The U.S. Government Strategies Against The Terrorist Threats Research Paper Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Introduction

Current threats to the U.S. environment

Major post 9/11 initiatives in homeland security

Major counter-terrorism efforts after 9/11

Consequence management




Introduction On September 11, 2001, devastating attacks on the United States by the Islamic extremist group called the Al Qaeda made the nation to come to grips with reality. Since these attacks were well planned, the historic occurrence triggered the need for the establishment of a more reinforced network of homeland security and consequence management in the country.

Consequently, the sorrowful event resulted in major policy changes that were aimed at enhancing organization and cooperative information sharing within the different government agencies in the country. Even though this effort is still progressing since the historic occurrence, the new system is a milestone improvement towards combating terrorist threats in the twenty first century. This paper demonstrates the concepts of homeland security and consequence management in the U.S.

When most people hear the word terrorism, it makes them to be afraid since they relate it to violent unacceptable behavior in the society. It is important to note that humankind has practiced different kinds of terrorism since the very beginning of recorded history. Despite being practiced for a long time, the term terrorism is still not easy to define. Nonetheless, the Department of Defense defines it as “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”1 These violent activities have made many kingdoms to fall, rise, and others have ended up exerting undue authority on the less powerful kingdoms.

Currently, because of the prevalence of terrorist acts that has made the condition of this world to be unsteady, more leaders of the world are increasingly paying more attention to countering terrorism. This is for the reason that a simple terrorism incidence is able to lead to loss of close ties between two or more nations.

As an example, the Israelis and the Palestinians most of the time take part in endless fighting because of unresolved religious convictions and territorial conflicts. Terrorism is exhibited in the form of disagreements with neighboring countries, bombings of nations, kidnappings and hostage-takings, armed attacks and assassinations, arsons and firebombing, hijacking and skyjackings, bioterrorism, and cyber terrorism.

Current threats to the U.S. environment After 9/11, global efforts to counter terrorism have been intensified. However, most countries of the world, including the U.S., are still at risk of getting attacks from emerging as well as evolving terrorist groups.2 Despite the intensive efforts that have been aimed at interrupting and restraining al Qaeda’s ability of plotting an attack, the U.S. is still susceptible to attacks from this worldwide terror group.

This Islamic extremist terror group is driven by a never-ending strategic intention of causing major destruction to the U.S. and its citizens in different places around the world. As much as earlier military campaigns in the countries of Afghanistan and Iraq weakened the influence of the terror group, many of its top leaders, including Osama Bin Laden, are still at large.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the possibility of them planning another attack on the U.S. is still high. Al Qaeda also collaborates with other dreaded terror groups around the world in order to carry out its mission. These include al Qaeda in Iraq and other Islamic extremist groups around the world.

In addition, other groups and individuals are also prepared to use terror in order to wreak havoc against the U.S. Among these is the Lebanese Hezbollah. This terror group is continuing to issue threats to U.S. citizens both locally as well as overseas. The country is also not immune to the development of small groups composed of home-based Islamic extremists.

These groups are especially dangerous since they consider the use of violence within the borders of the country as justifiable in defense of their rights. Other local terror groups consists of the white supremacist organizations and animal rights extremists.

It is also significant to note that the U.S. is also under the threat of the occurrence of natural disasters, which can lead to wanton destruction all over the country. Contagious diseases that occur naturally put the lives of Americans at risk. Not long ago, Americans had to deal with the effects of Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 virus, which resulted in major economic and social disruptions around the country.

Natural catastrophes, such as hurricanes and earthquakes, are meteorological and geological dangers that the country sometimes has to deal with. Finally, the last category of threats includes disastrous accidents and other hazards. Industrial hazards as well as infrastructural failures fall into this category. The spillage of toxic chemicals such as the deepwater horizon oil spill that took place on April 20, 2010, and the collapse of buildings across the country pose a great danger to the citizens of U.S.

Major post 9/11 initiatives in homeland security In the nineteenth century, the federal government’s response to emergencies was unplanned and involved the use of the military. This was for the reason that there was no established institutionalized emergency relief program.

During World War I, the American army instituted an emergency relief program mainly as a military response action plan. From then on, different American leaders have continued to lay more emphasis on issues of homeland security in order to make the country as secure as possible from internal as well as external interference.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The U.S. Government Strategies Against the Terrorist Threats specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On November 25, 2002, the United States Department of Homeland Security was established with the clear objective of protecting the territory of the country from attacks due to terrorism as well as enacting suitable response strategies to manage the occurrence of natural catastrophes. In this regard, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is mandated to come up with appropriate initiatives of preparing, preventing, and managing the occurrence of domestic catastrophes, with special emphasis to acts of terrorism.

This major milestone improvement is considered as one of the integral government reorganization efforts in over five decades. As an umbrella term, homeland security came into the public limelight following the major American government restructuring in 2003, and it alludes to the security measures that are aimed at guarding the country from possible internal and external threats from the enemies of the great country.

Officially, it is defined as “the “concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur.”3 The Federal Resource plan defines consequence management as the “measures taken to protect public health and safety, restore essential government services, and provide emergency relief to governments, businesses, and individuals affected by the consequences of terrorism.”4

The DHS, under the President’s proposal, was established in order to consolidate the different response plans into one workable unit for consequence management. Its formation led to the integration of the separate federal government incident response plans to form what is now called the Federal Incident Management Plan.

This major initiative guarantees timely responsive action in case of an emergency. This is because the Department is endowed with the responsibility of bringing together all the response efforts. Another major initiative in post 9/11 entails the establishment of a national incident management system.

The DHS communicates with other departments within the U.S. government in order to come up with a comprehensive national consequence management strategy. This is made possible by the establishment of standards of common terms used that ensure there is smooth flow of vital information in case of a disaster. The common terms are designed such that they are scalable regardless of the magnitude of the catastrophe.5

Major counter-terrorism efforts after 9/11 A number of counter-terrorism efforts were intensified after the unfortunate events that took place on September 11.6 Counter-terrorism refers to the military or political initiatives, strategies, procedures, and other appropriate means established for the purpose of combating terrorism in the world.

These initiatives particularly became more practical after 9/11. To begin with, more emphasis has been put on identifying potential terrorists before they are able to carry out a planned attack. In most cases, after a terrorist act has occurred, it is made known to the public that the individual suspected of the crime had terrorist connections in the past.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The U.S. Government Strategies Against the Terrorist Threats by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has usually raised questions why the person was left to live freely if he or she was having traceable terrorist connections in the past. When a potential terrorist is allowed to live freely, the possibility of him or her to plan for an attack is more likely. This is because the person will be at liberty to associate with his or her partners in crime so as to effectively arrange for an attack without much problems.

Currently, preventing terrorism strategies are aimed at establishing monitoring systems that have the ability of keeping track of individuals with suspected histories of terrorism, or probable connections to terror groups.7 In the United States, some departments within the government, such as the FBI have been endowed with this responsibility. The FBI monitors the movement and communication of potential terrorists who are on the list of suspected terrorists.

This strategy is beneficial since it can impair or do away with the possible communication between the potential terrorists and their accomplices. In this case, the activities of the suspect are simply monitored and he or she may be held on parole. Since the suspect is not considered a criminal, he or she is allowed to proceed living normally. Where the suspects live are most of the time searched thoroughly. This is meant to unlock any secrets of any plan to engage in terrorism in future.

Bioterrorism is one of the most dreaded types of terrorist acts since it is able to cause the loss of many innocent lives in a matter of minutes. All it takes is to have a terrorist having a little quantity of powdered anthrax or any other lethal chemical. The terrorist then accomplishes his or her mission by going to a busy place such as a football stadium to release the poisonous substance.

As the lethal substance spreads in the form of thin dust in the air, the outcome is catastrophic. The people around the place full of activity would inhale the toxic substance without knowing. This, if no timely appropriate response action is taken, can lead to massive loss of lives.

Countering such terrorist threats may be an uphill task. However, a number of preventive measures have been adopted that will make sure there is minimal loss of lives in case such a catastrophe takes place. In the United States, the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile is endowed with the responsibility of ensuring quick response to incidences of bioterrorism.

The program, managed jointly by DHS and the Department of Health and Human Services, augments the country’s pharmaceutical and vaccine stockpiles. To prevent mass casualty occurrence, the medical initiative has strategically positioned “Push Packs” across the country.

These have approximately six thousand tons of medical supplies, which can be conveyed to the scene of an incident in less than twelve hours. In case of biological warfare, the populace may be frightened at the invisible, odorless, and tasteless menace; therefore, a race against time to provide the victims with appropriate medication is beneficial in such a scenario.

The United States has sufficient preventive measures against incidences of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear detonation. To ensure that this preventive measure is realized, DHS usually undertakes certification process on a yearly basis.

The certification process is aimed at authenticating the ability of the state and local first respondents’ timely response to emergencies. Moreover, the Environment Protection Agency functions to disinfect the affected area in case of an attack and gives beneficial information to public health authorities when determining if the affected area is out of danger.

The economy of the United States relies on the appropriate use of digital information. The reliance on computer networks to provide fast connectivity has evolved a new form of terrorism called cyber terrorism. This form of terrorism gives terrorists the ability to fulfill their missions with minimal or no risk to themselves and to disrupt or destroy networks and computers, with destructive results. Consequently, government or business-related operations are usually impaired because of these fraudulent deals.

Cyber terrorists most of the time target the internet since it is what makes most of the world’s digital infrastructure. In the aftermath of 9/11 attacks, several security experts are increasingly getting worried about the safety of the digital information assets in the U.S. Following the attacks, many hacking groups have been established.

Many of them usually take part in pro-U.S. and anti-U.S. cyber activities. These are mostly fought through web defacements. Therefore, the U.S. has enacted measures through developing strong vision and leadership aimed at transforming technology and polices in order to keep its digital infrastructure as safe as possible.

In this century, acts of terrorism are increasingly being revealed in new forms. Therefore, an effective counter-terrorism strategy that the U.S. has embraced is by having a specialized team with adequate training on appropriate techniques of fighting against kidnappings and hostage-takings.

As much as kidnapping is a difficult operation for terrorists to be successful in achieving, if successful, it can make the authorities to make compromising decisions in order to yield to the demands of the terrorists. Hostage taking takes place when terrorists seizure a facility taking hostages with them as human shields in order to provoke a confrontation with the authorities and attract media attention.

That is why the specialized team should be able to go into any place the hostages might be held to attempt carrying out a rescue mission. These include buildings, airplanes, or wherever the hostages might be held.

Since 9/11, every regime in the U.S. has been involved in efforts of averting the emergence of violent Islamic radicalization in the country since most terrorists usually arise from such groups.

Engaging key communities as partners in the fight against terrorism, identifying and countering the possible sources of Islamic radicalization, improving the ability of the governmental agencies to address radicalization issues, and enhancing the citizens understanding of radicalization, is applied to achieve this initiative. In addition, the U.S. is also involved in consultation efforts to limit too much use of military force in parts of the world that are prone to the emergence of such Islamic radical groups.

Throughout the history of terrorism, the use of nuclear and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) have not been very much common. These dangerous weapons are able to cause widespread destruction. In this century, some countries are taking part in arms races with their ‘enemies’ to acquire WMD.

This is because they view the acquisition of these weapons as a main restraint of attack by their neighbors who are usually ever ready for war. However, it is important to note that the increased development of WMD equally increases the possibility of their acquisition by terrorists.8 This is because unstable countries may lack the ability to protect their stores of WMD from accidental losses, illegal retailing, or burglary.

In addition, terrorists can also acquire these destructive weapons through secret independent research teams or by employing experienced people to develop for them these weapons. This calls for sufficient investment that is of essence in the efforts of enhancing the capability of sharing the sensitive information regarding the use of WMD.

The tragic events of 9/11 made the U.S. to realize that terrorist organizations are able to acquire and use WMD. In the aftermath of the attacks, some terror groups, such as al Qaeda, with radical ideologies, have demonstrated their interest of acquiring WMD to undertake mass casualty attacks in order to obtain worldwide recognition for their cause.

They consider the use of such weapons to be their religious obligation; thus, they have attempted to gain access to them in a number of occasions.9 The stakes involved in the propagation and illicit use of WMD has made the United States military to use forceful means to thwart their illegal use; for example, the U.S. led invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq in 2003 was aimed at achieving this objective. 10

The movement of terrorists around the planet is closely monitored. As a strategy in the global War on Terror, measures have been put that are aimed at detecting, interrupting, and interdicting the unauthorized movements of terrorists and dangerous weapons from one part of the world to the other.

Most nations have improved their border security in order to prevent terrorists from exploiting legal entry points into the nations. Presently, every migrant entering the United States has to undergo a thorough check up in order to validate his or her adequacy of entering the nation. However, these strict border security efforts are not enough since the territory of the country is vast. Thus, to prevent illegal entry into the country through illicit pathways, the government has adopted the Secure Border Initiative.

This has been achieved through establishing a well-integrated system of individuals, machinery, and strategic communication systems aimed at easier identification and detection of illegal entries into the country. Moreover, scientific investigations are currently being carried out in order to develop next-generation technologies for close monitoring of the movement of terrorists around the globe.

The need to establish strict gun control measures was fuelled in the aftermath of 9/11. This counter-terrorism strategy limits the access of terrorist groups to dangerous weapons. Ultimately, the number of terrorist incidents will be lowered significantly. One way of achieving this is by having a considerable waiting period at gun shops. This is because potential terrorists or their accomplices may go into a gun show separately and purchase dangerous weapons to be used for producing widespread fear in innocent people.

In some places of the world, a close tie exists between one’s religion and politics; therefore, in such places, one is deemed a hero when he or she sacrifices his or her life on a suicide mission.11 This notion has escalated the number of suicide terrorist attacks in the world in this century, especially in hostile places such as the Middle East region and Somalia. For U.S. citizens travelling to such hostile areas, prevention is usually done by increasing their awareness of the threats that awaits them.

The U.S. government provides information to Americans regarding the activity of terrorist organizations in such areas. These include, but not limited to, the local populace’s attitude towards Americans, and the areas’ potential for violence.

Furthermore, Americans are advised to keep off from potentially dangerous destinations, maintain alertness, stay from suspicious looking individuals, acquaint themselves with emergency first aid equipment, use every means possible to avoid being identified as Americans, and promptly inform the authorities in case of any strange occurrence.

The infamous September 11 disaster was achieved by the use of civilian airplanes as assault vehicles to wreak havoc to the U.S. Such a happening has no precedent in the history of the airline industry. No one had ever imagined that terrorists could be able to hijack an airplane and use it to carry out an attack.

Following this strange occurrence, the confidence of several individuals concerning air travel was shaken. Some people even cancelled their trips to popular tourism destinations and others avoided places full of activity such as theme parks and big cities. Therefore, to prevent such disruption of life, major initiatives have been implemented.

These include, but not limited to, proper screening of all travelers, checking if the travelers are eligible to travel by reviewing their history, and questioning travelers who seem to be suspicious. Through these strategies, the airline industry is able to thwart the efforts of the terrorists’ use of airplanes as means of wreaking havoc in the world.

Consequence management Despite the superb prevention and mitigation efforts that can be done in the War on Terror, terrorist attacks are sometimes inevitable. Therefore, the U.S. government has developed measures that are aimed at alleviating the effects of this disaster in case it takes place. Establishment of enhanced notification, alert, and warning systems, which are totally reliable, effective, and flexible are some strategies that the government has adopted to realize this.

Moreover, pre-incident alert and warning systems have been designed such that they are able to convey vital security information to Americans to any place they might be within the country. This warning system is also able to give situational updates and appropriate directions of movement to Americans even after an incident has taken place.

In the aftermath of September 11, the expectations of Americans concerning the federal government’s incident management plans has increased considerably, especially in a situation in which a domestic crisis of national significance has taken place. In such circumstances, the citizens expect it to accomplish its obligations, make minimal mistakes, and be both virtually omniscient and omnipotent.

Because of this endless public examination, the government’s consequence management plans have been intensified to avoid the mistakes that were done in pre 9/11. One of these improvements in consequence management entails appropriate passage of information from one place to another. As was evident during 9/11 attacks, communication breakdown usually take place in case of a terrorist attack and the public most of the time thirst for information.

As much as only few individuals can feel the physical impacts of the disaster, the rest of the people may be afraid of being the next victims. This is what causes the thirst for information. Therefore, the public expects the government to provide them with the vital information that is needed in such times.

In effective management of a complex national emergency, the statements of the president and those of high-ranked government officials are carefully calculated to avoid possible deaths and loss of public confidence. In most situations, it has been observed that the initial reports are not true. In addition, the public usually demand for information much faster than the officials of the government are able to give.

Because of these facts, most of the consequence management that is practiced in the United States in the first hours of a disaster is aimed at providing the President together with some high-ranked government officials with accurate information.

This is because they are usually on the spot in situations whereby emergencies of national significance have taken place and, more so, they are expected by the public to deliver correct information when making a nationwide address on the issue in the first news cycle after an emergency.

In a situation in which a nuclear weapon has exploded in a city in the United States, measures have been put in place to ensure that as many lives as possible are saved through immediate evacuation of the affected individuals.

Because of the immense effects of the detonation, such as thermal radiation and nuclear radiation, not so much can be done to save the lives of those within the immediate vicinity of the blast. Nonetheless, protection of people in such circumstances can be achieved by moving them to another place before they get into direct contact with the dangerous radioactive materials.

The U.S. army played a vital role in the country’s response to September 11 attacks. That is why the government has launched plans to enable the military to assist civil authorities in case of an emergency. The military have been mandated to give technical assistance to law enforcement authorities, assist in restoration of law and order, and lend specialized equipment as initiatives in consequence management.

To increase the chances of saving more lives in case of a terrorist attack, DHS is involved in efforts of planning and expanding volunteers called Citizen Corps. The volunteers are effectively trained and equipped with essential skills of detecting possible terrorist incidences and responding accordingly to prevent further damages from taking place.

The increased terrorist threat on the U.S. has made the federal government to offer more funding targeted at training more first responders. However, since the country’s program for training first responders is increasingly being strained, the government is involved in efforts of developing a national training and evaluation program aimed at meeting the growing demand.12

Conclusion Since the turn of the century, terrorist threats against the U.S. have escalated to unprecedented levels. Amidst these hard times, the great nation has responded with courage and now it is safer, stronger, and even more prepared to face the issues that threaten its very principles of democracy.

Nonetheless, since the country is safer, but not completely safe, a significant number of challenges are still lying ahead. That is why the American government has implemented several strategies aimed at ensuring that the lifestyle of the residents proceeds normally without undue interruption.

Because of the fact that the country is not immune to terrorist attacks and several terrorist organizations have shown relentless determination to cause havoc in the country, it is prepared to protect its critical resources as well as promptly act in response to emergencies that take place on its soil.

Bibliography Bartholomees, Boone. National Security Policy and strategy. Washington: Department of National Security and Strategy, 2008.

Biddle, Stephen D. “American Grand Strategy after 9/11: An assessment,” Strategic Studies Institute, 2005. Web.

Bullock, Jane A. and others. Introduction to homeland security. Burlington: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006.

Bunn, Elaine.“Preemptive action: what, how, and to what effect?” Strategic forum 1, no. 200 (2003), 1-7. Web.

Bush, George W.“Overview of America’s National Strategy for Homeland Security.” National Strategy for Homeland Security, 2007. Web.

Miskel, James F. Disaster response and homeland security: what works, what doesn’t. Westport: Praeger Security International, 2006.

Purpura, Philip.Security and loss prevention: an introduction. Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008.

Schultz, George P. An Essential War-ousting Saddam was the only option. The Wall Street Journal. 1997.

The Department of Homeland Security. United States Department of Homeland Security handbook. Washington: International Business publications, 2006.

The White House. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, Global Security, 2002. Web.

United States Marine Corps. Individual’s Guide for Understanding and Surviving Terrorism. New York: Cosimo Publications, 2007.

Yarger, Harry R. “Strategic theory for the 21st century: The little Book on the Big Strategy,” Strategic Studies Institute, 2006. Web.

Footnotes 1 United States Marine Corps. Individual’s Guide for Understanding and Surviving Terrorism (New York: Cosimo Publications, 2007), 1.

2 Stephen D. Biddle. “American Grand Strategy after 9/11: An assessment,” Strategic Studies Institute, 2005.

3 George W. Bush, “Overview of America’s National Strategy for Homeland Security.” National Strategy for Homeland Security, 2007.

4 Jane A. Bullock and others. Introduction to homeland security, (Burlington: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006), 613.

5 The Department of Homeland Security. United States Department of Homeland Security handbook. (Washington: International Business publications, 2006), 41-42.

6 Boone Bartholomees. National Security Policy and strategy. (Washington: Department of National Security and Strategy, 2008), 99-112.

7 Elaine Bunn, “Preemptive action: what, how, and to what effect?” Strategic forum 1, no. 200 (2003), 1-7 .

8 The White House. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, Global Security, 2002.

9 George P. Schultz, An Essential War-ousting Saddam was the only option. The Wall Street Journal. 1997.

10 Harry R. Yarger. “Strategic theory for the 21st century: The little Book on the Big Strategy,” Strategic Studies Institute, 2006.

11 James F. Miskel, Disaster response and homeland security: what works, what doesn’t (Westport: Praeger Security International, 2006), 44.

12 Philip Purpura, Security and loss prevention: an introduction. (Burlington, MA : Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008), 480.


Beef industry in Australia Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction The beef industry is the biggest agricultural activity in Australia. Moreover, it is the second biggest beef exporter after Brazil internationally. Every state and territory of Australia sustains breeding of cattle in an extensive scope of climates.

The Australian “small population means that consumption is low, which allows Australia to export a significant volume of beef each year mainly to Korea, the US, and Japan, while cattle production in the country covers a region of more than 200 million hectares” (Hammond 2006, p.190).

The beef industry in Australia achieved an advantage following the detection of BSE (mad cow disease) in Japan, Canada, and the US, since Australia is without the disease. Contrary to breeding systems in different parts of the globe, cattle in Australia feed on pasture as the chief source of food (Bell et al. 2011).

The aim of this analysis is to assess the beef industry in Australia, find opportunities, and threats, and recommend ways to better the industry. The beef industry in Australia encounters several challenges like increasing salinity, vegetation control, and degradation of soil among other internal and external factors.

The execution of the recommendation practices could necessitate reaction to particular subjects. In degraded regions, re-vegetation could help, or a modification in farming method. This paper discusses the analysis of the industry and recommends ways to reduce emanating threats.

Industry analysis At a domestic strategy stage, the macroeconomic as well as the regulatory environment might have a powerful impact on factors of competitiveness of the industry. Domestically, macroeconomic strategy could have an impact on input costs courtesy of its influence on several aspects, for instance, rate of interest and inflation.

Worldwide, macroeconomic strategy could have an impact on real exchange rate. A broad range of other environmental factors may affect the effectiveness of the industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental factors that are likely to result in failure or success of the beef industry in Australia are the ones that affect transport, processing, and communication systems as well as the ones that affect access to information and innovation.

For the beef industry, the chief primary resource is land for grazing. In the entire land limitation, competition from other farm animals (Dairy industry), crops (cotton and horticulture industry), and non-agricultural activities is crucial (George et al. 2009).

The beef industry in Australia encounters great competition from South America in markets like Canada and Korea. Brazil stands as the leading exporter of beef in the world and the second major beef producer following the US.

The beef industry in Brazil has grown powerfully in the last decade, with production rising by 36 per cent to 9 million tonnes in year 2009. Over the same period, exports have rose at a much quicker rate, rising by 227 per cent to 1.6 million tonnes.

The sturdy growth of the beef industry in Brazil has been the outcome of significant new venture in infrastructure and cattle breeds, which is anticipated to promote growth in the near future. The beef industry in Brazil has a powerful competitive level in international markets where it has access, mainly due to its cheaper cost arrangement.

Distress concerning foot-and-mouth disease in several provinces in Brazil has affected the export capacity of Brazilian beef (Ferraz


Mix Methods Analysis in “Seeing From a Different Angle: The Role of Pop Culture in online essay help

The Article Main Concern The article in question considers the issue of entertainment media influence on the adult education, its influence on the educators in their personal and professional life. This article provides issue analysis in terms of the mixed method research approach which makes it possible to consider the issue from different facets and, thus, examine it more thoroughly.

The Article Purpose and Problem Statement The purpose of the article under consideration is to explore “US adult educators’ consumption of entertainment media” and to define “how it affects their thinking about group identities, and how they draw on it in their teaching and learning, particularly in regard to teaching about diversity issues” (Tisdell


Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Types of storage tanks and flammable and combustible liquid stored in them, their fire protection systems, and brief servicing in case of spill

The devastating and costly experiences involving fire and flammable and combustible liquids have led to formulations of better guidelines and storage facilities for handling such liquids.

Practically, protecting flammable and combustible storage tanks from fire involves “the use of fixed or semi-fixed foam fire protection system” (NFPA 23).

Systems with proper installation and maintenance tend to be reliable. The foam is useful in “preventing, controlling, or directing extinguishment of any combustible or flammable liquid fire within the tank” (NFPA 27).

The fixed system refers to an installation system running from the main foam location through permanent systems to the hazard under protection. This system is complete and has permanent installation. On the other hand, a semi-fixed system installation has fixed discharge systems. It links with pipes, which end in a safe location from the hazard.

Open Top Floating Roof Storage Tank This storage tank is like cone roof tank. It does not have a fixed roof. The “pontoon roof floats above the flammable or combustible liquid” (OSHA 50). There is a rim that seals “the space and the shell or side wall of the tank” (OSHA 50).

Cone Roof Storage Tank This storage tank has a fixed cone-shaped roof. It also has vertical sides. This tank meets API standards. The tank’s design allows the roof to “blow off and leave the tank shell intact when internal explosion occurs” (OSHA 52). Thus, the tank can retain the liquid as the resulting fire will only burn the top of the exposed content.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal Floating Roof/Covered Floating Roof Storage Tank This type of storage tank has both the “floating roof tank and cone-shaped roof” (OSHA 53). The internal floating roof lies directly on the tank’s liquid content. It has open vents at the sides. The internal floating roof can be “pontoon type or steel double deck” (OSHA 53). The internal floating roof may also have a sealed design area protection.

Ground/underground tanks There are also flammable and combustible liquids stored in horizontal style tanks. These are underground and aboveground tanks.

These tanks have steel construction and meet specifications of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Uniform Fire Code of the International Fire Code Institute (IFCI). Still, underground tanks may also have different materials from steel.

However, these materials master meet standards of steel or conform to design standards for storage of flammable and combustible liquids.

The operating pressure of the tank cannot go beyond “the design pressure of the tank” (NFPA 343). These tanks have systems that release excessive internal pressure that may result from exposure to fires. Such relief systems must meet the standards in the NFPA provisions.

These tanks also have dikes and drainage systems as required in the NFPA guidelines in order to prevent any accidental discharge of flammable and combustible contents. This is usually to protect nearby facilities and waterways.

Underground tanks must meet NFPA standards and other provisions. These tanks must undergo thorough tests before installation. Underground tanks must also meet corrosion standards as different states require (NFPA 343).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of Flammable and Combustible Liquids stored in the tanks The NFPA 30 Code provides minimum standards for flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks, storage, transportation, and handling. In addition, it also provides various classifications of flammable and combustible liquids.

This classification uses boiling point and flash point of these liquids as set by “American Petroleum Institute (API) or American Society for Testing and Materials methods” (NFPA 467).

Flashpoint refers to a “minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid” (NFPA 467). A liquid, in this case, refers to any material that has more than “300 fluidity of penetration asphalt” (NFPA 467).

We can apply two common methods to classify flammable and combustible liquids. These are non water miscible (hydrocarbon) and water miscible (polar solvent) methods.

Hydrocarbon liquids include jet fuels, gasoline, and crude oil among others. On the other hand, polar solvent liquids consist of esters, alcohols, and ketones among others (OSHA 53).

Classification of Flammable Liquids Flash Point Boiling Point Class IA Below 73 0F or 22.8 0C Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Class IB Below 73 0F or 22.8 0C Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Class IC At or above 73 0F Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Source: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1969 edition.

Classification of Combustible Liquids Flash Point Class II At or above 100 0F (37.8 0C) and below 140 0F (60 0C) Class IIIA At or above 140 0F (60 0C) and below 200 0F (93.3 0C) Class IIIB At or above 200 0F (93.3 0C) Source: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1969 edition.

Source: 29 CFR 1910.106

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fire protection systems of flammable and combustible liquid tanks The first step to fire protection requires the use of approved tanks for storage and holding of flammable and combustible liquids. Thus, storage tanks for flammable and combustible liquids must meet NFPA 30 Code and the OSHA standards.

Storage tanks have steel walls approved for storing flammable or combustible liquids. However, different materials for these tanks (underground) must meet standards of steel as well as required design.

Manufacturers and operators of these tanks must ensure that normal “operating pressure of the tank cannot go beyond the design pressure” (OSHA 54). Atmospheric pressure tanks cannot substitute low pressure tanks.

During installation, engineers must ensure that the “spacing (shell-to-shell) of aboveground tanks must not be less than three feet” (OSHA 54). This is the distance between two tanks of flammable and combustible liquids.

The distance between two adjacent tanks is crucial during installation. This is necessary to facilitate firefighting in cases of fires. Thus, irregular arrangements or compact tanks need wider spacing between them for ease of accessibility.

The tanks must also have a distance of 20 feet between them if they are flammable or combustible liquid tanks and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. This distance depends on the pressure at which the tanks operate.

For instance, it will be different if the pressure of a flammable or combustible tank exceeds 2.5 psig, or in cases where the tank has emergency venting. Emergency venting allows the pressure to go beyond 2.5 psig.

There should be no accumulation of flammable or combustible liquids next to liquefied petroleum gas container by any means. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) container cannot share the same dike with flammable or combustible liquid tanks. The LPG container must be 20 feet away from a flammable or combustible liquid tank. In all, LPG can never be installed in diked areas.

Fire protection from storage tanks also accounts for atmospheric pressure. The designers must ensure that atmospheric storage tanks have adequate vents to eliminate developments of pressure or vacuum.

Pressure and vacuum can damage the “roof of a cone roof tank or can go beyond the tank’s design pressure” (OSHA 54). This may occur due to filling, emptying, and changes in atmospheric temperatures.

Normal vents must conform to three provisions. First, they must meet specifications of API 2000. Second, vents must also conform to other accepted provisions. Finally, vents must also be larger than or equal to withdrawal and filling pipes. The recommended vent diameter should not be less than 11/4 inch.

Storage tanks also have protection mechanisms that inhibit “overpressure which may originate from pumps discharging liquid into the tank” (NFPA 45). This is necessary because discharge pressure may surpass the design pressure of the tank.

Aboveground storage tanks have devices that relieve “excessive internal pressure, which may result from exposure to fires” (NFPA 45). Relief systems must also meet NFPA 30 set standards.

Storage tanks have drainage systems. Drainage systems cater for any accidental discharge and prevent flammable or combustible liquids from getting into waterways. As a result, there are dikes that retain flammable or combustible liquids around the tank. The size and volume of dike must also meet certain standards.

First, volume of the dike must be able to contain the amount of liquids that the tank can release at a given times when it has a full capacity. This method considers “the volume of the tank and height of the dike” (OSHA 54) in order to determine the capacity of the dike.

Second, tanks with fixed roofs, which have liquids with boil over tendencies, consider the volume of the largest tank that an enclosure serves so as to determine the carrying capacity of the dike if these tanks have full capacities. At the same time, this process must also consider capacities of “all tanks within an enclosure where the dike is” (OSHA 54).

Dikes must meet specified construction standards. This takes into account the location and weather factors such as flooding. There are also emergency procedures in case of flooding at the site. Overfill protection systems are above the ground as recommended under IFC and NFPA Codes.

The system also ensures that all sources of ignition are under control in accordance with the “OSHA standards and other applicable codes” (OSHA 51).

Sources of open flame are under strict restriction with visible signs of “NO SMOKING BY ORDER OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT” as stipulated in the IFC 2003 standards (OSHA 57).

Installed electrical devices meet the standards of NFPA 30 current version, ICC Electrical Code, and National Electrical Code. Electrical pumps also have control mechanisms, which allow them only to function when the dispensing nozzle is out of its normal area or bracket.

The control uses a manual switch for activation. These control mechanisms stop nozzles once they are in the bracket, or not in normal positions of dispensing.

The storage tanks of Class I or II liquids also have mechanisms which minimize accumulation of static electricity during dispensing. This uses proper grounding and bounding systems.

The storage tanks also have corrosion control methods that meet OSHA requirements and other standards.

The storage tanks meet material specifications and quality recommended for piping, pipes, and valves.

All underground tanks have connections at the top. In addition, all vents terminate at the end as required under the OSHA standards.

Servicing flammable and combustible liquid tanks in case of a spill The NFPA 329 sets standards and recommendations for handling all releases of flammable and combustible liquids, and gases (NFPA 45). The most important recommendation is to find the source of the spill, and then conduct a thorough cleanup and disposal.

All tanks storing Class I, II, or IIIA liquids must avoid cases of accidental spills so as to protect nearby property, facilities, and waterways. Storage tanks must also have remote impounding and impounding tanks with dikes. In some cases, storage tanks may require both remote impounding and diking, and a closed-top diking.

The NFPA Code and other applicable standards provide specifications on spill control and secondary containment. Storage tanks located outside and exposed to rainfall have design to contain spills from the single largest container.

At the same time, it must also have the capacity to hold “a volume of a 24-hour rainfall based on a 25-year storm” (NFPA 234). The system also has channels to drain accumulated water.

Controlling spills also requires maintenance and inspections of storage tanks regularly. Locations prone to flooding need constant “inspection and review of the emergency plan provisions” (NFPA 234). This is because floods may weaken foundations and other supporting structures. This also applies to areas prone to earthquakes.

Storage tanks maintenance and operating procedures must conform to set standards of approved codes. There should be a prompt cleanup of any spills and proper disposal.

The codes do not have any specific training requirements. However, the industry must ensure that it improves compliance through regular employees training on safety standards.

These trainings should focus on popular areas like handling, storing, and transferring flammable and combustible liquids. In addition, trainings should also include regular maintenance practices.

How to putout fire and control spillage using different methods People operating storage tanks for storing flammable and combustible liquids must be familiar with the hazards and characteristics of such liquids. Spills can result into costly fires.

Therefore, before any fire occurs, the person responsible for the spill should act promptly and cleanup the area. This is because acts of carelessness during cleanup can cause injury, illness, spread of the liquid to the environment, fire and severe damages to property, or even claim lives.

It is important that people handling flammable and combustible liquids know essential steps in handling spills and controlling fires. Therefore, adequate training, supply of cleanup materials, and protective equipment must be available in the location.

Flammable and combustible liquids need cautious handling, storing, and transferring. However, the general rules to eliminate cases of fire from flammable and combustible liquids involve avoiding sources of open flames such as “smoking, avoiding static electricity, ensuring electrical gadgets are compliant, and preventing hazardous mixtures” (OSHA 53).

Eliminating cases of hazardous mixtures of flammable and combustible is necessary in preventing cases of explosions and fire. Therefore, it is necessary to label all containers used in storing flammable and combustible liquids. It is also important to keep distance between storage tanks and classes of different flammable and combustible liquids.

It is also fundamental to prohibit “smoking and other sources of open flames in areas with flammable and combustible liquids” (NFPA 473). This is the basic step to reducing cases of fire and explosions at such locations.

Therefore, people should not smoke, use matches, lighters, and other materials which may produce flames or sparks when dealing with flammable and combustible liquids. Location of signage must be visible for all people visiting the plant.

Location of fire extinguishers should be conspicuous for all employees for accessibility during a fire. Employees should be familiar with operating instructions of fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers also need regular inspection and maintenance to ensure that they are functional.

According to OSHA, inspection of fire extinguishers should be at least once a year (OSHA 57). There should be a date of inspection and the next date of inspection clearly indicated on the extinguisher.

OSHA recommends that fire extinguishers should be placed facing up and regular inspection of hose for any blockage. Seals should not indicate any sign of tampering.

Employees must also learn how to face a fire with an extinguisher. The NFPA recommends that people should recall “PASS” when handling fires (NFPA 469). These are the steps to observe when extinguishing a fire.

They are pulling or pressing the lever or pin of the extinguisher, aiming at the base of the fire, squeezing the handle to release extinguishing agent, and sweeping from side to side until the fire goes out.

NFPA also indicates that it is dangerous to turn back on a fire. This is because the fire has the potential to flash up again. NFPA and OSHA warn that people should leave the facility in case of a large fire that they cannot handle with available facilities.

They must call the fire department immediately. This should be clearly indicated on the emergency plan in case of a fire. The fire department must provide training on dealing with fires in extreme cases.

Fire fighting remains a dangerous undertaking. It is necessary to invite a fire department to train workers on various methods of handling fires. At the same time, they should also tour the plant and provide recommendations as necessary. It is necessary to identify faulty areas and potential sources of fires.

Cases of poor services of fuel tanks that led to catastrophic disasters: what was wrong or poor service? No fires are similar based on their causes and patterns. However, they have same destructive effects on the environment, property, and sometimes on lives of people. These are the cases of BP Texas City Refinery Explosion and the Buncefield fire of the UK in 2005.

BP Texas City Refinery Explosion The CSB report indicates that BP failed to “implement all the safety recommendations about the blowdown drums before the explosion” (CSB 1). Initial reports had indicated that the company was familiar with the issue of blowdown drums.

Previously, Amoco proposed to replace blowdown drums that vented into the atmosphere. However, there were budget strains changes, and it did not make any changes. OSHA had also expressed its concerns about unsafe design of such pressure releasing system. BP ignored safety issues in order to cut costs.

Blowdown drums and stack operate by means of carrying “the mixed liquid, and or vapor hydrocarbons from venting relief and blowdown valves during unit upsets or following a unit shutdown” (CSB 5). Usually, remaining hydrocarbon vapors detach themselves from the liquid and rise to the top of the stack and escape to the atmosphere.

Heavy, hydrocarbon vapors condense and fall back to the bottom of the blowdown drum for subsequent collections. However, according to the report based on the industry provisions, this method of discharging vapor is hazardous. The codes and other acceptable standards recommended that such facilities should discharge their wastes directly to the sewer.

The company knew that the vapors, which passed through the blowdown drum, were highly inflammable liquid contents, and thus, any explosion could be highly risky. Further, blowdown drums were also sources of fire hazard.

The company heavily depended on the blowdown drum. However, it failed to implement any recommendations from various inspection reports.

Specifically, CSB report put it that the company “failed to replace the internal baffles, decommissioning the quench system, and adding more inlets, which possibly reduced its effectiveness” (CSB 32).

Earlier reports had indicated that the company should install flare systems or closed relief systems. These designs have abilities to reduce such risks considerably.

Many reports have indicated failure of the company to upgrade its systems to acceptable safety standards even after recommendations. Blowdown drum should not vent into the atmosphere due to their risks to the flammable and combustible liquid facilities and the surrounding environment.

The BP Texas City Refinery safety standards of 1977 noted as follows “the industry standards did not permit new blowdown stacks, and BP ought to have connected the blowdown drums to closed systems or flares when the operations of the company outgrew existing facilities, or when it made major modifications to the units” (CSB 67).

The company made changes to the blowdown drums in order to increase their carrying capacities. However, the company did not include any connection to a safe disposal system such as a flare as recommended.

In the year 2002, engineers from the company recommended that BP should connect relief valves to a flare for discharging wastes in order to conserve the environment. However, the company disregarded this recommendation in order to save costs on maintenance.

BP Texas City Refinery Explosion shows the importance of upgrading systems that handle flammable and combustible liquids. It is clear that the explosion resulted from poor and outdated blowdown drum, which could not meet increased activities at the refinery.

Thus, it is important for companies to build their storage facilities to meet acceptable standards in the codes and regulations of various states.

The Buncefield Fire 2005 The report showed that the explosion probably emanated from ignition of a vapor cloud suspected to have originated from a storage tank. This could have happened from overfill of unleaded petrol. However, the report cannot account for the violet blast that occurred at the facility.

The finding points to a failure of the shut down system that lock tank when it is full after delivery. It also focused on the composition of the liquid. This case resulted into a serious environmental concern due to its impacts on the groundwater.

The Buncefield Fire raised issues relating to three areas. This included “design and operation of storage sites, emergency response to incidents, and advice to planning authorities” (HSE 18).

From the design and operation point of view, the facility failed to contain fuel and water (firewater) used in firefighting at all levels. Thus, the facility failed in containment standards. The primary aim of a containment structure is to ensure that the liquid does not spread outside the vessel and dike area.

This indicates that future designs must consider building dikes and other methods of containing the liquid to prevent it from leaving the tank and forming flammable or combustible vapor. The report recommended bund and drains as means of providing secondary and tertiary containment strategies.

There was also a case of “overtopping”. This practice has the potential to produce dangerous and explosive mixtures from flammable and combustible liquids. The report also noted that the design of the tank could have also been a source of vapor formation.

There was also a problem with the location of the pump house. This is the main source of cooling water for the whole plant. The pump house was close to storage facilities and also downhill. The reported indicated that it could have been the source of earlier ignition.

The pump house acted as the source of firefighting for the facility. Its earlier loss left the site with no means to fight the fire. The Board noted that pump house could have exploded internally from the vapor that entered it after escaping the vessel. It posed a threat to fire pumps.

The Board noted that the response to the situation was “very impressive” (HSE 21). It has shown how effective emergency response works in case of a major incident.

It also showed the need to improve in responding to emergency incidents across the UK and other places. The Board noted that the facility, residential, and commercial development should not be near plants like Buncefield.

Works Cited CSB. BP Texas City: Final Investigation Report. Texas: CSB, 2005. Print.

HSE. Buncefield Major Incident Investigation Board. London: Crown, 2006. Print.

NFPA. NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 2012 Edition. Quincy, MA: NFPA, 2012. Print.

OSHA. Regulatory Compliance Guide. Washington, DC: OSHA, 2002. Print.


Toyota Corporation Issue management plan Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Issues Identification

Issues Analysis

Strategy Options

Action Plan

Evaluation of Results

Reference list

Introduction Toyota Corporation is a Japanese automobile manufacturer that is involved in robotics, biotechnology and financial services. The corporation has been in the industry since 1937, and has had a stain-free history and experienced an unprecedented growth in its operation, currently with over 500 subsidiaries and a labor force of more than 300,000 globally; however over the recent times, the corporation has been facing nightmares of all sorts.

The company has been encountered by a number of crises ranging from leadership crisis, public relations, diminishing returns, and the global economic meltdown to the most recent crisis, the accelerator pedal defaults. In counter to these unanticipated situations threatening its continuity and in an attempt to recover from these crises, the corporation’s public relations department was necessitated to formulate an issue management plan.

In developing the issue management plan, the corporation has identified the important aspects that need consideration: the crisis management methods to be adopted, the Toyota communication plan, and the corporation’s management team. It consists of ways of response to the crisis in reality and perception and metrics to define what scenarios are to be handled as crisis (Gottschalk 2002).

Issues Identification The company’s issues identification approach takes into consideration the entire process of ascertaining the financial, political, legal, government and communication problems associated with the crisis at hand. It all started with the financial warning that was issued by the corporation anticipating its first ever loss since its operations commenced close to seventy years ago.

A financial forecast that revealed the first ever operating loss was attributed largely to the slump in sales of the manufactured automobiles and robotics and the fact that that the value of the Yen was continuously becoming inferior to the dollar and other major world currencies.

Toyota problems was compounded by stiff competition from other automobile manufacturers notably Honda and the slump in the global economy occasioned by the events in Wall Street. Manufacturers of automobile around the world were faced with a tough challenge due to a shake in the operating environment that caused a sharp shift in demand because of the deepened financial crisis that spread over consumers in worldwide.

According to The Economist (2010), “the entity had reduced its operating estimate to a loss of 150 Billion Yen in its fiscal year that ended March 2010; the reduced estimate was subsequent to surprising the international economic markets by decreasing its group working earnings predictions by an unparalleled 1 trillion Yen.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Toyota’s situation was further aggreviated by the recall crisis of its recently manufactured automobiles with supposedly faulty braking systems. This all started on 28th August, 2009 when a Californian highway patrol officer was travelling on Highway 125 in Santee California with members of his family when the Lexus ES350 they were travelling in unceremoniously accelerated out of control hitting other vehicles and rolling over an embankment bursting flames, killing all the four occupants.

The incident was said to have been caused by a stuck accelerator that made the vehicle speed uncontrollably. This was followed by a series of similar accidents and complaints from customers over the issue, which led to the recall of over 8.1 million with US reporting 5.5 million cases and also led to suspension of sales of about eight of its best selling brands costing the corporation at least $54 million every day on lost sales.

These crises coupled together have rely had a negative impact on the company’s operations in terms of moneys spend in rectifying the faulty pedals, lost sales, reduced profitability, decreased production and also its public relations. Notably the devastating impacts of these crises are evident on the company’s share, which has hit a new low of $71.80 in the New York stock and the corporation has reduced its networth by about $25 million.

Issues Analysis Due to the proneness of the corporation to variations in the industry, the corporation has adopted a crisis contingency plan to cover uncertainties occurring, unlike in earlier times the corporation operated without a contingency plan that left the corporation at the risk of bad reputation, public scrutiny, even compromising its continuity in case where a crisis erupts.

The recall crisis took the American market by storm because of the negative publicity and anxiety caused to other customers with the latest Toyota models, the public went into a frenzy with many fearing to use our automobiles and discussions on social networks, televisions and print media reaching fever pitch.

The management of the corporation in the US market went into a crisis meeting to evaluate the accuracy of the allegations and possibly do some damage control. The mangled wreck of the vehicle was collected and taken to the Toyota laboratories for investigations. However, preliminary reports on the crash from both the corporation and independent local authorities indeed showed that the Lexus ES 350 was acquired on a loan from Bob Baker Lexus Showroom of San Diego where the personal car of the victim was being held for repair in return. It was also clear that the Lexus may have been fitted with the wrong floor mats thereby interfering with its gas pedal.

From these investigations, management learnt of the inherent risk in the latest automobiles from the American plant supplied into the market. In October 2010, an article in The Economist highlighted the level of hazard caused by the company’s automobiles.

We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those affected were mainly individuals who had purchased their latest automobiles from the American plant. It was also reported that nine other separate incidents where local authority investigations on other accidents involving Toyota vehicles were done.

Majority of the accidents were a consequence of wrong bottom mats and a number of others due to the spruce pieces on the Sienna models. Investigations reported also revealed that the other fatality accidents were as a result of unintended acceleration of the vehicles.

“In depth investigations and analysis by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) further revealed that the mats used on the floor of these automobiles were specifically meant for the RX 400 SUV Toyota Lexus but these were erroneously used on the ES 350 model.” This manufacturing error resulted in the accelerator gearshift to wedge against the rubber mats causing the vehicles to speed up abruptly.

Strategy Options The issues management plan shall incorporate specific management strategy options to be taken during crisis, depending on the nature and extent of the crisis, to minimize the impact of a looming crisis and provide a response mechanism that will mitigate any crisis occurring.

The strategic options should address diverse scenarios of crises ranging from environmental crisis, natural calamities, and technological mishaps; confrontational crisis such as industrial action or crisis arising from management goofs and skewed management values.

For effective strategic positioning in anticipation of crisis, the corporation should provide for crisis planning. Since most crises occur within the predictability of a corporation, for the anticipated crisis, it should identify the dangers or risks involved in its market and come up with an issues management plan, which shows the measures to be put in place when crises strike.

Crisis planning is aimed at minimizing the impact of the crisis and provides a response system and also aims at putting the organization at the best possible position to counteract and recover from crises. However, when planning, the crisis team should be inclusive and not limited to specific disasters, although it can lay more emphasis on the anticipated crisis. A more effective way for the organization to take is creating a crisis management function within its operations.

This operates as a division in the organization and its functions includes; predicting any occurrence of a crisis, planning to curb crisis, communicating and advising the management about the vulnerability of the organization. Issues planning will address matters like crisis management methods, communication plan, management team and the evacuation team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another option is creation of a crisis team that is well prepared to combat any crisis. The management should identify the main players to take positions in the team, based on their specialty, character and ability to work.

The crisis team responsibilities include: restoring information networks, control and commands in times of a crisis while acquiring information, so as to provide the senior staff with adequate information on the situation. To enable teamwork and to solve the crisis, the crisis team needs to adopt crisis management, for example performing drills or scenarios to create an imaginary crisis, to evaluate how the team would respond in times of a real disaster.

At the post-crisis stage, the management should put in place a crisis recovery plan. This involves steps that are necessary to bring back the organization to its functioning position. This involves: existing backup of important information, logs, staff and other lists; conducting an insurance review to make sure that it can adequately compensate all risks incurred; exploring legal elements of recovery with the legal department; and reviewing all current service agreements and check for post-crisis provisions and recovery support.

In a case where the company has experienced enduring crisis, which hinder the company’s operation, it could consider discontinuing the business segment, brand or subsidiary affected by the crisis for sometime or forever; or engaging a strategic business combination, such as merger, takeover or amalgamations.

Although this may seem unwise in the short-term, in the long-term it makes sense to the company in terms of; the crisis may spread to other segments, savings in future losses, company reputation and improve on the company’s return on investment (Reid 2000).

Action Plan For the organization to successfully implement the strategic options at hand, it needs to adopt an action plan. More importantly the action plan should incorporate an elaborate and well-structures communication plan. The communication plan involves coordinating, directing and communicating and providing the levels of command and channels of communication among the crisis team, the stakeholders and media when handling a crisis.

Crisis communication can transform the unexpected into the anticipated and save the company’s credibility and reputation. More importantly is the media management strategy. Media centre is set up that will be headed a chief spokesperson or a senior communications and public relations officer.

From this centre, the Chief Executive Officer and the Managing Director will be personally available to give media updates on the state of affairs. The chief spokesman is supposed handle the media while the rest of the staff are advised to keep off not to communicate with the media personally or give any information that could interrupt the process.

However, the adopted action plan should not be static rather flexible and adaptable with pertinent inclusion of issues and specifics that have come up. The action should ensure inclusion of a clear hierarchy of command that mentions by name and authority assigned to a given position in the case of an emergency. The contact of such personnel both physical addresses, postal addresses and cell phone contacts shall be part of the list to ensure information is conveyed expeditiously.

Evaluation of Results This will entail establishing a mechanism for setting an agenda for evaluation and review. In evaluation of results, feedback is an important pointer. In the midst or after a crisis, the company should institute a corporation feedback mechanism where affected parties will forward their responses and feedback on how they think the situation was handled and ought to have been done or not.

On the corporation’s official website, the management should place a commentary or feedback portal that is interactive and offers necessary information. Also the corporation should design a facility level stakeholders’ scorecards” managed by the corporation’s CSO (The Economist 2009).

Reference list Gottschalk, E. (2002). Crisis Management. Melbourne: John


Mediation in IT Outsourcing Report essay help

Table of Contents Mediation process

Issues in Mediation

Lessons learned


Mediation process Mediation process is an exercise aimed at bringing two parties into an agreement in an outsourcing deal. Vendors or suppliers of Information technology products and services are made to agree on the terms of their relationship with the organization(s) requiring these services.

This mediation process is usually supported by an expert who will at all times ensure that the parties focus on their main goal of entering into a mutually beneficial outsourcing agreement rather than their differences (Rost, 2006). In the mediation process each party will come up with its terms of references and the mediator will facilitate the negotiation process (Sparrow, 2003).

Negotiations between organizations like Condy software services and WeRunIt is usually very challenging because Condys’ agenda will be profit maximization through high sales while WeRunIt will be aiming at maximum profitability through low cost production.

According to Hale (2005) in most cases parties are in agreement as regards the ultimate formation of the outsourcing relationship but the cost and terms/ conditions of engagements usually bring in contention. It is in here that mediation process brings in sobriety to the parties so that their discussions will be directed towards achievement of their ultimate goals.

Issues in Mediation The mediation between WeRunIt and Condy software services mainly focused on the contractual price, period and other conditions. The two organizations debated for a long time over the pricing structure and payment frequencies. This was the most contentious issue but finally the parties came to a crunch and an agreement was arrived at.

Condy agreed to take the responsibility of creating and maintaining WeRunIts’ website. It also signed in to put up an e-commerce module in the website to facilitate online payment and maintain databases of entrants to different promotions. Condy was not able to accept the responsibility for supporting accounting systems of WeRunIt since they did not have expertise in the area.

Contractual period and the termination rights were also discussed and both organizations agreed on a five years renewable contract only to be terminated by a five months notice period by either party. Condy actually lobbied for a longer period of time since the initial capital required to roll out the project was high while WeRunIt wanted a shorter contract period so that it could test the competency of the vendor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The service level agreements were also agreed upon and remedies on cases of downtimes were discussed. WeRunIt actually rooted for an absolute 24 hours a day uptime for the website and e-commerce module but with negations from Condy 2% allowable downtime was agreed to be normal. The service level agreement actually focused more on the quality and reliability of service by Condy software services which WeRunIt was actually assured.

The two parties agreed that ownership of the e-commerce software used would belong to Condy, while the domain name and the web site to WeRunIt. Condy accepted responsibility for the WeRunIt s’ data safety at their premises and therefore it was mandated to ensure that they have proper disaster recovery and back up plans.

Lessons learned During the mediation several lessons were learned and these includes;

The role of mediator is very challenging and requires a person who is impartial and is able to keep both parties in to discussing relevant issues to the agreement (Greaver, 2000).

Mediation agreements are not the making of the facilitator rather the parties consequently they are more binding and results in an amicable settlement.

In mediation not all the expectations are usually satisfied.

References Greaver, M., 2000. Strategic outsourcing: a structured approach to outsourcing decisions and initiatives. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Hale, J., 2005. Outsourcing training and development: Factors for success. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Rost, J., 2006. The insider’s guide to outsourcing risks and rewards. New York: CRC Press.

Sparrow, E., 2003. Successful IT outsourcing: From choosing a provider to managing the project. New York: Springer.

We will write a custom Report on Mediation in IT Outsourcing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


African identity Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

American scholars studying the topic of slavery and in particular African slavery have engaged each other on the issue of African identity. Many of these debates have focused on the ethnological labeling of Africans based on their ethnic identities. One such ethnic grouping that has managed to draw a lot of attention is the Igbo ethnic identity.

The issue of Igbo ethnic identity was brought to the fray by the story of Olaudah Equiano, who in his autobiography claimed to have been born in Igbo land but an American slavery scholar by the name Vincent Carretta disputes Mr. Equiano allegations stating that he was born in America, South Carolina to be precise.

Despite this controversial assertion, Mr. Equiano books managed to attain global acclaim due to its depiction of 18th century African Atlantic identity.

According to his autobiography, Mr. Equiano was captured in Nigeria and sold to American slave owners. Mr. Equiano was later able to purchase his freedom and as a freedman, he was able to travel to different parts of the world learning the various cultures before deciding to settle permanently in England.

Mr. Equiano story is one such depiction of how many of the Africans who were enslaved in various parts of the world during the eighteenth-century slave trade were able to form their identities. As a slave, Mr. Equiano got to travel to the United States and stayed there for quite a while serving his master.

During this time, he was able to learn various aspects of the American culture. As a freedman, Mr. Equiano was able to travel to different parts of the world including Central America, the Caribbean and the Arctic and in these places; he also had an opportunity to learn new cultures of the people that were leaving in these areas.

After deciding to settle in England finally, Mr. Equiano also was able to learn aspects of the English culture and integrate it into his own identity. The story of Mr. Equiano is an essential illustration of the many debates that have been held over time by African slavery scholars on the twin issues of creolisation and retention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some opponents of creolisation argue that even after arriving in America and other foreign destinations, Africans still were in a position to retain their African identities and maintain contact with their African heritage.

However, both sides of the divide seem to concur that the process of African identity development involved the integration of new cultures into the existing African cultures resulting to the new African American and other such corresponding cultures.

One of the specific aspects of African identity during the eighteenth century slave trade period is the aspect of group identity. Group identity was most notable among the well-traveled African slaves who had an opportunity to live in different cultural settings and consequently learning the cultural aspects of the people living in these places.

In order to clearly illustrate this aspect, the story of Domingo Alvarez is used, a Benin born man who was able to live in various parts of the world, including West Africa, Brazil and Portugal. Domingo Alvarez worked as a slave in Brazil and during this time, he was able to apply his knowledge in matters of divinity and healing which he acquired from home to help other people.

This uniqueness enhanced his reputation making him one of the most popular slaves in the farm. However, after using his powers to poison his master Domingo Alvarez, was jailed and on completion of his jail term sold to another master.

The new master wanted to apply Domingo Alvarez in the healing of his wife, but when this failed to materialise, Domingo Alvarez was sold to a third master who in turn wanted to profit from his slave’s talents.

After saving some money that he got from going into business with his master, Domingo Alvarez was able to purchase his freedom and practiced freely before being arrested by Portuguese authorities on charges of witchcraft; this saw him spend time exiled to a remote part of Portugal.

We will write a custom Essay on African identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the trial in Brazil, the issue of Domingo Alvarez identity arose several times and various people who were called to testify made different assertions as to the origin of this man. Domingo Alvarez himself testified that he was born in Nangoˆ on the Mina, however various people who were called to testify had different claims about Mr. Domingo Alvarez birthplace.

This was because Domingo Alvarez had traveled far and wide and consequently, he was able to learn various cultural practices that formed the basis of his identity. During his interactions with the people, Mr. Domingo Alvarez was able to deploy the most convenient identity that resulted in these people making presumptions about his birthplace.

For instance, many people who interacted with him assumed that he was from Mina Nation. However, one of his long-time friends asserted that Mr. Domingo Alvarez was actually from Cobu.

After all, is said and done, the story of Olaudah Equiano and Domingo Alvarez reveals the complexities that went into forming the Atlantic African identity.

These were people whose lives were periodically changed whereby they were taken from one socio-cultural setting to another and consequently, they had to make appropriate adjustments in order for them to fit into these settings.

Therefore, a study that seeks to analyse the African Atlantic identity should place more emphasis their complete life stories as opposed to simply focusing on their ethnic origins.


The Gods Must Be Crazy Essay (Movie Review) essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Interpersonal communication forms



Introduction Interpersonal communication has several meaning according to its application ranging from personality traits, interactional tools, and the mind orientation. To date, there has never been a universally accepted definition what it is thus challenging for one to define his/her meaning.

However, through the life process one acquires a unique collection of experiences and ideas defining who or what they are, and in my opinion, this is a suitable definition of cultural origin and practice. Interpersonal communication trends entail those patterns that revolutionize and changes over time, which can be within days, months or years.

Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly establish the effects of interpersonal communication patterns, perceptions, verbal codes, nonverbal codes, social episodes, and roles on personal communication in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy by Jamie Uys in 1980.

Interpersonal communication forms In the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, the director presents an interesting cultural interaction between the native San tribe living in the Kalahari Desert and the western culture. The plot of the film focuses on the San relatives headed by Xi who are ignorant of modern life outside the Kalahari Desert. Along the story, there is a blossoming love between a scientist and a teacher, poachers, and nature reflection.

The San tribe has everything they need and the gods are fair to them until the Coca-Cola bottle threatens this unity (Uys, scene 18, 1980). The journey to return the Coca-Cola bottle ends up with a long search for two sons who boarded a water track belonging to poachers. Xi displays his survival skills to the modernized parties and the film ends with a happy reunion between father and his two sons.

The cultural patterns in the San tribe directly affect their communication. Being a relatively primitive society, they seem to worship the sky and believe that the jet lanes in the sky are roads made by the gods who were very kind to drop for them a Coca-Cola bottle.

Being a patriarchal hierarchy, the male is the head of the family cluster and makes the crucial decisions. For instance, Xi had to make the final decision to return the bottle since it was bringing a ‘curse’ to his household (Uys, scene 12, 1980).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a communal living culture, the children are expected to play together and have to bow their heads when speaking to the adults. In fact, the communication of visual information and ideas for the last four centuries has been the function that has enabled science to advance, has it has helped people to see how things work.

The members of this culture have different sounds for different occasions. For instance, hunting which is a preserve for the males is organized and executed in a unique communication signs. Whenever the hunting is successful, the young adult children would be the first to make it into the village and the adults would share the catch to all the households.

The male adults have their special caucuses where they spit on the ground as an approval sign or sigh to reject an opinion. Thus, Visual representational meaning of the communication conveys the relationship between the parties and the depicted structuring.

The creation of a visual representational meaning proposed the space-based model for analysis centered in the placement of objects within the semiotic space as controlled and regulated by culture of the parties involved.

In the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, several events connote the nonverbal communication of the San tribe culture. For instance, when the younger son of Xi has to face the hyena threatening to kill him, he reaches for a rod and places it on his head to extend his height probably because hyenas don’t eat adults.

On the other hand, the throwing away of the Coca-Cola bottle by Xi could be translated as a sign of disappointment or anger. Besides, throwing food on the ground before and after eating would symbolize feeding the ancestors who provided for their daily needs.

Across the film, Xi is fond of placing his left hand on either the forehead or the chest of the person he is communicating with to symbolize peace, blessings, or love for humanity (Uys, scene 16, 1980). Moreover, the marking of animal footprints would represent the nonverbal communication of tracking animals.

We will write a custom Essay on The Gods Must Be Crazy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are several special features to the verbal and nonverbal codes used by the members of the San clan in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy. There is gradual transformation on the film. The only difference in culture lies on the degree and multitude under which it is applied and actively recognized by the community in their proactive reorganization for relevance and meanings of the codes used.

For instance, the San culture has embraced dependence as families and adopts extended affiliations as opposed to nuclear family ties. As these families grow bigger and bigger, the majority has finally accepted every member of their families as equals when allocating resources, opportunities, and roles.

This trend has necessitated the adoption of cognitive descent, which is a fusion between traditional and spiritual belief orientation that ensures continuity (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).

Basically, the verbal and nonverbal codes within this culture are controlled by a collective responsibly and common understanding of what is expected of each member who is assigned a unique role.

There are three kinds of meanings that are concerned with building relationships between the communicating parties that clearly come out in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy: those of (1) attitude, (2) social distance, and (3) contact.

Contact is one of the most important visual systems as it enables the viewer to distinguish between images that depict different objects, such as person or animal. Contact visualization is commonly achieved by use the plot that introduces the characters at the beginning of the story (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).

Being a predominantly conservative society, the San tribe in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy has distinct social episodes that are governed by specific cultural rules. For instance, in episode 12, when Xi finally makes it to the cliff top surrounded by low lying clouds, he automatically assumes that he had made it to the world’s edge and releases the bottle down the cliff (Uys, scene 19, 1980).

He then makes it back to his family and the whole clan welcomes him with a warm reception. In this episode, it is apparent that making a journey to the edge of the world and coming back a live is equivocal to going to war and coming back alive.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Gods Must Be Crazy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This symbolizes the blessings and protection from the gods and must be celebrated. In addition, the San clan believed that they are the only human being on that world and Xi reacts very strangely and assumes that the people he met outside the San clan are actually gods who seemed comparatively huge and had road vehicles.

Unlike this uniform social structure of interpersonal communication exhibited by the San Clan, it is apparent that the same would not be possible, especially in the Middle Eastern social structure of interpersonal communication that functions in class system stratification though inclusive of hidden discrepancies associated with caste system such as discrimination of the minorities due to skin color, gender, race, nationality, and religion since it is a state acquired in life and not determined by birth.

Being an intriguing idea, the film focuses on social norms as a mirrored reflection of what a society would like to visualize from a string of intertwining ideas. Social norms involve impersonal consciousness, stepwise process, and absolute necessity assumptions aimed at creating a sustainable, friendly, and acceptable irksome feeling (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).

The film seems to propagate the significance of culture in interpersonal communication. To begin with, the story line is thought-provoking. On the other hand, it has an interesting struggle premise taking the route of a thought-provoking to venture down the path of action and belief scenes.

Reflectively, this creates a feeling of imaginative casting. Factually, the film The Gods Must Be Crazy is very fascinating in aligning beliefs to culture and how the same is interpreted in the interpersonal communication through symbols and codes. This is a vicissitude of life, items that Xi and his two sons turn about to be a necessity for their survival (Uys, scene 21, 1980).

Conclusion Generally, the film The Gods Must Be Crazy has an interesting plot besides its richness in augmenting interpersonal communication as a component of culture. The director has fused a documentary approach and humor to present a favorable piece of art that would be of great benefit to an individual interested in exploring intercultural communication and its variable at micro and macro levels of a geographical setting.

References Alder, R., Rolls, J.,


Debate of Gun Control in America Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Gun control issue

Major debate

Views of opponents

Views of proponents


Gun control issue The issue of gun control raises a very contested debate whenever any act of violence is committed and a gun is involved executing it. Several stakeholders, including politicians, policy implementers, gun lobbyists, and the civil society have been engaging in the discussion for over a century, but an ultimate response is yet to be reached.

Those suggesting that ownership of the gun is illegal and unethical observe that the local authorities and the federal agencies in charge of the gun control policy are not doing enough in terms of policy formulation because the rate at which people acquire guns and use them to destroy life is alarming.

Indeed, it is a threat to the national security. For the advocates, they present a dissenting view by noting that the law goes too far, which amounts to infringement of individual rights.

Opponents of gun control defend the argument that each American should be allowed to own a gun since introducing control measures prevent individuals from protecting their lives and property. For instance, hunters, sport shooters, and recreational gunmen should be allowed to acquire guns since their aim is not to harm anyone, but instead to enjoy their lives (Lavery


Early intervention programs Research Paper essay help: essay help

Abstract The number of children whose academic, social and intellectual life is affected due to mental and developmental conditions is on the rise. Most of these conditions develop to uncontrollable levels because of ignorance or negligence. The many myths surrounding mental or developmental conditions are a major cause of families of affected children to develop bitterness and to shy off from seeking appropriate help in time.

Several early intervention programs have been put in place, and the number of beneficiaries of these programs is increasing by the day. Affected children are given a different perspective in life and their families are helped to deal with any form of intimidation and shame they may be going through.

This research seeks to look into early intervention programs and their effectiveness. Other factors tackled herein include the memory functions that affect reading comprehension as well as the various developmental factors that influence reading acquisition.

Introduction Young children are more exposed to attack on their health, and are therefore more likely to have disability or handicap of any form. If such a discovery upon a child is made, early intervention is put into application. It either includes helping the affected child and his immediate family to prevent development of such a condition or assisting in control of the condition, in cases where the condition has already developed.

Early intervention is not only restricted to hospitals and health care centers, but it is also practiced in schools, homes and in other relevant units. It also covers children in all stages of life including new born babies. Early intervention is not merely done for the child’s welfare, but also for the child’s family and for the society at large; a child on whom early intervention is done tends to be more productive and profitable to his family and the society.

Importance of early intervention Research reports from reliable sources indicate that parents of children who have a handicap or a similar condition are more likely to divorce or separate than parents of non handicapped children (Sousa, p 54).

It is also reported that the careers of the parents are greatly affected, and one of the parents ends up being laid off or resigning early from work. There is also a tendency of such families to keep to themselves because of shame and low self esteem (Lapp, p 98). All of the above effects are likely to be a major drawback to the child’s mental and emotional growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also easier to shape a young person into anything, and the ease with which one can learn and do an acquired thing decreases with age. Since children gain knowledge and grow physically, mentally and psychologically faster when young, it is recommended that early intervention is carried out the earliest possible (Sousa, p 101).

A child’s conscience is innocent, and it is easier to teach a child to adapt to a handicap without developing self pity than it is to teach an adult or an older person. It is therefore advisable to implement an early intervention program as soon as any development of a condition is suspected (Sousa, p 101).

How successful is early intervention? It has been proved that early intervention works, as gathered from collected data, parents, teachers, and siblings of affected children. The beneficiaries of such programs are said to perform better in school, to have better proficiency in employment and to have better relations with people than those who did not undergo the program (Richardson, p 243).

According to research findings, those that do not have early intervention practiced on them are very anti-social, and they show no appreciation for education. Most of them also repeat classes and lack motivation for pursuing studies beyond O-level (Lapp, p 132).

There are various early intervention programs that have shown efficiency over the years. Such programs are different in what they tackle, and they affect different classes of conditions that affect children and their families. Successful programs include: those that cover children between the age of three and six years inclusive who show problems in how they behave (Lapp, p 152).

An example of such a program is Exploring Together Preschool Program (ETPP). Another type of early intervention programs are those that deal with helping children who are at a risk of getting certain diseases because of being overweight. Other programs help children who have mental problems and children who are hyperactive and are at a risk of having emotional crisis and are in need for excessive attention (Sousa, p 146).

For children who are a bit older and they have difficulties in reading, programs are implemented to assist them to have fluency and to build their vocabulary. This is done by giving them passages to read over a period of several weeks or even months, depending on the rate at which the children are learning.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Early intervention programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The complexity of these passages increases with time as the children develop “automatic decoding.” According to Richardson, reading done persistently and consistently over a period of time eventually develops the ability in the child to be fluent and sharp without any effort to think about it, something he calls “over reading.” The two most effective ways of assisting such children are the use of reciprocal teaching and the use of self questioning (Richardson, p 310).

Brain based factors using memory functions to build reading comprehension The working memory of the brain is what in to read, to understand and to reason argumentatively. The information one reads is developed in the brain and laid up in the memory (Sousa, p 155). For a child to have full comprehension of what he or she reads, several functions of the memory have to be in place.

The receptive memory enables the child to have the decoding ability of what they read. After decoding, the contents of the material are not yet home. The proper functioning of the conservative memory will enable the decoded message to be retained in a specific part of the brain, after which the message is developed and built upon in the multiplicative memory (Richardson, p 245).

The significative memory will help the child to compare or relate the information they read with any other related information that may have stored in their memory. Both the restorative and the determinative memory functions process the read information so as to give it more meaningfulness (Richardson, p 247). How meaningful a piece of information is will be seen by the output seen from the child. These functions enhance the child’s remembering ability and his application of the knowledge (Lapp, p 149).

Basically, reading comprehension entails the ability to not only read a particular article, but to also acquire meaning from it and to have a helpful interpretation of the contents therein. For children who may have sustained mild or severe brain injuries, reading comprehension becomes somewhat challenging.

Most of these children suffer from dyslexia, a condition in which a child may be able to read any article with fluency but with difficulties in understanding the contents of the article. Brain health and fitness is important if one is to have accurate comprehension of what they read (Richardson, p 65).

Developmental factors that interact with the acquisition of reading The development of a child is influenced by various factors which in turn influence the way in which the child will acquire reading skills. The relationships that surround a child determine how the child will develop mentally. Such relationships include those between the child and his parents, siblings and other influential people in the child’s life.

The child also watches how the parents relate to each other, how elder siblings relate to each other and how teachers relate to each other (Lapp, p 105). The above mentioned relationships have a way of programming the neurons of the brain to produce positive or negative development of the child. This directly affects the performance of the child academically and in other areas (Sousa, p 204).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Early intervention programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rate of development of the brain in the lifetime of a child is determined by the developmental rate of his brain in the first three years of his life (Richardson, p 196). In these three years, the development of the child’s brain is mostly determined by those who give care to the child.

In most cases, a child has both parents working the whole day, and the child is left in the hands of a nanny or in a day care nursery. Research shows that children who pass through day care nurseries have better reading acquisition skills than those who do not. This is because in such nurseries, the child is not just looked after before the parents get home from work, but they are also prepared for pre-school (Sousa, p 121).

Another developmental factor that influences how a child will acquire reading skills in their academic lifetime is the kind of socioeconomic status they are brought up in. Poverty in a family slows down a child’s development, and it has been found to have direct traumatic effects on the child.

It limits the child’s thinking capacity and it draws out the morale of developing themselves by learning (Lapp, p 43). Such children have a low self esteem and they believe that they cannot achieve what another child can. The effects of poverty on a child follow that child in other areas of his life and up to an advanced age (Lapp, p 49).

Because of lack of money, the child’s parents may also not be in a position to pay for the child’s fees or to buy resourceful materials and books. Therefore, the efforts of a child who has self motivation to read are invalidated.

Poverty also has indirect effects on a child. Poverty has been a known cause for domestic fights between parents, which adversely affects the child’s development and perspective of life. Parents who result to drinking, drug abuse and prostitution become a bad influence to the child, who may end up adapting a similar lifestyle (Richardson, p 476).

Poverty translates to under nutrition and malnutrition. This means that the child does not have the opportunity to eat foods that contain nutrients which enhance brain development (Lapp, p 174). As a result of malnutrition, the child is also prone to deficiency diseases. This affects the child’s development in many ways.

For example, the sick child is not able to participate in outdoor activities that go a long way in helping a child develop. He is not able to play and interact with other children. Sickness may also mean that the child will be out of school many times. This may lead to the child having to repeat some classes; a major cause of low self esteem and a poor self image in the child (Lapp, p 186).

Conclusion Conditions pertaining to the child’s mental wellness are influenced by various factors, some of which are unchangeable. It is virtually not achievable to make a child immune, or so to say, from development of any condition that may affect their thinking, reasoning and developmental capacity, but it is possible, upon suspicion of any development, to change the course of a child’s life using a suitable early intervention program. Early intervention programs are not only effective and beneficial to the child, but also to their families and to the society at large.

Works Cited Sousa, A. David. How the brain learns to read. California: Corwin Press, 2005, p 246.

Richardson, S. Judy, Morgan, F., Raymond


Volunteer tourism Essay essay help

Introduction Volunteer tourism is undertaken by the tourists in the local communities where they volunteer to help the by helping eliminating material poverty. It is an alternative form of tourism because the tourists opt to make their travel locally.

Motivations for participants in volunteer tourism The main motivation of this kind of tourism is to volunteer in working for the host community as the tourists learn more about their culture and other things. They satisfy the desire to work but not to be just tourists. They work for no pay in the communities that they travel to and this benefits in providing free labor, though short term to the host country or community.

There are other tourists that are motivated by the desire to give (Sin, 2009, 487-491). When they visit these communities they try to alleviate poverty materials by giving items to the people. The needy people benefits from these items and the tourists are satisfied. They argue that they feel good when they give. There are other tourists that participate in volunteer tourism in order to contribute to the host community in any way possible.

This is done through community service activities that these participants undertake. They do volunteer work that help the community and they themselves feel that they have contributed to the community.

Others argue that they learn a lot through community service because they get a chance to interact with the people in the community and learn a lot from them. They learn cultural differences between different communities and how they differ from each other. They also learn how the reception is done by different communities and how they differ from each other.

According to (Sin, 2009, 487-491), volunteers in this kind of tourism are also motivated by the desire to try themselves out in doing something.

There are people who engage in it in order to try whether they can do volunteering. This is mostly for people who are doing it for the first time and who are curious to know whether they are capable of doing it. This motivation has increased volunteer tourism in most countries. People also do it in order to try their ability in doing some activities. They test their capability in doing that particular activity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of volunteer experience Volunteer experience causes intrinsic motivation which is a result of mutually beneficial interaction. The intrinsic motivations tries to satisfy intrinsic needs like self actualization and therefore the tourists will feel satisfied when they are in volunteer travels. This is basically for people seeking self actualization (Stebbins


Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Kudler Fine Foods: An Overview

Main Aim of Draft Strategic Plan

The Vision

SWOT Analysis

Market analysis

Risk Management Plan



Kudler Fine Foods: An Overview Kudler Fine Foods was established in 1998 and deals with food products. It has been growing and expanding steadily over the years and it now plans to diversify on its products portfolio. This is in addition to ensuring that the customers are being served effectively and efficiently (Atkinson, 2008).

The company is planning to improve on its catering services and open another store. This will be enabled by effective marketing and strategic changes within the company. By carefully studying the internal and external environment of the company, it will be possible to carry out a marketing campaign that will improve the competitiveness of the company in the market.

It needs to integrate modern technology with its operations to enable it reach out to many people through the internet and thus increase its market base. This will also make operations faster and efficient (Atkinson, 2008).

Main Aim of Draft Strategic Plan The main aim of the draft Strategic plan for Kudler Fine Foods is to provide a framework for improving its catering services together with coping with the growth and opening of another store.

The first action in the formulation of the strategic plan is to re-draft the vision and mission statements to reflect the values of the company and make it relevant and competitive in the market. The vision will be focused on offering a variety of food products to cater for the diverse nature of the clientele’s culture. This change in vision will result in a corresponding change in the mission statement in order to pursue the new vision.

The second step will be a SWOT analysis of the firm. This will involve the review of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in the industry within which the firm is operating within. This analysis will help in the drafting of new company values and aligning the same with the new vision, mission, objectives and goals as mapped out in the company’s strategic plan (Keizer, 2009).

A market analysis is required to determine the feasibility of expansion brought about by the opening of a new store. The expansion plan is the major part of the project. This will involve the marketing strategy and many other important aspects related to the new establishment (Alkhafaji, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the final step in the expansion plan. Once the new food store is established, the project will be considered as complete. The company will have a website through which it advertises all its services, in addition to a fan page on Facebook and MySpace. The different outside catering services and new outsourcing activities like mid-morning catering for tea and snacks will also be introduced (Lumbourgh, 2009).

The Vision The vision statement should focus on the diversity of the clientele. This is given that the customers are mostly drawn from the working class, students and travelers. They all have different preferences; for example, the travelers will prefer take-away snacks, working class customers are likely to eat from the joint whereas the students fit in both categories.

The idea of outside catering also needs to be embedded in the vision statement to highlight Kudler Fine Foods’ prowess in providing outside catering services. This will directly affect the mission statement.

The values of the company include offering first class service to its customers and an established good customer relation. The cordial relations extend to the business environment to include the suppliers and community at large.

The employees of Kudler Fine Foods share a familial relationship. Innovation and diligence amongst the staff will be highly rewarded. This should be maintained at all times to foster a working environment conducive for invention, innovation and a productive working culture.

SWOT Analysis 1. Strengths

A competent management team which is self motivated

A positive track record in the community

An established and wide customer base

Growth in corporate clientele base

Competitive advantage over other food stores because of the variety of foods offered

Location in the Central Business District

Extensive sitting space which can accommodate a large number of customers

2. Weaknesses

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inadequate members of staff

Increased operation costs, for example electricity and license fees

A financial management system that is prone to errors

3. Opportunities

Provision of services on a twenty-four hour basis since the bus companies in the vicinity have buses arriving and departing late in the night and at dawn

Increase in the number of events organizing companies providing opportunities for outside catering

4. Threats

Market is very sensitive to price fluctuations

New competition in the market from new establishments

Lack of enough experienced staff

Market analysis Improvement of Kudler Fine Foods’ stores is included in the plan for expansion and restructuring of the company to deal with the competition in the market. In order to successfully capture customers’ preferences and needs, a market analysis will be carried out for a period of two months.

This is in order to analyze customer satisfaction, needs and experiences that will help determine the scope of operations in the new store (Alkhafaji, 2003). The new foods’ store will be four streets away from the parent store and will be named Kudler Fine Dishes.

It is targeting clients drawn from the establishments on the other side of town, clients interested in subjecting their palates to nice food. This will take the services near the client in addition to attracting new clientele. Kudler Fine Dishes will have a new look. Branding and enhancement of staff appearance will also be carried out.

Training on members of staff will be carried out to improve customer relations and management skills amongst all the new and old members of staff. This is in line with previous feedback on the conduct and quality of services provided by staff.

An analysis will be carried out to discern different food preferences during different hours of the day. It will also include gauging the perception of new services, for example outsourcing to a different company the mid morning catering services. The new establishment will have a smaller sitting capacity.

The project is feasible and Kudler Fine Foods is in a position to successfully implement the project of opening a new food store. This feasibility statement is aimed at highlighting the position of the management on the project and the unanimous acceptance of the same.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The new food store is scheduled to open in five months’ time and its operations will start immediately.

Success Factors for Implementing the Plan

A strong financial base

A competent and focused management team

Self motivated and hardworking staff

Pre-amble planning and analysis of the project

A wide client base

A positive track record in catering services

Budgetary Allocations

Activity/ Product Units Allocated Cost (US$) Real Cost (US$) Space Rent 1 600 Interior design


Institutional Implementation of Technology Coursework scholarship essay help

The interviewee, an instructional technologist, works in a training facility that provides instructions to teachers on how to incorporate technology into their class plans. From the interview it was established that the major forms of technology being put into use are computer systems and networking facilities.

The interviewee trains teachers on how to use computer software to draft lesson plans as well as ensure proper delivery of lecture material. Some other forms of technology that are implemented include projection systems, interactive whiteboards, interactive tablets, wireless responders, laptops, digital cameras, iPods, flip cameras, televisions and document cameras.

These teachers go through sessions of training to show them how they can use the likes of power-point presentations while delivering lectures. They are taken through all the basic operations that are associated to a particular technology so that they can put it into use as effectively as possible.

With most forms of technology, reliability and stability is heavily dependent on the expertise of the handler and the frequency of use (Jonassen, 2005). The more acquainted to a particular technology a person is, the easier it is for him to use it reliably. The security of the technologies mentioned above depends on a number of factors.

Computers systems especially those with connection to external networks are prone to attacks by viruses and Trojans, as well as invasion by hackers who may end up maliciously locking up the systems. Fortunately, various antivirus and firewall software have been developed and these can be used to maintain the integrity of the systems. Other machines such as projectors and televisions are prone to break-downs occasioned by power surges (Maier, 1998).

The interviewee offers most of his training on location and most of the time she is the sole member of staff. Being a trained professional, she can easily operate the various systems that are installed in the schools she visits to offer the training.

Once she has departed from the institutions after providing the necessary training to the teachers, the users of the technology at a particular time then become the only required staffs. In some instances, the teachers may decide to employ the services of an assistant especially in setting up things like projectors and monitor screens. In this case the assistant and the teacher become the two staff members.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the interview, the technological integration training is ideal for individuals with experience in classroom teaching and who comprehensively understand the curriculum. This is understandable because for most of the time the tutors will be the only staffs attending to the specific technologies. In schools with computers connected to an outside network, the services of a network administrator may be required.

I have been able to learn that there are professionals out there who specialize in training individuals (specifically teachers) on how to properly use technology in a classroom setting to further enhance their delivery.

It was interesting to note that entrenching the use of technology into classroom activities can serve to lighten the work of passing the message across. I have also been able to learn that the teachers while putting into use network related activities can work in tandem with network administrators to ensure that the sites they intend to have their students conduct research from contain material that is appropriate.

Reference List Jonassen, D. (2005). Modeling with Technology: Mindtools for Conceptual Change. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Maier, P. (1998). Using technology in teaching