a safe and stable Somalia, as it does not serve their long-term interests.

Perspectives on Somali State Collapse Collapse of Somali state can be looked at from different perspectives in accordance to schools of thought. The issues looked at in this paper include Cold War and foreign aid, Somali irredentism and war with Ethiopia, primordialism, moral degradation and eclectic factors.

Cold War and Foreign Aid The Somali state collapsed with the withdrawal of external assistance and increased local demand for improved political goods. Drysdale, John quoted that, “When external support was withdrawn and societal demand for economic advancement and better governance increased it tumbled down”.

Other than the withdrawal effect it is bearing the triple burden of defeat in the war and accompanying humiliation, an economy on the skids and the burden of the absence of super power patronage, Somali politics turns inward. The national focus turned into the regime and the state, which were caught in an enveloping atmosphere of acridity and suspension.

Somali Irredentism and War with Ethiopia Somalia’s national aspiration for unity and its neighbor’s unwillingness to cede the disputed territory due to different views of the state-territorial versus cultural led to state collapse. “Somalia’s arguments under the principle of greater Somalia were sharply contrasted to Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti’s insistence on the principle of territorial integrity and sanctity of colonial border, principles these states were prepared to defend by force if necessary,” Drysdale, John (55).

Siyad’s demise and the disintegration of the Somali state were therefore, not only a consequence of clan politics but are attributable in part to Somalia’s irredentist foreign policy. Other recognized factors are border permeability with countries that hosted the growing number of Siyad Barre’s opponents.

Primordialism This traditionalist approach is based on the segmentary lineage social system that is antithetical to the nature of the state. The collapse of the colonially created state represents technically a triumph for the segmentary lineage system and political power of kinship. Somalia is a country of clans where the beginnings of a modern State have been only in the making in the midst of capricious forces of history within the context of a unitary capitalist order and yet politically compartmentalized system.

Ideally, the utter destruction of pre-capitalist devolvement in the form of decentralization and traditions which are primordial in Somalia and the concomitant convergence of basic institutions around market exchange of historic necessity in order for the Somali State to complete its evolution

Moral Degradation This concept is widely held by Somali Islamic scholars who trace all of the socio-political non-conformity of the Somali state to its secular factor, moral deterioration and the unscrupulous expediency of the leadership elites. However, very recently others have appeared to voice the cultural dimension of the state’s collapse. For example, Ahmed Samatar wrote “It is one of later arguments that at the heart of the Somali catastrophe is a full breakdown of culture (e.g., heer, Islam)” (Said).

Abdullahi, explains how the indigenous ideologies – Islam and clan- were suppressed and perverted, became radicalized in the late 1970s. Therefore, he concludes that “Only Islam possesses the essential ingredients for successfully integrating the various elements of Somali society and providing stable government capable of meeting the urgent social, political and economic needs of the country”.

Eclectic factors Alisha says,

“To focus solely on the contradictions between a foreign imposed colonial system of government and an indigenous political system would be to overlook the impact of the oppressive, corrupt and violent system of political patronage that marked the 21 year military rule of Mohamed Siad Barre (1969-1991), the influence of Cold War and post-Cold War politics in the region, the impact of structural adjustment and economic liberalization policies in the 1980s and the character of the armed movements in Somalia,” (99).

Somalia civil war is the product of the togetherness of contingent and proximate factors. In the case of the former, the factors are the evolution of the Somali state, its incorporation into the global capitalist system, and the failure of the first experiment at state-building by the Somali compradors, who assumed the reigns of power when “flag independence” was granted.

The latter factors are the repression, exploitation, economic deprivation, social unease, and manipulation of identities which are primordial in nature visited on Somalia by the dictatorial regime of General Mohammed Siad Barre.

Steps involved in the movement to a democratic state “Most critical of Somalia reconstruction is the political rehabilitation. Divergent views are held are on how to reconstitute the Somalia state”. Alisha (100). “Some prepositions are that state reconstitution should take its own track, in the revived hope that new state (or states) structures will emerge from the civil society once hostilities end” Adam, Hussien. This research paper observes that in order for reconstruction to occur the following are necessary to be achieved.

Provision and delivery of security throughout the country must be possible before a peace process can truly become a rebuilding Endeavour. Infrastructure had to be made secure in order to ensure users were not harmed. This was made possible with the help of even peacekeepers

Disarmament and demobilizing the combatants was one of the major factors to bringing peace. War participants should be indulged in other activities that are not violence related or they can also be issued with pieces of land that the can adequately use to the benefit of the community, thus making them acceptable to the society. This is a step that was unfortunately omitted in Somalia in 1993.

Partial restoration of stability and confidence is a requirement for lasting peace. Order and the right rule are key factors to a transitional rule in the republic of Somalia, without which the environment would not be favorable running of a smooth government. Transitional administration and international agencies can – once this is in order – “focus on four primary and parallel objectives: jump-starting the economy, restoring the rule of law, re-creating political institutions, and rejuvenating civil society” (Said).

Restoration of law and order is necessary for transitional administration to function towards ensuring an atmosphere conducive to recovery. “A new introduction of the rule of law can be done in stages, over the course of time, but nationals will not support reconstruction efforts until they are certain that legal redress will be available,” Adam, Hussien (104).

He also adds by saying, “Training or retraining of police personnel, judges, bureaucrats, and parliamentarians for reconstruction and democratization of the failed state. The state’s defense forces will have to be arranged in a new way and their chiefs reoriented. Strong local leadership cannot be assumed but must be nurtured and strengthened.” (Adam, Hussien, 110).

Sustainable state rebuilding will require a promise of commitment from the rich nations to stick with the newly formed functional state. They should partner to support rebuilding and stick around through the tough work of till completion. Formation of institution will require outside state help since they were mutilated and destroyed in the collapse period.

Conclusion In conclusion we could say that Somalia has had several attempts to reconstruct its government but all this has been in vain. Despite the intervention of other organizations such as the UN who have imposed sanctions in order to have help it has still failed to reconstruct its government. Although Somalia still suffers, there are progressive activities all over the world that have been put in place in order to help Somaliland regain the peace and have a government system that will unite its citizen and ensure they live in peace with each other.

Works Cited Adam, Hussien. “Militarism, Warlodism or Democracy?” Review of African Political Economy 54.Surviving Democracy? (1992): 11-26.

Aidid, Mohammed Farah, and Pal Ruhela Satya. Somalia: From The Dawn of Civilization To The Modern Times. India: Vikas Publishing House PVT LTD, 1993.

Alisha. Somali Government, The Somali Peninsula: New Light on Imperial Motives. London: Staples Printers, 1962.

Drysdale, John. The Somali Dispute. New York: Praeger, 1964.

Said, S. Somalia Country Studies: Federal Research Division of Library of Congress.

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Paul Loeb’s Soul of Citizen Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

In this book, Loeb has basically created a guide for aspiring community activists, organizers, and anybody willing to make a change. In the book, he has made an outline of what it takes to be an activist and how to remain one. Since Loeb himself is a political activist, through the book, he is trying to inspire and motivate the public to air their voices and to take action against the negative government policies. To achieve this, he has emphasized on the influence which the people are capable of.

Through out the book, there seems to be five main points that keep cropping up every time. The first point is that; people have such a huge potential to enforce their wishes if they wanted to. This potential is usually unknown to the public and has the capabilities of not only making their lives better, but also everyone’s.

Secondly, he has reminded the people that they are not perfect and they will never be. This means that they should never undermine themselves and think that they are not good enough to do anything. Also, others usually wait for the best time to act and the truth of the matter is; there will never be a perfect time. Therefore, the best time to act is now.

Thirdly, he urges the people not to despair if their actions do not yield results immediately. Loeb says that change happens slowly, and people have to learn to be patient and not loose hope. The fourth point is that; people should take pleasure in their quest for justice and equality.

Loeb has reminded the citizens that, even though their specific goals might be unclear, they should relish every part of the ‘journey’. Finally, he has motivated the citizens by telling them that their efforts are bound to go a long way more than they can ever imagine. Every move they make never goes unnoticed. In the end, in one way or the other, their efforts will be rewarded and everybody will benefit.

To attain closure, Loeb has narrated stories of various ordinary individuals who have come to learn his lessons. In one of the examples, he tells the story of a girl student in Virginia Tech who spent her election time drinking rather than voting. Afterwards, she became concerned with the global warming and started an environmental movement in her college.

On another story, as a young man, Barack Obama was involved in a student movement that was against apartheid. It was during this movement that Obama started catching the eye of the public. Loeb goes on to narrate the stories of Joan Blades and an eighth grade drop out who designed an innovative job plan. The lesson carried in all those stories is; a mere citizen is capable of bringing great change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perhaps his greatest motivation came from the anti-war movement in the late 60s during the Vietnam War. During that time, there were several anti-war movements throughout the country operating independently. Almost every sort of person was attracted to this movement; from campus students, middle class society and even the people in federal institutions were no exceptions.

Apparently, this movement revealed the extent of division in the American society. The Stanford campus was no exception either. After learning about the destruction of life and environment in Vietnam by the American military, Loeb decided to join the movement too. The department of Electrical Engineering in his campus was involved in research of bombs being used in Vietnam.

Together with his friends, Loeb invaded that department with pictures of Vietnam’s destruction. This eventually led to his suspension together with his friends. The war later ended after several years of fighting. It is believed (a belief held by many) that the movement played a major role in ending the war. This was a great motivation for Loeb to become a political activist.

What Loeb is teaching in his book is true. Citizens of a country are capable of making any changes they want without the approval of the politicians. This has been well demonstrated by the recent movement in the Arab nations. The citizens of Tunisia and Egypt have managed to evict their presidents without following any written law.

This movement was as a result of a horrific act committed by a Tunisian youth. It is true; a single person can make a difference. Loeb’s teachings have strong basis since every government has the capability of doing more to the people.

If one lives in a free democratic country, it is his role to be involved in the affairs of the country. The public should never expect change to come by itself; they should take action if they desire to see any changes. Every registered citizen should vote for his candidate of choice; it is a democratic right which should be taken seriously.

Also, every citizen should belong to a political party of his choice and be updated on its activities. Apart from that, citizens should read newspapers, write to congressmen, volunteer in campaigns and be involved in political forums; especially on the internet.

We will write a custom Report on Paul Loeb’s Soul of Citizen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the Soul of a Citizen, Loeb is trying to remind the public about their democratic rights and how to exploit them. He has no way become an extremist, but he is just among the right minded people.

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Computers college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Today, more than ever before, technology is increasingly documented as a fundamental learning tool for advancing the social, emotional, intellectual and linguistic development of young children. Indeed, the question being asked by educators and parents in the 21st century is no longer about whether and to what scope information and communication technologies (ICTs) should be utilized with young children in early childhood centers, but rather how it should be employed to achieve maximum benefits (Couse

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Impact of Debt in US Essay essay help

It is undeniable that various governments have been faced by an increasing public debt and this is projected to have various impacts. This means that public debt is unsustainable as far as economic growth and progress is concerned. Most debts have been increasing in relation to budget deficits (Grauwe 2). Debt has been increasing drastically over the last ten years. This was mostly brought about by an explosion in the private sector.

As a matter of fact, it is argued that most consumers in the US accumulated a lot of debt in private. It has been painful o reduce debt and this is notable across various groups and governments. Most economies have not been able to move forward as a result of public debt and this is because they can not deleverage. An increase in debt levels means that the government can not kick start its economy in any way.

It has been difficult for people to reduce their debt at the same time because the private sector might be having excessive debts. As far as debt is concerned, all the stakeholders, government and private sector, should corporate or work together for it to be sustainable (Grauwe 4).

The US government and others have been trying hard to unwind the private sector as time goes by. This has been done with an intention of reducing public debt. The issue of debt has given people headache and this might continue to drag down the economy. All in all, various governments have had budgetary problems because of debt and this should be sorted out. It has been argued that government debt is necessary for the private sector to unwind (Grauwe 4).

The US debt has been reducing as time goes by from 1960s and this has taken a new twist in recent years (Krugman 2). In this case, federal spending has been increasing in successive years. The reality of the increasing debt burden has become scary and that is why it has attracted a lot of attention.

In this case, debt should be stabilized by all means for long term sustainability. US revenues were greatly affected by the recession and this means that public debt has been increasing. As a matter of fact, debt service costs should be put under scrutiny (Krugman 7). For this issue to be dealt with satisfactorily, the government will have to amortize debt at least in the short run. This means that the tax base will be greatly affected by any changes in debt.

Wholesomely, the US government is almost surpassing its debt limit and this is a worrying trend. In this case, the debt limit is $14.3 million (Tanner 1). As a result of increasing debt, the country is facing a time bomb and this is undeniable. There is a lot of spending and this has been reminiscent with public debt. For the country to avoid any budget crisis there is need to trim some spending programs because this might get worse by 2050 (Tanner 6).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An increasing debt has therefore enhanced the necessity of fiscal reform in the country. It is undeniable that United States should learn to live within its means for long term sustainability. Debt is a major issue and this has been demonstrated by voters in midterm elections. As much as tax cuts were initiated to enhance growth, their general impact on debt has not been well reviewed.

Works Cited Grauwe, de Paul. Government debt is both unsustainable and desirable. Brussels: The Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009. Print.

Krugman, Paul. The burden of debt. New York: New York Times, 2009. Print.

Tanner, Michael. Bankrupt Entitlements and the Federal Budget. Washington D.C: Cato Institute, 2011. Print.

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Naturalism in Jack London’s To Build a Fire and The Call of the Wild Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Thesis statement

Analytical part

Conclusion

References

Footnotes

Thesis statement Nowadays, literary critics are being well aware of the fact that it was namely throughout the course of late 19th and early 20th centuries, that the naturalist motifs in European and American literature have come to their all-times-high prominence.

In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that, during the course of this historical period, more and more writers have been realizing that Darwin’s evolutionary theory, concerned with the survival of the fittest, correlates perfectly well with the essence of human societies’ inner dynamics.

As it was noted by Cuddy and Roche (2003): “[In early 20th century] The notion of the survival of the fittest in relation to inherited traits and response to environmental factors became fertile conceptual ground for literary analysis of human nature and society” (22).

The validity of such an idea can be well explored in regards to the literary legacy of one of America’s greatest writers – Jack London, as the extreme naturalism of many of his short stories and novels conveys a clearly defined philosophical message – only the objectively existing laws of nature, to which people are being subjected as much as plants and animals, which should be thought of as the basis of true ethics.

According to McClintock (1970): “Since, for London, science had dislodged idealistic concepts of man, his temperament insisted that affirmations of the human condition, too, have a scientifically justifiable rationale” (336).

Therefore, it comes as no surprise that in literary works of Jack London, naturalist motifs do not only serve the purpose of increasing the extent of plot’s emotional appeal, but they are also being expected to enlighten readers on the true essence of their existential mode. In this paper, we will aim to substantiate the validly of an earlier articulated thesis at length, while exploring the emanations of literary naturalism in London’s short story To Build a Fire and in the novel The Call of the Wild.

Analytical part The close reading of London’s ‘Northern’ short stories and novels, points out to the fact that naturalistic themes and motifs, contained in them, are being utilized not only for the purpose of exposing a particular ease, with which a formerly civilized individual can be reduced to a primeval savage, while facing the elements, but also for the purpose of revealing a variety of Western ethical conventions conceptually fallacious, since they do not correspond to the essence of their carriers’ physiological functioning.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Rossetti (2006) had put it: “Naturalism rebukes the primitive for his or her debasement. At the same time, however, it necessarily posits a privileged class and confirms that class’s elite status” (5).

The soundness of this suggestion can be explored within the context of a following quote from To Build a Fire: “As he [traveler] turned to go on, he spat speculatively. There was a sharp, explosive crackle that startled him. He spat again. And again, in the air, before it could fall to the snow, the spittle crackled” (The World of Jack London). Apparently, the author had made a deliberate point in drawing readers’ attention to purely physiological process of spitting.

Nevertheless, given story’s overall context, the fact that the traveler has been spitting rather excessively, does not degrade him in readers’ eyes, as this context confirms the validity of London’s conviction that whatever is natural, cannot be referred to as ‘immoral’ or ‘anti-aesthetic’, by definition.

In its turn, this explains why the apparent ‘distastefulness’ of London’s preoccupation with expounding upon utterly graphic aspects of human existence, clearly visible in this particular story, did not result in lessening the extent of story’s literary appeal.

The same can be said about the effects of utilization of naturalist motifs in London’s novel The Call of the Wild, where author had gone a great length while describing physical violence’s mechanical subtleties with great precision.

For example, in the scene where Buck receives his first ‘submission beating’, London appears to have deliberately strived to produce a heavy blow onto readers’ sense of aesthetic appropriateness: “The man, shifting the club from right to left, coolly caught him [Buck] by the under jaw, at the same time wrenching downward and backward.

Buck described a complete circle in the air, and half of another, then crashed to the ground on his head and chest” (11). It is needless to mention, of course, that the way, in which London had gone about describing the scene of Buck’s beating, can be best referred to as utterly graphic.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Naturalism in Jack London’s To Build a Fire and The Call of the Wild specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And yet, given the fact that London had never made a point in treating the subject of violence as ‘thing in itself’, while aiming to simply entertain intellectually marginalized readers, we cannot be referring to this particular scene’s clearly defined naturalism as being distasteful, in semantic sense of this word.

The earlier suggestion helps us to realize the essence of London’s literary talent. Apparently, unlike what it used to be the case with many of his writing contemporaries; he was not only able to benefit from tackling the issue of violence in intellectually honest manner, but also to show that, under no circumstances, should emanations of physical violence be regarded as ethically inappropriate, by definition, because in the natural environment, they do provide an additional momentum to the process living organisms becoming ever-more complex – hence, violence’s high morality.[1]

In its turn, this explains the phenomenon of why it were author’s particularly naturalistic literary pieces that appealed to intellectually sophisticate readers the most – whatever the ironic it might sound.

In his article, Nash (1966) states: “His [London’s] readers had little difficulty seeing the moral for their own lives of Buck’s reversion to the primitive. Significantly, London’s White Fang (1906), in which a wolf becomes a family dog, never enjoyed the popularity of The Call of the Wild” (530). Thus, it will not be much of an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that it is due to London naturalism’s strongly defined philosophical sounding that even today; most readers consider it contextually appropriate.

Another reason why it is being the case is that London often exposes naturalistic themes and motifs in conjunction with his characters being on a great mission. For example, even though author’s description of traveler’s physical appearance in To Build a Fire, implies his lessened ability to conform to the conventions of Western civilized living: “The man’s red beard and mustache were likewise frosted…

Also, the man was chewing tobacco, and the muzzle of ice held his lips so rigidly that he was unable to clear his chin when he expelled the juice” (The World of Jack London), it nevertheless does not imply his lessened ability to act as such living’s actual agent. The reason for this is simple – in To Build a Fire, the character of a traveler never loses its cool, right to the very end. In its turn, this subtly confirms the sheer objectiveness of a so-called ‘White man’s burden’ notion.

It is namely the fact that White people’s exposal to the hostile environment does not usually undermine their ability to face life’s challenges in a rational manner, which created objective preconditions for them to be given the mission of spreading the light of civilization throughout the world.[2] This is exactly the reason why in To Built a Fire, author’s utilization of naturalistic motifs invokes perceptional stoicism in readers.

As Gurian (1966) had rightly noted: “Jack London’s men fight, as heroes, against surrounding force… London depicts protagonists fighting to win in a causative naturalist universe” (112). By naturalistically juxtaposing the character of traveler against the hostile forces of nature, London provides readers with the insight onto Faustian workings of White people’s psyche.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Naturalism in Jack London’s To Build a Fire and The Call of the Wild by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There can be very little doubt as to the fact that the strongly defined naturalism of many scenes in The Call of the Wild, serves essentially the same purpose. Given the fact that in this novel, dogs are being endowed with essentially human psychological traits, it comes as not a particular surprise that, while being exposed to the scenes of bloody rivalry between Buck and Spitz, readers gain a better understanding of what accounts for the essence of dynamics, within just about any human society.

Apparently, London believed that the representatives of Homo Sapiens specie are nothing but primates, with the layer of their civilizational sophistication being only skin-deep.[3] Just as it is being the case with apes, people think of ensuring the propagation of their genes (through sexual mating) and of gaining a dominant position within social hierarchy, as such that represent their foremost priorities in life.

Therefore, the following naturalistic scene, where Buck and Spitz fight to the death, while trying to ensure their dominance, within the pack, can be best referred to as perfectly connotative of how people go about gaining social prominence, within a society to which they happened to belong: “In vain Buck strove to sink his teeth in the neck of the big white dog.

Wherever his fangs struck for the softer flesh, they were countered by the fangs of Spitz. Fang clashed fang, and lips were cut and bleeding, but Buck could not penetrate his enemy’s guard” (35).

Apparently, throughout the course of his life, London never ceased being aware of a simple fact that, on this earth, there is simply no enough place under the sun for all – only the smartest and the strongest enjoy dialectically predetermined existential superiority. This is exactly the reason why there are clearly defined Social-Darwinist[4] undertones to naturalist themes and motifs, contained in both: The Call of the Wild and To Build a Fire.

Nevertheless, it would be wrong to think that these motifs are being essentially nihilistic. According to Auerbach (1995), the utterly naturalist way in which London’s characters address life’s challenges, is itself can be thought as the source of a new morality, based upon people’s recognition of natural laws’ full objectivity: “This [Darwinian] struggle… demands the dominance of one man over another; hence the origins of a master/slave dialectic… by working, [slave] becomes master over nature, and in doing so frees himself from nature as well as from himself” (59).

What it means that it is utterly inappropriate to refer to London’s literary naturalism as an indication of the fact that he thought of ‘primitiveness’ and ‘realness’ as basically synonymous concepts.

Quite on the contrary – as the reading of The Call of the Wild and To Build a Fire points out to, characters’ exposal to naturalistically defined primitivism, on the part of nature itself (in the short story) and on the part of gold-seeking brutes and their dogs (in the novel), cannot be discussed outside of how it helped these characters to realize the sheer extent of their perceptional nobleness.

Conclusion We believe that the line of argumentation, deployed throughout paper’s analytical part, confirms the validity of an initial thesis that the presence of naturalist motifs and themes in London’s The Call of the Wild and To Build a Fire, should be thought of as having philosophical rather than purely instrumental purpose.

While never ceasing to treat readers in intellectually honest manner, sublimated in his tendency to provide graphically detailed accounts of characters’ struggle with the hostile environment and with viciously-minded competitors for the same environmental niche; London strived to promote an idea that it is only those capable of understanding the full spectrum of ‘survival of the fittest’ concept’s implications, who deserve to remain on the leading edge of biological evolution.

Given the fact that, due to being subjected to ideological oppression of political correctness, more and more men in Western countries now grow exceedingly feminized, it is very likely that in the future, London’s literary naturalism is going to be increasingly referred to as such that contains clues as to very essence of masculine virtuousness.

References Auerbach, Jonathan “Congested Mails’: Buck and Jack’s ‘Call”. American Literature 67.1 (1995): 51-76.

Carroll, Joseph. Literary Darwinism: Evolution, Human Nature, and Literature. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Cuddy, Lois

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Loyalty Questions Reflective Essay essay help online

Introduction It is a hard thing to pledge loyalty to a country that is not your own; that is, a country that is not your ancestral or original homeland. This becomes evident with a situation whereby one is required to defend a country in which he/she has acquired citizenship either through birth, registration or neutrality or especially in case of a war outbreak between the two countries; the mother land and the alien land.

This incident was experienced after the World War II, between the Americans and the Nisei people of Japanese origin, where the Japanese living in America was to serve in the American army by defending the country against any form of opposition, both within or without America.

The anti- Americans were forced to sign some loyalty questions to the American government; this was done while they had already been taken to the internee’s camps where they underwent a lot of physical, economical and psychological torture. According to the American chief of the armed forces, for one to be a true American, race and origin was not important but total dedication emanating from the heart and mentality to protect the country’s autonomy and social equality.

It was therefore difficult to the Nisei to decide their position especially on matters pertaining to the two loyalty questions presented to them, a situation that can befall anyone in a foreign country. Considering the fact that the alien country, is where one lives and has accumulated most of her/his wealth, it becomes reasonable to show loyalty to the country though this action can also result into negatives to the people back in the original land and the aliens still in the country.

To the question whether I will be willing to serve in the armed forces of the United states on combat duty wherever ordered, my response will be no, because of the following reasons; firstly, fighting for the American country in order to show loyalty will not be an action enough to save my fellows who are in the camps, especially the innocent young children and women from the torture they undergo.

The same liberty and freedom I will be fighting for will be denied my own people living in the country; this is evident through their denial to the right of shelter, food and clothing. Therefore, it will be with no benefit joining the army as long as I will be treated like a stranger in the country I will be defending.

Secondly, the need of showing loyalty to the country is because I am a citizen, therefore, asking me such a question that a real citizen cannot be asked or cannot be in a position to answer, proofs that am not treated as a true citizen and risking to join the army will of no good to me (Cooper 37).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This question implies that I remain to be an alien besides all my efforts to fight for the country. Furthermore, my people could not be segregated into camps and forced to live their own homes and property which they have accumulated in the country, instead if they were treated like citizens, they could have been allowed to live in their homes and the young and energetic people granted a direct entry into the army just like the Americans are granted. This gives me a good reason to stand firm in my refusal to say yes to such a question.

Thirdly, it is pointless to fight for a country that triggers hatred and fighting among people of the same origin instead of encouraging their solidarity. By answering the question, different feelings shall be aroused because not all people feel the same for their country.

This means that there are those who will be for a yes, others for a no and others will not entertain any attempts to answering the question. This will mean animosity among these different groups. On top of all the hardships my people will undergo, they will be forced to fight amongst themselves thus creating a very hostile condition for their survival.

A country that one has lived and intends to live for the rest of his/her lifetime can be considered to be his/her own and showing loyalty and patriotism is vital. All his/her property is based on this land and therefore protecting it means protecting his/ her own possession. Contrary to this good idea, is the fact that home is home and it is always best. That is why I confirm my no answer to the above question.

On the second question, swearing unskilled allegiance to defend America from any forms of attack and agreeing to obey the Japanese emperor or any other strange authority will be impossible for me. My answer will be no because, in the first place the question is twofold and if my answer is yes then I will be left homeless (Cooper 43).

By accepting to defend the US , then I will be against my own country and by signing allegiance with Japanese emperor, then it means evacuating from America, this will lead to a no place for me and my people. For survival, remaining neutral is the best thing, furthermore those who show loyalty to either of the two sides still suffer as if they had done nothing, therefore it is good when one suffers solely on a neutral ground.

It is also risky to show loyalty to one side, incase the side one supports losses. This question is presented to all even the women, and without their understanding to the question, they will answer it wrongly thus committing themselves to things they cannot accomplish in life. It is therefore important for me who understands the consequences for such a commitment to say no.

We will write a custom Essay on Loyalty Questions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to this, the rivalry created among my people and the misfortunes realized by them in the detention camps compels me towards achieving my answer as no. To many, yes would work as showing loyalty to both countries can be advantageous in that they can survive in the one that conquers, but for me, I will choose to die a patriot to my own country whichever the circumstance maybe.

Conclusion In matters pertaining loyalty and patriotism for one’s own country, it is important to acknowledge the fact that it comes from the heart and mind but not by force. Furthermore the country which one chooses to defend must also acknowledge one’s citizenship. If all is put in place, the all these questions should not be directed to the same people who are taken to be citizens.

The whole idea behind loyalty is to protect human life, therefore showing Allegany to either side, means destruction of the same life that is to be protected. That is why on human ground, I chose to say no to both questions.

Works Cited Cooper, Michel, L. Fighting for honor: Japanese Americans and World War II. Orlando: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. Print.

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Miranda v. Arizona (Self-incrimination) Research Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction In 1966, the United States Supreme Court had to decide one of the challenging cases, Miranda v. Arizona, and give perhaps what many termed a landmark ruling. The Court had to listen to statements form the inculpatory and exculpatory sides and then make a ruling. However, there was a precondition for this to happen.

The defendant already in the police custody, was to appear before trial if the prosecutor was able to substantiate with evidence, the fact that the defendant was aware of his or her rights according to Fifth and Sixth Amendment. In addition, the prosecutor had to ensure protection of the defendant’s self-incrimination rights especially during the time of questioning by the police.

This means that before questioning, the police had to ensure that the defendant understands his or her rights and must show the willingness to waiver. Undoubtedly, this particular case had a significant effect especially to the law enforcing agencies in United States. The case later led to the development of Miranda rights, which became an element in routine police procedures aimed at protecting the rights of suspected persons.

Other similar cases determined alongside the Miranda v. Arizona include California v, Stewart, Westover v. United States and Vignera v. New York. The paper will examine the background of the case in addition to the legal point at issue and the decision of the court. Additionally, the paper will establish the reasoning of the Supreme Court and finally, how the decision affected police procedures (Soltero, 2006, pp. 61-74).

The background of Miranda v. Arizona dates back to 1963 when police officers in Phoenix, Arizona arrested a Mexican immigrant, Ernesto Miranda, for rape and kidnapping crimes. The police officers put Miranda into custody and interrogated him for approximately tow hours. However, the police officers questioning Miranda erred in one thin. They did not inform Miranda his rights against self-incrimination as enshrined in the Fifth Amendment of the American Constitution.

Moreover, the police officers to inform Miranda his right to acquire the services of an attorney prior to questioning as enshrined in the Sixth Amendment. Nevertheless, following the two-hour interrogation, Miranda admitted in writing that he had actually committed the two crimes and later on, he was charged. In his written statement, Ernesto Miranda accredited the fact that he was sentient of his right against self-incrimination.

Thus, during his trial, the prosecution regime relied on the written statement to convict Miranda. The court found Miranda guilty and sentenced him to 20 and 30 years in prison for rape and kidnapping crimes respectively. Nonetheless, this did not stop here. After restudying the case again, Miranda’s lawyer decided to make a petition to the Arizona Supreme Court.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his argument, Miranda’s lawyer noted that the written statement serving as a confession should not act as evidence since the police officers had not informed Miranda his rights, and the absence of an attorney during interrogation makes the sentence null and void.

Interestingly, the police officers who interrogated Miranda disclosed that they did not inform Miranda about the two issues, which are part of his rights. On their defense, the police officers argued that Miranda was not new to these rights, as the court had convicted him in the past.

Thus, they assumed that Miranda was well aware of his rights. The Arizona Supreme Court declined the appeal on grounds that Miranda was not alien to police procedures, did not request for an attorney and that he confessed willingly. The Supreme Court also retorted that the work of the police would be in jeopardy if it overturned the early conviction. This decision elicited a hot debate in the American criminal jurisprudence (Cornell Law School, 2010, p.1).

In 1965, the Supreme Court of United States decided to hear the Miranda v. Arizona case alongside other three cases. After several hearings, the case came into a conclusion with a 5—4 vote in favor of Miranda’s conviction.

On delivering the US Supreme Court decision, Chief Justice Warren cited many things among them mistakes committed by police officers in the case. Warren, a former prosecutor, dismissed the custodial nature of police interrogations by citing a flurry of police training manuals, and blamed police officers for neglecting some of their fundamental duties.

In particular, Warren cited the Fifth Amendment self-incrimination clause as the reason why the written confession is unacceptable. Furthermore, Justice Warren read out the Sixth Amendment clause, which is a fundamental right to a suspect to choose an attorney prior the interrogation. Writing for the majority judges, Justice Warren stated that the police officers should furnish all suspects in custody and awaiting interrogation with information on their rights.

The same police officers should advice the suspects to remain silent otherwise, what they say will serve as evidence in the court of law against them. Justice Warren further added that the police officers should inform the defendant his rights to acquire the services of an attorney and make sure that the attorney is present during the time of interrogation. Since this never took place, the Supreme Court overturned Miranda’s conviction.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Miranda v. Arizona (Self-incrimination) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He further declared that the lumber was upon the State to effectual safeguarding of the police procedures in order to ensure protection against self-incrimination. He attributed the fact that if police officers go on with the practice, it means that suspects have no choice other than to compel themselves to incrimination.

Thus, it is paramount to practice interrogation of suspects as laid out in Fifth Amendment and Sixth Amendment clauses to secure privilege against self-incrimination. For the US Supreme Court to reach this conclusion, it based its findings on fundamental fairness. Justice Warren wrote that the police officers did not warrant Miranda information regarding his right to consult with a lawyer and that there was no layer present during the interrogation.

Thus, according to Justice Warren, the police officers compelled Miranda to incriminate himself against the provisions of the American Constitution. He termed the written statement “inadmissible” before any court and that although he signed the statement claiming to understand his rights; that does not amount to the intelligent waiver necessary to renounce constitutional rights (Gribben, 2011, pp.7-8).

The decision to overturn Miranda’s conviction had a lot of impact especially to the police officers. For instance, the creation of Miranda laws increased burden to police officers who now had new responsibilities of informing suspects their rights before questioning them. Prior to any questioning, police officers had to caution suspects that whatever they said would appear against him in a court of law. They also had to make sure that before any interrogation takes place, an attorney presenting the suspect s present.

In case, the suspect does not afford an attorney, the State has to appoint one for the suspect to but on condition that the suspect so desires. Some conservatives came out to denounce the US Supreme Court decision and expressed that it was wrong to inform suspected criminals of their rights. They also accused the court of undermining the police, and that the decision served to increase crime (Miranda Slain; Main Figure in Landmark Suspects’ Rights Case, 1976, p.1).

Reference List Cornell Law School. (2010). Warren, C.J. Opinion of the Court: Supreme Court of the United States. 384 U.S. 436. Miranda v. Arizona. Legal Information Institute. Web.

Gribben, M. (2011). Miranda vs. Arizona: The Crime that changed American Justice. Web.

Miranda Slain; Main Figure in Landmark Suspects’ Rights Case. (February 1, 1976). The New York Times. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Miranda v. Arizona (Self-incrimination) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Soltero, R. (2006). Miranda v. Arizona (1966) and the rights of the criminally accused. Latinos and American Law: Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

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The literature of the Middle Kingdom Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Egypt

Values and Ideas

Things I have Read

The Society Enlightened

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction In The history of ancient Egypt, The Middle Kingdom of Egypt refers to a period that stretches over the eleventh dynasty up to the completion of the fourteenth dynasty. This is the period in history known to be between 2055BC and 1650BC. This period was dominated by Osiris cult in major parts of Egypt.Historians have documented proof showing that the Middle Kingdom partially owned the 13th Dynasty.

Historians argue that part of the thirteenth dynasty belonged to the Middle Kingdom. Hence, this era saw the 11th dynasty ruling from Thebes, while El-lisht was the operating village for the 12th dynasty. When the old kingdom collapsed, Egypt plunged into a time when Pharaonic power was weak.

Egypt Many facets characterized the literature of the Middle Kingdom. Thus, the literature shaped Egyptian culture in numerous ways. According to Lichtheim(128), the literature produced during this era was anchored on Egyptian official castes. Perhaps, it can be attributed to the message which was conveyed. Besides, most of the literature published during this era was mainly circulated after the approval by central administration of theMiddle kingdom.

The Egyptian royal court was portrayed as the powerhouse of all literary material, thus, other facets of Egyptian culture failed adequately to match the philosophical significance linking courts and literature. In understanding how this literature shaped ancient Egypt, clear evidence can be linked to the courts of the time.The courts were widespread across geographical region in the Kingdom and this simplified administration,whereas providing easy circulation of literarymaterials.

Consequently, the literature of this time was closely linked to individual identity. According toLichtheim (113), this was seen as a symbol of unsociablecharacter because it precipitated stress on the latent of adverse characteristics of the prevailing individual situation.

Values and Ideas The Middle Kingdom was endowed with a variety of ideas and values. This was explicitly expressed in Literary approach present. Literary world in ancientEgypt pointed to a unified or near to ordinary verbal language of everyday society.

The languages of legendary texts, excluding Tale of Wole and Amun were a hybrid that evolved progressively as a result of spoken pre-history undertakings. Thus, this showed the value anchored on historical happenings. According to Lichtheim(33), the syntax of the language of contemporarybooklets, for example portrayed extensive use of semanticdevices (Lichtheim, 113).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently,substantial language use can be nevertheless be differentiated with conventional Egyptian culture.The idea of embracing designs on papyrus is noted to have massively increased the use of symbol texts. Papyrus creativity of the MiddleKingdom encouraged graving, of non- royal biographies and of amalgamsdesigns such as; Harris Papyrus linked the o interpretations of the act of Ramesses III centers between Conventional and late Egypt.

Things I have Read The history of Middle Kingdom in Egypt rejuvenates in me the mythical account of XVII Dynasty. The account of this dynasty was limited, and comprised of poorly conserved papyrus texts, thus the majority of preserved copies emanated from the Middle Kingdom scripts did not provide enough information about their culture and administration structure (Lichtheim, 4).

Besides, these scripts did not inaugurate explicitly in terms of whether the middle literary approach engulfed the creek of custom during this historical period of the dynasty. The Orthodox Egyptian quantity seems to have been comparatively well distinct.

Consequently, the Rhind mathematical papyruses infuriate me. It was a kind of notation located at the rear of papyrus during the Second Intermediate Period. It was an element regarding the stream of culture which survived into dynasty XVIII (Lichtheim, 31). However, Rhind mathematical papyruses did little to document its works, thus hampering its masterpiece survival

The famous dynasty XVIII texts were apparent for innovation in terms of literary structure. This originality was evident in kingly engravings, biography and church hymns. The genres were categorized as “useful” texts other than belleslettres.

They were anchored on Middle Age legacy. For example, the temple of Hatshepsut found atDeir el-Bahri, categorically displays a mimic of Middle Kingdom replicas and the establishment of monumental engraving, largely are subjective by these replicas. Hence, this acquaints me of the important information I have come across (Lichtheim, 39).

The royal engravings during the dynasty XVIII on Berlin Leather building was ascribed with texts by Senwosret I. The engravings were preserved for authentic purposes. This was perhaps for providing evidence in terms of study of ancient texts, models or for composition of attributed works to aid manufacture of a culture.

We will write a custom Essay on The literature of the Middle Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The engraving depicts the power of ancient art of Middle Kingdom in the Egyptian society.Senworset I, with his engravings attributed to Berlin Leather, tolerates the importance of the Middle Kingdom culture by bestowing the king’s role, something similarly seen in the White Chapel of Senworset I in Amenhotep (Lichtheim, 22).

The autobiographies, which have been covered on a limited aspect studied as a historical genre (Lichtheim, 41), are sundry but not aptly innovative as royal writings and less modernistic than the marginallypastwriting of Emhab (Lichtheim, 9). Most significant non royal shrines during this time mimicked sculptures and tombs, rather than the typical of the Middle Kingdom.

They embraced this regularly and thus memoirs had long writingsslightly than typecastmatters something have learned. However, the autotrophies differed in terms of accounts of subject contribution or soldiery affairs or had a characteristic flair mirrored from the first half of the century of the dynasty Further, Middle Kingdom autobiographies altered as noted by Lichtheim (11). This was due to different social classes and religious belief.

A clear approach is that of Stela of Baki who showed aphilosophicalobsession in traditional Egyptian literature. Besides, the numerouscanticlesconserved from the middle Kingdom were primarily in non-royal tombs. They ranged from typecast to a more distinct, thusaffirming dynamic life outside the main liturgical framework and spearheading growth of thoughts through dialogue of canticle.

The Society Enlightened TheMiddle Kingdom literature was divided into two broad principal periods. These periods were before and after the period of Amarna during the late XVII dynasty. In this sense, the antique chapter resembles largely with the introduction of late Egyptian as a carved type of language embodying a divergent composition and orthography.

Hence this showed the continuation of traditional Egyptian. During the dynasty XIX, the literature works were collected and middle ones written in expressions and later exposed to standard communication in script copies (Lichtheim, 89).

Thus, we can assert that most prose writers of Egypt’sMiddle Kingdom were skilled. Further, mythical chronicles were highly written thus creating part of charmed prescriptions during this period. The prose writers’ during this time were not confirmed for conventional Egyptian writings hence most of the work was centered on love poetry.

However, skillful writers championed for papyrus collations. Papyrus collations were important for teaching purposes. The categories of written items categories included; historical shards and passages which demonstrated ideologies of association and effective use of literature.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The literature of the Middle Kingdom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the work which theMiddle Kingdom demonstrated its writing prowess included; The Fisherman’s Wife, Story of Isi, Amenopeand other aspects of instructional texts. This works were preserved in the Middle Kingdom Ostracon until the 4th century (Lichtheim,3). The Middle Kingdom legendary works would have subsisted if the milieu of spread had been preserved.

According to Lichtheim(4),the relative short survival of Middle Kingdom literature of ancient Egypt, whose originality spanned for three centuries, depicts the contrast that prevail between “modernism” and “classicism”.

Hence this period was synonymous of transmitting forms of high quality written literature by its writers. The Kingdoms which inherited later had an easy time of having “outstanding tradition of literacy works”, thus the outstanding traditions was the efforts of originality and skills of the Middle Kingdom writers (Lichtheim,7).

Further, the sustenance of late Egyptian, orthodox, and ostensiblepause of legendary originality in orthodox Egyptian, established a condition by which traditionally, the crucial work become ossified and disjointed from dynamicMiddle Kingdom structure this clearly affirms the presence of skilled writers during this time.

Conclusion The Middle Kingdom literature was an interesting piece of literary workever written in history. It brings enlightenment in the literature world. We can ably conclude that, the literary acumen of the Middle kingdom writers were civilized and updated. This is illustrated in their works such as poetry, art, hymns among others. The preservation up to present, clearly demonstrates the richness of history.

Work Cited Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Middle Kingdom. California: Universityof California Press, 2006

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Joker One: A Marine Platoon’s Story of Courage, Leadership, and Brotherhood Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Courage

Brotherhood

Leadership

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Joker One written by Campbell posses a big task in trying to explain it .In any case anyone who tries to analyze this book does so only in what can be referred to as poignant. This is a tale of single Marines constituting of a single platoon tasked with fighting in Iraq. Never the less the Joker One does not really dwell on war (Campbell 4); indeed the author flatters the condition of Human beings with the war in Iraq, more so fixing it in its right place.

The author needed to write his story so that he may not influence the opinions of the critics on the fact that America was courageous enough to invade Iraq thus justifying the invasion. Rather the author did so in order to place the identities to those who labored in saving their nation.

It does not add much to whether one supports the war or not, however, what is important is the understanding of peoples labor in the Iraqi war. The fighters in the battle had no fear. They fought with the spirit of bravado, determination, courage and outstanding selflessness. If one decides to search keenly, he will realize that the book is such touching and emotional they Campbell put it.

Courage Till now the news reported on Iraqi war remains to be rhetorical. Basing on this book, it can be seen that the nit grits of the entire body have observed the sentiments of the individuals against America in Iraq as being courageous and embracing the aspect of brotherhood in Iraqi (Campbell 15).

However, to date the author expends his sentiments representing the real situation of the war in Iraq. On the other hand, the author does not bring out the aspect of unit to the American friends who when compelled by the choice of either defending their individual mortalities or societies which instead lean on the coalitions raging war against America.

Some of the war troops went back to United States broken, battered as well as beaten psychologically as well as physically. Most of the warriors never made it to America instead succumbed to the injuries sustained in war in wooden coffins beautified by America’s flag. The author has gone ahead to mention the dead by name signifying the leadership of the army.

The leader was such an impeccable one knowing each and every person under him by name. As Campbell puts it, every army man has got ambitions, visions as well as relations to which in spite of the mortalities or injuries has been altered incredibly by the them taking part in the worst type of human interaction (Campbell 20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brotherhood At this juncture Campbell takes the readers through fore bench into day to day labor of his war men. The leader should have had it an easy time bringing to light his leadership skills and qualities in Joker One so as to elevate his personal ego. Instead he brings to light the extraordinary unity of those individuals under his control. As opposed to bringing out his accomplishments he lays emphasis on the achievements of his army war and highlights his mistakes during the judgment (Campbell 22).

The author goes ahead supporting the decisions made in haste which he makes under compulsion. What follows this is a whole season of regrets following the decisions made the leader. Indeed the author brings out the whole aspect of leadership, brotherhood and unity more of a tale yet the story is a true representation of the Iraqi war.

The story is notes the need for the second and private lieutenants who are the key players that build up the sharp end of the arrow which is the Americas army in readiness (Campbell 23). The book is portrays an emotional story that outlines the Leaders own journey via the brilliant success including the difficulties which combat leadership.

It does not just bring out the sentiments of an individual but it is important in any given leader alongside all the existing beings to which the platoons were to be transformed to. This is indeed a touching narrative of leadership study. Being a leader the author takes time to explain and elaborate much amid expectation and experience (Campbell 30).

Being a young person in charge he has received training in the hypothesis of war, however, is in need of the skills equal to that that has had experience with wildlife and being an officeholder he is tasked with leading and meeting his marines expectation in spite of the inadequate practical expertise.

This is the key challenges that are faced by most of young office holders. For instance, how does one bring inspiration to officers who have not been commissioned neither have they achieved any award nationwide? How can one bring forty non unified marines to fight harmoniously thus overcoming their joined or summed up counterparts. Campbell has clearly brought out this narrative ousting the leadership.

Leadership Following a short stint of being in charge of the troops with the fore front marine headquarters based in Iraqi, the leader was in charge of the first platoon. The acceptance of the few orders stipulated by the troops and was out to find it being in the worst combat dating back to Hue with respect to a certain degree of causality which never existed in the past thirty years (Campbell 35).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Joker One: A Marine Platoon’s Story of Courage, Leadership, and Brotherhood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author being an accurate observer highlights to the readers what looked like the least cadre of command during frenetic preparation to war by the troops. The confusion coupled with disappointment realized lasts a short time because the troops receive orders for employment in Iraq.

Conclusion In conclusion, Joker One with most of the themes of leadership, labor and unity is one of the literatures that should be flipped into keenly by every young office holder who is seeking for a leadership opportunity to manage Marines. Campbell is however not perfect, hence he fails to shine as opposed to unflattering things to himself and those under him.

The author’s honesty gives a true picture of what attracts most of the marines to the realm of complexities and how brotherly love and leadership gives the purity and nobility of rationale to bring the troops back to them (Campbell 105).

Works Cited Campbell, Dovan. Joker One: A Marine Platoon’s Story of Courage ,Leadership, and Brotherhood. New York: Random House, 2009.

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A Time-Travel to the Renaissance Epoch: Behind the Velvet Curtain Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

A perfect specimen of the Flemish oil painting style with its attention to the tiniest details, the picture under the title The Ambassadors by Hans Holbein the Younger is truly a masterpiece embodying the ideas and world vision of the XVI Century.

With a distinct scent of the German, namely, the Augsburg (Bavaria) culture, this piece makes one plunge into the 1533 and see the world through the prism of the then philosophical ideas. Indeed, if there is anything that can intertwine the Bavarian and the Flemish, this is the painting by Holbein. With help of his peculiar style, the two cultures came as close as ever, making the philosophies of the two countries merge.

Taking a closer look at the picture, one can notice that time proved completely helpless to make any damage to it. Each detail is still there, perfectly outlined and impeccably expressed.

It is truly unbelievable that the size of the picture correlates with its grandeur and magnificence – the canvas make 81×82.5”. Created with careful strokes of oil paint on oak panel, this masterpiece is shot through with the spirit of the Renaissance.

Depicting the two ambassadors, the painting makes an impression of a piece of the Renaissance life frozen for a moment for the people of the future to see it. Depicting numerous details, the painting creates an impression of a part of real life snatched from 1533 and put into the frame of the XXI century.

On a second thought, the picture can tell much more than merely the historical traits of the epoch and the details of the Renaissance epoch. Helping the spectator understand the art of the Renaissance from within, the picture reveals the ideas and philosophies of XVI century together with the temper of the artist and the thing a that inspired him and guided on his way to creating this masterpiece.

It is obvious that the picture is rectangular, which is the most frequent and the most logical picture shape. Since the piece embraces the entire room and the two people in it, it cannot be square – to show the spaciousness, Holbein uses the rectangular and two-dimensional shape.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It must be also mentioned that the use of the light in the picture is quite unusual. With help of the shadows and spots of light, the author emphasizes the most important parts of the picture an places the less significant ones into the background. Thus, the two ambassadors are in the limelight of the picture in the literal sense of the word, whereas less important details are left in the periphery.

One more peculiar thing about the painting is the color casts used y the author. With help of the dark-green background, Holbein created the atmosphere of calm meditations and the air of political secrets. It is remarkable that the other colors, including the shade of red, are dark as well, with the white color being the only exception.

Although it is clear that tae painting must have a hard and somewhat rough texture, it seems as if the painting were made of velvet. Looking at the dark-green curtains, one cannot help feeling the wish to touch the material and see it swaying in the candlelight. Though this is merely an illusion, the painting does leave a feeling of something extremely soft and refined.

Despite the fact that at very first sight the picture might seem a bit shallow, further on it reveals the special depth that the spectator had no idea about previously. Since the people in the picture are set in a single line, the illusion of a flat image is retained for a while; however, as time passes, the spectator catches the play of light and shadow that create additional spaciousness. Leading in the background of the picture and beyond its actual boundaries, this spaciousness sets the imagination of the spectator loose, making him/her see the world of the XVI Century in its beauty and innocence.

With help of the lines in the picture, Holbein makes the impression of the striking reality complete. It is peculiar that the even and straight lines of the table and the devices in the picture are combined with the natural curves and roughness of the curtain, the folds of the ambassadors’ dresses, etc. Altogether, this draws a distinct line between the world of nature and the artificial world of the mankind.

What strikes most in the painting is that it looks completely real. Each detail, each shadow and line makes the spectator dive deep into the Renaissance epoch. Even the eyes of the ambassadors seem live and haunting. Looking wise and breathing with the new ideas and scientific innovations, this piece of Renaissance culture can take one five centuries back.

With help of this amazing picture, time traveling becomes possible. With help of this amazing piece of the XVI Century Renaissance art, one can feel the pulse of the great scientific discoveries and even greater expectations. For a moment, it seems that the world has held its breathe to meet the future – the XXI Century.

We will write a custom Essay on A Time-Travel to the Renaissance Epoch: Behind the Velvet Curtain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Prevalence Rates

Symptoms

Diagnosis

Prognosis

Treatment

Conclusion

References

Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a psychological disorder due to overwhelming anxiety that manifests in terms of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors.

An individual suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder experiences obsessive and intrusive thoughts such as anxiety, fear, uneasiness, apprehension and sexual drives that persist notwithstanding suppressive psychological effects that tend to distract the thoughts.

The obsessive thoughts elicits compulsive behaviors such as routine habits of counting, sex, hand-washing, aggressiveness, watching, and many other habits as physical efforts of suppressing the intrusive thoughts.

According to National Institute of Mental Health, “obsessive compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or repetitive compulsive behaviors … repetitive behaviors such as hand-washing, counting, checking, or cleaning are often performed with the hope of preventing obsessive thoughts or making them go away” (2010, p.1).

Therefore, obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors are the major characteristics associated with the obsessive-compulsive disorder. In order to explore obsessive-compulsive disorder, this essay examines prevalence rates, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the disorder.

Prevalence Rates Epidemiological studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder ranks fourth among psychiatric disorders in the United States. The epidemiological research studies by Epidemiological Catchment Area revealed that approximately 2-3% of the population suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorder and this prevalence is relatively constant across all nations.

Krochmalik and Menzies argue that, “the Cross-National Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Collaborative Group study assessed and compared the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in six countries …results revealed comparable prevalence rates of as those from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study in the United States” (2003, p.19). The findings imply that obsessive compulsive disorder has relatively constant prevalence rates across nations and cultures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Comparative gender and age studies have shown that obsessive disorder has no significant variability in the population. “Similar with most psychological disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder normally starts in adolescent and young adult life, with males often experiencing it earlier than females; however, there appears to be little gender difference in the occurrence of the disorder” (Krochmalik

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Afghanistan Economics in the Modern Days Research Paper argumentative essay help

Since the resources of Afghanistan offer great opportunities for the state development and for the enhancement of industry, it is necessary to realize the benefits of the enhancement of mining as well as the probable obstacles. If used efficiently, the local resources can have great impact on Afghanistan industry and economics. Thus, it is of great importance to evaluate all pros and cons of mining in Afghanistan. Anyway, one of the key aspects would be the question of how to draw the additional investments to the state.

According to what World Bank Group claims, the Afghanistan government is currently concerned with the state of agriculture in the country, whereas the mining industry is left unattended at present. Thus, it would be possible to develop this sphere, making it clear that the given enterprise pursues the goal of enriching the land.

Indeed, the riches which can be found in this land strike everyone’s imagination: as World Bank Group says, even gold ore can be found here. Taking a closer look at the state of affairs in the country, it becomes clear that only with help of additional investments, the country will be able to get out of the poverty pit and start out a journey to prosperity.

As long as the reasons for additional investments from the other countries are found, the Afghanistan problem will be solved. Since “investment projects encompass a broad range of sectors – from agriculture to urban development, rural infrastructure, education and health” (World Bank Group), it is possible to suggest that investments in Afghan will help to resolve certain economical problems and lead the country out of the poverty which it is suffering from at the moment.

Speaking of the resource cost, one can suppose that the value of the minerals obtained will be stunning, since the country is extremely rich in iron ore. It must be also born in mind that Afghanistan is rich in petroleum and gas, which means that the enterprise under discussion is going to be rather profitable. In addition, according to the evidence of the “Gem Hunter”, Afghanistan is welling in precious stones, which can also be a good reason for investment campaign (Bowesox).

However, it must be admitted that to achieve this goal, it will be necessary to conduct effective land acquisition. As Adam Bennett claims, there has been recently a successful attempt in land acquisition to create more effective system of housing (Bennett 43), which allows to suggest that the given enterprise will be crowned with success as well in terms of the land acquisition. However, one must keep in mind that the costs spent on this enterprise are going to be sufficient.

Another problem to tackle will be the mining rights in Afghanistan. Since mining rights in Afghanistan presuppose that the international norms are applied in case of the land acquisition, it can be considered that the legal issues will be tackled easily.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, one must keep in mind that certain cultural issues, such as the local traditions and the system of belief can hinder the process of mining and create an obstacle on the way to efficient development of the mining industry. It goes without saying that the culture and traditions of the Afghanistan people must be appreciated.

As the organizers of Visiting Arts Cultural Profiles Project (2009) claim, “In 2003, eight heritage sites in the Bamiyan valley were collectively inscribed upon the UNESCO List of World Heritage in Danger as`the ‘Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley’.”

Therefore, it would be crucial to accept their understanding of what land is and take into account the beliefs connected with the land. For instance, it is a well-known fact that the Afghanistan people have deep love and attachment for their land (Visiting Arts Cultural Profiles Project). This means that some discords may appear as the mining process begins, unless the team explains to the local people that the mining process is designed to draw more investments and make the country prosper.

To solve such problem, it would be a good idea to make people believe that mining is designed for their own benefit and describe the advantages which they will get as the first results appear. However, in case the local dwellers prove rather stubborn, it would be better to choose another place for mining.

Thus, with help of certain diplomacy and the special knowledge of the Afghanistan mining, one will be able to develop the local mining industry and help the country develop economically.

Works Cited Bennett, Adam. Reconstructing Afghanistan. Washington, D. C.: International Monetary Fund, 2005. Print.

Bowersox, G. W. ( n.d.). Gem Hunters. In The Gem Hunter in Afghanistan. Web.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Afghanistan Economics in the Modern Days specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Visiting Arts Cultural Profiles Project. (2009). Afghanistan Cultural Profile. In welcome to the Afghanistan Cultural Profile. Web.

World Bank Group (n.d.). Projects and Operations. In Products and Services. Web.

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Argument for Legalization of Gambling in Texas Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Origin of Gambling

Texas Laws on Gambling

Reasons why People Gamble

Arguments against Gambling

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Gambling refers to a pre offer, of money or any other material that has substantial value, to the occurrence or failure of an event. The subject of gambling is that the gambler losses the money offered if the outcome of the event is against him or her or gains the money offered if the event outcome favors the gambler.

The outcome of the specific event is normally determinable in a short period of time. The gambler, therefore, takes the risk of either gaining or losing the offered money or material and any other valuable subjected to gambling. This paper seeks to discuss the issue of gambling. The paper will examine the benefits as well as any negative effects of gambling with an aim of arguing for the legalization of gambling in Texas.

Origin of Gambling The nature of gambling is closely related to ancient religious beliefs that were practiced in the pre historic times. Gambling is for this reason believed to have its origin from religious beliefs. It has been generally pointed out that gambling was developed from a religious practice in which particular religious leaders who were believed to be in communication with gods predicted what would happen to people.

It was believed that these leaders were able to learn from gods or spirits what would happen in future. The religious leaders who had the ability to predict the future used objects which would be thrown from a person’s hand.

The objects were believed to predict the future with respect to either a positive or a negative result depending on what the visitor came to seek. Anciently, an even number of the thrown objects would mean a positive outcome while an odd number of the thrown objects would mean a negative prediction. The outcomes of these religious practices were based on chance even though they were believed to be responses from either gods or some spirits.

The initial observation of the number of thrown objects was later improved to include a study of the pattern formed by the objects. Further developments of the practice led to the issuance of gifts by the person seeking counsel from the religious or spiritual leader. The gifts were meant to appease the gods or the spirits to enhance their yielding of good outcomes through the predictions.

This concept of the ancient religious leaders foretelling the future is what was modified into a game like activity in which people try to predict the outcome of an event with a monetary value attached to their prediction. A positive prediction leads to a person getting the amount put in the game. An outcome contrary to that predicted by a gambler leads to the gambler losing his or her money or commodity subjected to the gambling (Crapsdicecontrol1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Texas Laws on Gambling Under the Texas statutes, gambling is defined as a bet over an event that has not yet occurred. A person is therefore said to have gambled if the individual makes or participates in a bet of an activity whose final result is not yet known. The activity could be a competition,such as in games, in which a winner is desired, political contests, or results on intellectual tests. Gambling is illegal under the Texas statute and a person is liable for gambling if the person is either directly or indirectly involved in a gambling process.

Indirect involvement in gambling could include acts such as being an agent in gambling in which an individual is used asa link between gamblers, undertaking to promote or to enhance gambling, providing an avenue or place where gambling is undertaken or even having a tool that is used either for gambling or to promote gambling. Gambling is therefore a criminal offence in Texas under the statutory provisions (Texas statutes 1).

Reasons why People Gamble There are a number of reasons why people choose to gamble. A person can choose to gamble because gambling brings a sense of “recreation and fun” (Aging 1). The process of gambling brings with itself some sense of adrenaline driven moments as people anticipate in the outcome of a gambling activity.

These moments together with suspense of who is going to be favored by the results of such gambling brings excitement that make the experience fun to some individuals. Like other games, gambling also brings the participating parties together and promotes a sense of unity among these people. It is for this reasonthat it offers an opportunity for people to socialize with one another.

Gambling which is carried out with a partial aim of raising money to support a charity event or a social activity can also yield the fulfillment of helping the unfortunate in a society. A person can therefore engage in a gamble with an understanding that part of the proceeds will be delivered to some social activity somewhere (Aging 1).

Another reason for gambling is to help people escape from the realities that they face at home. People take advantage of the time they use in gambling together with the company that they get atthe gambling places topass time in an environment that is more relaxed. In this view, gambling can be perceived as a relieving exercise that can help people control or reduce stressat least for the moment of the gambling activity and when in the company of other gamblers. Gambling is also a source of income.

When people bet, they submit to the risk of either winning or losing. When they win, the proceeds are more than what was bet. Gambling can therefore be seen as some sort of a faster and easy investment in which one just puts his or her money and wait for fate to determine his or her profit or loss (Aging 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Argument for Legalization of Gambling in Texas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another argument in support for gambling is the fact that it is something that a person does at will. In democratic countries like the United States, in which Texas is a state, democracies are upheld and people’s fundamental rights and freedom to make choices and to look for happiness are declared in the constitution.

If the constitution allows people to choose whether or not they should drink, or the religion they want to belong to or even the type of political leaders that they want for their country, the way they want to spend their money and how they want to have fun and be happy in life, then the same constitution ought to give its citizen the freedom to choose whether or not they want to gamble.

It can be argued that when a person goes to gamble, he shall have taken the risk of either winning or losing in the gamble. If one party looses, the other party should not be liable for the loss because both parties must have consented to the terms of gambling before they put their money in the act. It should therefore be viewed as a fair act that violates no right or freedom of any loosing party. It is neither theft nor robbery.

Collins peter argued that gambling has dual effects. There are benefactors in a variety of ways. When one party loses and the other party gains.The proceeds of the gambling are of economic importance to the winning party as well as those individuals who depend on the winning party.

The effects are therefore countered. Both parties are aware of loosing orwinning and would be happy if they won. Similarly, the dependants of gamblers are most likely happy and enjoy the proceeds of gambling when their bread winner is lucky and brings the gambling money home. These same people should therefore understand when the same gambler is one day unlucky and loses his or her money in gambling.

It is the same in either way and it is in addition a source of employment to other people such as the owners of facilities or those employed in the facilities where gambling takes place. A total ban on gambling therefore has a significant effect of lost income to parties that are occasionally involved in gambling (Collins 43).

Collins further argued that gambling should be allowed as a means of fostering social justice in a society. Underthis argument, Collins claimed that people ought to be given opportunity to make their choices as regards to what they want.

A person who feels like joining either the Republican Party or the Democrats should be given the chance to choose where they want to belong, another person who wants to donate his or her income to a social activity such as supporting an orphanage or the elderly or any other disadvantaged member of a society should be given the opportunity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Argument for Legalization of Gambling in Texas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A donation to a charity is money taken away from the donor’s dependents and the dependents consequently loses claim over such donations. Money lost through gambling is similarly a choice of a person risking money but with the hope of getting more. Gambling is for this reason more beneficial to the gambler’s dependants as compared to charity donations from which absolutely no reward is expected (Collins 43).

Arguments against Gambling There are, however, arguments against gambling. According to Kasinoonnet, too much of gambling is considered unsafe more so if a person is going beyond his or her financial means in order to gamble (Kasinosonnet 1). It is also argued that gambling results in unsuccessful relationships “interfere with responsibilities at work, and leads to financial catastrophies” (Helpguide 1). Gambling is therefore perceived in this case to be an addictive exercise that can ruin a person together with his or her family (Helpguide 1).

Conclusion There are significant arguments that gambling is not a safe activity to engage in especially due to its addicting effects. There are possibilities that it can lead to loss of money by a gambler and the side effects of lost money can ruin the gambler together with his or her dependants.

It is however evident that gambling is voluntary and a person only goes into gambling on free will and consent. Gambling also has a variety of benefits such as entertainment and income increment among others. As a voluntary exercise, the people of Texas should be given the freedom to individually make decisions as to whether or otherwise, they want to gamble since there is no difference between gambling and other activities such as charity donations which are legal. Gambling should therefore be legalized in Texas.

Works Cited Aging. Gambling. Aging Canada, 2005. Web.

Collins, Peter. Gambling and the public interest. New York, NY: Greenwood publishing group, 2003. Print.

Crapsdicecontrol. A history of gambling. Craps Dice Control, n.d. Web.

Helpguide. Gambling addiction and problem gambling. Help guide Organization, 2011. Web.

Kasinosonnet. Advantages and disadvantages of casino gambling. Kasinosonnet, 2011. Web.

Texas statutes. Gambling. Gambling law, 2011. Web.

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School Uniform and Maintenance of Discipline Research Paper best essay help

Introduction There has been a tug of war going on between the students, parents, teachers, school administration,and the community as well as policy makers about the issue of school uniform.

Some prefer to implement the use of school uniform citing various benefits such as improvement of discipline in schools while others see the whole issue of school uniform as a cover up of failed social issues in a school community. This has left the field open for discussion among all the stakeholders. Some schools enforce use of school uniform while others are not of the opinion.

Others have simply opted to the use of particular dress codes instead. Do school uniforms improve discipline and motivation for better education?This is the question that many people would like to get answers for and this paper discusses the importance of school uniform with the aim of showing that if it is implemented it will significantly contribute to upholding of discipline. A wide variety of examples are given to illustrate the significance of using school uniform.

School uniform School uniform is the kind of clothes that are specially tailored with similar color and type for students in order to maintain uniformity in a school setting. The use of school uniform has generated a lot of heat both at the school, community and also at the political arena. Proponents and opponents have taken stands on either side arguing whether or not to have school uniform in schools.

Some schools prefer having the uniform, others prefer use of dress codes, yet others prefer doing without the uniform at all (Peterson 1): “In Miami, 196 of the 328 public schools require uniforms this year, more than twice as many as last year; in Cleveland, two-thirds of the public schools have adopted uniforms” (Lewin 1).Both sides may have valid reasons for their claims but a closer look at the issue clearly indicates that there are way too many benefits which will accrue from using the school uniform than not.

Discipline at School Discipline is one of the most important aspects of learning that contribute a lot to the overall performance of students. Schools that maintain high degree of discipline are also likely to realize excellent performance.

Opponents claim that school uniform has nothing to do with discipline but they need to understand that students are at the ‘prime mind modeling stage’of their lives whereby it is very easy to influence them either way. Discipline comes with good behavior of the students and one of the best ways to promote good behavior is to implement school uniform.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has been claimed that “students do not feel that school is a place of work but rather a place to hang out with friends and socialize; their unprofessional behavior is reflected in the manner in which they present themselves” (Duvall et al. 1). How do we restore back the discipline and school professionalism? By implementing school uniforms which will help students have the feeling of school professionalism and take education seriously.

It has been argued that maintaining dress code in schools may prove to be very difficult task for school management. With the changing in lifestyles and dress fashions determining what should be worn or not becomes very difficult.

Sometimes students will take advantage of trends and fashions to validate wearing of miniskirts, sagging trousers, transparent clothing, all in the name of freedom of expression. What school uniform critics don’t realize is that some of this kind of dressing may distract other students, especially those who need extra effort to focus on studies.

How do you expect teenage boys to concentrate in studies when some girls in their class are scantily dressed all in the name of fashion and self-expression? Aren’t they taking away your right toa favorable learning environment? Duvall et al claimed that school uniform “positively benefit the school climate, promotes a professional setting in which the focus of the school is on education and academic success” (Duvall et al. 1). Conducive school climate is everyone’s right and that is why use of school uniform should be emphasized.

Casual dressing in schools is usually difficult to regulate due to continuous changes in lifestyle and fashion. As the school administration tries their level best to maintain dressing sanity in schools conflicts always arise. Students will sometimes be sent home for days, get punishments and parents will also get involved.In the process students get frustrated, more defiant and less disciplined.

The principle of South shore was quoted claiming that “students were “dragging’, sagging’ and lagging’; I needed to keep them on an academic focus; my kids were really into what others were wearing”(USDE 1). All these can actually be done away with by implementing school uniform in our institutions.

Crime and gang control Crime in schools, according to a report byU.S department of Education, has become a common phenomenon. Some of the clothes and jewelry brought to schools are very expensive hence promoting theft. In addition,fashionable clothes are likely to make concealing of weapons easier.

We will write a custom Research Paper on School Uniform and Maintenance of Discipline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At times criminals may have the freedom to access the school as they will hardly be noticed. All these factors lead to one thing, crime. To instill sanity and discipline and prevent these criminal activities we need to seriously consider how effective the school uniform can be. The same report claims that:

In response to growing levels of violence in our schools, many parents, teachers, and school officials have come to see school uniforms as one positive and creative way to reduce discipline problems and increase school safety.(USDE 1)

The use of personal clothes at schools has been highly criticized due to the fact that it creates a chance for the formation of clique and gangs in schools. Certain gangs or cliques will have a tendency of dressing particular to publicize their identity. These gangs usually wear gang colors and insignia. These gangs are hardly likely to concentrate in studies and in addition they may be associated with bullying and intimidation which in turn affects the performance of other students.

A report by Oregon Legislative claims that school uniform goes a long way in “Helping prevent gang members from wearing gang colors and insignia at school”(OLPR 1). School uniform will help not only the gangs and cliques to have discipline and focus on education but also the rest of the school.

Discipline outside the schools Opponents of use of school uniform argue that it does little to improve on discipline outside the school compound claiming that students always wear personal clothes while at home (Brunsma 96). What they fail to see is the fact not only does school uniform enhance discipline in and out of school but also greatly enhances the safety of the students.

A report behavior New South Wales department of education suggested that “wearing of school uniforms by students will assist school communities in defining an identity for the school within its community” (SWDE 6).

It can be argued that it may be very difficult for a student to involve in misconduct on the way to and from the school since it will be very possible to be noticed by the public. We have heard of cases of young school girls who have been rescued from men in lodgings and motels simply because they were easier to spot with school uniform. This is a twofold benefit, enhance good behavior and ensure safety of the kids as they move to and from school.

Sense of equality School uniform critics always argue that school uniform will do little to stamp out social class in schools (Brunsma 96). This might be true to some extent but a critical look at the issue proves otherwise. It is evident that all people are not socially and economically equal. Some students usually come to school with the latest fashion and designer clothing. This makes the school look more of a fashion show than a school.

Not sure if you can write a paper on School Uniform and Maintenance of Discipline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is not withstanding the ordeal that the less privileged students in the school often go through when they come to school every day and sees new fashion trends that they cannot afford. Uniformity brings about a conducive,professional environment which is a prerequisite for optimum academicperformance.

A report by Okun claimed that “the three highest scoring schools in the state are all Chicago Public Schools and none of these three schools require uniforms” (Okun 1). These are some of the claims used by school uniform critics to discourage use of school uniform. However, such an argument lacks in one thing. It can be argued that some of the highest performing schools have students from well to do families, families where dressing may not be a point of focus or a form of excitement.

The fact that students from these schools make them belong to a more or less the same social class. In addition these students have high self-esteem and are self-motivated. Crime in these schools is likely to be less since all studentscomes from rich families. In such institutions students are likely to be disciplined whether or not they have school uniform. It should be understood that this is not the case in general public schools where students come from different backgrounds which raises the need for uniformity.

Personal rights Opponents of school uniform claim that they violate freedom of expression, individuality and speech and as such uniforms should not be implemented in schools (Brunsma 96). However,it is worth noting that school uniforms do not in any way violate such rights and freedom.

This is because the uniforms are a form of official clothing aimed at enhancing the school professionalism. School uniform implementation policies always take into consideration the differences in the community (Stockton and Gullatt 1). Religious clothing such as Muslim code of dressing is always taken into consideration.

Uniformity in such instances may even be more enhanced by designing special clothing that resembles the school uniform for such individuals. U.S department of Education actually gives a guideline to this effect“Students may display religious messages on items of clothing to the same extent that they are permitted to display other comparable messages” (ED 1).

From the same guideline it is clear that freedom of expression is not taken away, students still have a way of expression using items such as buttons supporting a favorite political candidate. Additionally it may be argued that students only wear the uniform for less than a 8 hours a day, the only time they are in school, not too much to ask if it is meant to benefit them.

Supporting the parents It holds water to claim that not all the parents will be financially capable of buying a school uniform, though in most cases, personal clothes are usually more expensive than school uniform. The school uniform needs to be of the best quality and this will have to come at a cost. However, this should not be an excuse for not supporting school uniform use in schools.

The school community should ensure that they have mechanisms such as special funds and programs to support families that cannot afford school uniform for their children. In addition, the government also has avenues such as grants and donations aimed at supporting parents who cannot afford school uniform.

A report from U.S department of education claimed that in Kansas “Students receive their uniforms at no cost to them; the state and school district pay for the uniforms primarily with magnet school funding” (USDE 1). In Richmond, Virginia the following has been recorded:

As a result of financial donations from businesses and other community leaders, the percentage of students wearing uniforms rose from 30 percent in 1994-95, the first year of the program, to 85 percent during the current year. (USDE 1)

It can also be argued that parents are more likely to spend a lot of money on personal clothes wardrobe for school children than they would otherwise have spent on school uniform. SWDE claimed that uniforms are beneficial to the parents by “making school clothing more affordable for families by eliminating the risk of peerpressure to wear transiently fashionableand expensive clothes” (SWDE 6).

Conclusion It is evident that school uniform plays such an important role in enhancing discipline and academic performance in schools. Whereas the implementation of school uniform has been criticized by many it has become evident that the benefits of school uniform are so imperative that we cannot simply ignore them.

School uniform brings uniformity and professionalism in the learning institutions making it more conducive for learning. School uniform enhances discipline in schools by minimizing theft and criminal activities in schools. Discipline both in and out of school is also increased.In some schools students come from different social backgrounds which raises the need for uniformity. School uniform helps prevent gang members from wearing gang colors and insignia at school.

It has been found that school uniform do not in any way violate the freedom of expression, individuality or speech. In addition parents will be supported in all ways to ensure that they are not overburdened by school uniform costs. Thus school uniforms should be implemented in schools to enhance discipline and increase performance. There is a need for all the school administrators to encourage use of school uniforms.

Works Cited Brunsma, David. The school uniform movement and what it tells us about American education: a symbolic crusade. New York, NY: R

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Social Help of the Street Children Argumentative Essay writing essay help

The street children are literally crying out for help as hopelessness fills the air.

What can a person say to children when you see them in the street, The children sleep under benches and sell flowers. The children are wet by the rain because they have no home to return to. The children beg for food; they eat glue to remove the pain of hunger.

The children suffer from rape, molestation, and exploitation. The children’s dreams of a better future have been dashed away. They need a hand. The Philippines’ street children have grown in numbers. They live in cemeteries and street corners, buildings and other available crevices. The children’s clothes are in tatters. They smell and they look destitute.

The counter argument, street children brought it on themselves through laziness, is unsustainable. A child’s need for food, clothing, and a cozy home environment, is the responsibility of the parents. The child is not tasked to work before one reaches the ripe adult age of 18 years. Another argument stating the street children should find work to feed their hungry stomach is wrong. Children below the legal age are not allowed to work, under the law. The children’s bodies are not mature enough to do heavy manual work.

Based on the above discussion, the street children are the ill fated victims of society. The life of the street children is filled with difficulty. There are many factors contributing to the street children’s helpless situation. Indeed, society should come to the help of the street children.

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Why were Lewis and Clark Ever Hungry? Or How Can You Starve in a Sushi Bar? Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

How Can You Starve in a Sushi Bar? The Lewis and Clark expedition had access to an abundance of fish. These fish would make many modern eaters envious. They also could see how the Native Americans survived and thrived on the diet of fish and roots. However, they were not able to enjoy or benefit from this diet and complained about it. This was like starving in the middle of a grocery store. Their preference for familiar tastes and textures may have led them to ignore or not take advantage of a useful resource.

They were able to catch fish almost everywhere, as many as, “318 of different kind” on the Missouri River. This was with a willow and bark drag[1], not even using their supply of fishing hooks. They even encountered salmon spawning runs at both their beginning and end. In what is today Idaho, they saw that, “The number of dead salmon on the shores

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Japanese Animations’ effects on the Japanese economy and their cultural influence on foreign countries Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Cultural influence of Japanese animations in foreign countries

Effects of anime on Japanese economy

Conclusion

References

The first thing that comes to our minds whenever the word anime is mentioned is Japan. The word anime as used outside Japan refers to Japanese animation (Brown, 2006). Unlike manga that represents printed comics usually available in the form of small novels and magazines, anime is animated cartoons that appear in movies, TV programs or video games (Schwartz and Avila, 2006).

The characteristic Japanese animation started gaining popularity in Japan in the 1960s, but captured the world’s attention in 1980s. Japanese animations have been gaining popularity at an increasing rate in the world given its unique element of Japanese popular culture. Japanese animations are now making significant contributions to film industry and influencing the western culture.

As we all know, any form of entertainment with such high level of popularity is likely to have an effect among its fans and a direct or indirect effect in the economy. This essay, therefore, seeks to examine the cultural influence of Japanese anime in foreign countries as well as its effects on Japan’s economy.

Cultural influence of Japanese animations in foreign countries Before the 1980s, Japan’s exports to the West constituted automobiles and electronics such as TV and walkman. Currently, Japan has added another product to its export list; Japanese animation characterized by wide-eyed princesses, giant robot men and epic battles. Can this stuff offer some potential for Japan to become a world economic giant once more? Japanese animations hit the West market in the 1980s and have since gained increasing popularity among fans.

According to Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), anime have captured the attention of over seventy countries that air the animations on the television ([email protected], 2006; Japan External Trade Organization, 2005a).

In the United States alone, Japanese animation programs grew from thirteen in the 1990s to 37 in 2006 ([email protected], 2006; Japan External Trade Organization, 2005b). Sony in collaboration with other partners spearheaded the popularization of anime by first launching a satellite television network in Japan in 1998 followed by expansions to other Asian countries in 2004 ([email protected], 2006).

In the U.S. anime increased popularity became eminent in 2002 when Anime Network headquartered in Houston started airing of anime programs as a video-on-demand service ([email protected], 2006). The increased viewing of anime has had a significant influence on people’s way of life including their perception of Japanese pop culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, children and adults alike are reacting to the influence of Japanese pop culture expressed in the animations. Children are trying to learn both Japanese language and material art as they impersonate their favorite characters in the animation. Youths are now crazy about “everything Japan” from traditions, clothing and food.

They are also learning Japanese to be able to fit in the current youth society influenced by Japanese pop culture. Adults are equally amazed by the colorful world of anime and how this pop culture has transformed their children. Even adults have now started to appreciate Japanese pop culture and are enthusiastic about everything Japan.

Besides, anime fans outside Japan are increasingly associating with Japanese through picking up some of Japanese words related to anime to identify with. For instance, otaku that is negatively used in Japan to connote the pride of anime fans is commonly used among non-Japanese anime fans to positively refer to foreign anime fans.

Apart from its effect on fashion and lifestyle, anime has made a dramatic influence on the western culture. Since its adaptation in the global market in the 1980s, more foreigners have been exposed to Japanese culture through viewing of Japanese animations. This also included the popularization of other elements of Japanese culture including food, clothing and language.

Most Westerners have so far developed an interest in Japan and consider the country a good destination for tourism. Most people are now interested in Japanese language as expressed in the drastic increase in the number of people studying Japanese.

Moreover, anime has made a significant impact on various successes in film industry in the global market. The commercial profitability of Japanese animations in the Western countries was first revealed by pioneer projects such as Astro Boy in the years when the distribution of such comic stuff was illegal (Leonard, 2003). The inclusion of anime series in Pokémon, Nintendo’s multi-billion dollar franchise contributed to its success in the 1990s.

Japanese animations have also influenced artists in the West. In a bid to meet the increased demand for anime in the West, artists are now borrowing some skills from their Japan counterparts ([email protected], 2006). In their work, some artists cite Japanese animations as their source of inspiration.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Japanese Animations’ effects on the Japanese economy and their cultural influence on foreign countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These artists incorporate the characteristic anime stylizations, gags and methodology in their piece of work to produce animations that are a bit similar to Japanese anime ([email protected], 2006). Studios in Europe, United States, and Asian countries are now producing anime-influenced animations. However, critics do not consider such productions as anime. This has made some artists to collaborate with Japanese artists so that their work can be accepted among the fan base.

Japanese anime has also had an effect on the Western countries TV series. Animated television-series have since gained popularity in the West and non-Japanese Asia. For instance, South Park, which is an American animated TV series have singled out the satirical intent of anime in its styling.

The most eminent animated episodes of this series are “Chimpokomon”, “Good Times with the Weapons” and “Brittle Bullet”. The characteristic anime is notable in the drawing style of these pieces of work. Anime has also led to the introduction of animated cartoon networks such as Kappa Mikey popular in the United States.

In addition, anime has made a contribution in social forums. Currently, there are annual anime conventions held in major cities of anime dominated countries in Asia and the West. Participants include artists, music groups and directors from Japan as well as invited guests from these regions.

As a routine, attendees mimic anime dressing code and participate in cosplay thus marketing Japanese pop culture. Apart from anime conventions, anime clubs are increasingly becoming popular among the youths as a means of increasing youths understanding of Japanese pop culture.

Anime is also used in advertisement to create some elements of comic. TV commercials now have some elements of anime in a bid to lure more viewers to their channels. In Asia and the western countries, anime is linked to the sales of toys and other related products that have proved successful among children and youths. Besides, Hollywood movies have also been forced to incorporate some elements of anime in their episodes in order to cope with the immense competition.

Effects of anime on Japanese economy Since its publicity in the 1960s, there has been mixed reactions towards the increased popularity of anime in the Japanese market (Sugimoto, 2009). While the fans are enthusiastic about this new form of entertainment, critics are scared of the effects it might have on the society. Critics argue that information presented in anime is oversimplified and sometimes vulgar hence not suitable for children (Sugimoto, 2009). Despite its negative effects, we cannot fail to recognize the impact that anime might have in Japan’s economy.

Japan built its economy on cars and electronics in the mid 20th century. Currently, anime seems to be going beyond the entertainment industry to other sectors of the economy as well. Could this be a new economic tiger in Japan’s economy? Anime has evolved over the years from Speed Racer cartoons in the 1960s to Pokemon in the late 1990s and the Award winning film, Spirited Away” in 2003 ([email protected], 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Animations’ effects on the Japanese economy and their cultural influence on foreign countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These developments also went hand in hand with the expansion of anime market globally. As I mentioned earlier in this essay, anime programs grew from thirteen in the early 1990s to 37 in 2006 in the United States ([email protected], 2006). But what do these developments mean to Japanese economy?

As documented in [email protected], anime fans in Japan and abroad spend close to five billion dollars on DVDs and films and close to eighteen billion dollars on anime-linked merchandise ([email protected], 2006). Remember this figure represents the fan base only in the West and Asia. What if anime finds its way to the other parts of the world? Anime can for sure drive the economy of Japan to the next desirable level.

Apart from direct sales, the increased popularity of anime outside Japan may also generate a halo effect on Japanese products. For instance, the rapid growing trend of ‘everything Japan’ ranging from clothing, toys, video games, watches, stickers, figurines and tableware is likely to enhance the sales of these products in the global market.

Even as I write this essay, there exists marketing collaborations between anime production houses and the manufacturers of these products. The marketers of these products are capitalizing on the increased popularity of Japanese pop culture and the ‘everything Japan’ craze to market their products among anime fans, a venture that has since proved successful.

With the increased awareness about Japanese pop culture, thanks to anime, many people especially in the West have increasingly developed interest in Asia and specifically Japan. Japan is slowly becoming an important tourist destination. More people are interested in knowing more about Japanese culture hence considers Japan a destination for their adventure. With increased tourism, Japan’s revenue will definitely increase thus an impetus for other sectors of the economy.

The growing interest among foreign artists in anime is also likely to have a positive effect on Japanese economy. Currently, American film production companies are buying production rights from Japanese companies to be able to produce anime outside Japan (Anime: Japan’s ‘Gross National Cool,’ 2006).

Even though anime production rights may not be as expensive as Hollywood films, if more countries gain interest in purchasing anime production, then the pull will be big enough to make a contribution to Japanese economy. Besides, most western companies currently incorporate anime in their commercial adverts to be able to have some comic element and also capitalize on the anime euphoria hence capture a wide market for their products.

These companies have to buy the right to use anime from Japanese film companies hence a positive contribution to Japanese economy. As Hiroshi Kaminde, a KBC Securities analyst in Tokyo once said, the future of anime lies in global sales since the Japanese market is already saturated ([email protected], 2006).

Conclusion Anime, commonly referred to as Japanese animation, is a comic art that has gained remarkable popularity within and outside Japan. It has since been linked to Japanese pop culture and now having a cultural influence both in Asia and in the West. Children, youths and adults alike are now crazy about Japanese pop culture. As a result, more people are learning Japanese, adopting Japanese attires and joining anime clubs as a way of identifying themselves with anime society.

Back in Japan, this renowned interest is an economic incentive that the country cannot let bass by. Anime has generated a halo effect for Japanese goods in the global market and is likely to increase the country’s revenue through increased sales both in anime films are related goods. Anime is also likely to attract more tourists to Japan in order to learn more about Japanese culture.

References [email protected] (2006). Anime: Japan’s ‘Gross National Cool’. [email protected] Web.

Brown, S. T. (2006). Cinema anime. Palgrave: Macmillan.

Japan External Trade Organization (May 2005a). “Cool” Japan’s Economy Warms Up, (in English).

Japan External Trade Organization (May 2005b). Japan Film Industry, (in English). Web.

Leonard, S. (2003). Progress against the law: fan distribution, copyright, and explosive growth of Japanese animation. (Student paper). Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Web.

Schwartz, A.

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Influence of Television Advertising on Children’s Eating Behavior Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Much research has been conducted in the relation to the children’s eating behavior and the influence of the television advertising. The core problem which is discussed within the research is the children’s obesity and the influence of the programs children watch on its spread and increase. Harris, Bargh,

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discussion b Assigned stem- A work of art that is painted or drawn field of daffodils college application essay help: college application essay help

Directions Be sure you source your example from a reputable source or website, such as a museum, encyclopedia, or reliable source like NYTimes and not some random blog or reddit. This should be quick, relatively easy, and hopefully not too boring. We’ll use these posts to help us understand Danto, and then the following week to practice source citation. Grading breakdown (1 point each): Post the image or example of the artistic or aesthetic item “ work of art that is painted or drawn field of daffodils “ Also post all info you have about it, where it’s from, and what page it appear in the Danto reading–if at all. So in addition to the image/example/etc. a) the info for what it is–such as the artist, title, year–or a brief description of what it is if it’s not an artwork; b) where you got it from, i.e., the website; maybe c) “Danto, pg. #” if it’s on a page of the Danto reading… if it’s not in the reading, then you don’t have to do c). How to cite sources: For readings, give the author’s last name and the page number at the end of the sentence in parentheses: (Author, pg. #). For websites w/out pg. #s you can do this: (Author, sect. # and/or para. #)–and of course, also give the link. If there is no author, give Title instead of Author. For videos, films, shows, podcasts, etc. give the title, then in parentheses the director and/or host of the show instead of author and the year: Rosemary’s Baby (Polanski, 1968). And if you need to point out a specific moment, instead of a page # give the time it happened, with hours and minutes (and I guess seconds if you need a moment in a tiktok?)–e.g. (1:15) for an hour and 15 minutes into a film. for other artworks, give title, artist, and year, e.g.: Frida Kahlo, La venadita (1946).

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The Al Hallab Restaurant Chain and Its Decision Making Principles Essay college essay help near me

Introduction In all entrepreneurship projects the decision making principles ascribed to it will either make or break the potential business. Success in all ventures is determined by how well the venture is planned, what goals are set in the beginning, how it plans to run its operations and finally what are its plans towards mitigating risk.

For this venture, the Al Hallab restaurant chain, the chosen decision making principles is that of effectuation whose tenets are based on controlling the future through meticulous planning in situations where there is a certain degree of uncertainty. In this case the uncertainty is whether or not a restaurant that specializes in Lebanese food will be able to become a success in markets that are already inundated with various restaurants with the same theme.

The reason why Al Hallab is an effectuation entrepreneur can be determine due to these three factors:

Patchwork Quilt: The basic product of the restaurant is Lebanese food yet it had gained main stream popularity in various consumer sectors despite the availability of similar types of food in other restaurants. The patchwork quilt principle of effectuation emphasizes the creation of something new through existing means.

That is exactly what was done with the Al Hallab restaurant chain wherein the existing method of cooking Lebanese food was enhanced and brought into modern day mainstream consumption by modernizing its overall look and method of preparation as well as the ambience of the restaurant. As such the restaurant chain was able to discover a new way of achieving success by reinventing the way Lebanese food is consumed.

Affordable Loss: The concept of affordable loss can be described in terms of committing to a particular business plan with the intent of focusing on a particular consumer base and accepting that you will lose other types of customers. This can be seen is the emphasis of the Al Hallab restaurant chain on serving only Lebanese food. This means that it is forgoing the possibility of gaining other types of consumers by merely focusing on the type of consumers that enjoy eating Lebanese food.

Pilot in the Plane: The concept of the pilot in the plane revolves around the concept of people and service and being the prime drivers of business operations rather than trying to focus on external opportunities such as producing a particular product at time when it is in demand and continuously shifting production to different types of products as demand changes without ascribing to a particular type of product.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the case of Al Hallab the focus is completely on the production and sale of Lebanese food despite the fact that it is losing consumers to other types of business with a more varied selection of products.

Problems that Need to be Addressed with the Venture Market Saturation

An investigation of the various areas near a particular Al Hallab restaurant reveals that on average the concept of a restaurant serving Lebanese food in locations such as KSA, Lebanon or Dubai is actually quite common. Al Hallab is not the only restaurant within a specific area that serves Lebanese food and at times it is not the most affordable.

There are various restaurants that serve the exact same type of food yet are able to do so at lower prices. While it can be argued that the ambience of Al Hallab is better than the other locations the fact remains that due to the recent financial crisis various consumers located within Dubai and Lebanon have started changing their buying habits into a more conservative route due to the economic uncertainty affecting local and foreign markets.

Combining the change in consumer behavior with the offerings of competitors near various Al Hallab restaurants presents a distinct problem that the venture must overcome in the near future if it is to stay in business.

Changing Tastes

In relation to changes in consumer buying behavior is a distinct change in consumer eating habits. As evidenced by recent reports on consumer buying behavior within the U.A.E. it can be seen that as of late consumers have been flocking to various fast food restaurants and establishments due to the convenience and affordability such types of food provide.

While it may be true that the areas such as KSA, Lebanon and Dubai have had a long history of consuming Lebanese cuisine the fact remains that due to pop culture influences people have been increasingly turning towards modern rather than traditional eating establishments.

What this means for traditional Lebanese restaurants such as the Al Hallab chain is that a growing percentage of its consumer base are starting to shift away from eating at the restaurant towards eating in other establishments that have a more “modern’ flare. Another distinct problem is the fact that as of late new generations of consumers do not have the same tastes as the older generation, as a result restaurants such as Al Hallab find themselves with an aging consumer base that may run out as time passes.

We will write a custom Essay on The Al Hallab Restaurant Chain and Its Decision Making Principles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poor Customer Service

While the quality of the food is unquestionable the level of customer service at Al Hallab leaves much to be desired. Various online restaurant review websites as well as general consumer opinion reveal that it is widely known that the customer service at Al Hallab is terrible.

This ranges from gruff unsociable waiters, inefficient staff, unanswered phone calls to a plethora of other similar types of behavior that are discourage people from continuously visiting the establishment. With other choices available in various other restaurants within KSA, Lebanon and Dubai the service at Al Hallab definitely needs to be improved otherwise the chain may lose customers to places with better customer service.

Possible Solutions to Indicated Problems One of the first problems that the venture must overcome is the concept that an Al Hallab restaurant does not have good customer service. Various studies show that consumers pick restaurants due to a variety of choices however customer service ranks among the top reasons aside from ambience and the taste of the food. While Al Hallab does not have any problems in relation to the taste of its products the fact remains that its poor customer service skills is detrimental towards more people visiting its various locations.

Word of mouth goes a long way towards either promoting a business or causing it t close down due to bad press. Based on this one of the first steps needed to be done by the venture is to have all its employees undergo extensive customer services training in order to improve the quality of service of the restaurant and encourage more consumers to come to the restaurant.

The second problem that needs to be addressed is the changing tastes of the consumer market. Based on this what is needed for the venture is to possibly establish an extensive marketing campaign within a local area in order to encourage people to come and eat in the restaurant.

The third problem is the market saturation of similar restaurants offering the same type of food. In this particular case in order to properly establish a restaurant in a particular location a market analysis must first be conducted in order to ensure that there are few competitors within the general area and that if an Al Hallab restaurant were to enter into that particular area it would immediately become a success.

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The Cedarville County jail Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Conclusion

Introduction The Cedarville county jail is an incarceration facility that has recently been built and it is equipped with the modern technology in security.

Although this incarceration facility has an upper hand when it comes to security, it is also faced numerous problems ranging from security within the facility, administration management in terms of finance and issues of drug, alcohol and morale that have engulfed the employees within the Cedarville County jail. As the newly appointed CEO to the Cedarville County jail, my main objective is to make use of the existing security technology to deal with the insecurity issues and transform the administration of the facility by tackling head-on the issues engulfing it.

Strengths One of the dominant strength of the Cedarville County jail is its latest and modern technology in security. The latest technology in security, if fully exploited, will play a major role in ensuring that inmates’ presence is limited to within the confines of the facility. The Cedarville County jail facility will also attain another advantage of an experienced administrative team that has previously worked together.

The separation of the adult and juvenile offenders is a strength that comes into good use especially while addressing the different issues facing the two sectors of the facility. This is because the issues facing adult offenders’ facility are different from the issues facing the juvenile facility.

Weaknesses One of the major weaknesses that are evident in the Cedarville County jail is the indulgence of its employees in drugs and alcohol. This kind of behavior portrays a negative image of the jail which is meant to be a correctional facility. The poor financial and accounting system of the facility is also a weakness set to affect the operations of the facility. Gender equality within the administrative posts is a weakness that needs to be looked at as women are said to be employed in the lower ranks of administration posts.

Opportunities The main beneficial opportunity to the Cedarville County jail is the willingness of the county government to assist the facility with funds and additional resources. This is an opportunity if put to good use, will ensure the transformation process of the facility is successful. Working with the strategic management team that I have previously worked with is a golden opportunity and a boost to the efforts of transforming the facility.

Threats The low morale among the facility’s employees is a serious threat that if not properly tackled, it may lead to the failure of the transformational efforts about to be undertaken. In additional to this the lack of technical knowhow among the officers in using safety and restraint technique is a serious threat that is posed to the security of the entire facility. Without proper training of the officers, the transformation efforts of the facility will be null and void.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The Cedarville County jail is a facility that has its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Strengthening and emphasizing of these strengths and opportunities and at the same time tackling of the weaknesses and threats will enable the facility and its administration to attain the set objectives.

Making good use of the latest technology in the facility’s security system will be a move that exploits the strength of the Cedarville County jail facility while at the same time the existing security menace within the facility will have been tackled.

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Examples of Hospitality in the “Odyssey” [Hospitality Theme Essay] online essay help

Introduction In Homeric poem “The Odyssey,” we are treated to an account of the story of Odysseus as he tries to make his way back to Ithaca after successfully aiding the Greeks in conquering the city of Troy. While the tale has various mythical and magical motifs in the form of Gods, Goddesses, nymphs, witches, and magic; one of the most interesting and a rather unusual aspect of the story was the astounding level of generosity shown to Odysseus through various parts of the story (Grabek, 96). In this essay, examples of hospitality in “The Odyssey” shall be explored.

It can be stated that if it were not for the multiple instances where Odysseus was accepting the generosity of various strangers, he would long ago have been able to reach home instead of being delayed for so long.

Greek Hospitality An examination of other forms of ancient Greek literature reveals that the concept of Greek hospitality (xenia) towards guests is firmly embedded in the belief that all guests are under the protection of the Gods. Zeus himself was said to be the benefactor of guests who entered the households of strangers in foreign lands and that to turn away a guest would be the same as insulting Zeus himself (Grabek, 96).

Other interpretations show the belief that guests are said to be tests sent by the Gods themselves and that various guests asking for shelter within households could be Gods in disguise (Grabek, 96).

One particular piece of Greek mythology supporting this claim is the story of Baucis and Philemon. In it, readers see a situation wherein Zeus tired of eating ambrosia on Olympus descended to the Phrygian countryside along with Hermes to test the generosity of the people. Disguised as poor travelers, they knocked on hundreds of doors. However, they were always rebuffed, and the doors slammed into their faces.

More about Odyssey How Performers Memorize an Epic Poem? 5 59 What Can Be Inferred about the Cyclops? 5 76 What are Odysseus’s Strengths and Weaknesses? 5 290 How does Eurycleia recognize Odysseus? 5 175 It was only when they encountered the dilapidated cabin of Baucis and Philemon that they were accorded with the highest degree of courtesy from the unfortunate couple. The end of the story was the complete flooding of the Phrygian countryside with all that turned them away dying as a result, with Baucis and Philemon being honored for their generosity by being made into priests of a new temple on top of a hill that escaped the destruction of their neighbors.

As a result of similar tales, ancient Greek society at the time had a rather generous predisposition towards guests, often showing them the most fabulous hospitality that one can muster (Grabek, 96). It must be noted, though, that this hospitality is not the result of any ingrained cultural predilection towards generosity. Still, rather, it can be interpreted as being the result of fear towards the wrath of the Gods (Melisa et al., 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another interesting factor to consider is the concept of the “guest-host relationship” in ancient Greek culture and how it plays a factor in the theme of hospitality in “ The Odyssey” (Melisa et al., 1).

The concept of the guest-host relationship is firmly embedded in the method in which hospitality is given and how it is received. As stated earlier, it was shown that improper hospitality towards guests had the effect of dire punishment. On the other hand, it was also revealed that proper generosity resulted in a significant number of blessings (Melisa et al., 1).

In this paper the ways how hospitality can be applied in “The odyssey.”Three distinct parallels will be examined: Calypso’s imprisonment of Odysseus vs. Circe’s offering of hospitality and love; Alcinous/Phaeacians being helpful by trying to get Odysseus home vs. Poseidon’s shipwreck and finally Penelope’s hospital reception of Odysseus disguised as beggar vs. the suitor’s bad treatment/mocking of him.

These three cases show the concept of the guest-host relationship and what the result of improper/proper hospitality in both cases was. It can be stated that while it was hospitality that enabled Odysseus to finally overcome various obstacles and get back home, the concept of hospitality firmly embedded in the guest-host relationship that caused several of his adventures and was one of the primary reasons behind him getting delayed.

Calypso Imprisonment of Odysseus vs. Circe’s Hospitality In the first parallels, there are two distinct situations presented, namely the imprisonment of Odysseus and the reception shown to him by Circe. In the case of Calypso, Odysseus was found by the sea nymph after his ship was wrecked due to the fury of Poseidon. After which he spent seven years in the captivity of the sea nymph due to her falling madly in love with Odysseus and wanting him to become her mate. Under the guest-host relationship concept, Calypso is playing the part of an excellent host.

Even though her father is Poseidon, she still chose to aid Odysseus when she found him washed up on the shore of her island, Ogygia. In this case, Calypso successfully fulfills the first aspect of the guest-host relationship in that she accepts a guest that has come to her home in need.

While Odysseus may be criticized in various texts due to his actions with Calypso wherein he did not attempt to immediately escape after getting better, the fact remains that Odysseus was fulfilling the second half of the guest-host relationship. He was adequately and respectfully receiving the gift of hospitality that was given.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Examples of Hospitality in the “Odyssey” [Hospitality Theme Essay] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the ancient Greeks, the concept of hospitality does not just extend to how it was given but rather in the way it is received and the inherent consequences of the reception. For example, in the case of the island of Thrinacia, where Odysseus and his men were allowed to land by the God Apollo, various members of the crew violated the guest-host relationship by hunting the cattle of Apollo (Greek life, 1).

The result was the death of all crew members except Odysseus, who survived the resulting shipwreck. Thus, on the part of the host, violating the guest-host relationship by not being open and friendly to guests results in the wrath of the Gods descending upon him. However, the reverse is also true wherein guests that do not adhere to proper mannerisms behind the guest-host relationship will also receive some form of misfortune.

More about This Topic Why Does Odysseus Go to The Underworld? 4.4 372 How is Odysseus an Epic Hero? 5 41 What does the sun symbolize for Odysseus and his men? 5 54 Why did Odysseus seek Teiresias? 5 98 The consequences behind the reception of hospitality are one of the driving factors behind the reason why Odysseus had to stay with Calypso for seven years. He did not want to break the guest-host relationship by just leaving when it was apparent that Calypso was in love with him, especially when taking into consideration the fact that she had saved his life.

In other words, it can be seen that for the Greeks, there is a specific code of conduct that must be done when it comes to hospitality or else there would be dire consequences (Greek life, 1). Homer further emphasizes this point in the case of Odysseus and Circe, in this particular part of the Odyssey, we are presented with the witch Circe who kept on turning all guests who came to her island into pigs.

In this case, instead of Odysseus himself being turned into a farm animal, he is warned by Hermes of what Circe was doing to his crew and informed him about taking the drug moly to prevent the effects of Circe’s magic. The result was Odysseus brandishing his sword at Circe, threatening to kill her. The reason why Hermes helped Odysseus was that Circe was violating the code of conduct of hospitality, which even the Gods themselves must abide by.

Circe, powerful though she was, was not exempted from this rule and as such, was taught a lesson by the Gods to teach her to be more hospitable to guests. What is being implied here is that the rules regarding hospitality always have consequences no matter who you are. This particular concept will be more apparent later on as I elaborate more on the various parallels in this paper.

How Is Hospitality Shown in “The Odyssey”? Odysseus Home vs. Poseidon’s Shipwreck Unlike the previous parallel, where, in both cases, Odysseus had to spend a significant portion of time with both Circe and Calypso, Odysseus was able to get home through the Phaeacians’ help. The basis of this story lies in Poseidon’s destruction of the raft of Odysseus and his subsequent shipwreck on the island of Phaecians.

Once more, we can see the guest-host relationship wherein Nausicaa, the daughter of Alcinous, encounters Odysseus and encourages him to seek the hospitality of her father. Once again, we see the guest-host link at work wherein Odysseus is openly greeted by Alcinous and is treated rather well. Odysseus, on the other hand, similar to the cases of Calypso and Circe, once more plays the part of a guest who graciously receives the hospitality of Alcinous.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Examples of Hospitality in the “Odyssey” [Hospitality Theme Essay] by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unlike the cases involving Circe and Calypso, the culmination of the stay of Odysseus with the Phaeacians results in him being able to leave rather quickly for his home in Ithaca through their assistance. The reason behind this is connected to the concept of the guest-host relationship and the consequences behind the reception of hospitality. In the case of Circe and Calypso, both women did not want Odysseus to leave since they were both in love with him.

This presents a problem for Odysseus since he must also be receptive to the wishes of the host. As a result, his time in both cases gets extended beyond what he had initially planned for since he did not want to become an ungracious guest due to the possible repercussions this might bring him as a result of the guest-host concept.

While the Odyssey does take the concept of the guest-host relationship to an absolute extreme is does portray an accurate enough depiction of the idea utilized in ancient Greek society (Shaw

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Round and Flat Characters in “Trifles” by S.Glaspell’s Essay essay help online free

Introduction Susan Glaspell, the author of the play Trifles, exhibits the behavioral nature of major and minor characters, which groups them as either round or flat characters. She constructs the play after working as a journalist researching on the murder of John Hossack hence categorizing it as a real story. In Glaspell’s play, the characters display stereotypes especially the gender and cultural stereotypes.

According to Wiehardt, round characters are the main characters in a piece of writing who face problems in their life that become their turning point (1). They undergo an awful experience that pressure them to change their character.

On the other hand, a flat character is an unprogressive minor character in a story that remains in the same position throughout the story (Wiehardt 1). In the play Trifles, the author strategically features two round characters like Minnie Foster and John Wright. However, the play has a good share of the flat characters like Mrs. Hale and Mr. Hale among others.

In her early days, Minnie Foster is a felicitous, melodious and always in good spirits girl (Glaspell 7). All her dresses have bright colors hence making her famous among other girls. Unfortunately, after her marriage to Mr. Wright her cheerful character turns into sorrow hence only somber mood prevails in her house.

One of Mrs. Wright’s neighbors, Mrs. Hale describes her character as a beautiful, fearful and cautious but all her behaviors disappear immediately after the marriage ceremony (Glaspell 5). Mr. Wright is Minnie’s husband whose character as uncouth, crude harsh turns him oppressive especially to his loyal wife. Minnie’s thirty year of marriage is void of happiness.

However, one night, Mr. Wright dies when he is asleep. Surprisingly, Minnie says that someone strangled her husband while she is deep asleep. Unfortunately, her husband’s friend Mr. Hale discovers the death and reports to the authority. The Sheriff and attorney ignore her claims hence choose to put her in remand. After critical investigations, the law convicts her of murder because there is no trace another person as she claims.

According to Wiehardt’s description of a round character, Minnie’s unchanging character categorizes her as one. Although Minnie has subservient and scheming character, her husband’s oppressive nature turns her into a murderer and outrageous woman hence kills her him after three decades of marriage. John Wright stands out as a round character dominated by chauvinism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More John Wright chauvinistic character makes him an oppressor especially to his wedded wife. He disrespects, hates and abuses his wife all the time hence turning his wife against him. Although he is uncouth, unfriendly and selfish, his wife overpowers him killing him instantly. John Wright becomes powerless and weak loosing his ability to overpower or control his wife.

The ability of Mr. Wright to change his domineering nature describes him as a round character. However, Gorge Henderson is a round character who is tough as presented by the author.

The county attorney, Mr. George Henderson is among the flat characters as described by Wiehardt. He is one of the law enforcers carrying out the murder case of Mr. Wright. He bases on his professional qualifications and experience to carry out the investigation. He is tough, serious and dismisses opinion from other people. Ironically, as a crime expert, he does not concentrate on Mrs. Wright’s Kitchen, which is woman place.

However, he focuses in the bedroom and the barn where her husband spends most of his time. As a law enforcer, he convicts Mrs. Wright to prison yet he has inadequate evidence. Additionally, he is unable to unfold one of the main evidence, a box, which describes Mrs. Wright as a murderer. The inability of the attorney to consider and be keen to other people especially women puts him under a flat character.

The other law enforcer at the crime scene is the Sheriff, Henry Peters. He backs up the attorney during the investigation. Likewise, he overlooks the areas in the house like the kitchen, which could nail Mrs. Wright down. Additionally, he has a contempt character hence kicks a basket belonging to Mrs. Wright yet it might the source of evidence. Peters has a non-dynamic, unchanging character categorizing him as a flat character. Mrs. Hale stands out as an ignorant but obedient flat character as the play unveils.

Mrs. Hale is the wife to Mr. Hale. Additionally, she is a neighbor to the Wrights but due to frequent fights in the home, she abandons the family. However, she turns up when a calamity hits the family, the death Mr. Wright. Although the sheriff and the attorney disapprove her contribution to the murder case, she loiters around the crime scene hence discovering a box that contains evidence against Mrs. Wright.

As a woman, she decides to ignore the law officers and hides the box. She displays her submissive and quietness as the society expects from her. Mrs. Hale’s character as obedient and submissive describes her as a flat character, she is not ready to break the law, therefore, secretly keeps the box with evidence.

We will write a custom Essay on Round and Flat Characters in “Trifles” by S.Glaspell’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lewis Hale is a farmer, neighbor and a friend to the Wrights family (Wade 2). When he comes to visit his neighbors, he discovers the death of Mr. Wright from the wife. He decides to report the murder case to the police station. During the investigation, he follows the Sheriff and attorney because he is determined to unravel the truth.

However, his presence at the crime scene does not change situation. Mr. Hale character as a good neighbor, friendly and loyal to his character is non-dynamic even after he discovers a crime. The issue of stereotypes assumes a good share in the play through the way the author strategically allocates the different roles to her different characters who in turn successfully depicts the stereotypes ranging from gender to cultural.

The characters in the play display a high level of stereotype. There is both cultural and gender stereotyping. The men oppress women in the society, a situation women are unable to change. The play describes the kitchen as the woman’s place and not bedroom or barn. Due to discrimination, Mrs. Hale decides to protect Mrs. Wright as a fellow woman hence keeps away the evidence that she is a murderer.

In summary, there are two types of character in the play; round and flat characters. Mr. and Mrs. Wright are the round characters because of their dynamic nature. The rest of the characters fall under flat characters because their situation and behavior is stagnant in the play. Finally, stereotyping is an issue that the author fully exhibits in the play. The women are submissive standing out as ones who face oppression from the society, a role they willingly accept.

Works Cited Glaspell, Susan. Trifles. England: Oxford UP, 1916. Print.

Wade, Bradford. ‘Trifles’ by Susan Glaspell – Plot and Character Analysis, 2009. Web. plays.About.com

Wiehardt, Ginny. ‘Flat character’ About .com. Need. Know. Accomplish. New York: Winnipeg, 2011. Print.

Wiehardt, Ginny. ‘Round character’ About .com. Need. Know. Accomplish, 2011. Web. Apr. 11 2011. Fictionwriting.about.com/od/glossary/g/Roundcharacter.htm

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The Role of gods in Plato’s Philosophy Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Plato’s Cosmology

Plato’s Account Of gods

Eternal And Natural Forms

Role of gods in Plato’s Philosophy

Conclusion

References

Introduction Plato, a commendable adherent of Socrates philosophy is the prized delight with the sole aim of discovering knowledge, by filtering through the facts of universal being to establish reality. As far as the great philosopher was concerned, reality cannot be deciphered through sense-perception, senses only give reality’s face value.

True knowledge is perfectly aware of itself, based on reasons and it’s certain of its ground (De Crescenzo, 1992.p.112) unmistakably, Plato brings out knowledge as a tenet independent of its contents and peripheral objects which match up the ideal perception of the reality.

In Plato’s dialogues coalesced in the Republic, he brings out the metaphysical makeup of reality and how humanity relates to it. Plato’s philosophy is inundated with religious overtone, gods, as it were, play a massive role to curve his perception and views extended forth. This study will elucidate the critical role gods and the concept of divinity play right through the entirety of Plato’s Republic Dialogues.

Plato’s Cosmology As Plato recounts the episode “Myth of Er” found in the republic dialogue phaedo and the story of time reversal in the statesman, a clear view of the hierarchical arrangement of the cosmos is illuminated. The analogy known as Timaeus spells in staid detail how a universal god shaped orderly world from a muddled universe (Plato, 2007.p.317)

The creator proceeded to form a world with a soul connotated as she, and the globe which constituted the four elements known as water, fire, earth and water. (Crossman, 1981.p.76) The soul blended both the interior and exterior worlds, and it was centered in the human body integrated with a similitude different from both the bodily and the eternal (De Crescenzo, 1992.p.69)

The human soul has a revolving the soul also had revolving inner and outer spheres analogous to the universal bodily ones (Melling,1987) Afterwards, as Plato’s creation depicts, the single god created time and also brought to being the host of Greek gods. The gods formed by the supreme creator of the world were given instructions by the maker of the world to create human beings and other creatures.

In book x of the Republic the “Myth of Er” is recounted where the author offers more details of the life beyond (614b- 617 621b). The character called Er resurrects and gives an account of the various places that he had visited in the after world. He elaborately, he described a cavern where souls are taken after exiting the mortal world into eternity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this corral, souls are elevated to observe both their outer and inner realms “Mr. Er” story, introduces a theory of a transcendent land where human souls discard their old self and reborn as different entities (Lycos, 1986.p.76). Plato believes that the souls that had thoroughly purified themselves through philosophy, they would live without bodies in very habitable beautiful place (Plato, Guardian, 114c)

In relation to the universe, although the philosophers arguments are not supported by impeccable logic, he explains how the inner and outer souls of the universe exhausted their appointed number of births. When their time span elapsed, the pilot of universe released the handle of its rudder and destiny and took charge of the world upturning its revolution (The Statesman, 272d-e).

Immediately, there was shock on the universe and it became disorderly. God noticed its anxiety and took control of the universe once more. (The Statesman, 273d). The significance of this tale in Plato’s cosmology is that it details God’s abandonment of and involvement with the universe; it further validates the subsequent interference of our world’s past, which is currently going through a healing process.

Plato’s Account Of gods Plato brings in the concept of a supreme god, the universal worker known as demiourgos. This name implies the one who works for the demos, the people. Demiourgos is immortal and in charge of time and the other junior gods responsible for creation of man.

The “worker” is believed to have created other lower gods and the essence of time known as the moving image of eternity (Plato, 2007.p.127) In order to bring into being the other creatures in the kosmos, demiourgos passed on logos, the divine soul to smaller gods so that they could create a man so that he could host the logos.

Plato brings forth incredible philosophical laws tenets which adversely affect his view of the world and his intrinsic valuation for the creator and created beings. In order for demos or the created people to exist in harmony they had to uphold the existence of spirituality. The first reality in regard to divinity was the tenet that god and gods existed and they symbolized absolute, good, truth and justice.

The second tenet extends the view that the world comprises of both visible and invisible forms and its not necessarily a “material thing”(Plato,2007.p.312) Further, Plato noted that demiourgos created the world to bring order, and this created world could never be bought or ruined by men’s effort. No one has the ability to corrupt the fiber of the world, for god, demiourgos is in charge and control of what happens to the created world.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Role of gods in Plato’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Plato posits a key principle that gods should be looked upon as good and as the source of what is eternally good. Representing gods in any other way, besides good and pious was a misdemeanor as far as the philosopher was concerned. The positive conception of gods affects Plato’s philosophy in a massive ways, as he pursues the truth which is symbolized in perfect goodness of gods he seeks to find out what is real and, true and just.

Dialogues excerpted from the Republic bring out gods as perfect being endowed with perfect bodies and credulity; they are beautiful and cannot be harmed or killed by the human race. The immortality factor makes gods to stay constant and they do not need to beget child gods to replenish them (Plato,2007 p.614b- 617 621b)

Plato further delved into classifying gods as either visible or invisible; the visible gods were the most recognized by human race. The visible gods acquired the status of deity because people deemed them to be eternal since they appeared on the globe forever. The Greeks called god theos but later with the founding of cities other gods were assimilated into their beliefs including Zeus, Athena, Hera, Olympians amongst other(Lycos,1986.p.112)

Plato called the later gods, civilicized deities who were aware of the human beings and understood that men could distinguish between good and bad. Like the visible sky above, the above named gods lasted in a timeless sphere as immortal beings and they could not be corrupted like the created human race.

Both the visible and invisible gods were in complete control of their bodies, their minds, unlike humanity, were fully in charge of their bodies and were not prone to deceit or temptations like people are. The invisible gods were hidden to the physical eye of man but could reveal their forms to mankind as they wished.. The both groups of gods were good to human beings and they always rendered benefits to people.

For example the sun, believed to be a prominent visible god is offers, light and heat to enhance growth and sustain life of living beings; the planets, starts offer light and also tell about times and seasons. The invisible beings were specifically concerned with individuals well being like Zeus and Hera (Eileman, 1985.p.201)

Eternal And Natural Forms In the Republic Plato explains in staid detail the concept of god and gods, his tacit view does not coincide with religious views and its not equated to the religious interpretation of who or what God is.

In Republic, Plato’s point is not trying to explain the concept of God but he goes deeper to establish what true, good is or just; in his endeavor to unfound the mystery of the truth he brought forth the vague idea of God. From the view of Plato, God is the prerequisite and the source of the forms and the eternal abstract static objects of the understanding. (Plato 412)

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of gods in Plato’s Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Plato’s view there is the concept of objective good, as far as Plato was concerned wisdom, beauty. Moderation, courage were realities; more real than the visible and touchable things of the world and these realities he called forms. (De Crescenzo, 1992.p. 314) It was the conviction of Plato that the visible world comprises of half real and half vague reality that the outer world was on the middle area between certainty and uncertainty.

The soul of a human being can bridge between the real forms and the level of body,; human beings are tied by the body in this but through reflections the soul is able to raise to a plane of recognizing the forms. Forms are much advanced the real world and they cannot be perceived through the physical eye rather they are perceived through the eye of the human mind.

Forms, in platonic view are treated in a divine way, he expresses their attributes to display their beauty and perfection and their enduring character which makes them eternal. Forms only comprise poor alternatives for gods and the goddesses although they have no life and they are inactive.

Unlike the gods, forms don’t think and neither do they move; they are intelligible since they can be known by the discerning and the wise. The philosopher did not bring out the forms as deities, but he expressed them as a lower form of divinity substituting gods although they are reticent and have neither life nor individual logic.

Role of gods in Plato’s Philosophy Gods play an implicitly important role in the Platonic philosophical analogy. Being a keen seeker of the truth, he finds the basis and foundation of his pursuits in gods who exemplify piety, perfection, reality and the truth.

Deciphering the concept of god in platonic viewpoint can be is equated to the knowledge of actual truth which is genuine and entombs the essence of all goodness. (Lycos, 1986.p.213) The Plato’s way of comprehending God forms the elementary base and underpinning for all certain knowledge. In consequence, this level of God’s realization provides a demonstration reality in its fullness.

Plato’s view of the world draws its podium from the conception of gods who are perceived as utterly ethereal and above the plane of normal mind conception and can only be deciphered by philosophical wisdom. The ensuing role of this concept necessarily makes gods the plane through which wisdom and realization of reality are standardized. The gods’ standard of what is pure, good and true helps to gauge abstract ideas against the gods attributes backdrop so that all the intangible ideas are determined to be real or unreal.

Therefore, the ideology about gods forms the final stage in all Plato’s pursuit of truth and knowledge, every thing must have a source, and good things must be from a good source. Gods who typify good, wisdom reality must be the truth Plato is determined to find out. God is therefore the final representation through which the complete mechanism and center of theoretical ideologies of intelligible world and physical world is based (Melling, 1987.p.123)

In Plato’s philosophy God is considered as a separator of the physical and mental, as the personification of all created forms; God is also regarded as the highest level of understanding and wisdom (De Crescenzo, 1992.p.145) Everything in the sphere of ideas originates from the embodiment of all forms, simply known as gods and such ideas lead to greater comprehension of form, in other words god.

It’s paramount to note that Plato’s conception of God is too abstract, the philosopher fails to give god attributes because God is neither a thing nor a person, God is an unthinkable entity or state of knowledge which cannot be expressed in words or in any material terms of the ordinary human world.

Conclusion Gods play a critical role in the world and perspective of Plato’s philosophy. The perpetual being, demiourgos “worker” bring into being the world together with other gods. With remarkable lucidity, Plato expresses the role gods play to bring out the reality through creation. On the republic dialogues, the philosopher utilizes deft allegory to depict the world, gods, eternal and natural forms. The philosopher’s view and expression of god embodies all the Platonic forms, which comprise of good, perfect eternal entities.

When all these forms are put together they exude the essence of god. The role of gods in Plato’s dialogue can thus be tentatively suggested as manifestation and depiction of complete prudence, and perfection. God’s personify full composition of reality, the truth, justice and the right that Plato seeks to unfound, the concept of gods in Plato’s philosophy thus culminate the essence of reality and the truth.

References Crossman, R. H. (1981). Exploring Plato Today. London: Unwin Book Publishers.

De Crescenzo, M. (1992). The Greek Philosophy. (Volume Two) London: Pan.

Eileman, J. L (1985). Understanding The Platonic Philosophy. London: Souvenir Press.

Lycos, J. (1986). Plato on Justice and Power: Reading Book I of Plato’s Republic. London: Macmillan.

Melling, D. J. (1987). Understanding Plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Plato. (2007). Republic (Translated by Desmond Lee) Penguin Classic: Paperback.

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A Play “Trifles” by Susan Glaspell Critical Essay essay help online

Written by Susan Glaspell, Trifles is a play, based on a true occurrence in Iowa. The author focuses on the development of the both the minor and major characters. Through the development of the characters, Glaspell vividly describes their stereotypes.

In Glaspell’s play, Minnie Wright exhibits the role of a round character. During her youth days, she is always a happy, cheerful, and social songstress. Additionally, her wardrobe consists of bright colored clothes that made her outstanding among other girls. Unfortunately, after Mr. Wright married her, she drastically changed her behavior. Mrs. Hale describes her as “sweet, pretty, timid and fluttery but all the characters disappeared after marriage” (Glaspell Para. 5).

On the other hand, Minnie’s husband is tyrannical, abrasive, domineering and aweless, a fact that Minnie respects during her thirty years of marriage. However, from the blues, Mr. Wright dies or killed at night depending on one’s perspective. Surprisingly, Minnie confesses that someone strangled her husband without her noticing. Unfortunately, the Sheriff and the attorney disapprove her claims and choose to imprison her as the prime suspect. After critical investigations, the law convicts her of murder.

Minnie has a dynamic character that makes her to adapt to the prevailing situation. Although she is submissive to her husband, she turns a murderer after tolerating her husband’s unbecoming behavior. One moment of rage and bitterness from her husband is enough to kill him and this ability o change depending on the prevailing situation underscores roundness in character development.

John Wright is a powerful, rough and crude husband; he turns his cheerful wife to a sad and antisocial woman. However, one day his wife strangles him with a rope killing him instantly. The roundness in Mr. Wright’s character comes out clearly given the fact that at one point he is strong, abrasive and ‘masculine’ but she dies in the hands of one considered weak. Therefore, in essence, Mr. Wright changes from a strong character to a weak one and this defines the roundness of his character.

On the other hand, George Henderson; the county attorney, represents one of the flat characters; characters who remain rigid throughout a story; no change of thought or persona. During the murder of Mr. Wright, he comes to the scene to carry out an investigation. He is a tough and bully but dismisses the kitchen as a source of evidence of the murder. Ironically, he concentrates in the bedroom and barn places which belong to men.

Although he convicts Mrs. Wright as the murder, he is unable to discover solid evidences apparently evident in the kitchen. His character is stagnant he neither changes his behavior nor listens to women. Similarly, Henry Peters is a Sheriff who accompanies the attorney in the murder investigation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, just like Henry, he overlooks some of the important places that might give evidence about the murder case. Additionally, his contemptuous nature comes into limelight when he kicks some items in the house disapproving them as source of evidence. He concentrates in the bedroom to search for evidence and his rigidness passes him for a flat character.

There is a high degree of gender and culture stereotyping in the play. Mr. Wright follows the society culture of being domineering especially to women. The role of women is in the kitchen and they are not supposed to talk before men. Mrs. Wright ends up losing her happiness and cheerful nature because she is a submissive woman. On the other hand, the sheriff and attorney do not involve the women in the murder cases.

They dismiss a woman’s place like the kitchen and concentrate in the bedroom. Similarly, Clarkson observes that women like Mrs. Hale remain silent when they discover the box-containing evidence because the society demands such of them (286). In summary, Mr. and Mrs. Wright are the round characters in the play; their characters are dynamic hence changes depending on the situation at Hand. On the other hand, the flat characters include the law enforcers and Mr. Hale.

Works Cited Clarkson, Suzy. “Silent Justice in a Different Key: Glaspell’s Trifles.” The MidwestQuarterly 44.6 (2003): 282-290.

Glaspell, Susan. Trifles, N.d. Web.

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Economic Perspectives in the Economic Activities of a State Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Liberal Economic Approach (Representing the Market)

Nationalism/ Mercantilism (Representing the State)

Marxism (Representing the Society)

The preferred perspective

References

Introduction Individuals prefer different approaches to the economy depending on available resources and personnel. Every type of approach has its requisites that must be met first which depend on political and social environment. The existing socio-political forces are taken into consideration before choosing the theory to be applied in development. The politics of the day and available resources shapes the kind of policies in any economic organization.

The three perspectives have both strengths and weaknesses but for effective approach to the economy, a combination of two is recommended. The policy makers and leaders in general ought to be extra careful when coming up with an approach for handling the economic activities of a state.

Liberal Economic Approach (Representing the Market) The major proponent of the theory was Adams Smith who postulated that an economy expands rapidly when it is left to operate on its own. He termed it as free market economy meaning the market logics are to be left to operate on their own. The approach encourages private accumulation of property; the state on its part should be viewed as a utility that facilitates opportunities for individual fulfillment of potentials.

The state therefore, as a custodian of public good should provide services such as security, facilitation of infrastructure such as harbors and ports to facilitate exports/imports, construction of hydroelectric power complexes to produce energy to industries and good road network to expose the interior of the state to the outside world (Wendy pp 39). The approach argues that at no one time should the state interfere with the market logics.

At other times, the economy experiences some turmoil. The state should intervene only to restore normalcy. The state withdraws immediately the situation is restored, without the state intervention; many people will default in payment of mortgages and loans. Non-payment of taxes that results from bad economic situation makes it difficult for government to operate. The government relies heavily on taxes for conducting its business and paying workers hence a bad economy paralyzes its activities.

The theorists, from Adams Smith to Ricardo do agree that a free market economy encourages innovativeness, which further ensures happiness to the population. The market favors the most inventive and innovative manufacturer, consumers are interested in new products.

It therefore follows that producers will be keen to produce products and services that consumers want. The type of relationship that exists is cordial since the consumers and producers check each other regularly. The approach encourages trading without restriction hence the traders play a big role in maintaining peace integration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People who interact through trade will co-exist peacefully by exchanging other social products such as professional morals required in business. On the side of pricing index, the economy is said to be self-regulating. The government should not try to set prices of goods since it destabilizes the market logics. The approach argues that the state does not have any relationship with the market; they are separate entities that should never be undertaken concurrently.

Nationalism/ Mercantilism (Representing the State) The theorists in this approach are state-centric meaning that the state is intertwined with the market that is, the state is above the economy. The political class should issue directives that serve to control trading activities. The market and the state is one and the same, the political class are the ones who invest most, conversely the acquisition of property is a sure way to obtaining the political power. Consumers and producers always pursue antagonistic interest.

The consumers wish to obtain quality products at low costs while the producers on their side are interested in maximizing the profits by producing under quality products and disposing them at higher prices (Grant 21). The state comes in as an arbitrator by setting the standards required for goods to be traded in the market.

Without the intervention of the state in the market, the security of the state will be in jeopardy. Some of the goods are of high security threat such as guns, weapons and drugs. Guns should never be allowed to enter into the hands of anyone since others will use them to deprive others of their property. The government in that regard supervises distribution and management of drugs; the authorized authorities and individuals only dispense them.

The state is the only legal authority that can enter into trade agreements with other states or organizations, the international trade treaties are always among states not individuals. Goods and services from other countries might not be allowed into a particular country because of one reason or another. Moreover, the government is the real business initiator in any country; it allocates funds to various sectors to spur development.

Marxism (Representing the Society) The thinkers for this theory derive their arguments from the thoughts of Karl Marx. It postulates that people in a particular economy should determine their own destiny. The aim of the state according to this approach is to safeguard the interests of the owners of the means of production. The state is the committee of the ruling class meaning that it is not interested in fulfilling the needs of the people. The citizens are usually used as rubber stamps in any electioneering process.

They elect leaders who do not have their interests at heart; the bourgeoisie uses the state to fulfill their interests. The citizens believe that the owners of the means of production exploit them by misusing their labor. They are paid so poorly despite the fact that they contribute a lot in production of goods and services. They are exploited to an extent of being alienated from the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic Perspectives in the Economic Activities of a State specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The workers do not access the goods and services they produce apart from lacking time for themselves and their families (Chen 17). The theory concludes that the workers will only determine their destiny by organizing a revolution. People should rise up against the ruling class by violating the rules and regulations set by the bourgeoisie through the government.

The preferred perspective Although it is recommended that a number of perspectives be applied in approaching development, the most preferred one is mercantilism. The government should take full control of the state including the economic activities. The government plays a lot key responsibilities including arbitration, controlling the movement of important commodities, negotiating trade agreements and facilitating development by providing infrastructure.

Without the state, there would be no standardization of goods and services leading to dumping of goods in some countries. Local companies need to be protected because they are the real patriotic companies that will always serve to hold the economy of a particular state. Foreign companies are highly unpredictable; they cannot be relied in stabilizing the economy since they can withdraw their operations any time.

References Chen, Zhongshen, Wu, Che, Xie, Siquan. The extent of marketization of economic systems in China. New York: Nova Publishers, 2000.

Grant, George. Tackling the Poverty of Nations: Why So Many Are Poor and What We Can Do About It. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation, 2009.

Wendy, Brown. Edgework: critical Essays on knowledge and Politics: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005. p. 39

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Concepts and Reasons of Violent Crimes in Modern Society Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Abstract Violent crimes make use of physical force which in most cases results to causing bodily injuries physically and sometimes psychologically. Violent crimes have various starting points in the lifespan of a person with some starting at an early age while in some it may start at a late age. Peer influence, family background and mass media influence are among the factors that influence a person to get engaged in violent crimes.

Globalization has also been pointed out to be among the factors that have enhanced violent crimes in various ways. The internet, an aspect of globalization, has made it possible for people to access information relating to violence making it possible for them to carry out crimes. It is also possible to connect and recruit gang activities through the internet with purchasing arrangements for drugs and weapons made possible.

The environment has also been pointed out as a cause of crimes which may consequently lead to violence later. The environment has specifically been pointed out to be influential in the case of corporate affairs whereby the risk of exposure of huge corruption claims may lead to elimination of the whistle blowers. Bad working terms which largely exploit employees may also trigger violent reactions from the employees when there is a feeling that it has become too much.

Migration especially when directed to a specific regions leads to overpopulation which consequently will result to social evils of which violent crimes is one. Other factors which have been pointed out as causers of violent crimes include: age, ethnicity, gender, social economic status, prior victimization that may lead to revenge, unique training such as bombing, education level, marital status, medical history, race, addictions, occupational relations and loss of significant relations.

Violent Crimes Violent crimes refer to physical offenses carried out on by people on other people and in most cases such actions inflict physical damage and at times psychological damage. According to the FBI (2006), violent crimes consist of “murder and non negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault” (FBI, 2006, p. 1). Violent crimes are mainly dealt with from the department of criminal justice and those found guilty usually face very harsh penalties.

Violent crimes may begin in individuals in various ways. It may start either during childhood or may start at old age. However, individual begin involving in crime before or during their youths and may continue this way ever thereafter or may change depending on the situation. An individual may begin involving in crime due to peer pressure, due to mass media influence, due to family background or due to family interests.

Peer influence plays an important role in getting many individuals into crime. This mostly happens during teenage or youth whereby the lifestyle of these youngsters are mostly dependent on the peer groups. For instance, a group of friends from a certain high school may influence each other to harming their seniors who may be bullying them in school.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They may also influence each other to burning down the school due to poor administration. Some male students may also plan to attack a neighboring girl’s school. Just to mention but a few, such situations as mentioned above are likely to change an innocent individual to entering into violent crime completely.

Media is another major area that has ushered many people into violent crimes. Most of the programs in the mass media especially movies, films, music and advert make use of violent scenes thus triggering the urge of some individuals to practicing what they are seeing or hearing from the media.

Most of these media presentations give potential criminals all the tactics and the necessary ideas that may be applied in violent crimes. Some of the most common programs may include robbery with violence where the actors may be ending up with large sums of money, immorality in the media which drives many individuals to rape cases among others.

Furthermore, advancement in technology has enabled many people to involve in crime whereby many criminal scenes are covered and brought in the news thus convincing potential criminals of the possibility of the crimes they may not be aware of. For instance, most violent crime scenes covered in the media are shown in the news and explain or show how the scene took place giving rough ideas to those who may be interested in such activities.

Globalization is another sensitive area that has ushered many people to begin lives full of violent crimes. This has been facilitated by the use of internet which has reduced the world into a cyber space such that anyone can get information on criminal issues just by accessing the internet.

Sites are available concerning any information about violent crimes as well as much coverage of the crimes that have taken place across the world. Globalization has also brought about ease of acquiring dangerous weapons that enhance violent crimes either from the many unstable governments across the world or due to the free market regulations across the world.

Individuals involved in criminal justice enter into such activities due to various reasons. According to research carried out by Jones (2005), it has become evident that most violent criminals have resulted both from nature and nurture. This means that both genes and the environment play a very important role in the criminality of an individual.

We will write a custom Report on Concepts and Reasons of Violent Crimes in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The psychologist came up with the above conclusions after carrying out a survey on some twin, a family and an adoption study. It was also shown through several laboratory experiments that criminal behavior is a result of an interaction between genes and the environment (Jones, 2005). For instance, an individual may contain genes that are responsible for criminal behavior but may not be evident until he is exposed to the right environment.

Considering corporate crime, the environment is a major determinant that may facilitate crime in such an environment whereby situational cases play a major role in individual involvement in crime. Companies may provide opportunities to commit crime whereby such opportunities may not be evenly distributed. Some areas in a company may be more vulnerable while others may have low opportunities.

Some companies may also have incentives for criminal behavior or may provide means to commit crime depending on the decision making criteria of the company (Gobert

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Economic Perspectives in the Economic Activities of a State Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Liberal Economic Approach (Representing the Market)

Nationalism/ Mercantilism (Representing the State)

Marxism (Representing the Society)

The preferred perspective

References

Introduction Individuals prefer different approaches to the economy depending on available resources and personnel. Every type of approach has its requisites that must be met first which depend on political and social environment. The existing socio-political forces are taken into consideration before choosing the theory to be applied in development. The politics of the day and available resources shapes the kind of policies in any economic organization.

The three perspectives have both strengths and weaknesses but for effective approach to the economy, a combination of two is recommended. The policy makers and leaders in general ought to be extra careful when coming up with an approach for handling the economic activities of a state.

Liberal Economic Approach (Representing the Market) The major proponent of the theory was Adams Smith who postulated that an economy expands rapidly when it is left to operate on its own. He termed it as free market economy meaning the market logics are to be left to operate on their own. The approach encourages private accumulation of property; the state on its part should be viewed as a utility that facilitates opportunities for individual fulfillment of potentials.

The state therefore, as a custodian of public good should provide services such as security, facilitation of infrastructure such as harbors and ports to facilitate exports/imports, construction of hydroelectric power complexes to produce energy to industries and good road network to expose the interior of the state to the outside world (Wendy pp 39). The approach argues that at no one time should the state interfere with the market logics.

At other times, the economy experiences some turmoil. The state should intervene only to restore normalcy. The state withdraws immediately the situation is restored, without the state intervention; many people will default in payment of mortgages and loans. Non-payment of taxes that results from bad economic situation makes it difficult for government to operate. The government relies heavily on taxes for conducting its business and paying workers hence a bad economy paralyzes its activities.

The theorists, from Adams Smith to Ricardo do agree that a free market economy encourages innovativeness, which further ensures happiness to the population. The market favors the most inventive and innovative manufacturer, consumers are interested in new products.

It therefore follows that producers will be keen to produce products and services that consumers want. The type of relationship that exists is cordial since the consumers and producers check each other regularly. The approach encourages trading without restriction hence the traders play a big role in maintaining peace integration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People who interact through trade will co-exist peacefully by exchanging other social products such as professional morals required in business. On the side of pricing index, the economy is said to be self-regulating. The government should not try to set prices of goods since it destabilizes the market logics. The approach argues that the state does not have any relationship with the market; they are separate entities that should never be undertaken concurrently.

Nationalism/ Mercantilism (Representing the State) The theorists in this approach are state-centric meaning that the state is intertwined with the market that is, the state is above the economy. The political class should issue directives that serve to control trading activities. The market and the state is one and the same, the political class are the ones who invest most, conversely the acquisition of property is a sure way to obtaining the political power. Consumers and producers always pursue antagonistic interest.

The consumers wish to obtain quality products at low costs while the producers on their side are interested in maximizing the profits by producing under quality products and disposing them at higher prices (Grant 21). The state comes in as an arbitrator by setting the standards required for goods to be traded in the market.

Without the intervention of the state in the market, the security of the state will be in jeopardy. Some of the goods are of high security threat such as guns, weapons and drugs. Guns should never be allowed to enter into the hands of anyone since others will use them to deprive others of their property. The government in that regard supervises distribution and management of drugs; the authorized authorities and individuals only dispense them.

The state is the only legal authority that can enter into trade agreements with other states or organizations, the international trade treaties are always among states not individuals. Goods and services from other countries might not be allowed into a particular country because of one reason or another. Moreover, the government is the real business initiator in any country; it allocates funds to various sectors to spur development.

Marxism (Representing the Society) The thinkers for this theory derive their arguments from the thoughts of Karl Marx. It postulates that people in a particular economy should determine their own destiny. The aim of the state according to this approach is to safeguard the interests of the owners of the means of production. The state is the committee of the ruling class meaning that it is not interested in fulfilling the needs of the people. The citizens are usually used as rubber stamps in any electioneering process.

They elect leaders who do not have their interests at heart; the bourgeoisie uses the state to fulfill their interests. The citizens believe that the owners of the means of production exploit them by misusing their labor. They are paid so poorly despite the fact that they contribute a lot in production of goods and services. They are exploited to an extent of being alienated from the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic Perspectives in the Economic Activities of a State specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The workers do not access the goods and services they produce apart from lacking time for themselves and their families (Chen 17). The theory concludes that the workers will only determine their destiny by organizing a revolution. People should rise up against the ruling class by violating the rules and regulations set by the bourgeoisie through the government.

The preferred perspective Although it is recommended that a number of perspectives be applied in approaching development, the most preferred one is mercantilism. The government should take full control of the state including the economic activities. The government plays a lot key responsibilities including arbitration, controlling the movement of important commodities, negotiating trade agreements and facilitating development by providing infrastructure.

Without the state, there would be no standardization of goods and services leading to dumping of goods in some countries. Local companies need to be protected because they are the real patriotic companies that will always serve to hold the economy of a particular state. Foreign companies are highly unpredictable; they cannot be relied in stabilizing the economy since they can withdraw their operations any time.

References Chen, Zhongshen, Wu, Che, Xie, Siquan. The extent of marketization of economic systems in China. New York: Nova Publishers, 2000.

Grant, George. Tackling the Poverty of Nations: Why So Many Are Poor and What We Can Do About It. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation, 2009.

Wendy, Brown. Edgework: critical Essays on knowledge and Politics: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005. p. 39

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Wal-Mart Stores, Inc: Under Attack (2006) Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis

Synthesis

Recommendations and Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Executive Summary

Since its establishment in 1962 by Walton, Wal-mart has been expanding gradually and beating other stores to become one of the largest stores in America and later becoming global. However the company has also suffered its own share of problems especially concerning labor and employee rights as well as the type of products it sells.

The company has had an anti-union and low salary policy and this has seen the company face lawsuits among them discrimination against women (Bianco

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Concepts and Reasons of Violent Crimes in Modern Society Report scholarship essay help

Abstract Violent crimes make use of physical force which in most cases results to causing bodily injuries physically and sometimes psychologically. Violent crimes have various starting points in the lifespan of a person with some starting at an early age while in some it may start at a late age. Peer influence, family background and mass media influence are among the factors that influence a person to get engaged in violent crimes.

Globalization has also been pointed out to be among the factors that have enhanced violent crimes in various ways. The internet, an aspect of globalization, has made it possible for people to access information relating to violence making it possible for them to carry out crimes. It is also possible to connect and recruit gang activities through the internet with purchasing arrangements for drugs and weapons made possible.

The environment has also been pointed out as a cause of crimes which may consequently lead to violence later. The environment has specifically been pointed out to be influential in the case of corporate affairs whereby the risk of exposure of huge corruption claims may lead to elimination of the whistle blowers. Bad working terms which largely exploit employees may also trigger violent reactions from the employees when there is a feeling that it has become too much.

Migration especially when directed to a specific regions leads to overpopulation which consequently will result to social evils of which violent crimes is one. Other factors which have been pointed out as causers of violent crimes include: age, ethnicity, gender, social economic status, prior victimization that may lead to revenge, unique training such as bombing, education level, marital status, medical history, race, addictions, occupational relations and loss of significant relations.

Violent Crimes Violent crimes refer to physical offenses carried out on by people on other people and in most cases such actions inflict physical damage and at times psychological damage. According to the FBI (2006), violent crimes consist of “murder and non negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault” (FBI, 2006, p. 1). Violent crimes are mainly dealt with from the department of criminal justice and those found guilty usually face very harsh penalties.

Violent crimes may begin in individuals in various ways. It may start either during childhood or may start at old age. However, individual begin involving in crime before or during their youths and may continue this way ever thereafter or may change depending on the situation. An individual may begin involving in crime due to peer pressure, due to mass media influence, due to family background or due to family interests.

Peer influence plays an important role in getting many individuals into crime. This mostly happens during teenage or youth whereby the lifestyle of these youngsters are mostly dependent on the peer groups. For instance, a group of friends from a certain high school may influence each other to harming their seniors who may be bullying them in school.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They may also influence each other to burning down the school due to poor administration. Some male students may also plan to attack a neighboring girl’s school. Just to mention but a few, such situations as mentioned above are likely to change an innocent individual to entering into violent crime completely.

Media is another major area that has ushered many people into violent crimes. Most of the programs in the mass media especially movies, films, music and advert make use of violent scenes thus triggering the urge of some individuals to practicing what they are seeing or hearing from the media.

Most of these media presentations give potential criminals all the tactics and the necessary ideas that may be applied in violent crimes. Some of the most common programs may include robbery with violence where the actors may be ending up with large sums of money, immorality in the media which drives many individuals to rape cases among others.

Furthermore, advancement in technology has enabled many people to involve in crime whereby many criminal scenes are covered and brought in the news thus convincing potential criminals of the possibility of the crimes they may not be aware of. For instance, most violent crime scenes covered in the media are shown in the news and explain or show how the scene took place giving rough ideas to those who may be interested in such activities.

Globalization is another sensitive area that has ushered many people to begin lives full of violent crimes. This has been facilitated by the use of internet which has reduced the world into a cyber space such that anyone can get information on criminal issues just by accessing the internet.

Sites are available concerning any information about violent crimes as well as much coverage of the crimes that have taken place across the world. Globalization has also brought about ease of acquiring dangerous weapons that enhance violent crimes either from the many unstable governments across the world or due to the free market regulations across the world.

Individuals involved in criminal justice enter into such activities due to various reasons. According to research carried out by Jones (2005), it has become evident that most violent criminals have resulted both from nature and nurture. This means that both genes and the environment play a very important role in the criminality of an individual.

We will write a custom Report on Concepts and Reasons of Violent Crimes in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The psychologist came up with the above conclusions after carrying out a survey on some twin, a family and an adoption study. It was also shown through several laboratory experiments that criminal behavior is a result of an interaction between genes and the environment (Jones, 2005). For instance, an individual may contain genes that are responsible for criminal behavior but may not be evident until he is exposed to the right environment.

Considering corporate crime, the environment is a major determinant that may facilitate crime in such an environment whereby situational cases play a major role in individual involvement in crime. Companies may provide opportunities to commit crime whereby such opportunities may not be evenly distributed. Some areas in a company may be more vulnerable while others may have low opportunities.

Some companies may also have incentives for criminal behavior or may provide means to commit crime depending on the decision making criteria of the company (Gobert

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Immigrants in the United States Research Paper essay help

In the last two decades, immigration has become a pressing issue and has in turn led to an explosion of theories and research trying to find out its main causes. The main causes of existence of immigration are due to superiority of American economy as compared to other economies, and also religious and political reasons.

The main one is the dissatisfaction by the people of their native’s land economic lot in comparison to the might of United States. An article by the New York Times on immigration and emigrants dated February 2 2011 is one of the recent editorials that are keen to talk about immigration in certain states in United States. The concern raised is the fact that illegal immigrants were more than the legal ones.

A state like Arizona had introduced laws that were seeking the immigrants to carry their papers all the time. Though the laws in Arizona were blocked, there was a resolution by many states that they introduce laws similar to the ones in Arizona that aimed at limiting illegal immigrants’ children from accessing public colleges, as well as punishing employers who were employing illegal immigrants (New Work Times Para 6).

Denial of some essential services to the children of immigrants should not be a solution to solving the problem of immigration. The mistakes done by the parents should not be directed to their children, though there is need to curb such illegal actions. More attention should be focused on showing love and having empathy. The fact that some of these people have gone through so much in their lives should make us want to help them rather than find means and ways of restricting them on some of the essential services of their lives.

Denial of these services will only worsen their lives and may not be a solution in fighting against illegal immigration, which should be sought to be minimized through measures like controlling the borders to ensure that the entry of them is at its minimum. The spirit of egalitarianism should be up help where the immigrants are considered as part of our society and there are such benefits that occur with these people being part of our society. Instead, these people should be assimilated in our system as they form a larger society (Brittan 69).

The benefits brought about by having the immigrants should first be focused before having roles that are aimed at denying services to the immigrants. To start with, economically having the immigrants increases the country’s income through having more taxpayers in the country. The same is extended where the country has more workers in our organizations, the fact that there is an increase of the workers base means we are likely to have more production in our organization.

There is also so much we can gain from the diversity that we get from having different kinds of people in our organization. They offer so much in terms of ideas to our organization that gives them a competitive edge in the market. It is therefore inhumane to try and penalize those employers who embrace diversity and employ immigrants in their organizations. (Thompson 153).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, the issue of immigration may attract so many feelings in reference to the society we are living in. Though having illegal immigrants is wrong, it is even worse to punish the children of these immigrants in provision of such basic requirements like education. It is unfair to them as well as to us, as we may be creating a society that is ignorant.

Though it is necessary to have control of the people in the country, we should also assimilate the ones already in our system since they can offer much, especially when it comes to economic matters.

Work Cited Brittan, Arthur. “Meanings and situations.” London: Routledge , 1973.

New York Times. “Immigration and Emigration.” 2 Feb 2011. New York Times. 10 April 2011 .

Thompson, Kenneth. “The Early Sociology of Race and Ethnicity: Immigration : a world movement and its American significance.” New York: Taylor

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Corporal Punishment Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Corporal punishment as a form of disciplinary action to children has elicited a fierce debate and controversy over its effectiveness in shaping children’s behavior in the society. Sociologists, psychologists, and legal experts differ on whether corporal punishment has long-term benefits in shaping children’s behavior or not. The difference in opinions has resulted into quest for more research in order to ascertain both short and long-term effects of corporal punishment on children.

Gershoff argues that, “crucial questions remain unanswered, such as what range of child behaviors and experiences are empirically associated with parental corporal punishment, as well as why, how, and for whom corporal punishment might have such effects” (539). Due to lack of empirical evidences to prove whether corporal punishment is harmful or not to the children, the opposing schools of thought are yet to justify their theoretical views and beliefs.

The research concerning corporal punishment is very complex because there are no clear-cut differences between abusive punishment and non-abusive punishment, thus confounding the research findings. Furthermore, corporal punishment and naughty behaviors have intricate relationship in that, it is very difficult to establish causal relationships. Since corporal punishment is associated with untoward childhood behaviors and experiences, it is an ineffective and an undesirable form of parental discipline.

Corporal punishment is ineffective and undesirable form of parental discipline because it only causes immediate compliance, which has short-term effects in shaping child’s behavior contrary to the long-term expectations by the parents. Numerous studies have shown that parents normally administer corporal punishment with the objective of realizing immediate compliance of the children. Empirical studies have proved that short-term compliance due to corporal punishment is very effective in learning.

“There is general consensus that corporal punishment is effective in getting children to comply immediately, but at the same time there is caution from child abuse researchers that corporal punishment by its nature can escalate into physical maltreatment” (Gershoff 549).

Meta-analysis has proved that administration of corporal punishment does not have long-term behavioral change as expected by the parents; it only causes immediate compliance, and this phenomenon beats the logic of using corporal punishment in disciplining children.

Corporal punishment is essential in achieving control of rowdy and disruptive children; nevertheless, it does not help in long-term development of behavior in children. Although corporal punishment has short-term compliance, continued and consistent administration negatively affects internalization of morals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Continued and consistent administration of corporal punishment affects children negatively in the process internalizing the desired morals. Moral internalization is appropriate mechanism of developing acceptable behaviors because intrinsic factors rather than the extrinsic factors form the essential driving forces that compel children to mature well. Social and emotional maturation of the children critically depends on the intrinsic factors for such factors enable children to internalize moral values and beliefs in the society.

In contrast, extrinsic factors such as corporal punishment seem to have an imposing influence on the intrinsic factors thus affecting internalization of morals. The intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate behavior development during the growth of children have mutually exclusive effect in the development of behaviors.

According to the attribution theory, “theorists emphasize that power-assertive methods such as corporal punishment promote children’s external attributions for their behavior and minimize their attributions to internal motivations corporal punishment … may not facilitate moral internalization because it does not teach children reasons for behaving correctly” (Gershoff 541).

Therefore, corporal punishment does not instill the essence of morality to the children for children subjected to corporal punishment behave according to conditioned punishment. Since the children do not understand the essence of morality, they develop aggressive behaviors to resist or avoid severe corporal punishment.

Administration of corporal punishment results into aggressive behavior; hence it is ineffective and undesirable form of parental discipline. The relationship between corporal punishment and aggressive behavior is very complex to establish causal relationship.

Extensive literature reviews have confirmed that, there is significant positive correlation between corporal punishment and aggressive behaviors among children. These findings imply that corporal punishment promotes development of aggressive behaviors in children, thus inappropriate form of parental discipline.

Based on the attribution theory, the relationship between corporal punishment and aggressive behavior emanate from the fact that corporal punishment interferes with the internalization of moral values and beliefs, leaving children to depend on extrinsic factors as determinants of morality resulting into aggressive defense.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Corporal Punishment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social control theory also indicates that corporal punishment degrades child-parent relationship, prevent internalization of moral values, and increases aggressive behaviors due to lack of internal motivation and self-control.

Gershoff argues that, “parental corporal punishment affects children primarily by initiating and shaping emotional and cognitive processes in the children, which in turn predispose them to engage in certain behaviors or have particular experiences such as aggression” (551). Hence, cognitive processes are important in mediating and developing aggressive behaviors and experiences. However, it is very difficult to establish causal relationship between corporal punishment and development of naughty behaviors.

Despite the assumption that untoward behavior and experiences relates with corporal punishment, the causal relation between corporal punishment and development of naughty behaviors is blurred which makes it difficult to determine the causational effect. Psychological research depends on observational and experiential models to establish causal relationships but the findings do not consider confounding factors that could possibly mediate assumed causal relationship between corporal punishment and development of naughty behaviors.

Gershoff asserts that although models of correlation have assumed that corporal punishment causes naughty behaviors, they have not sufficiently ruled out the possibility that naughty behaviors to induce corporal punishment, “because corporal punishment occurs rarely and eludes observation, researchers interested in the effects of corporal punishment need to consider more ingenious methods of establishing causality” (556).

Therefore, there is no sufficient evidence to prove that causation relationship exists between corporal punishment and development of naughty behaviors. However, meta-analysis research has attempted to demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that corporal punishment causes naughty behaviors in children.

The establishment of causation relationship is quite possible because meta-analysis research measures and monitors behavior development from the earliest point possible thus considering time precedence and isolating other factors that may confound the causational effect. Since there is no significance evidence to rule out that corporal punishment increases development of naughty behaviors, then corporal punishment is ineffective and undesirable form of parental discipline.

Conclusion In a recap, the controversy regarding the effectiveness of corporal punishment still rages as the opposing schools of thoughts have strong evidence to support their views. Sociologists, psychologists and legal experts have not yet reached a conclusion that corporal punishment elicits untoward behaviors and experiences in children. Given that the relationship between corporal punishment and naughty behavior in children is very complex, it is also difficult to establish the causational relationship without making some assumptions.

Nevertheless, meta-analysis has significantly demonstrated that there is causational relationship between corporal punishment and development of naughty behaviors. The relationship between corporal punishment and naughty behaviors portrays chicken-egg relationship in that, it is difficult to establish which one of two comes first.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporal Punishment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Gershoff, Elizabeth. “Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review.” Psychological Bulletin 128.4 (2002): 539–579.

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Artificial Sweeteners: Impact on the Quality of Human Life Analytical Essay college essay help near me

Artificial sweeteners importance is considered to be a crucial point for discussion in a variety of countries. For a long period of time, many people found it obligatory to contribute the sphere of chemistry and food technology in order to decrease the level of calories not at expense of sweet taste (Ropeik

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Saving Energy Dollars while Providing an Optimal Learning Environment Essay essay help: essay help

This webinar was organized for the needs of school administrators who have to reduce the expenses on the consumption of energy. It was attended by energy managers, engineers, and managers, all of whom shared their views on how school can make energy savings. The findings of this webinar will be particularly useful for educational institutions however, but they are also applicable to other governmental organizations which have to struggle with the budget limitations. This is why I have found this video particularly interesting.

One of the most important issues that have been raised is that behavior of students and faculty contributes to excessive expenses. Many business administrators have argued that in many cases both teachers and students forget to turn off computers and lights.

This seminar has indicated that budget limitations can be overcome if school administration encourages every stakeholder to act responsibly. The participants of this seminar emphasized the necessity of involving different stakeholders. In particular, it is necessary to provide training to the staff, especially in those cases when new technologies are adopted.

More importantly, the school administration has to explain to teachers, students and parents how innovations can improve the work of educational institutions. The educators also stressed the importance of accountability and transparence. In other words, they argue that school administration has inform the community about the results which they managed to achieve.

Without it, the innovations, advocated by the administration, are rather unlikely to yield fruits. According to the data provided at the participants of this webinar, each school can save approximately $125.000 by changing its organizational behavior. This is why one should not underestimate this strategy.

Another argument that has been advanced by the participants of this seminar is that some of the technologies, used in modern schools have long become dated. The most eloquent example is the use of incandescent A-type bulb, which consumes much more energy than compact fluorescent bulbs.

Furthermore, the participants of this seminar pointed out several strategies which minimize energy consumption, namely geothermal cooling and heating, wireless internet, natural day lighting and so forth. It is expected that implementation of these strategies can cut their costs at least by 10 percent. The overarching theme of this webinar is that renewable energy technologies like solar panels can make educational organization cost-efficient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some participants of the webinar argued that school administrators are reluctant to new technologies because they do not either time or training. In their opinion, such a position is essentially flawed because the users of these technologies do not have to be energy managers. One should not suppose that the users will require immense technical competence. These are some of the lessons that I have derived from this webinar.

There are several lessons that I have learned from this video. The energy expenses of schools can be explained lack of appropriate organizational behavior. In other words, students and teachers are not always aware of the fact that energy consumption strongly depends on their attitudes and actions. Secondly a great number of modern schools do not adopt new technologies as quickly as they should.

The example of incandescent bulb eloquently illustrates this argument. At the given moment, the expenses on energy utilities constitute approximately 32 per cent of a school budget, and they can be spent on something else.

Works Cited K12. Masters. Saving Energy Dollars while Providing an Optimal Learning Environment. 2010. Web.

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Color and Light Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory of Light and Colour

Measuring light wave

Formation of colours

Measure of wavelengths

Perception of Colour

The colour

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction How do we see colour? What enables visual perspective? Most people wonder how they experience different colour shades. The exploration of colour and light requires one to understand the concept of waves. Waves have the high and low volts that make up a wavelength. “The length of the wave determines its energy for instance, a long wave has a low energy or frequency, while a short wave has high energy” (Riley, 138).

The visible rainbow colours are therefore wavelengths of different magnitudes. The sun emits/radiates some waves within the visible wave-range and the human eye interprets this range as colours of the rainbow. According to Riley, the wavelength is the distance between the chests of one wave to the other and is denoted by the Greek symbol ‘Lambda’, ‘λ’ (138). The colours are known as visible spectrum of colours namely red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Therefore, the light’s wavelength gradually increases from violet to red.

Theory of Light and Colour History in the physics lesson indicates that Isaac Newton was the inventor of light since 1672; he applied the logic of a prism to discover that the prism could split the sunlight to various colours often referred to as colours of the rainbow. This arrangement of colours was due to difference of the light wavelength (Shapiro, 287).

The signature used to identify colour is therefore its wavelength, measured in nanometre (nm). Later, James Clerk Maxwell advanced Isaac Newton’s discovery by proving that light is a form of electromagnetic emission that contains waves of different magnitudes, mainly the visible light, the radio waves and the X-rays waves (Shapiro, 287).

Considering that light is an electromagnetic wave, then colour exists as part of this wavelength. Human sense of sight enables them to discover colour in the light wave. In line with Gurney, the violet colour has the shortest wavelength within the visible light while red has the longest (37).

According to Gurney, the definition of visible light can therefore be “the range of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum that the eye responds to” (37). However, the human eye fails to respond to the radiation of longer and shorter wavelengths than the visible light segments.

Measuring light wave “The units for measuring the distance in a metric scale is nanometre abbreviated as nm, which is a very small scales since it is equivalent to one millionths of a meter (1 nm = 10-9 m)” (Gibson, 17). The resolution of one nanometre is therefore too minute for clear visibility in an optical microscope.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The micron (µm) is equivalent to 1000 nm and therefore can be resolved on the microscope. Measuring the wavelength in microns makes it to become visible, but in comparison to other objects such as thickness of human hair or paper, the wave is very minute. These objects are hundreds microns bigger than the visible light wave (Gibson, 17).

Formation of colours Light is an electromagnetic spectrum that is easily detectable through naked eye. It is a mixture of various colours split into different lengths depending on their wavelength differences. According to Dixon and Smith, the human eye can see a wavelength of approximately 400-700 nm (9).

The light wave is absorbed, transmitted or reflected. Any of these actions depend on the surfaces since the surface gives the wave its required colour range. If all the colours of the wavelength hit a surface and gets absorbed, then that surface is black, denoting that no light is reflected.

The white light for instance the sunlight is a combination of various colours, and when it falls on an object, the object absorbs all wavelengths that interact with its molecules or electrons and reflects a certain wavelengths to the observer’s eye (Shapiro, 287). In line with Shapiro, the dull object will absorb white light while the bright objects reflect (287). The colour of an object is therefore determined by the specific wavelength of light that the object absorbs.

For instance, an object that absorbs the red wavelength of the white light and reflects all the other lengths is seen as green. An object may appear red because it has absorbed the red colour and reflected all the remaining wavelengths, this is due to the reason that the two colours complement each other in a similar manner as the orange does to blue or yellow to violet. Contrary, the transparent objects transmit white light. The diagram below illustrates the reflection light on a blue surface.

Measure of wavelengths Different wavelengths are compared to a standard measure known as the electromagnetic spectrum. “The infrared and radio waves are often on the extensive wavelengths, thus on the long side of the electromagnetic spectrum, while the wavelength of the x-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet (UV) light are short wavelengths thus falling on the short side” Dixon and Smith (30). According to Dixon and Smith, the wavelengths with shorter than 400nm are not visible to the naked human eye (30).

Human beings can therefore not sense wavelengths of measures greater than seven hundred nm. The white light is made of various protons that differ depending on the colour they represent due to energy differences. These protons create various pulsating turbulence on the wavelength, which determines the colour of an object ranging from red to violet. The diagram below illustrates the light wave spectrum.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Color and Light specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perception of Colour The definition of colour is consequently the spectrum of energy that enters the human eyes. Human eyes have cells called rods and cones on the retina that absorb light and assist in distinguishing between various colours (Dixon and Smith, 30). The rods assist in diffusing light and therefore support in sensing differences of reflections and in determining differences in light intensity. In dim lighting people perceive coloured objects as grey shades, therefore the retina has three sets of cones, which are all good receptors of light.

The colour of an object depends on the light wave sent to the eye from all the possible variations of colours in the sunlight. Every human being sees different variations of colours, thus different shades due to uniqueness of the cells, mainly the rods and cones. The colour pigments are different from light waves since they are made of various colours.

Pigments are made of mainly three primary colours; red, blue and yellow, three secondary colours; violet, orange and green and six tertiary colours made by mixing a primary and a secondary colour. The pigments are materials that either let colours to pass through or absorb them (Gurney, 38).

On the other hand, the primary light colours are blue, red and green and secondary light colours are magenta, cyan and yellow. Mixing of light colours causes formation of an additive that eventually leads to formation of white light. The splitting of light can also be addressed as a subtractive procedure since some of the light wavelengths are absorbed and the only visible wavelengths are those that are carefully given off during the process. The three colour codes of the white light enhance perception of other colours (Gurney, 38).

The colour Colour is made of three main factors namely hue, luminance and saturation. Type of colour depends on these three factors for instance, hue is the shade of a colour and saturation is the pureness of the hue. Luminance is the description given when defining a colour as either light or dark.

People who have difficulties of perceiving the red and green pigments suffer from a problem associable to colour blindness since they lack the red and green colour pigments. According to Gurney, the difficulties of making out the green to red ratio are a defect mainly associable to X-chromosomes and therefore affect men more than women (139).

Conclusion Some colours have negative effects for instance those on a bright light waves that reflect more light. They may cause eye irritation or cause headaches for instance the bright yellows on surfaces or on computer washouts. The bright colours are thus able to reflect more light waves into the eye and cause irritation or straining.

The bright colours are thus used to attract people attention for instance on posters of road signs. Colours also influence moods, for instance the blue colour can rein in the appetite for food since food do not naturally exist in blue. There are colours that comfort the sense of sight for instance green, which is known to sooth and comfort. The colour may therefore be perfect for a work scenario to curb possible work-related signs of fatigue.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Color and Light by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Dixon, Malcolm. and Smith Karen. Light and colour: Young Scientists Investigate Series. London, UK: Evans Brothers, 2005. Print.

Gibson, Gary. Light and Colour: Fun Science Projects Series. Franklin Watts Books. 2009. Print.

Gurney, James. Colour and Light: A Guide for the Realist Painter. Missouri, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2010. Print.

Riley, Peter. Light and Colour: Making Sense of Science Series. Franklin Watts Books. 2008. Print.

Shapiro, Alan E. Fits, Passions and Paroxysms: Physics, Method and Chemistry and

Newton’s Theories of Coloured Bodies and Fits of Easy Reflection. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2009. Print.

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How Theater was used in the Soviet Union Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Theater in the Soviet Union

Problems facing theatre in the Soviet Union

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction The Soviet Union included the modern day Russian Federation and other states around that include Ukraine, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Kazakhstan among others. During the time, Soviet Union was the most powerful world’s power. Its might can be traced back in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. It remained powerful until 1992 when it collapsed.

Over the past, the Soviet Union has been in conflict with the United States. This led to cold war between these leading powers. In the Soviet Union, theater played a major role in the state since it was used as a major tool in promoting individual interests.

The formation of the Soviet Union can be traced back in 1917 when the people got tired of the monarchy system which, was led by Czar Nicholas II. [1] In those times, most people in the Russia supported the socialism system, a form of production where the means of production are owned communally by the society. In 1922, the revolutionary regime got victory where it succeeded in forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[2]. The main goals of the union were formation of a powerfully economic base.

As already noted, theater played a significant role in the Soviet Union. The industry attracted the attention of many people for entertainment as well as informing purposes. Theater in the Soviet Union was to some extent controlled by the government. This was in an attempt to protect their interests.

For instance, the leaders did not condone plays which reflected negative acts in the leadership. For instance, leaders seriously opposed performances which displayed corruption in the government. Theatre was a major tool which was used during the early revolution. This is due to influence it has on people.

Theater in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union has a very interesting cultural heritage in theatre. One of these theaters is the Leningrad’s Theatre and Moscow’s Bolshoi Theater.[3] These attracted many people across the globe who visited the Soviet Union to be entertained. These performances were performed in huge festive halls which accommodated a large number of audiences.[4]

The Soviet Union recognized the contributions by the performers who performed on the Soviet Theater arenas. In connection to this, the performers were given certain benefits which encouraged them to put more efforts in their performances. For instance, the performers enjoyed world wide travel, state honors and luxurious apartment as rewards for their contributions in terms of arts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, these performers were encouraged due to the recognition of their efforts by the state. They shared more time rehearsing which maintain high level performances in the Soviet Union theatre. However their performances were to be directed by the needs of the leaders. Otherwise they were not entertained.

In the Soviet Union Theater, the artists who followed the regime’s theatre guidelines were accorded special recognition for their artistic performances. However, those artists who deviated away from the regimes or who demonstrated views which were never reflected by the regime’s artistic standards faced a lot of shame.[5] However, their performances still entertained their audience. They fulfilled partial part of the requirements but failed to meet the cultural needs.

Between 1930 and 1941, there was cinema of Stalinism. This was during Salin’s regime who was a dictator of the time in the Soviet Union. During this period, Stalinist communism party decided to make transformations in cultural and economic perspectives. In this period, the economy was transformed from the market based system to the central planning system.[6]

This was followed by a declaration which insisted on the Cultural Revolution. Under this revolution, the party was over the control of the cultural changes. During this period, another bureaucratic entity known as Soyuzkino was created in 1930,[7] Through these revolutions, all the studios’ in the Soviet Union were to be coordinated by the planning agency under Salin’s leadership.

Therefore, this revolution meant that the studios were no longer going to be independent. They will now be under Salin’s leadership who was a dictator. He therefore controlled what was to be produced and what did not deserve production. Consequently, he used this opportunity to advance his powers. He only allowed production of materials which promoted his regime. He did not entertain any criticism of the prevailing arrangements.

Under this system, the process of developing script became complicated, torturous and unnecessarily too long. This was due to the complexities which were associated with the bureaucratic system. Before the scripts could be accepted, they had to pass through a number of committee members to be reviewed.[8]

The composers were sometimes forced to make changes on their drafts. They had to cut some parts or revise on others accordingly. Consequently, film projects were critically affected which led to poor quality production. Script writers were not free to express their minds freely. Sometimes they were forced to erase some critical points in the scripts which may be carrying influential impact on the entire production.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How Theater was used in the Soviet Union specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the artists were forced to erase some parts which represented the theme of their work. This curtails their creativity. For instance, productivity levels declined sharply from 1930’s. For instance, the production of the industry fell to only forty five per year in 1934 from one hundred features in the early 1930’s.[9] This directly reveals the negative impact of the centralized regime in the cinema industry.

During the same time, USSR illegalized any contacts between the region and the West through the exchange of films. Importation of films from West was banned with the fear that they will contaminate the natives with the capitalist ideologies. This implies that theater played a significant role in driving the people’s emotions. It can easily influence the audience to change their stands. Therefore, theatre was a significant tool which was used by the leaders in maintaining order in the society.

For instance, by restricting the types of film reaching the people, the leadership prevents any resistance to the prevailing arrangements. The prevailing system in the Soviet Union was communism while capitalism was prevalent in the West. Therefore, the Western films reflected capitalism while the Soviet Union films reflected socialism. Therefore, any interaction may lead to a rise in revolutions to reject the communism regime.

In the Soviet Union, theater was also used in terms of Social Realism. Social Realism played a pivotal role in promoting socialism. Social realism played a major role in promoting the goals communism and socialism. In other words, this type of realistic art was used by the leadership in attaining their goals. It was used in promoting the importance of having society organized as a communist rather than capitalism. As already noted, these films were used like tools by the leaders in order to avoid resistance of the prevailing system.

During Salin’s regime, formulaic and doctrinaire films ended up being formed due to the restrictive measures imposed in the theatre industry. Some of the cinema which succeeded in attracting the attention of the masses was Chapayev. It received great support from the majority of the people. This film reflected socialism and involved Red Army commander where Chapayev fought for revolutionary cause.

In the Soviet Union, one of the famous artists was Vladimir. Although he did not live long, he attracted a big crowd of people who were interest need in his performances. This artist died of heart attack as a result of excessive alcoholism.[10] These artists have attracted the attention of his fans long after his death. His memory has not yet dissolved as most of his fans have been crowding over his burial place in his memory.

Vladimir played major parts as Hamlet in tutelage of Tagaka. He attracted many followers through his performances which criticized the failures of the leadership in the time. In fact, his music and poetry was once banned in the Soviet Union for exposing the poverty, corruption, and elitism in the prevailing regime. Later in 1980’s, Liubimov, who was Vladimir’s guide in his performance continued to make contributions in theater even some time after his exile. While abroad, he continued to produce theatric materials like masterpieces.

In 1980’s, theatre received a major boost after receiving a high degree of liberalization. Performers free to conduct independent work in literature as well as cinemas. There were little interventions by the leadership.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Theater was used in the Soviet Union by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The artists could then select the plays of their interests without restrictions on the regimes and other requirements. Different artists could also organize themselves in groups which improved on their performance. Another development which took place during this period was the replacement of the old directors with younger directors.

This also encouraged changes in performances as the leadership was now diversified. That is, both and young people had a say liberalization was followed by a series of plays which reflected the current political regime. For instance, Shatrov produced neo-Leninist work called Dictatorship of Conscience which criticized unfaithful communists in the time. In other words, this liberalization significantly boosted the performance in the theater during this period as it allowed free creativity in presentations.

The Bolshevik Revolution had a significant impact on theatre and was seen as a major potential tool for reproduction of socialist ideas.[11] During this time, many theater directors supported the revolution which significantly promoted its success. For instance, Meierkhol’d who presented pre-revolutionary productions which were totally dedicated to the revolution.[12] In other words, theater was also used in promoting revolutions. Theatre was very powerful tool in the time as it cultivated support from the masses.[13]

Meanwhile, Meierkhol’d demanded for the changes in the existing traditions in theater industry. For instance, he demanded for independence of theatre industry that was free from being used by the state as a tool of the state or party propaganda. Theater had for long been used by parties a tool for spreading propaganda. Art was completely politicized and every script reflected political affiliation.

Theatre in the Soviet Union reflected the cultural backgrounds. The images presented reflected the cultural patterns in the region.[14] Although the artists were driven by the needs of the politicians, they integrated cultural aspects in their work.

Problems facing theatre in the Soviet Union Theatre in the Soviet Union experienced a number of problems. One of the major problems was related to the states. In most cases, artists used their performances and literature to criticize unjust practices in the government. This involved dirty politics which entertained corruption, poverty, war and other vices. On the other hand, the leadership did not welcome such critics, this created led to loggerheads between the leadership and the artists.

One of the main problems which faced theatre in the Soviet Union was restrictions posed by them by the government. Liubimov was forced to go in exile for his productions which criticized the negative government practices like wars, corruption and the poverty this had engulfed some fraction of the population.

Later, he was forced to move to abroad due to threats by the government. These practices significantly affected the performance of the artists in the Soviet Union. Some artists were intimidated by the government who were forced to produce and act accordingly.

However, their performance rarely reflected the society; it rather presented the needs of the leaders. As already noted, artistic performances must reflect the society in which it is directed. However, political interference led to loss of meaning due to the interventions by the leaders. The performance rarely reflected the real life in the society. It was a mare reflection of an ideal society directed by the leaders in order to protect their own interests.

These restrictions negatively affected the creativity of the artists. Their ability to come up with creative playwrights was significantly affected. Their talents were somehow restricted to some extent.

This led to stagnation of the theater performances in the Soviet Union. However, some of the artists like Liubimov who managed to go to abroad continued with their work uninterrupted. For those who remained, they were forced to conform to the policies from the prevailing regime. However, these restrictions were softened in 1985 after liberalization which created freer theatre environment.

The artists faced a lot of brutality in because of demonstrating ideas differing from the leadership. For instance, Meierkhol’d and his wife who was also an actress was killed in 1940.[15] All this resulted from the views they expressed through their work. Many other directors in the theatre industry in the Soviet Union were also killed over similar allegations.

In 1930’s, dramatic writing was dominated by the Socialist realism. Most of the work which was produced during the time promoted the realization of the communism goals. That is, the goals of the collective society needs rather than individual goals.

Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that theater was very important in the Soviet Union. It was used to reflect the prevailing regime. The artists were expected to conform to the prevailing regime. Those artists who conformed were highly rewarded and give state honor.

Those who didn’t were ashamed due to lack of adherence. Leaders used their leadership powers to control theatre in the Soviet Union. For instance, plays which criticized the prevailing leadership were restricted. In fact, some artists who failed to adhere to these directions were forced to go to exile while others were killed. In other words, the leaders in the Soviet Union used theatre to meet their interests.

Bibliography Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema of Stalinism: 1930–1941. Web.

Cornwell, N. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001.

Croft, C. Ballet Nations: The New York City Ballet’s 1962 US State Department–Sponsored Tour of the Soviet Union. Theatre Journal. Volume 61, Number 3, October 2009, pp. 421-442

Tsivian, Y. and Taylor, R. Early Cinema in Russia and Its Cultural Reception. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Veidlinger, J. The Moscow State Yiddish Theater: Jewish Culture On The Soviet Stage. U.S.A.: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Wisegeek. What is the Soviet Union? 2003. Web.

Zickel, R. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989. Web.

Footnotes Wisegeek. What is the Soviet Union? 2003.

Wisegeek. Par 3.

Raymond E. Zickel. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989.

Clare Croft. Ballet Nations: The New York City Ballet’s 1962 US State Department–Sponsored Tour of the Soviet Union. Theatre Journal. Volume 61, Number 3, October 2009, pp. 421-442. p.30

Raymond E. Zickel. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989.

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Raymond E. Zickel. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989.

Neil Cornwell. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 209.

Neil Cornwell. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 209.

Jeffrey Veidlinger. The Moscow State Yiddish Theater: Jewish culture on the Soviet stage. U.S.A.: Indiana University Press, 2000. p.207.

Yuri Tsivian and Richard Taylor. Early cinema in Russia and its cultural reception. New York: Routledge, 1994. p.3.

Neil Cornwell. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 211.

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Reflection and Refraction of Light: Examples Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Light can be regarded as a complex phenomenon due to the fact that it is intangible, and its uses in day-to-day life are innumerable. However, the properties and behaviors of light have been extensively studied by the use of simplified models of light constructed using wave fronts and rays.

A wave front can be defined as a surface that connects light that is produced from a source simultaneously. A ray, on the other hand, is “a thin beam of light that travels in a straight line” (“The Reflection of Light”, 2000, p. 1). By using the stated models, the properties of light can be effectively studied. Some of these properties include the refraction of light and the reflection of light. This paper is an in-depth analysis of the facts surrounding the reflection and refraction of light.

Reflection “Reflection refers to the bouncing of light off a smooth surface.” (Fellers, 2010, p. 1). An example of a common occurrence of light reflection, and that which can easily be seen is the reflection of light off a smooth pool of water. In this case, the environment around the water can be seen in the water because the reflection on the water captures its image.

If the surface f the water is perturbed, waves are formed, which scatter reflected rays, and hence disrupt the reflection (Fellers, 2010). “The angle between the perpendicular line, (the normal), and the incident ray is known as the angle of incidence or the incident angle” (Fellers, 2010, p. 1). On the other hand, “the angle between the normal and the reflected ray is called the angle of reflection” (Fellers, 2010, p. 1).

Laws of reflection

Reflection is governed by one law: “the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection”. (“The Reflection of Light”, 2000, p. 1). Plane mirrors and other objects whose irregularities are so small that the wavelength of light is larger; light is reflected in only one direction. This phenomenon is termed as specular reflection. However, if a surface is so irregular that light wavelength is smaller than its irregularity, it reflects light in all directions.

This phenomenon is termed as diffuse reflection. Regardless of whether light is reflected in specular reflection or diffuse reflection, the law of reflection is observed for each light ray (on a microscopic scale). There is also another law of reflection that states “the incident ray, the reflected ray and the perpendicular line of impact all fall on the same plane” (Kosman, 2007, p. 1). This is mainly applied in forming geometric optics for curved surfaces like concave and convex mirrors.

Applications of reflection

One of the greatest applications of reflection is the fact that we are able to see objects due to their ability to reflect light off their surfaces. The only exception to this principle is objects that are able to emit light. These are very rare. Reflection is also applied in a number of ways by the use of spherical mirrors. These are used in surveillance, in automobiles, etcetera. Movie screens and projectors are made possible by the phenomenon of reflection. The study of the universe is made possible by the fact that the bodies in our universe reflect some light from the sun (Fellers, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Refraction All of us have at one point experienced refraction of light. When a stick, pencil, straw, and the like are immersed in water, soda, or any other transparent liquid, it is noticeable that the former bends at the exact point where it gets into the liquid. This is an effect of refraction. Refraction can thus be defined as the “bending of light as it enters a denser medium from a less dense medium or as it enters a less dense medium from a denser medium” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

This bending of light is due to the change in the speed at which the light travels in a certain medium due to a higher or lower refractive index. Just like in reflection, the respective angles separated by the normal are called “the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

As light moves to a medium which is less dense, it will be appropriately refracted away from the perpendicular line “The maximum incident angle possible in the denser medium, in order for the refracted ray to just emerge out into the less dense medium is called the critical angle” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 2).

Laws of refraction

The laws of refraction are as follows:

“The incident ray and the refracted ray lie on either side of the normal to the boundary of separation” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

“The incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray lie on the same plane, which is called the plane of incidence” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

“The angle of incidence is greater than the angle of refraction when light enters a denser medium from a less dense medium and vice versa” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

“The sine of the angle of incidence bears a constant ratio to the sine of the angle of refraction for a given pair. This constant is called the refractive index of the first medium with respect to the second medium” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1). This is what led t Snell’s law, commonly used in refraction, which is as follows n1sin (angle of incidence) = n2sin (angle of refraction) (Reed, 2009, p. 1)

Applications of refraction

Among the main applications of refraction is the use of refraction in the manufacture of optical lens. These are used for correcting defects in sight like myopia and hyperopia. Refraction is also applied in ophthalmology, in which it is appropriately used to determine if an eye has a refractive error.

In this case, it is also used to determine the best corrective measures for the eye. Refraction is also commonly applied in underwater acoustics and magnifying apparatus like the microscope and the telescope. There is also the common use of the ideas of refraction in the manufacture of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens.

Refraction is also commonly applied in the study of colors. This is enabled by the use of prisms. Refraction is also applied in cameras and magnifying glasses. The twinkling and shimmering of stars is due to the changes in the density of the atmosphere, which make light from the stars to be refracted (Reed, 2009). There is also the phenomenon of mirage which is also an effect of refraction.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Reflection and Refraction of Light: Examples specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences between Reflection and refraction Reflection and refraction have a number of differences. One of the main differences between reflection and refraction is the fact that, while refraction can be described as the bending of light, reflection can be described as the bouncing of light. Secondly, in reflection, the incident angle is equal to reflected angle while in refraction; the incident angle is not necessarily equal to the refracted angle.

Most of the applications of reflection are based on the idea of light travelling in air, and being reflected off a surface while most applications of refraction are based on the idea of light travelling within the media refracting the light. Thus in reflection, light travels through air while in refraction, light travels through different media.

Another difference between the two is the fact that reflection is commonly associated with mirrors while its counterpart, refraction, is commonly associated with lens. Another difference between reflection and refraction is the fact that in reflection, light travels in uniform speed, i.e. frequency and wavelength, while in refraction, the frequency and wavelength of light changes, and thus its speed also changes.

Conclusion Light is a very important part of life. Although sometimes the study of the dynamics of light may seem to be confusing, refraction and reflection aspects of light are quite simple, and they have a myriad of applications. As evidenced in the discussion above, refraction and reflection have a number of differences that distinguish them.

However, these two phenomena of light also have a number of similarities. First of all, they are applicable in all kinds of waves, including light waves. They are also help to make bodies in the universe visible since some bodies reflect light from the sun, while others twinkle due to the difference in the densities of layers of the atmosphere.

Reference List Fellers, T.,

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Group Analysis: Formation and Management of Groups Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Table of Contents Group’s Emergent System Characteristics

How the Characteristics Emerged

Consequences

When one is at the university, it is advisable to form a study group early enough so that he/she can have people to exchange ideas with. It is said that no one knows everything, and because this implies that we all have our strengths and weaknesses, we should identify people to utilize our strengths and help us correct our weaknesses.

I therefore decided to look around for individuals who share the same thoughts with me among the few friends that I had already managed to mingle with. One of the challenges in finding reliable members was the fact that most of the people that I came across were very negative about the whole issue. Therefore, this paper will focus on my group with regard to how it was formed and how it operates, and the hurdles that it had to go through.

Group’s Emergent System Characteristics If you asked how my group was formed, the memories are still fresh because I remember it like it was yesterday. It was on a chilly afternoon during one of my management classes that the lecturer asked us to form study groups because he intended to give us assignments that were to be tackled collectively in small groups.

The groups were formed at random and luckily for our group, we were all serious people, unlike most of the groups that were comprised of active members and jokers. In this regard, the group has five members: three boys and two girls.

The objectives of our group include identifying the abilities of every individual member and using them to achieve excellence in academics. Besides, we exchange ideas on a personal level and thus we provide a shoulder to lean on to one another during difficult times. This means that we provide emotional support to all our members when they are facing challenges in other areas.

At times we offer material support when we feel it is necessary. We value the participation of our members and since we are aware that their productivity can be impacted negatively by the problems they are facing in other areas such as illness and loss of a family member, we are under obligation to provide assistance as much as we can.

The mission of the group is what keeps the group intact. Our mission is to achieve academic excellence in all areas of our study, and to support one another in achieving individual goals. We have also addressed issues that can create divisions in the group by establishing rules that govern how we relate with one another. This is very important considering that this group is made up of young boys and girls, and if we are not careful they can ruin the ideas of the entire group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because it is normal for boys and girls to establish romantic relationships within the group, and if there are no clear rules about such issues, their personal disputes can affect the performance of the group because they would not communicate as required, which is one of the crucial principles of group work.

We therefore agreed that people are free to get into relationships at their own will, but they should never bring their individual flaws into the group. Hence, if they have any issues to sort out they should attend to them in other places, but not during group meetings.

We also value respect for one another because we identified it as one major reason why groups fail to remain intact until they accomplish their mission. All the members are expected to exercise respect in how they address one another, regardless of gender or age.

This is because the group is made of boys and girls who will some day be men and women, and if they are not taught to respect people early enough, they may not fit into the society. It therefore goes without saying that abusive language or suggestive remarks are not allowed in this group. Although the members of this group are not of the same age, because some are older than others, they handle one another with respect.

Punctuality is another norm that is greatly emphasized in this group because time management is important to all, and considering that time waits for no one, the group utilizes the time that is available so that there is enough time for carrying out the tasks before them.

In addition, group members have other things to do apart from group work and thus, it is important to have specific time that is dedicated to group work so that members do not encounter a clash in time allocations. Members are expected to arrive on time to group meetings that normally take place after classes in the evenings, and those that report late are penalized.

Likewise, honesty is highly valued because when a member is given a task such as gathering information, he/she is expected to deliver information that is sound instead of providing information that is misleading to the group.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Group Analysis: Formation and Management of Groups specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also against the rules of the group for a member to fake or lie about something such as faking an illness as an excuse of not completing the task assigned. Any one who does not abide to these rules is ejected from the group because it is better to have a small group that is active than to have a big group that is ineffective.

Usually, roles are allocated according to an individual’s abilities and experience. This is because one can deliver satisfactory results if he/she is assigned the roles that he/she is knowledgeable in. Manual tasks that are tiring are assigned to boys because they are stronger compared to girls and hence, they are able to tolerate the challenges that may come their way. The tasks that involve gathering information are allocated at random and there are deadlines for accomplishing every task.

Furthermore, the group does not have a leader because every member is expected to be responsible hence there is no need of someone to oversee the operations of the group. Decisions are made through consultations and thus, one cannot make a decision without involving the other group members.

However, the group has a spokesperson who was assigned that position due to his strong communication skills. This person is the one who communicates with the other entities in the college when the need arises. The decisions of the group are made collectively and they include disciplinary and rewarding issues.

If a group member is to be disciplined for failing to adhere to the rules and regulations, the verdict rests on the other group members and their decision cannot be recalled. If there are any disagreements among the members during decision making process, the members sit in a round table meeting and engage in dialogue until the issue is resolved; each side is given an opportunity to give their story so that the mistake can be identified.

Consequently, the group has a rewarding system that is meant to motivate members to work harder. Rewarding takes place at the end of the semester and it is allocated to the member who has tackled the most challenging task. In addition, the group acknowledges members who excel elsewhere, such as in extracurricular activities and in academics.

During such sessions, members gather in a designated food joint and have lunch together. The rewards are meant to make members feel appreciated and thus, work harder. The group members emphasize on the success of the group because they think that this success will eventually be reflected in individual members in other areas.

Members are also expected to communicate on regular basis with each other so that they can share ideas. Members are under obligation to express their views where they feel they are not satisfied with the explanation provided by a group member. The decisions of this group are made through brainstorming sessions; everyone’s argument is equally important. Besides, when members are out in the field they communicate through the phones or the Internet, thus improving group cohesiveness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Group Analysis: Formation and Management of Groups by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How the Characteristics Emerged The mentioned characteristics were addressed because members of this group come from different cultural and family backgrounds. If the diversity in our backgrounds was allowed to manipulate us then the group would not achieve its goals. This means that members had to put their differences aside for the sake of the group. Communication was found to be essential because it would help the members to understand one another. This is because it would be difficult for the group to move ahead when they barely understand one another.

The decisions of the group are made collectively so that every member can have a strong sense of belonging and perform like the group depends on his/her efforts. If members were left to make decisions individually, their decisions would clash with the interests of the group.

Involving the group members in decision making provides a window of opportunity to criticize and improve the solutions provided. Besides, if the role of making decisions was left to one member, that person would probably make wrong decisions because his/her thinking is not broad compared to the combined efforts of members.

Having strict deadlines was important because it ensured that members delivered their findings right on time. If the issue of time management was not addressed, I am sure some people would complete their tasks late, which is not beneficial to the group. This is because management as a course has many areas that have to be covered and if members are not punctual, members would not have their own time to study for other subjects.

For instance, last semester we were behind schedule due to some delays caused by two members for failing to complete their tasks before the deadline. They were in deed experiencing some problems, but then they did not communicate about these problems early enough because if they had done so the other members would have come up with other alternatives of achieving the same results.

In this light, group work requires a lot of collaboration hence team work is very important because it makes tasks that are difficult to be easier as the members share the efforts that are required. Studying alone has many shortcomings because every individual has weaknesses and besides that, there is no one to correct him/her hence when he/she is headed in the wrong direction, it would be difficult to get assistance.

In the management course outline, students are expected to handle some assignments collectively and make their presentations to the rest of their class once the assignment is finished. This is why a spokesperson was put in place to carry out this task.

Everyone cannot speak before people because some are shy or do not speak fluently. This is because the person who is presenting the findings of the group should speak boldly to imply that he/she is sure of what he/she saying. The group assignments are allocated points that are included in the final exams hence this is a serious issue.

Consequences There are various achievements that have been made by our group, both collectively and at personal level. First, the group was able to achieve its mission, owing to the high level of discipline among the members. Each member has appreciated the importance of being disciplined and they are committed to applying the same trait in other areas. Group members are now excelling in their studies because of the group’s cooperation and hard work.

Being in this group has made the members to know one another better and establish strong bonds. One thing that will continue to be remembered is how the members put their differences aside to focus on the goals of the group. This would not have happened before because there was no need of coming together. So far, most members have managed to furnish their interpersonal skills owing to the exposure they have had in this group.

Personally, I have learnt that everyone sees things differently and therefore I have learned to respect the opinions of other people. Besides, it has come to my knowledge that I have to give more of what I want so that I can get it back in plenty. For instance, I have learned that if I want to be respected by my peers, I have to respect them more and in the final end all of them will appreciate me and cannot despise me in any way.

I am an outspoken person, and prior to joining this group I had many ideas that were laying idle in my mind because I was afraid of putting them to test, but today when I look back at how far I have come, I do not fear putting my thoughts into tasks. This is because being part of this group has helped me overcome fear and instead earn self-esteem through my achievements.

Through the exposure I have had in this group, I am now able to mingle with people from diverse backgrounds. I know this is just the beginning because more challenges are yet to come, but then the experiences I have encountered in this group have prepared me for other challenges in future, possibly in the working environment.

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Great Lakes Corporation Report custom essay help

Table of Contents Analysis of external environment

Five forces model analysis

Great Lakes competitors

Capabilities of great lakes

Conclusion

Reference List

Analysis of external environment External environment has a great impact on the operation of any business. This is due to the fact that no business can operate in isolation or can survive without the environment (Michael, 1979). The resources that a business uses in its production also come from the external environment. What needs to be noted is that the external environment is non controllable by the organizations managers. Any business must therefore scan the external environment carefully in order to ensure its survival in the long run (Aguilar, 1967).

The management of great lakes therefore has the important role of critically examining the uncontrollable environment and develops appropriate strategies that will make the business prosper. The external environments consist of the social, technological, economic, environmental and political environment.

Great Lakes Corporation has to examine each of the components of the external environment and anticipate the effects it can have on the business. To begin with, the demographic environment deals with the population and the population’s characteristics. Moreover products that great lakes produce have varying effects on the population.

For instance, the lead gasoline that is produced by great link subsidiary octet had different effects for the different population structures. While it resulted into brain problem to the children, the leaded gasoline also caused respiratory problems to the elderly and the general degradation of the air. The management therefore has to look into ways of mitigating the effect of its products on the different population groups.

The second factor to be considered in the scanning of the external environment is the technological factors. The current business environment is characterized by fast changing technology and if a business fails to adopt the changes in technology, then it has to realize the threat to its going concern concept (Kotler, 2006).

The product, leaded gasoline that is being produced by Great Lakes may be rendered useless if the cars that use the products are faced off with the adoption of modern cars. This is already exhibited by the reduced market of the company’s products in countries with new products and production methods. Again, it has reduced the international perspective of the business. Failure to develop the current technology will further reduce the company’s income.

Another component of the external environment is the economic environment. This environment determines the returns the business will have on its operations. It includes the inflation rates, the economic growth rates and the cost of funds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All forms of business, small or big, international or local are affected by the economic environment (Kozami, 2002). Great Lakes Corporation will have to evaluate the economic environment for the purpose of expanding its activities in other region and terminate its operations in markets that have declining sales and increased level of risk.

The decision makers of great lakes therefore have to make decisions that will reduce the business activities in developed countries that have changed the products and curtailed the demand for the company’s products. In the case study, the economic legislations that were instated e.g. the reduction of the excise tax on ethanol may reduce the costs of substitute products of the Great Lakes Corporation which may as a result reduce the turnover of the company.

In addition the geographical coverage will be a factor to consider in the operations of a business. The company must realize that the wide geographical market in which it operates will determine the operations cost and the strategies in the different region. Wide environment means diverse culture and beliefs that may have an impact on the market of the company’s products. Great Lakes Company has to realize the different needs to their targeted market especially the countries at different level of development (Aguilar, 1967).

The wide geographical operational area as well means that Great Lakes marketing strategies and promotional message have to take note of all their stakeholders. Distribution channel of the corporation will be affected by large environment coverage. The business may be forced to open branches in the different regions to ensure efficiency and effectiveness which will reduce shortages that may arise from longer supply periods.

Finally the political environment must be assessed. Politics determines the rules and regulations that will be formulated to guide the conduct of business. If the laid down regulations are not adhered to, the business may find itself with multiple suit cases that may affect the going concern of the business.

Great lakes will be affected by the political environment majorly on the environmental regulations. From the case study, it is evident that regulations are being formulated to ban the production of lead gasoline due to the adverse environmental impact.

This has already been made possible in the developed nations like the US. However the developing nations still rely on the use of lead gasoline. Great Lakes management must ensure that they move to take steps that will cushion the business from losses should the same regulations be adopted by the developing nations.

We will write a custom Report on Great Lakes Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Great lakes must also realize that the business has a corporate responsibility to the community in which it operates. This implies that the organization should not wait for regulations that prohibit the use of lead gasoline by the developing and under developed countries. Rather, it should move ahead and mitigate the cost of not being environment compliant. It is therefore irrational for the Corporation to go against its own policies on employees and community safety standards for the sake of maximizing returns.

The business needs to move ahead and make the necessary and desired changes without necessarily waiting for set rules. It’s ironical for the company to inform the users of its chemicals the dangers they face and do no more. A trade off must be made on the level of return and the effect of the company’s operation on the community (Porter, 1998).

Five forces model analysis The five forces model developed by Porter can be used to analyze a market with respect to the chances of survival of an individual firm. The model by porter explains the five forces that influence the performance in an industry. These forces include the threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, buyer’s power, threat of substitutes and the rivalry between competitors (Porter, 1998).

The level with which a firms management scans the environment in respect to these factors will influence its long term survival. The management of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation is justified in their aim to scan the industry and increase their market share and control by reducing the competitors’ penetration. Each of these factors is analyzed below.

An analysis of the threat of new entrant is minimal in this market. This can be attributed to the fact that the industry is viewed by investors as being highly risky given the legislation that are being promulgated. Further, the industry may attract few entrants because of the poisonous effects of the leaded additive products getting known to many users (Porter, 1998).

The level of awareness influence the customers purchase option and selection criteria. The likelihood of the adverse effects of lead gasoline being known by the targeted market will thus reduce the possibilities of new entrants.

Secondly, buyer’s power is important in the scanning of competition level in an industry. Buyers are the users of a product and ignorance of the buyers need preference changes is mandatory for a business success.

The level of increased awareness of information, buying volume, sensitivity to prices and the availability of substitutes determines the power of customers (Michael, 1979). In this respect, great lakes has a challenge of ensuring that their products remain in demand considering that the substitutes that are environmental friendly are being introduced.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Great Lakes Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact this has led to the reduced operations and demand in the developing countries. The adoption and passing of regulation that ban the use of lead in the developing countries must then be anticipated and precautionary measures taken to ensure operations. Similarly, buyers are likely to increase their power with the increase in substitutes and differentiated products hence reducing their purchase level and increasing their bargaining power.

The third concept in the porter’s model is the power of suppliers. Supplies are the entities that are charged with the duty of supplying the company with the factors of production. The power of suppliers is enhanced with factors like the number, the demand for their supplies and the possibilities of the firms in the industry switching to other production areas (Porter, 1998). The idea of reduction of number of firms in the lead industry and the size of great lakes will reduce the power of suppliers.

If suppliers have a high bargaining power then they may demand heavy payments for their supplies which will result into the shrinking of the profits. In this area, Great Lakes enjoy the low suppliers’ power which therefore makes it possible to operate in a cost efficient manner. Moreover, the fact that the business is operated and has many suppliers is advantageous to the company. The company as well enjoy the availability of close substitutes that can enable it have a significant influence on the suppliers.

Further the threats of substitute’s product must also be looked into. Substitutes are products that serve the same purpose but are of different qualities. The threat of substitutes depends on the availability of close products that can replace the corporation products (Michael, 1979). In the chemical industry, there are very many substitutes that are likely to cause threat to the company’s products.

The strength that the company still relies on is the fact that the developing countries still lack the capacity of using other non leaded products. The many different types of products that are being produced by the company will assist in the diversification of the risk of dependence on one or few products. Great lakes subsidiaries will also enable it smooth its returns. It can thus be concluded the company does not suffers so much ion the threat of substitutes.

The final concept in the forces model is the rivalry threat. Rivalry threat is affected by the factors as the barrier to exit, growth prospects in the industry, brand identity brand switching cost among others. An industry that exhibit high rivalry is considered volatile and risky. The chemical industry faces a bigger challenge given that more advanced products are being produced and the market for Great Lakes largest product, leaded gasoline, is shrinking.

The prospect of growth is almost zero as most legislation is aimed at banning the use of leaded additive products. Therefore it is necessary for the company managers to incorporate new products and ensure they maintain their competitive advantage in the market characterized by increasing number of competitors.

From the above analysis can be said that the industry is not attractive. An industry is attractive when it has a high profit prospects, manageable level of competition, favorable legislation and market growth ability (Kotler, 2006). The industry is also unattractive given that the level of competition is likely to increase heavily and reduce the turnover. Investors who have the objective of maximizing the shareholders wealth will therefore avoid the lead additive industry.

Great Lakes competitors Great Lakes Corporation was generally considered to have few competitors. This may not reflect the true picture and cannot be a premise used to justify the business continued ability and strength. The current environment is drastically changing and these must be taken into account as there are likely to be invisible and immediate competitors (Kozami, 2002). The immediate competitors of great lakes are the chemical industries that produce substitutes in the developed countries.

The market expansion of these companies into the market dominated by great lakes would mean a reduction of the company’s turnover. The management of Great lakes has to ensure that they increase the loyalty of their customers and make the switch cost high. This would bar the company’s target market from switching into the competitors area. The immediate competitors’ may also be other companies which are also located in other territories of the developing nations providing similar products.

Impending competitors of great lakes are the new firms that are likely to enter into the market and produce substitute products. We can therefore assert that the business might not experience many impending competitors in the lead additive sector. It however faces the competition of other firms which are aiming at entering the industry.

Great Lakes will however stands a better position than those of competitors because the company enjoys economies of scale production. This will thus reduce the overhead cost and make the company to be a low cost producer. Cost is one of the strategies that a business adopts in seeking for competitive advantage.

Another reason as to why Great Lakes Corporation will enjoy market lead is the large market share mainly in the developing countries. Large market enables the company to either segment or standardize their production as a strategic way of gaining competitive advantage (Kotler, 2006). If this is well exploited, great lakes will manage to survive in the market.

The major competitive disadvantage that Great Lakes Corporation is likely to face is in the legislative sector. The fact that the company produces leaded gasoline in its octet subsidiary that accounts for about 50% of the company’s earnings is a great threat to the future returns. The environmental campaigns on the need to ban the lead products due to their nature of causing pollution might likely lead to the termination of some of the operations of the company’s plants.

This might result into reduction of the turnover and result into huge losses. The management of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation must thus have other plans of adopting new products that are ethically desired and that are within the legal framework. If not well incorporated, the competitors will gain a competitive edge and ensure the failure of great lakes.

Capabilities of great lakes A look at the operation of the company reveal the potential it has that can be ventured into. The first option that the company can pursue is to start the process of switching to the production of unleaded additives. This is highly possible given the financial resources and the good performance of the company in the precious period. The financial capability can also be deduced from the fact that the company is an international organization and therefore makes high turnover (Aguilar, 1967).

Great Lakes Corporation is as well capable of diversifying its operations to cover for the risk that may arise from the legal and other environmental changes. Diversification reduces the risk of loss and increases the return a business derives from its operation. It increases the customer base of the business.

The large variety of chemicals produced by great lakes will enable it derive its income from different markets. In addition, the diverse use of the company’s products as fire suppressors, household cleaners and water treatment products will enable great lakes Corporation to shift its resources should the octet subsidiary faces operational challenges.

Another option that is available to Great Lakes is to form alliances with other firms if it has to quit from the lead additive products. An alliance enables the parties to share the risks and resources including the quality management and to increase their operation size (Kozami, 2002).

If the company is able to identify capable strategic partners, it will increase its ability to penetrate in the market and reduce the losses likely to be experienced in the event of shuts down of the lead production subsidiaries. It will also be feasible for the firm to reduce the costs required in shifting into new operations and make it produce more advanced products.

Finally, the management of Great Lakes Corporation can decide to dispose off the risky proportion of its business and use the proceeds in new attractive areas. What needs to be considered here is that the acquirer firms may decide to buy the plants at a low cost. A cost return trade off must thus be made for the company to make the required decision (Porter, 1998).

Conclusion In conclusion, it is important for any business that aims at furthering its operation and increasing its market share to continuously scan its environment.

Through environment scanning, a business will be in a position to identify its competitor and develop strategies that ensure better performance (Porter, 1998). An organization that fails to conduct proper scanning of the environment will be make unpopular decisions and lose its grip in the industry. Scanning therefore requires a management with conceptual skills rather than technical skills.

The environmental, technical, legal, economic and demographics scanning is therefore called for. The corporation must also adopt the internal scanning techniques that will enable it scan its internal environment and realize its potential. This will reveal factors like the quality of management, financial capability and motivation of the employees.

Reference List Aguilar, F. J. (1967). Scanning the business environment. Columbia: Macmillan.

Kotler, P. (2006). Marketing Management (2 ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kozami, A. (2002). Business policy and strategic management (2 ed.). India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Michael, P. E. (1979, May). How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review .

Porter, M. E. (1998). Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance : with a new introduction. Havard: Simon and Schuster.

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Running to Fat and Back: Health Care System and Obesity Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction: Who’s Fat?! Being obese is a challenge. Since the modern society worships slim built, obese people are bound to be the outcasts of the modern world. However, where being overweight s a norm, another problem appears: the state of people’s health is growing increasingly endangered.

Because of the increase in the obesity rates among the USA population, the health care system has been recently preoccupied with the means to provide a healthier lifestyle for the citizen of the USA. With help of a correct approach, the situation can be somehow tackled, which means that people’s health will be no longer under such risks.

There is no doubt that the concerns about the health of the USA citizens have certain grounds to base on. According to the results of the research conducted by Zoltan (2007), there are certain problems concerning the state of the national health. Since the results of the research emphasize the growing tendency of the USA citizen to “gain weight”, it is necessary to consider the problem as soon as possible to provide the probable solutions.

Going into Details: Where the Problem Stems from As Zoltan (2007) marked, “In the USA, data on obesity is collected regularly through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Services (NHANES”). The most recent NHAVES data, which was collected between 1999 and 2002, indicates that the prevalence of obesity in the USA was 27.6 percent for men and 33.2 percent for women“ (83).

Thus, it cannot be denied that the rates of obesity in the USA have gained threatening scale. Affecting the nation’s health, obesity is likely to result in the overall tendency to consider the problems of health unessential. With such growth of the obesity rates, there might come the time when being overweight will be considered a norm and a social standard, not the dangerous deviation from the norm. Such results must be avoided at all costs.

It is quite peculiar that the state of obesity is considered to be connected with the wages somehow. Surprisingly, scientists have found out recently that excessive weight is interrelated with the salary closely. Thus, another parallel between the personal and even biological problems and the social position has been drawn.

As Zoltan (2007) explained, “Taken together, the results from the outside the USA suggest that the correlation of obesity with wages varies across countries and cultures” (83). Thus, since there is certain connection between the state of obesity and the social status, the problem seems even more complicated: changing the social status in order to change the weight category is quite problematic and even impossible to put into practice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no doubt that once the right approach to the existing problem is found, the society will feel relieved. In spite of the fact that one’s physical state can be compared to a feature that is completely unique and serves as a mark of the given personality, deviating from norm so much can cause certain health problems, such as the heart problems, short breath and the lack of physical strength.

Leaving aside the aspect of esthetics, being overweight is first of all the threat to one’s health. Losing the excessive weight cannot be compared to losing individuality – this is rather getting rid of numerous problems.

Health Care System Network: Big Expectations However, there is no time t fall into despair concerning the deplorable state of the USA citizens. To help the activists promote healthy lifestyle and healthy nutrition, the health care system network has been created. With help of the specific approaches utilized by the members of the organization, it will be possible to obtain the necessary results and convince people to take care of their weight.

Thus, with a reasonable health care system network adopted it will be possible to help the entire nation lose the excessive weight, once people realize their problem. However, the key aim in the given situation is to convince people that they need to get rid of the excessive weight.

According to what Kavaler (2003) says, “At the outset of network negotiations, the need to evaluate the various cultures of the component parts of the integrated health network and their perceptions and expectations of the new organization are important considerations” (405). Thus, it is quite likely that the new health care approach will change the lives of millions of people, yet the system still needs development.

Conclusion: The Sweet Reconciliation

In spite of the fact that at present the problem described above poses a serious threat to the society, there is no doubt that with help of the health care system the ways to help the overweight people will be found. It must be taken into consideration that the main goal of the health care is to make people realize their problem. Since the problem has already been defied, people are already halfway closer to the solution.

Reference List Kavaler, F.,

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The iPhones Fourth Generation Analytical Essay custom essay help

Background The iPhone 4 is a smartphone made by the computer software and personal computer maker Apple Inc. It is the fourth generation of the iPhone, having succeeded the iPhone 3GS, the other two previous models are the original iPhone and the iPhone 3G.

The iPhone 4 has been hailed not only as a breakthrough internet communication gadget, but also as a revolutionary touchscreen device and has altered the way people view smartphones. One may ask; why do we refer to the iPhone 4 as revolutionary? How is this smartphone different from the other smartphones out there?

Design and Function The iPhone 4 is a completely new design, combining and improving all technologies from previous iPhone models, and introducing newer ones to improve user experience. To begin with, the exterior design of the device features a metallic back casing unlike the plastic casing in several smartphones currently available in the market.

The casing protects the phone’s delicate components from damage through physical intrusions. The screen is made of glass that Apple says is “chemically strengthened to be 20 times stiffer and 30 times harder than plastic, theoretically allowing it to be more scratch resistant and durable than the previous models” (Diaz, 2010).

Smartphone screens have a tendency to have scratches on their surfaces with time, however, the exceptional treatment of glass used on the iPhone screen ensures it remains scratch-free for a very long time, this is not possible in other smartphones, most of which spot scratches after a few months of usage.

The phone is also slightly slimmer at 0.37 inches as compared to the 0.48-inch thick iPhone 3GS, at the keynote speech, Apple CEO Steve Jobs called the iPhone 4 the “thinnest smartphone on the planet: almost 25 percent thinner than the iPhone 3GS” (Helft

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The Cultivation Effects on the Watching Television Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Other Cultivation Effects of Television

Conclusion

References

Introduction Cultivation effect refers to “the negative effects that watching television has on attitudes of both its heavy and light viewers” (Chandler, 1995). People have come up with many theories to explain the implication behind cultivation effects of television. From his article, CultivationTheory, Gerbner argues that viewers of television tend to cultivate attitudes that exhibit consistence to the television world rather than the actual world.

The cultivation effects of violent television programming are initially minute and have no serious impacts on viewers. However, with repeated viewing, the small effects accumulate to form pronounced implications and this explains why the violent scenes in television are arguably responsible for the violent attitudes that heavy viewers exhibit. Besides violent programming, immorality, substance abuse, gender disparity and petty (bad) politics attitudes hinge on television watching for both light and heavy viewers.

Other Cultivation Effects of Television The cultivation effects of immoral programming affect the viewer in his/her attitude towards true morality. In most television programs, each program has an age bracket to its recommended viewers because of the fear of cultivation effects of immoral programming that the programs might carry.

Heavy viewers of soap operas, for example tend to have different attitudes about relationships than light viewers. Conventionally, premarital sex, adultery and prostitution among other moral decadence elements are wrong. However, television content has been blurring the line between what is moral and immoral over time; actually, when one watches television for the first time the attitude about moral decadence holds the aforementioned conventional perspective.

However, after repeated television watching, the attitude changes slowly because it seems right to cheat on a partner or prostitute according to the televised programs. The scenes in these programs usually cover such scenes and repeated appearance to the viewers makes it a “normal” thing. The time an individual brands such programs “normal” thing, his/her attitude has completely changed and conformed to what s/he sees on the screen from time to time.

Television may also evoke the cultivation effects of drug and substance abuse. Isom (1998) laments, the drug and substance abuse cultivation effects mostly affect the youth because they are the main target audience of such movies. Practices such as smoking, alcoholism and any other kind of drug abuse are against principals that govern morality.

Take for example, the first time an individual watches a program in which one of the characters smokes and finds pleasure it; his attitude towards smoking as a bad habit will not change, but he/she will develop some curiosity towards the act. Repeated scenes and continuous watching of such programs slowly changes the individual’s attitude albeit by a small magnitude until the cumulative effect is big enough to cause a complete attitude change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generally, a heavy viewer gets slowly tuned into initial experimentation of the drugs, followed by attempted use and finally, addiction. The funny thing about cultivation effects, drug and substance abuse included, is that, the affected parties do not realize that the cultivation effects have changed their attitudes. As a result, they live a harmful life they would have never lived.

Television also causes cultivation effects of gender disparity. Gender disparity is a sensitive issue and it makes members of one gender feel inferior, unfairly treated, or discriminated against.

If, for example the television broadcasts a program where the acting professionals are only men, the female viewers of this program may start changing their attitudes about gender equality without realizing it. If, in another program, there are acts of violence whereby only a male actor beats up the female actor, the female viewers would also feel that the female gender is weak.

Continuous exposure to such scenes would increase the impact of the cultivation effects on their attitudes (Livingstone, 1990, p.16). Since they do not realize when their attitudes are undergoing such a transition, a complete change of attitude becomes inevitable. As a result, viewers end up having misconstrued attitudes towards men, not knowing that what they watch in television is far from reality.

Finally, television imparts cultivation effects of negative politics in the society. Many at times, politicians appear in news conferences, public meeting or any other functions selling their policies to the multitudes through television.

In news conferences, for example, the people viewing such functions make different interpretations about what the politicians intended to communicate. In other cases, politicians misguide viewers in their speech by making utterances that make them change their (people’s) attitudes towards an individual or a given issue.

The impact is greater when the speaking politicians are favorites or role models of their audiences. In such a case, the people will always take as true what the politicians say and readily discard what they already knew about the same issue. The intense trust that people have for such politicians slowly changes their attitudes concerning a given issue. As a result, they end up treating the same issue differently and wrongly hence losing their moral values.

We will write a custom Essay on The Cultivation Effects on the Watching Television specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Television programs play a major role in shaping people’s attitudes towards different issues in the society. According to Gerbner’s cultivation theory, the attitudes of heavy viewers of television always streamline themselves to what the televisions broadcast. The change in attitude is very slow and unnoticeable by the party involved but the cumulative effect fully changes their attitude. Besides violence, television causes cultivation effects such as immorality, drug and substance abuse, bad politics and gender disparity.

References Chandler, D. (1995). Cultivation theory. Retrieved from

Isom, M. D. (1998). The social learning theory. Retrieved from

Livingstone, S. (1990). Making Sense of Television. London: Pergamon.

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Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Rawlings’s The Yearling is A Pulitzer’s price winning novel, one of the most popular works disclosing a challenging and difficult life of the boy called Jody coming of age. At the end of the nineteenth century, the story describes one year from life of a twelve-years-boy and his experience of living in the backwoods with his mother and father. In the novel, the author provides her own view on the problems and challenges of growing up as well as children’s goals and dreams.

Hence, Jody adapts a deer in a hope to find at least one friend and someone who will understand his childish concerns. He feels the necessity to favor someone with warmth, love, and care (Rawlings 22). Therefore, it is not surprising that the novel is often labeled as children or juvenile literature because it sheds light on the problems of adolescence as well as constrains that children face while becoming adults. In this respect, the illustrations presented by N. C. Wyeth only complement the main idea of the story.

They also describe Jody’s adventures and his searching for self-determination. Finally, the pictures also provide the readers with a clearer image of boy’s maturing while encountering challenging situation and making important decisions. This is why the novel appeals greatly to children of the same age who have similar problems and who do not know how to make a right choice.

Wyeth’s illustrations render a patently personal interpretation of a novel, including its mood, aspirations, precipitations, and hopes. His pictures create a strong narrative sequence that modifies readers’ experience in many important ways. Moreover, Wyeth illustrations also enable readers to construct a story obtained from the presented visual performances.

While discussing the illustrations, the artist has provided for other stories, and the ones concerned in particular, Wyeth’s representations of different stories contribute significantly to achieving the fullness and completeness of the narrative (Gannon 92).

With regard to the illustrations provided for Rawlings’s novel, one can notice that both textual information and visual representations are closely intertwined with each other creating a harmonic tandem. It also reflects the interaction between images and the text through enhancing the main protagonists’ experiences and feelings, his primary intentions, and his attitude toward his family and the surrounding world.

According Silvey, Wyeth’s illustrations to The Yearning, “lent glamour to classics that lured even indifferent readers and kept some of the titles in print for generations” (481).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though illustrations deviate from the classical representation of a coming-of-age novel in certain examples, the artist still manages to attract the readers and make them more interested in the story development (Rawlings 12). For example, the title of book mostly renders all information about the boy’s life and his endeavors to find place in life, as well as his desire to have someone he can look after.

Taking a closer look at Wyeth’s other illustrations dedicated to the novel, it is imperative to emphasize the author’s perspicacity and emotional filling under the influence of which all story-related images are created. These illustrations significantly contribute to the recreation of the novel details and the author’s intention to convey ideas and describe specific scenes.

Wyeth’s illustrations significantly enhance the power of narration because each image presented in book discloses the way the artist understands Rawlings’s story. More importantly, the illustrations render Wyeth’s own experience because he carefully considered most of his ideas before presenting them in a particular publication.

Particularly, the illustrator travelled to Florida to study the local peculiarities as well as the landscapes and this exploration greatly contributed to the representation of the main characters of the novel (Luce 77). While evaluating the picture depicting Jody Baxter sitting near the hearth and embracing the fawn, the reader is able to evaluate the realism of the story and imagine the hardships that young people may encounter to make their dreams come true.

The fawn depicted in the picture is also quite realistic and contributes to better understanding of the story (Luce 79). One can also notice a ray of hope in Jody’s eyes and the reader can understand that even without reading the text. Despite the completeness of the image, there is still a necessity to refer to Rawlings’ text to find deeper sense of visual representation.

Wyeth’s accent on realism is also presented in all his illustrations even if some fictional characters are presented in the picture. Such a realistic approach provides the readers with a broader experience while contemplating the historical and social background existing in the end of the nineteenth century.

In addition to realistic emphasis, the artist also introduces a melodrama component being an integral condition for conveying the author’s main idea. Looking at the pictures, one can understand that Wyeth realizes the importance of this component because exaggerated clarity is a priority for illustrative techniques (Nemerov 37).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, Nemerov states that, “Wyeth was an “obvious” or theatrical painter because as an illustrator he is what he was supposed to be” (36). Hence, each scene depicted in the book provides a realistic and vivid picture of all events happened in the story (Nemerov 39). It is not a surprise that this realistic and vivid representation of literary scenes appeals greatly to children because some of the displayed motifs are quite close to the problems that children face in real life.

Reviewing all illustrations to the Rawlings’s book, one can state that N. C. Wyeth’s soft, warm images successfully manage to capture the epoch of sweet survival and rough subsistence. Existential notes expressed through rough strokes in the picture contribute to a realistic representation of the novel (Heller and Arisman 11). The realism is especially seen in the picture describing a boy holding deer near the hearth.

More importantly, the artist also successfully renders the emotional background of the picture when playing with shadows and incorporating specific elements. Despite the dimness and homeliness of the time described in the novel, the author still resorts to a full-color pallet to highlight the most salient episodes of a literary work, which also contributes to better understanding of social and historical underpinnings of the novel (Heller and Arisman 11).

It should also be stressed that N. C. Wyeth’s major goal was storytelling rather than representing images because picture often precedes the text and language, which is the main essence of illustrations (Heller and Arisman 13). While reading Rawlings’s novel and previewing the pictures first, a reader can be immediately introduced to the details that will be further described and explained in the text.

All his childish, exaggerated, and romantic interpretations, therefore, have significantly enhanced the power of classical coming-of-age novel because the majority of the pictures represent maximalist tendencies in depicting landscapes and portraits where the major focus is made on the radical representation of certain episodes that are specifically highlighted by the writer (Silvey 482).

At the same time, Wyeth does not provide some additional elements that distract the viewers from the original content. On the contrary, his images enrich emotional, social, and historical background of the depicted events.

Being absorbed with romantic representation, Wyeth is significantly committed to the hero’s endeavors to overcome the existing adversities. With regard to the above, the mode of representation attracts young readers and makes them more involved into the plot of the story. This is natural because children’s inner world and imagination can be significantly enhanced by the visual representations of the novel characters.

In conclusion, novel’s affiliation to the children’s literature is evident because it represents a classical narration of the boy coming of age and searching for a better life. His dreams and overwhelming expectations are hilariously rendered by Rawlings and significantly enhanced by N. C. Wyeth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The illustrations also shed light the problem of adolescence that most youngsters experience at the age of twelve. Consequently, the usage of full-color palette, exaggerated clarity of representation enabling the readers to “read” the information contributes to understanding the main idea of the novel.

In addition, the visual information about Jody’s experiences in treating a fawn and the severities the hero confronts when he has to abandon the animal because of famine and lack of means for existence can be more explicitly understood while looking at the illustrations. Furthermore, some of the drawings look quite realistic because of the true scenes and landscapes illustrated.

Work Cited Gannon, Susan. The Illustrator as Interpreter: N. C. Wyeth’s Illustrations for the Adventure Novels of Robert Louis Stevenson (Gannon). Children’s Literature. 19 (1991): 90-106. Print.

Heller, Steven and Marshal Arisman: The Education of an Illustrator. US: Allworth Communications, Inc., 2000. Print.

Luce, Henry, Ed. Childhood Idols: Jack, Jody, Hans, and Heidi. Life. 43.24 (1957): 75-79.

Nemerov, Alexander. N. C. Wyeth’s Theater of Illustration. American Art. 6.2 (1992): 36-57.

Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan. The Yearling. US: Collier MacMillan Publishers, 1988. Print.

Silvey, Anita. The Essential Guide to Children’s Books and Their Creators. US: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002.

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Mis-education of the Negro Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Review

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Published for the first time in 1933, The Mis-Education of Negro is one of the most successful books written by Carter Woodson. Woodson experience as an African American student armed with the necessary information to write such a compelling masterpiece. He criticizes the American syllabus, which ignores the historical and cultural systems of the Negros.

Unfortunately, the blacks do not realize the indoctrination that defines the American schools; however, if they realize the indoctrination, then they simply do not care for they continue to be sold out to ‘whiteness.’ Woodson argues that the long-term effect of mimicry and adaptation of a foreign culture heralded the extinction of the black culture. Although Woodson struggled to wage war against racism and oppression of the Negros, more than 70 years later racial discrimination still prevails.

Review The history and culture of the whites is the center of the American educational system; therefore, the educational curriculum exposes the blacks to a foreign culture forcing them to adapt different lifestyles yet they have their own culture. Surprisingly, the education system forbids the culture and history of the Negros with the primary aim of the whites being to impose inferiority complex in their black counterparts.

Although there are criticisms from the black scholars, the whites carry the day. Most black Americans have acquired the whites speaking accent and they do not take up courses that concentrate on the African culture, politics and/or Negro spiritual life. Therefore, the white education system does not focus on creating an all round citizen rather it controls the thinking and action of the citizens (Negros).

Woodson book seeks a wide audience; teachers, students, scholars and parents of the black society among others. Regrettably, seventy years later after its publication none of the whites administration considers the significance of this chef-d’oeuvre. The book has solution on American politics and policies including the adaptation of the affirmative action. Therefore, if the Negros and Latino-American read the book it would propel them to research and concentrate on their cultural system rather than the whites.

One of the major negatives of the ‘Mis-education of the Negro’ is the inability to live successfully as ‘whites’. Unfortunately, most of the Black Americans who have adapted the whites’ education system become useless, worthless and poor. Although some of them have learned up to the college or university level, nothing good comes out of them.

Additionally, due to the influence of the white culture, most Negros do not appreciate their black skin hence a feeling of inferior before their white counterparts. Similarly, Negros dislikes their fellow black men, despise their culture and love or appreciate the white people. They live in a world of fantasy; however, by so doing the hit the highway of self destruction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Woodson fears that the whites’ knowledge would forever oppress the African Americans. However, the only solution is to identify the enigma that runs deep in the current education curricula and rectify it. The result will not only popularize the African culture, but also promote antiracism and love within the black community.

Conclusion The antisocial and discrimination culture the blacks experience hinges on the misleading whites’ educational system and as Woodson notes, “when you control a man’s thinking you do not have to worry about his actions” (xxix). However, if the Negros and Latino Americans unite, they will change the current situation in the education system and promote their culture and race than chase the golden goose of ‘whiteness’ that has enslaved them for so long.

Works Cited Woodson, Carter. The Mis-Education of the Negro. New Jersey: Africa World Press Inc., 1990.

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Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible Essay essay help: essay help

Martin Luther, the once devoted Catholic, one day came across a bible hidden in one of the apartments of Erfurt University library. Upon reading the book keenly, Luther encountered significant differences between what his Catholic Church taught and what the bible said concerning issues like relying on the church fathers for the remission of sins. Since the church teachings were contrary to the bible teachings, he got concerned and protested the issues, hence becoming the father of Protestantism.

As a working criterion of spreading the truth, as it stands in the bible, Luther took the boldest step ever of translating his newly found bible into vernacular languages, German for instance, an issue that angered the Catholic Church as more people left the church to follow Luther’s teachings.

The translation plays a very important role to the German history. Initially, the Germans could not tell lies from the truth based on the then teachings, which were presented in foreign languages other than their understandable vernacular language.

In addition, they had hungered for reformation for long and thus the translation seemed important as it marked the dawn of that awaited reformation. In fact, Shaff points out that “The spread of this version, imperfect as it was, proves the hunger and thirst of the German people for the pure word of God, and prepared the way for the Reformation” (Para. 9).

In addition, the translation was so important in that it solved the problems of the majority of Germans who, despite their little education, wanted to know the truth but could not get it from the former complicated bible. Sanders observes, “…even tailors and shoemakers, yea, even women and ignorant persons…studied it with the greatest avidity as the fountain of all truth” (Para. 2).

Further, the translation assisted the common people who, through the easy reading and understanding of the true word of God, could then make informed decisions concerning the truth. In other words, Luther’s work was no more than a force that fuelled the freedom of the Germans.

The evident Protestant state churches of Germany, initially used by Luther to teach his cohorts, aroused the courage of teaching to the Germans. Besides, the Lutheran bible is of great significance to the German history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Luther’s translation of the bible into German marked the most outstanding revolving point of the Germans’ history. For instance, its high rate of spreading across the Germans stands out as the origin of the advanced German language. Initially, the language featured so many dialects such that the people could neither understand nor unite with one another.

Therefore, Luther, through his works restored this harmony of language and further forming the basis of the contemporary German literature. The translation too fuelled the famous reformation of religion. In fact, it was through the translation that Protestantism emerged, which was otherwise nowhere before.

Further, the Lutheran bible contributed significantly towards “the creation of German nationalism because…his sayings and translation became part of the German national heritage” (Gerhard 216). The translation too contributed towards the reformation of the German education system.

The reformation came as Luther campaigned for the education of every person, which in turn left virtually all Germans in a position of reading and understanding the bible. Internationally, Luther’s translation significantly fuelled the widening of Protestantism as many other people who supported Luther came up with some other translations like the King James Version, the Bishop’s Bible, and the Douay-Rheims Bible among others.

Therefore, as evidenced by the expositions, Luther’s translation of the bible into vernacular German language stands out as both important and significant the Germans history. It marked the dawn of reformation in Germany as people demanded to hear and know the truth, as revealed by the word of God.

Further, it induced the courage of teaching by the Germans and more so teaching the true pure word of God in a language that even the illiterate could understand. As a result, the translation is the root of all the protestant churches, not only in Germany, but also in the world at large.

Works Cited Gerhard, Ritter. Luther: His Life and Work. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1963.

We will write a custom Essay on Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sanders, Ruth. How Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible Influenced the German Language, 2010. Web. https://liturgical.wordpress.com/2010/09/01/how-martin-luthers-translation-of-the-bible-influenced-the-german-language/

Shaff, Phillip. History of the Christian Church. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910.

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Emirates Airlines Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Objectives and methodology

Linkage with the Public Administration Issues

References

Introduction Emirates airlines is an air services provider based in Dubai. It is ranked as one of the best performing airlines worldwide. This company according to Namaki (2008) “has played a major role in the economic development of the United Arab Emirates by promoting tourism besides the region being the rich in oil deposits” (35).

Before the inception of emirates airlines, the main airline was the Gulf air whose relationship with the leadership of Dubai was faulted by the fact that Dubai had refused to open up its skies for the company’s operations. This prompted the Gulf air to end and withdraw bigger percentage of its operations in Dubai, leading to a partial paralysis of travels in and out of the region.

Emirate airline was incepted to facilitate movement of people and goods in and out of Gulf region. Observations made on the growing trends of Airline companies indicate that, Emirates Airlines is steadily growing, serving more than 100 destinations all over the world. The success of this company is mainly based on strict management practices anchored in the company culture hence guaranteeing a sustainable survival.

Objectives and methodology The study of the management practices in Emirates airlines are meant to ravel the strengths of the company that have ensured its continuity to growth over the years. Middle East is one of the areas despite being endowed with natural resources; it is hard for companies to survive, owing to the political climate of the region.

This region has been facing political instability since civilization existed. It is therefore amazing how this company has managed to survive in this area and rise above many other companies which are operating in the most stable economies (Kuye, 2002).

Research shows that Dubai, the headquarters of emirates airlines, is also the fastest growing tourists’ destination. Perhaps, this may be due to the hostility in the neighboring regions. Many researchers believe that the presence of Emirates airlines has played a major role in development of this city into a leading tourist destination.

Again, this leaves one wondering the reasons behind such credibility to Emirates airline that started with a few numbers of operations in the region. The research questions in this case, therefore include, what is the management structure in the company, how management duties allocated are and how the management team guarantees accountability (Pathi, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The methodology for conducting this research will involve an intensive data collection activity. The main methods to be used in collecting the data will involve using structured questionnaires to obtain information from the Emirates airlines branches, obtaining performance information from airports authorities and researching through the company’s publications.

This will also require data collection from secondary sources which will form the literature review of the study. The data analysis and presentation techniques that will come in handy in this research includes using tables to record the data and coding continuous data to give it discrete values for easy manipulation.

This will be followed by writing a report on the research findings and this report should mainly concentrate on findings related to the management practices that have contributed to the success of Emirates airlines. It should also highlight the weaknesses that need to be addressed in order for the company to maintain the growth prospects in many years to come.

Linkage with the Public Administration Issues This research on the management of Emirates Airlines is related to public administration because; the company is owned and managed by the government of Dubai. The topic of public administration deals with the “implementation of government policies and the administration of government services” (Theaker, 2008, p. 265). Another definition of this is, the study of the decision making strategies applied by the government in policy making and analysis as well as the inputs that led to the development of these policies.

The management of Emirates airlines is done directly from the government offices and any issues affecting the government affects this company as well. Some of these issues include the political instability in the Middle East which has been a hindrance for development in this area for a very long time. The United Arab Emirates is has however never been affected by this political tension directly, but the instability in the neighboring regions in threatening.

Another public administration issue when it comes to the management of public companies is competition from the private sectors (Kuye, 2002). In most cases, the private operations do well compared to the public ones and this can be as a result of the private companies being more innovative hence taking over the market.

In this case for example, Emirates airlines is facing stiff competition from Qatar and Etihad airlines and if the management of emirates does not take protective measures against this competition, they may end up losing their already established market to these new companies. It is hard for an existing company to regain its initial position once its operations begin to decline especially when the cause of the decline it competition from upcoming companies.

We will write a custom Essay on Emirates Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Kuye, J., 2002, Critical Perspectives on Public Administration: Issues for Consideration, Heinemann, Sandown

Namaki, M., 2008, Strategy and Entrepreneurship in Arab Countries, Palgrave Macmillan, London

Pathi, S., 2010, Public Administration Today: Macro and Micro Issues, Dominant Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

Theaker, A., 2008, The Public Relations Handbook, Routledge, New Jersey

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