The Types Of Features Used In Different Television Shows Essay (Critical Writing) Essay Help

Introduction Television stations present various types of shows ranging from talk shows, comedies, drama series, movies, news and documentaries. Television stations play a major role in shaping the opinion of the public (Barnlund, 2008). To effectively capture the targeted viewers, several factors have to be considered by the television stations.

Some of the factors considered by the television stations before setting up shows include the time when the shows will be aired. Different times of the day attract different types of viewers. Other factors that the television stations consider include the setup of the studios or the show rooms, the characters that will participate in the shows and the kinds of languages to be used in the shows.

The purpose of this study is to generally analyze the types of features used in different television shows. The study will also highlight the relevance of the physical set up of a show room in regard to the image the show wants to portray to its audience.

The study will also examine the use of language in different television shows. Comparing and contrasting the Power Breakfast Show with Tyra Bank’s Show Power Breakfast is a talk show. It is hosted by a local national television station. It is aired live every morning from Monday to Friday starting from 6.00a.m to 6.00p.m. It is hosted by two presenters.

The dress code of the presenters is formal. The background color of the show room is dark orange, with a light orange shade effect on the two corners of each wall. These color combinations bring about warm and smooth effects in the show room. On one of the walls is the show’s logo which is a mug of hot coffee placed on a saucer with a spoon beside it.

Next to the logo are some decorations which comprise three stripes of different colors which are light yellow, dark red and brown. The said colors are well blended to form a beautiful background of the tea mug.

Other physical things found in the showroom are two brown executive leather sofa sets and a coffee table made of glass placed in front of the two seats. The room is well lit with small and executive wall bulbs. The entire floor is covered with a nice brown carpet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The show starts with the review of the two most read daily newspapers in the country. The presenters usually perform in depth analyses of the major headlines of the newspapers. After the review, the viewers are asked to participate in an interactive session whose major theme is usually a key issue highlighted by either of the newspapers under analysis.

The viewers are requested to respond to the theme by giving their comments and opinions by way of sending text messages through their mobile phones. Selected comments and opinions of some of the viewers are read out to the general viewers towards the end of the show.

The next part of the show is a session between the presenters and guests who are normally politicians. With the anticipated presidential elections, the agendas of the planned shows are usually about the presidential elections.

Being a morning show, the interior decorations are valid for the show. The show’s logo says it all. The colors are inviting and welcoming to the viewers. The furniture too is ideal for a morning show as it sets the mood of relaxation. This is quite ideal for the invited guests. This creates a comfortable and conducive environment for the show. The presenters are lively.

They officially welcome the guests to the show with warm handshakes. The presenters make short introductory comments about the guests and the topic of the show. The presenters set the direction of the show by asking relevant questions to the guests in a systematic way.

The guests thank the hosts for the invitation to the program. The guests answer each of the questions asked. At the end of the show, the presenters thank both the viewers and the guests for participating. The guests give some closing remarks and thank the viewers and the hosts.

On the other hand, the Tyra Bank’s Show is a national talk show that interviews public figures, celebrities and models. The aim of the show is to bring into the limelight the life styles of newsmakers. The host is dressed in nice casual wear. The show has an audience that is seated in one side of the room and on the other side is the show’s host presenter.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Types of Features Used in Different Television Shows specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is glamorous looking furniture for the host and for the invited guest. The walls are coated with alluring colors. The floor is fitted with fascinating floor tiles that seem to blend well with the wall colors. The audience is very excited. The host welcomes the guest not only by a warm handshake but also with a hug. As the guest walks into the show room, the audience applauds him.

After waving to the audience for a short while, he is invited to take a seat and is offered a drink. The talk show begins by the host welcoming the guest. The guest is then asked to introduce himself to the audience and the viewers by giving them a brief history of his life. The interview continues with the presenter dictating the momentum of the show. At some point, the audience is given a chance to ask the guest a few questions.

This is the tricky part of the show for the presenter has to intervene in some of the questions asked. At the end of the show, the presenter thanks the guest, audience and the viewers. The guest is invited to make some closing remarks. The show ends with the excited audience applauding the host and the guest.

The host and the guest are seen walking out of the show room as they wave to the audience. A section of the audience is seen taking photographs of both the host and the guest.

From the two television shows, we can deduce that the decorations are quite appropriate for each of the shows. The dress code for the presenters in the two shows is quite ideal in respect to the targeted viewers. Comparing the living rooms of two families in Shriek comedy series Shriek is one of the local children’s comedy series aired every Thursday evening.

Dylan and Ryan are characters in Shriek comedy series and come from less affluent families. They live in a ghetto in Harlem. Walter and Joy are also characters in Shriek comedy series. They come from wealthy families and live in an affluent suburb situated next to the ghetto in which Dylan and Ryan live. All these mentioned characters are children. They are friends too.

The current show compares the lives of the children from the four families. In one of the scenes, the children from the wealthy families are seen taking sumptuous breakfast while the school buses are hooting at their gates waiting for them at their respective residences.

In a contrasting scene, the children from the less affluent families are seen complaining that mere slices of bread are not enough for their breakfast. In a short while, Dylan and Ryan are seen walking to school in torn shoes. The living rooms of the less affluent families are multipurpose. The rooms are used for cooking, relaxation and also serve as bedrooms.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Types of Features Used in Different Television Shows by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The seating areas have single, tattered sofa sets and old wooden tables. On the other side of the picture are state of the art living rooms with executive sofa sets, coffee tables, water dispensers and television sets. The furniture portrayed in the two scenes seems to reflect very well the social and economic statuses of the four families.

Use of language in two television programs: Cross Fire and Capital Talk Cross Fire is a local television program with five panelists who analyze current political affairs. The host introduces the motion of the day. Being a debate, the debaters engage each other in very heated discussions.

The show is generally characterized by the use of formal language. Capital Talk on the other hand is based on an interview between the host and the guest. The guest may be any individual who has made some significant contribution of any form to the society.

Use of language is generally informal. The discussion is usually made in low tones as heated exchanges of words are rare between the host and the guest. The mood of the show in most cases does not change.

Reference Barnlund, D. C. (2008). A transactional model of communication. In. C. D. Mortensen (Eds.), Communication theory 2nd ed. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction.


Differences between Jails and Prisons Essay writing essay help

The terms “jail” and “prison” refer to two different correctional facilities even though many people use them interchangeably. These two facilities have the same goals and objectives but differ in the means that they use to achieve them.

They both fall under the correctional facilities umbrella and offer different services that are meant to help offenders reform. However, many differences distinguish them. These include their mode of operation, the size of facilities, the source of funding and the length of sentence for offenders.

First, a jail is a place where people who are under lawful detention are apprehended while a prison is a place where convicted people are confined (Doak, 1999, p.29). Therefore, jails are for people who are awaiting trial for various crimes and misdemeanors while prisons are for people who have been convicted for committing crime (Doak, 1999, p.29).

In most cases, jail sentences last for less than one year. On the other hand, the length of a prison sentence is much longer than a jail sentence and may be even for a lifetime. Once convicted, a felon may serve a sentence that may range from a few months to several years.

Secondly, jails and prisons differ in the number of amenities they offer. Jails have fewer amenities compared to prisons because they confine offenders for short periods of time (Doak, 1999, p.30). Examples of amenities provided for people in jail include food, safety, clothing and housing.

Some jails offer additional amenities such as work release programs and vocational services to help offenders deal with personal problems such as drug and substance abuse. In contrast, prisons offer a greater variety of amenities to offenders.

These amenities include work release programs, recreation, vocational training, entertainment facilities, housing, food and clothing (Doak, 1999, p.30). These amenities are important because most inmates spend a greater portion of their life in prison.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly, prisons and jails differ in their source of funding. Jails often have limited funding because they are managed by counties and cities while prisons have more funding because they are managed by the state or federal government (Kelly, 1999, p.35).

Jails have fewer and smaller facilities and can only hold a limited number of people. Prisons have larger facilities and confine more people because they receive more funding. A prison holds more people than a jail does and the prisoners are grouped based on the type of crime they were convicted for (Kelly, 1999, p.35). This is measure is undertaken as a safety precaution because some prisoners are extremely dangerous.

Fourthly, the facilities found in prisons are larger and more tightly secured unlike in jails where facilities are smaller and less tightly secured (Kelly, 1999, p.38). In countries that allow capital punishment, prisons have facilities to perform capital punishment in addition to special housing facilities for these prisoners.

In contrast, jails lack capital punishment facilities and prisoners are not segregated as they are in prisons. Prisons are tightly secured to prevent escapes and violence between the different groups of prisoners (Kelly, 1999, p.38). In addition, prison staff is specially trained in order to be able to handle prisoners without confrontations.

In conclusion, the primary difference between a jail and a prison is their jurisdiction and the length of sentences served by offenders. Jails are managed by local authorities and are used to confine offenders for less than one year. In contrast, prisons are managed by the state and are used to detain convicted offenders with long sentences.

References Doak, M. (1999). Crime Prisons and Jails. Philadelphia: Gale Publishers.

Kelly, Z. (1999). Correctional Facilities. New York: Rourke Publishing Group.

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Communication Techniques in Public Speaking Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Public speaking refers to the process of information delivery with the aim of influencing the audience in a soothing, informative or entertaining manner. In this case, it should be presented in a purposeful manner that considers the objective of the speech. Initially, a public speaker has to watch the words in the content of a speech, to deliver the right message.

This implies that a public speaker has to limit the frequency of using the word ‘I’ in the course of speech delivery. One main reason for this is to demonstrate that the audience is part of his or her interest in the speech. In addition, it implies that the public speaker is discussing vital issues that do not only affect one’s life but the whole group.

Through this process, a public speaker gains attention from the audience leading to effective delivery of intended information. The way to counter this challenge demands utilization of the word ‘you’ in the speech. This will reduce biasness and impartiality since the message seems to influence the lives of the listeners.

In addition, it makes the whole speech captivating as the speaker draws interests of the audience to the forefront. On the other hand, the speech is viewed as a participative process with no specific individual targeted since it touches everyone.

The number of extemporaneously public speeches has significantly increased in the United States. This is attributed to the sense of originality attributed to the speech because no preparation is done before it is delivered. In this case, extemporaneous speeches depict an individual’s confidence in handling new issues in front of other people.

Consequently, an individual is forced to formulate a speech that would be persuasive and informative to the audience. This method is more popular to common speeches, which are delivered in a memorized manner, impromptu way or through adoption of a manuscript. In this case, the methods do not offer a chance to deliver new-fangled issues in a unique manner.

In addition, the former methods do not stimulate the inner spirit of an individual to address issues in logical and realistic way in case they are non-routine issues. If use of manuscripts or memorization is used to deliver public speech, it indicates that the speaker is not well conversant with the topics being addressed. As a result, the speech would be boring, withdrawing the attention of the audience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, it reflects the lack of ability to influence the audience since information is not from one’s mind. Though an impromptu speech could resemble the concept of an extemporaneous one, it varies, in that a speaker is chosen from a group with no idea of what to present. This information delivered could be affected by the level of confidence during the presentation of the speech.

When presenting a public speech, it is essential to counter stage fright. In most cases, fright arises because of the lack of content to present and deficiency of personal eloquence. If a public speaker addresses the above challenges, his or her performance in front of an audience will be improved.


Warfare in the High Skies Proposal essay help free

Table of Contents Aims and Objectives

Justification for the Topic

Need for the Study

Importance of the Study

Sources of information

Etihad Airways and Emirates Airways are two rival airlines operating from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This proposal looks at several components of a research project designed to look at the elements of their marketing strategies, against the backdrop of their rivalry.

Aims and Objectives The aim of the study is to determine the factors affecting the choice of market entry models in the international market. Emirates Airlines and the Etihad Airlines have managed to break into international markets despite bitter domestic rivalry. This makes them the best candidates for the study.

The objectives of the study will be as follows:

To investigate the market entry models of Etihad Airlines and the Emirates Airlines.

To investigate the defining elements and the implications of the rivalry between the Etihad Airlines and the Emirates Airlines.

To determine the long term prospects of the two airlines in relation to their existing marketing strategies in the context of their rivalry

Justification for the Topic Etihad Airways and Emirates Airlines are bitter rivals in the airline sector in the UAE. The two airlines have been competing for market share since the establishment of Etihad Airlines. The significant difference between these two airlines is that Etihad Airlines is much younger than Emirates Airlines.

Despite this, Etihad Airlines is proving to be a strong competitor for leadership in the UAE airspace. The main question this leads to is “how can a young company take on an established company and become a fierce rival?” Secondly, “what marketing strategies do the two airlines use, and how do these strategies contribute towards their success?”

Need for the Study The need to study the rivalry between Etihad Airlines and the Emirates Airlines comes from the following reasons. First, marketing determines the success or failure of any business. Therefore, the fact that Etihad Airlines and Emirates Airlines are each successful in their own right makes them ideal candidates for a study in marketing strategy.

Secondly, Etihad Airlines has not yet broken even since its inception, and it will take a few more years before it makes profits. Emirates Airlines has been making profits throughout its history. Does this situation stem from the marketing strategies of the two airlines? Thirdly, there is need to determine the long term prospects for the two airlines given then existing rivalry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance of the Study The importance of this study is that it will provide a platform for examining the effectiveness of marketing strategies under a situation of bitter rivalry. The two airlines position themselves as luxury airlines. They also provide services in very competitive routes across the global landscape.

Their rivalry can end up with one of them collapsing and the other becoming a monopoly. On the other hand, each of the companies is a target of acquisition by its rival. These issues illustrate the importance of studying the marketing strategies of the two airlines in order to determine which one is likely to survive in the long term.

Sources of information There are three main sources of data for this project. First, the project will examine existing data regarding the operations of the two airlines from literature. The study will also examine research papers written on various aspects of the operations of the two airlines.

It will be important to interview people who use the airlines to determine the customer satisfaction indices. Finally, it will be important to study publications by the two companies to decipher their marketing strategies.


Frederick Douglass’s poem Essay essay help: essay help

One of the main ideas that are being explored throughout the course of Frederick Douglass’s autobiography is the fact that, while subjecting Black slaves to an inhumane treatment, Southern slave-owners were drawing their inspiration out of the Bible, as such does, in fact, endorse slavery in a rather explicit manner.

In its turn, this helps to explain why the author decided to conclude his literary masterpiece with A Parody – a poem, formatted in a similar manner with the Southern church-hymn Heavenly Union, which used to be particularly liked by these slave-owners.

Apparently, by doing it, Douglass strived to emphasize the hypocritical ways of Southern slave-owning Bible-thumpers, who used to be thoroughly comfortable with indulging in two mutually incompatible activities, at the same time – treating Black slaves in terms of a soulless commodity and congratulating each other on the sheer strength of their commitment to the ‘religion of peace and tolerance’.

Had Douglass chosen in favor of conveying this particular message directly (such as in the form of a narrative, for example), the dramatic effect of his exposure of the pretentious essence of slave-owners’ piousness would not be quite as strong.

This is because then, readers would be tempted to think that, while criticizing these people’s religious hypocrisy, Douglass was concerned with advancing his point of view of the subject matter. On the other hand, while being exposed to Douglass’s Parody, readers can exercise complete liberty, while interpreting what accounts for this poetic piece’s subtle message.

While doing it, however, they will inevitably end up subscribing to the author’s vision of Southern slave-owners, known for their tendency to praise the Lord ‘till it hurts’, as being nothing short of vicious and greed-driven beasts, concerned with only one thing – making money at the expense of denying Black slaves their fundamental human rights.

After all, just as Douglass masterfully showed it, one’s senses of piousness and greed may not only coexist peacefully within the same mind, but they actually define each other rather organically – just as the poem’s lines, concerned with exposing Bible-thumpers’ actual deeds, define the sounding of tracks, in which these people express their self-presumed righteousness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is exactly the reason why Douglass’s Parody has traditionally been considered one of the most powerful indictments of slavery. Apparently, Douglass’s poetic piece provides readers with an in-depth insight into the counterproductive nature of just about any organized religion, which promotes the notion there are ‘chosen people’, favored by God, on the one hand, and ‘infidels’, which deserve no mercy, on the other.


“First Nations, Identity, and Reserve Life. The Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia” by Simone Poliandri Essay (Book Review) writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction Archaeology has always been used as a tool to study the past and relate it to the present and the future. The concepts of archaeology have been used to study ancient civilizations and cultures of communities from all over the world. For instance, archaeologists have conducted many studies in Northern America.

In Canada, most of these studies have focused on the native Indian tribes that are found within the nation. The Mi’kmaw tribe is one of the most researched native communities in Canada. Archaeologists have laid a lot of emphasis on the traditions of the community and the impacts that they have on the social, political and economic aspects of the community.

In his book, ‘First Nations, Identity and Reserve Life,’ Simione Polandri takes a different approach in conducting his research. Previous studies on the Mi’kmaw community only focused on the traditions and culture of the tribe resulting in the monotony and redundancy of this topic. In his book however, Simione takes a different approach.

Like the other researchers, he focused on the traditions of the community. However, Simione goes further in his book and talks about the community, spirituality and Catholicism. He discusses the impacts that these factors have on developing the identity of the Mi’kmaw people in Nova Scotia. The main theme of the book therefore is identity construction, interaction and dynamics.

Critical Review The main purpose of research is to bring about a new understanding of a given phenomenon. This is usually achieved when researches interpret their findings and come up with concrete information and theories that explain or support a given phenomenon.

On these grounds therefore, it is essential to point out that a lot of research has been carried out on native tribes all around the globe. These studies have focused on almost every aspect of their subject communities. However, tradition is the main topic of study that most archaeologists focus on. Due to this trend, there has been a lot of redundancy on the traditional matters of a given community.

Simione’s book took a relatively different direction. First, the book brings about an insight to the lives of the Mi’kmaw people in their reserves. The book, Simione focuses on two reserves; The Millbrook and the Indian Brook reserves. According to the author, the Indian Brook reserve is relatively further away from the town.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This makes it hard for the inhabitants of this reserve to access amenities such as proper housing and accommodation, health services, clean water and so on. The fact that this reserve is further away from the town brings about the effect of isolation. This factor has highly encouraged the emergence and growth of social troubles within the reserve.

However, the natives seem to have adapted to this way of life and are comfortable with it. The situation at Millbrook however is quite different. The reserve is relatively smaller and is highly equipped with modern amenities and facilities.

As the author asserted, the only way one could know that Millbrook is a reserve is by the signpost that is its entrance. The difference between these two reserves is essential. First, it shows the difference that always exists between two different communities although they share the same culture and traditions.

Simione also focused on the aspect of internal boundaries. These boundaries separate the inhabitants of Millbrook from those of Indian Brook. Internal boundaries are critical in the marking of external territories as they determine the extent to which a given community will spread and the control that it will have. This is critical especially in determining the social and political aspects of native communities of a given area.

Thus, residents of Millbrook and Indian Brook refer to the boundaries within these two regions as inside and anything else that is not within the proximity of this boundary is referred to as outside. According to Simione, this reference is essential as it shows the strong bond that the natives hold towards their fellow tribesmen and anything else within the reserve.

However, not the same relationship held towards non-natives and anything outside the reserves although the natives might have different views and ideologies on various issues and internal factors that affect them. This is common in almost every society in the world and plays a critical role in the manner in which the traditions, social interactions and politics of a given community are based upon.

In the book, the author also managed to explain the traditions of the Mi’kmaw people. Simione clearly explains that the Mi’kmaw people regard tradition as their main form of identity. It is through their traditions that they identify themselves as either Indians or Mi’kmaws.

We will write a custom Book Review on “First Nations, Identity, and Reserve Life. The Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia” by Simone Poliandri specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These traditional practices also differentiate them from non-natives. This argument is in line with almost all of the studies that have been conducted with regards to traditions. Tradition is what defines a community, its language, the manner in which its members interact and its socio-political stratification. Besides this, traditions play a critical role in determining the spirituality of the Mi’kmaw people.

In the book, Simione displays the affiliations that the Mi’kmaw ceremonies and beliefs have with ancient Indian traditions. The manner in which the natives follow these traditions is what actually defines whether an individual is an Indian or a Mi’kmaw. Internal differences are common in most communities. For instance, Islamist communities are bound together by their religion, Islam.

However, within Islam, many sub-sects are present. These sub-sects have different beliefs and ideologies. Thus, Simione explains how the different natives of Millbrook and Indian Brook differentiate themselves in terms of spirituality hence affecting their identities.

Finally, Simione managed critically analyze the relationship that the Mi’kmaw have with Catholicism. The interaction of Nova Scotia with the Roman Catholic Church dates back during the 17th century at a time when one of the greatest leaders in the history of Mi’kmaw, Membertou, converted into Christianity. This interaction later grew during the era of French colonization.

Just like in many communities where the missionaries demanded that natives should convert into their religions so that they could have access to basic amenities such as healthcare services and education, the situation in Nova Scotia as reported by Simione was not any different.

However, the religion has been modified over time. This section of the book presents the role played by modern religion and the impacts it has on the native religious practices and the manner in which if affects the dynamism of the community.

Conclusion The author of this book manages to expound on the identity and the lives of the Mi’kmaw people in Nova Scotia. The book is well organized and shows the interaction between the communal practices, the traditions, spirituality and Catholicism in developing the identity of the natives and the impact this has on the interaction and the dynamism of the community.

The book therefore shines light on different aspects of the Mi’kmaw people that have not been explored before in research. Its content is thus informative and credible as it explicitly showcases the lives of the Mi’kmaw people.

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Immigration Reform in the United States Term Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Comparative and Analysis

Solutions: the principle of compromise and consensus


Works Cited

Introduction Illegal immigration in the United States has caused political, social, and economic repercussions and has elicited a raging debate in various circles. Millions of illegal immigrants flood the United States and threaten the rights of the US citizens.

Holzer argues that the broken immigration system has affected the United States immensely because it reduces security, lowers economic growth, undermines national values, and diminishes international image (9). Therefore, reformation of the system is necessary to curb millions of illegal immigrants from causing political, social, and economic problems in the United States.

The policy reform debate of immigration revolves around aspects such as the introduction of work permit, regulation of visas, offering amnesty, interior enforcement, helping immigrants to settle, and fixing border enforcement. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine policy reform debate of immigration in the United States with the objective of comparing and analyzing various views.

Comparative and Analysis From the perspective of the social contract, the citizens of the United States have given authority to the government to protect them from external aggression and invasion by foreigners. In this case, illegal immigration is a form of social and economic aggression because it affects social and economic status of the natives.

Immigrant workers offer stiff competition to the native workers; hence, creating social and economic repercussions. Holtz posits, “Most analysts suggest that fiscal impacts of unskilled immigrants are mixed, perhaps generating a net drain on local public resources at federal and national levels” (8).

Therefore, introduction of working permit is critical for only legal immigrants to access jobs. Moreover, regulating visas and fixing border enforcement provide means of protecting the citizens from the impacts of immigrant workers.

In the perspective of classical liberalism, individuals have inalienable rights of freedom to operate within the regulations of liberalization. Classical liberalism postulates that employers have the freedom to employ workers irrespective of whether they have a work permit or not.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, immigrants should have rights to apply their knowledge and skills in various forms of employment so that they empower themselves economically.

DeLaet explains that liberal immigration policies have made “employer associations push for employment access for workers with particular occupational characteristics” (p.3). Hence, employers exercise their liberal freedom by employing and helping immigrants to settle in the United States.

The perspective of pluralism envisions that a diverse society is robust because it amasses the strengths of different races, ethnicities, religions, and cultures thus strengthening a nation. In this view, immigration offers a means through which the United States can accommodate diverse societies and consequently strengthen its diversity.

Since illegal immigrants have formed part of the United States’ population, the government seeks to permit “legalization for some of the 12 million or so unauthorized immigrations living in the United States” (Rosenblum 6). In addition to legalization, the government also wants to help immigrants settle and contribute to the development of the United States like other citizens.

Elitism is a social belief that is contrary to pluralism. Elites view immigration as an invasion by foreigners, who do not belong to the elites’ class. The immigration reforms associated with elites include fixing border enforcement, regulating visas, and interior enforcement to ensure that immigrants do not enter into the United States.

Moreover, elites are against reforms that allow legalization of illegal immigrants and provision of working permits because they believe that immigrants do not deserve equal rights as other legal citizens.

Holzer asserts that an increasing number of immigrants integrates into social and economic classes of the society hence, threatening the natives (p.2). Consequently, the elites suppress immigration reforms that favor the immigrants.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Immigration Reform in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Federalism supports decentralization of government powers from the federal government to state governments. Therefore, in the aspect of illegal immigrants, federalists’ view it as disadvantageous because federalism strengthens state governments politically, socially, and economically.

DeLaet asserts, “Because immigration policy preferences influence election outcomes in most cases, interest groups become particularly influential in the immigration policy debate” (p.3). Federalists do not want policy reforms that enhance immigration such as providing amnesty, helping immigrants to settle, removing of work permits, and provision of legal avenues for immigrants to gain entry to the United States.

Thus, federalists do not support increased immigration into the United States through various aspects of immigration reform.

Anti-federalist position is to let immigrants into the country since they have rights to become citizens of the United States. Anti-federalists perceive immigrants as a source of social, political, and economic benefits that is necessary to strengthen state governments. Law states that while federalists view democracy as an opportunity for mob rule, anti-federalists view it a way of uplifting the rights of people (55).

Anti-federalists recognize that immigration reforms should adhere to human rights and focus on the interest of states. Therefore, anti-federalists support immigration reforms in aspects such as assisting immigrants to settle, offering amnesty, and providing immigrants with work permit so that they can live humane lives.

Additionally, anti-federalists support provision of flexible regulations for immigrants to obtain visas and gain citizenship.

From the constitutional perspective, illegal immigrants violate the laws and regulations of immigration and thus deserve sentence. The constitution also stipulates how an immigrant should obtain a visa or citizenship through a legal process. Hence, in the aspect of visa and citizenship, constitution provides avenues through which immigrants can obtain visas or gain citizenship.

Swain argues, “Immigration and Nationality Amendments, which removed racial quotas for certain nations and increased the percentage of legal immigrants the nation would take in and the weight given to family reunification, allowed increased immigrants” (1). Hence, constitution has a significant impact in determining the number of immigrants in the United States.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Immigration Reform in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Bills of Rights equally protect immigrants and citizens in the United States. Immigrants have inalienable rights that protect them from undue treatment by the government or other citizens, which results into violation the basic human rights.

Since some immigrants are refugees and asylum seekers, the American government has a duty to protect and provide them with the freedom to enjoy the alienable rights as stipulated in the Bill of Rights.

Rosenblum asserts, “Border enforcement must be balanced by more systemic protection of the human and civil rights of immigrants and members of the border communities” (17). Protection of human and civil rights would ensure that immigrants receive human treatment during entry and their stay in the United States territory.

Solutions: the principle of compromise and consensus Federal government should not employ stringent measures in curbing the problem of illegal immigration because immigrants have their inalienable rights. Before implementation of stringent measures such as an introduction of work permit, regulation of visas, fixing border enforcement, and interior enforcement, the federal government should provide amnesty and issue work permits to illegal immigrants who are already in the United States.

Swain asserts that the federal government has a duty to protect illegal immigrants by enabling them to settle and access job opportunities. Therefore, if the federal government can register illegal immigrants and provide them with work permits coupled with job opportunities, it will empower and protect them from exploitation.

From state perceptive, immigrants are beneficial because they bring significant changes in social, economic, and political aspects. A state with a diverse population promotes intercultural relationships thus eliminating racial and ethnical prejudices, which have clouded many states.

Moreover, a state that has more immigrants has substantial economic capacity and political power to influence decisions in the federal government. Since states allow illegal immigrants, they should exercise caution as immigrants pose significant economic challenges. Holzer states that immigrants increase the rate of unemployment because most of the immigrants belong to class of unskilled and semi-skilled employees.

Federal government should cooperate with state government in ensuring that immigrants in the United States use legal means to enter into the country. If the federal government does not secure borders and pass essential legislations that regulate the acquisition of visas and citizenship, then states cannot control the issuance of work permits and enforce interior checks.

Rosenblum points out, “The American political system is strongly biased against comprehensive legislation of any kind” (14) as opponents of visa and legalization reforms have managed to disrupt cooperative efforts of state and federal government. Therefore, federal government should endeavor to approach opponents of the comprehensive immigration reform and dialogue with the immigrants constructively.

Since illegal immigration is posing significant challenges to the United States, I propose that comprehensive immigration reforms should be implemented. Over the decades, different regimes have failed to address the issue of immigration completely.

DeLaet affirms that the immigration system “has not provided strong and effective measures to reduce illegal immigration; moreover, the system explicitly authorizes high levels of legal immigration” (1). Therefore, comprehensive immigration reforms should cover aspects such as an introduction of work permit, regulation of visas, interior enforcement, fixing border enforcement, provision of amnesty, and helping immigrants to settle.

Conclusion The debate of immigration reforms in the United States is still raging because current reforms have not addressed issues associated with illegal immigration. The debate rages in the political arena, human rights circles, and among the citizens since illegal immigration has serious social, economic, and political impacts.

Comparative analysis of the immigration issue from various points of view shows that it is a complex issue, which requires a comprehensive approach to address it conclusively. Therefore, I propose that comprehensive reforms should address all aspects of immigration, viz. introduction of work permits, regulation of visas, interior enforcement, fixing border enforcement, provision of amnesty, and helping immigrants to settle.

Works Cited DeLaet, Debra. U.S. immigration policy in an age of rights. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000. Print.

Holzer, Harry. Immigration policy and less-skilled workers in the United States: Reflections on future direction for reform, 2012. Web.

Law, Anna. The immigration battle in American Courts. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Rosenblum, Marc. U.S. immigration policy since 9/11: Understanding the stalemate Over comprehensive immigration reform, 2011. Web.

Swain, Carol. Debating immigration. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.


How the Plague was ceased in Rome scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Literary work is a reflection of what is happening in the society. Authors normally voice their opinion about issues affecting the society through various themes. The three pieces of literature, “How the Plague was ceased in Rome”, “The Three Messengers of Death” and “John Audelay’s Number 51”, are skillfully written and address various issues in the society.

They explore relevant themes which make them appealing to readers on the theme of death and morality. These themes are closely linked together through analysis of the Lydgate’s composition.

Thus, this reflective treatise analyzes the three poems “How the Plague was ceased in Rome”, “The Three Messengers of Death” and “John Audelay’s Number 51” on the message of the poems, language, themes.

John Lydgate Poetry How the Plague was ceased in Rome

“How the Plague was ceased in Rome” refers to a poem drafted by John Lydgate. Indeed, “How the Plague was ceased in Rome” was one of the best pretty and premium poems of John the greatest renowned Carpe Diem rhyme in the State.

The poem was composed several centuries back. Thus, this reflective paper attempts to analyze themes of time, death, morality and captivity in the poems “How the Plague was ceased in Rome”, “The Three Messengers of Death” and “John Audelay’s Number 51”. Besides, the paper provides a brief reflection on critic of this literature.

Same as views presented by John, tragedy delves on love, life and tyranny in the poem “How the Plague was ceased in Rome”. As a matter of fact, the key antagonists and protagonists demise eventually. Interestingly, death is presented as a redeemer of what each character stands for.

The main theme in this poem is death. Particularly, the death forms the focal story line. Death is an obsession in the life of this society (Lydgate 24). Ironically, John paints the affluent as weaklings with small physique to withstand the realities of a plague.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He asserts, “He lyste send his grace” (Stanza 6) to acknowledge defeat. Rather, the word ‘lyste’ has the same meaning as will. This will forms the foundation of religious belief as a solution to plague of diseases and moral decay.

Severally, the poem points at the society as vacillating personality who appears confused as the plague widens. Besides, John is a distrustful and bitter loner who has bitter hatred towards the effects of a plague. To affirm the bad feeling, his poetry adopts a somber mood in displaying loyalty as abnormal circumstances that knock indiscriminately.

This poem described how plague raids when least expected. In the third stanza, John expressed how he would be devoted to the almighty in dedicating indefinite quantity of time to beg for revival since the high and mighty in the society has no control. He asserts, “But God (thorugh) his…doth his miracle” (Lydgate 3).

Indeed, John would use much time to esteem every organ of the body towards religious endeavors. Actually, man’s denial to conform to John’s request would not daunt him. Moreover, John recalled how short a person’s life was in the second verse (Lydgate 6).

Reflectively, once life has gone, the chance to make pleasure with one another person would have already gone since nobody would enjoy life in grave. Death is presented as a natural thing, and despite the fact that it is a sad affair, it might be less hurting if someone dies a natural death, and if they are left to live the full years that they were intended to by God (Steele 76).

The Three Messengers of Death

Irrespective of social class, religious inclination, size of accumulated wealth, epoch inclination, and beauty, death kisses people equality every time it knocks on the door of its victim as indicated in the poem “The Three Messengers of Death”. John urged mankind to accept the request, explaining that such passionate affection would enable them to use the most little time they had to exist in the world.

The theme of time was illustrated in the poem. Indeed, John considered time as a marvelous nasty task (Guthke 56). Actually, John intended to turn over features of time in order to command over time. Furthermore, John was distressed with time. However, this was never a surprise to people.

We will write a custom Essay on How the Plague was ceased in Rome


Cause of Problems for Bear Stearns during the Credit Crisis Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Company overview

Causes of Bear Stearns problems during the financial crisis

Bear Stearns’ Subprime mortgage crisis

Analysis of the problem

Works Cited

Introduction The world economy experienced significant growth between 2001 and 2007. This growth was attributed to increased international trade, efficient business practices and user-friendly banking practices that enabled people to borrow money for investment (Lewis et al 17).

However, in the second half of the 2007 financial year, the economic boom fell into a crash, which led to the global financial crisis. Banking institutions were the worst hit. Some declared insolvency, while others requested for bailouts just to keep afloat. This paper shall analyze the causes of the problems Bear Stearns experienced during the credit crisis.

Company overview Bear Stearns Companies, Inc. was a well renowned and reputable firm in the global investment industry. Since its inception in 1923, the firm managed to survive through various recessions and even the Great Depression.

However, in 2007, the financial institution, which had over the years established itself as an investment bank, securities trader and a brokerage firm started experiencing financial difficulties. It was later acquired by JP Morgan Chase in 2008.

Causes of Bear Stearns problems during the financial crisis Excessive debt leverage/ imprudent lending

According to Wade, most banking institutions were offering loans equivalent to 100% of the collateral, ignoring the income verification procedures and giving low interest rates on high risk loans (27).

This led to a situation whereby the risk of bad debts increased significantly. When the credit crisis hit, people were unable to repay the loans and the assets previously offered as collateral were not worth their initial value. As such, financial institutions such as Bear Stearns incurred enormous losses due to dubious and reckless banking practices.

Poor regulatory mechanisms

A primary cause of the financial crisis was the failure of the regulators to protect the financial system from credit related risks that were present since 2002. According to Davies and Green, the regulators, as well as the congress had an obligation to monitor and prevent excessive credit problems within the financial industry (33).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, failure to accomplish their objective led to an abject situation in which banks borrowed above their capacity, withheld information from investors, and got involved in get-rich-quick schemes that involved a lot of risks to the banks and investors.

Housing bubble

From 2002 to 2005 the housing prices within the United States skyrocketed. This was attributed to the fact that loans were easily accessible, and banks were willing to offer 100% mortgage financing (Lewis et al. 14). As such, the housing bubble presented Bear Stearns with an opportunity to make huge profits.

The investment bank borrowed more from other banks and invested in asset-backed mortgages. As a result, it had too much leverage at a time when the credit situation was getting worse by the minute. This led to a situation whereby Bear Stearns lost over 90% of its market value within a week.

Bear Stearns’ Subprime mortgage crisis In June 2007, Bear Stearns declared that one of its hedge funds (the Bear Stearns High-Grade Structured Credit Fund) was in need of a bailout. As such, the investment bank decided to take loans from other banks amounting to 3.2 billion against the Bear Stearns High-Grade Structured Credit Enhanced Leveraged Fund in order to facilitate the bailout.

However, Bear Stearns had only raised $35 million, and the bailout would have ruined the institution’s reputation. Consequently, the money was invested in Collateralized debts obligations (CDOs).

However, the CDOs were not able to raise the required amount, and there was concern that Bear Stearns would have to liquidate its CDOs. This meant that there would be a significant price cut in other portfolios dealing with similar assets. By mid July, the two hedge funds had lost over half of their initial value, and in August, they were closed.

Legal actions were taken against Bear Stearns for misleading investors in regard to the state of the funds. Bear Stearns had told investors that the funds were improving well knowing that this was not true.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cause of Problems for Bear Stearns during the Credit Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The truth was that the hedge funds were actually plummeting. Soon after this incident, Bear Stearns’ credit rating was downgraded from AA to A. with no other available option; Bear Stearns requested a bail out from the federal bank reserves. However, this request never went through leading to its acquisition by JP Morgan Chase.

Analysis of the problem As can be evidenced from the discussion above, Bear Stearns collapsed due to liquidity problems. The financial institution had bet heavily on subprime loans and as the market for these loans declined in 2007, the firm could not survive. While most would argue that the collapse of Bear Stearns was due to lack of confidence, documented evidence prove that it was because of lack of adequate funds.

To a large extent, the problems faced by Bear Stearns were internal. However, external factors such as inflation, decline in demand for subprime loans and a fragmented regulatory regime played a significant role towards the collapse of Bear Stearns.

As a result of poor regulatory mechanisms, banks engaged in risky investment practices. Inflation and market forces (demand and supply) influenced the purchasing power of the people leading to losses. Banks could not recover their money and borrowing avenues were limited. These factors contributed to the credit crisis, which saw numerous banks declare bankruptcy.

Works Cited Davies, Howard and David Green. Global Financial Regulation. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2008. Print.

Lewis, Victor, et al. “Was the 2008 Financial Crisis Caused by a lack of Corporate Ethics?” Global Journal of Business Research 4.2 (2010): 79. Print.

Wade, Robert. “The First-World Debt Crisis of 2007-2010 in Global Perspective.” Challenge 51.4 (2008): 23–54. Print.


Communism in China Report best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The spread of China Communism

The features of communism


Works Cited

Introduction In the beginning of the twentieth century, the statute of colonial dynasties that had been in use for some time in China ended. This brought havoc in political affairs as the state tried to reconcile and come into agreement with its un-modernized peasant subsistence and escalating number of inhabitants.

This spearheaded the spread of Marxism in China as they hackneyed their Russian neighbors who had knowledge in communism that they acquired through the Soviet Union. China then became a renowned communist state (Rigdon 176). This research paper reports on the practice of Communism in China and its effects.

The spread of China Communism The Russian Revolution in the nineteen seventeen evidently stirred up the Chinese academic groups to shape up the Communist Party in nineteen twenty-one. Roughly, twenty years after the formation of the Communist Party, the nation experienced some setbacks. Besides, there were gains as the Party of Chinese Communist transformed lots to their peasant-founded communists’ ideologies.

Consequently, the stretch of communism in the region resulted into the establishment of the People Republic of China in the fiscal nineteen forty-nine (Fayaz 244). Up to this moment, the communist government gear-shifted the state almost in all corners and aspects of governance.

History suggests that in nineteen twenties, the Chiang Kai-shek Nationalist Party managed to scheme China in adherence to the Party of Chinese Communist. Zedong Mao led the communists to inhabit the Southern parts of China in the fiscal nineteen twenty-eight. During this period, the Chiang and nationalists started ruling China.

The communist ideologies had inbuilt superiorities which made Chinese to start fielding in followers from pastoral areas. This further made the Soviet Republic of Jiangxi to declare itself sovereign due to communism spread to the southern district. The Chinese Communists established a strong platform in the central north of China in nineteen thirty-six after the nationalists sent them away (Lijun 6).

Constant fights between nationalists and communists were experienced till after the Second World War, but the support of communists by the peasant family fostered the conquer of the nationalists in nineteen forty-nine. Finally, the institution of the People Republic of China by Zedong boosted communism hence, it became legally authorized in China.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The features of communism Several features of communism became evident. In fact, whoever used Soviet Communist approach adapted to the Chinese setting and recognized this party not in the customary Marxist urban workers-base, but in the colossal country peasant-base. There was the need to make a communist administration around these peasants. The reason was that the peasants were at the core of uprising against Chinese Communists.

As a result, the emphasis on the peasant residents aided the communists to overthrow factions of followers all over the rustic areas. Hence, the communists boasted of the widening communalism to various parts of rustic neighborhoods.

Immediately after gaining authority, Zedong and the communists took power from the outlawed government, trade and production as well as individuals’ freedoms (Rigdon 178). However, many had supported and helped spread communism, Zedong, and communists faced antagonism and condemnation by many during his reign.

Conclusion Although communism governed China, it had its effects. For instance, the asylum by the nationalists under Kai-shek Chiang to Taiwan in nineteen forty-nine was because of the communists’ occupation.

This led to anxious and deprived relations between China and Taiwan up to the present date. Moreover, incompetent government programs like the undeveloped communes led to the death of millions due to starvation (Fayaz 245). Poverty and unawareness conquered Chinese population because of the spread of communism.

The assassination of protesting students who endeavored for personal freedom and rejuvenation in nineteen eighty-nine was due to communism. Therefore, the natural abuse of power and its effect on the citizens by the Chinese communist regime made most of the developed nations to endorse China. Generally, China continues to be among the most traditionally inhabited communist states.

Works Cited Fayaz, Sadia. “China’s Xinjiang Problem and Pakistan”. Dialogue (1819-6462). 7.3 (2012):235-254. Print.

We will write a custom Report on Communism in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lijun, Bi. “Ideological Inspiration for China’s Revolution”. Agora, 47.1 (2012): 4-9. Print.

Rigdon, Susan. “Communism or the Kingdom: ‘Saving’ China, 1924-1949”. Social Sciences


Economic Worth Of The Tourism Industry Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Overview of tourism and economic development

Tourism and economic opportunities

Tourism and the creation of income and employment

Tourism and balance of payments

Tourism as a stimulator of investment in economies

Competition in the tourism industry

Works Cited

Overview of tourism and economic development Economists are focusing their attention to the tourism sector because of what is seen as positive economic returns from the industry. The tourism industry is proactive and has undergone diversification resulting in further expansion of the industry. The industry ranges from real tourist sites and activities to travel, entertainment for tourists and accommodation.

Countries have continued to invest in the tourism industry because of the returns that they have been getting from people who have already invested in the industry. The economic worth of the tourism industry is significantly to economic growth and development of many nations in the world. The global tourism industry brings substantial economic returns to economies.

The tourism industry has been expanding at an accelerating pace. As it stands today, the industry has expanded thus becoming a significant contributor to gross domestic product of states. Tourism presents an extended number of economic opportunities to countries that embrace tourist activities.

The economic opportunities that accrue to the tourism industry include increased investment, which creates many other benefits to national economies like the creation of jobs. The other most significant benefit of tourism, especially cross border tourism, is the improvement of balance of payments (UNWTO, para. 1). This promotes the growth of national economies by raising their ability to take part in international trade.

Tourism and economic opportunities One of the notable explanations why tourism sectors receive voluminous support from governments is that tourism presents many opportunities for the growth of national economies. Tourism brings about a vast number of economic opportunities for economies. Economic researches and surveys present a number of benefits that are derived from tourism by nations across the world.

The first outcome, which is backed by economic evidence from countries across the world, is that tourism helps in the creation of income and employment. The second finding is that tourism helps in eliminating deficits in the balance of payments of countries that practice it. Tourism also stimulates investment and growth of other sectors in national and the global economy.

All these are pointers to positive signs on the quantitative measure of growth and development of the economy. The contribution of tourism to gross domestic product of countries can no longer be ignored. Many economies have reported a contribution of up to 10 percent of the tourism industry to their annual total gross domestic product (UNWTO, para. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tourism and the creation of income and employment Income and employment are critical factors of measuring the rate of economic growth and development of any given economy in the world. Tourism is a crucial contributor to these macroeconomic factors in most nations in the world. There are a vast number of investments in many countries, in the world, by both private and public investors in the tourism industry.

These investments are strategic and are used as a means of positioning countries and regions as tourism icons. Tourist vibrant regions in the world are pumping large sums of money in the industry. This has broadened its capacity to attract a high number of tourists which translates to increased income from the industry. Tourists have enormous pattern of expenditure which boosts economies in tourist destinations.

Income from tourism comes from the diverse investment in tourism. Income in the tourism industry arises from the investments that are made by individuals and firms. Incomes are also attributed to regular earnings that are received by people who are employed in the industry.

The hotel industry, which is one of the main subsections of the large tourism industry, receives most of its income from tourists. Without guests from travel and tourism, revenues from the hotel industry crash significantly (UNWTO, para. 3).

Vast amounts of job opportunities have been created in the tourism industry. Of all the jobs that are created across the globe, the tourism industry contributes about 10 percent of the total jobs. This figure is exclusive of opportunities in other sectors, which accrue to the growth of tourism.

Tourism provides both permanent and temporary jobs. The kind of employment created in the tourism industry depends on the nature of tourism. Temporary employment mostly emanates from short term tourism events. Such events are common in sports tourism. Tourism also sustains many other sectors of the economy. A clear example is the global transport industry which consists of a large number of airline companies.

The industry is heavily backed by tourism. Most of revenues in the industry are generated from the transportation of tourists across the globe. With the generation of more revenues, the industry expands hence creating job opportunities.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Economic Worth Of The Tourism Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic indicators continue to show that most of the opportunities in the tourism industry remain unexploited. This is common in the developing world where there is limited investment in the industry. Tourism remains to be a key industry in terms of the creation of job opportunities in countries that embrace the industry (Aykac 12).

Tourism and balance of payments The main aspect that is seen as a contribution of the tourism industry to national economies is its contribution to balance of payments. International tourist activities lead to the exchange of currencies between different countries. National government value tourism a lot because it is one of the main sources of foreign currency.

This forms another key reason why tourism development is emphasized by national governments. The balance of payments for each country determines its economic worth in bilateral and multilateral trade practices.

The availability of foreign currency eases trading activities between states. Countries that have highly developed tourism sectors receive a large number of tourists. A country increases its foreign currency earning through receiving foreign tourists (Sexton 543).

Research shows that global trade is a practice that attracts all countries in the world. Therefore, the demand for foreign currency is always on the upward trend for all countries. When tourists enter foreign countries, they undergo two types of expenditure. The first expenditure is often referred to as direct expenditure. This is the total money that is spent on sustaining the tourist in the foreign destination.

Tourists also spent on buying a number of items in foreign destinations. All these expenditures add to the total amount of foreign currency that is fetched by countries as a result of travel and tourism. The gain of foreign currency by countries helps in stabilizing their national economies.

Tourism increases foreign earnings through the injection of foreign currency in economies. It is worthwhile noting that tourism reduces deficit that are witnessed in balance of payments of different countries. Countries have a reason to keep investing in the tourism industry as the payoffs are worth the investments that are made by investors in the industry (International Monetary Fund 8).

Tourism as a stimulator of investment in economies As earlier mentioned, tourism creates numerous opportunities in the global economy. Stimulation of the investment climate is one of the numerous opportunities and contribution of the tourism sector to economic development. Research reveals that there is a substantial investment that the tourism industry presents in different countries across the globe.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Worth Of The Tourism Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many economies have already taken initiatives of maximizing on the economic opportunities created by the industry. The tourism industry presents both direct and indirect investment chances. Direct investment opportunities are found in industries that directly support tourism. These are the hotel, food and accommodation industry and the transport industry.

Indirect investments are found in industries which are not directly linked to tourism. A clear example is the building of supportive infrastructure to back the industry (Global Times, para. 2). Competition in the global industry is the motivator of the numerous investment projects, which are being implemented by national bodies that are in charge of tourism at national levels.

Many countries are working on modalities of broadening their capacity to host tourists. This translates to increased investment in the hotel building, beach expansion and the diversification of different factors of tourist attraction.

Countries are also building the new structure and upgrading the existing structures like sporting structures in order to increase their capacity to host international sporting events. These investments are indicators of growth in economies (“Oecd Tourism Trends and Policies 2012” 325).

Competition in the tourism industry According to the Canadian Tourism Commission (12), there is a notable trend of competition which is being witnessed in the global tourism industry. Just as it has been witnessed in other industries, in the international economy, the tourism industry is becoming extremely competitive for different players. This denotes the worthiness of the industry to the economic development of regional and national economies.

Competition for global customers has become the order of the day in the tourism industry with each country struggling to position itself as a furnished tourist destination. This is seen in all kinds of tourism and their partner industries.

The competition in the global tourism sectors is being encouraged as one way of improving the industry by bettering the services that are offered in the industry. As services are bettered, the rate of returns in the industry is expected to go higher. Tourism marketing and advertising are now a common economic practice for countries that are tourist destinations.

Research shows that this trend will continue into the future and be a basis of attracting tourists by each nation in the world. However, this trend is argued to be unfavorable because of a number of reasons. The first argument is that the trend is favorable to countries that have vast economic resources.

It does not favor countries with limited economic powers. Countries with less economic power are forced to strain their resources in marketing and advertising tourism. This has negative implications for the economic development. The negative implications are pictured in the global economy.

They end up creating minimal opportunities, which are insufficient in paying off for their investments. These countries are, however, learning to be proactive in molding and marketing their tourism industries. Most of them have remained focused and competitive and draw a lot of benefits from the industry (“Oecd Tourism Trends and Policies 2010” 9).

Works Cited Aykac, Aslihan. “Tourism Employment: Towards an Integrated Policy Approach.” Anatolla: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 21.1(2010): ll-27. Print.

Canadian Tourism Commission. Harnessing innovation and alignment: 2012-2016 Corporate plan summary. 2012. Web.

Global Times. Singapore positions as Asian investment hub in tourism. 2012. Web.

International Monetary Fund. Staff Country Reports 2011. Washington D.C: International Monetary Fund. 2011. Print.

Oecd Tourism Trends and Policies 2012. Paris: OECD, 2012. Print.

Oecd Tourism Trends and Policies 2010. Paris: OECD, 2010. Print.

Sexton, Robert L. Exploring Microeconomics. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

UNWTO. Why Tourism?. 2012. Web.


Careers in Lodging and Food and Beverage Industries Essay cheap essay help

Management careers offered by the National Restaurant Association (NRA) are those of Banquet Manager, Bartender, Beverage manager, catering manager, counter server, dining room manager, executive chef, food and beverage director, human resources manager, kitchen manager, public relations manager, Sous Chef, wine steward, server, pastry chef, and pantry cook.

Responsibilities of the baker are limited to “bakeshop, which is found within the food service establishment, while banquet manager, on the other hand, plans and oversees parties, banquets, and conventions, which the restaurant s/he works for hosts” (Stensson


Aging as a Social Process Report essay help online: essay help online

Aging is one of the important social issues that society should be concerned about. Aging refers to the gradual changes that happen with time in the life of an individual (Kaplan, 2006, p. 196). A multifaceted process involves changes in terms of psychological, physical, and social changes.

Various dimensions during old age change as one continues to live. For instance, wisdom and knowledge of the world’s events expand with aging while time to react to certain situations declines. However, it is also true that old people may continuously grow in terms of their physical, social, and mental capabilities.

Aging is therefore an imperative aspect in the lives of people, as it is an indication of the natural modifications happening to human beings. It also defines collective and ethnic patterns of the society. Society is able to grow and progress because of the values and conventions that the elderly pass on to the upcoming generations. Aging is categorized as chronological, which is time bound (Leahy, 2006, p. 21).

All people must pass through the state that is measured from the time an individual is born. Social aging is based on culture, and concerns believes and perceptions of people when they age (Leahy, 2006, p. 21). Biological aging concerns physical states. An old person exhibits some physical characteristics such as wrinkles on the face, grey hair, and weak body.

It is also important to note that, regardless of people being old, they may have different physical and mental capabilities. Various governments have different ways of classifying old people. They also have different policies to look after them.

Population aging arises due to increased rate of migration, decrease in birth rate, and the increase in life expectancy due to low death rate (Kaplan, 2006, p. 196). Aging has significant implications to the society. Their needs are different from those of young people. For instance, they do not involve in criminal activities.

Sociology is an important field that studies behaviors and the way human beings live and coexist with one another. It is therefore a very essential area when it comes to understanding the society. Aging is one of the important characteristics that are part of the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People or every society has a share of the aging people. Therefore, aging is an important aspect in sociology. One of the sociological theories that fits or applies to aging is the social conflict theory. The theory postulates the civilization results from fighting for power and that various groups must struggle to gain access to the limited resources (Ritzer


The Portrayal of Otherworldly Spaces Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

One of the main motivations, which prompt people to read fiction-novels and to watch movies, which contain the motifs of otherworldliness, is the fact that, while being exposed to these literary and cinematographic works, individuals are being often able to confirm the validity of their unconscious anxieties, as to what accounts for the true essence of a surrounding reality.

In its turn, this usually helps people to attain the sensation of an ‘existential wholesonmess’ – when they come in a close touch with a number of socially suppressed truths about what may be considered the actual significance of their life-experiences.

The Freudian concept of ‘uncanny’ comes in particularly handy, when it comes to discussing the significance of fictitious representations of otherworldliness, “An uncanny experience occurs either when infantile complexes which have been repressed are once more revived by some impression, or when primitive beliefs which have been surmounted seem once more to be confirmed” (Freud 57).

Therefore, it makes a perfect logical sense to discuss these representations as such that are being reflective of the workings of people’s unconscious psyche. In this paper, I will aim to do just that, in regards to the motifs of otherworldliness, which can be found in George Lucas’s 1977 film Star War: A New Hope and Steven King’s 1977 novel The Shining.

The foremost aspect of how the unworldly reality is being depicted in Lucas’s movie is the fact that, while being exposed to it, viewers are being prompted to establish dialectical links between what they get to see on the screen and what accounts for the essence of their socialization-related experiences, in a real life.

The validity of this statement can be well illustrated in relation to the film’s scene, in which the characters of Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill) and Obi-Wan Kenobi (Alec Guinness) end up confronting aliens and mutated humans in the bar, on the planet of Tatooine (00.46.37).

There can be few doubts as to the fact that there are strongly defined motifs of the Freudian ‘uncanny’ to this particular scene, because it relates to the White viewers’ unconscious fear of multiculturalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After all, it does not represent much of a secret that even many open-minded Whites in Western countries, where the policy of multiculturalism had attained an official status, do not exhibit much of an enthusiasm, while being required to take an active part in the ‘celebration of diversity’.

Hence, their tendency to prefer residing in a racially secluded ‘white suburbia’, as opposed to residing amidst the representatives of racial minorities in ethnic ‘ghettos’.

Therefore, while exposed to the scene, in which the alien-looking representatives of an ‘intergalactic scum’ are picking upon the characters of Luke Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi, many viewers confirm the validity of their rationally suppressed fear of venturing in places, where ethnically diverse individuals can be found in particularly large numbers.

There are two mutually exclusive aspects of how people experience the ‘uncanny’ – they are being simultaneously encouraged and discouraged to rationalize their unconscious anxieties, in regards to the potential dangers of the unknown.

Apparently, Steven King was well aware of it, which is why he used to say that it is being in the very nature of just about every individual to expect that even thoroughly conventional settings conceal subliminal horrors.

Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that King’s novel contains scenes, in which Danny’s otherworldly daydreaming becomes ‘uncanny’ to an extent that readers simply cannot help but having their attention solely focused on the plot’s unraveling – quite contrary to the fact that they do realize that what they are about to read may well scare them to death.

For example, there is a memorable scene in the novel when Danny is having a vision of streams of blood starting to pour down on the floor out of the elevator doors (King 161). This scene’s ‘uncanny’ appeal is being concerned with the fact that the author was able to take a certain advantage of the readers’s subliminal tendency to associate the color red with blood.

We will write a custom Essay on The Portrayal of Otherworldly Spaces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, even though readers do get to experience a certain horror, while being exposed to this scene, on an unconscious level, they nevertheless do not perceive the concerned plot’s twist as being thoroughly unrealistic. This is because, prior to having this vision, Danny stared at the red-colored elevator doors for a long time. Yet, the prolonged staring at ominously looking red doors can never bring any good – people’s unconscious psyche never ceases being aware of it.

The fact that the portrayal of otherworldly spaces in movies serves the purpose of prompting viewers to come to terms with their fear of the unknown can also be explored in regards to another scene in Lucas film, in which Luke Skywalker, Princess Lea (Carrie Fisher) and Han Solo (Harrison Ford) find themselves trapped in the Imperial spaceship’s garbage-compartment (01.21.43).

While there, they realize that is a some kind of dangerous creature is lurking underneath the murky water. Yet, even though that a good part of the concerned action involves all three characters trying to figure out what they are being faced with, the creature never shows itself.

The only part of this creature that viewers get to see is its tentacle. This, of course, results in the intensification of viewers’ fears of the unknown even further, because it is specifically the unknown types of danger, which people tend to perceive as being particularly dangerous.

It appears that by exposing viewers to this particular scene, Lucas was able to strengthen the acuteness of their ‘uncanny’ experiences, which in turn increased the film’s cinematographic appeal rather dramatically – in full accordance with Freud’s outlook on the subject matter.

The same can be said about the scene in King’s novel, in which Danny realizes the fact that his nightmares of being chased by a person with an ax in his hands were bound to come to reality, “It was the place he had seen in the midst of the blizzard… The place Tony had warned him against. It was here. It was here. Whatever Redrum was, it was here” (69).

The clearly ‘uncanny’ undertones to Danny’s earlier mentioned realization are being thoroughly apparent, because the author made a deliberate point in emphasizing the unknown subtleties of Redrum, which in turn increased the extent of this scene emotional intensity.

Apparently, King wanted readers to remain in the state of suspense, for as long as possible. This is the reason why, every time the novel’s characters come in a close touch with the emanations of otherworldliness, they can never they can never grasp the true significance of their experiences, in this respect.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Portrayal of Otherworldly Spaces by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The manner in which Freudian ‘uncanny’ is being explored in movies that contain strongly defined otherworldly motifs, often serves the purpose of allowing viewers to experience the sensation of Déjà vu. In its turn, this strengthens the extent of their commitment to perceiving the plot’s unraveling as such that does in fact relate to their own positioning in life.

For example, there are a number of scenes in Lucas’s film, in which Imperial officers act in a particularly cold-blooded manner, while refusing to consider other people’s feelings. These scenes, of course, were meant to trigger in viewers the same set of emotions that they get to experience, while reflecting upon the historical legacy of Nazi Germany.

Therefore, it is not a pure coincidence the Imperial officers’ uniforms resemble those that used to be worn by Nazis – especially riding breeches, as seen on the screenshot below.

Apparently, the director did strive to prompt viewers to construct their attitude towards the representatives of the ‘dark side’, in regards to what accounted for the discursive significance of Imperial soldiers’ physical appearance and the qualitative essence of their psychological inclinations.

In its turn, this explains the popularity of this film’s most otherworldly character – Darth Vader. Even though that, throughout the movie’s entirety, Darth Vader rarely talks, viewers nevertheless are able to get a good clue, as what kind of an individual he really is.

The reason for this is quite apparent – despite the character’s otherworldly appearance, people can well recognize him as a person who represents currently suppressed (due to considerations of political correctness), but discursively legitimate masculine virtues of loyalty and cold-heartedness.

Essentially the same line of reasoning can be applied, when it comes to discussing the significance of Déjà vu–invoking scenes in King’s novel, concerned with otherworldliness. The scene, in which the character of Jack Torrance walks in the ballroom, filled with the ghosts of people that were alive during the Great Depression, exemplifies the point.

This is because, the appearance of these ghosts (or mental constructs, which existed solely within Jack’s brain) cannot be discussed outside of the fact that the era of the Great Depression has been traditionally associated with the notion of moral depravity, “A woman in gauzy harem pants and a rhinestone-sparkled brassiere, a man with a foxhead rising slyly out of his evening dress, a man in a silvery dog outfit who was tickling the nose of a woman in a sarong with the puff on the end of his long tail” (405).

What it means is that, even before Jack turns into a bloodthirsty psycho, the earlier mentioned scene provided readers with an unconsciously-felt indication that this eventual development was indeed bound to occur.

Apparently, while being prompted to construct images of fancifully dressed people drinking and laughing, readers get to experience a Déjà vu sensation that there is something utterly short-lived about these partying individuals.

After all, on an unconscious level, we all know that the intensity of a particular sensual pleasure corresponds to the extent of this pleasure’s lengthiness in a counter-geometrical progression. Thus, the portrayal of an otherworldly space in this particular scene was meant to confirm the validity of readers’ growing suspicion that Jack was actually on the path of a mental self-destruction.

Works Cited Freud, Zigmund. The Uncanny, London: Penguin Books Limited, 2003. Print.

King, Steven. The Shining, New York: Gallery Books, 2002. Print.

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Ex. Prod. George Lucas: 20th Century Fox. 1977. DVD.


Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Essay (Article) essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Dialogue with George Miller

Dialogue with Martha Farah


Introduction There is an eminent application of scientific metaphors in describing the functioning of the human brain. There are notable similarities and differences in “cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience” (Chapman


Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Literary work is a reflection of what is happening in the society. Authors normally voice their opinion about issues affecting the society through various themes. These themes are closely linked together through analysis of a character’s actions.

In the contemporary society, introduction of literature research has extensively increased the volume of literature in every topic of interest researchers may be interested in especially in use of expression tools such as metaphors to present a symbolic view that a character displays in a play or a book.

As a matter of fact, irrespective of the level of knowledge and understanding of research facets, literature versions are inclusive of literature tools such as metaphors. Literature comparison is about enjoying the phrases, feeling the narrator’s words in action, imagining, and placing oneself in the writer’s shoes.

Writings with consistent assumptions and symbolic insinuation add comprehensiveness to sentence structures or phrases with hidden meaning. Thus, this reflective treatise analyses the theme of triangulated desires in the books “Pride and Prejudice” and “Sense and Sensibility”.

The pieces dwell much on marriage and its holistic perception which is influenced by race, gender, family relationships and social status. The books show how an individual’s sense of identity is vulnerable to manipulation by others of higher social class.

Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility Jane Austen (1775-1817) relied heavily in a balance of irony, realism, and parody in her genre to present a distinct literary style in depicting different societal setups. Through use of irony, Austen was successful in addressing hypocrisy that was dominant in the 18th century in the theme of triangulated desires.

This themes form the foundations upon which the societies at that time were built. It resonates across generations since its influence is inherent. Triangulated desires as a theme touch on identity crisis, tradition, manipulation, and marriage. As observed, Austen’s society is deeply rooted in their culture and is inflexible to accommodate modernity. They view such ideas as alien with no bearing in their lives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the texts “Pride and Prejudice” and “Sense and Sensibility”, Austen artistically underscores the traditional position on marriage as a trajectory and paradoxically dependent on desire with homo-social relations forming the underlying huddles towards fulfilling the traditionally internalized protagonist beliefs in marriage as a normative social positioning institution.

More about Pride and Prejudice What is Pride and Prejudice vocabulary like? 5 24 What is the most famous monologue in Pride and Prejudice? 5 145 What Role Do Card Games Play in Pride and Prejudice? 5 32 What could the modern version of Pride and Prejudice be? 5 22 Austen then endeavors to expose these excesses of female and male ‘homosocial’ and formative desire bonds which climax in either marriage dissolution or final resolution. In addressing this theme, Austen uses ‘homosocial’ desires privilege to authenticate female possibilities in marriage institution. She proceeds to recuperate to different degrees of patriarchal symbolism on gender-class system.

The Theme of Triangulated Desires “Pride and Prejudice”

In the text “Pride and Prejudice”, Austen presents a relationship between Darcy and Bingley as that filled with unending triangulated desires. The ‘steady friendship’ between Darcy and Bingley is a reflection of a powerful visible ‘homosocial’ bond that immediately sparkled at Meryton ball during their first meeting (Austen 1995, p.10).

Despite Bingley’s superior social class, Darcy is worn out in strong jealously when the latter enjoys a dance with “the only handsome girl in the room” (Austen 1995, pp. 6-7). Reflectively, this indifference displayed by Darcy is more than coincidental fancy but an unending desire to hold Bingley in her arms. Darcy proceeds to dance with Bingley’s favorite friend Jane.

Further Research Where does Lydia live in Pride and Prejudice? 5 21 What roles do balls play in Pride and Prejudice? 5 22 How does Austen describe the double wedding in Pride and Prejudice? 5 185 What is Mr. Pride vs. Miss Prejudice about? 5 93 The erotic triangle between Darcy and Bingley is based on unending ‘homosocial’ desires with Jane being the mediating figure in romance. In this aspect, it is apparent that Darcy would be happier to dance with Bingley instead of dancing besides him holding a heterosexual figure. Since this opinion doesn’t not process, it is apparent that the desires of Darcy are not met.

To balance an undying desire and ‘homosocial’ ego, Darcy proceeds to dance with Bingley’s sisters besides openly spurring Elizabeth’s dance offer claiming that “I am in an honor at present to give consequence to young ladies who are slighted by other men (Austen 1995, pp. 6-7).

This is a reaction sentiment Darcy is displaying after feeling slighted by his superior ‘heterosocial’ friend’s currency. In doing so, a reader can identify the lose end competitive logic for triangulated desires between two grown men who belong to different social classes. Macpherson (2003) asserts,

We will write a custom Essay on Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In any erotic rivalry, the bond that links the two rivals is as intense and potent as the bond that links either of the rivals to the beloved… the bonds of “rivalry” and “love,” differently as they are experienced, are equally powerful and in many cases equivalent… not by the qualities of the beloved, but by the beloved’s already being the choice of the person who has been chosen as a rival (21).

Besides the hidden desires at dance party, Darcy becomes an obstacle in the intended union between Bingley and Jane. Darcy’s desire for Bingley has totally blinded him and he confesses that “I have no wish of denying that I did everything in my power to separate my friend from your sister, or that I rejoice in my success” (Austen 1995, p. 130).

When confessing that Jane “want of connection could not be so great an evil to my friend as to me,” Darcy with ease “preserve his friend from… a most unhappy connection,” stating “other causes of repugnance” as the “total want of propriety so frequently, so almost uniformly betrayed” by the family of Jane (Austen 1995, pp. 134–35).

The theme of triangulated desires is presented in the possessive jealousy of a ‘homosocial’ Darcy whose desire for Bingley cannot allow him to let go of the fantasy he has for him.

Despite this desire, Darcy composes a passionate letter to Bingley to make a confession of a failed union between him and Elizabeth. In an interesting turn of events, the triangulated desires of Darcy lands on Lydia who is saved from social abjection of being unfit for marriage. Macpherson asserts,

Darcy saves Lydia not because he cares about Lydia or about the Bennets—not even because he cares about Elizabeth. Elizabeth acknowledges that Darcy had “done this for a girl whom he could neither regard nor esteem”… but it turns out that Darcy saves Lydia because he feels himself, without having “schemed to do wrong,” to be accountable for Wickham (16).

Darcy is fully responsible for the reprehensible actions displayed by Wickam. In fact, he admits this as inspired by ‘homosocial’ desire competition. As a result, Darcy “becomes the better man in ‘homosocial’ competition with Wickham, and successfully routes his triangulated ‘homosocial’ desire through the “heterosexual detour” of marriage in the novel’s curiously anticlimactic denouement” (Macpherson, 2003, p.15).

After a long struggle, Darcy detours his ‘homosocial’ investments in Bingley and Wickham and is presented as a better person after reviving Elizabeth’s and Jane’s marriage plots. As a result, the new status position Darcy as a superior male among the three males with triangulated desires for ‘homosocial’ clandestine.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elizabeth is described as an essentially masculine person because of her unladylike affection for Jane. Austen asserts “very nonsensical to come at all! Why must she be scampering about the country, because her sister had a cold” (Austen 1995, pp. 21-23). Elizabeth’s homoerotic excesses towards her sister Jane paint her as part of the hidden ‘heterosocial’ society.

More on the Topic What is the hero of Pride


Mortality: film, The Hours Essay (Movie Review) essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Synopsis of the Plot

Detailed Synopsis of the Moral Issue

Moral View Analysis



Introduction Mortality is the main theme of the film, ‘The Hours.’ In this film, the main characters have suicidal thoughts because of the problems that they are facing in their lives. To them, suicide is the only way that they can solve the problems that they are facing.

This paper will therefore focus on the theme of mortality as presented in the film. It will expound on this theme under the natural law theory, Kantianism, utilitarianism, and the social contract theory. These analyses will bring a clear understanding of the actions taken by the characters of the film and their consequences.

Synopsis of the Plot ‘The Hours’ is a film that has three different time settings. The first set of the film focuses on Virginia Wolf in 1921. Suffering from a mental illness and severe nervous breakdown, Virginia is struggling to write her novel, Mrs. Dalloway.

Virginia is troubled and thinks that the life that she is living does not conform to her desires. It is at this point that she states that if she is to continue with her life, she has to come up with a decision on how and where she is going to live. However, given her medical condition and the fact that she does not even get the respect of her servants, she is sceptical about this and thus she is in constant fear that she might take away her life.

The second setting of the film focuses on Laura Brown in 1951. Laura is a homemaker in suburban America. She is married to Dan, who was a soldier in World War II. At the time, Laura was pregnant and has a son, Richie.

Although her neighbours and friends view them as a perfect family, Laura is not contended with the life that she is living. Thus, during Dan’s birthday of her husband, she takes Richie to a friend while pretending that she is going to run errands.

However, she checks into a hotel in an attempt to kill herself while reading the book by Virginia Wolf, ‘Mrs. Dalloway.’ However, she falls asleep and after waking up, she decides not to go ahead with her plan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The final set of the movie focuses on Clarissa Vaughan in 2001. Clarissa is on the verge of organizing an award party for her long time friend, Richard who has been in several gay relationships and is suffering from AIDS. Other than their friendship, the two had been lovers during their college days.

Richard is not happy about the award he is about to receive since he thinks that he should have received it earlier, when he was much healthier.

However, he confesses to Clarissa that she is the only reason why he is alive and compares her with Mrs. Dalloway, the leading character in the book by Virginia Wolf because both of them are distracted from life and themselves. Shorty, Richard commits suicide by jumping out of the window.

Detailed Synopsis of the Moral Issue The three characters presented in the film are surrounded by death. Virginia Wolf views death as the only way that she can solve the problems that she is facing in life. She is suffering from bipolar disorder, a condition that gives her severe nervous breakdowns.

Additionally, she is of an unstable mind. Due to this fact, she does not command the authority she would want as a wife to her husband and as an employer to her servants. In fact, her servants look down on her. Virginia sees herself as a failure. She is neither like her mother nor like her sister who have managed their households and lives in an effective and efficient manner.

Her mother and sister are also authoritative heads in their homes. Her failure to understand this and the fact that she has a medical condition always put her in constant fear that she might kill herself. In her book, the main character that she developed to present the woman she always wanted to be.

However, she is also not decided on whether the main character of the book would kill herself in the end. To some extent, this can be viewed as the battles that Virginia had with life. Eventually, Virginia Wolf committed suicide by drowning herself in 1941.

We will write a custom Essay on Mortality: film, The Hours specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Laura Brown on the other hand is a housewife in America. She is married to Dan, a World War II veteran. Her reason for getting married is to fulfil the obligation that she owed to Dan and to the world, as it is a moral obligation for one to get married. Despite this, she is torn in her marriage.

She therefore thinks that it is her duty to become a wife to a man who has come from war, a war that saved the world from perishing. It is with regards to this that she owes her family the duty of care.

However, looking at her marriage, her children, and the house that she is living in, Laura feels detached from her personal desires as well as life itself. It is at this point she decides to kill herself by overdosing on sleeping pills. However, she is unable to continue with her suicidal plan and decides to live although her life is miserable.

Unlike the other characters, Clarissa does not have suicidal thoughts. However, she feels empty and confused. First, her long time friend, Richard is dying from AIDS. She is the only person that makes an impact in his life. However, Richard goes ahead and kills himself probably as a result of not achieving his goals in life and his medical condition.

While in her house, Clarissa starts to question the choices that she has made in her life. She does not know whether it is the right choice to live with another woman since she is a lesbian. The memories that she has while she was in a relationship with Richard back in college is the reason all this.

Her house is also fully furnished. While looking at her plates, which she bought, she could not help but realise that if it were a man who had bought them, then she would have been more satisfied. Just like the other two characters, the challenges that they are facing in life are affecting the decisions that they make.

However, is it morally right to end your life to escape troubles in life? Is it okay to be involved in same sex relationships? Is it moral to let your family suffer at your expense? These are some of the questions that affect the decision making process of these characters.

Moral View Analysis The main moral issue presented in this film is the theme of mortality. The main characters that have been presented in this film had suicidal thoughts or experienced the suicide of an individual who is close to them. According to the natural law, reason is explicitly used to infer human nature.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mortality: film, The Hours by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In accordance with this theory, morality is regarded as a function of human nature. Therefore, the decisions and reasons that guide human action are expected to be in line with the moral principles of humanity. Therefore, it is innate for an individual to know what is right and wrong and it is the obligation of an individual to always try to do the right thing.

This is what defines morality according to this theory. Murder of any form is always considered as immoral in any society. Thus, it was immoral for Virginia and Laura to contemplate about suicide despite the challenges that they might have been facing in life.

Furthermore, it was also immoral for Virginia and Richard to commit suicide to escape the troubles they were facing as death has profound effects to the family, friends and the society. These individuals should have this sought other ways that would not have a negative impact on themselves, their loved one and the society to deal with their problems.

Kantianism on the other hand concentrates on the actions or duty of an individual within a society instead of their emotional contexts and the consequences of their actions. This ideology focuses on the intentions and motives behind an action. Therefore, since man is always rational, the decisions that he/she makes should always benefit him and the people around him.

However, the decisions made by the main characters in this film can be deemed as irrational since they had an evil motive and the acts were driven by emotions. For instance, after killing herself, the family of Virginia suffered a lot.

The book that she had left behind, ‘Mrs. Dalloway’ played a critical role in encouraging Laura to kill herself, although she did not. However, by neglecting her son, Richie (Richard), ends up being gay and suffering from AIDS. The death of Richard frustrates Clarissa, making her to doubt her life and her sexuality. Thus, the suicidal thought of one individual has had an impact on the lives of many people seventy years down the line.

Utilitarianism on the other hand purports that the desired direction of action is the one that maximizes overall happiness. As such, the actions of Virginia are not in accordance with this theory as the results of her actual and intended consequences are characterised with sorrow and not joy. Her death definitely was a huge blow to her family, close friends and many other people.

Laura on the other hand contemplates about killing herself without thinking the effect that her death might have on her unborn baby, Richie and Dan. However, she makes a wise decision to let go her plan for the sake of her family.

Clarissa on the other hand offers her support to Richard who acknowledges her presence although he is dying from AIDS. Even though he killed himself later, she played an important life in making him happy during his last moments on earth.

For the authority within the society to respect the rights and privileges of an individual, he/she needs to submit some of his/her rights to the state. This is the basis of the social contract theory. Therefore, we are all governed under the same rules and regulations that respect our rights and freedoms.

In all societies, murder is an illegal act punishable by law. Therefore, by killing themselves, Virginia and Richard went against the social contract they had with the state. If their attempts had failed and this act would have been reported to the authorities, Virginia and Richard would have been prosecuted by the state.

Kantianism The theory of Kantianism clearly presents the issue at hand. By being rational, individuals always chose live over death. Therefore, the act of killing someone or committing suicide is immoral in nature. Individuals should strive to live and come up with effective solutions to their problems. These solutions should not have negative impacts on the individual as well as the society.

Conclusion Morality is a virtue that should be embraced in society. Most moral values are innate in humanity, thus we should always make the right decisions in life. Murder and suicide is immoral in any society and it should be avoided at all costs. Individuals who have such thoughts should always seek advice and counselling from friends, peers, and family to ensure that we have a sustainable society that is based on morality.


Terminology and Etiquette Discussion Regarding Persons with Disabilities Essay best essay help

Examples of inappropriate (not people-first) language regarding people with disabilities

Example Stigmatizing language used and suggested appropriate language. Dr. ofweneke For M-Net Show ‘There’s hope for the disabled’ The word ‘disabled’ is inappropriately used in such a case. Instead, we could say people with disabilities. Abc news‘World’s Smallest Dwarf Siblings Live Large at College’ Inappropriate use of the word ‘dwarf’ is shown in this instance. This term can be replaced with a phrase ‘a person of short stature’ as well as ‘a little person’. ‘Computers assisting the handicapped’ Handicapped is used inappropriately in such a case; instead, it is better to use a phrase like ‘people with disability’‘are dumb people happier than smart ones?’ The word ‘dumb’ is used inappropriately. We could instead use a phrase ‘a person who uses communication device’ or ‘a person who is not able to communicate using his/her voice’ Inquirer News “Stop molesting me, you mongoloids!” The word ‘Mongoloid’ is a rude term to be used. The better phrase is a ‘person who suffers from Down syndrome’ A. Abc news on the story of the world’s dwarf siblings.

B. This is an instance where the media refers to siblings with a short statute as dwarf siblings. The media uses an inappropriate word ‘dwarf’ to refer to these people.

C. Apart from referring to these siblings as ‘dwarfs’, these individuals have got through a lot of challenges; such as having a problem of lifting a bag of sugar in a supermarket and being treated as children by strangers and teachers despite being in their early 20s.

This shows the disadvantages of people of short statute and at the same time some kind of discrimination like when they are treated as children by strangers. This is just one of the instances where we see discrimination against persons with disabilities.

Persons with disabilities are portrayed as people with inability. The media and people who use this source of information fail to understand that a disability is not an inability.

They continuously use incorrect term to refer to those people and even show some kind of discrimination against them. The media refer to people with disability as to persons with special needs, which reveals the inappropriate use of terminologies to refer to them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whereas the rights of other groups which experience discrimination like the homosexuals are openly violated, the persons with disabilities are denied their rights to socialize, properly educate and create a movement.

People with disabilities receive more discriminatory remarks in the press simply because people who use the press are not well informed on the proper (appropriate) language that should be used to refer to persons with disabilities. People without disabilities recognize the ones with disabilities as abnormal hence they see them differently without realizing that disability is something that can happen to anyone at anytime.

People should be educated on how to use correct words to refer to persons with different disabilities.

The media is the most appropriate tool that should be used by individuals or organizations that deal with persons with disabilities to educate and inform other people in society on how to refer to them so as not to discriminate or hurt them. Such actions must be done as quickly as possible.


Management of Donor Funded Projects in Least Developed Countries Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Effectiveness of Foreign Aid to Kenya

Effectiveness of Foreign Aid to India



Introduction Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a special category of countries characterized by extreme poverty, weak economies, and scanty institutional and human resources.

Despite the fact that millions of dollars have been spent over the years to address the problems and needs in the least developed countries, the level of poverty there remains high and the goal of ensuring equal access to basic needs is far from being realized.

To a great extent, this is attributed to the corruption that is rampant in the least developed countries. Donor countries are, therefore, expected to be more vigilant in monitoring how resources are utilized.

The subject of donor funding to least developed countries is particularly important to me as well as to the international donor community because the existence of poor people in least developed countries depends on aid from donor countries. This paper looks at measures that have been taken in Kenya and India to guarantee the effectiveness of the foreign aid.

Effectiveness of Foreign Aid to Kenya For several years, Japan has been the largest donor to Kenya with a special interest in the health sector. By the end of the year 2006, annual disbursement of aid to Kenya from had been estimated to be US $ 944 millions.

In the 1980s, Kenya was forced to implement Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) in an attempt to ensure that foreign aid was used appropriately. According to Carlsson, Somolekae and Walle (1997), the goal of implementing SAP in Kenya was to improve efficiency and ensure that foreign aid achieved the intended purpose.

With regard to donor aid management in Kenya, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) found that institutional considerations were necessary in financing the health sector. Among the problems that have led to failed donor projects in the health sector are poor coordination, misuse of funds, lack of transparency and accountability, and inadequate procurement and distribution procedures for aid drugs and other medical supplies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A case study of Kenyatta National Hospital, for example, indicated that inadequate transparency and poor accountability greatly hindered the effectiveness of donor funded projects (Carlsson et al, 1997).

Effectiveness of Foreign Aid to India In India, a transparency and accountability policy was enacted to control how aid money was utilized. Under this policy, organizations that receive foreign aid are expected to adhere to proper accounting and reporting guidelines and to provide audited financial reports on a regular basis.

Donor practice in India also requires the use of locally based aid agency staff to ensure that there is a high level of accountability in the management of foreign aid. Today, organizations such as the International Aid Transparency InitIATIve (IATI) exist to monitor how the aid money is being spent.

Conclusion The lack of effective accountability mechanisms for donor funds is certainly the major concern that must be addressed in a trice. Although many donor countries are aware that development assistance programs are not delivering the expected results, they are not fully involved in ensuring that aid money achieves the desired results.

From the discussion presented in this paper, it is obvious that problems in the least developed countries are mainly caused by lack of commitment by governments. It is absolutely necessary for donor countries to demand a high level of transparency and accountability for development funds channeled to governments in the least developed countries.

Reference Carlsson, J., Somolekae, G.


Discussion on business-government relationship Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction The success of any business around the world depends on a wide-range of factors, some of which may be from the internal or external business environment. For this reason, business owners and managers have no option but to try and understand the underlying factors, which are essential in defining the progress and future performance of the business.

From the manner in which a firm treats its customers, to its relationship with internal stakeholders, it is necessary to underscore how various factors are generally intertwined in any business market (Steurer 49).

The question we ought to ask is the need for establishing a relationship with the government when running a business. This essay discusses business-government relationship, with a major focus of different aspects on issues that have been witnessed in the changing business environment.

The analysis will give a synthesis of the discussion, covering the benefits and costs of having a business-government relationship. Importantly, the paper will cover the future trends, with regard to how governments and businesses relate in advancing their objectives in the society.

The information to be used in developing these ideas will be drawn from class notes, books, journals and other authentic publications, which cover the topic of discussion.

Business-Government relationship The manner in which governments relate with the business world has remained debatable for several years, presenting two sides of a coin in which debaters view the advantages and demerits of enhancing such relationships in any setup.

This is based on the fact that governments have authority on individuals and organizations, with the mandate of instituting legal regulations in the country, when necessary (Steurer 49).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, a business could be limited to implement certain strategies as a result of legal policies crafted by the government. As a result, it can be clearly seen that business and governments are never disjoint; they always connect in a host of ways, which will be covered in this essay.

In discussing government-business relations, it is worth noting that the topic has become more relevant across the global sphere, and a major factor in the drafting and implementation of business policies. This is attributed to the fast-changing business world, breeding new challenges and opportunities for governments, entrepreneurs, and prospective investors around the world (Jonson, Lindorff, and McGuire 259).

In this context, it is equally important to note that the need for the business world to develop relationships with different governments may vary from country to country, depending on development status. With developed economies, businesses get concerned during hard-economic seasons, like a financial crisis, where the government is expected to step-up intervention policies and strategies to salvage businesses.

Such efforts have been witnessed throughout history, with recent ones being bailouts and loans for the Euro Zone economy, which has had significant impact in almost every country around the world.

As a result, developed, developing and transition countries may view the need for government-business relationship from different perspectives, based on their varying levels of development. Most developed countries are generally interested in market trends worldwide, rather than what could be affecting individual firms.

This is to say that developed countries have a wider span of factors in focus, and therefore have a more complex approach, in linking the government and the market (Jonson, Lindorff, and McGuire 260).

While developing and transition countries may also be concerned with the global market, and the economic crisis, they strongly view government-business relationships from a development angle, since their economies are undergoing various advancement stages.

We will write a custom Essay on Discussion on business-government relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, they value sound government policies in encouraging international and local investments, through a system that presents more opportunities than risks and threats.

How the government protects business With the ever-changing dynamics of the business world, the government has assumed a senior role in protecting businesses and influencing the economy in an array of ways. While this can be argued from different positions, it is clear that the protective role played by the government is crucial in various ways.

In order for the government to guard businesses from external and internal forces, which may be harmful, policies must be put place (Jonson, Lindorff, and McGuire 260). This is necessary in identifying the kind of protection that its citizens need as compared to businesses around the world.

For instance, it is the role of the government to ensure that there is enough security to encourage investors and eliminate social hostility, which continues to affect several countries and economies in the world today.

Equally, protection from international pressure and unsuitable political manipulation is paramount, especially in a country that embraces international trade through exports and imports. Through this approach, the involvement of the government becomes more necessary in implementing business policies.

In this context, it is important to note that the government is able to establish a peaceful and reliable business environment, to allow proper business performance and ultimate growth of the economy.

With regard to distribution, striking a distribution balance between social classes and income is essential in the formulation of social welfare in areas where people have limited sources of income as compared to those living in urban centers. While some may ask the reason behind this kind of government involvement and protection, it is imperative to note that having a stable economy is crucial, which promotes economic growth.

For the government to assure its people of their security with regard to the business world, it is crucial for it to adjust fiscal and monetary policies, for the sake of dealing with cases of inflation and unemployment (Herman 20).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Discussion on business-government relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is doubtless unemployment breeds a social welfare burden, which becomes hard to bear, since there could be other needs affecting the nation, and have to be met. On the other hand, inflation discourages investors, especially from other countries, who may feel unsafe to invest in an environment with high prices, low income, and a stagnating economy.

As the legal body that formulates the laws, which govern the nation, it detects the kind of business environment to allow economic growth. However, some of these policies may not have a positive impact, depending on their viability and the implementation process.

Oftentimes, regulation frameworks crafted by the government are never fixed; they are bound to change, depending on current market trends and future expectations (Herman 21).

As a result, the business gets affected, since the adjustment carry an impact on the entire business environment and the country’s economy at large. Importantly, these changes may influence the competitive advantage of a firm, leading to other implications in future.

In most cases, the government relates with the business sector through market policies, which play a crucial role in establishing an environment deemed to be effective for the market regulator, citizens, and the consumers.

Some of the policies include monetary and physical policies, which have remained active in shaping market trends in the United States. In the 20th century, the United States witnessed a series of changes within the market, in which the government was actively involved in business interference (Herman 22).

One of the ways was through the establishment of state corporations, which were mainly funded and ran by the government. In such cases, the private sector may suffer from unfair competition pressure from state-run firms, which might not be concerned with making profit.

In other cases, the government may choose to adjust the prices within the market, without considering other factors like the source of goods sold by private investors and the implication of such a move on their business activities.

It can therefore be viewed that the government’s involvement in business is likely to affect the competitiveness of investors and other players in the market, depending on the kind of interference, positive or negative, in relation to market trends (Herman 24). Consequently, it is necessary for the government to evaluate the possible impact, before implementing such regulatory measures.

Government-Business also occurs through lobbying. As mentioned before, the government aims at promoting the welfare of its citizens and safeguarding the interests of investors, without losing sight of economic performance and stability. In this line of thought, it is worth noting that the government may also seek to woo the public through legal adjustments of influence-oriented approach (Schepers 477).

As the leading decision-maker, the government may use its machinery to inform the public before implementing certain market regulations, which may affect the business world either negatively or positively.

It can be argued that lobbying affects business depending on the intentions behind such a move by the government. Moreover, lobbying can also target private investors and other stakeholders to adopt a certain idea, as a way of championing a course that is promising economic growth.

Impact of Government-Business Relations From the above segments of this essay, it is evident that the interplay between a given business and the government may have a wide scope of negative and positive effects. In this section of the analysis, some of the major ways in which the relationship affects the business environment have been discussed.

Advantages of Government-Business Relations By the fact that no one would wish to have a situation where there is no involvement of the government in business, it implies that this interplay is likely to be beneficial. One of the merits of this type of relationship is globalization. For many years, countries around the world have embraced economic integration in order to have a link to the rest of the world (Wart 336).

Importantly, technology has also augmented these efforts, by breeding a global village, where information is shared instantly and one can transact business online without having to be physically present. All these efforts have narrowed down to business globalization, which allows the interconnection of economies through business activities.

From 1980s, the U.S. economy has undergone tremendous changes and achieved pinnacle economic performance as a result of globalization, which has become part of its culture. Many new connections have been created by the government, with the aim of opening the market for its finished products, through international business (Ritzer 599).

Consequently, the market has expanded internationally, though treaties and corporation with other countries around the world. In fact, there is no economy in the world that is self-reliant, thus there is the need of developing international partnerships within the global arena. This can only be done through the intervention of the government and its commitment towards the same course.

Besides individual country growth, the world economy has remarkably grown as a result of globalizations from 1960s. Even though the process has been faced with a series of challenges like the crises witnessed in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe, the course towards global economic integration has not departed the leadership of most governments of the world.

As a result of globalization, the world economy significantly grew in the last half of the 20th century, leading to the doubling in the global merchandise exports, from $2 trillion in 1980 to $6 trillion in 2001 (Herman 22).

Importantly, these economic developments realized from globalization have been witnessed in developing and developed countries, implying that globalization does not discriminate any economy; it offers opportunities, which can be utilized by any kind of government.

The world GDP has also increased as a result of globalization, which has been brought about by the participation of governments in improving their economic positions (Wart 336). From the time globalization began driving world economies, there has been a significant increase in international trade and overall foreign direct investment.

Besides the participation in international trade, globalization has benefited different economies around the world. There has been an increase in competition among various countries, a trend that accelerated in early 1990s, leading to the opening of more world markets to promote economic interconnectivity among developing and developed nations (Wart 336).

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, countries, which adopted international trade, have experienced enormous economic growth, doubling the value of those that were reluctant (Ritzer 599).

Most of the countries, which opened their market for international trade, have created countless business opportunities as opposed to those who remained on their domestic market for business activities, without the involvement of other countries.

In most cases, growth in Gross Domestic Product is largely associated with the export growth of a country. Additionally, a global economy that allows free movement of goods and services among countries usually registers higher investment ratios, attractive macro-economic balance, and better roles in economic development (Wart 337).

Protection Another important benefit of government-business relationship is protection. Every player within the market needs protection from any form of exploitation, manipulation, or denial of rights. For this to happen, a mechanism is usually needed for the sake of checks and balances. Through various ways, the government is able to protect consumers, manufacturers, suppliers, and everybody else involved in the business activities (Wart 337).

In understanding the role of the government in business, it is important to note the fact that when the United States was born, nobody imagined that the government would get involved in business done by individuals or organizations (Wart 337).

As a result, business owners and operators were in a free market, doing what they perceived to be right or wrong, depending on their best interests, without government involvement. However, history has witnessed several changes, like the involvement of the government in protecting the rights of buyers, sellers, suppliers, and everybody else involved in business.

In most cases, the government’s role is to protect the property of its citizens against disasters like fire and theft. This is done in various ways, like the use of trademarks as a way of identifying certain products produced by a particular company.

Additionally, most government have remained determined in protecting its artistes by use of copyrights, especially in dealing with malpractices like music piracy, which has adversely affected the music industry for generations (Wart 337).

Moreover, patents are commonly used in cases of discovery and invention of a new idea by individuals or a group of people. Depending on the laws governing the country, patents allow the person behind the idea to explore it maximally, before the public can be allowed to use it for the expansion of the country’s economy.

Another role protective role of the government in business is the enforcement of business contracts between business owners and their customer, in order to make them legally binding.

For instance, the government requires both parties involved in a business transaction to adhere to the terms and conditions, i.e. the company should provide the services or goods, while the consumers should make necessary payments, upon receipt of the goods or services being offered (Wart 338).

In such situations the party, which breaks the agreement without a legal course can be taken to court and charged. This is connected to the government’s role of settling disputes between customers and business owners.

In cases where the two parties involved in the transaction have failed to agree, government courts are allowed to intervene and settle the matter amicably within the confines of law. As a result, the rights of the aggrieved parties are protected, without undermining anyone of them.

Besides protecting businesses, governments equally execute their mandates through determination and collection of taxes from manufacturers and consumers. The revenue, which is collected from such channels, is usually used to pay for the expenses incurred by the government in other departments of its economy.

The use of tariffs in America has been quite effective in promoting locally-made products and discouraging importation of finished goods and services from other countries (Steurer 52).

Additionally, the government controls business to safeguard the interests of the public, through public utility commissions, which deal with issues of monopoly and price monitoring, especially in cases where the company has monopoly in the market.

Workplace standards are also enforced by the government even though it is the responsibility of the company to ensure that the working conditions of its employees meet the minimum requirements set by the government. This action is paramount in cases where certain jobs may expose workers to health hazards like chemical fumes and dangerous equipment.

In such cases, the government is supposed to intervene to ensure that safety practices are observed, which would in turn guarantee the safety of workers in various companies around the country (Steurer 52). Apart from dangerous working conditions, governments also intervene in wage regulation, to ensure that workers are not exploited by companies through poor wages.

When this occurs, employees get paid according to certain standards recommended by the government to allow the parties involved to benefit from the profits made from the business. Other laws, which are common in working places, prohibit any form of discrimination to augment equal opportunities for employees, regardless of their gender and racial background (Schepers 479).

Disadvantages of Government-Business Relations As seen from the above analysis, government intervention in business is significant in setting standards and ensuring that all the parties involved are protected against any form of discrimination. While this is case, it is worth noting that excessive intervention by the government may have negative influence on the economy, especially in cases where the interference affects the entire business environment.

Government intervention in business is considered harmful to the business when the business world is not allowed to make decisions, which are independent. If this persists, there is a likelihood of the business world to over-rely on the government for direction, even when the matter at hand does not require government involvement (Jonson, Lindorff, and McGuire 259).

This over-reliance also limits the ability of business owners to take risks through investment and initiation of new projects because of the fear of the government’s approach in regulating the economy. It would be unimaginable to have an economy, which discourages business investments because of the laws and regulation processes initiated by the government.

When the prevailing conditions do not allow investment and risk-taking by business owners, a collapse of the economy is bound to occur, emanating from unfavorable business conditions.

In other words, the government will be unable to meet its budget needs due to dwindling revenues from the corporate sector, there will be high rates of unemployment, high prices for goods and services and ultimate inflation (Jonson, Lindorff, and McGuire 261).

In fact, there is no economy that can thrive with a collapsed business system. This is to say that business plays a crucial role in protecting the government against bankruptcy, especially in cases where the control mechanisms do not aim at limiting the business opportunities for investors.

While government regulations may be important in some cases, economists have argued that poor regulation has led to various financial crises, which have been witnessed around the world. For instance, the 2007 financial crisis witnessed in the United States was largely attributed to the failure by the government to institute measures, capable of taming the subprime market (Schlomach 1).

Cases of subprime mortgages were rampant, as people were allowed to take loans without analyzing their credit history and their potential of paying back the loan. In mid 1990s, the government intervened by adjusting the highest amount of loan, which one would be allowed to take by the Community Reinvestment Act.

This meant that borrowers were allowed to acquire more money, regardless of their ability to pay back the loan as required by the lending institution. What the economy witnessed was definitely unpleasant and detestable; there was a surge in “bad debt” as most borrowers were unable to clear the mortgage arrears, limiting the ability of financial institutions to give out more money to borrowers.

Foreclosures were also high as lenders tried to recover their money from borrowers through repossession of property. While it is true that the U.S. economy suffered from this in various ways, millions of Americans lost their jobs as the economy remained in a recovery mood (Athavaley and Avila 1).

Although various strategies have been implemented to curb the problem of unemployment, it is evident that a lot is yet to be done to in creating more opportunities for millions of Americans who remain unemployed today.

Another risk of government intervention in business is that it may eliminate and undermine the role of the corporate sector in an economy. In cases where business is fully controlled by the government, there is usually a higher tendency of most businesses being owned by the state or being acquired by the ruling government in order to advance its course (Schlomach 1).

When the business sector is dominated by the government, most of the decisions would be made by the state, without considering the ideas of the private investor. In this case, the business world is likely to be turned into a government sector, thus losing the basic meaning of business independence.

A business environment that is ruled by the government is likely to discourage investors due to lack of freedom, a move that may adversely affect the industry and the country’s economy at large.

Beside the above disadvantages of government intervention, it is worth noting that involvement of the state in business may lead to increased business or production costs. For instance, cases of business certification require money, yet some of the expenses cannot directly be channeled to consumers (Jonson, Lindorff, and McGuire 261).

As a result, business owners are forced to incur money, which would have been used for the expansion of the business or investing in other projects. It can therefore be seen that excessive intervention by the government carries negative implications to the business world and may hamper economic growth.

Future trend on Business and Government relationship Even as the world focuses on the future of government regulations, there are certain facts, which will remain essential in understanding the role of the state in the business world. For instance, the business environment is dynamic, and no approach is static; it changes to address the changing needs of customers.

Additionally, self-regulatory cannot exist, because of lack of trust in some companies and the need for standards, say tariffs and collection of taxes from business (Grosse 153). These will constantly prevail regardless of the level of advancement.

Since business companies cannot be trusted and regulation has to exist, there is a possibility that the government will consider having third parties, say groups known in management of standards, who will be mandated to ensure that certain regulations are observed. This would eliminate direct interference by the government, which has been negatively viewed by most business firms (Grosse 153).

In some cases, the world has also witnessed cases of government agencies advancing self-interests during the process of business regulation. The use of trusted third parties would eliminate such scenarios and create a fair business ground for the private and corporate world in advancing the economy of the world.

While some interventions may have negative impact to the business sector and economy at large, it is likely that intervention standards and regulations will increase. Most governments have embarked on tightening regulatory standards, more than before. For instance, issues of certification are becoming common with companies and organizations being required to meet ISO standards.

Additionally, companies will be required to give detailed reports on corporate responsibility, depending on the nature of goods or services being offered (Grosse 155). Such disclosures are likely to increase as a way of monitoring how the business world operates with regard to public interests, which have to be safeguarded by the government.

With the advancement in technology and massive use of the internet around the world, there is a likelihood of governments changing their intervention approaches. In other words, new monitoring mechanisms will be adopted to conform to the ever-changing business world (Grosse 155).

For instance, the government may decide to carry out an online survey on working conditions, wages or performance standards of a given company. In other words, the world is likely to witness changes in government interventions, in order to streamline the sector and improve the economy.

We are likely to see more friendly approaches, where the government involves the business community in handling economic problems like employment, as seen in President Obama’s move to prevent layoffs in the country (Athavaley and Avila 1).

Conclusion In summary, government intervention in business is two-sided. In other words, it has negative and positive effects. Nevertheless, it is important to note that any form of intervention is viable and healthy to the economy if the overall impact is ascertained before implementing the regulations.

This would ensure that the interests of the parties involved are well-considered. For this reason, business owners ought to have some room in order to allow government intervention and participation in their activities. Additionally, lobbying should be embraced since it helps the government to know the needs of the business world.

It should therefore be viewed as a communication channel between the government and the business world. Above all, it is essential for the government to understand that its negative intervention can lead to total crumbling of the economy.

Works Cited Athavaley, Anjali, and Joseph Avila. “Governors Criticize Bad News on Jobs.” Wall street Journal, 2012. Web.

Grosse, Robert. International Business and Government Relations in the 21st Century. London. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

Herman, Arthur. “How America Got Rich.” Commentary 134. 2 (2012):20-25.

Jonson, Elizabeth, Margaret Lindorff, and Linda McGuire. “Paternalism and the Pokies: Unjustified State Interference or Justifiable Intervention.” Journal of Business Ethics 110. 3 (2012):259-268. Print.

Ritzer, George. The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. New Jersey: John Wiley


PESTEL Analysis: brewing industry Case Study college essay help: college essay help

To discuss the particular features of the Western European brewing industry in relation to its macro-environment and determine the influential factors for the industry’s development, it is necessary to refer to PESTEL analysis.

Political Factors

It is possible to connect the decline in the beer consumption with the European governments’ campaigns against drunken driving which resulted in supporting the social orientation to health and fitness. Moreover, the governments’ restriction campaigns influenced ‘on-trade’ sales and contributed to ‘off-trade’ sales in supermarkets.

Economic Factors

The decline in the beer consumption affected the increase of prices within the industry which is associated with the high costs of packaging materials and raw materials. The impact of supermarkets grows, and the progress of new brands influences the changes in the economic aspect.

Social Factors

The consumers’ attitude to the excessive alcohol demands changes with references to the social campaigns in which the negative effect of alcohol on the people’s health is accentuated. The popularity of wine grows.

Technological Factors

The brewing industry is associated with a constant progress in producing and packaging the products with the help of innovative techniques based on technological advancements (products with new flavours and tastes). These innovations contribute to increasing the products’ quality and profitability.

Environmental Factors The traditional European brewing industry suffers from the increased impact of Chinese, US, and Brazilian products. The situation in the market is influential for the development of the premium beer brands. Moreover, the necessity to respond to the issues of the environmental protection increases.

Legal Factors

Legal factors are connected with the programs against the excessive alcohol consumption, drinking in public places, and restrictions on the drinking age. The industry is also influenced by the increase of taxes which affects the products’ prices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Five Forces Analysis To analyse the threat of new entrants or substitutes and competition between the companies, it is necessary to pay attention to five forces which can affect the industry.

Threat of New Entrants

The threat of new entrants can be discussed as low because the development of the industry depends on large and famous companies which preserve their high competitive position.

Threat of Substitutes

The possible substitutes which can influence the demands in beer are wine, energy drinks, and the products of foreign companies. The way to overcome the threat is to introduce new products (beer with different flavours and tastes).

Competitive Rivalry

Competitive rivalry can be discussed as extremely high because of the variety of products proposed. Large companies are inclined to create alliances to regulate the situation within the market of the brewing industry.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Focusing on the high packaging costs, raw materials and energy costs which influence the company’s price strategies, it is possible to conclude that the power of suppliers is considerable.

Bargaining Power of Consumers

The changes in the brewing companies’ strategies depend on consumers’ demands. That is why, the bargaining power of consumers can be discussed as high with references to the consumers’ right to choose the product among the variety of brands according to the correlation between the price and quality.

The Impacts of Trends on Breweries Anheuser-Busch InBev (Belgium)

Being one of the largest European producers, the company is oriented to increasing efficiency and providing innovations in order to compete within the market successfully. The company’s strengths are in a popular brand and experience. However, the problems are associated with the threat of the foreign companies’ impact.

We will write a custom Case Study on PESTEL Analysis: brewing industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Greene King (United Kingdom)

The strengths of the company are based on experience and profitability, but the company avoids the multiband strategy which can be successful.

Tsingtao (China)

The company’s success is based on the effective price strategy, but the brand identity is rather low.


Managing Diversity in the Workplace Problem Solution Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Globalization and advancements in information and communication technology have caused tremendous changes in various sectors of the economy, especially, the hospitality industry. Many businesses in the hospitality industry have joined the global market in the last decade.

This move has been informed by high competition in the domestic market, globalization and improvements in the exportation and importation of services. Consequently, most businesses serve customers from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Furthermore, most organizations have had to employ people from different social and cultural backgrounds.

This has led to the emergence of a diverse workforce in the modern workplace. Diversity refers to the “variety of experiences and perspectives which arise from differences in race, culture, religion, mental/ physical ability and gender”. Thus, diversity refers to the human characteristics which are significantly different from our own attributes.

Diversity also includes differences in work experience, educational achievements, as well as, geographical location. These differences affect how people interact at the workplace. They also affect employees’ performance, motivation, as well as, career development.

Through diversity management, businesses can understand how socio-cultural differences affect the performance of their employees. Diversity management refers to the process of bringing together individuals with different social, economic and cultural backgrounds into a cohesive, harmonious and productive unit.

It involves examining and reforming organizational structures that prevent inclusivity at the workplace. Empirical studies show that effective diversity programs are beneficial to the organization. Concisely, they facilitate high productivity, motivation and innovation among employees.

Ignoring diversity, on the other hand, is likely to cause low morale, discrimination and poor performance in the organization. Thus, every organization should focus on effective diversity management in order to improve its competitiveness in the industry. This paper will shed light on the concept of diversity in the context of the hospitality industry. Additionally, my human resource functions in the industry will be presented.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Causes of Diversity Diversity at the workplace has been caused by the following factors. To begin with, the number of immigrants has increased in the country. Immigrants usually come from different cultures. Thus, hiring immigrants results into a multi-cultural workforce. Enforcement of antidiscrimination laws has also forced many employers and citizens to be tolerant to people who come from different cultures and social orientations.

Most labor unions advocate for equal employment opportunities to all citizens irrespective of their social backgrounds. Thus, employers have embarked on improving diversity in their organizations in order to avert any opposition from labor unions.

Demographic shift is another factor that has contributed to diversity at the workplace. Many businesses in the hospitality industry have had to employ individuals who understand the needs of the most important generations. For instance, hotels and restaurants that target the youth normally include youthful employees in their management teams in order to enhance product development.

As competition increase in the domestic market, most companies have had to join international markets. Due to legal and political issues, multinational companies have been forced to recruit employees in the overseas markets. Additionally, sending expatriates to work in overseas subsidiaries tend to be expensive. Thus, most multinationals have employees from different socio-cultural backgrounds.

The Benefits of Diversity Management Human resource managers need to focus on diversity management due to the following reasons. First, diversity management enables businesses to attract, hire and retain the best talent in the market. Research shows that jobseekers prefer to work for companies that are tolerant to cultural, racial and ethnic diversity.

In this regard, a firm that promotes diversity is likely to attract the best talent. In the hospitality industry, the success of product differentiation and customer service improvement efforts depends on the competencies of the employees.

Consequently, demand for highly talented employees has been on the rise. However, businesses can still access the best talent by incorporating diversity management initiatives in their human resource policies.

We will write a custom Essay on Managing Diversity in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Second, diversity management helps in reducing the costs associated with labor turnover and absenteeism. Labor turnover and absenteeism tends to be high in organizations whose managers pay little or no attention to employees’ feelings, perceptions and differences.

Such organizations are also characterized by cases of discrimination and low staff morale. These factors normally precipitate mass exodus of employees from organizations. Third, high commitment among employees can be achieved through diversity management.

In this case, managing diversity helps managers to create a sense of belonging among employees. It also helps in improving interactions/ relationships in the organization, as well as, building cohesion and tolerance among staff members.

Fourth, diversity management enables companies to improve their reputation and to develop a positive rapport with local communities. Organizations with weak diversity management structures tend to have poor reputation and financial performance. Last and most importantly, managing diversity is one of the best ways of improving the performance of the business.

Focusing on diversity enables managers to acquire knowledge on the best strategies for operating in different cultures. In the hospitality industry, high customer satisfaction can be achieved if the customers’ cultural orientations are taken into account during product development.

In this regard, it is important to hire people who understand the customers’ culture in order to develop the right product. Furthermore, the best marketing strategies can be developed if the process is led by people who understand the market.

For instance, most multinational hotels usually recruit their marketing executives from the markets in which they operate. The rationale of this strategy is that locals have a better understanding of the market. Consequently, they are likely to develop marketing plans and policies that reflect the needs of the market.

Negativity of Diversity The benefits of diversity can only be realized if it is well managed. Diversity can also be a major source of poor financial performance, especially, if it occurs in a clandestine manner. Generally, large organizations tend to take deliberate measures to hire a diverse workforce. Consequently, they are ready to manage the challenges associated with diversity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Diversity in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, small organizations tend to recruit people from different social backgrounds without realizing that they are creating diversity in their workforce. In this case, diversity is likely to have negative effects in the organization. Some of these effects include the following.

To begin with, diversity is likely to cause communication problems. It is apparent that people from different cultures are not likely to speak the same language. This leads to communication barriers in the organization. Communication barriers have both internal and external impacts.

At the internal level, it hampers coordination of work and relationships among employees. Work coordination becomes difficult if the employees are not able to understand each other. Additionally, instructions from managers and supervisors can be misinterpreted due to poor understanding of the language that is being used at the workplace.

Companies whose employees have a low command of the national language are likely to offer poor customer service. In order to address the problem of language barriers, most organizations usually employ interpreters to facilitate communication among employees. However, employing interpreters involve high costs which reduce the business’ ability to expand.

At the external level, communication barriers can lead to misunderstanding between the company and the public. For instance, incorrect use of a local language in an advert can cause public outrage and loss of customers. Additionally, communication barriers hamper effective exchange of feedbacks between the organization and the public or customers.

Diversity is one of the major causes of cultural resistance at the workplace. It changes the nature of relationships and interactions at the workplace. Employees who lack training on diversity are likely to be intolerant to foreign cultures.

Consequently, they will tend to interact only with people from their cultures. This leads to poor cooperation and teamwork. Additionally, cases of discrimination and low morale tend to be high in organizations in which employees resist foreign cultures. The tensions associated with cultural resistance eventually results into low productivity.

Diversity Management Strategies Effective diversity management involves “planning and implementing organizational systems and practices to manage people so that the potential advantages of diversity are maximized while its potential disadvantages are minimized”. As a result, the organization will be flexible and adaptable to emerging market needs. The process of managing diversity must be led by individuals who possess the right skills and knowledge.

In general, the following skills are required for effective management of diversity. The manager should have a good understanding of diversity concepts and how to apply them within the organization.

Consequently, the process should be led by a person who has undergone training about diversity and has experience in applying the acquired knowledge. The manager should recognize that diversity is embedded in all aspects of management. This means that the manager should be able to incorporate diversity management initiatives in every role or duty that he performs at the workplace.

Self-awareness is also important in diversity management. The manager should understand his own culture and learn to make decisions that are free from cultural bias. It is also important to understand the cultures of other employees in order to avoid making decisions based on stereotypes and assumptions.

In a multicultural workforce, understanding the culture of every employee can be very difficult. However, the manager should be willing and able to learn the cultures of his employees. Finally, the manager should be willing to challenge organizational practices that encourage intolerance at the workplace. The specific strategies for managing diversity include the following.

Ensure Management Commitment Diversity management is likely to be effective if the process is supported by the company’s top leadership. In this regard, the management plays the following roles. First, the management is expected to demonstrate commitment, as well as, accountability. The management should be able to indentify the most appropriate performance measures to be used in diversity management.

The measures must be relevant and acceptable in the organization. Additionally, the management should set specific performance targets to facilitate effective management. In a nutshell, the targets should be used as benchmarks for monitoring the progress of diversity management programs on a regular basis.

The management should also allocate adequate resources to support the implementation of diversity management initiatives. The required resources include personnel, funds, technology, as well as, training facilities.

Second, the company’s management should clearly communicate the importance of diversity. This will enable all members to understand the value of an inclusive and harmonious work environment. Additionally, clear communication will enable the management to win the support of junior employees in its quest for cohesion at the workplace. Management meetings can be used to articulate the importance of diversity.

However, management meetings are likely to lockout junior employees in the discussions concerning diversity. Consequently, the management can take advantage of company events such as end of year parties to engage employees in discussions about diversity. Additionally, line managers can use informal sessions to discuss various aspects of diversity with the junior employees.

Finally, the company’s leaders should be role models to all employees. They should actively participate in the implementation of diversity management initiatives. For example, managers should participate in diversity training programs in order to encourage other employees to do the same.

Similarly, managers should be part of employee network groups in order to strengthen their relationships with junior staff members. The behavior of top managers should be informed by the organization’s values that promote diversity. For instance, managers should avoid behaviors such as favoritism.

Reform Human Resource Functions Diversity management initiatives should be incorporated in human resource functions. Concisely, the initiatives must be reflected in activities such as staff recruitment, staff compensation, performance appraisals and dispute resolution. During staff selection, human resource managers should accept applications from a diverse applicant pool.

Affirmative action can be used to ensure that applications are received from all groups of potential employees. During interviews, specific skills and personal attributes must be identified and used to select the employees. For instance, the company can focus on recruiting people who are able to tolerate cultural differences.

Similarly, people who can speak different languages can be hired in order to minimize the conflicts caused by language barriers. The interviews should be conducted by a panel that consists of people from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds.

Applicants should be hired based on academic qualifications, leadership skills and work experience rather than personal attributes such as race, age or gender. Staff performance appraisals should be based on productivity and work related variables such as leadership skills and relationships with other employees. Similarly, promotions and pay rises should be based on performance.

Training Adequate training is an important aspect of diversity management. In a multicultural workforce, employees must be trained on the importance of diversity. Such training will enable employees to appreciate their differences and focus on cohesion. Through training, employees will acquire skills for managing disputes that might arise due to their cultural differences.

The training process should be led by qualified personnel. Outsiders can be invited to provide expert advice in the training sessions. Since cultural change takes place over a long period of time, training on diversity should be offered on a continuous basis. Furthermore, the training should be incorporated in the employee orientation programs. This will help new recruits to understand the importance of diversity and how to achieve it.

My Human Resource Management Functions The human resource manager plays an important role in the hospitality industry, especially, in hotels and restaurants. Human resource management in the hospitality industry tends to be different as compared to other industries. The industry provides a series of services whose quality depends on the employees’ competencies, motivation and attitude towards work. Besides, the industry primarily serves tourists from different cultures and social backgrounds.

Thus, the individual tastes and preferences of each customer must be considered in all operations in the industry. Employees play a fundamental role in the provision of excellent services to customers. However, this can only be achieved if the employees are well managed.

Hence, the importance of human resource department in the hospitality industry becomes apparent. The responsibilities of human resource executives include staffing, training employees and designing job descriptions. They also formulate and implement policies that guide staff compensation and employee retention. These functions are applied as follows in the hospitality industry.

Recruitment Success in the hospitality industry begins with the hiring of the right employees. In this regard, the recruitment process must help businesses to hire people with the right attitude, as well as, behavioral attributes. During the selection and recruitment process, several assessments are often used to determine the work orientations of potential employees.

These assessments include the applicants’ work values, personality, as well as, interpersonal skills. The applicants’ problem solving abilities should also be taken into account. These attributes help human resource specialists to determine the applicants’ ability to offer services in the hospitality industry.

Retention High labor turnover is one of the major challenges in the hospitality industry. Many employees usually quit within their first year of employment in hotels and restaurants. The main causes of high turnover in the industry include poor pay, lack of growth opportunities, unfavorable work conditions and inability to cope with workload.

High turnover is costly to businesses in terms of lost productivity, high cost of replacing employees and loss of talented staff. Consequently, reducing turnover helps in saving time, money and increasing productivity. This can be achieved through employee retention policies such as introducing flexible work schedules in order to prevent fatigue.

Obtaining feedback from the employees concerning work processes and organizational policies help in understanding workers’ concerns. Turnover can be reduced significantly if the grievances of the employees are addressed in time. Additionally, promoting cultural tolerance helps in retaining employees in a diverse workforce.

Training and Development Training and development is one of the most important human resource functions in the hospitality industry. Training helps in imparting knowledge, skills and abilities to workers. Consequently, it contributes to innovation, product development and improvement of customer care services.

However, most businesses in the industry are yet to realize these benefits since their investments in staff training tend to be a reactive process. Such businesses use training as a means of coping with immediate problems such as poor service quality.

Staff training and development can be beneficial if it is conducted in a proactive manner. In this regard, the role of a human resource specialist is to identify employees’ training needs. He is also responsible for developing a suitable training program in order to bridge the identified skill gaps among employees. Training and development can be done on-the-job or off-the-job.

On-the-job training is the most suitable for hotels and restaurants since it involves learning by doing. It enables employees to acquire practical skills as they also create value to the organization. However, on-the-job training can be abused if its implementation is not well planned.

Hence, its implementation requires proper planning, structure, as well as, supervision. Off-the-job training is often done in a learning institution through lectures, discussions and practical sessions. It helps employees to acquire conceptual skills on various aspects of their jobs.

Performance Appraisal It is important to evaluate employees’ performance in order to determine their strengths and weaknesses. Empirical studies have shown that most employees often quit their jobs due to biased or unfair performance appraisals. A fair appraisal system can help in reducing biases in performance evaluations. Businesses such as hotels should adopt a 360 degrees appraisal system to evaluate their employees.

The evaluation system should focus on productivity and the behaviors of the employees. Feedback or information about productivity and behavior should be obtained from various stakeholders such as customers, managers, colleagues and suppliers. Additionally, the managers should be evaluated by their juniors in order to provide a balanced view on their performance.

Facilitating inclusiveness Providing services in the hospitality industry requires effective coordination among employees. Effective coordination and interaction among employees is often achieved by creating a work environment that is not only inclusive, but also harmonious. Promoting inclusivity is also one of the best ways of managing diversity in the hospitality industry.

Strategies for promoting inclusivity include the following. Formal and informal activities such as sports can be organized to promote teamwork among workers. Workplace designs should facilitate interaction at the workplace.

For example, hotels usually design their kitchens in a manner that facilitates sharing of equipment among cooks. Additionally, locating cooking stations in a central place facilitates consultations among cooks and other kitchen staff members.

Some hotels and restaurants have buddy systems in which new recruits are assigned to the incumbents to foster relationships and interactions. Similarly, employee networks have been used successfully to promote inclusivity in most hotels. These networks usually consist of employees who share some work attributes such as being members of the same department.

Mentorship programs are often provided through these networks in order to promote productivity and tolerance among employees. Large organizations often use employee networks to involve workers in decision making processes.

In this context, employee networks are used to enhance autonomy, creativity, as well as, cooperation among workers. For example, cooks in a hotel can use informal meetings to discuss alternative cooking methods. Their conclusions can then be forwarded to the management for consideration and approval.

Rewarding Employees Employees’ compensation packages should reflect the value of their effort at the workplace. It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to ensure that employees are adequately compensated. An effective compensation system helps in reducing labor turnover, as well as, improving motivation and productivity.

Employees whose shifts are longer than 8 hours should be compensated for the extra time. The compensation system should also promote productivity by rewarding employees for attaining or exceeding quality targets. In general, the compensation system should be fair and acceptable to all employees.

Conclusion Diversity refers to the human characteristics that differentiate people from different socio-cultural backgrounds. These characteristics include race, religion, gender, work experience and academic achievements. These attributes affect interactions and employees’ performance.

Hence, appropriate diversity management systems must be put in place in order to maximize the benefits of diversity and to reduce its disadvantages. The benefits of diversity management include high productivity, recruiting the best talent, reducing labor turnover and improving the reputation of the company.

However, poor management of diversity can lead to discrimination, low morale and dismal performance at the workplace. The most important human resource functions in the hospitality industry include staff recruitment, retention, compensation, training, performance appraisal and promoting inclusiveness. Staff recruitment, training and promoting inclusiveness facilitate diversity management.

Staff retention and compensation policies help in improving staff motivation and commitment. Fair performance appraisal and appropriate staff training and development facilitate high productivity. Businesses in the hospitality industry should incorporate their diversity management initiatives in human resource management functions in order to succeed.

References Alleyne, P., Doherty, L.,


Feminism and Gender Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me

Introduction This paper discusses the history of women in the field of art. Two articles will be explored in discussing the said issue. The first article in the analysis is written by Linda Nochlin and it is entitled “Why have there been no great women artists?” The article is basically about women, art and power.

The second article is by Michael Camille and is entitled “For our devotion and pleasure: The sexual objects of Jean, Duc de Berry”. It talks about the history of art. The two articles explore and compare the main points articulated in them with the aim of drawing similarities and differences in their writings. Analyses of the articles Linda Nochlin’s article

Linda Nochlin’s writing on the subject “Why have there been no great women artists?” is a pioneer article on the subject of feminine participation in the field of art. The article provokes the debate on why female artists have not been so successful in the field of art as compared to their male counterparts.

The title of the article by Linda Nochlin has generated a lot of debate with some terming it as being feminist considering the fact that it is written by a female writer. However, Linda Nochlin’s article is a response to a question which she had been asked by a gallery owner. In her opening remarks, she tries to point out the different ways in which other individuals have tried to answer this question.

She argues that all those attempts to answer the question are commendable especially in giving the historical background of art. However, the article only serves to highlight the point that female artists were not as successful as their male counterparts.

To affirm her argument, she pinpoints that there has never been a female artist who could match the works of Michelangelo or Remembrandt and no amount of scholarly research could alter this fact which on a broader sense validates the concerns raised by the question. She further argues that the same experience on women being sidelined is clearly synonymous with other cultures such as Chinese, African and even Eskimos throughout history.

Linda then attempts to provide answers to this question by first mutilating the whole idea behind the myth of the genius artist as a case of artistic fantasy. This myth has been a part and parcel of art since the days of Pliny.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has nurtured the notion that an individual with a real gift in art will most naturally be accorded the tag of a genius and therefore, doors will be opened for him or her to be nurtured by a renowned teacher in the field and possibly enhance his or her skills beyond the teacher’s scope of ability (Nochlin 20).

She argues that a work of art is rarely a personal expression of the art and therefore, if we quantify art as a total reflection of both purpose, production and patronage, it will be clearly evident to all of us that there is a systematic biasness that promotes the exclusion of women from the domain of those who are able to create and model famous works of art like those of Raphael and Michelangelo (Nochlin 176).

Interestingly, this fact is clearly illuminated in the article, “For our devotion and pleasure: the sexual objects of Jean, Duc de Berry” by Michael Camille. Mr. Camille portrays the Duke as a great patron of art. However, the paintings commissioned by the latter were actually an expression of his passionate sexual attraction to young men.

Many historians have made the claims that the Duke was most likely fancied with homosexual behavior and therefore expressed this passionate desire through the paintings which he commissioned. Looking at it from the point of view of Michael Camille, we are able to note that the artist was not freely expressing his own personal views but that he basically painted the views of his patron, the Duke.

This clearly confirms Linda’s argument that the systems that existed did not give the artist the room to express himself or herself but rather to express the views of another in order to succeed and be promoted into the limelight of the given society in which the artist found himself or herself.

It is possible that the artists themselves might not have agreed with the views of the Duke although they became famous because of painting in accordance to the views of the Duke.

Institutions which trained and modeled artists were purposely engineered and tailored to serve certain classes of individuals and this was the general case in all Europe where the art academies throughout history were established to serve a particular domain of people while at the same time excluding others.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Feminism and Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, Jacques-Louis David, most likely did not permit female artists into the art classes where they could perfect their skills in art although he was one of the leading supporters of female artists. This therefore denied the female artists the chance to compete against famous artists like Pris de Rome who rose to fame by sketching pictures of nude people.

The women artists did not have the opportunities of learning how to sketch any pictures in order to compete with such famous male artists. Therefore, even though there were considerable numbers of women artists in the later years of the eighteenth and the dawn of the nineteenth centuries, none would have come close to receiving the famous awards that their male counterparts were enjoying.

Linda makes the article further interesting when she changes the basis of her question to point out the fact that the absence of famous female artists in history can actually be examined in a broader spectrum by further raising a new question. She asks why there are no famous artists of the aristocratic classes.

She points out that although aristocrats were actively involved with works of art throughout history and also received training on the same, none of them had received an acclaimed award in art apart from Toulouse Lautrec who became a famous artist after abandoning his ancestral background.

Linda narrows down to assert that the whole question about female artists actually revolves around the production of art and therefore, to provide answers to the subject, we must keenly examine a broad spectrum of realities rather than the whole aspect of why artists chose to become artists in the first place.

Linda concludes by expanding her argument to stress the point that the same predicament faces women in all other domains that focus on studies on women.

The issues of women are actually never looked at from the perspective of women but are always subjected to male viewpoints just like in families and societies in general. Issues on women are commonly built around the male perspectives with little or no consideration at all for the women’s points of view.

A careful analysis of the article by Nochlin reveals that society has not provided an equal platform for both men and women to acquire skills in art. Although women artists have been numerous throughout history, little has been done to tap and nurture their talents in art.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Feminism and Gender by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a fact that society has to reckon with and consequently address. She also makes an important contribution to the subject of art by emphasizing that for aspiring artists to become successful, they will need to build firm and lasting relationships with other famous artists or patrons, be educated in good art academies and also be given the opportunities to freely express their views artistically without placing social barriers on their work.

These three factors are very important in the development of an artist’s skills. Getting education from famous schools of art and academies is a very vital need for an upcoming female artist since without such education; the most talented female artist will not be able to achieve her full potential.

It is therefore important to provide the same educational facilities to women artists like their male counterparts.If this is done, women will be able to achieve the same levels of recognition as their male counterparts.

In fact, it is possible that they may even outdo their male colleagues in both talents and skills. Providing facilities that enhance equal learning opportunities for men and women in the field of art boosts healthy competition and development of robust ideas in fields of art.

It is possible that the greatest works of art are yet to be done and we can only find out if this is true by leveling the playing field and anticipating great works of art in the future.

Building strong relationships between young upcoming female artists and other famous artists or patrons of art is important to the female artist. It is quite evident that any woman in history who gained any form of fame or success for her works of art must have been inspired by a male artist.

This could either have been a father to the female artist who was himself an acclaimed artist or a husband who had links with famous artists and who therefore helped to shape his wife’s skills in art.

This fact is also highlighted in Michael Camille’s article, named “For our devotion and pleasure: The sexual objects of Jean, Duc de Berry”. In this article, Camille highlights how the Duke spent fortunes commissioning paintings and artworks which the latter passionately cherished.

It is clearly evident in the article by Camille that the artists at Jens’ time flourished because of his patronage of their works of art. He spent an enormous part of his wealth acquiring their pieces of art, some of which have endured to this day. It was his patronage of art that made the artists of his time famous. It is also interesting to note that none of the artists who worked for the Duke was feminine.

Though skills can be acquired in great schools of art, they can only be shaped into useful experiences through the direction of an acclaimed artist. The skills acquired in class are theoretical while the guidance of a famous artist offers the real experience and improves talent in order to produce a great piece of art which will be admired by all.

Cultural and social stereotyping which portrays a woman as bound and confined to the duties of the household especially in the nineteenth century was a clear barrier to the advancement of women in the field of art. The women who painted during this period were thought to do so in order to become famous and not as a part of their careers.

The woman was always expected to maintain her place as a housewife and not try and venture in the male dominated field of art. Such notions clearly explain the great divide between historical male and female artists. Although art has had a special place in influencing human life throughout history, it is sad to note that not a single famous female artist emerged to be famous therefore making the contribution of art to human life throughout history a one sided affair.

However, women now need to rise to the occasion and make their voices be heard. They need to be willing to explore into the unknown and fight the barriers which have existed and which have limited their participation in the field of art. Michael Camille’s article

On the other hand, according to Michael Camille’s article, named “For our devotion and pleasure: The sexual objects of Jean, Duc de Berry”, the history of art is a description of Duc de Berry’s love for artwork and his portrayal as a homosexual. The purposes of the Duke’s frenzy on works of art are attributed to the fact that he was not seeking to glorify the art but was actually to create an ego (Camille 169).

The Duke’s collections of art were of diverse varieties and tastes. Some of his most prized possessions were jewels. The Duke owned large tracts of land which were the source of his enormous wealth and which also facilitated the acquisition of artworks and other precious collections.

However, the Duke is said to have had a controversial character. His perceived behavior of homosexuality is largely ignored in the writings although many historians have pointed to this fact. They base their evidence on two sources. The first is the information provided by Froissart who was an actual witness to the events described.

He describes the Duke as having placed his “pleasures” on a young boy named Tacque-Tibau (Camille 172). The other is an extract from a political article that mocks the Duke’s obsessive feelings directed towards another man whose professional background was not mentioned. The article explains how the Duke lavished the latter with many pleasantries (Camille 172).

The best way to understand Jean’s sexual orientation is by keenly examining the artworks which he so passionately commissioned. The January page of the “Tres riches heures” of Jean shows the patron at the middle of a party of homosexuals.

This was most likely depicted to portray the patron’s attraction to youthful men. By taking this into account, we are now able to understand Jean’s love and quest for works of art and how this is influenced by political position and power.

The “Grandes Heures” which was painted by a number of artists contains images of both young and old men plainly depicting themselves in sexual acts. One has a picture of a youthful man who is being fellated by an image of a hooded body in a turban. Such a figure during that period in history depicted a sodomite.

In addition, the young man was painted as ringing three bells. In the language used at that time in history, numbers represented the male sexual organs and the ringing of the bell could easily be interpreted as an act of simulating sexual feelings (Camille 183).

Another damning portrayal of art which clearly depicts the sexual scenes is that of an old man who is kneeling above a small figure of an animal whose head disappears into his crotch. The old man is also depicted with bare buttocks and his sexual organs explicitly hanging next to a larger feather (Camille 183).

Such scenes clearly and overwhelmingly attest to the fact that Jean Duc de Berry had a passionate sexual appeal towards young men which he openly expressed in the paintings which he supported. The Duke uses art as a way to communicate his odd attraction to men and spends a fortune doing this.

On a more interesting note, Jean was also a devout religious man and looked intensely for salvation by accumulating religious symbols which he later donated to some religious institutions. This is clearly contrasted to the nature of his character as portrayed in the works of art which he so passionately loved. The Duke’s contribution to art cannot be overemphasized. Conclusion

The two articles provide us with a rich understanding of the gender issues that have historically existed over the centuries and how art has become a central part in illuminating and preserving these issues. Through art, we are able to clearly understand the gender imbalances that earlier generations faced and we are able to carefully study their effects on the societies then.

This gives us an opportunity to take corrective measures for the current generations in order to avoid the pitfalls which arose during such times. Art has no gender and, therefore, equal opportunities need to be given to all talented young men and women in order for them to maximally exploit their God given talents which will enable them to achieve what others failed to achieve throughout history.

Works Cited Camille, Michael. For our devotion and Pleasure: The sexual objects of Jean, Duc de Berry,” Art History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1992. Print.

Nochlin, Linda. “Why Have There Been no Great Women Artists?” in Women, Art and Power. New York: Harper and Row. 1988. Print.


University Students find it Hard to get Jobs after Graduation Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

For most students, joining a college or university of their choice is the first step towards realizing their career goals. Most college students are optimistic of getting a job in the discipline they have majored in upon graduation. Getting a job is also enough reason for fresh graduates to move away from home and be independent of their parents.

This would enable them to start paying their personal bills and university loans, and also to begin saving for retirement. Every year, our universities churn out seas of graduates to a labor market that is shrinking by the day. The sad thing is that most of these institutions of higher learning rarely prepare graduates for the challenges that they encounter after completing their tertiary education.

The national outlook of the job market is very bleak. For example, most graduates are already finding it very hard to secure a job interview. This means that getting a job is even harder. Over 2.4 million students were awarded associates and bachelor’s degrees in 2010, and the number was projected to increase in 2011 and 2012 (Rastello para. 4).

Not only are these job seekers expected to apply for limited job openings with their fellow classmates, but they shall also have to battle it out with university graduates from past years and laid-off workers as well. Financially strapped retirees are also making a comeback into the job market and they could be a further hindrance to the chances of fresh graduates getting a job.

Figures released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (para. 1) show that every job opening attracts a minimum of five job seekers, and the number is projected to increase moving forward. This is because students’ enrolment rates at institutions of higher learning are increasing from one year to the next.

Consequently, the number of university students graduating has also increased tremendously from one year to another. However, the number of job openings is not increasing in tandem with an increase in the number of university graduates. If anything, the job market has continued to shrink.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (para. 1), unemployment rate reduced to 7.8 percent in September 2012, compared with the same period in 2010, when the rate of unemployment was at 9 percent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This slight improvement in the rate of unemployment has been attributed to increased rate of employment in warehousing and transportation industries, although majority of the main industries have remained unchanged. As such, stiff competition is still expected in the job market.

Employers are also keen on hiring recent college graduate, but this depends on how the economy behaves, according to a survey conducted by Career Builder (para. 1). Almost one in every four hiring managers is keen on hiring new full-time employees, but they are currently not doing it because they do not know how the economy will behave in the immediate future (Career Builder para. 3).

Most fresh graduates are now very confident that they will get a job. However, some of the recent university graduates do not hold this view, and they argue that such confidence could be misplaced.

These graduates have seen their brothers, sisters, cousins and friends go for years without getting jobs and as such, their optimism of getting a job has waned over the years. The best shot at employment that they can hope for is getting part-time jobs bartending or waiting tables.

The worst thing about being a jobless university graduate in this day and age is that by the time you graduate, you already have a huge student loan debt to settle. In the past, this would not have been a problem because most graduates used to get jobs immediately after graduation and then they would start paying their student loans.

However, the hiring situation today is very different from what it was in the past because jobs are hard to come by. On the other hand, even those graduates who are fortunate enough to get jobs will end up earning less than their peers who graduated in the past few years.

The National Centre for Education Statistics shows that the individuals who graduated with bachelor’s degrees in the Class of 2010 got an average salary of $ 47,674 representing a decrease of 1.7 % from 2009 (Rastello para. 5). On the basis of these statistics, we could argue that most recent graduates are likely to feel the financial consequences for the reminder of the time that they are gainfully employed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on University Students find it Hard to get Jobs after Graduation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because when students graduate from college at a time when the economy is not doing well, this is likely to affect their wages negatively. When the economy is not doing well and the level of unemployment is high, graduates are more inclined to take jobs that are not aligned to their overall careers objectives, or lower-level jobs. Therefore, they end up earning less.

Besides the financial ramifications of being jobless, university graduates are also faced with emotional angst as well. While at college, most of these graduates never imagine that upon graduation, they will find it hard to get jobs.

Although most university graduates do not expect to get their dream jobs right away, nonetheless, they are optimistic of getting a job that will at least keep them occupied as they search for greener pastures. When such jobs are not forthcoming, some of the graduates get really depressed.

Parents too, have been affected by the high rates of unemployment among college graduates. A large number of university graduates opt to move back home upon graduation as they wait to get a job. Besides encroaching on their space, parents have to take care of their sons and daughters upkeep as they go about job hunting.

The input of parents may also be required in assisting their children to get jobs. Besides the financial support that parents are expected to give their children who are job hunting, they are offer moral support.

As the unemployment bug bites harder, and with full-time jobs proving very hard to come by, most students are deciding to explore alternative routes. Some of them are opting for unpaid internships in the hope that when a job opening emerges, they shall be given the first priority.

Other students have been known to relocate to remote areas away from their families and friends. There is also another group of students who are opting to prolong their stay in school. They hope that by the time they graduate with their second degrees, the economy will have improved. They will also have gained additional academic qualifications, in effect giving them an edge in the job market.

The high rate of unemployment has also seen an increasingly larger number of students starting their own businesses instead of waiting to get jobs that may not be available in the first place. This is a commendable step to take because in the end, students end up doing what they enjoy the most, not to mention that as their businesses grow, they will create jobs and help to reduce unemployment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on University Students find it Hard to get Jobs after Graduation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another creative strategy that is increasingly being embraced by recent college graduates who are searching for jobs is to pick any available jobs, even if the job in question does not fit their respective majors. Besides broadening their search, such a strategy is also effective in the long-run because a student ends up with valuable skills in a field outside what he/she studied in college.

Consequently, this increases their chances of getting more job opportunities in future. However, the problem with this approach is that a student ends up getting a job, and not a career. Unless a student finds passion in this job, then he/she could get frustrated because the job was never a priority in the first place. On the other hand, any job is better than none.

Many college graduates have also had to settle for internships with the intention of getting the necessary experience in their field of training. This is yet another creative way to get prospective employers to notice them. Some of the students are fortunate enough to get jobs while others find useful leads that translate into jobs.

A few students are also signing a contract with prospective employers at the end of the internship program that the employer will offer them a job upon graduation. Other students are also opting to enroll for technical degrees as they stand a better chance at getting employment, compared with nontechnical degrees.

The choice of degree major is slowly emerging as one of the contributing factors, to the high rate of unemployment in the country, besides a bad economy.

In fact, most of the students who graduated in the past few years and are yet to get jobs are regretting for having chosen certain majors and not others after witnessing some of their college mates get jobs a few months after graduating on account of having pursued certain majors that are much sought after in the job market.

Beside the reality of the need to chose a marketable degree course, most university students seem to be more aware of the economic realities and the need to be more flexible in the choice of jobs.

In spite of all the negative news as regards the issue of unemployment, there are still bright spots for students who are about to graduate. For example, the retailing and accounting industries are hiring college graduates. In addition, students graduating with technical degrees are more likely to get jobs faster than other graduates.

They are also more likely to earn more in comparison with their colleagues with other majors. For example, according to the students graduating with computer-related degrees enjoy a 5.8% salary increase compared with their peers in other disciplines (Petrecca para. 10).

There appears to be no end in sight for unemployed fresh graduate students, who continue with their search for full-time jobs and/or rewarding careers. Perhaps the time has come for our education system to play a leading role in preparing students to cope with the impending danger of being unemployed.

Works Cited Career Builder 2011. Hiring Outlook for 2012 Remains Cautiously Optimistic, CareerBuilder’s Annual Job Forecast Finds. Web.

Petrecca, Laura 2010. Toughest test comes after graduation: Getting a job. Web.

Rastello, Sandrine 2012. Major matters for U.S college graduates seeking jobs. 2012. Web.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012. Employment Situation Summary. Web.


Online Auto Auction Proposal a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The auto industry is one of the largest industries in the world and this creates a lot of problems for various stakeholders in the industry. This essay will explore avenues that could be used in the process of setting up a car dealership within the car auction business. The essay is also going to look into ways and means of shipping cars within the car auction industry.

The auto industry has evolved over the years and this has made car sales to increase through use of different channels. One of the growing channels for sale of cars is the internet due to the growth of online car auctions sales.

The online car auction has been on the rise and as a result, car dealers in the world currently make use of e-commerce sites to advertise and conduct trade. Therefore, several pre-requisite have to be met in the process of establishing an online car auction.

Overview There are several factors that one needs to consider before starting a business especially in the auto industry. The best tool to use in analysing a business start-up is a SWOT analysis on all factors affecting the online car auction industry. Moreover, we will also analyse the export of cars and the general trend within the auto industry.

Type of Business: Before any person or organisation intends to start a business, a consideration on the kind of business has to be analysed. For instance, in the auto industry an organization can consider if they are going to sell at the retail or wholesale level. An organisation might come up with its own online portal like EBay or if it is the case of an individual, he/she might make use of a site like EBay.

Moreover, in most cases retail auto dealers sell to individuals while wholesale business in most cases deal with selling to other dealers in different regions.

Consequently, an organisation or an individual might decide to focus on selling all types of vehicles or to sell a certain kind of automobiles (Krane, 2003). For instance, an organisation might have a niche and decide to sell trucks only, sedans only or other segments of vehicles in the auto industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cost: This is a major factor that needs to be factored in the process of establishing an online auction business. Various costs have to be incurred in the process of establishing an online auction site. These costs include registration costs, licensing, advertising, and operational costs among others.

As a result, careful budgeting and planning has to be done. However, the major costs that an online business owner should watch out are security and shipping. Online transactions are faceless and thus it susceptible to fraud and therefore adequate security measures should be undertaken (Rubenstein, 2010).

Another major worry for online businesses is shipping especially in the case of international trade since several countries have different shipping rates and rules. While shipping to some regions could be considered non-commercially viable with problems like piracy and the sort.

Thus, in an online auction you could either set for the customer to pay for shipping or for you to pay the shipping (Morris, 2011). These are some of the major cost factors that need to be addressed in the process of setting up an online auto auction business.

Licensing: Before you set up an online auto auction in the United States of America, an organisation has to secure different business licenses. One of the mandatory licenses is a driver’s license that has to be issued with the US motor vehicle department. It is important to note that an individual can sell a limited number of vehicles without a license.

This rule however does not apply for businesses or people selling large consignments of cars (Sinclair, 2007). Businesses exporting used or new cars the Unites States have to register with the office of foreign trade and this makes business more challenging. Apart from business and foreign trade licenses, businesses have to also consider that some countries require a certificate of vehicle inspection form the country of origin.

This document is used to ascertain that certain regulations such as the age of the car do not exceed a certain number of years. For instance, Saudi Arabia only allows 4 year old cars to be imported into the country. Thus, all these licenses have to be acquired by the business during set up process.

We will write a custom Proposal on Online Auto Auction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Price: This is a major factor considered by consumers and sellers in the process of trade. A consumer will buy a car or product based on the price of the car at the time of the sale. As a result, the seller has to price his car competitively for his/her car to be bought and at the same time make a profit.

During the setting up of an online auction site, thorough research has to be conducted before a reasonable reserve price is set. Factors that need to be factored in this process include the age of the car, mileage, features of the car (Jerenz, 2008).

It is advisable to include and document all the features and condition of the vehicle for it to attract genuine and competitive bids. Since the online auction business relies on trust based on information shared in the process of conducting trade. Availing all the information is necessary in attracting customers and at the same time building a good reputation for the business (Rubenstein, 2010).

Insurance: The auto industry relies heavily on insurance for the protection of interests of all stakeholders. Thus, an online auto auction business owner should have insurance all the cars his/her organisation is selling. This helps in cushioning the business against losses such as theft, shipping of damage to the vehicles.

Insurance covers such as general liability, comprehensive plans or a surety bond helps in protecting your business (Morris, 2011). For instance a surety bond might be expensive but it aids in covering of losses incurred as a result of failed contract with a supplier or vendor. The trade in used cars is lucrative but also risky hence an online auction business owner must get an insurance cover.

Documentation: In the process of doing business, it is important for documents of trade to be used. However, the online auction trade is mainly conducted without formal documents. In consequence, a business owner must make the effort to ensure all the needed and necessary documents are in order.

This is necessary for the purposes of trade since an online auction owner makes use of various channels within the trade process (Daft, 2006). For instance he/she has to work with custom officials during shipping, banks and other trade intermediaries. Moreover, the consumer has to be availed inspection documents, warranties, mileage and other documents necessary after purchase of the vehicle (Barringer, 2008).

The online auto auction of used cars has grown over the years due to various factors shaping the business world. The advancement of technology has accelerated online trade and the auto industry has also taken cue. Therefore, more auto online trade is conducted today and most of the trade is on used vehicles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Online Auto Auction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sites like EBay sell cars based on user ratings for different third party car buyers and sellers (Jarvenpaa, 2008). The successful implementation of the online trade has been based on trust and security measures under taken by online auctions site owners.

The major driving force is price and the factors listed above with a bid to maintain and grow this industry. Based on research conducted, the auto online auction for used cars is set to grow due to consumer demand and ease of doing business. Therefore, it is recommended for a business owner to consider selling used cars using online auctions sites bearing in mind the above business factors.

Conclusion Conducting an online auction site is quite challenging and business owners have to conduct good business research before commencing business. This is made more difficult since trade is conducted online where transactional and security risks are great. As a result, a business owner has to conduct good research and take the necessary precautions in opening an auto online auction business.

Some of the factors he should look into are insurance, licensing, price and costs and if these factors are catered for and mitigated then a good business can be developed. The auto online auction trade is set to grow and this will have a good ripple effect on business owners venturing in this trade.

References Barringer, B. (2008). The Truth About Starting a Business. London: Allen


Concept of “Lifestyle” in the 20th Century Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Celebrities and Pop Culture



Works Cited

Introduction The term “lifestyle” has not only become part of contemporary common sense but also is part of a contemporary consumer culture (Bell, and Hollows 5). The mass media tools that advertisers use include movies, magazines, internet, advertising radio, television and so much more.

According to Wright et al., societies, communities and individuals are constantly bombarded with information, surveys and messages (74). Not only does this information promote products but also attitudes, moods and a sense of right and wrong. Media saturation has not always been this high.

In 1970s, there were only a few television networks and most middle class homes did not have a TV set. The most common media of mass communication is the television. Research has shown that an average person in the United States spends 40% of his/her time watching television programs (Adams 118).

Additionally, in 1990, the U.S Bureau of Census reported that 98% of all households in the U.S have television sets and that 76% of the total population spend time watching television programs especially during prime time. Most TV programs are aimed at impressing people irrespective of their age and incline their interests towards a certain product.

Advertising The income of each radio, newspaper and TV station is proportional to the advertising it offers to the marketers (Pozo 59). Competition becomes intense as each newspaper fights for its stake in the industry. In light of these circumstances, advertisers have a strong influence on content and message being portrayed (Giroux 22).

Although considered unethical, such influence is hard to avoid (Aronowitz, and Giroux 197). Media houses hire salespeople and other personnel to attract advertisers. To do this effectively they create a “buying mood” by discussing issues related to the advertised products and on the flipside refraining from any criticism of commercial products and consumerism (McManus 102).

Media print news reports that make people buy their newspapers, tune in to their TV shows and watch through the commercials and stay tuned to their radio stations (Powell, and Prasad 12; Nichols et al. 82). For example, advertised products cost more than the unadvertised ones no matter how the customers are willing to buy the expensive ones due to media influence. The extra money funds the advertising.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Modern advertising does not give consumers enough information about price and quality. It actually relies on button pushing and psychology. Though they claim to be independent and autonomous, the mass media advertisement-free state based TV stations are now being impacted indirectly by program sponsors (Nichols et al. 91). This is so because most of the events they broadcast are bankrolled by sponsor money.

Cultural, sporting and entertainment events are sponsored and even organized by advertisers. Entertainment programs and films are now fully sponsored by advertisers. Therefore, they endeavor to maximize their sponsor’s exposure by placing advertisements below the content window in their films.

Lifestyle Information and the symbolic designs of lifestyles are highly valued. They allow for those who specialize in such culturally specific materials to increase their understanding based on not only their education but rather on their knowledge of the aesthetic values of goods and services in all forms.

The ‘enculturalization’ of markets requires advertisers to act as creators of meaning and as an authoritative voice on the connotations of appropriate consumer choice which operates on highly abstract terms (Powell, and Prasad 113). The ‘encultured’ market is maintained and legitimated by its internal logic.

The value of goods creates an entirely new social order whereby there is an increasing trend of the sense of collective identifications which is informed by the market choices and guided by the rhetoric nature of advertising and the television celebrity expert(s). Advertizing culture and mass media has created the concept of lifestyle in the 20th century through:

Perceptions The rise of mass media in the last 50 years has created what has been referred to as a global village. The media gives news and then analyzes it for the audience. Viewers and listeners become lazy participants in the already crowded “mass society”. It helps in shaping the society’s shifting concerns, perceptions and beliefs.

Mass media would be a very important cultural phenomenon if we could understand and get informed instead of being influenced by it. Mass media entails much more than publications and print. It involves also theme parks, museums, and churches, sporting events, catalogues, concerts and political campaigns.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of “Lifestyle” in the 20th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interestingly we rarely consider most of these forms as mass media. The mass media tactfully exploits our emotional arousal to shape our responses, knowledge and opinions. For instance, charities use stories and testimonials of suffering people to encourage donors to contribute to their organizations.

Owners A very small group of individuals control the content in the mass media (Weber 181). Rupert Murdock’s News Corp owns more than 1000 radio stations, 150 newspapers and publications and 20 cables TV networks across the globe. This is a clear testimony to how a single corporation and its management can influence a whole generation through the mass media.

It is inevitable that owners, shareholders and investors will have political opinions that shape their decisions. As such, they will one way or another use their position and power to influence the public on social, economic and lifestyle trends.

Celebrities and Pop Culture Without the ability of magazines, movies, reality television, radio and mass media to reach people across wide regions, cities and countries; people would not become famous. In the past only business leaders, politicians and war heroes were famous. Today radio and TV presenters, singers, athletes, actors and disc jockeys (djs) to name but a few have attained immense wealth and fame.

These celebrities enjoy a massive audience not only in Europe and America but also across the globe. They yield too much influence in social matters, spending habits, fashion, music and even politics (Seitz 230). A good example is Opra Winfrey, a former popular talk show host.

At her prime the Forbes Magazine named her the most powerful person in the world. So much was her following such that her 2008 political endorsement of Barrack Obama for president shifted the opinion poll numbers in the aspirant’s favour. Mass media is a key component of the American culture.

The influence of celebrities and pop culture can be clearly seen in tabloids, body image, music, use and abuse of drugs, secularism and politics. Fox News commentators like Green Beck and Bill O’Reilly have greatly influenced debate on immigration in the United States of America (Golash-Boza 290).

Fashion has a great influence in people’s lifestyles. African American hip-hop artists popularized sagging Blue Levi jeans across the globe. They did this through their music videos, live concerts, merchandise sales and song lyrics. A notable popular fashion brand in the 90s was Sean John which was hugely associated with hip-hop mogul Puff Diddy Combs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of “Lifestyle” in the 20th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other fashion items popularized by celebrities include: sunglasses, sports cars, watches, jewellery, handbags, cowl necked sweaters, pencil skirts and mobile phones. These fashion designs influence both fashion designers themselves as well as customers. Lifestyle magazines keenly follow the latest trends in fashion to inform their huge audience (Kitch, and Langlois 376).

Media influences on beauty ideals and body image has been quite evident in the past few decades (Morrison 71). An ideal thin body for women has been a key focus. This has led to many people across the globe to embrace fitness practices such as going for a work out in gyms (Castle 16).

Some cultures have expanded due to mass media. One of such cultures is the American hip hop culture which has influenced youths to join the culture irrespective of their native cultural practices as well as beliefs. Movies and music videos showing people smoking have great impact on our adolescent’s opinion about smoking.

Anti-smoking campaigns through the media are shown to create good awareness about drug abuse (VonHodenberg 377). However, pro-smoking messages have stronger influence than anti-smoking messages (Hirschman, and Thompson 50).

Media campaigns against driving under the influence of alcohol and alcoholism have not been well established. This is due to a high advertisement budget on alcoholic drinks by brewery companies.

Celebrity endorsements on key products have been wildly adopted as a way to sway the masses. Companies like Gillette (male shaving products), Nike (Shoes


Eco Tourism and Hospitality Industry Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Theories of eco tourism

Analysis of the literature



Introduction This essay discusses pertinent aspects of the hospitality and tourism industry. The hospitality industry encompasses many aspects, which incorporates tour and travel, leisure destinations, hotels, resorts, beaches, ticketing agencies, ecotourism and airlines services. This makes tourism a robust industry, which contributes to the economic development of a given country.

Eco tourism is a term that describes travel activities intended to conserve the environment. It is a travel or tour to natural areas that are undisturbed by human activities with the aim of displaying the flora, fauna, sceneries and culture of a particular place.

The term eco tourism was popularised by Ceballos-Lascurain referring to the aspect of travelling to natural environments with the objective of learning and understanding the environment, cultures and history without altering the landscape and the ecosystem.

The tourism provides economic opportunities to the locals as well as the countries, which have the tourists’ attraction sites. Eco tourism is an environment-oriented travel that takes into consideration the cultures of the local people. The tourists involved conserve the environment for the development of the country (Ming, Yang


The Development of Emotional Intelligence and Its Application Essay best essay help

Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) is the “ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions” (Desimone, Werner and Harris 2002). There are various debates concerning EI. Some studies claim that EI is innate whereas others suggest that people can learn and improve their EI. Peter Salovey and John Mayer have studied EI since the year 1990.

According to them, EI is “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey and Mayer 1990).

Salovey and Mayer developed a model of EI consisting of four factors. First, they claimed that the initial stage of understanding EI involves accurate perception of emotions. Perceiving emotions involves understanding nonverbal forms of communication such as body signals. Second, there is also reasoning with emotions.

This stage involves applying emotions so as to enhance mental activities. In this manner, emotions help individuals recognise things that attract attention. Third, there is understanding of emotions.

This is because different emotions may reflect different meanings and people may attempt to interpret such emotions so as to understand their causes. Finally, the model also proposed management of emotions. This entails controlling emotions and responses as well as considering emotions of others.

Salovey and Mayer claimed that they arranged the model from basic to high psychological processes. In other words, the lower levels compose of simple tasks such as perceiving and expressing emotions. Conversely, the higher levels consist of complex processes such as awareness, reflection and controlling emotions.

Proponents of EI believe that both an individual and an organisation derive value from understanding EI effects on organisations and individual productivity. In most cases, majorities of workers devote limited time to personal development due to busy schedules and commitments. This affects organisations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, organisations must develop employees’ development programmes in order to enhance EI. Organisations benefit from employees who are emotionally sensitive to customers and colleagues. This creates positive business relationships among all stakeholders. Investing in employees’ personal development increases productivity and motivation of the workforce.

Individuals also benefit from developing EI in terms improving their relationships at workplaces and social life. At the same time, they also develop a better understanding and handling of emotional situations of others.

The concept of EI also applies to organisational behaviours. It is relevant in the field of industrial and organisational psychology (I/O psychology). I/O psychology scientifically studies workforce, organisations, and workplaces (Robbins 2005). EI and I/O psychology enhance organisational development through improving the workplace environment, employees’ satisfaction and their well-being.

Organisations can rely on I/O for improving their hiring processes, educative programmes, and develop employees’ behaviours and attitude. In addition, studying organisational behaviour is also important for organisations during changes and developments.

Thus, human capital, emotional intelligence and organisational behaviours relate to understanding workplaces and positive behaviours of employees. Positive behaviours of employees have positive contributions to organisational objectives.

Relevance of Emotional Intelligence to individuals and organizations in the context of Organisational Behaviour

Organisational goals about employees’ behaviours aim at transforming employees’ behaviours in an effective manner (Desimone, Werner and Harris 2002). In organisations, the focus has been on employees’ behaviours that improve performance and behaviours that enhance teamwork and unity.

Most organisations focus their efforts on employees’ behaviours that improve organisational performance. Emotional intelligence falls in the second category of organisational behaviours that focus on improving teamwork and relationships.

We will write a custom Essay on The Development of Emotional Intelligence and Its Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, ever since the works of Salovey and Mayer and later Goleman, EI has gained considerable recognition in modern organisations. EI has become relevant in the modern workplace. We can attribute this interest among organisations to their desires to enhance business performance and desire among management to predict employees’ behaviours.

The works of Mayer and Salovey have continued to influence the field of EI. They have created a link between emotions and mental capabilities of subjects and concluded that the two are inseparable. Thus, they concluded that emotions and cognitive were important in studying decision-making processes among people as they influenced how people react to situations.

The challenge with EI is the concept of measurement. This is because measurement remains the main source of controversy in studying EI and its application in organisational behaviours. Past studies have relied on testing as the basis for measuring EI. However, we have to acknowledge that EI remains a matter of personal experience.

Based on personal experiences, the measurement of EI is prone to personal bias due to self-assessment. However, self-reports have remained effective approach in measuring EI in a given context as Jordan and Troth noted (Jordan and Troth 2004).

These studies maintain that assessing factors like emotional awareness can only be accurate when self-report is the tool of measurement. This is because people can identify their own behaviours and reactions in certain situations. As a result, they can measure such situations from lack of interest to situations that demand attention.

According to Jordan and Ashkanasy, combination of self-reports and peer reports as tools of measurements of EI can provide the valid measure of emotional self-awareness among teams (Jordan and Ashkanasy 2006). These tools of measuring EI are at initial stages of development. However, studies claim that such tools have psychometric validity. Thus, they give reasonable and valid results of EI measures.

Application of EI in organisational behaviours relies on empirical data that can prove findings and claims most scholars in this field advocate. However, critics believe that EI lacks sufficient data to prove such applications in organisations.

Such critics argue that potential applications of EI in organisational behaviours have not undergone thorough testing to prove their validity due to infancy stage of such measurement tools in relation to other areas of measuring personality and intelligence (Locke 2005). In addition, these critics also claim that proponents of EI applications in organisational settings rely on data based on flawed models of EI.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Development of Emotional Intelligence and Its Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These models are not consistent with the original definition as Mayer and Salovey suggested. In addition, some of these studies have wide coverage than the original model of Salovey and Mayer. Such studies have created opportunities for critics to dismiss claims by proponents of EI applications in workplaces (Daus and Ashkanasy 2003).

EI remains a controversial issue in relation to organisational behaviour as Daus and Ashkanasy discovered (Daus and Ashkanasy 2003). Landy and Locke have criticised popular models of EI (Landy 2005; Locke 2005). These researchers view these models based on their shortcomings. Landy and Locke argue that modern models of EI originated from discredited views of Thorndike which are more than 80 years old.

This was the source of social intelligence. Some of these criticisms fail to consider recent scientific works on EI with reference to organisations. For instance, Ashton-James concurs with the definition of EI in the works of Ashkanasy (Ashkanasy and Ashton-James 2004).

However, he criticises the methods and abilities of how to measure EI. According to Ashton-James, any attempt to measure EI should put emphasis on respondents’ abilities to experience emotions that they should give their feedback on during EI tests. However, we must recognise that Ashton-James criticise EI from its original definition.

This is necessary because various proponents and critics promulgate their own definitions of EI as the case of Goleman and Bar-On (Goleman 1998; Bar-On 1997). According to these critics, EI is a modern reflection of social intelligence. These scholars further argue that any model of intelligence that relies purely on intellectual capabilities cannot sufficiently explain human behaviours and capabilities in practical situations.

Locke fiercely criticises the EI that it is an approach that has a political motivation through egalitarian ideas as “everyone will, in some form, be equal in intelligence to everyone else” (Locke 2005).

Landy also supports this idea. Locke notes that EI is not an appropriate field of scholarly study and should not apply to organisations. However, proponents argue that Locke still cling to outmoded models of the past where such research relied solely on mental processes and behaviours in order to provide explanations for organisational behaviours.

Studies that support EI and organisational behaviour emerged after the work of Ashforth and Humphrey as forms of support to their idea (Ashforth and Humphrey 1995). According to Humphrey and Ashforth, EI is influential in areas of service provision, and leaders may also engage emotional labour so as to motivate and influence moods of their employees and improve performance of the organisation.

These studies suggest how EI is significant in the service industry where employees interact with customers and other employees. We can see the rapid growth of service sector. In this field, EI is useful for employees who serve customers as they can be able to manage different emotions in order to meet given core values of organisations.

This is how we can link job performance to employees’ EI as their abilities to control emotions may aid them cope with work requirements. Later studies have raised interest in the subject and referred to such works as affective revolution in organisational behaviours. In addition, studies of Robbins show latest research that supports EI in organisational contexts (Robbins 2005).

From the renewed interests in the subject, we can argue that EI is not a new form of social intelligence or another theory to study intellectual intelligence.

EI has emerged as a strong area of study in the field of I/O psychology and studies in organisational behaviours. Thus, we can use EI to predict and understand behaviours in organisations. These studies prove the relevance of EI in understanding and predicting organisational behaviour.

We can observe how critics like Ashton-James have changed the definition of EI. However, we should look at EI from the earlier perspective of Salovey and Mayer. This is the ideal definition of EI that future researchers should base their criticisms.

At the same time, scholars interested in understanding EI should review scholarly works that focus on EI in order to understand theoretical underpinning of the concept. This shall enable them understand EI and its application in organisational behaviour.

Conclusion We have noted the development of EI and its practical application in understanding and predicting organisational behaviours. This implies that the concept of EI shall continue to evolve in organisational behaviour studies. The field has gained recognition after the study by Ashforth and Humphrey.

The focus on emotional abilities of employees continues to influence the field of organisational behaviour. Organisations find EI useful in their attempts to enhance workforce productivity and predict their behaviours. At the same time, organisations find EI relevant in recruitment and selection of employees that can adapt to different situations.

This enhances team effectiveness and organisational output (Jordan and Ashkanasy 2006). Some studies have also shown that organisations that focus on EI have improved their healthy relationship among employees (Goleman 1998). Goleman’s applications of EI in workplace using concepts of self-management, empathy, self-awareness and social skills demonstrate the positive application of EI in organisations.

We must also appreciate the works of critics that claim distract the theory of EI. Such criticisms lead to further studies in the field of EI and organisational behaviours. Thus, some scholars have concluded that emerging studies are good indicators of developments in this field of study and claims by critics lack substantial grounds.

Organisations using EI tests to assess and predict behaviours of their employees face difficult tasks in developing strategies for EI testing, methods, and processes.

In addition, EI lacks official body that can control types of tests subjects take. Still, these tests may be subjective and have different meanings depending on personal experiences of the subjects. To this end, we must also note the inherent bias as subjects may not provide true responses due to ambiguities with some of the test materials.

Reference List Ashforth, Blake, and Ronald Humphrey. “Emotion in the workplace: A reappraisal.” Human Relations 48 (1995): 97-125.

Ashkanasy, Neal, and Claire Ashton-James. “Performance impacts of appraisal and coping with stress in workplace settings: The role of affect and emotional intelligence.” Research in occupational stress and wellbeing 3 (2004): 1-43.

Bar-On, Reuven. Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: A measure of Emotional Intelligence, Toronto: ON: Multi-Health Systems, Inc, 1997.

Daus, Catherine, and Neal Ashkanasy. “Will the real emotional intelligence please stand up? On deconstructing the emotional intelligence ‘debate’.” The Industrial and Organizational Psychologist 41 (2003): 69-72.

Desimone, Randy, Jon Werner, and David Harris. Human Resource Development, 3rd ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers, 2002.

Goleman, Daniel. Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1998.

Jordan, Peter and Neal Ashkanasy. “Emotional intelligence, emotional selfawareness and team effectiveness.” Linking Emotional Intelligence And Performance At Work (2006): 145-164.

Jordan, Peter and Ashlea Troth. “Managing Emotions During Team Problem Solving.” Human Performance 17 (2004): 195-218.

Landy, Frank. “Some historical and scientific issues related to research on emotional intelligence.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 26 (2005): 411-424.

Locke, Edwin. “Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 26 (2005): 425-431.

Robbins, Stephen. Organizational behavior, 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:: Prentice Hall, 2005.

Salovey, Peter and John Mayer. “Emotional intelligence.” Imagination, cognition, and personality 9 no. 3 (1990): 185-211.


The Philosophical Revolution of Early Seventeenth Century Essay college essay help: college essay help

The Philosophical Revolution of the 17th century has a close link with the Scientific Revolution. It provided the foundation for the latter by stimulating it in different ways. The two were therefore intimately tied together such that the Scientific Revolution could not be described without making reference to the Philosophical Revolution.

“Although philosophy was influenced by both religion and science during the classical era, it defined the world view of the literate culture.” (Tarnas 273).However, this role became a reserve of religion with the arrival of the medieval period while philosophy took a lesser role in linking faith to reason.

The advent of the modern era marked a turning point where philosophy remarkably shifted its allegiance from religion to science. Two philosophers namely Francis Bacon and Descartes were instrumental in shaping and fostering the Scientific Revolution during the Philosophical Revolution of the 17th century.

In the seventeenth century, Francis Bacon pioneered the birth of a new era in natural science. He claimed that man required material redemption that was supposed to accompany his spiritual progress towards the Christian millenium, something that was to be done through natural science.

Since the global explorers had discovered a new world, Bacon believed that it was important to discover a corresponding new mental world in which verbal confusions, subjective distortions, traditional prejudices and old thinking patterns were replaced by new methods of acquiring knowledge.

He argued that for science to succeed there was need to replace verbiage and preconceptions with direct attention to things and their observed orderings. The true order of nature could only be discovered after the mind had been purified of all internal obstacles that emanated from the fictitious forms of traditional philosophers.

Bacon fostered the Scientific Revolution by expressing the spirit of Reformation and Ockham. This was inspired by his belief that recognition of the difference between God and his creation and his mind and that of man was the only way through which man could succeed in science. He elaborated the distinction between science and theology by pointing out that each realm was governed by unique laws and methods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He therefore advocated for the separation of science and theology since theology belonged to the realm of faith while science belonged to the realm of nature. He promoted the Scientific Revolution to a great extent since he believed that experiments were instrumental in correcting the evidence of the senses and revealing truths obscured by nature.

“Through the astute use of experiments, the evidence of the senses could be progressively corrected and enhanced to reveal the truths hidden in nature.’’(Tarnas 275).

The other philosopher who made remarkable contribution in the Scientific Revolution during the seventeenth century philosophical revolution was Descartes. As Bacon inspired the distinctive character, direction and vigor of the new science, Descartes was instrumental in establishing its philosophical foundation.

He noted the contradictions between different philosophical perspectives and the fact that religious revelation could not lead to adequate understanding of the empirical world. These factors combined with the residual confusions of his education compelled him to find out irrefutable basis for certain knowledge.

His important contribution in the Scientific Revolution began by the first step of doubting everything. His intention was to eliminate all the past presumptions that confused human knowledge and pick out only the truths he himself could not doubt.

Descartes used mathematical principles to accept only ideas that were devoid of internal contradiction, clear and distinct to him. By doing this, he discovered a new science that ushered man into a new era of practical knowledge, well-being and wisdom.

“Skepticism and mathematics thus combined to produce the Cartesian revolution in philosophy. The third term in that revolution, that which was both the impulse behind and the outcome of systematic doubt and self-evident reasoning, was to be the bedrock of all human knowledge: the certainty of individual self awareness.” (Tarnas 278).

We will write a custom Essay on The Philosophical Revolution of Early Seventeenth Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Descartes asserted the essential dichotomy between extended substance and thinking substance and by doing so, he played an important role in “emancipating the world from its long association with religious belief, freeing science to develop its analysis of that world in terms uncontaminated by spiritual or human qualities and unconstrained by theological dogma.” (Tarnas 280).

The natural world and the human mind gained autonomy they had never experienced before, as they were separated from God and from each other. Descartes and Bacon were the prophets of scientific civilisation and rebelled against ignorant past. These qualities enabled them to proclaim ‘the twin epistemological bases of the modern mind.” (Tarnas 280).

Astronomy falls in the realm of physical sciences and is the oldest in this category. In most of the earliest civilisations, the regular movements of celestial motions were documented through astronomy and the records used in the prediction of future events. Both the ancient and modern astronomy played an important role in the Philosophical Revolution.

The most remarkable astronomical developments in ancient times were associated with the Greeks who employed methods that were different from the ones employed earlier.

Ancient astronomy is believed to have made important contribution in the Philosophical Revolution through the introduction of geometrical ideas. In his quest for absolute certainty, Descartes, who played a great role in the Philosophical Revolution employed mathematics and geometry to find absolute truth.

He realized that geometry and arithmetic were characterised by rigorous methodology and this guaranteed him the certainty he was looking for with regard to philosophical matters. Geometry started with the statement of simple self-evident first principles, foundational axioms from which further and complex facts could be deduced through strict rational method.

This method therefore helped Descartes to eventually establish absolute certainty. In this sense, ancient astronomy made an important contribution in the development of the Philosophical Revolution.

In addition to ancient astronomy, modern astronomy also played an important role in the growth of Philosophical Revolution. Galileo was an instrumental philosopher whose astronomical knowledge made remarkable contributions in the revolution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Philosophical Revolution of Early Seventeenth Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He was a mathematician and an astronomer who conducted many astronomical discoveries. Astronomy was a technical discpline and most of the content was descriptive in nature. As a result, it was viewed that the statements philosophers made with regard to the nature could have been erroneous. This prompted philosophers to conduct more research hence the Philosophical Revolution was enhanced.

Since he was interested in mechanical experimentation, Galileo came up with new traditions of natural philosophy whose focus was experimentation. This played an important role in the development of Philosophical Revolution.

Many other philosophical reformists like William Gilbert expanded on his astronomical experiments even after his death. As a pioneer of modern astronomy, he significantly took part in the development of Philosophical Revolution hence modern astronomy played a crucial role in its growth.

Work Cited Tarnas, Richard. The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas that Have Shaped Our World View, New York: Ballantine Books, 1993.Print


Major HRD Issues Essay best essay help: best essay help

Human resources development (HRD) has acquired a lot of attention lately as the contemporary highly competitive business world requires 100% productivity of the organisation and each member of the staff. There are a number of issues within the area of HRD which should be addressed.

However, it is possible to single out four major issues which need special attention. These issues are concerned with productivity, training, motivation and diversity of the workforce. Notably, these areas are interrelated, which should be taken into account by HR specialists.

Large amount of literature on development of office workers’ skills can be found nowadays. As for development of workers of manufacturing organisations (e.g. textile industry), there is certain lack of consistent surveys and research (Ghazali


The Concept of Democracy by Force Essay a level english language essay help

Democracy is a form of government where all citizens are involved in the process of making important decisions that shape their lives. It gives them equal chances to participate in the process. This is either done indirectly through the elected representatives or directly by the citizens themselves.

The participation involves proposing, developing and creating laws. Democracy includes the economic, social and cultural conditions that allow citizens to equally and freely exercise their political power (Bundu, 2001).

A democratic form of government is contrasted with other forms of governments like a monarchy where the powers are exercised by a single individual or governments where the powers are bestowed upon few individuals.

Examples of such forms of governments include aristocracy or oligarchy (Mackie, 2003). However, the above oppositions that emanated from Greek philosophy elicit controversy since contemporary governments exhibit elements of democracy, monarchy and oligarchy (Lansford, 2007).

Democracy exists in different forms but the basic ones are direct and representative democracies. Both forms focus on the processes through which the citizens exercise their will. Direct democracy fully involves them in the processes of decision making since they are treated as the sovereign power. However, political power in representative democracy is indirectly exercised through elected representatives (Winslow, 2012).

Democracy by Force Despite the importance of democracy in giving citizens an opportunity to exercise their will, some governments do not embrace it. In such cases, the question remains whether democracy by force should be applied. This is because the efforts made to introduce democratic governance are rendered useless by hostile and negative intentions of selfish leaders who destroy everything.

Such governments leave the rest of the world leaders with no option other than to apply democracy by force. This is done to save citizens of the affected countries instead of leaving them to suffer in the hands of authoritarian leaders (Bohman, 2007). In the absence of democracy, countries experience chaos and civil war, something that compels powerful nations to introduce the concept of democracy by force.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S foreign policies emphasise the importance of promoting international democracy to ensure that citizens of different countries enjoy their freedom. Since the end of the Cold War, the U.S government has always been committed towards ensuring that democracy is practiced in every part of the world.

For instance, after the war, Bill Clinton made democratic enlargement the main focus of his administration’s foreign policy. Later, when George Bush took over as the president, he focused on the same issue since it was a key strategy of dealing with terrorism which, according to him, originated from the authoritarian form of governance that was practiced in the Middle East.

As a result, the U.S government invaded Iraq and ousted the administration of Saddam Hussein, which was characterised by oppression. This case was a successful example of democracy by force.

According to neoconservatists, the U.S is morally obligated to enforce democracy in any country since democratic countries do not fight with one another. The authoritarian rule in Iraq was an impediment that prevented liberalisation of the surrounding Arab countries.

Democracy by force was a successful attempt since it removed the oppressive regime that fuelled international terrorism. In addition, stability and liberalisation were boosted in the Arab countries that surrounded Iraq. In this context, democracy by force in Iraq was a success that initiated progress for the country and its neighbors (Hippel, 2000).

Another view held by neoconservatists is that military force is an effective way of achieving democracy in countries ruled by authoritarian leaders. It was not easy to overthrow the government of Saddam Hussein and give the citizens a chance to enjoy their freedom.

Democracy by force made it possible for the U.S to bring to an end the reign of the dictator and the oppressive regime that had ruled the country for many years. His removal from power therefore brought freedom to the citizens of Iraq and gave them a chance to enjoy their rights.

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Democracy by Force specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was not possible for the country to progress under the leadership of a leader who was not willing to allow democracy. The concept of democracy by force therefore succeeded in Iraq since the country was liberated and its citizens given a chance to exercise their freedom.

The concept also succeeds in many countries in the sense that it is transferable to all cultures regardless of religious affiliations, social divisions, poverty or lack of experience in handling democratic institutions. This is an idea that is shared by neoconservatists.

Democratic transition is highly influenced by international relations. The success of democracy by force is evident due to the public support that countries like the U.S get in their efforts to enforce it in dictatorial regimes. In addition, the concept has in the recent past been highlighted in academic literature, an indication of its success (Pham, 2005).

Scholars who advocate for democracy point out that democracy by force brings about positive change. This shows its success since it destroys and removes oppressive military and political institutions that operate against popular pressure.

Defeat of the military forces limits the powers of authoritarian leaders and creates new elites who promote democracy. The intervention and occupation measures that democratic powers take increase the costs incurred by the armed forces or other people who use violence to intimidate new regimes.

Consequently, this makes it possible for the new regimes to establish and oversee a military controlled by civilians. This was the case witnessed in Sierra Leone where democracy by force eventually liberated the country (Pham, 2005).

Democracy by force is also successful in the sense that it contributes towards the future success of newly established regimes and reduces their chances of collapsing. One of the privileges that forced democracies enjoy is that they gain access to international resources and links with democratic actors in foreign countries.

In most cases, successful democratic transitions are achieved when authoritarian leaders are removed through democracy by force. Studies conducted by different scholars indicate that there is a strong link between democracy by force and the process of democratisation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Democracy by Force by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most existing democracies emanate from deliberate efforts by outside powers to impose democracy where abusive and authoritarian governments exist (Downes, 2012).

Conclusion Democracy by force is successful in almost all the contexts in which it is applied. This is because the damage that countries suffer in the hands of oppressive leaders is not comparable to the gains associated with democracy by force.

It gives the citizens a chance to enjoy their freedom alongside making it possible for the establishment of new structures that enhance growth in all government sectors. Democracy by force is therefore a successful undertaking in countries where authoritarian regimes reign.

Reference List Bohman, J 2007, Democracy across borders: from Dêmos to Dêmoi, MIT Press, New York.

Bundu, A 2001, Democracy by Force?: A Study of International Military Intervention in the conflict in Sierra Leone from 1991-2000, Universal Publishers, London.

Downes, A 2012, Freedom by Force:Foreign-Imposed Regime Change and Democratization. Web.

Hippel, K 2000, Democracy By Force. Web.

Lansford, T 2007, Democracy, Marshall Cavendish, New York.

Mackie, G 2003, Democracy Defended, Cambride University Press, New York.

Pham, B 2005, Democracy By Force?: Lessons from the Restoration of the State in Sierra Leone. Web.

Winslow, L 2012, Forced Democracy. Web.


Google’s operations and supply chain strategy Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Executive summary


Funding and early public contribution

Operations and supply chain strategy


Reference List

Executive summary Google is a US international giant corporation that deals with Internet-based services and products. In the recent years, Google has been experiencing unprecedented growth and currently the corporation manages more than a million servers and attends to a billion plus search engine appeals in a day.

The initial operations of Google servers were constructed with cheap hardware. However, 2004 was the turning point of the company after the initial public offer, which saw the floating of 19,605,052 shares each going for $ 85. The capital raise through the IPO gave Google the much needed market muscle to face its competitors.

Google’s management has continuously adopted good management practices, which have seen the introduction of employee motivation programs like swimming, gaming, and bodybuilding practices in a gym among others.

Google has also embraced dynamic supply chain strategies that accommodate the ever-changing market demands. Conclusively, the operations and supply chain strategies, adopted by Larry Page and Brin, have evidently played an enormous task in enabling Google be an excellent company for its employees.

Introduction Google is a US international corporation that offers Internet-associated services and products, comprising Internet search as well as advertising expertise. Google is a fortune 500 company. As the founders of the company, Sergey Brin and Larry Page jointly own 16 per cent of the total shares of the company. Google shifted to its present headquarters in California in the year 2006.

Fast growth has prompted a string of the company’s achievements and products (Clemons


Tourism and Leisure for Youth Target Market Report custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background information

Strategies for reaching out to the youths



Introduction The following is a report on youth as a target market in tourism and leisure industry. Tourism and leisure industry is popular with most young people. It looks into how the youths perceive tourism and leisure activities. It also looks into how companies wish to market their services to the youths and the approaches they can use to reach out this wide and robust market.

Background information Most countries define a youth as an individual aged between eighteen years and thirty-five years, which is the time of transition from childhood to adulthood. Though many young people love pleasure and leisure activities most of them cannot afford to pay for the costs that are involved in tourism.

Tourism and leisure are considered by the youths as a preserve for the elderly who have retired, have no jobs and are not thinking much about future. However, with appropriate marketing youths can embrace tourism and leisure industry and enjoy such services without feeling as though it is waste of time.

Most of the youths view leisure and tourism as pleasure and consider engaging in travelling and leisure activities once they retire. However, they have participated in leisure activities through work related travels and holiday sponsorships from the companies they work for (Nicholas, 2007).

Travel is an aspect of growing and transiting to adulthood. The youths therefore engage in travel and adventure activities either as an informal group, school or as a personal initiative to visit friends, new places and learning about other cultures. Earlier this was not seen as part of tourism but time has made the youths a market for the growing tourism and leisure activities (Schultz, 2000).

Although the youths do not have high disposable income, they have energy and avenues of receiving resources from their friends, relative and even employment opportunities that give them a chance to satisfy their passion for leisure and adventure.

Because youth travels are usually in large groups as either school travel or an organizational travel, the tourist agencies that deal with this market enjoy economies of scale emanating from having a wide customer base (Nicholas, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the advancement in technology, communication and transport systems, it is now possible to travel to many places at an affordable cost compared to the cost in ten years ago. Travel logistics are now not complicated and most of the countries accept that tourism is a major industry and therefore have little restrictions for people coming into the country as tourists.

The young population is looking for adventure and not the experience. Most of the young people travel to see new places and meet new people as well as learn new things (Nicholas, 2007). Any new place gives youths a lot of pleasure and sense of accomplishment.

For the elderly, travel rekindles old memories and nostalgic feeling about the previous experience or information they have about a particular place. This makes it easier for the companies targeting the youths to provide affordable adventures when focusing on adventure rather than experience (Clow, 2007).

Strategies for reaching out to the youths There are marketing strategies that would suit any company that is focusing on the youths as their target market. The first step is having a positive strategy that involves social media. Most of the young people are well connected to the internet and are compliant with the modern technology.

To reach out to this group of people, it is necessary to have pay per click that will reach out to the young people (Strokes, 2010). These pages create publicity for the company and provide an opportunity for the company to display its services dealing with leisure as well as the destination where they take the youth travellers.

This is imperative as the pages provide a forum for potential tourists to identify a company that deals with the tour and travel activities through pictorial displays (Pickton, 2000).

The second strategy is that a company that wishes to reach out to the target market must interconnect with the youth population. It must have good colours, and images, which communicate to the young people. This is because to the youth, image has a lot of meaning.

We will write a custom Report on Tourism and Leisure for Youth Target Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Creating a youthful perception may involve having a strategy of employing youths to work in the tour agency. Such employees will interconnect and build a rapport with the youth easily as compared to the middle aged and the elderly (Gregory, 1997).

From the background information, it is evident that the youth love engaging in leisure and tourism activities as a group rather than as individuals. For the youths, tourism or travel activities involve leisure and adventure, as they are memorable.

Companies targeting the youth’s market must have a strategy of reaching out the youth groups in universities, churches or organizations that deal with young people. This is because such organizations have leisure activities or travel activities in their budgets and having them consider a particular tour and travel company as their choice company of travel is imperative (McDonald, 2007).

To reach out the youth population the company must also consider the public relation marketing approach. Public relations involve activities that elicit media reporting or publicity without directly paying for it. For instance, a company targeting the youth population must consider activities that elicit participation of the youth.

Such activities include sports, travel, and leisure activities that elicit the attention of the youth. Sponsoring a sporting activity such as a football match by paying tickets for youthful fans elicits high level of publicity, which makes the potential customers aware of the company and the services, which it provides.

Sponsoring college activities such as orientation week or an entertainment event in the university exposes the company to potential customers especially the student’s clubs and organizations that engage in travel activities.

The student population represents a potential market in the long term as once they are through with schooling and get into organizations where they may need to travel, the company will have the advantage of being the tour and travel company of their choice (Hofstede, 2001).

Tour and travel as well as leisure activities do not involve tour companies alone. They also involve the destinations, the hotels, the airline services used during that travel and other stakeholders such as tour guides.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and Leisure for Youth Target Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These stakeholders should create experience for the youthful tourist, as they are likely to act as repeat customers if the experience, which they will have, is pleasurable, memorable and exciting (Holbeche, 2006).

Most of the elderly people visit places where they have gone before when young and they had a pleasurable and memorable experience which they would want to rekindle in their old age. Therefore, creating a memorable experience for the young people is imperative in making them lifetime clients of a particular destination (Strokes, 2010).

The youth are challenged by the fact that they do not have much information on various destinations and they only look for any available destination that will give them pleasure. Creating and providing information about the organization and destinations is critical in reaching out this target market.

Such information may be in brochures or mailing lists providing information about different tour destinations, the experiences that they provide as well as the cost of that experience (Morgan, 2006).

To reach out the youth as the target market, it may involve adjusting prices to fit the young people. As indicated earlier young people do not have, enough resources or money and they therefore look for the lowest priced destinations, which can provide the adventure and the experience they are looking for.

Because the young people may not be widely travelled, they rarely look for experience as much as for the adventure. Pricing the ticket packages, the hotels with a specific destination and experience for young people at affordable prices will be the winning edge for attracting the young people who want to have fun, pleasure while saving on the expenses (Clow, 2003).

Conclusion The young people are an emerging market in the tourism industry and they cannot be underscored, Gone are the days when leisure and tourism was a preserve for the elderly people who had money and were enjoying their retirement packages. The youthful population wants to have leisure and adventure.

This market can be tapped by providing a good experience at an affordable price. Companies reaching out this target must focus on numbers and not only on the profit margin, as youths are markets similar to the mass market.

References Clow, K. (2003). Integrated advertising for luxury items. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Clow, K. (2007). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications 3rd edition. London: Pearson Education.

Gregory, R. (1997). Leveraging the corporate brand. Chicago: NTC.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences. California: Thousand Oaks.

Holbeche, L. (2006). Understanding change: Theory, implementation and success. London: Heinemann.

McDonald, M. (2007). Marketing plans (6th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Morgan, G (2006). Images of organization. London: Sage.

Nicholas, I. (2007). Youth tourism. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pickton, D. (2000). Amada. Integrated marketing communications. New York: Prentice Hall.

Schultz, M. (2000). The expressive organization: Linking identity, reputation and the corporate brand. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Strokes, R. (2010). E-marketing: The essential guide to online marketing. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.


Rural health workforce profile Report essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Rural health

Demographic Characteristics of the Workforce

Level and categories of workforce

Key issues in rural health

Strategies for addressing the workforce issues in rural health




Introduction Access to reliable and efficient healthcare is a basic human right by the world health organization. Many governments are reviewing their medical services to ensure that health services are easily accessible to rural populations (Klugman


IT Governance case study college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Frameworks for IT Governance

Areas of major focus in IT Governance

Challenges to IT Governance

Effective IT Governance



Introduction IT governance entails aligning IT strategy with business strategies, ensuring tracking of goals and strategies, and implementing strategies that can measure IT performance (Schwartz, 2007). From this definition, we can see that IT governance takes into account interests of all stakeholders. IT governance framework can provide valuable information on performance of IT areas, key areas that need improve, and returns that an organisation derives from implementing IT systems.

There are a number of factors that compose IT governance in an organisation. These key drivers include the need to comply with regulations and adopt best practices in financial and technological. In addition, customers and shareholders have also put pressure on organisations to adopt IT governance (Joisten, Gadatsch and Dirk, 2007). IT governance accounts for the importance of information and IT in the modern economy and organisations.

Therefore, IT governance in modern organisations can define success or failure in the information economy. This is because modern organisations depend on information systems than in the past. Stakeholders have expressed their concerns about acceptable use of information particularly personal information.

There are also escalating cases of cyber threats from terrorists and hackers. As a result, organisations have identified information systems as strategic areas that require protection through effective corporate governance within the organisation.

Frameworks for IT Governance There are several IT governance frameworks available to organisations. Some organisations can develop their own IT governance framework whereas others use main IT governance frameworks.

The Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) developed CoBIT framework for IT governance. This is a framework with worldwide acceptance.

It has guidance and tool set for IT governance. Auditors have found CoBIT useful in integrating technology for control measures in order to meet certain business objectives. Thus, it serves organisations in terms of managing and mitigating risks (Brand and Boonen, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government of the UK runs Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework. ITIL has guidelines on management regarding areas of “service delivery, service support, service management, ICT infrastructure management, software asset management, business perspective, security management and application management” (Schwartz, 2007). ITIL is useful operations management of an organisation.

We also have COSO framework for internal controls. The Committee of Sponsoring Organisations of the Treadway Commission developed COSO framework.

COSO provides guidelines in areas such as human resources management, external resources, sales and marketing, logistics, legal issues, IT, risks, financial, the enterprise, operation, procurement, and reporting. COSO framework is more of general business framework than IT governance.

Another IT governance framework is Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). CMMI has multiple developers from government, industry, and Carnegie-Mellon Software Engineering Institute. CMMI has 22 areas that aim at improving approaches.

The framework has appraisal, structure, and evaluation areas. CMMI is useful for application developments, improving services and controlling life cycles of products.

Many organisations prefer ITIL and CoBIT IT governance frameworks. However, other organisations also combine different frameworks to serve specific goals, such as operation, development, and overall areas in their organisations. It is necessary to use frameworks that align with organisational culture and stakeholders’ demands.

Areas of major focus in IT Governance We can develop a business case for IT governance and present to the top management. Effective presentation of IT governance should have a team of business managers and IT specialists. This is necessary to convince top management that effective IT governance is crucial for success of business.

We will write a custom Report on IT Governance case study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This team must develop IT governance roadmap that explains present position and future aspiration of the organisation. This should include benefits in terms of reduced risks, enhanced efficiency and accountability in an organisation. However, we must acknowledge that IT governance is an expensive exercise, but an organisation should accept such costs and evaluate return on investment (ROI) after implementation.

The IT Governance Institute identifies five key areas of IT governance. First, IT governance should focus on strategic alignment. This aims at aligning IT and business for efficiency. Strategic alignment involves planning in areas regarding business and IT with the focus on costs, reporting, and its effects on business goals. Second, IT governance should aim at value delivery to the organisation.

This is mainly to ensure that IT department delivers value to the organisation. Value delivery should develop processes that accelerate value proposition and eliminate processes that devalue the organisation. Third, IT governance also emphasises the need for resource management.

This can happen through efficient management of employees’ skills. Thus, an organisation can deploy its resources based on skills and demands to serve different lines of business. Fourth, risk management is also an important area of IT governance.

This should ensure effective management of IT resources, manage risks, and report on risk issues. Fifth, IT governance also emphasises business performance to ensure balance between business strategies and IT strategies. Performance measures identify contributions of IT to business and management of resources.

Challenges to IT Governance Most organisations confuse IT governance with management practices and other IT control measures. According to ISO 38500, IT governance is a management system that directors use. Thus, IT governance accounts for IT resources and stakeholders who want returns on their investment.

IT governance has met resistance in most organisations due to costs. At the same time, organisations claim that they have effective corporate governance mechanisms, compliance with SOX standards (Sarbanes-Oxley) and others (Calder, 2009). SOX regulation requires effective financial regulation and corporate governance in order to protect investments (Sarbanes Oxley, 2012).

Organisations aspire for success with scarce resources. IT governance requires that organisations align their resources diligently to all areas of business for overall success of the organisation. The challenge is allocating such resources to IT department collectively in order to serve the overall goals of an organisation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on IT Governance case study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective IT Governance Most organisations have poor IT governance systems. They tend to introduce IT governance in phases to address certain problems. This approach limits the effectiveness of IT governance. Thus, an organisation should have IT governance design that focuses on overall organisational objectives and performance goals.

This process requires participation of top management through resource allocation and support. The process of design also needs constant review as was the case of Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA aimed at consolidating its IT governance design.

A number of organisations such as JP Morgan, UNICEF, and Carlson companies among others redesigned their IT governance systems in order to meet changes in desirable behaviours. These organisations aimed at achieving balance in business through creating commonality and autonomy of units.

This was also a method of creating synergy in the organisation. UNICEF used IT governance to change its operations management and enhance global communication, information sharing, management, and transparency.

State Street Corporation used its IT governance to change budgeting through enterprise-wide IT budgeting. The company managed to change perspective to the entire corporation instead of units. Thus, IT governance can promote changes that enhance desired behaviours through redesigning IT governance.

Organisations that have effective IT governance have actively involved their top executives. Chief Information Officers (CIOs) must participate in IT governance. Other executives must also support processes and performance reviews. MPS-Scotland Yard and Accenture rely on management committees in enhancing IT governance to achieve improved synergies across the entire organisation (Kress, 2010).

According to UPS CEO, Mike Eskew, it is the role of top management to support IT governance decisions (Broadbent and Weill, 2003). Top management usually assist in such decisions because they are strategic goals that organisations need to deliver value to stakeholders. Thus, such decisions become strategic choices to the CEO.

Organisations should also be able to make choices among conflicting goals in IT governance. Conflicting goals need clear business principles. For instance, Old Mutual South Africa has developed such principles.

Its first principles states “The interest and needs of the Group/OMSA come first when exploiting technology or when contracting with suppliers” (Ross and Weill, 2002). Conflicting goals come from different units of the business. They can lead to confusion and complex processes. This process requires involvement of key stakeholders to make appropriate choices for business goals.

Effective IT governance requires clarification of some exceptional processes. Exceptional cases challenge the status quo of the system. These requests may aim at meeting needs of the business. UPS has exceptional procedures that guide requests for exceptions.

The organisation ensures that exception processes be clear to all stakeholders. The process is linear and eliminates all stages that can lead to delays. These exceptional requests also serve as learning points to the organisation in the enterprise architecture (Graves, 2009).

Effective IT governance also requires right incentives for its success. Organisations do not align their reward and incentive systems with IT governance. In other words, reward and incentive systems enhance different behaviours. Thus, when an organisation fails to align its reward and incentive systems to its goals, then governance becomes less effective.

An organisation that uses IT governance to drive autonomy, synergy or a combination of both among different departments must also align its incentive and reward systems to fit such approaches. Top executives can work together to design incentive and reward systems that appeal to the entire units of the business.

Organisations fail to include IT governance ownership and accountability in the implementation process. The board has the overall ownership and accountability of the system. However, it must delegate some roles like design, implementation, and performance to other individuals for effective implementation and accountability of the process. This process requires some consideration.

First, IT governance requires collaboration with other departments such as finance, human resources, and other business units. This is an enterprise-wide approach to IT governance. Second, implementation of IT governance requires participation of all managers for its success. Third, IT implementation is an expensive process.

Consequently, organisations require reliable, compliant, cost-effective, secure, and strategic IT governance for performance. This implies that we have to comprehend what IT can perform and cannot perform to an organisation mainly in relation to business strategies. Thus, people who own IT governance must take responsibility and provide accountability of processes that appeal to all business units.

Most organisations leave accountability of IT governance to their CIOs. CIOs also delegate these processes to business units and other relevant departments to ensure efficient design and implementation of IT governance (Hunter and Westerman, 2009).

Large organisations should have IT governance at different levels of operations management. This must ensure that IT governance is an enterprise-wide strategy that depends of different units of the business for strategic goals. Organisations with the global presence and different IT functions in relation to departments, divisions, and geographies need different but linked form of IT governance.

This is the case of JP Morgan Chase. The company derives both autonomy and synergy from these layers. Business units create synergy whereas top executives create autonomy through IT governance. However, top executives’ decisions regarding IT governance affect lower level of an organisation. Thus, effective IT governance should focus on enterprise-wide governance due to its effects on other levels of an organisation.

Effective IT governance also depends on education and transparent processes. People have confidence in transparent governance processes. Successful organisations such as Google, IBM and Street Corporation among others use their intranet platforms to communicate IT governance to all departments and employees.

Leaders must also show their commitments to IT governance through constant communication and support. This also applies to individuals that own IT governance in organisation. Effective communication enhances IT governance in organisations.

Formal means of communication are effective than other informal channels and effective documentation of IT governance are useful in implementing a workable IT governance. Senior executives who show a clear lack of understanding of IT governance may show their objections to the IT governance. Thus, organisations must review their approaches and reinforce them using communication and education.

Recommendation We have noticed the importance of IT governance to strategic business goals of the organisation. At the same time, we have also identified main frameworks in IT governance, challenges that face IT governance, and effective IT governance in organisations. As a result, we can provide recommendations based on the study.

IT governance can only create synergy in an organisation through relying on several assets of an organisation. Thus, senior management should focus on governance issues include IT when addressing challenges of the enterprise.

Organisations should ensure coordination of their IT governance in order to create synergy for the entire organisation. This means that an organisation must align all processes of its operation to create value to stakeholders. This is because focusing on a specific area and neglecting others drain value from the system.

IT governance should also create effective processes. Organisations may coordinate IT governance with business units but fail to do so enterprise-wide leading to ineffective system. Thus, IT governance should also be effective enterprise-wide so that an organisation can measure performance and ROI of the IT investments.

Organisations should not engage in debating the value of IT governance in terms of costs. Instead, they should embrace IT governance and evaluate its return on investment after a reasonable period.

Successful IT governance relies on the support of top executives and all managers. Leadership that fail to support IT governance should remain open-minded in order to understand long-term values of IT governance.

Organisations can use different frameworks of IT governance for different purposes. This should lead to creation of great value for the organisation. However, the focus among business units should be across the entire organisation for creation of value to stakeholders. Areas of exceptions should not hinder business but serve as learning points of the enterprise architecture.

References Brand, K. and Boonen, H. (2004). IT governance: a pocket guide based on COBIT. London: The Stationery Office.

Broadbent, M. and Weill, P. (2003). Effective IT Governance by Design. Gartner EXP Premier, 1, 60.

Calder, A. (2009). IT Governance Implementing Frameworks and Standards for the Corporate Governance of IT. Boise, ID: IT Governance Publishing.

Graves, T. (2009). Enterprise Architecture. Bodie, ID: IT Governance Publishing.

Hunter, R. and Westerman, G. (2009). Real Business of IT: How CIOs Create and Communicate Value. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

Joisten, C., Gadatsch, A. and Schreiber, D. (2007). IT Governance. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Publishing.

Kress, R. (2010). It Governance to Drive High Performance: Lessons from Accenture. Boise, ID: IT Governance.

Ross, J. and Weill, P. (2002). IT governance: An investment. Massachusetts: MIT Sloan School of Management.

Sarbanes Oxley. (2012). Sarbanes Oxley: A Brief Overview. Web.

Schwartz, K. (2007). IT Governance Definition and Solutions. Retrieved from


Natural Vegetation of your Area Take-home Lab Assignment Report essay help online free

The natural vegetation of your suburb A Pre-European Vegetation Community of Sydney

The pre-European vegetation community of Sydney was made up of grassy woodlands. The grass in these woodlands was tall and perennial. The woodlands had a variety of large wild flowers. Shrubs were also present in these woodlands. The examples of these wild flowers and shrubs were the yams, wattles, and peas (Benson 6).

Pre–European vegetation in Sydney had a range of vegetation. They ranged from fire tolerant to fire intolerant vegetation. The Bushes were very thick. This was because there was no careless clearing of bushes. In addition, cases of fire in these areas during Pre-European vegetation period were very rare.

In Sydney, different grass boxes grew as a result of high nutrient soils and high rainfalls. Trees like Leptospermum spp and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were dominant on the river banks (Benson 6). At the coast, there were mangroves, salt marshes, and sea grass.

This vegetation grew in bays and estuaries. Last, the tablelands had peat bogs and lagoon in the low lying areas (Benson and Howell 8). In conclusion, pre-European vegetation in Sydney was mainly made up of trees, grass, shrubs, and wild flowers.

Changes to this vegetation community in the Post European Period

Sydney’s basin covers a large region from the Bowen basin to the Gunnedah basin. It has Premo-Triassic sediments on the onshore side and over 5000 meters of sediments on the offshore. The basin overlies an area of carboniferous and volcano-clastic sediment that indicates intense geo-morphological changes before the period of the basin formation.

Geologists believe that the Sydney’s basin was formed during the early Permian period. The current Sydney’s offshore is a migration path for many people each year. However, the onshore has become a hub for several cities because of their attractive features.

In 1820, Sydney’s suburbs experienced cases of frequent fires (Attenbrow 42). The effects of these fires can be seen in some parts of Sydney.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Factors which influence Sydney vegetation The geology and geomorphology of the Sydney Basin and how your suburb fits into this region

Geologists believe that Sydney took its shape during the expansion of the earth crust. The prior stages of development came about when the continental rift was filling the marine volcanic sediments. As a result of coal deposits, the upper parts of the Sydney’s basin had a quartz sand stone covering.

This sand stone covering is known as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. The deposits of Hawkesbury were made available by rivers flowing into this region. The accumulation of sediments led to the formation of a thin cap of shale on the sand stones. The late stage of basin filling is a representation of the north-eastern bio-region that sometimes experiences volcanic eruptions.

The coastal side has got most of Sydney’s mountains and escarpments. The blue mountain has a frontal slope made from lap stone monocline (Attenbrow 43). Most of the Sydney’s basin is an elevation of sand stone plateau. The rest of the basin is a hunter plateau, and a low-land Cumberland plain (Benson and Howell 160).

In fitting to my suburb, Sydney Central Business District (CBD), there emerges a difference between my suburb and the geology and geomorphology of Sydney basin. One can hardly recognize the features that were present in the earlier Sydney’s geology and geomorphology in my current suburb.

The shorelines in my suburb do not have sand stone ledges, sand beaches, or sand banks at the river mouth. These characteristics were present on early Sydney’s basin. The hills at the bank of the tank stream lack a covering of Hawkesbury sand, which was also a key feature of the Sydney’s basin.

What are the important climatic variables that influence the distribution of vegetation communities across Sydney? How does your suburb fit into this regional climate?

There are different climatic factors that influence on the distribution of vegetation across Sydney. These factors include temperature, rainfall and soil chemistry (Eamus et al. 7). First, there are changes in the rainfall patterns. These changes have affected growth of vegetation especially the vegetation that relies on high rainfalls.

Second, the resulting warming has led to the melting of mountain ice capes leading to frequent flooding. Flooding destroys the vegetation and also leads to soil erosion. Last, the decreasing soil fertility contributes to the destruction of the native forests. Vegetation does not reach maturity because the soils are not fertile enough to provide for a large population of vegetation.

We will write a custom Report on Natural Vegetation of your Area Take-home Lab Assignment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my suburb, there has been clearing of vegetation that can attract rainfall. This clearing has left many mountains and hills under soil erosion threats, reducing the number of native vegetation.

How do geology and climate influence the vegetation of your suburb?

Sydney CBD suburb has low soil nutrient content. It is only the soil within the rocks that is fertile (Benson and Howell 43). The remaining soil in other areas is infertile. In addition, there has been a destruction of most landforms in my suburb. This destruction affects vegetation distribution because various landforms that support different types of vegetation are destroyed.

Climate also affects vegetation distribution in Sydney CBD suburb. The clearing down of the vegetation for the purpose of constructing buildings has led to a change in climate.

The increase in temperatures has led to cases of wetlands drying in Sydney CBD suburbs. Drying of wet lands has led to a reduction in the number of swampy vegetation available in Sydney. For example, there is a reduction in the population of mangroves.

Compare vegetation in the suburb with another region in Sydney. Explain the differences in vegetation

Auburn is different from other suburbs that surround Sydney. In this suburb, cases of forests clearance are low compared to the Sydney’s CBD suburb. Benson and Howell describe Auburn region as a region in which developments were low until World War I (46).

Unlike Sydney’s CBD suburb, Auburn experiences substantial rainfall. This rainfall is enough for the growth of vegetation in this region. In Auburn region, one can find remnants of indigenous trees that are rare in other places.

The difference between vegetation distribution in Auburn suburb and Sydney’s suburb results from the development factor. The underdeveloped nature of Auburn until World War I was important in avoiding clearing of the forestlands in this region. Conversely, Sydney’s CBD suburbs experienced developments before World War I resulting in land clearing and hence reducing the vegetation population.

Endangered Ecological Communities in your area Endangered Ecological Community’ in your region

In the Sydney’s CBD suburb, the mangroves are the endangered ecological community. During the pre–European community vegetation period, mangroves were available at the coasts, swamps and at the river banks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Natural Vegetation of your Area Take-home Lab Assignment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During this time, a botanist could easily locate the mangroves on the valleys of Tank Stream (Benson and Howell 42). The mangroves in this period were plenty because soils in this region had high nutrients and the land had abundant rainfall.

Currently, it is harder for a botanist to locate mangroves when examining cloves in the Sydney’s CBD. This is a result of two different events. First, there has been a destruction of the land forms that favor the growth of mangroves. Second, the swamps in Sydney are drying up. This makes it hard for the mangroves to grow.

The difference between endangered and vulnerable community and species

The Threatened Species Conversation act of 1995 has been vital in protecting the endangered and vulnerable species. Endangered species or communities refer to a community or species that are at risk of extinction as a result of existing in few numbers or the changing climate conditions.

Vulnerable community or species refer to the species that are likely to become an endangered species in the near future. The International Union for Conservation Nature, IUCN, has the responsibility of recognizing and categorizing species.

Species become vulnerable as a result of the adverse natural or manmade circumstances facing them. Unlike, the endangered species, vulnerable species can be abundant in number when the IUCN declares them to be vulnerable and as a result puts strategies that focus on conserving them.

Key threatening Processes that are applicable to the community in 3.1.

There are various threatening processes to the community of mangroves in the Sydney’s CBD suburb. These processes include the changing climate conditions, and the developments of Sydney’s suburb region. The changing climate conditions have led to the drying of swamps. Drying of swamps is a circumstance that threatens the future of the mangrove vegetation.

The increasing development activities in Sydney’s suburb region are a threat to the mangroves community. In the process of constructing, the constructors destroy the basic land forms hence destroying the soil chemistry. The soils lose their fertility and become deficient in nutrients that nurture plants.

In addition, the constructors have to clear the land for them to get enough space for construction processes. In conclusion, it is fair to state that it is the human activities that threaten the mangroves community in Sydney’s CBD.

Works Cited Attenbrow, Val. Sydney’s Aboriginal Past: Investigating the Archaeological and Historical Records. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd, 2010. Print.

Benson, Doug, and Howell Jocelyn. Taken for Granted: The Bushland of Sydney and its Suburbs. Sydney: Kangaroo Press, 1990. Print.

Benson, John. Setting the Seen: The native Vegetation of New South Wales. Sydney: Native vegetation Advisory Council of New South Wales, 1999. Print.

Eamus, Derek, Tom Hatton, Peter Cook and Christine Colvin. Ecohydrology: Vegetation Function, Water and Resource Management. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2006. Print.


Marketing Case Study of Macquariedale Organic Wines Report essay help free: essay help free

Macquariedale Organic Wines SWOT Analysis Strength

The strength of Macquariedale Organic Wines lies with the technology. Technology has helped the company to leverage its competitiveness (Böhm, 2009). This strategy enables customers to make online purchases with speed.

Quality is also a key strength of Macquariedale Organic Wines. The company has a tradition of producing wine that is organically processed; hence, quality wine prepared using organic product is embraced by Australian consumers.


Macquariedale Organic Wines faced criticism when it resorted to producing biodynamic wine in 2001. Critics argued that biodynamic business was not viable in Hunter Valley. Thus, consumer’s perception on the business showed a sign of weakness to the company.


More opportunities exist for Macquariedale Organic Wines; this is because consumers understand the benefits associated with consuming organic wine. Further, consumers argue that organic wine is healthy compared to conventional wine. Thus, Macquariedale Organic Wine should use this opportunity to extend to more market segments (Böhm, 2009).

Most Australia’s Wine industries view that conventional farming methods use synthetic methods, such as use of pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers to support plants growth, discourage pest and prevent disease (Loureiro, 2003). This, in their view, there may be harmful effects on wine quality. However, most wineries use eco-friendly farming methods that are less harmful to the environment.

Macquariedale Organic Wines has elaborate marketing strategies. These include offering discounts, having exclusive clubs and conducting winemakers’ dinners. These initiatives provide information which Macquariedale Organic Wines can use to strengthen its market base.

Australian organic and biodynamic wine industries Winemaking and viticulture in Australian wine industries encompass key aspects of supply chain (Vermeir


Brand and Product Management Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction According to Naik, Prasad, and Sethi (2008), brand management is an important concept especially when it is applied in the management of fast moving consumer goods. This paper discusses brand management in the fast moving consumer goods within the Australian market.

The paper reports on brand management exercises of two brands from a single category of fast moving consumer goods within the Australian market – foods and beverages. These brands are the P and N beverages and Schweppes.

Importance of brand awareness for FMCGs

Amidst competition that prevails in most industries today, brand awareness remains the key to the positioning of products in markets (Nijssen, 1999). Brand management in fast moving goods is an important subject. This is because fast moving goods have low profits, and thus they have to be sold in big quantities. In addition, most of the fast moving goods are perishable and have to be marketed fast enough.

There are many companies around the world manufacturing and distributing fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs). This means that competition in the fast moving consumer goods market is very high. Companies dealing in FMCGs are forced to develop strong brands so as to gain strong grounds and position in the market.

Companies dealing in the manufacture of perishable goods have to be more proactive in ensuring that the goods that are processed move fast on stocks. This is done to avoid losses that often arise from the expiry of the goods before they are sold (Keller, 2003).

According to Nijssen (1999), brand awareness levels of the fast moving goods ensure that they are quickly purchased in the market. One of the core tasks of brand managers is to ensure that they create sufficient awareness of products in the market. Brand awareness can easily culminate into brand loyalty.

Brand awareness is created through an array of activities among them brand salience (Romaniuk and Sharp, 2004). Research reveals that marketing managers are striving to raise product knowledge amongst customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This resonates from the fact that brand awareness helps in ensuring that a firm attains and retains customers hence remaining more competitive in the market. The quicker the brand awareness is executed for FMCGs, the higher the chances of the goods of a firm to attain significant sales in the market.

Breadth and depth of brand awareness for P and N beverages and Supreme foods

P and N beverages are some of the most known brands in Australia dealing in the manufacture of beverages and other soft drinks in Australia. These brands face stiff competition from top beverage and soft drink companies in Australia that have stronger and more dominant brands in the market.

On the other hand, there is a brand within the beverage industry of Australia that has been in existence for a very long time. This brand is called Schweppes and is manufactured by Asahi Breweries.

This is the company that is synonymous with most Australians as compared to P and N beverages. Schweppes is a strong brand in the Australian market because of various factors that have promoted its awareness and loyalty amongst Australian Consumers.

Brand awareness of any product in the market is built and supported by many factors including the existence and long periods of consumption of a product. Other factors for emergent brands in the market are depended on how the brand is managed through the creation of brand awareness and brand salience.

For FMCGs, brand management has to be taken with more seriousness. This is because of the cut throat competition that exists in industries dealing in such goods. Strong brands are often developed over long periods and is accompanied by the continued use of products. This leads to the development of strong tastes and preferences for the product (Driesener and Romaniuk, 2006).

The breadth and strength of Schweppes brand in the FMCGs market of Australia

Schweppes is one of the widely consumed beverages in Australia since it is one of the highly positioned brands in the Australian market. Having stayed in the market for a long time, Schweppes has developed a strong brand in Australian market. Accessibility and prominence, which are key components of brand salience, are argued to have favoured the development and prevailing strength of the Schweppes brand in Australia.

We will write a custom Essay on Brand and Product Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As one of the oldest brands to enter the market, it was easy to develop brand salience for the Schweppes brand in the country. One of the supportive factors for this was the ease of access in the market due to the absence of or minimal competition in the market. Market access is one of the precursors of forming a strong force in familiarizing a brand within the market.

With less competition and a minimal number of competitor products within the market, it becomes quite easy to introduce and penetrate a brand in the market. This case can be attributed to Schweppes. The prominence of this brand was built through the name that was very appealing to consumers from the early times of the inception of the brand (Pride, 2011).

According to Driesener and Romaniuk (2006), marketing researchers ascertain that brands are built using different product aspects. Product name is just one of these aspects. The brand took the long-term prominence path by adopting modern brand building practices.

This was after the company had attained the short-term prominence. These practices have been substantial in maintaining the competitive advantage hence retaining the strength of the brand in the Australian market and beyond. Brand diversification was borrowed into Schweppes by developing different tasted of the Schweppes brand to ensure a stronger presence in the market.

The tasted of this product have been diversified to cater for the differing tastes of consumers in the market. There are pure drinks and creams with different tastes like lemon among many other tastes. There is also lot of diversity in terms of packaging the product, which catches the attention and taste of consumers. The firm has also adopted modern marketing practices such as the use of the social media.

This helps in the creation of strong consumer communities for the product that adds the number of customers. Social media help in the creation of consumer awareness through forums that help in addressing the concern of customers. The brand has gained access into the global market, which is a pointer to the quality and the strength of the brand (Schweppes Australia, 2012).

The breadth and strength of P and N beverages in the Australian market

As compared to Schweppes, P and N brands are considered to be weaker brands in the Australian market. Brands that are produced by P and N include mineral waters, fruit juices, and soft drinks. The company has not stayed in the market for a very long time.

This is in comparison with other beverage companies and brands that came into the Australian market much earlier like Schweppes and Coca-Cola. The companies that came into the market earlier were able to establish dominant brands that are not easily beatable by P and N beverage brands (Romaniuk, Sharp and Ehrenberg, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Brand and Product Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More P and N was established in the year 1990 compared to Schweppes brands that have been in the market since 1950s. However, P and N brands have managed to attain competitiveness because of the emphasis on brand building. This has seen its brand remain competitive and even pose a challenge to the brands like Schweppes, which have been dominating the market for a long time.

With a lot of advertising and promotional campaigns, a high level of brand awareness has been created about the products helping them to gain many customers in the market (Australian Exporters Directory, 2012). Advertising is one of the best methods of capturing the attention of customers hence positioning a brand in the market.

Aggressiveness in advertising helps in hastening the rate at which customers gain awareness and attachment to the products or brands in the market. In addition, diversity has been used in factoring in the tastes of consumers.

There are diverse products within the P and N products. This ensures that customers get what they want in a single brand. This helps in keeping customers hence building the brand further (Pieters, Warlop and Wedel, 2002).

Conclusion Brand management is one of the activities that are given more attention by firms because it helps in building brands hence enhancing marketing. Branding is an expensive affair to gain. However, once established, it becomes easy to maintain brands in the market. Schweppes brand and P and N brands in Australia have been built through the adoption of aggressive branding strategies.

Reference List Australian Exporters Directory, 2012, P


Innovation and change Report college essay help online

Global competition and continuous innovation

Globalisation leads to immense competition among businesses in the same industry. They now have to reduce business cycles in order to accommodate these changes. Companies that succeed in the global market are innovators. They are able to operate in some of the most dynamic and demanding markets in the world (Nierenberg 1982).

Examples of such industries include fashion and electronics. Global competitiveness has caused firms to adopt a long-term approach to innovation. Introduction of new products is no longer enough; great emphasis has to be given to process innovations, as well.

Most of these international competitors now reach out to suppliers and other members of the supply chain as sources of innovation. It is not sufficient to rely on customer feedback alone (Shapley


South East Queensland Food and Wine Festivals Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Potential Entrants




Industry Competitors


Introduction South East Queensland is located in Australia. It is a major economic hub. Business, tourism and agriculture are some of the economic processes within the region. It has an adequate transport network. There are busy towns within the area. Because the area is a rich tourism destination, there are spontaneous food and wine festivals.

These have potential economic gains for the area. Michael Porter provides an analytical business tool. Porter’s five forces model is applicable in the examination of business environments (Lamont, 2009). This report uses the Porter’s five forces to analyze the South East Queensland’s food and wine festivals task environments.

Potential Entrants The food and wine festivals have grown popularity. New entrants are likely to venture into this operation. Ideally, this might interfere with the smooth business processes. It might also interfere with the revenues gained by the task environment. The popularity of the events might lead to the influx of different festivals in the same area. New entrants break the observable monotony.

This process might equally affect the task environment. Increased globalization enhances the rate of information sharing (Franklin


Share Holder Wealth Maximization Vis a Vis Social Responsibility Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Share Holder Wealth Maximization

Determining Share Prices

Empirical Considerations



Introduction Limited information is found on how economic enterprises can incorporate business ethics and social responsibility as a means through which their primary objective of shareholder wealth maximization is achieved (Hawley 1991, p. 714).

This lack of ethical considerations seems to be not only confined within the academic sphere but there is evidence of it taking a toll in the realm of corporate practice in the economy. Enterprises have ignored the ethical concerns in strategizing on how they will achieve their goal of wealth maximization.

Through their total disregard of ethical issues, corporates are assuming that the mere pursuit of the wealth maximization goal meets the social responsibilities that could possibly be expected from any entity. However, there has been limited research and analysis of the ethical foundations and the perceived implications of the goal of shareholder wealth maximization.

This paper seeks to analyze to what extent the corporate world incorporates business ethics and social responsibility in pursuing their primary objective of maximizing the shareholders’ wealth and how this pays back in terms of increased returns to the shareholders.

It highlights the main differences between the goal of profit maximization and that of wealth maximization and the role played by market forces in the pricing of stocks within the shareholder wealth maximization paradigm. It argues that empirical and theoretical evidence on this subject will most usually lead to overlapping interpretations (Smith 2003, p. 58).

Share Holder Wealth Maximization Since Milton Friedman’s largely criticized position that “the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits”, the ethical aspect in the maximization of shareholder wealth has been given a wide consideration. In order to build a logical analysis of this notion, it is of paramount that we understand the crucial link between the two distinct goals of a corporation, i.e. Wealth maximization and profit maximization.

While the two may share some similarities, they are also characterized by various inconsistencies as analysed by Solomon in his work, (Solomon 1963, p. 2). For instance, profit maximization as an objective best suits a traditional macroeconomic market which is characterized by minimal uncertainties; the entrepreneur is the main decision-maker, the shareholding is fixed and determines within a given period.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This kind of business structure is especially of great utility in analyzing the variables, i.e. Prices of raw materials and end products, production level etc., which occupies a central position for any corporate whole. According to Winch (1971, p. 14), profit maximization goes hand in hand with the ethical goal of the utilitarian mode of resource allocation.

Contrary to the microeconomic world, proper allocation of resources is very integral to a corporate entity in regard to its financial dealings (Beurden


Influence of Women on the Culture of the Heian Court Essay college application essay help

The Heian period is considered to be one of the most remarkable periods when arts and especially literature flourished. This period is also associated with a very special role women played at the royal court. Some researchers claim that this was the period of certain empowerment of women as they occupied specific posts at the court (Ebrey et al. 208).

However, this was also the time when women shaped the very nature of Japanese literature and developed a very special literary style. Some works created at that time are still regarded as some of the most significant masterpieces of the world literature. Females made Japanese literature refined, intimate a bit subjective, but absolutely majestic.

During the Heian period women started playing a more active role in the Japanese society. However, this role was still secondary as males were regarded as superior members of the society. This was revealed in various fields. For instance, women were not taught Classical Chinese as that language was seen as “very much a male preserve” (Bowring 11).

It is believed that males were afraid of possible empowerment of women through their knowledge of the formal state language and, thus, males did not let women learn the Chinese language (Bowring 12). Though, it is also important to note that women were not deprived of education as they could use Japanese which was then a written language (Bowring 12).

The Japanese language was not spoken at that time and was seen as somewhat archaic. However, this was not an obstacle for women who started writing down their contemplations and observations, their dreams and aspirations. Soon Japanese prose became an example of the most refined language.

Women remained in the terrain males reserved for them. Females kept diaries where they shared their feelings and their viewpoints. These pieces were rather fragmented and addressed a variety of issues. This specific style had become classic soon.

For instance, during this period two major works, which are regarded as major masterpieces of the period, were written: Pillow Book by Sei Shonagun and Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These works are very intimate but they are regarded as historical and literary works. As has been mentioned above, the authors expressed their feelings and their viewpoints. They also wrote about their life at the court and depicted events which had happened.

However, what is the most remarkable about the period and women’s role at the court is the refined style developed by female authors. Notably, Bowring claims that the language itself was one of the factors that contributed to development of such a refined style (12).

Admittedly, the written language was not spoken at that time and female authors had to use quite formal structures without making their works too ‘prosaic’. Of course, the language played a very important role. However, those were females who created the so-called “flowery language” (qtd. in Bowring 12). They had specific vision and specific style which combined formal structures, sincerity and emotions.

The style developed by female authors was really special and it became a model to follow. This style reigned throughout a century. This style did empowered women to certain extent as they became poetic reporters of the life during that period. The importance of literary works created by females was certain evidence that women changed the court significantly as they won a particular niche for females.

Works Cited Bowring, Richard. Murasaki Shikibu: The Tale of Genji. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Anne Walthall and James Palais. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2008. Print.


Importance of Brand Awareness: a Comparative Study Case Study essay help online: essay help online

Introduction The ability of consumers to identify, describe and differentiate a specific brand from its competition is at the center of all branding initiatives carried out by different branding managers as they try to improve their brand awareness levels. This paper shall set out to discuss the importance of brand awareness by conducting a case study that compares two brands in Australia.

This shall be done by highlighting the importance of brand awareness, comparing the breadth and depth of brand awareness for the chosen products and analyzing the results from the survey conducted in a bid to measure the level of brand awareness each product has in the Australian market.

Importance of brand awareness According to Atiglan et al. (2009), brand awareness refers to the likelihood that consumers within a given market know of the existence and availability of a given product. Atiglan et al. (2009) further state that brand awareness is the degree of precision to which consumers link a brand to a specific product. Effective brand awareness is measured from the consumers’ ability to recognize or recall a specific brand.

Similarly, Srivastava (2009) argues that branding efforts become futile if the product does not satisfy the needs of the targeted consumers. As such, the author states that brand managers should come up with brands that consumers can identify with in regard to the product’s performance, applicability and imagery.

With this in mind, it is always important for brand managers to measure the brand awareness level of their brands in order to reap the learning, consideration and choice advantages.

Keller (2008), states that effective brand awareness ensures that the brand is registered in the consumer’s mind. This means that a consumer is able to easily recognize and recall a brand amidst other competing brands.

In addition, brand awareness increases the probability that consumers will consider a specific brand and choose it when faced with options. As such, measuring the brand awareness level of a given brand is important to brand managers because it enables them to market and improve their brands in a manner that guarantees consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Breadth and Depth of Brand Awareness: Sample Description According to Keller (2008), the depth of brand awareness refers to the ease of recognition and recall and how strong the brand is categorized among competing brands. The breadth of brand awareness deals with the purchase and consumption considerations made by the consumer when choosing a specific brand.

In order to measure these dimensions, a case study was conducted in a bid to establish the overall consumer satisfaction rating of two prominent quick service restaurants in Australia. McDonald’s restaurants and Subway restaurants were chosen and ten respondents selected to participate in the survey.

Eating fast and maintain a healthy life style were the main considerations made by consumers frequenting quick service restaurants. This is according to results posted by respondents to a survey recently conducted in Australia. Age, gender and career choice played a pivotal role in determining the type of food consumers ordered.

In regard to brand recognition, most people stated that they knew McDonalds and have had their meals. They attributed this to the fact that McDonalds is prominent, familiar and popular as compared to other brands. However, when asked of their satisfaction rating, most participants recalled that subway restaurants offered the best services in terms of price, quality of service and interactivity.

Research method A qualitative research methodology was selected for this study. The primary method of data collection was a survey. A semi-structured interview was conducted with the selected respondents and the results compiled and analyzed graphically.

Table 1: selection criteria of respondents

Gender No. of respondents Age of respondent Male 5 18-35 years Female 5 18-35 years This research method was selected due to its flexibility and its ability to give credible and computable results. In addition, it enabled the researcher to observe and interact with the respondents freely without inconveniencing their schedules. Out of the five male respondents, two were aged below 25 years old. Three of the female respondents were below 25 years old.

We will write a custom Case Study on Importance of Brand Awareness: a Comparative Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The logic behind this classification is because younger females are more conscious about their looks as compared to their older counterparts. On the other hand, older males are health conscious and try to live health lives. This criterion was effective since it was designed to evaluate the level of brand awareness of the selected brands in regard to consumer satisfaction.

Measures The respondents were required to rate their satisfaction levels from the selected brands based on predefined parameters. The rating method was based on a scale of 1-5 stars, 1 star being the lowest score and 5 stars being the best score. These two restaurants were selected due to their market share and availability across the Australian market. Below is an overall presentation of the results posted from the survey.

Research results As mentioned earlier brand salience focuses on the ability of the brand to create a lasting impression on the consumer mind.

The results from the survey indicated that while McDonald’s is a renowned brand in Australia, its brand awareness level is lower in comparison to the levels exhibited by subway restaurants, which are higher. The graph below shows the relationship between the respondents and their responses on the selected measures.

Graph 1: respondents and response to brand awareness Measures

From the graph it is evident that the brand awareness levels of Subway restaurants are higher than those recorded for McDonald’s restaurants. This can be attributed to the fact that Subway restaurants have marketed their brands more effectively in terms of consumer satisfaction, quality of service and the ability of consumers to identify themselves with Subway’s products.

For example, in their website, Subway restaurants offer their consumers a chance to develop a unique recipe for their meals. This is a marketing strategy that ensures that consumers have a sense of ownership to this brand, thereby guaranteeing their loyalty.

In addition, subway’s emphasis on fresh and healthy products attracts more consumers. This ensures that their products are recognized, considered and chosen by consumers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Brand Awareness: a Comparative Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, McDonald has failed to address the key issues that may make their brand more prominent. By providing less quality products, McDonald’s has given Subway restaurants a competitive edge that remains unmatched in the Australian market.

Data analysis Data analysis was categorized according to the drinks, breakfast and meal preference of the respondents as can be seen in appendix 1. In regard to drinks, McDonald’s brands were preferred by most of the respondents.

Subway restaurant meals and breakfasts were preferred by all respondents due to the fact that they are healthier options in comparison to those served at McDonald’s restaurants. Below is a table showing a breakdown of brand preferences recorded by respondents

Subway Meals Drinks Breakfast Pizza sub with cheese= 3

Chicken classic= 3

Chicken schnitzel= 3

Italian B.M.T= 1



Rhetorical Analysis of an Image Essay a level english language essay help

The political cartoon drawn by Jim Borgman eloquently illustrates the problems faced by many young American people nowadays. In particular, it shows that they often do not have any employment opportunities, and some may be forced to join the Army hoping that it can create at least some opportunities for them.

Apart from that, this image can be aimed at criticizing the policies of the government that attaches more importance to military spending, rather than economic development of the country and welfare of its citizens. These are the main argument that the cartoonist puts forward.

By using both imagery and verbal elements, Borgman succeeds in making a very powerful statement about the life contemporary society in which the feeling of insecurity is probably the most dominant one.

The key topic that the author explores is the lack of opportunities for American people, especially those ones who are relatively young. This cartoon was created in 2003 at the time when economic problems began to manifest themselves, and the country was conducting several military operations abroad.

Yet, nowadays when the impacts of recession have not been fully overcome, this issue is even more important for a greater number of people, namely school and college graduates. They may not always be able to achieve success in their social life. The audience of this cartoon is difficult to define, because it can include every person who is interested in the political, social, and economic life of the country.

Yet, one cannot say that there are distinct demographic characteristics of the audience. Overall, it is possible to argue that Jim Borgman supports left-wing ideology which emphasizes the necessity for social change and egalitarian relations in the society1. This cartoonist is extremely concerned with future development of American society.

This cartoon is a single-frame image in which the author depicts two characters; one of them is a soldier holding an assault rifle, while the other one is probably a college graduate2. It should be noted that Jim Borgman does not portray their faces in much detail. One can only see that these are male characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overall, one can argue that this cartoon is quite realistic, especially as far as clothing of the characters is concerned. This description is supposed to show that these people represent two different social classes. One of them is a former student who is holding either his diploma or resume while the other person is a young man who preferred military career.

They have to represent different options that are available to young people in the contemporary United States. In particular, some of them may choose to get education while other may prefer the Army as a way of climbing social ladder. The main issue is that none of these options can guarantee success to a person.

The author relies on both word and image. The most important element is the textual message included into this cartoon. In particular, the soldier says, “I figure it’s easier to find a war than a job these days”. To a great extent, this sentence can be viewed as a title of the cartoon. This statement shows how difficult it is for a person find ones niche in the contemporary workforce.

This is the most obvious argument that this image contains. Jim Borgman’s tone is both comic and serious at the same time because the author portrays characters in a caricatural way, but this image also makes a viewer feel empathy of these people. The author does not refer to any particular person or specific event, but one can understand that the author describes the life of contemporary Americans.

Apart from that, it is possible to see a hidden or implied message in this cartoon. To a great extent, it is aimed at showing that the government is too concerned with military strength of the country, but not much attention is being paid to the economic welfare of citizens.

As a result, college graduates are often unable to find a job that can best suits their talents and education. Overall, Jim Borgman has been able to show the sense of insecurity that these people experience. To some degree, this situation can be explained by the policies and strategies of the state.

Thus, one can say that Jim Borgman can make several rhetorical statements with the help of this cartoon. Although the author does not calls for a specific change, he skillfully shows that current situation leaves much to be desired.

We will write a custom Essay on Rhetorical Analysis of an Image specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the whole, the image drawn by Jim Borgman is excellent example of how visual and verbal messages can convey a deep rhetorical argument that can pose many thought-provoking questions to a person.

The cartoonist relies on both visual and verbal elements in order to express his argument. Through this cartoon, the author highlights some of the most important problems that can be encountered by young people. So, this image can be regarded as an excellent example of a political cartoon.

Appendixes Picture 1. The cartoon by Jim Borgman

Bibliography Borgman, Jim. I figure it’s easier to find a war than a job these days. Cartoon. 2003.

Accessed from

Hess Stephen and Sandy Northrop. American Political Cartoons: The Evolution of a National Identity, 1754-2010. New York: Transaction Publishers, 2010.

Footnotes 1 Hess Stephen and Sandy Northrop. American Political Cartoons: The Evolution of a National Identity, 1754-2010 ( New York: Transaction Publishers, 2010), 134.

2 Please refer to the Appendixes, Picture 1.

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Women’s Education and its Implications in Pre-modern China Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Women’s Education in Pre-modern China

Implications of Women’s Education in Pre-modern China


Works Cited

Introduction In the past, the Chinese people did not see any importance of educating their women. Girls were not allowed to go to school. Although China has a rich history education, women were exempted from accessing this education. It is believed that education in China began over three thousand years ago. However, it took a long time for women to be incorporated in the education system in China.

The Confucian ideology has governed the Chinese people for a long time and it still plays a major role in the present day China. The ideology advocates for a male dominated society and women are subjected to harsh treatment.

Additionally, this ideology encourages resistance to any change that would promote fair treatment of women in the Chinese society. Therefore, educating women in the Chinese culture has been met with a lot of resistance because of this historical ideology.

The Confucian ideology has played a major role in barring women from accessing education and also confining women to an oppressed status in the society. Women’s education is very vital in the emancipation of women from these oppressive ideologies and culture.

Education also plays an important role in social and political emancipation. It is very vital for women to have an equal chance in accessing education. There is need for women to be empowered through being given an opportunity to be educated. This paper shall examine women’s education and its implication in pre-modern China.

Women’s Education in Pre-modern China It is not until 20th century that the Chinese society started recognizing the importance of educating their women. This happened after the feudal dynasty was abolished. In its place, the first national government was established. After some time, the People’s Republic of China was established.

Although the Chinese society currently allows women to be educated, the number of women accessing education is still lower compared to that of men. Therefore, women continue to lag behind in this country. This is despite the fact that China is ranked as the world’s most populated country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has taken fifty years of campaign by people advocating for women education for females in China to be allowed to attend school. Additionally, women who are in positions of power have been very aggressive in advocating for women to be given an equal chance in the area of education. Despite these combined efforts, there exists an imbalance in the educational opportunities offered to men and women.

The Chinese women have gone through a prolonged period of discrimination. They are only credited for being good mothers and wives because these are the only roles that they were expected to assume. According to Zhang (20), the Confucian ideology deterred women from accessing education since it advocated for a male dominated society.

The Chinese believed that women were un-teachable. They further believed that a woman of integrity is one who does not have any intelligence, particularly the intelligence that is acquired through formal education. As a result of such beliefs, the Chinese women were barred from attending schools. Instead, they were taught informal education that was very rigid.

The main topics taught in the informal education were how to be a good wife and mother, and also the behavior that they were supposed to exhibit as women. From the time one was born, the girl child was discriminated and regarded as inferior to the boy child. This treatment continued until adulthood.

Parents were not happy to give birth to children who were girls and they considered it a loss. Rearing them was considered a big burden. The subordinate role that women played in the Chinese culture was shown through some brutal practices such as foot binding that they were supposed to go through.

In 1904, the Chinese government established a new school system. The system was supposed to integrate a more assorted curriculum. This curriculum would combine the Chinese and the western education. Consequently, more modern schools were established and people started going to overseas countries such as Japan for higher education.

It was around this time that the debate on including women in mainstream education began. Consequently, public schools for girls were established. Initially, there were only a few Chinese girls’ schools which were built by missionaries. The missionary schools admitted only daughters of Chinese converts, and also the less fortunate in the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Women’s Education and its Implications in Pre-modern China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Initially, the missionary schools offered limited number of subjects such as the Chinese language, Christian texts, Confucian texts, needlework, and embroidery. Gradually, the schools introduced other subjects such as the English language.

The establishment of the first public Chinese girls’ school marked the beginning of provision of education to the girl child in China. Although the Chinese culture barred women from attending schools, there were a few women who had formal education.

The first major change in the roles that women played in the Chinese culture took place when they were allowed to access formal education. This took place during the republic years. The change affected women living in major cities and they became among the first women to receive formal education in China.

It was a big relief for many women as they were happy to have an opportunity to study alongside their male counterparts in formal schooling. It was also a major stepping stone and a huge step towards emancipation from oppressive culture.

After communism was introduced, the wide gap that existed between Chinese men and women became narrow. This narrowing of the existing gap gave the Chinese women equal opportunities with men in their quest for formal education. Consequently, women were able to get jobs in many places in the society.

As more women continued accessing education, they became empowered to hold even high profile offices in the society. More women also ventured into the political arena and were able to have influence in various fields in the society. Under the Mao rule, women were able to experience a lot of political power and influence in the society.

Implications of Women’s Education in Pre-modern China The introduction of education for the Chinese women came with major changes with regard to the roles that they were expected to play in the society. Women experienced a lot of influence from things such as music from other countries, and movies. This influence led to the Chinese women dropping some of the existing culture and adopting foreign cultures.

This is happening in many spheres of life including the area of fashion, and the freedom to choose the person that one should get married to. Most of the Chinese women also gained the freedom to choose whether or not to get married, something that was not allowed in the Chinese culture. Therefore, acquisition of education led to the abolishment of some of the oppressive cultural practices.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women’s Education and its Implications in Pre-modern China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the Chinese women were allowed to be part of the formal education in China, a lot of changes have been experienced in the Chinese society. There are women who have been able to venture into various aspects of life. They include areas such as acting, singing, science, and also politics among other fields.

However, most of the women who enjoy these opportunities were women living in urban centers. There was still a wide gap that exists between the women living the urban areas and those in the rural areas, in terms of the education opportunities available. The women living in the rural areas were still bound by the oppressive traditions that did not give them freedom to access formal education.

Although there were organizations that were working with the Chinese rural women trying to empower them through provision of education, there were a lot of hindrances from the existing traditions that made it hard for women to be liberated.

In the 1900’s, more Chinese women began to migrate to other countries to study. Others also traveled to look for employment opportunities, because they had already acquired some level of education, which would enable them get a job abroad. Because of such trends, the Chinese women were able to get some level of independence. This is something that the women did not enjoy prior to the introduction of formal education.

They were totally dependent on their male counterparts and they were never granted any form of independence. The Chinese women began fending for themselves through the jobs they got after receiving formal education.

They were no longer dependent on men for their upkeep and other needs. The aggressiveness of the Chinese women in search of opportunities abroad has contributed a lot in the development of Chinatowns globally.

A study done by the social scientists show that there is a link between education and the fertility rate among women. Women who are educated tend to have fewer children compared to women who have never gone to school. Therefore, educating women has been one of the ways that has been used to improve the quality of life among the Chinese people.

Education, therefore, plays a major role in reduction of the population growth in China. This is an advantage to this country because it is one of the countries that have a large population. Allowing women to access education has contributed to social and economic development in the society. Through education, women have been able to make better use of the available resources and also discover their potential.

At the individual level, education leads to acquisition of a high socio-economic status. Additionally, education has led to the acquisition of new values. These values play a major role in modification of relationships with the people in the society and also with the surrounding.

Therefore, educating women has resulted to a lot of social change in the Chinese society. This is because learning institutions are useful instruments, which contribute to social change.

Conclusion The Chinese women were subjected to harsh treatment under the male dominated society. This was particularly so because the society was governed by the Confucian ideology, which advocated for a patriarchal society.

After the introduction of formal education for women, there were significant changes in the way women were treated in the society. They became more empowered and were able to break from some of the cultural practices that had bound them.

Works Cited Zhang, Mingqi. The Four Books for Women: Ancient Chinese texts for the education of women, Shanghai: Guji Chubanshe, 1982. Print.


Designing and Evaluating Competitive Intelligence Capacity Report online essay help: online essay help

Abstract Basically, the Business Intelligence systems also abbreviated BI, has apparently played very critical and decisive roles relating to making effective decisions in corporations.

This implies that the responsibility assumed by the BI systems has enabled corporations such as IBM, Mitsubishi as well as other undersized and standard size businesses to perk up corporate business prospects and performances through effortlessly accepting the setting that contain the methodical organizations’ info procedures.

However, mounting the Business Intelligence structures materializes to be constrained and imperfect as a result of the lofty overheads incurred in the BI scheme crafting.

When SOMAS tool is utilized to build up the multifaceted business intelligence scheme, the construction overheads drawn on are expected to be abridged devoid of unavoidably upsetting the BI schemes dependability as well as scalability.

Thus, this particular research report paper offers a novel competitive Business Intelligence system framework that is derived from the low cost technology dubbed as the Self Organized Multi-Agent technology.

Effective business intelligence capacity

In order for industrial groups to carry out the persistently increasing trade demands and rivalries, it is obligatory that resolution building procedures be perceived to undertake very considerable responsibilities. This implies that suitable knowledge and information play very prominent roles in effectual decision making.

Besides, trade dealings info materializes to be concerned with historical resolutions, statistical records as well as both the peripheral and interior milieus including administration policies, climatic settings and procedural progress.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such a set-up, knowledge management and knowledge repositories systems have advanced to generate and manage knowledge. On account of proper facts generation from such depositories, there has been reputed progress in business intelligence schemes in addition to resolution support schemes.

Business Intelligence schemes, BI, have permitted business enterprises such as Mitsubishi and IBM firms to get hold of effectual decisions by means of logical info progression. In a range of corporations, the implemented business intelligence structures have for the precedent periods emanated to become long-term resolution building mechanisms.

According to the available literature, Business Intelligence has been described as an extensive category of technologies and applications analyzing, storing, collecting and offering admittance into the available pertinent data and information to assist venture users in making enhanced decisions in business. Basically, BI often simplifies the analysis and discovery of information.

This makes it feasible for resolution designers at every stage of the industry to operate on the accessible report and records wherever and any moment as well as to team up, investigate, comprehend and contact such reports with much ease.

Business intelligence tenders the provision for statistical examination and combination along with the aptitude to process statistical records and other info into implementable resolution vessels.

In fact, Business Intelligence might enhance enterprise competitiveness via the use of diverse sources of information such as market, operations and customers. The admiration and extension of Business Intelligence structures have considerably held up as a result of the lofty structuring expenditures and the construction involvedness consequences.

Business Intelligence. Literature review

The reality of the current socio-economic needs has made most of the modern organizations look for ways through which information can easily be processed.

We will write a custom Report on Designing and Evaluating Competitive Intelligence Capacity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is, there is need for businesses to encompass those tools that will make possible effective attaining, processing and evaluating immense quantity of information that come from diverse and unrelated sources and that would serve as some basis for discovering new knowledge (Celina


IT on Everyday Life Essay cheap essay help

Introduction The information revolution was sparked in the mid 20th century, when scientists built the first programmable electronic computers. Since then, the growth of IT has become a major and significant aspect of people in their daily lives. Today, many people depend on IT either directly or indirectly. This paper critically examines how IT aspects affect our daily lives as employees, students, family members and community members

Discussion IT and Human Survival

Since IT was invented and taken to the public domain, it has become a major aspect of human survival in the world, especially in the developed world (Michael 2009). Many people have become too dependent on IT as a means of life, and this has made IT a major human need in many areas of the world.

As William (2011) asserts, one way that IT has become an important component of human survival is by providing efficient and cheap communication. Information has been a very important aspect of human survival for as long as human beings have existed. The communication of this information is therefore very important for individuals and communities.

Today, this communication is in terms of money transfer, information sharing on social networks, and accessing official information from government agencies through online platforms such as online portals. Internet has also made it very possible for people to access jobs that are miles away from their location.

Impact of E-commerce

According to Mathew (2010), electronic commerce has made it possible for businesses in one area to be able to access markets that are many kilometres from their geographical locations. A good example of businesses that have been able to use e-commerce to take advantage of markets far away is Amazon, which is one of the oldest online businesses.

The advantages of e-commerce are not only oriented to the businesses only, but also to the consumers (Wesley 2011). Consumers are able to easily buy directly from manufacturers, who are geographically very far from them and this means that the consumers of a product that is not produced locally, are able to enjoy the product that is produced elsewhere.

Social computing

As Maxwell (2009) notes, social computing has become a very easy way for people to socialize. While there are many negative things that have been attributed to social computing such as internet addiction and deterioration of real social life, social life can also be seen as a positive way for people to socialize and reach out.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is especially important for people who are physically disabled, since they can still meet their friends on social networks and virtual chartrooms.

Research shows that many people who have lost self esteem and are unable to freely socialize with people in the real world are able to get their esteem back if they have a social media they use, because it is easier for them to express themselves on the cyber sphere (Gerald 2009).

Future of social computing

The future of social computing can only be seen from a speculative point of view (Danileson 2009). There are those who believe that as time goes, more people who are unable to cope in the real world, will go online and start having virtual lives. This will therefore start affecting even those who are not deep into the virtual online world.

These people argue that in future, social computing will become more acceptable and the cyber sphere will help all people live more enhanced lives. On the other hand, some argue that social computing will get out of hand and affect people negatively, by making it impossible for important social developments to occur or for people to make meaningful relationships.

IT and efficiency

Information Technology has definitely increased efficiency in many ways in people’s lives. One thing that has benefited from IT to gain efficiency is money transfer. With the help of information technology, money transfer has been made much easier and simpler, and processes that used to take days or even weeks to complete, can today be completed in a matter of hours or minutes.

Communication has also become easier and cheaper as a result of developments in IT. This can be found within organizations where networks have been used to increase efficiency in the way information is shared among various departments. Databases have brought about a new way to manage and retrieve information efficiently.

Engineers now don’t have to go through the heavy tasks of designing models on paper using a pencil and thousands of lines. Computer Aided Design is a software-based way for such engineers to easily and efficiency produce, modify and redesign models of whatever things they are designing, such engines, airplanes, vehicles and buildings.

We will write a custom Essay on IT on Everyday Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More IT becoming a necessity

Information Technology has changed how the world works, and individuals don’t have a choice, but to acquaint themselves with the technology. Computers have become a necessity, because to access much important information such as that from government agencies, they have to use computers.

Without a computer and an internet connection, it has become very difficult for individuals to live. Most government agencies have continually moved their services into the cyber sphere and for individuals to access these services, they have to be conversant with IT.

IT and student works

Modern IT systems have made student work easier and better. Students are able to access a lot of information online for their research. As James (2009) points out, assignments can now be better researched online in the pre-IT times, unlike earlier, when the library was the only source of information.

Today, with millions of web servers on the internet, including journals, blogs, electronic encyclopedia and other forms of information, a student can access information to enrich his or her assignment.

With a computer, a student can produce a neat document using word processors such as MS word, and either submit this document in an electronic format or print it out using a printer. These IT systems such as computers, softwares, printers and photocopiers, have not only made the work of the student better, but also easier to manage, thus making it possible for them to produce high quality works.


With the advent of these IT systems, it is easier for students to cheat in their work, because the students can easily copy information directly from the internet, instead of reading and synthesizing the information in order to produce their own work.

As a result, these IT systems can also be seen as hindrances to the development of education and the quality of education that the students will gain from school. The other disadvantage of these systems is that they are only accessible if one has an internet connection and therefore, may not be useful if there is no internet connection.

Conclusion Information Technology will continue to be a major contributor to human survival. Scientists argue that by the year 2035, IT singularity will have occurred, which means that computers and humans will be able to interact at a physiological level, and that the computers will be more intelligent than human beings.

Not sure if you can write a paper on IT on Everyday Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Whether that is or is not possible remains to be seen. However, the fact that IT has been a major contributor to human existence is not debatable.

References Danileson, K 2009, “The Way Forward for Social Media,” Forum for Informaitron Technology and Socail Change, vol. 3 no. 7, pp. 29-31.

Gerald, K 2009, “Understanding the Social Impact of Tecnology,” International Institute of Techology Review, vol. 5 no. 5, pp. 45-46.

James, L 2009, “How IT is changing the Lives of Ordinary People in the World,” Journal of Technology, vol. 4 no. 5, pp. 45-48.

Mathew, K 2010, “Modern Business and the Role of Information Technology,” Journal of Economics, vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 29-23.

Maxwell, J 2009, “Modern Infroamtion Systems,” Journal of Infroamitron Technology, vol. 4 no. 7, pp. 12-13.

Michael, K 2009, “Understanding Modern IT Sytems,” Journal of computing Technology, vol. 4 no. 8, pp. 29-31.

Wesley, K 2011, “Ecommerce and Infromaiton Technology,” Journal of Economics, vol. 3 no. 8, pp. 34-36.

William, E 2011, “Understanding Modern Information Interchange,” Journal of computing Technology, vol. 4 no. 7, pp. 67-69.


East Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-98 Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Origin and development of the financial crisis in East Asia

Response and effectiveness of response to the crisis


Reference List

Introduction The international political economy is one of the important phenomena in international relations. Issues in international economics have a huge impact on the relations at the international stage. One of the most important issues in international economics is the forces in the international business cycles resulting to economic crises.

International financial crises have been prevalent in international economics occurring in different regions at different times. The first major financial crisis in the world occurred during the post WW1 era in what is famously known as the great depression of 1930s. Other crises in international economies have been occurring including the recent financial crisis that directly affected the United States and the European Union.

There is also the least known financial crisis that affected East Asia in a span of one year – 1997-1998. This had devastating consequences on the East Asian economy. However, the quick actives responses by the states in the region helped in the quick aversion of the crisis and its impacts on the region’s economy (Heo


Interpersonal skills and Conflict Management Report essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Description of group experience

Analysis of group experience



Reference List

Introduction Conflicts are inevitable in our daily lives. How conflicts are resolved result in positive or negative outcomes. Negotiation is one of the effective ways of solving conflict. This paper will discuss the relevance of negotiation to interpersonal skills, group process and or conflict management based on the group tutorial assignment.

Description of group experience The group chose negotiation as one of the topics to analyze in conflict management process. Fiske and Clark (2011) describe negotiation as an art practiced during conflict and aims at resolving the issues by achieving solutions that the involved parties can contend with. The group concurred with the description of negotiation provided by Fiske and Clark (2011).

The four group members, Dallas, Peterson, Jane and Johnson (not their real names), comprehended that conflicts may strengthen or weaken relationships. Jordan and Troth (2009, p. 196) mention that different people react to conflict differently. Some become angry, others shy away, some dened, while others show emotions.

If such conflicts go unresolved, tension builds up and may result in complex conflicts. Conflicts occur between parents, children, workmates, students and friends. Conflicts often occur because of incompatible interests, sharing of authority or power and, selfishness. Negotiations can serve involved parties interests if some principles of negotiations are observed.

Negotiation in conflict management involves effective communication. The parties involved should take turns to speak, listen to others and ensure they understand what the other parties’ ideas are. Jehn (1995, p. 256) notes that accusative words should be avoided.

The group discussed the importance of choosing a convenient time and place for those in conflict. Respect for existing relationships as well as each other’s values and norms which should be upheld. Parties should be aware of separating individual problems from common concerns.

Another important principle in negotiation is identifying the main problem. Parties in the conflict state their concern to each other. Then a variety of possible solutions is presented. The presented solutions should be enlightened by the prevailing problems and be considerate of all parties in conflict.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After engaging in meaningful conversations, the parties can choose to come up to a consensus. Emotions and bitterness are avoided. This may result in understanding, where one of the parties abandons own interest for the common benefit. All parties should abide by the agreement in negotiations. Maintaining a good relationship among the parties makes the negotiations successful (Janasz et al, 2012).

Analysis of group experience The analysis of group experience includes literature review on negotiation and practical skills recommended by various scholars. Conflict theory as discussed in the group highlights causes and ways of managing conflicts when they occur. Huang (2010, p. 334) analyzes relationship conflict and task conflict.

Team performance can be related with the ability to manage conflict by negotiation. All members of a team in negotiation should recognize the relationship and be willing to make the team a success. The team members contribute to the negotiation process and bring to light all relevant problems.

Goals, values, customs, and points of view of the team members are respected. Individual issues are not included to the common problems. Everyone shows commitment and respects the ultimate solution of the group.

According to Oberschall (2010, p. 176), human beings are prone to conflict. Conflicts are different and depend on the level of interaction of the parties, the prevailing situation, and past experiences. Doucet et al (2009, p. 340) indicate that conflicts can be managed with good leadership skills. Good leadership skills involve negotiation capabilities within the individual. A good leader can provide direction for the team to minimize conflicts.

Negotiation can affect the management of a conflict positively. Lu et al (2009, p. 131) found out that organizations have considered conflict as a negative norm. Negative effects of conflict include destroyed relationships and poor performance at work. Conflicts cause distraction and interfere with motivation in a team.

Conflicts have been found to have positive results such as innovativeness and exchange of useful knowledge. Conflicts that concern relationships give negative results, while conflicts concerning work give a positive effect. Being prepared for negotiations, depending on the nature of the conflict, requires proper preparation. This includes sharing information by adopting a team charter statement.

We will write a custom Report on Interpersonal skills and Conflict Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Developing common goals and common interests minimizes the chances of engaging in conflict. Common goals and objectives make negotiations meaningful and lead to a successful conflict management. In a group conflict management, the team can adopt a charter statement. This statement makes the team adjust individual goals with the team’s goals, as well as the entire organizations goals (Susan Herbert Consulting, 2010).

The quality of negotiation skills can be improved. Being emotional interferes with the ability of resolving conflict as Jordan and Troth (2009, p. 195) say. Groups that engage in emotional negotiations are less productive than if they were performing individual work.

Consequently, an individual’s ability to deal with emotion affects the ability to negotiate during a conflict. Therefore, emotional issues should not be ignored during conflict resolution.

Encouraging good relationships is significant in an organization. The organization can reward employees who maintain long relationships as Lu et al (2009, p. 146) suggest. Moreover, an organization can maintain a good environment that encourage sharing of knowledge and innovativeness. This will prepare the team to manage conflicts by negotiating and not becoming emotional.

Successful negotiations encourage growth of relationships and excellent performance of both the individual and the group. Jehn (1995, p. 256) notes that conflict resolution that embraces negotiations leads to success.

Better decision making, improved approach to challenges within the organization, and attainment of growth are some of the benefits of conflict resolution using negotiations. Conflicts introduce diversity, which can have a positive impact in the profitability of an organization. Additionally, conflict may result in change which is inevitable and for the benefit of the majority.

Conclusion Negotiation is an effective method of solving conflicts. it involves communication where people should speak, listen and understand each other in an orderly way. Those involved in negotiation respect each other’s perspectives and values. The main problems are laid out and all possible solutions that are considerate are reviewed. One of the solutions is agreed on and adopted by the parties.

Conflicts can cause poor performance and destroy relationships if not well managed. Well managed conflicts can lead to productivity, knowledge sharing, and innovativeness. Development of common goals (such as a team charter statement) is an effective way of preparing for conflict management. Rewarding and encouraging good relationships will lead to growth of the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Interpersonal skills and Conflict Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reflections Getting the opportunity to learn and experience negotiation at an interpersonal and group interaction is very important. Quality negotiation skills can be used in appropriate situation in future to resolve conflicts. Negotiation enhances building of relationships and maintaining relationships for long.

Reference List Doucet, O., Poitras, J.,


The Consequences of Poor Sleep Essay college essay help

Good sleep is a guarantee of good condition for the whole human body. People who constantly fail to have a good and successful sleep often become irritated, they also reduce the abilities of their memory and attention. Academic performance is reduced as well. Sleep affects logical thinking processes and the ability to make conclusions.

The conducted research should focus on various psychological limitations people are sure to experience if they do not have good sleep at night. Conducting a research devoted to human sleep habits in children and feeling the affect on their confidence as adults, the existing data should be evaluated and the conclusions are to be drawn in the sphere of sleep habits and its impact on human mind activity.

Human confidence is a result of human performance. Depending on the quality of the performed tasks and completed issues, on the personal feelings and the ability to draw conclusions, and on general feelings people may be either confident or not.

Bad sleep habits, short length of sleep, late going to bed, and bad quality of sleep at childhood reduce human confidence and make people uncertain in personal actions in the adult age. Considering this problem, it is important to understand what a notion ‘confidence’ means.

According to Cambridge Dictionary (2011), confidence is defined as “the quality of being certain of your abilities or of having trust in people, plans, or the future.”

Thus, confidence depends on personal feelings in relation to others and to self. The main idea of this paper is to conduct a literature review aimed at considering the research in the sphere of the sleep habits in children that affect them and their confidence as adults.

Wolfson and Carskadon (2003, p. 493). The authors have conducted a research where they tried to test human psychological abilities and their dependency on sleep habits. The researchers paid attention to the quality of sleep and mentioned such characteristics as the time of going to bed and waking up, the duration and quality of sleep.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research results show that those who went to bed late and got up late, those whose sleep was short and those who could not sleep the whole night being constantly woke up reduced their academic performance. These people were irritated and could not focus on one and the same problem.

They also failed to think logically, perform the easiest tasks at colleges, follow the teacher’s ideas and respond to questions. Bad performance at school reduces students’ self-assurance as they feel personal failures. Moreover, when people fail to present good results at colleges, they understand that they fail to meet the expectations of others and it also affects confidence.

Using this research as the basis for the future hypothesis, it may be stated that affecting students’ academic performance, bad sleep in childhood affects their literacy and as a result the future adult life and having lack in knowledge, people are going to lead worse lives.

Blagrove and Akehurst (2000, p. 72). The research shows that people who have sleep problems also have difficulties in logical thinking and eyewitness memory. The research is rather effective as it helps to conclude that people who have memory problems and those who are unable to complete the logical tasks have lower confidence than others.

In addition, such people are not sure whether all the tasks have been completed and whether everything is delivered. People who have bad sleep habits often forget multiple things and cannot correctly express their point of view. They fail to create connections between ideas.

The speech of such children is confusing and illogical. It is difficult to follow their discussion, they speak by separate sentences and thoughts which are not connected. This creates a number of complexes children experience and they cannot get rid of them easily as being childhood psychological traumas, such issues are difficultly treated.

People with bad memory and absence of the logical thinking abilities cannot gain high goals, and staying at one and the same level of personal development, people cannot feel self-assured.

We will write a custom Essay on The Consequences of Poor Sleep specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having bad memory in childhood, these people are going to have worse memory performance in the future as mind abilities reduce with age. Becoming older, human mind becomes less flexible and it is more difficult to get rid of the problems. Therefore, the effect of bad sleep in childhood becomes higher in adulthood that creates many difficulties.

Baranski (2007, p. 182). The research is devoted to the problem on how sleep deprivation affects confidence. However, being limited just by one sleepless day, (p. 183), the impact of sleep deprivation on confidence cannot be considered effectively. People did not feel serious inconveniences and their confidence remained the same. The result could be predicted.

However, the importance of this research is in the measures used. Judging confidence, the research referred to three tasks such as perceptual comparison, mental addition and general knowledge (p. 184).

To make sure that both objective and subjective visions of the issue have been measured the following methodology was used, meta-cognitive judgments, indicators of confidence-accuracy relation, and accuracy of pre- and post task estimates of performance.

Even though the research has limitations such as the concise duration of depriving from sleep, this method may be used for planning my research. Using the methodology and measures of the confidence discussed in this article, the duration of sleep depriving, reduction of sleep quality and increase of the cases of late going to bad and late waking up lead to the reduction of confidence as people are unable to perform the tasks they used to.

Additionally, this research will expand to children to assess the effects of sleep on their confidence as well and follow the changes in the adult age.

Lund, H. G. Reider, B. D. Whiting, A. B.,


Strong Leadership in Business Organizations Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Thesis Statement




Introduction A plethora of studies has pointed out that strong leadership is extremely important for business organizations. Business leadership is a term commonly used to refer to the activity of leading a group of individuals, usually considered as an organization. In its essence, business leadership involves a number of things (Peters


Decision Analysis in Strategic Management Report custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Modernist Analysis

Symbolic-interpretive Critique

Postmodern Critique


List of References

Introduction Organizational management requires rational decision-making processes. Particularly, this is more evident within the present competitive business environment. There are several methodologies applicable in the analysis of business decisions. Indicatively, the decisions play significant roles in the development of an organization (Hodgkinson


Week 3 Essay essay help free: essay help free

Assignment B – Write an advice column for new international students to the United States about pragmatics. What should they know as they plan to live and study in the United States? What advice would you give them? Note – You may write your column for either high school students or university-level students.


Public Goods and Negative Externalities: A Real-World Problem Essay (Article) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Public good: Defining the term

Ronald Coase and the Public Good Proposition

Using Coase’s ideas to analyze contemporary problems


Works Cited

Introduction The growing social awareness and increased attention towards sustainability and the value of public goods have resulted in a profound shift of public consciousness. Private businesses are bound to comply with numerous laws and limit their participation in the economy, in order to reduce the potential harm caused to the nature and people and avoid possible violations of the new sustainability requirements.

Organizations are developing complex sustainability policies to confirm their commitment to the importance of public good; meanwhile, individuals are becoming more potent in the defense of their individual and collective rights. Unfortunately, laws and courts that govern sustainability processes in business have little to do with economics.

In the meantime, any decision to limit economic production for the sake of another public good, e.g. the environment, inevitably leads to other negative externalities, for instance, the lack of essential goods in the market. According to Ronald Coase, the problem of public goods and negative externalities is reciprocal, and any decision is essentially about the proper allocation of the existing resources and not about limiting the production of one good over another.

Public good: Defining the term Despite the common use of the term “public good”, few, if any, authors provide its definition. More often than not, the meaning of a public good is taken for granted. This is, actually, one of the basic reasons why economists and legal professionals face a certain degree of confusion, when dealing with various public good issues.

For the purpose of this paper, the definition offered by Paul Samuelson will be used. Samuelson defined public good “as a collective consumption good; one individual’s consumption of the good does not subtract from any other individual’s consumption of the good” (McDonald


Meursault is in existential despair Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Existentialism is a philosophy that underscores a small amount of main points, for example, the liberty to decide and the decisions one adopts which should be self-willed so that external influences or forces in forms of friends, associates or stakeholders have no impact on one’s choices.

The individual must recognize and realize that he/she has the responsibilities and obligations to embrace the consequences of his/her decisions made as result of his or her own experience in as far as life is concerned. These are some of the aspects of existentialism.

Discussion Meursault is infamous as an existentialist. The story of Meursault describes that he murdered an Arab using a gun while they were picnicking on a beach. The reactions, moods and behaviors of Meursault, as a consequence of this murder, clearly depict him as an existentialist who was in despair.

Meursault’s earlier life, before he was finally executed, is characterized by carelessness, ignorance, irresponsibility and absence of any goals or reasons in life. On one occasion, he was betrothed to a young girl though having no serious feelings to that person. In prison, after being arrested because of the murder of the Arab, he displayed indifferent attitude towards his beloved one. Similarly, when his mother died during the same period when he was in prison, he did not care.

Again, the consequences surrounding the outcome of his sentence because of the murder case never bothered Meursault. When a prisoner gets a death experience, a person discovers that death cannot be cheated, thus one recollects the whole life. This is a fact that applies to all mankind.

On the road to recovery, there exists the need to acknowledge the illogical and to accept that death is indeed inevitable. IT may be strange though the universal nature of death gives many a purpose to live. It presents a need to love and be compassionate to the others who share the same fate. The moral guidelines of society are derived from these feelings.

The Stranger is a book on Meursault’s development on his road to recovery. At the beginning of the book, the author describes Meursault’s remorse over his mother’s death because he does not comprehend the concept of death. However, after the murder of the Arab, he realizes and concedes his own lack of purpose in life and looming death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While in prison, he gradually discovers that the life he lived was not empty. He misses the some small things, such as to smoke and enjoy other life-related pleasures. The things which seemed to have no meaning now appear very important to him. Mersault embarks on a journey to search for purpose in his life and ends up inventing the one.

Despite trying to explain his actions to the magistrate, Mersault does not absolutely decline the existence of God and death. Priests and friends try to convert him to the reality and pursued in life after death. Consequently, though seemed to be adamant, was he agrees to accept his imminent death as a connection to humanity. Mersault hopelessly waits for his execution though he feels tranquil since he now clearly understands and knows himself.

One of Mersault’s hobbies is getting acquainted with current affairs and other related information from media sources, such as newspapers. He exhibits extra ordinary interest in reading topics related to scenes of murders. A good example is the much highlighted editorials related to the ongoing massacres of Czechs.

He is fond of nature and finds the scenes ranging from marine, terrestrial and celestial surroundings appealing. Mersault also has time for leisure either at home or picnicking around the country sides. Notwithstanding the fact that he has the above attributes and is perceptive of them, Mersault fails to express affection and compassion.

The outcome of the sentence of his life termination given by the court in connection to the Arab murder has negatively affected Mersault. He is heavily contemplating the loss after the realization that the pleasures and leisure time he enjoyed are no more so important. He gets preoccupied with thinking and plotting escape.

He cannot accept his sentence. He wonders why he was found guilty. He does not understand why he was tried not in a Chinese court, but in a French one. The timing and its relationship to the delivery of the verdict seemed a paradox to him. Meursault comes to the realization of his fate as an inevitable demise.

He thinks of prison guards leading him to his death in the morning and hopes that his appeal would be accepted. He is looking at the sky through his window and listening to his heartbeat to try and get distraction while imagining his heart would stop beating.

We will write a custom Essay on Meursault is in existential despair specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He also thinks in event of his appeal being granted he might still be found guilty and thus his death is a looming fact whether it was to come now or later. He then ponders over a successful appeal and another chance to be set free and get more years to live. He also states that he would not mind to live in a hollow tree truck, so long as he gets to watch the sky, passing birds and clouds.

Conclusion In conclusion, when Meursault is sentenced to death by the magistrate, he is ready to go. He is heard confessing that he lived a happy life before the murder and even in the face of death he considers living happily. Life or death is the same for Meursault. Contrary to his earlier attitude, after he realizes that he is facing death, he plunges into deep thoughts about life in this world and the life after death. He ponders how his mother experienced ahead of her death.

He is facing the reality of similar circumstances because of the death sentence. He has deep meditation on the real life on earth and starts appreciating the talents and the wide benefits endowed by the Mother Nature which he previously enjoyed indifferently though now he could understand their values in the face of death. He dies hoping to encounter similar values of life after death. Meursault started recognizing the importance of each moment in life.


The Weekly Article Analysis on Motivating the Aging and Youthful Workforces Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The selected article for week 4 analysis was about improving the workplace or organizational culture by servicing the needs of both the new and old employees. The article by Falkenrath (2010) discussed important issues that need to be factored by all human resource units to ensure productive and long-lasting manpower.

In its introductory bit, the author stressed that it is wrong for any company to come up with a similar set of needs and wants for motivating both the new and older generation employees. This is supported by the fact that the two sets of employees have varying needs and wants which ought to be captured separately.

For instance, while new employees may find it appealing to work longer hours on higher salaries, older employees who have embraced a similar trend in their youthful state would prefer non-monetary rewards to appreciate their services at the workplaces (Stark, 2010).

While giving the example of an aging and special group of the American population born in the period succeeding the World War II (Baby Boomers) which had witnessed an escalating reduction from workplaces, the article noted that there was need for the current management to understand the demographic factors such as age which were the root causes to the aging workers’ mass exodus from workplaces.

This is gotten from the notion that this part of the aging workforce is still needed to reinforce the newly recruited workforce in effecting increasing business tasks. The article went ahead to provide a summary of the following as some of the factors that can be embraced in motivating an aging workforce.

To start with, the article acknowledged the importance of adopting and embracing mentoring programs. These programs provide personal achievement to the mentor by allowing them to pass the acquired knowledge downstream to the younger workforce. Alternatively, these programs allow the learners to share their ‘new’ skills with the older generation thus enhancing the sharing of knowledge between the old and new generational workforce.

Stark (2010) revisited that praising and recognizing good behaviors can also act as a motivating factor for the older generation. In addition, I also learned that retraining older workers in applications that keep on changing such as technological applications help in motivating and widening their knowledge base.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This finding was supported in Stark’s (2010) article when he referred to it as the creation of excitement at workplaces. To him, providing training and getting workers involved in determining the company vision and set goals were key motivators.

Tellingly, allowing workers to balance and properly utilize the time spent at work and attending to other aspects of life (commonly called work-life balance) is a critical consideration for employees’ success (Stark, 2010). According to Landy and Conte (2009), this has the cost of improving their physical health and well-being (p.365).

Towards its end, the article stressed on the need of respecting the older employees by observing actions such as assigning them special projects to make meaningful contributions and not comparing their work habits with those of the energetic young force (Falkenrath, 2010).

Another key point stressed in motivating either aging or new generational employees is the adherence to the Equal Pay Act of 1963 in the USA. This act calls on employers to offer equal wages to men and women working in the same job group (McKay, 2012). It was also a learning point when the article went ahead to clarify that unequal pay was justified in instances where the job in question offers unrelated or unequal skill, effort, working conditions and responsibilities matrix (McKay, 2012).

References Falkenrath, B. (2010). Workplace culture: Motivating an aging workforce. Web.

Landy, F.J.


Facial Gestures Expository Essay best essay help

Introduction Most studies on nonverbal communication revolve around face-to-face interaction. However, modern communication goes beyond face-to-face interaction. Facial expressions are explicit ways of passing information from one individual to the other. It accounts for a larger part of nonverbal communication.

A number of factors such as environmental conditions, physical characteristics, and behavioral factors influence communication. In organizations, employees draw a lot of behavior from experiences they find in firms. This would mean that firms shape the communication styles of employees in a number of ways. In fact, the use of facial gestures is just but one of the non-verbal communication techniques. In this paper, the use of facial gestures in communication is explored in detail.

Facial expressions say much more compared to spoken words. The expressions that fail to much the spoken words with indicate serious discomfort, lying or lack of confidence. Mouth, smiles, movement of the eyes and lips form part of what to study during a conversation. They are efficient and bring honesty. Happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust, confusion, fear, desire, excitement, and contempt form part of the universally accepted forms of body language (Mcshane,


Abu Dhabi Municipality Essay college essay help near me

Abu Dhabi Municipality Abu Dhabi Municipality is a United Arab Emirates based company. The company is well-known for providing services to the public. It offers services such as construction permits, customer service, urban planning and legal affairs and real estate management among others (Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, 2012). The main goal of the company is to deliver high quality and sustainable service for all residents of the city.

Abu Dhabi’s Knowledge acquisition and collection technique Harrington and Voehl (2007) say that information is found at any place in the organization. Thus, it is the role of the organization, through Knowledge Officers to determine the mode of collection and use of the information. Harrington and Voehl (2007) cite that an organization can acquire knowledge from various sources. Some of these sources are individual’s creative ideas, observation and the internet among others.

The Abu Dhabi Municipality relies on knowledge banks to acquire new knowledge. Mostly, it uses libraries and the internet as the source of acquiring new knowledge. Similarly, the company has established brainstorming sessions. This approach allows workers to meet and share ideas.

Strategies such as brainstorming sessions, libraries and the internet has enabled Abu Dhabi Municipality to collect and add more knowledge to its knowledge bank. Other than the methods mentioned above, the company uses action reviews and customer surveys to acquire new knowledge.

Knowledge storage and Integrity of Knowledge Repository Leask et al (2008) cite that knowledge repositories provide the company with effective platform where knowledge acquired is stored. A repository simplifies storage and retrieval of information on business intelligence (Leask et al., 2008). Abu Dhabi Municipality manages its own informatin by owning a knowledge warehouse.

The knowledge warehouse serves as the storage medium for qualitative knowledge generated from various sources (Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, 2012). Similarly, the knowledge warehouse helps the company extract captured information from different business applications (Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, 2012). The knowledge warehouse also sorts the information stored to facilitate decision making.

Abu Dhabi Knowledge Dissemination Strategy Ruggles (1997) points out that knowledge dissemination is the process where knowledge collected is directed towards creating an action in the organization. Information dissemination occurs using social channels such as; the internet, telephones, face-to-face communication among others (Ruggles, 1997).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social channels forms part of Abu Dhabi Municipality knowledge dissemination strategy. The company views that in order to ensure effective and timely dissemination, knowledge has to reach designated points on time (Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, 2012). Besides, the company places important information on the company’s notice board (Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, 2012).

How Abu Dhabi Municipality uses knowledge collected to enhance service delivery Ruggles (1997) illustrates that when a company collects new information, ideas and thoughts, it improves its operations in terms of service delivery. Owing to this fact, Abu Dhabi Municipality will achieve a competitive advantage by embracing knowledge management in its supply chain activities. The company will use the knowledge acquired to enhance the availability of relevant customer information. This knowledge will equip the company on the customer’s tastes and preferences (Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, 2012).

Also, the information collected will help the company customize or develop new and superior service which meets the customer’s needs. This will be in tandem with Harrington and Voehl (2007) who claim that organization reduces time interval required for service delivery when using new knowledge. This saves on costs and other overheads.

Reference List Harrington, H. J., and Voehl, F. (2007). Knowledge Management Excellence: The Art of Excelling In Knowledge Management. Delhi : Paton Press LLC

Leask, L., Milner, T., Norton, M.,


Importance of Red Wine to Human Health Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Background

Advantages of Moderate Consumption

Importance of Good Health

Disadvantages of Drinking Red Wine

Importance of Red Wine




Background Wine drinking is an old Egyptian practice dating back to more than 2200 years when it was used as medicine for various ailments. According to Barbara Gardner (2008) some of the most ancient uses of red wine include pain relieving during birth and treating bites and wounds.

However, the spread of Christianity and the development of breweries and distilleries discouraged people from using wine as medicine. The presence of alcoholic effects of wine made this possible. Since then not many people believe that red wine is a healthy and refreshing drink. The last century saw many nations doubt the medicinal value of wine after the Temperance Movement started spreading the ills of alcoholic drinks. This research paper is aimed at discussing the effects of red wine on health.

Advantages of Moderate Consumption There is no standard measure of a moderate amount of alcohol a person needs to take. However, several factors determine the amount of alcohol that individuals can take. In her book Dakota Stevens (2010) notes that the influence of red wine of a person depends on a variety of factors; in particular such aspects like age, sex, experience, genetics and body weight determine an individual’s moderate consumption rate.

There is a significant difference between when individuals drink alcohol while taking other food substances and when one is drinking alcohol without any food supplement. According to Dakota Stevens (2010) food substances reduce absorption rate of alcohol. In addition, children have a lower consumption rate compared to adults. Research has established that men have higher body water mass compared to women.

This explains why women are quickly intoxicated compared to men. However, most medical researchers assume that taking two glasses of wine a day is moderate drinking. The most abundant chemical substances in red wine are polyphenols and resveratrol. These substances protect body cells against damages caused by pathogens. This is one of the advantages of drinking red wine.

Importance of Good Health With improved healthcare, the chances of patients recovering whenever they visit a medical facility are increased. In addition, medical accidents which have led to the loss of lives in some health facilities have been avoided, making healthcare safe for everybody. Besides increasing the confidence of people in healthcare facilities, a safe healthcare system ensures that people take minimal time to recover hence reducing the effects suffered by other economic sectors.

Moreover, quality healthcare means that effective drugs are prescribed to patients whenever they visit a health facility. Drugs with dire side effects are therefore not allowed in the market, let alone in any health facility. Consequently, patients will not have to visit doctors time and again to be treated for the side effects caused by use of generic substandard drugs. On the same note, citizens will always have high standards of health and will therefore be more productive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, affordable medical plans that result from quality healthcare enable people to take up insurance policies. Therefore, many citizens will be able to afford high standard healthcare and conveniently pay for their hospital bills making the nation healthier.

Additionally, good medical covers by insurance firms have been proved to lead to the establishment of good healthcare facilities which are well equipped, further improving the services that people receive. Similarly, with good and affordable medical insurance which results from quality healthcare, more people are bound to be insured. As a result, the number of people who are able to access healthcare whenever need arises is increased.

It is also important to note that when quality healthcare is insisted upon by all stakeholders, research into the field of health will be enhanced. Advanced technology as well as state-of-the-art equipment which enable quick and accurate diagnosis, will result from the research.

According to Roger Corder (2007), the government will also increase its budgetary allocation to the health sector, leading to provision of exemplary services in both private and public health institutions. In addition, quality healthcare ensures that health personnel are qualified in their field.

Strict policies are put in place to guide the training of health personnel in a move that aims at eliminating half-baked professionals, who end up making acute mistakes that cause deaths or permanent disability. At the same time, regulations that are usually implemented to ensure that all qualified health professionals are registered by recognized bodies go along way in ensuring that patients receive proper treatment.

Disadvantages of Drinking Red Wine Red wine is an alcoholic drink just like beers and spirits. However, the difference occurs in alcohol concentration. Red wine has a slightly lower alcohol concentration ranging from 4% to 25% depending on the type of wine and how it was distilled.

This is why Roger Corder (2007) warns that over-consumption of red wine leads to health complications. It is essential to drink moderate drinking habits to avoid risking consumers’ health. Excessive drinking increases cholesterol levels in the human body. This weakens heart muscles and leads to cardiovascular arrests.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Importance of Red Wine to Human Health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary to educate people on the disadvantages of excessive drinking. Red wine has same intoxicating effects like beer and spirits. Therefore, over consumption leads to intoxication. This leads to irrational thinking and poor judgement. As a result, visibility and body balance are distorted leading to blind walking and staggering respectively.

Moreover, according to Barbara Gardner (2008) over- consumption of red wine leads to irresponsible sexual behaviour that may lead to high transmission rates of sexually transmitted infections.

Lastly, over consumption of red wine leads to loss of appetite for food. As a result, an individual exposes his body to hunger and starvation that may lead to death or other health complications.Red wine is a sweet, alcoholic drink and thus people fall victims to this temptation.

As a result, most of them end up becoming addicts and unable to control their cravings. It is essential to note that overreliance on wine leads to addiction that is similar to other drug addictions. People must learn to control their craving for wine to make use of other activities like work and studies. Thus, people should remember about these complications while drinking red wine. The task of medical workers is to inform the patients about the benefits of consuming red wine and its risks.

Importance of Red Wine Despite the raging debate, about beliefs that wine is an alcoholic drink and thus unfit for treatment people still regard it a beneficial substance. According to Norm Ray (2006), there is enough evidence to prove that red wine is an effective remedy for various health complications.

Nevertheless, Norm Ray (2006) warns that red wine is an effective remedy for various health problems if only taken in moderation. This is one of the issues that should be kept in mind. If a person drinks two glasses of wine regularly there will be few possibilities of developing health complications. This is the most optimal intake level. Too much wine will intoxicate the body and lead to drunkenness.

Secondly, drinking red wine reduces the risks of developing heart complications. Research shows that moderate drinking of red wine increases the amount of blood cholesterol to manageable levels. This ensures blood flows through the arteries without clogging them.

However, it is highly advisable that wine drinking should be regulated since over consumption increases cholesterol. In his book Roger Corder (2007) points out that people who drink moderately on a regular basis increase their blood flow through the heart and veins. There is much oxygen pumped to the heart and other body parts. This reduces pressure and strain caused by cholesterol deposits within the blood veins and arteries. As a result, the individual reduces chances of developing blood pressure and stroke.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Red Wine to Human Health by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Atherosclerosis is a common condition that affects old and obese people. This condition occurs as a result of over accumulation of fatty substances in the blood arteries. Therefore, the arteries thicken and become stiff (John 2007). This hinders blood circulation to and from various parts of the body.

As a result, the victim suffers constant suffocation as a less blood is supplied to various parts. Consequently, the victim has high chances of developing blood pressure since the arteries are extremely thin and unable to allow passage of enough blood. However, moderate drinking of red wine ensures the arteries are freed off these fatty substances and thus supply blood efficiently.

In his book Integrative Cardiology John Vogel (2007) argues that red wine has substances that break down these fatty substances and thus they cannot be deposited on the artery walls. They come together and form lumps that allow blood circulation to various body parts.

This is why people who drink red wine and smoke have fewer chances of developing this condition compared to those who smoke but do not drink red wine. Therefore, drinking red wine increases the efficiency of blood circulation by cleaning blood arteries. This is one of the benefits that red wine can bring to a person.

There is enough evidence that drinking red wine reduces the risk of developing obesity. When a person drinks, and eats junk food at the same time the rate of food absorption in the small intestines is reduced. The substances in red wine ensure food is slowly absorbed by the body; therefore, reducing the risk of becoming obese. In spite of the amount of food eaten by people drinking red wine will ensure they maintain their body weights.

There are considerable illustrations that prove this point. Most party lovers may never become obese if they include red wine in all their parties. This explains the presence of red wine in may parties regardless of the amount of healthy or unhealthy food the revelers consume. Therefore, drinking red wine ensures people keep the desired body weight and avoid developing obesity and its complications.

Cancer is one of the modern killer diseases on earth. The number of men and women falling victims to cancer continues to rise despite various attempts to contain the menace. Modern lifestyle is largely to blame for causing various cancer infections. This is an abnormal multiplication of body cells that spread rapidly to all parts of the body except the hair, nails and teeth.

It is evident that the most common way of treating cancer is through surgical operations or chemotherapy that is extremely beyond many victims’ financial abilities. However, recent research indicates the likelihood of reducing cancer cases through consumption of red wine. In their research article Thomas Kraft et al ((2009)) note that at wine contains resveratrol and antioxidantsubstance that prohibits cell activities.

This substance controls the spread of cancer cells especially those associated with breast and lung cancer. An increase in the amount of red wine consumed increases the body’s ability to fight cancer cells and thus keeps the person safe. However, overconsumption of red wine just like any other alcoholic drink will lead to high risks of developing cancer. So, red wine can indeed decrease the risk of cancer, yet such an effect can be achieved only if a person consumes it properly.

Every person wishes to remain younger the rest of theirlives. However, this is not possible due to the high rate of cell degeneration. According to Michael Gelb (2010), this leads to an increase in the rater art which the skin shrinks and muscles drop. The sight of hanging muscles hanging from skeletal structures of human beings is a disgusting reality. However, people have sought various ways of saving their body cells against quick degeneration.

Their efforts have not yielded enough since they are accompanied by the other side effects. Lucky, red wine is the best remedy against aging due to the presence of resveratrol in grapes. According to Beth Giesler (2011) this substance acts as an antioxidant that prevents cell damage from physical or biological factors.

As a result, individuals who drink red wine regularly have lesser chances of developing aged skin compared to those who do not drink. In addition, the bone marrow is in charge of producing blood and other body cells. This is another beneficial property of red wine.

Furthermore, according to David Goldberg and George Soleas (2011) the consumption of red wine is associated with the increased life expectancy and reduced risk of ischemic stroke. Thus, statistical evidence supports the consumption of red wine. Additionally, according to the study carried out by Rabai et al (2012) the consumption of red wine improves hemorheological parameters and eventually decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Nevertheless, a group of researchers under the guidance of Roger Corder suggest that such an effect manifests itself when one speaks about red wines produced in France where certain production standards are met (Corder et al, 2006). To a great extent, this study explains the so-called French paradox which means that people living in the country are less likely to die from heart diseases at an early age. This issue should be considered by people who want to increase their consumption of red wine.

The presence of resveratrol in alcohol ensures the bone marrow continues to produce cells despite an individual’s age. However, overconsumption of alcohol leads to bone fractures that weaken the body(O’Byrne2009). There is no guarantee that a human body is capable of reconstructing after fracturing.

The bone is made of dead cells that once fractured cannot be repaired. As a result, the damage in any bone structure leads to cell degeneration and also weakens the body. In addition, drinking red wine reduces the speed at which macular cells degenerate. This allows individuals to see clearly despite their old age.

Loss of vision is a common complication associated with old age. However, though moderate red wine drinking an individual is able to maintain his vision despite his old age. Therefore, in order to realize the benefits of red wine an individual has to drink moderately.

Sleep is an essential human activity that enables the body to rest and rejuvenate from the day’s activities. However, most people suffer from amnesia and rarely fall asleep for more than two hours. Despite this condition, there is a remedy for lack of sleep courtesy of red wine. In her book, Beth Giesler (2011) refers to the scientific research indicating that red wine contains melatonin which induces sleep in individuals.

Even though, the human body has this substance they are in low concentrations. Sometimes these concentrations are too low to induce sleep. We live in a fast paced and overly competitive society, where life is economically, physically and emotionally demanding. Subsequently, cases of depression have been rising exponentially, especially in the developed world; where people are always taking ant


Wal-Mart’s Growth and Expansion Research Paper college application essay help

Introduction Wal-Mart is regarded as one of the great companies in the US. The company has also spread to other parts of the world. The company specializes in the retail industry where it has stores across the United States. Wal-Mart was started in the year 1915. The company has grown to become one of the biggest multinational companies in the world.

Notably, the company has expanded its subsidiaries all over the US. People have viewed the growth and expansion of Wal-Mart differently. Proponents have seen this as being of great benefit to the American people while others have seen it as a move that has brought numerous disadvantages to the Americans (Freeman 38).

Those who do not see the benefit associated with the growth of Wal-Mart note that the move has done little to support the economy. It has been noted that the expansion of Wal-mart has led to the destruction of many job opportunities than it has created. In addition, Wal-Mart employees do not have health coverage or are inadequately covered by the company.

It has also been noted that the company has contributed to environmental degradation in a huge way. Although the company is argued to have created massive employment opportunities through its stores spread across the US, it can be noted that many jobs have lost since small businesses have been forced to close shop in areas where the Wal-Mart is established.

The company has been praised for its convenience and offer of a wide range of products, and this makes it difficult for small businesses to compete with it. In addition, the suppliers of the retail company are from overseas, and this does not help the growth of local production. This leads to loss of employment from the local manufacturers.

The company also does not pay its staff competitively. This is worsened by the fact that the employees are subjected to tough working conditions. In addition, it was established that the company had a negative impact on the family poverty rates. This was drawn from a study that was conducted on in counties where Wal-Mart stores. The study was done between the years 1987 and 1998 (Goetz


Fundamentals to writing a good essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fundamentals to writing a good essay


Works Cited

Introduction Essay writing is a major concept practiced in high schools, colleges and universities, regardless of the course that one is undertaking. Unlike creative writing, which can take any format, it is worth noting that essay writing has a method that has to be followed, especially for academic reasons. This paper explores the method of writing a good essay, with special focus on the format and main ideas that have to be considered during this type of writing.

Fundamentals to writing a good essay While most people know that essays usually have an introduction, body, and conclusion, less emphasis is put on balancing the three components in actual writing. Oftentimes, most experts recommend that introduction, body, and conclusion should represent 10%, 80%, and 10% respectively (Helpsheet 2).

Essays, which do not adhere to this rule, are likely to score low marks, since it is considered as the basic structure of any academic essay. Secondly, the introduction of an essay depends on the research questions or the topic of research being considered. In general, the topic gives direction on how ideas are organized in the essay, and may take varied approaches. At this point, one may choose to turn the research topic into a question, as a way of introducing the essay (Langley 3).

Additionally, a good essay narrows its scope to limited issues, since not everything can be covered in a single essay. In other words, it is important to state what to be covered, areas under consideration, and possible comparisons, in order to give the reader a clear picture of the content of the essay.

Importantly, this method allows the writer to draw information from different disciplines, as a way of collecting enough materials to educate the reader, rather than reproducing other people’s ideas (Helpsheet 3). This also makes the essay authentic and interesting to read, as one’s view of the topic is widened through different ideas.

In this line of thought, excellent essays are neither too general nor too specific. When the method is too general, it becomes hard for one to plan in terms of how to start, the content, and the final direction of the essay. On the other hand, too specific essays may lack enough materials, thus remaining shallow and boring to the reader. For this reason, a good essay balances the scope of the research with the reader in mind.

Besides having focused research questions and a plan of the essay, it is important for the writer to select a topic, which captures the entire area of study. This is to say that, the reader should be eager to know the content of the essay as depicted by the title. A good title can be in form of a question, a statement, or a combination of the two.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Notably, there has to be a direct link between the title of research and the content of the essay. Another important component of a good essay is a thesis statement, which states the position taken by the writer. This gives direction to the reader throughout the essay, as it forms the basis of all arguments presented. A thesis can also be a point of view taken by different authors on a given topic of research.

Conclusion Above all, a good essay has a conclusion, which summarizes the ideas discussed, thus giving it a smooth flow that allows easy understanding. The three elements ensure the transition of ideas as the reader is able to tell the direction of the essay.

Works Cited Helpsheet. Essay Writing Basics. The University of Melbourne, 2010. Web.

Langley, Lester. The Basics of Good Writing. SUNY Rockland Community College, 2006. Web.


Representation of African-American identity and race, gender and class in the Bamboozled Term Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction The modern American society is consumption-oriented, a case that is essentially fostered by the Media. Therefore, “much of what comes to pass as important is based often on the stories produced and disseminated by media institutions” (Brooks and Lisa ‘Gender, Race and media representation’ 297).

This implies that many of the things that people construct within their minds are articulated to symbols, images, and narratives that are filmed, televised, or even broadcasted in other forms of media. The mediated symbols, images, and even texts create awareness among people of what it infers by being black, Latino, Native American, female, male, white, or even a resident of the urban or rural area.

Media has also the capacity to segment many of these societal differences across gender and race. In simplistic terms, as evidenced by media genres, some movies like Bamboozled that is written and directed by Spike Lee present media as critical in the determination of what shapes social realities of people. In the context of the movie Bamboozled, the paper argues that African-American identity, race, gender, and class are enormously stereotyped.

Stereotype Presentation of African-American Identity, Race, Gender, and Class Stereotyping of African Americans in the movie Bamboozled is evident even on the casing of the DVD containing it. Right from the beginning, Bamboozled is a satirical movie depicting the modern minstrel show. It features characters that are black. They also wear black faces.

The highlights create and construct the meaning of being black both internally and externally in the mindset of the audience. Though educated at the Harvard University, Delacroix has to undergo myriads of torments acerbated by his white boss (Thomas Dunwitty). As if endeavoring to satirically criticize and make fun out of Delacroix‘s identity as an African- American, Dunwitty talks similarly to the male blacks living in the urban areas.

He also consistently makes use of the word ‘nigger’ in his conversations coupled with proclaiming that he is essentially more black than Delacroix by virtue of the fact that he has married a black American woman and that they both have two children who are of mixed races. While Delacroix creates a TV script portraying black Americans positively, he demises it as “cosby clones” (Lee Bamboozled min.32).

Hence, he rejects it. Angered by this decision and with the aid of Sloane Hopkins, Delacroix decides to create a minstrel show in which he portrays the blacks in the extreme way. The picture shown below is an extract of the scanned promotional posters on the Bamboozled DVD.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source (Brooks and Lisa ‘Lessons learned or bamboozled?’ 289).

From the promotional poster, African Americans are presented as cannibals as evidenced by the red color. Therefore, the poster implies that African-Americans are merely half human beings and half-animals. In the film, cannibalism motif is implied by the depiction of blacks as having abnormally big teeth that have abnormal gaps in between (Piehowski 14).

When black characters wear black faces, an impression is created to reinforce the stereotypical association of Africa with awful things because black is superimposed with additional blackness. The question that arises here is whether the identity of black people is housed by their pigmentation, or it is expressed through particular mannerisms.

Arguably, if the identity of being black is contained in the skin color, “those who perform the minstrel exaggeration of stereotypical traits become part of black life” (Black 19). Lee may have intended to provide a tool for addressing the abuse and misuse of the African American skin color ‘black’, which is also the identity of this human race particularly through TV depictions.

However, the movie may be argued as having not delivered the satires intended because people would tend to interpret the film as a true depiction of the identity of the African-Americans. Delacroix himself perhaps evidences this fact. He had created the film originally as a means of inciting his boss to fire him over extreme expression of racism.

Unfortunately, he ended up changing his mind to embrace the film as a source of fame and recognition while claiming that it was a satirical piece of work while fully aware of its capacity to profile the identity of the African-Americans in a negative way. Consequently, as Black argues, the film turned out as a reflection of the intense contempt that Delacroix had inside himself pertaining to the black identity (19).

Moreover, Bamboozled characterization raises questions on the African-Americans’ understanding of their race and gender issues. Arguably, although the movie opens by warning the audience to shun from taking things the manner they appear at facial value through Delacroix’s explanation of the meaning of satire, Womack raises questions of the blacks’ capacity to recognize their racial identity. Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show is full of black actors who wear black faces.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Representation of African-American identity and race, gender and class in the Bamboozled specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also make incredibly funny and racist jokes about the African Americans. With regard to Piehowski, Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show also deploys “offensively stereotyped CGI-animated cartoons that caricature the leading stars of the new show” (13). In the making of the show, the main aim of Delacroix was to make his boss fire him on grounds of extreme racism.

This would make him get an opportunity to look out for employment in another company. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Even the black street performer seems also satisfied with the profiling. Manray exemplifies this case. Precisely, while Womack becomes horrified immediately when Dealcroix opens the reality about the film’s contents, Manray considers it as an opportunity for gaining fame and wealth through his dancing skills.

To Delacroix‘s surprise, instead of being fired as he had anticipated, Dunwitty endorses the show. It also becomes incredibly successful. When the show gains popularity in the TV, Womack and Manray become mega stars. On the other hand, Delacroix alters his mind and defends the show claiming that it is only a satire. While Delacroix is proud of the awards and fame that he receives, Hopkins is on the other hand intensively worried about her contributions in the development of a racism-oriented show.

Later in the Bamboozled, the Mau Maus engineer plans for bringing the show down by deploying violence due to the anger he has about the show’s content. Womack gets tired of the show and quits. This creates a room for Hopkins and Manray to come close to one another. Delacroix attempts to break this relationship by claiming that Hopkins had slept with Manray to earn her position. However, this plan fails to yield fruits.

For instance, Womack says, “I don’t know who I am” (Lee Bamboozled min. 52). Interpreted beyond the facials value, Womack is a characterization name reflecting destabilized racial and gender identities that are captured in the movie. It “probes issues of sexuality, what it means by a woman, race, or what it means to be black” (Brooks and Lisa ‘Lessons learned or bamboozled’ 291).

The paradox and confusion are further amplified through the characters’ actions of rejecting, realigning, relinquishing, and confirming the racial stereotypes associated with the African-Americans. For instance, the movie reminds the audience “to keep it real” (Lee Bamboozled min. 71).

However, Dunwitty claims that he is blacker in relation to some of the blacks including Delacroix since he is married to a black woman. This exemplifies the hatred that Dunwitty has by being associated with blacks. His association with the black people creates more hatred for himself in relation to the way blacks hate themselves.

The presentation of African-Americans’ gender, class, and how the two relate cannot escape criticism. The movie, presents a sexualized anxiety of coming into terms with physical prowess of the African-American people. In this context, Bowdre argues, “nodding to history, Lee shows how the public fascination with other black males’ bodies continues today” (128).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Representation of African-American identity and race, gender and class in the Bamboozled by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the context of class, the film highlights the top dancer’s (Manray) original status before he was empowered by a show that only helps to highlight how his racial backgrounds denied him an opportunity to rise up economically. The film portrays Hanray as a poor street dancer who embraces the dancing role in the show as a tool for getting wealthy tantamount to the white community.

Through the songs in which Hanray and Womack take proactive roles, the stereotypic association of African American with low social class life often involving slavery is brought into the lime light. To evidence this argument in the film, the sonorous voices of both Manray and Womack bring up lively tones that are characteristic of historical slave songs. In the film, the audience is made by hilarious presentation to become blackface performers (Lee Bamboozled min. 87).

This way, the audience acquires sexual license. For instance, a Sicilian member of the audience posits that he has become “blacker than a nigger” (Lee Bamboozled min. 101) by showing his penis to the rest of the audience. Arguably, this implies that blacks are defined by nakedness, a trait attributed to the stereotype that they belong to a low class society, which was often tagged as poor in the racist historic America.

On a different perspective, Tondeur and Tyrone argue, “Bamboozled emphasizes performing black masculinity in an effort to recreate white femininity” (10). This implies that race and gender are vastly interrelated in films that stereotype African-Americans like Bamboozled.

Through the stereotyped African-American identity, race, gender, and class, Bamboozled sends a clear message to the audiences’ minds that black entertainment is principally designed to ensure that curiosities of the majority white Americans are fulfilled. To fulfill this curiosity, African-Americans are depicted as lesser human beings as evidenced in the movie in the movie when Dunwitty accepts the show created by Delacroix reflecting the African-American people in an incredibly negative way.

In fact, Hopkins becomes cognizant of the fact that she is being exploited in the show to make fantasy out of her identity. This prompts her to seek mechanisms of defending her identity as an African-American. For this reason, she compiles racism footages from various TV shows, cartoons, and even movies with the intent of making Delacroix realize the harm the show had. Unfortunately, Delacroix turns back from viewing them.

However, learning from this case amid the recognition of the exploitative nature of the show, Manray declares that he will no longer put on black faces. The executives in charge of production of the show are angered by this move. Arguably, this shows that the executives take advantage of the ignorance of the African-American on their identity to help acerbate their negative stereotyping.

In Bamboozled, coming into terms with the negative presentation of the African- American racial identity attracts serious consequences. For instance, Dunwitty fires Manray right on stage besides ordering him to get out of the production studio. This act clearly shows and confirms the stereotype perception spread by the Bamboozled by portraying African-Americans as having lesser human rights since it is evident that Manray was given neither a warning nor a notice for his firing.

Unfortunately, the Mau Maus who are predominantly composed African- Americans fail to embrace the fight that was staged by Manray aimed at seeking appreciation of the identities of the African-Americans. This presents them as ignorant. In fact, Mau Maus who make a public statement that they would murder Manray live on webcast kidnap him.

The authorities are unable to trace the internet’s feed source while Manray is assassinated. Later, the police track down Mau Maus whom they spray with bullets leaving only one person (Mc Serch) who also declares his willingness to die rather than facing an arrest. Arguably, these senseless killings of Mau Maus confirm that human rights are less significant when acts of extra judicial killings involve African- Americans.

This argument is significant because people are not told in the movie that the Mau Maus were armed or whether they actually threatened the lives of the police so that a decision would be reached to shoot them senselessly. Worse of all, the person who survived the spray of bullets (Mc Serch) had an originality of the white race. Does Bamboozled then clearly show that the applicability of human rights is dependent on the race of the people engaged in criminal activities such as murder?

The struggle to fight for negative stereotyping of the African-American is eminent in Bamboozled. Hopkins is immensely enraged by the ignorance that Delacroix has towards people of his race: the African-Americans. Therefore, she confronts Delacroix demanding him to watch under a gunpoint the movie she had previously prepared.

On watching the movie, Delacroix attempts to seize the gun from her. This results to his shooting. Hopkins flees from the scene leaving him watching the movie wounded and lying down. As Tondeur and Tyrone assert, “the film concludes with long racially insensitive and demeaning clips of black characters from Hollywood films of the first half of the 20th century” (11).

Cameras are then tilted towards the lifeless body of Delacroix with the last images shown depicting Manray performing his last Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show episode live on stage. The situation in which Delacroix comes into terms with his identity makes it clear that, no matter how ignorant one may be towards his/her race, gender, and class, the fact remains that such identities do not cease to exist simply because they are ignored.

Consequently, Delacroix evidences how accepting negative profiling for individualistic reasons such as gaining fame and wealth only leads to further acerbating of the associated stereotyping. Bowdre contends with this argument by further asserting, “the movie directly implies that the White executives who control the entertainment channels support black entertainment mostly in a condescending manner, one that is not that much different from slave-era treatment of blacks” (127).

The preciseness of Bamboozled to possess this motif is arguably contained in the vivid intermingling of class, race, gender, and economic perceptions held by the traditional white community against the African-Americans. The reinforcement of the stereotypic perception encounters an immense support in the film.

In fact, instead of black characters aiming to disapprove these perceptions, they give them deeper roots to be anchored in the minds of the audience. For instance, with regard to Black, “Lee shows how Delacroix satirically uses the images and mannerisms of blacks from blackface minstrel showing how he seeks to escape his blackness, symbolized by being trapped in his job’”(19).

Therefore, instead of depicting satire through the film’s themes, Delacroix appears to be the object of the satire. Since he is black, being the object of the satire makes the interpretation of his mannerism better comprehended at facial value. The case is in contrast with his earlier warning at the beginning of the movie.

Conclusion Through the movie Bamboozled, the African-American identity, race, gender, and class are presented as inferior in relation to those of the white people. The paper has argued that, through the presentation, the traditional stereotypes associated with African Americans are confirmed. This implies that, through Bamboozled, Lee succeeds in creating the impression that the modern black entertainment is designed such that it satisfies the white people’s curiosity about the blacks’ identity, class, gender differences, and racial stereotyping.

Works Cited Black, Ray. “Satire’s Cruelest Cut: Exorcising Blackness in Spike Lee’s Bamboozled.” The Black Scholar 33.1(2003): 19-24. Print.

Bowdre, Karen. “A Black Camera Book Review: The Spike Lee Reader.” Black Camera 22.2(2008):127-128. Print.

Brooks, Dwight, and Hebert Lisa. “Lessons learned or bamboozled? Gender in a Spike Lee film.” Communication Studies 47.5(2004): 289–302. Print.

Brooks, Dwight, and Hebert Lisa. “Gender, Race and media representation.” Gender and communication in mediated contexts 3.2(2003): 297-318. Print.

Lee, Spike, dir. Bamboozled. Twentieth Century, 2000. Film.

Piehowski, Victoria. “Business as Usual: Sex, Race, and Work in Spike Lee’s Bamboozled.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 33.1 (2012):1-23. Print.

Tondeur, Cristy, and Simpson Tyrone. “Bamboozled by Blackness: Movie Review: Bamboozled.” Black Camera 16.1(2001): 4-11. Print.


The Pardoner’s Tale Term Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction: Repentance as the Ultimate Choice

Calling for the Lord Almighty: Pater Noster and The Pardoner

Pater Noster in Anglico and The Pardoner: The Similarities

Asking for Forgiveness: When Timor Mortis Is Stronger than Ever

When the Heart Breaks in Three Parts: The Holy Trinity

Facing the Dread of Death: Forgiveness as a Way to Overcome It

Seized by the Fear of Death: Timor Mortis in The Pardoner

Conclusion: When the Pardon Is Finally Given

Works Cited

Introduction: Repentance as the Ultimate Choice Of all the stories in Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer The Pardoner’s Tale and its Prologue must be the most famous and by far the most memorable of all the “tales”. Setting a challenging plot and developing a rather unpredictable twist, Chaucer wrote a unique work which deserves taking a closer look at. Despite the fact that the Tale and the Prologue revolve around the issue of morality most of the time, the two stories manage to touch upon a range of other issues, among which the one of repentance takes a good chunk of the poem, which makes The Pardoner and its Prologue display certain similarities with the Middle English penitential lyrics.

Calling for the Lord Almighty: Pater Noster and The Pardoner To start with, The Pardoner’s Tale and the Middle English penitential lyrics touch upon the issue of the relationships between a man and God. While in the Middle English penitential lyrics, the idea of a man establishing relationships with God is obvious.

Indeed, according to Luis Alberto Lázaro, The Pardoner’s Tale offers a lot in terms of revealing the specifics of the Christian belief and the ways in which people speak to the Lord, contrasting it sharply to the ways offered by the Medieval church: “Chaucer himself recited his lines in front of a courtly audience, entertaining his listeners with· biting stories about unscrupulous clergy or dissolute women” (Lázaro 147).

Indeed, if considering Chaucer’s poem closer, one will see that the author tries to convey the idea that people should remember about the words of wisdom that the Bible says and let God into their souls and minds: “Now for the love of Christ Who died for us, forsake / your oaths, great and small” (Chaucer).

Comparing the given feature of Chaucer’s poem, it is necessary to mention that the Middle English penitential lyrics by Patterson actually manages to get the same message across, though in quite a different way: “Une fader in hevene riche, / Thi name be hallid ever i-liche” (Patterson 108).

It should be mentioned though, that, in contrast to the Middle English penitential lyrics, in which the author addresses God in a direct manner and with a certain message to get across, whether it is a plea or appraise: “Ne lete us falle in no fondinge” (Patterson 108) the characters in The Pardoner’s Tale mention the name of God rather as a way to make sure that the Lord will keep them from certain harm: “Now for the love of Christ Who died for us, forsake / your oaths, great and small” (Chaucer) seems an exclamation than a plea; moreover, it seems that the manner of mentioning God’s name I rather a habit than a conscientious attempt to address the Lord.

Hence, the constant mentioning of the Lord’s name in The Pardoner’s Tale and The Prologue can also be considered a specific satire which Chaucer used in his works, as it has been mentioned above. As a matter of fact, satire is the key word that depicts Chaucer’s The Pardoner’s Tale, which also makes the poem differ from Patterson’s Middle English penitential lyrics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While The Pardoner’s Tale portrays the people in the poem in a rather satirical way: “My holy / pardon will cure you all, provided that you offer / nobles and other sterling coin, or else silver rings, / brooches, spoons” (Chaucer), the character in Patterson’s Middle English penitential lyrics are depicted in a much more serious manner: “Jhesu cryst whane he sculd dey” (Patterson 102).

Nevertheless, both authors touch upon the same issue, i.e., faith and a man’s relationships with God, with Chaucer revealing the most despicable sides of human nature: ““O / Lord,” he said, “if only I could have all this treasure / to myself” (Chaucer), and Patterson describing the fear and awe that a sinner feels when speaking to God: “I am duclus sum in to my bed, / terribilis mors [conturbat me]” (Patterson 103).

Pater Noster in Anglico and The Pardoner: The Similarities Much like Pater Noster, Pater Noster in Anglico has a number of issues in common with Chaucer’s The Pardoner’s Tale, i.e., the topic, the theme, the metaphors, to name a few. Despite a comparatively small size, Pater Noster in Anglico yet manages to convey a lot of ideas which Chaucer also offers the readers to consider in his poem.

To start with, Pater Noster in Anglico begins with addressing to God: “Une fader in hevene riche” (Patterson 108) and is altogether devoted to praising the Lord’s name. Likewise, The Pardoner’s Tale is also filled with the lines in which people address God in a certain manner: “‘By God’s precious heart,’/ and ‘By His nails’ and ‘By the blood of Christ in the / abbey of Hales” (Chaucer).

Filled with references to Lord Almighty, Chaucer’s poem, however, contrasts with the naivety of the prayer mentioned by Patterson. While the latter is written for the sake of glorifying the name of God, the people in Chaucer’s poem mention the Lord’s name and the names of saints in vain, which is already a sign that they do not take their beliefs too seriously: “By St. John, you / shall not depart so easily!” (Chaucer).

In addition, while the overall tone of Patterson’s poem is uplifting and high-flown, Chaucer’s characters mention the Lord’s name when talking about the most despicable things, which also adds to the contrast between the two books: “Nay, old churl, not so fast, by God” (Chaucer).

Perhaps, the message which both The Pardoner and the Middle English penitential lyrics works so well because neither of the works uses actual people or even their credible impersonations to convey the key idea. It is not secret that in both cases, the characters are exaggerated versions of themselves.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Pardoner’s Tale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each of the characters in the Pardoner’s Tale is a classic stereotype. In other words, the character in Patterson’s poems is a generic image of a praying man, which makes the given image a typical generalization. Hence, the characters in both Chaucer’s and Patterson’s poems are generalized, which serves to make the chain of authors’ arguments even more impressive: “It would be strange indeed if Chaucer had intended his characters to be recognizable as particular living individuals, or as scientific phenomena, and nothing more” (Miller).

Hence, in both poems, the characters are easily identifiable, yet hardly relatable to any particular person, which makes the argument concerning faith and church all the stronger.

Asking for Forgiveness: When Timor Mortis Is Stronger than Ever Another issue which the two works both touch upon is the one concerning forgiveness. One of the major themes in Chaucer’s poem, the given issue helps draw the line between the Kingdom of God and the church; the author obviously stresses that there is a considerable difference between the faith in God, and its representation in the form of a church and its clergy.

It is quite peculiar that Chaucer depicts the clergy in a rather unpleasant way. As a matter of fact, Patterson does not mention any clergy or even church in his poems whatsoever – there is only the Holy Trinity and him, a portrait of an average sinner praying to the Lord. As Hicks stresses,

Unlike Augustine’s Christian teacher who exercises dignity, restraint, and moderation when he delivers his homily, Chaucer’s Pardoner inverts Augustine’s precautions on action in his sermon. He speaks in an unpleasant, irritating voice and displays unnecessary, distracting gestures when he presents his moral tale; thus, he inverts Augustine’s standards of homiletic decorum. (Hicks 83)

When the Heart Breaks in Three Parts: The Holy Trinity Along with the rest of the Middle English penitential lyrics, the poem by Chaucer shares a lot of similar issues and ideas with the poem named in Patterson’s book as “Alas, My Hart Will Brek in Thre.” However, as it has been mentioned before, Chaucer’s poem is a satire; hence, the mentioning of the Christ, the Holy Spirit and God is a parody on the then idea of the Trinity: “The oath of the three ‘To lyve and dyen ech of hem for oother’ (703) parodies the mutuality of the divine Trinity.

If successful, this drunken effort to ‘play God’ would of course spell disaster for the race” (Hatcher 247). Like Chaucer, Patterson also mentions the Holy Trinity, yet does so to create the atmosphere of spirituality: “Alas, my hart will brek in thre” (Patterson 103).

Comparing the above-mentioned idea to the one conveyed by Patterson in his Middle English penitential lyrics, one must admit that Patterson’s poems are completely deprived of the bitter irony which Chaucer’s lines are shot through. While the latter manages to develop the idea of faith with the help of the most noble and uplifting images of repenting poor sinners and the Lord Almighty taking care of their lives, Chaucer offers a bitter reality where indulgences are sold as a token of forgiveness from the havens above.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Pardoner’s Tale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the two poems provide a rather sharp contrast when compared. Even though Besserman and Storm claim that “That Chaucer held some views in common with the Lollards does not mean that he necessarily held all, and to attribute to him condemnation of Canterbury pilgrimage must surely strain credulity” (Besserman and Storm 406), it is still obvious that Chaucer makes an attempt to remind the readers about the Holy Trinity and make them forget about the power of the corrupt clergy.

Facing the Dread of Death: Forgiveness as a Way to Overcome It Another recurrent theme that one can find in both The Pardoner and the Middle English penitential lyrics is the idea of forgiveness. Again, offered in a rather subtle way in The Pardoner’s Tale, in Patterson’s lyrics, it is rather on the nose. Anyway, it cannot be denied that the issue is in the spotlight of discussion in The Pardoner’s Tale as well as in the Middle English penitential lyrics.

Again, while in Patterson’s poems, the idea is considered from a viewpoint of redemption, Chaucer takes the examples of how the issue of guilt is handled by the lowest of the low: “Here in / my bag I have relics and indulgences, as fair as any / man’s in Britain, which were given to me by the / pope’s own hand” (Chaucer).

Indulgences, one of the worst ideas that have ever occurred to the clergy, as the means to buy one’s innocence, represent the scale of the moral lapse of the given time slot. Likewise, Patterson also talks about forgiveness, yet his idea of forgiving one’s sins is way more devout: “God graunte vs grace hym for to seure” (Patterson 103).

It is also quite peculiar that The Pardoner offers the idea of forgiveness, and, to Chaucer’s credit, rather subtly, one must admit: “God forgive you your trespasses / and guard you from the sin of avarice” (Chaucer) is, perhaps, the only line in which the word “forgiveness” is mentioned.

However, the idea of looking for repentance is definitely there in Chaucer’s poem. The poem even begins with a cry for forgiveness and the need to repent: “Our Host began to swear as if he were mad; “Help! / Alas! By the nails and cross of Christ, this was a false / churl and a false justice!” (Chaucer).

Compared to Chaucer’s work, Patterson’s poems seem to be more explicit in their idea of forgiveness, like prayers are supposed to be: “Semper in sinnis I ete my bred” (Patterson 103); it is quite important that the author of the poem does not even beg for forgiveness – like a mere mortal in front of God, the author knows that he will be judged like a sinner is supposed to.

However, Patterson’s “Alas, My Hart Will Brek in Thre” also touches upon a very interesting thought which is not developed by Chaucer, yet can serve as the continuation of the idea of forgiveness. According to Patterson, death can be viewed as a logical ending to the life full of sins.

The author starts with the fact any human being is a sinner by default, which is why in the end, terribilis morttis awaits for him/her: “Infirmus sum, I may not Rise. / Terribilis mortis conturbat me” (Patterson 103). However, in the final lines of the poem, Patterson makes it clear that for a sinner who is waiting for his earthly suffer it end, death can be considered as a way of salvation: “In Celum ther is Joy with the! / terrbilis mortis conturbat me.” (Patterson 103).

Therefore, Patterson suggests that death is already repentance for the sins made during one’s earthly life, while Chaucer insists on the fact that guilt cannot be washed away either by money, or by the sands of time: “The Pardoner may have made a mistake, but Chaucer did not” (Swart 47).

Seized by the Fear of Death: Timor Mortis in The Pardoner Finally, the fear of death as the central theme in The Pardoner’s Tale and its prologue must be discussed. At the given point, the connection between Chaucer’s and Patterson’s works seems obvious; while in Chaucer’s work, the characters decide to defeat the fear of death and, thus, kill the Death himself, in Patterson’s Middle English penitential lyrics, the fear of death is described as a phenomenon.

It is also quite peculiar that the descriptions of death as Chaucer and Patterson see it also differ. Chaucer depicts death as the force that comes out of nowhere and takes people away, leaving their relatives and bellowed one mourn in grief: “A / stealthy thief that men call Death, who slays all the / people in this country-side, came with his spear and / struck his heart in two, and went his way without a/ word” (Chaucer).

Patterson, however, in his penitential lyrics described death as something that is quite natural to fear; the character in his poem fears the death despite his age, belief, or experience: “In August whan the levis falle […] timor mortis conturbat me” (Patterson 107). Thus, Patterson not simply depicts death as The Grim Reaper, but also makes it obvious that it is natural or a human being to be afraid of death.

Hence, the poem somewhat contrasts with the theme of Chaucer’s poem, in which the three men decide to oppose the death and, therefore, defeat their fear of it to a certain extent; at least, they no longer stay motionless in fear, but decide to do something to get rid of death instead of waiting for the day when it strikes them. However, it cannot be denied that the manner in which the three overcome the fear of death seems rather a parody of the Biblical redemption. As Hatcher explains,

When they have slain Death, no one will ever die again – and the world will therefore be perfect. Conceived on a binge, this plan parodies Christ’s redemptive act: his was self-sacrificial whereas theirs is murderous; his overcame the death of the soul whereas theirs aims to overcome the death of the body; his preserved but transcended the natural mortality of individuals whereas theirs aims to subvert the state of nature. (Hatcher 247)

Finally, the development of the characters’ attitude towards death must be mentioned. In Chaucer’s poem, there is a logical development of the idea of death, which starts with sin and fear: “They made the devil’s sacrifice / Within that devil’s temple, wicked wise, / By superfluity both vile and vain” (Chaucer) and ends with an acceptance of the fact that a human is mortal: “And therefore I must / keep my old age as long as it is God’s will” (Chaucer).

In contrast to Chaucer’s characters, the character of Patterson’s lyrics does not evolve – he is fixed on the idea that death is something to be feared: “Thanne ofte thynke on cristes passion / Whan timos mortis conturbat me” (Patterson 108). Hence, in a certain aspect, Chaucer’s work is stronger than Patterson’s preachy tone: “And Pardoner, I / pray you draw near again, and let us laugh and make / sport as we did before” (Chaucer).

Conclusion: When the Pardon Is Finally Given Taking the above-mentioned into account, one must admit that there is a considerable range of similarities between the Middle English penitential lyrics and the poem written by Chaucer, especially when it comes to discussing The Pardoner’s Tale.

Even though the works by Chaucer and the ones by Patterson belong to completely different genres and have considerable differences in their topics and styles, they still discuss the same issues. Hence, it can be considered that, much like the Middle English penitential lyrics, the poem by Chaucer is shot through with the idea of guilt and repentance.

Works Cited Besserman, Lawrence and Melvin Storm. “Chaucer’s Pardoner.” PMLA 98.3 (1983): 405-406. Print.

Chaucer, Geoffrey n.d., The Pardoner, His Prologue, and His Tale. Web.

Hatcher, Elizabeth. “Life without Death: The Old Man in Chaucer’s ‘Pardoner’s Tale’.” The Chaucer Review 9.3 (1975): 246-252. Print.

Hicks, James. “Chaucer’s Inversion of Augustinian Rhetoric in ‘The Pardoner’s Prologue and Tale’.” Essays in Medieval Studies 3 (n.d.): 78-95. Web.

Lázaro, Luis A. n.d., Orality and the Satiric Tradition in The Pardoner’s Tale. Web.

Miller, Robert P. “Chaucer’s Pardoner, the Scriptural Eunuch, and the Pardoner’s Tale.” Speculum 30.2 (1955): 180-199. Print.

Patterson, Frank Allan. The Middle English Penitential Lyrics. Norwood, MA: The Columbia University Press. 1911. Print.

Swart, Jacobus. “Chaucer’s Pardoner.” Neophilologus 36.1 (1952): 45-50. Print.


The Case of Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Suggested Performance Appraisal Program


Reference List

Introduction When examining the case of Palmetto Pharmaceuticals and the decline in client patronage indicated by Andrew Lowerston, it becomes immediately apparent that the problem lies in the way in which sales representatives view the customer-client relations model.

While a primarily sales oriented approach does address the issue of selling products, it fails to sufficiently address the issue of maintaining a constant stream of customers. As such, a method of evaluation must be implemented which shows the sales representatives the impact of their current approach and how it adversely affects the company’s overall sales performance.

Suggested Performance Appraisal Program In this particular case, the most appropriate appraisal system to address the issues discovered by Lowerston is to implement a 360 degree feedback system. Such a system works by having multiple avenues from where data on employee performance is collected, this comes in the form of employee performance data being collected from managers, coworkers, from the employees themselves and, most importantly, from customers and suppliers (Drew, 2009).

Such a method would be an effective means of resolving the issue of the case since it enables customers to provide a certain level of feedback on the way in which they were treated by the company’s sales representatives. By comparing the performance input created by managers and other employees with that of the clients, the company will be able to show the sales representatives the impact of their actions vis-à-vis the actual performance of the company (Drew, 2009).

The advantage of this particular method is that while it will show sales representatives that they are complying with the sales metrics set by the company, it would also indicate that they are actually failing when it comes to the broader goals of the company in terms of maintaining a constant stream of consumer patronage for its products (Downs, 2012).

As a result, this would necessitate a distinct change in performance on the part of the sales representatives wherein they would be more inclined towards developing long lasting relations with their clients rather than focus on a quick sale for the sake of meeting a metric. Unfortunately, the inherent problem with this particular method of appraisal is the fact that it takes a considerable period of time for an evaluation to be completed (Downs, 2012).

For example, feedback forms need to be sent to managers, other employees and to customers at which point they have to be filled out and returned to the company. This can take a considerable amount of time and, in the case of some customers, the forms may not be entirely accurate. Not only that, in some cases the performance indicators that are filled out by managers and employees may not be entirely accurate as well and, as such, this places considerable doubt on the accuracy of this particular approach on performance evaluation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Based on an analysis of the pros and cons of the 360 degree feedback system as well as its possible use in the case of Palmetto Pharmaceuticals, it can be stated that given the need of the company to evaluate its sales representatives based on the input of consumers, the 360 degree feedback system presents itself as the most viable option in this particular instance.

While it may be true that there are some problems related to the time it takes to analyze the data and the issues regarding the overall accuracy of the information collected, such factors are relatively minor compared to the potential benefits accrued.

Reference List Downs, L. J. (2012). Integrated talent management: Building a Strategy One Block at a Time. T D, 66(8), 42.

Drew, G. (2009). A “360” degree view for individual leadership development. Journal Of Management Development, 28(7), 581-592.


Emile Durkheim Life and Career Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Early life

Educational Career

Division of Labor

The law and social solidarity

Durkheim’s critique of Spencer

Causes of division of labor

Consequences of labor division


Early life Emile Durkheim is considered as the pioneer French educational sociologist. His life was dominated by his educational profession, although he was extremely and affectionately engaged in the affairs of French people. Durkheim was born in 1858 to a rabbi in the southern French region of Lorraine. He studied the Old Testimony, Hebrew and Talmud, while simultaneously following the frequent course of exercising in luxurious educational institutions (Bolender Initiatives, 2011).

After his conventional Judaism confirmation at the age of thirteen, Durkheim, under the impact of a Catholic lady instructor, had a brief magical encounter that led to his attraction to Catholicism. But later, he converted away from all spiritual participation, though undoubtedly not from attention in spiritual activities, and became an agnostic.

His dreams thus switched on, he shifted to one of the excellent educational institutions in Paris, the Lycee Louis-le-Grand. During this time, he made preparations to sit for the difficult entry exam that would grant his admission to the famous Ecole Normale Superieure, the conventional educational centre for the French intellects and elites. Durkheim succeeded after his third attempt in 1879 (Lukes, 1985).

Durkheim integrated with young scholars at the Ecole Normale; these are the people who would later create a significant contribution in the intellectual lifestyle of France. Although admittance to the Ecole Normale was an accomplishment, Durkheim once confessed that he was unsatisfied at the Ecole.

He was an extremely serious, studious, and dedicated person, later dubbed “the metaphysician” by his colleagues. Durkheim was disappointed with the fictional and esthetic focus that dominated the school. However, Durkheim was influenced by his three years study at the Ecole Normale. Although some of his lecturers frustrated him, he stated that he was greatly indebted by others (Lukes, 1985).

Educational Career Before graduating, Durkheim had resolved upon his becoming a philosopher. He viewed that it was hard to eliminate philosophy from the society problems of that time. Durkheim wanted to involve himself with a course that would offer an explanation of the great ethical questions that distressed the society.

He wanted to offer practical assistance to the matters of the community. This contributed to his decision of becoming a scientist in study of society. He considered creation of a scientific sociological system to be crucial to direct the moral wellbeing of the society. This became an entire life commitment for Durkheim.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Durkheim became a philosophy teacher, but after teaching philosophy for five years, he obtained a leave to further his studies at Paris and later in Germany. In Germany, he specialized in the analysis of methods of training and analysis in ethical philosophy and the social sciences.

In his reviews on his experience in German, Durkheim was passionate about the perfection and scientific detachment in research. He emphasized that France should replicate Germany in application of philosophy to social and political issues. He appreciated the efforts of German philosophers and sociologists who proposed the social origin of moral responsibility; the sociologists proposed that ethics was a positive and independent discipline (Lukes, 1985).

Durkheim was recognized as a potential contributor in social sciences and social philosophy at twenty-nine. This was after the publication of his academic life in Germany. He had published significant articles in social sciences; later in 1887, he became a staff member of the University of Bordeaux.

In the university, he taught both pedagogy and sociology in philosophy department. He aimed at applying sociology in education to change and renew the society. With continued publication of his work, Durkheim continued to elicit a lot of controversy and disputation. In 1898, Durkheim established a sociology dedicated scholarly journal to consolidate the gains he had obtained by creating a lot of interest in sociology (Lukes, 1985).

The scholarly journal became an attraction for an extremely gifted group of young academicians, coming together, regardless of their diversified disciplinary interests. Their common interest was a shared commitment to Durkheimian approach to sociology. Later, the journal changed the notion of the French public on sociology with its continued analysis of sociology literature.

Durkheim became the first person to become a professor of social sciences nine years after joining the Bordeaux University. In his years in Paris, he continued to play his role as the editor of the sociology journal. He also continued to lecture in education, ethics, philosophy, religion and Comte (Lukes, 1985).

Division of Labor According to Durkheim, division of labor increases workmanship skills and labor productivity. For this reason, division of labor is an important factor for logical and material growth in a society. Division of labor also comprises a moral character which is more significant; it forms a feeling of solidarity in a society.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Emile Durkheim Life and Career specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Durkheim applies marriage example to depict the how division of labor creates a feeling of solidarity. He suggests that if labor division was reduced between genders, material lifestyle will diminish and only sexual relationships will remain. Labor division is not only about economics; it affects the social and ethical relationships. Nevertheless, in marriage, couples are bounded by their likeness outside labor division (Durkheim


The Archstone Company Portfolio Essay custom essay help

Company overview Archstone Company is a self-governed Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). The company ranks among the major developers, operators, and investors of real estates in the US. As of 30 June in the year 2011, the portfolio of the company contained 434 real estates situated in Europe and the US, which denoted 77,084 entities, taking into consideration units going through construction.

Almost the entire portfolio of Archstone is centralized in big cities at the coastal regions of Boston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, and Seattle. Archstone was made private following a 22 billion US dollars purchase by the non-public real estate companies Lehman Brothers Holdings and Tishman Speyer in conjunction with numerous major investment banks in the US in October in the year 2007 (Murray 5-8).

Economic data of the US

GDP- over 1.7 per cent

Rate of unemployment- 8 per cent

Inflation- 2 per cent

Population inclinations and demographics: California

The state of California is situated at the West Coastal region of the US. In North America, California stands as the most densely inhabited sub-national unit. If California existed as an independent nation, it would be the 34th most populated nation worldwide. In comparison with the next largest state in the US, Texas, the population of California is a third larger.

California overcame New York State by population size and took the first position by population size in the year 1962, a position it has held to date (Joppke 23-27). The state of California is home to some of the largest inhabited areas in the US (San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles Area), in addition to eight among the top fifty greatly inhabited cities (for instance, San Francisco, San Diego, and Los Angeles).

In the year 2011, the population of California was approximately 37,691,912. This population size represents a 1.2 per cent augment when compared with the population indicated by the census of the year 2010. By the close of the first decade of the 21st century, California’s population escalated by 3,090,016 naturally.

The population data of California illustrates a population of approximately 38,292,687 people as at the beginning of the year 2009. In the year 2010, unlawful aliens comprised an approximated seven percent of the entire inhabitants in California.

The seven percent population represented the third greatest proportion by State in the US, representing approximately 2.6 million people. Of the unlawful alien population, over half came from Mexico.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the year 2010, inhabitants born in California formed the preponderance of the population and thus denoted the foremost instance ever since the California Gold Rush (Harris 2-5). In terms of the highest growth by states in the US, California ranks number thirteen and its fertility rate stood at 2.2 in the year 2008.

There is not a single race or ethic community making preponderance in terms of population in California, which makes it a marginal-preponderance state. The number of non-Hispanic whites in California constitutes 40 per cent of the entire population. By the year 2005, 58 per cent of people in California spoke English as mother tongue, whereas 28 per cent spoke Spanish, making Spanish the second most used language in California.

Approximately half of the total 60 native languages in California are no more used, and the remaining half is endangered. In this state, the official language is definitely English (Joppke 28-31). The assumptions of demographers affirm that the State of California will comprise of a Hispanic preponderance at some point in this century because of the high immigration and birth rates when judged against those of non-Hispanic society.

Market matters

Archstone has numerous advantages for being in the Californian market since the year 1946. Throughout this period, Archstone has formed powerful connections with residents as well as members of the municipal (Pacelle 3-6). The aforementioned connections assist the company with letting and new expansion schemes.

Archstone Company is susceptible to a number of local economic situations with the greatest part of their portfolio in the Californian market, which makes them vulnerable to Californian market situations because of their deficiency with respect to market diversity (Wilson and Zurbruegg 257-278).

Capital formation

Throughout the last 5 years, Archstone has not been successful in demonstrating constant income on its investment in real estates, projects, and buildings.

Dividend and return of capital

Archstone has a sturdy dividend history. The company has constantly issued a dividend since the year 1992 with consecutive increase for the last fifteen years (since 1997). This signifies that the company boasts of a well-created stand in its markets and gives expectations to have a dividend issuance into the coming years. The table below shows the most recent dividend information for the company.

We will write a custom Essay on The Archstone Company Portfolio specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dividend Information Dividend Yield: 6.00 % Dividend Yield 5yr Avg: 6.60 % Dividend Rate: $ 4.85 % Dividend Payout Ratio: 1,868.00 % Dividend Payout Ratio 5yr Avg: 625.00 % Dividend Growth Rate 3yr Avg: 4.92 % Dividend Growth Rate 5yr Avg: 7.50 % Dividend AllStar™ Ranking: 4 stars Consecutive Div. Increases: 15 years Dividend Payment Type: None Dividend affirmation Date: Oct-18-2012 Dividend Ex Date: Oct-29-2012 Dividend Record Date: Oct-31-2012 Dividend Pay Date: Nov-14-2012 Dividend Amount Current: $ 1.2600 Dividend Amount Previous: $ 1.2300 Dividend Disbursements: Past one year disbursements: 4 Dividends Paid Since 1992 Table 1: Dividend information (Feng, McKay, and Clemon 341-343)

Moat positions

The strongest attribute of Archstone is the competitive advantage it has in the market. The company boasts of an attractive branding and capacity to maintain low costs. These points of strengths for the company should augur advantageously for its future viewpoints and maintain them sustainably for the time being (Frantz 100-103).

This Real Estate Investment Trust has excellent assets with fine locations, cost of capital that is low in comparison with cost on capital, and restricted lease turnover risk in markets, which will experience higher demand as compared to new supply to challenge its functioning properties.

Control matters

Managers and board of directors in additio ratingn to major investors have purchased and sold shares of Archstone at an appealing steady and equal rate (Ursery 11-13). There is no cause to believe the company shares are accruing to any further extent unless selloff shares given the future economic situations (Reprise, Rykodisc, and Warner 430-433).

Numerous monetary institutions are greatly hoarding shares from Archstone, which is constructive for the company. The major direct shareholders of Archstone include Neely Alfred, Chief Development Officer (CEO) and President of Smith High-rise Division, and Jack Callison, the head of operations in the United States.

The named shareholders have more than a million shares altogether. Managers’ pay comes from operation inducements and equity grants. In total, the directors and managers have ownership of 6 per cent of the company.

The top ranking institutional holders of the shares of Archstone are Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP, Cohen


Economic History of Canada: How Did the Settlers Facilitate Economic Growth? Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background of Early Industries and Trade

What was the Role of Settlers in Economic Growth of Canada?


Works Cited

Introduction Canadian economy was typical of water transport until mid 19th century. Major industries involving fur, lumber and fish depended on the expansive waterways in the country for transport. It was only after this period that agriculture and mining became dominant. These industries depended on rail and road as their major transport channels.

Undoubtedly, fishing industry attracted foreigners such as Portuguese and French traders who identified the economic wealth of Canada. Many of these colonialists developed the fishing industry and brought in new technologies of fish preservation and storage. The study of economic history of Canada involves the analysis of the prevalent economic institutions and industries.

According to Easterbrook and Aitken, Canadian economic history revolved around the export of ‘staple products’ whose market existed outside the boundaries of Canada (213). This analytical paper seeks to highlight the evolutions of various industries in the Canada.

The paper will attempt to explain how and why various economic institutions and industries were relevant and remain important in economic history of the country. The major analytical part of the paper will concentrate on the role of settlers in developing the economy.

Background of Early Industries and Trade Many communities living in the central parts of Canada were hunters and gatherers since the ancient era. They hunted animals with fur-bearing traits to make clothes.

Besides, small mines of copper and silver were important in creating ornaments for these communities. Although there were some aspects of trade among the native communities, the level of business was not profound and specialized. External trade that emerged involved French and British traders.

They came to the land in search of fur and fisheries. In exchange, they brought iron-made tools, weapons and other items that the native communities valued (Greasley and Les 296). This in turn led to an unprecedented trade among the natives and the foreign traders. As such, fur trade became one of the aspects of Canadian economy that led to the penetration of inland Canada.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fur was of important use by the European settlers and traders who found their way to Canada. The products of fur such as beaver hats fetched high value owing to their escalating demand in Europe. Although there were many traders, French traders dominated the fur trade.

Easterbrook and Aitken say that they had controlled the commercial activity through New France and other towns located in the interior parts of Canada (237). Nonetheless, the English traders began their trade in Hudson Bay to put up with the increasing competition from the French traders. This in turn resulted to fierce rivalry due to the perceived dominance in fur trade.

It is worth mentioning that fur-trade did not support settlement since the traders had a handful of workers to aid the shipment process of fur to Europe. The trade also insinuated that the traders were unlikely to direct their voyages to the west part of Canada since there existed no elaborate routes (Marr and Donald 217).

This way, only few settlers were willing to occupy the Canadian territory. Thus, the native population remained relatively low. Owing to the political nature of medieval Canada, the French lost their share of the fur trade when their main town (New France) came under control of the British Crown.

Fishing was a major aspect of Canadian economy in the 19th century. It was the prime activity in such areas as Nova Scotia. Due to the increased demand for fish, other areas also started concentrating on the fishing industry. Greasley and Les articulate that the entrance of the United States into the West Indies trade prompted a surge in the demand for fish (301).

Major traders designed expansive storage facilities and fishing equipment to allow for expansive fishery business. Like fur industry, fishing did not allow for settlement in the country and majority of fish products constituted the exports. Much of the fish was exported to the US. The fishing industry did not last long in the country.

Timber industry became pivotal in the country owing to the increase in construction activities across the world. By the early 19th century, timber had become a staple product of the Canadian economy. Although the demand for timber remained negligible in the country, external forces led to an increase in its demand outside Canada. Norrie says that Europe had diminishing supply of the commodity from its countries (417).

We will write a custom Essay on Economic History of Canada: How Did the Settlers Facilitate Economic Growth? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many high quality sources of timber had been exhausted in Europe. Such species as the great oak in England suffered depletion and there was an apparent need to look for other sources of the same commodity in other countries. In the US, major forests began to disappear while at the same time, the population was increasing exponentially.

All these factors led to the heightened demand of Canadian timber. In addition, Canada had high quality and long lasting timber products from such species as white pine. The extensive Canadian forests had remained largely unexploited. This prompted the external traders to come to the country in search of the valued commodity, which was disappearing fast in major European and American markets.

While the demand for timber was rising, traders were contending with narrow routes and dangerous transport system of timber. Canada had no elaborate ways of transporting timber after cutting it. The loggers would subsequently float timber in meanders and rivers that were headed towards the coastal regions.

Some of the timber products such as the oak were hard to transport to the harbors due to their inability to float on water (Norrie 423). With increasing need for work force to make timber trade an effective and efficient venture, many passengers who accompanied the ship vessels became settlers in Canada.

Indeed, timber trade was among the major factors that encouraged settlements. As the timber industry matured, there was an increase of competition. Besides, tariffs and preferences led to improved industries where the quality of ships that transported timber improved remarkably.

As such, many immigrants began to enter the country prompting massive settlements within the country. The settlers took their roles as loggers. Indeed, by 1850, there were over fifteen thousand Irish loggers within the country. As the population of the immigrants increased, other ventures became feasible. In particular, many loggers who stayed within the country began to cultivate plants and keep livestock.

The timber industry also encouraged increased competition for land. Land distribution became a major debate with the British crown formulating ways through which land could be distributed fairly. Many of the immigrants who went to Canada were paupers. The authorities therefore had to contend with alleviation of poverty although majority of the issues encountered by the immigrants remained hugely unresolved.

The arrival of many starving Irish soldiers in early 19th century acted as precursor for imposition of restrictions to migration (Emery and Kenneth 260). Although the lower parts of the country were unfriendly to the immigrants, it became apparent that many of them sought refuge in upper parts of Canada. Consequently, the authorities imposed a reduction in the land grants accruing the immigrants and instituted a new land system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic History of Canada: How Did the Settlers Facilitate Economic Growth? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For the immigrants who had some form of capital, land was available for them to lease. This is in lieu of the fact that majority of the land controlled by The British American Land Company was mainly meant for agriculture. As such, agriculture became another aspect of Canadian economy.

Although agriculture had been a small aspect of the Canadian economy, it flourished by the end of 19th century. In Ontario, agriculture was profitable for many settlers who had begun cultivating their lands. Increase in mechanization and adoption of technology insinuated that farmers specialized in marketable agricultural commodities.

They included eggs, milk, potatoes and other vegetables that were in great demand in the urban and urbanizing regions. According to Norrie, majority of the farmers started to appreciate the need for elaborate agricultural ventures, which had surpassed numerous aspects of the economy (426). In other areas especially the prairies, wheat was a major crop that had become profitable. Majority of the wheat from Manitoba and Alberta was exported to Europe while the rest was shipped to America.

It became clear that wheat farming was a profitable venture not only for the settlers and the natives but also for the foreign investors. Due to perceived low risk, huge foreign direct investments especially from Europe started to flow into the country. Driven by external forces such as dwindling crop yield in Europe, many European nations directed capital investments to Canadian prairies (Marr and Donald 233).

This implied that wheat farming had reached its peak by the beginning of the First World War. Nonetheless, many investors overlooked the risks associated with wheat farming and it was only in 1916 that it dawned to them that the sector carried with it numerous risks. The drought that engulfed the country in 1916 led to unprecedented losses.

The industry had not witnessed such losses since its emergence. Many foreign investors incurred losses and shifted their investments to other countries.

Rapid withdrawal of investments in the wheat sector insinuated that Canada was unable to produce half the amount of wheat it was producing prior to the drought. However, agriculture in other areas of Canada was thriving despite the pessimism that foreign investors had shown in the industry.

Further, Canada had an indigenous financial system by the end of 18th century. Driven by colonial policies and capitalism, the country’s banking system began in 1972. This trend continued in numerous of other states where similar financial institutions became operational. By the end of the 19th century, Canada had over thirty-three chartered banks (Marr and Donald 223).

In addition, financial policies by the Government of Canada had made the sector to be lucrative for majority of investors. Emery and Kenneth say that insurance firms also opened their operations and it became apparent that the country was ready for an established financial services sector (256).

Indeed, by 1832, the country’s first stock exchange was opened. Montreal Stock Exchange was the pioneer in the sector leading to accelerated need for other similar financial institutions.

Later, Toronto Stock Exchange was established. With the increasing need for a financial system that would deal with commodities, Winnipeg Commodity Exchange became operational in the early 20th century. This ushered an era of elaborate financial system in the country. This eon was hugely driven by capitalism, which had overtaken parts of Western Europe and America.

Moreover, it is worth mentioning that the economic history of the country was motivated by the need to industrialize. Ideally, the country’s native population was relatively small to support any form of aggressive economic growth. To this end, various factors led to the industrialization and growth of the economy.

Subsistence production and natural resources were major drivers of the economy. Mining remained a natural venture for tradable commodities such as gold. In Quebec and Ottawa, there were large resources of gold and other minerals like silver and copper (Pomfret 143).

Although a commodity market was not well established, trade in mineral commodities was rampant in West Indies and propelled the economic welfare of the natives. Massive resources of other minerals such as iron, oil and natural gas complemented the initial resources making the mining industry among the significant industries in the country.

Mechanization of technology and other aspects of mining increased the profitability of the mines leading to an accelerated growth. The foreign traders were not solely interested in timber and fish. Some of them came to engage in the trade of minerals and saw it as lucrative and profitable.

What was the Role of Settlers in Economic Growth of Canada? With the above industries and sectors, the country experienced economic growth until the Great Depression of early 1930s. Why were the settlers important in economic growth of Canada? While many economists argue that Canada could have developed economically with little facilitation of the settlers, it is apparent that the settlers were vital in the country’s business history (Pomfret 148).

At the outset, settlers provided labor force that was apparently lacking in the country. Due to the thriving timber industry that led to the influx of foreigners, the local population could barely satisfy the international demand for the commodities. Emery and Kenneth postulate that the settlers who came to Canada as mere loggers had an impact in the development of the economy (258).

Indeed, economists argue that the settlers facilitated the production of more volumes of timber leading to increase in revenues for the government. Besides, many traders who later settled in Canada had a profound knowledge of routes and waterways where transport of commodities was easy. In particular, French traders understood the terrain of Canada and provided routes through which commodities could go be exported back to Europe.

Further, it is important to mention that various aspects of the Canadian industries changed dramatically owing to the external trade. For instance, the concept of shipbuilding in order to export cargo from the country to other nations became rampant after the arrival of the settlers.

Economic historians point out that there were 46 ship vessels transporting timber from the country by 1826 (Pomfret 154). However, Pomfret points out that this number grew tremendously to reach about 1500 vessels by 1845 (154). This implied that more timber could be transported than earlier on.

Another aspect of settlers and foreign trade that changed the Canadian economic history was the ability to create massive storage facilities for fish. It is through these preservation technologies that the country was able to exploit its rich fish industry and increase its exports.

Fishing technology also improved greatly with many technologies of deep sea fishing emerging. The technologies that came with the settlers and the foreign traders increased the trading potential of the country leading to an increase in the demand for the commodities that Canada was producing.

In addition, Marr and Donald assert that the arrival of settlers in many parts of Canada precipitated the expansion of underdeveloped industries (234). Particularly, many settlers helped in clearing land for cultivation making Canada to start reaping benefits and revenues from agriculture.

Initially, agriculture was not profitable due to difficulties of clearing fertile lands especially in lower parts of the country. The presence of settlers ensured that the country had substantial labor force through which land clearing was possible. Besides, the settlers who had significant amount of capital were able to lease land and engage in agricultural activities that were profitable.

In Ontario, settlers began planting such plants as corn, vegetables and reared dairy cattle. This increased the demand of the products in areas where such products were needed. In the Prairies, the settlers also invested in grain growing with wheat being the most profitable crop.

The success of settlers who ventured in agriculture culminated into increased urge by people and the government to invest in agriculture. In fact, by the early 20th century, the major investments in wheat fields were from external governments and corporate organizations. This implies that the settlers had profound impact on the Canadian economy.

It is important to highlight that Canadian settlers also led to changes in social and economic policies of the land. Of particular interests is the institutionalization of major government properties. Due to increased immigration, land became a debatable issue where many people did not access land in a fair manner.

The Canadian authorities came up with a subtle land policy where the land acquisition had to follow certain processes (Emery and Kenneth 260). Under Canada Company that operated in many parts of Ontario, land acquisition reduced from hundred acres to forty acres. This was an attempt to curb the increasing speculation about land. Settlers could buy huge tracts of land cheaply. They could later resell the lands at a profit prompting the intervention of the authorities.

The case was also similar in Eastern parts of the country where The British American Land Company restricted the sale of huge tracts of land within the country. It is important to note that the settlers precipitated land reorganization. This increased the ability of the country to increase its agricultural yields by having a superior land system.

Other policies that Canadian authorities raised included the minimum wage of labor. The Minimum wage Act was initiated in 1870s to cushion the laborers in the expansive lands held by the settlers from exploitation (Pomfret 399). Although the act was not applicable to all townships at the beginning, by the early 20th century, majority of the country was under the act.

This made the conditions of work in all sectors to be in favor of employees. It led to an increase in productivity and consequently, it improved revenues for the government and the settlers who were now the majority of famers in the country. Moreover, such trade agreements as Ottawa Agreement and Equalization of Payment Act became major aspects of the economic policies of the country. The settlers in the country precipitated enactment of such landmark policies.

The settlers also led to changes in social policies. For instance, the cholera outbreak of 1932 led to increase in healthcare access for majority of the population including the settlers. Legislations were put in place to alleviate poverty levels among the immigrants while at the same time reducing the costs associated with health care.

The challenges that many paupers from Europe experienced became the focal points of new policies on social and economic progress not only for the native Canadians but also for the settlers. The government came up with new policies that would enhance the ability of the citizens to live in dignity and out of poverty. Some of these policies gave hope to majority of the settlers although they were not implemented immediately.

Finally, the settlers were instrumental in enhancing the processes of urbanization and globalization. Among the initial township that the settlers inhabited, there was an increase in migration making the demand for local products and commerce to increase. In Quebec, Ontario and Montreal, many native populations migrated to the areas in the hope that they would get employment opportunities. This in turn spurred unprecedented economic growth leading to increase in revenues for the government (Pomfret 399).

As the migration increased, there was creation of expansive tracts of land that could sustain agriculture. Besides, new agricultural products gained markets in highly urbanized localities and regions. It is important to recognize that the country became fully urbanized by 1980s making it among the countries in the world whose majority population resided in cities. This is not only advantageous for the country’s economic growth but also for the entire industry sector where labor is easily accessible.

Conclusion Essentially, economic history of Canada dates back to the French revolution in the mid 18th century. From a small and disintegrated economy, the country came under consolidation during the rule of the British crown. As early as 1810, the country was engaging in foreign trade with the French, Portuguese, and English traders.

At the time, fur was the most traded commodity owing to its value in making beaver hats back in Europe. Since the main system of commerce was barter trade, Europeans could exchange iron tools, weapons, alcohol and cloth for fur. Timber industry also became an iconic sector that propelled the economy at the time.

It is during this time that American forests were disappearing fast due to an increase in population and European timber industries had exhausted much of their timber. As such, Canadian timber attracted numerous buyers from all over the world. The impact of timber trade in the country was the unprecedented influx of immigrants and settlers. Other industries that supported early trade included fishing and agriculture.

Although the latter was not expansive, the settlers developed it leading to its profitability. The economic history of Canada is attributable to the settlers who came into the land by mid 19th century. The rationale is that they led to increase in mechanization of technology and provided labor force for different industries.

Besides, they led to urbanization of various regions leading to centralized market for goods and commodities. Due to their increase, Canadian authorities proposed numerous amendments to the preexisting policies to enhance social and economic wellbeing of the populace. As such, the settlers played a critical role of growing the Canadian economy.

Works Cited Easterbrook, William and Aitken, Hugh. Canadian economic history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. Print.

Emery, Herbert and Kenneth, McKenzie. “Damned if you do, damned if you don’t: An option value approach to evaluating the subsidy of the CPR mainline” Canadian Journal of Economics, 29.2 (Feb. 1996): 255-70. Print.

Greasley, David and Les, Oxley. “A tale of two dominions: comparing the macroeconomic records of Australia and Canada since 1870” Economic History Review, 5.2 (Mar. 1998): 294-318. Print.

Marr, William and Donald, Paterson. Canada: An Economic History. Toronto, 1980. Print.

Norrie, Kenneth. “The Rate of Settlement of the Canadian Prairies 1870-1911” Journal of Economic History, 35.2 (Jan. 1975): 410-27. Print.

Pomfret, Richard. “The Mechanization of Reaping in Nineteenth-Century Ontario: A Case Study of the Pace and Causes of the Diffusion of Embodied Technological Change” Journal of Economic History, 36.2 (Sep. 1976): 399-415. Print.

Pomfret, Richard. The Economic Development of Canada. Ontario: Pearson Press, 1993. Print.


SWOT Analysis Swatch Group Case Study custom essay help


In 2010, the Swatch Group has managed to introduce $ 10 billion of sales through presentation of 19 brands meeting the demands of the established market segments (Deshpander et al. 3). In addition, the company’s success was due to the revival of famous brand Omega confronting Rolex. Finally, introducing advanced Co-Axial technologies has allowed the company to sustain a competitive advantage successfully.


Despite the success of the company and focus on multi-brand development, the company experienced a serious financial recession in 2009. Apparently, the decline was due to the establishment of high-cost monopolized boutiques that were less competitive as compared to those offering multiple brands. Time-sensitivity was another issue that the Swatch Group had to face.


In order to follow the company mission to introduce value as a priority for product promotion, it was highly important to cooperate with the leading manufacturers of the watch parts, such as Nivarox (Deshpander et al. 5). In addition, the CEO of the Swatch Group, Nick Hayek, has introduced a new communication strategy focusing on developing brands and inviting such celebrities as Daniel Craig and George Clooney as sponsors.


A narrow-focused approach on branding campaign can limit the competitiveness of the company and introduce potential threat on the part of other competing businesses.

Analysis With regard to the SWOT analysis, it is possible to highlight a range of brand strategies that a company has introduced to meet the customer demands. In particular, Hayek has introduced a multi-brand concept development that allowed to stay afloat and face all possible risks at losing a certain brand.

Focus on brand development, on the one hand, might lead to the loss of certain consumers due to the inability of the producers to predict the needs and preferences. On the other hand, developing brand families based on innovation management is a step forward toward penetrating to an international market. Finally, maintaining a monopoly in brand development, which can lead to a less attractive image of the company’s product.

Recommended Action Despite a well-organized and consistent strategy of promoting brand image through advancement of technology, development of brand families, and improving communication techniques, the company should still pay attention to the threat of their monopolized brand development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Promoting a single brand to various markets can increase profitability, but for a short period because it is impossible to expand customer base endlessly. Therefore, the Swatch Group should work on expanding their customer segments, but not on developing the concept of the Marketing Mix.

Focus on product development and quality improvement should be a priority for the company to meet consumers’ fast-changing demands. Exploring new possibilities for enhancing product functionality is much more beneficial because it can change the fixed costs, as well as the controlling variables.

Emphasis placed on technology innovation is relevant because it contributes to the development of new products and brands. However, the watch manufacturers should strike the balance between quality and functionality to meet the demands of broader market segments.

Marketing Plan

The marketing strategy of the Swatch Group should pay attention to high quality, low costs, and accurate watch materials. The main objective of the company consists in achieving innovation and creativity, which leads to expansion of the international market, as well as establishment of a strong brand loyalty among the consumers.

The company’s marketing mix concept should consist of the following aspects:

Target Market

The target consumers of the Swatch Group involve those who are interested in exclusivity and exceptional quality. However, this segment is too narrow for the company to increase its revenues. The focus on uniqueness is beneficial, but the unique products can be sold at much lower prices. Such a strategy can expand the customer base significantly.


The company provides greater opportunities for developing a wide range of products. However, creating a broad range of watches can lead to increased cost, which does not contribute to company’s profitability and performance.

We will write a custom Case Study on SWOT Analysis Swatch Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pricing

The pricing strategy should be limited to the exclusiveness of the product and emphasize its high quality. Therefore, all products offered by the company are of premium price. Apart from this strategy, the Swatch Group should also develop the strategy that would propose moderate prices to middle-class consumers.


Interactive and direct promotion is possible through Internet because it can reach larger amounts of target customers. Therefore, the Swatch Group can introduce its advertisement on various websites.


Promotion strategy should be connected with strengthening the positions that have already been established. This strategy can increase the popularity of the brand and provide new opportunities for company’s development.


In order to measure the outcomes, it is necessary to take control of the customer’s feedback placed on the websites, as well as the sales growth rates. In addition, the company can spend some time on research and development activities to define which segment of the market is the most active one and which one is passive. The latter can be identified as a weakness that can further be improved by the above-identified strategies.

Works Cited Deshpander, Rohit, Karol Misztal, and Daniela Beyersdorfer. “The Swatch Group”. Harvard Business School. (2012): 1-25.


Language Issues: Dialects, Terminology and Grammatical Variation Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Developing the Assessment: The Relevant Issues Dialects and their development: the two sides of the sword

Among the things which needed to be done in the course of the given assignment, understanding the way dialects develop was the first and the foremost. Therefore, it was necessary to consider language development from a social standpoint, learning about the social processes that impact language development (Moyer, 2010, p. 11).

Terminology as an additional layer of the English vocabulary

Another peculiar issue that required an in-depth research was the difference between the British and the American English. It was rather intriguing to find out that the American language actually was actually developed out of the English of the XIX century (Werckmeister, 2012, p. 15). However, the above-mentioned explained a lot about the specifics of the American pronunciation, vocabulary and sentence structure.

Identifying Grammatical Variations: Cast the Standards Aside Hisself and himself: more than a slip of the pen

“He only gets a ticket for hisself.”

In the given sentence, one can observe the effect of the so-called “socially marked forms” (Parker


The Government of US Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The US is the only state in the international system with the busiest elections calendar. This is because elections are held at state, federal, and local levels. This means that the American voter would vote more in his or her lifetime as compared to German, Japanese, and British voters. High-visibility elections are given much focus due to the intense lobbying and voter mobilization.

The senatorial, presidential, and governorship mobilizations are conducted by professionals, such as media advisors, pollsters, speechwriters, and political scientists. Presidential mobilization emphasizes more on mass communication. In this regard, television adverts are often utilized to access voters.

Furthermore, high-visibility elections are based on issues rather than ethnicity and partisan politics. At the local levels, elections are waged on small scale because local politicians do not have enough resources to launch formidable elections. It is surprising to learn that even judicial offices are contested in the US.

In other parts of the world, judicial officers are simply appointed by governmental agencies, such as the judicial service commission. The main aim of contesters is to reach potential voters. Individuals seeking political offices are faced with a dilemma of balancing scarce resources with the demands of voter mobilization.

The author reveals some of the astonishing factors that are considered when designing a campaign structure. One of them entails the steps that would be taken when formulating campaign policies while the other factor relates to cost-effectiveness (Gerber and Green 37).

Cost-effectiveness and restructuring of campaigns are the two useful factors that influence voter mobilization in any voter recruitment process. The two factors influenced the electorate in the just concluded US presidential elections in a number of ways. Regarding cost-effectiveness, it is always important to consider the number of votes that a single dollar would bring before spending.

In a densely populated region, making phone calls would be ineffective because few voters would be reached. In a densely populated region, a door-to-door campaign would be effective. Door-to-door campaigns are costly, but they generate high number of votes as compared to making phone calls.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, randomized door-to-door campaigns have higher chances of soliciting high numbers of votes as compared to any other technique. The technique is preferred in the US because of a number of reasons. One of the advantages is that it defines the observed population. The observed population consists of all individuals who will be sampled. Another advantage is that the sampled population is divided into a number of groups.

The sampling itself is random meaning that those mobilized would represent all groups in a sample. Another advantage is that an intervention strategy would be devised upon studying the group behavior. For instance, members from the treatment group would be contacted through emails, encouraging them to vote for the preferred candidate.

The above technique was applied in the just concluded presidential elections. The Republicans and the Democrats had limited resources yet they had to reach many voters in the country. In regions considered that belonged to Republicans, Democrats employed randomized voter recruitment technique because it would help in identifying some of the behaviors of voters.

However, each party had an effective method of reaching voters. It is because of advanced voter mobilization techniques that the pollsters predicted a cutthroat presidential competition. However, the party that had the ability to blend the various techniques emerged winner.

Works Cited Gerber, Alan and Donald Green. “Social Pressure and Voter Turnout: Evidence from a Large-scale Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 102.2 (2008): 33-48. Print.


The Role of Resocialisation in Society Term Paper essay help

Table of Contents Resocialisation in Organisations

Features of Resocialisation

Coping With Resocialisation


Resocialisation can be described as the change of existing social roles with new ones (Ferrante, 2010, p. 139). People are made to adapt to the new roles because of the situations they get themselves in. Socialisation involves making people more aware of their roles in the society. The process of resocialisation occurs in many areas and has both positive and negative outcomes. This paper discusses the process of resocialisation and the ways in which it affects an individual and the society.

Resocialisation in Organisations Different organisations have different ways in which they conduct their affairs; most of them have a set of codes and rules, which all those who want to be part of them have to respect. These codes and rules are meant to give an identity to all those who are either active in the organisation or who identify with its ideals.

New people who join such organisations are made to observe these rules to enable them to be identified with it (Ferrante, 2010, p. 143). Resocialisation involves making people, who are part of an organisation either willingly or unwillingly, transform their behaviour and personalities to suit their new environment.

Organisations work hard to adopt resocialisation to control the level of engagement of the people who are active in them. Pante (2006) reveals that business organisations have codes of conduct, which their employees need to abide by (p. 84). These rules are meant to organise the way work is done with clearly defined roles and responsibilities for each individual.

Some students have to balance between working and doing part time jobs while in college. They become resocialised by working so that they can reduce their overdependence on parents. The students are forced to accept their new roles by their parent’s lack of money for their college fees.

New members of an organisation are made aware of the new roles they are supposed to assume. They are made to undergo certain procedures, which prepare them for the new roles that they are expected to assume. The resocialisation process helps them to change their behaviour, attitudes and perceptions towards the organisation and the business activities it undertakes (Goffman, 1968, p. 25).

This approach makes recruits’ expectations and attitudes suit the environment in which they become part of both in the present and in the future. Organisations have their own internal power and influence, which makes them carry out a set of resocialisation procedures that their members need to conform to.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisations have different reasons for resocialising their employees. Some organisations are more interested in resocialising their members more than others.

These organisations are motivated by the need to be seen as strong, attractive and invincible in the societies in which they transact. For instance, legal systems are known for their aggressive approach towards resocialising people who are active in them.

Police officers who have just been enrolled must measure up to the highest moral and legal standards to discharge their duties effectively. Law enforcement systems expect their staff to be selfless and diligent to maintain law and order in the society. Students who have to work part time do so willingly.

Their resocialisation occurs because they need to earn a living; they are more self driven and is not similar to that the new police recruits undergo.

Employees who join an organisation are made aware of the work procedures they are supposed to follow; their resocialisation is more formal and is done to help them settle in their new jobs as quickly as possible. Both employees and organisations depend on each other mutually for their objectives to succeed.

Features of Resocialisation Resocialisation takes place in many forms, which have a big impact on the perceptions, attitudes and behaviour of the people who undergo the process. Some procedures are carried out to shift the loyalties of the person being resocialised to the organisation or group which he or she is about to become part of.

Resocialisation is done to make a person have a sense of belonging in the new environment that he lives in. There are various types of procedures that are also carried out during resocialisation; this is done to highlight the significance of the occasion being celebrated (Andersen


Essentials of Buddhism Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction and Background The lifestyle of a Buddha

Many scholars have not managed to make a good analysis of the life of Buddha. However, majority of them believe that Buddha existed, provided teachings and also helped to establish a monastic order.

Concepts governing the belief system of Buddhists

It is believed that that some Buddhists concepts like yoga, rebirth and karma have been in existence for a very long time. Later on, these concepts were absorbed in Buddhism.

In terms of the life and the world, Saṃsāra refers to a fundamental ethos or worldview which perceives all living beings to be in some continuous and endless cycle of birth, life and death.1 On the other hand, Karma means “action” or “deed”. This term can also be described using the law that associates actions with reactions or causes with effects.2

The concept of rebirth in Buddhism is also highly valued. In this regards, rebirth refers to a belief system which maintains that almost all the souls have the ability to reincarnate. Rebirth is not similar among all living creatures. Special or selective rebirth confirms that only selective minority souls are able to undergo rebirth.3

Perception of the world among Buddhists

One of the staunch belief systems of the Buddhists is attached on the notion that solution to problems can be caused through suffering. There are different ways of avoiding suffering. For example, suffering can be avoided by observing rightful living especially on how people behave, their verbal utterances, feelings as well as beliefs. Suffering can also be avoided by eliminating bad desires and finding ways of getting what we actually need.

There are four splendid platforms of truth among Buddhists. The human life is filled with trauma and various forms of suffering according to the first pillar of truth. Although some people might have few problems, there are those who are always struggling to have a decent life. Such people include those subjected to torture, starvation, hatred, war and acts of terror.

As a result, individuals will always live in fear especially whenever they think of disturbing issues like getting old, sickness and death. No matter how individuals try to avoid their negative thoughts, there is always a constant reminder that prompts people about death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All forms of suffering are associated with the second pillar of truth. It is believed that the need to survive contributes significantly towards suffering experienced by various people. Sometimes, people might try to be humble, but this does not help to reduce the level of suffering. In fact, the level of painful experiences increases as one tries to achieve the most desired relationships.

Most types of human suffering can be terminated according to the concept of the third pillar of truth. Individuals can manage to live a comfortable life by doing away with activities that are not necessary. This means that people should always aim at being simple, direct and straight-forward.

The path or way to eliminate the sources of suffering is the fourth noble truth. This is achieved through meditation whereby individuals are required to practice awareness or mindfulness. This also requires individuals to be mindful of the things that are likely to subject them to torture. In order to achieve the latter, people should increase their awareness and appreciate the condition of a particular situation. This eventually makes them to realize the desired relationships and avoid instances of being complex and unnecessarily manipulative.

The Gallant Eightfold Path

The right view or perception is the first aspect of the path. This is based on how we see the world. Wrong views may be experienced when individuals impose their expectations on different aspects of life and express some form of fear on such things. On the other hand, the right view is realized when people express simplicity on different things and avoid any form of fear.

Right intention is the second aspect of this path. This aspect requires people to avoid being manipulative by abandoning their expectations, fears and ambitions that cannot be met. Thus, people should not work according to their intentions.

The next aspect is called the right speech. Under this provision, it means that the intentions of the people are expected to be pure. People should strive towards eliminating any form of embarrassment. Individuals should express their feelings in a sincerely genuine and straightforward way.

The fourth aspect is known as right discipline and is based on renunciation. People are expected to avoid complicating issues and instead practice simplicity. Thus, there should be a clear and straight-forward association with family members, jobs and meal times. All the frivolous and unnecessary complications should be discarded.

We will write a custom Essay on Essentials of Buddhism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fifth aspect of this gallant path is called the right livelihood. This requires individuals to be happy of the different jobs that they undertake in order to earn their livelihood. We should not wish of having a better job while neglecting the current one. Instead, people are expected to form comprehensible associations with their jobs and do their parts properly.

The next feature of the path is called the right path. This requires individuals to avoid any form of struggle or negative tendency when approaching a given spiritual discipline. Individuals are recommended to appreciate different situations by working gently and avoiding any form of aggression.

The seventh element of the path is known as right mindfulness. This means that one should be careful and be able to pay attention even to the minor details of their experiences. They are also required to be mindful when talking, working and also on their attitude towards family members and friends.

The last characteristic of the path is called the right concentration. Individuals should avoid being absent minded as a result of being captivated by different speculations and entertainments. In order to achieve this, appropriate discipline is a vital component.

The 4 immeasurable elements

In Buddhism, the four immeasurable elements are set in a manner that individuals can be able to generate wholesome attitudes through meditation. Hence, meditation is given a very significant platform in the life of a Buddhist.

The Middle Way or Path

The middle way has different meanings. In simple terms, the middle way is used to refer to a practice that is non-extremism in nature. This path helps people to avoid cases of self-mortification or self-indulgence.

The Nature of existence

In Buddhism, the nature of existence is based on various ideologies such as nonintellectual theories, and different concepts about the world according to philosophers. They are used to help people make decisions on what to do or what to avoid.

The existence marks

Buddhism has three main marks that are highly valued. Impermanence is a Buddhist’s notion that terms different experiences as being unsteady, irregular and temporary. This implies that human experiences come in parts while existence depends on the surrounding conditions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Essentials of Buddhism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the world is always changing and this means that it is not possible to establish any permanent relationships. The Buddhist’s notion of suffering and pain mainly refers to the situation whereby an individual feels disturbed. Buddhism tries to make individuals to be realistic and avoid cases of being extremely optimistic or pessimistic. Individuals experience pain mostly when they try to relate themselves with the outside world.

Moreover, an individual should avoid fantasizing about things that he or she is not capable of achieving or obtaining in life. Egolessness is the last Buddhist’s notion. This is an aspect that helps individuals to avoid suffering. In order to achieve this quality, an individual should be capable of analyzing the mental constituents of objects or people.

Dependent arising

This doctrine is used to explain that a phenomenon arises through both the process of action and reaction. It is mainly used to explain the frequent chain of suffering that a human being is most likely to undergo while still alive.

The aspect and value of emptiness

This term explains why properties lack any intrinsic value. This belief system is based on the fact that all properties are relational in nature.


This term implies the act of separating from the main group or mainstream Buddhism religion. This is based on passion, aggression as well as ignorance. People should not struggle in order to live. Doing so will only add extra complications to the lives of people.

Eras of the Buddha

A Buddha era refers to a time in history when people recall and observe the teachings associated with the earliest Buddha. This means that the various eras of Buddha exist during the human existence period.4

Various practices in Buddhism

The term practice does not refer to mere acceptance of Buddhism. It involves the ability of an individual to be committed to Buddhism practices such as through chanting and conducting daily meditation.

To begin with, yoga is mostly used in Tibetan Buddhism and refers to the meditative or physical disciplines that help to generate mystical experiences. On the other hand, refuge in the jewels as applied in Buddhism include the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Being a refuge in Buddha helps an individual to transform annoyance into compassion. Refuge in Dharma and Sangha helps in transforming an individual from illusion into wisdom and from a desire to openhandedness respectively.5

Ethics is also another important area of practice in Buddhism. Buddhist’s ethics refers to the principles or practices that enable people to act in meaningful ways other than causing any kind of harm. In Buddhism, the main ethical code is known as the five precepts. These precepts do not represent the commandments but focuses on training principles taken willingly and which require high levels of sensitivity and intelligence.

The monastic life refers to the decision by certain people (who are commonly known as monastics) to live a pure life. This is mainly to help such individuals to preserve and disseminate Dharma for the benefit of other people.6

Buddhism also values that art of meditation. The latter is based on two themes. The two themes relate to the ability to transform the minds of people and at the same time explore their minds. There are various types of meditation. For instance, samatha meditation enables a mediator to develop a peaceful mind by observing a strong mental concentration. This helps to free the inner obstacles and impurities from the mind. It also enables the mediator to have strong concentration that is attained in a jhana state.7

Besides, the theravāda Buddhism aims at identifying the reasons behind human suffering. These factors are referred as craving and they are believed to carry a number of defilements. There are increased stressful situations that people go through largely due to lack of satisfaction and hatred that exist among people. In order to do away with such sufferings, individuals are expected to develop measures that can provide permanent solutions. One way of doing this is by conducting internal investigation and making an appropriate analysis.

The vipassana meditation refers to a mediation technique whereby then mediator observes oneself continuously and realistically while mediating. It also refers to a form of wisdom that has the ability to snuff out afflictions. The overall aim of Vipassana meditation is to help attain nirvana.

Zen helps individuals to have a satisfactory understanding of their life by avoiding being misled either through language or thought in Buddhism. Zen Buddhism is popular in Japan and Korea and is categorized into two schools namely Rinzai and Soto. The former focuses more on meditation while the latter focuses more on sitting.

Tantras are the main pillars of Vajrayana. In simple terms, tantra refers to internal realization that fights ordinary appearances and helps in accomplishing Buddha purities. Vajrayana and Tantra ioncorporates all the necessary concepts found in Mahayana and at the same time includes some physical techniques that are specifically meant to improve Buddhist practices.

Historical developments of Buddhism and why it among the fastest growing religions The philosophical roots of Buddhism

The philosophical roots of Buddhism can be traced back in ancient India. This was towards the end of first millennium. Since there was lack of satisfaction on the practice of conducting sacrifices and rituals, there was a lot of social and religious strife. As a result, different groups reacted by rejecting and failing to respect the powers given to the Brahmans and Vedas. It is perhaps necessary to explore the Indian Buddhism in detail.

Indian Buddhism is grouped into a number of periods. These include early Buddhism, Nikaya Buddhism, early Buddhist schools, late Buddhism and Vajrayana/Esoteric Buddhism. Each of these groups grew and expanded independently leading to a widespread of the religion.

The Pre-sectarian Buddhism was also instrumental in the growth of Buddhism.

Pre-sectarian Buddhism refers to the earlier Buddhism known to almost every scholar. The main scriptures in pre-sectarian Buddhism are Agamas/Nikayas and Vinaya Pitaka. Most of the previous information contains basic teachings. As a result, people believe that Gautama Buddha had similar teachings. These teachings had a direct association with the noble eightfold path, dependent origination, the noble truths, the five aggregates and also the marks of existence.

The earliest Buddhist schools were also effective in spreading the philosophy of the religion. These are the schools which triggered the splitting of sangha.

This was attributed to the Vinaya differences as well as monk’s separation and doctrinal differences. In the early Buddhist schools, all information was passed orally. Oral transmission was conducted from the assembly in order to prevent oral transmission errors. Different people were assigned the role of reciting whereby some groups recited monastic rules while others engaged in reciting discourses.

The earliest beliefs in Mahayana Buddhism indicated that there was another school that was established to out-compete the earlier “Hinayana schools”. When Christianity suffered a major split in Europe, it gave way for Buddhism to thrive.8 This trend has continued for a relatively long period of time while Buddhism has remained intact without any splits.

During the late Mahayana Buddhism, a total of four different thoughts were developed. These were the Madhyamaka, Buddhist logic, yogacara and Tathagatagarbha. Both Yogacara and Madhyamaka dwelt in the teaching of deep underlying ideas in Buddhism. These philosophies have been regarded as major impetus towards the growth of Buddhism religion.

Vajrayana Buddhism refers to a ritualistic and an esoteric path found in Mahayana Buddhism. In terms of sociological development; Vajrayana Buddhism triggered hereditary priesthood development in parts of Nepal and Tibet.

The diverse development of Buddhism

At first, Buddhism recorded a slow spread in India until the coming of strong supporters of Buddhism. These supporters triggered the construction of religious memorials. Buddhism also spread in Maurya Empire and to the surrounding areas like central Asia, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.

Currently, the religion has spread far and wide and has believers across the world. Buddhism religion is slowly turning out to be unpopular in India but it is still practiced in other countries especially those surrounding India. Although formal membership in Buddhism is different amongst communities, all the members relate their faith to the earlier formula where all the practitioners rely on the three jewels.

It is also pertinent to note that Nava-bauddha (also called neo-Buddhist) refers to the Ambedkar followers. Ambedkar started practicing Buddhism in the year 1956. It also led to the spread of the religion. The demographics of the current Buddhist followers is also an influencing factor that has prompted the growth of the religion. Previous research shows that Buddhism closely follows Christianity, Hinduism and Islam in popularity. It is also believed that Buddhism was the earliest and largest religion in the early 20th century.

The development of schools and cultures in Buddhism

People who practice Buddhism group themselves into two groups namely Mahayana and Theravada. Other scholars have made considerable efforts to classify Buddhists according to their cultural or geographical areas. Such groupings include Tibetan Buddhism, Theravada and East Asian Buddhism.

Theravada is the earliest Buddhist school which grew at unprecedented rate. Although some branches of the school have ceased to exist, some branches like those located in south East Asia and Sri Lanka still survive. The commentaries of Pali Canon were largely used as important spiritual guidelines at the Theravada school.9 It is definite that the teachings acquired from this school spread in different parts of the world and as a result, the teachings were quickly adopted and practiced among new and old adherents of Buddhism.

The growth and development of Buddhism as a religion is also believed to have been accelerated by the renowned Mahayana traditions. This growth was noted as early as the fifteenth century. During this time, a number of Mahayana centers were established to facilitate learning.

Mahayana Buddhism is still very common in parts of China, Korea, Singapore, Vietnam, Russia and Japan.10 Bodhisattva in Buddhism is used to mean “enlightenment being”. In Theravada Buddhism, the term Boudhisattvas is used to relate the previous existence of Gautama Buddha.

The Vajrayana traditions are still very common in Tibet, china and Mongolia. It is imperative to note that vajrayana is practiced differently both in Tibet and China although it is valued by Buddhists in both regions.

Buddhist writings

Buddhists texts are of different forms and have been used to advance the ideologies of the religion. The value of these texts depends on the nature of a school where as some schools relate some texts with religious objects, other schools use a scholastic approach to classify these texts.11 One of the widely used scriptures in Buddhism is the Mahayana Sutra.

Finally, different opinions can be used to establish whether Buddhism is a religion or not. This is due to the fact that different people have conflicting ideas regarding Buddhism as a religion. However, reaching an accurate conclusion depends on a good understanding of the term religion.

Bibliography Butler, Mike. “Introduction to Buddhism” Buddha Dharma Education Association and BuddaNet. 2012. .

Cheah, Joseph. Race and Religion in American Buddhism: White Supremacy and Immigrant Adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Eliot, Edward Arnold. Japanese Buddhism, London: Sage, 1935.

Keown, Damien Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Kinnard, Jacob. The Emergence of Buddhism: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.

Kogen, Mizuno, Essentials of Buddhism, Shunju-sha, 1972, English translation. Tokyo: Kosei, 1996.

Kozak, Arnold. The Everything Buddhism Book. Avon, Mass: Adams Media, 2011.

Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009.

Richard, Gombrich. Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. New York: Routledge, 1988.

Footnotes 1Jacob Kinnard, The Emergence of Buddhism: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011), 48.

2 Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 324.

3 Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 324.

4Mizuno Kogen, Essentials of Buddhism, Shunju-sha, 1972, English translation. (Tokyo: Kosei, 1996), 56.

5 Arnold Kozak, The Everything Buddhism Book. (Avon, Mass: Adams Media, 2011), 66.

6 Gombrich Richard, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. (New York: Routledge, 1988), 89.

7Joseph Cheah, Race and Religion in American Buddhism: White Supremacy and Immigrant Adaptation. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 271.

8 Damien Keown, Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. (Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1996), 59.

9 Mike Butler, “Introduction to Buddhism” Buddha Dharma Education Association and BuddaNet. 2012.

10Michael Molloy, Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 88.

11 Arnold Eliot Edward, Japanese Buddhism. (London: Sage, 1935), 16.


Fair Trade as an Alternative to Free Trade Essay custom essay help

Introduction A major characteristic of the 21st has been the expansion in global trade. This trade has been catalyzed by the advances in communication and transportation technologies that have led to an exponential increase in the interactions between countries and people in a process known as globalization.

International trade has had positive results on participating nations and efforts have been made to liberalize trade for the benefit of all. Free trade has been promoted as a means of stimulating economic growth and increasing the wealth of a nation. Because of conventional trade practices that are structured under a free trade system, a lot of wealth has been created. However, in spite of the advances made in global trade, extreme poverty remains rampant in the developing world.

The World Bank (2012) reports that 22% of the world population (1.3 billion people) is still living in extreme poverty. The failure of the conventional trade system has forced people to reconsider the assumption that free trade is the best way to create wealth and benefit all of humanity.

Other systems have been proposed to try to remedy the failures of free trade. Fair trade is an alternative model that purports to overcome the failure of conventional trade and foster economic development the Third World. Fair trade is a new way of doing business that emphasizes on empowering small-scale producers in the international market.

Differences in opinion exist between free trade and fair trade advocates. Free trade proponents argue that free trade is the key to universal economic development and an end of poverty (Sidwell, 2008). They envision a world that is united into one hemisphere-wide free trade area with everyone enjoying the benefits of free trade.

Opponents of free trade view such a reality as damaging to the interests of people and groups who cannot compete with the major corporations that will stand to gain the most from free trade. Fair trade advocates argue that while globalization and international trade are not harmful in themselves, the manner in which they are implemented makes them harmful.

This paper will set out to argue that fair trade can be a practical alternative to free trade. To reinforce this claim, the paper will demonstrate the ways in which fair trade can help overcome the numerous economic damages attributed to free trade and result in a sustainable and universally beneficial economic system.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International Trade: An overview The last century has been characterized by an increase in international trade. This increase in international trade has led to more specialization by countries and economies of scale in production as countries aim to produce greater quantity of products for trade. To reduce tensions in international trade, trade treaties have been entered into by many countries.

The first major multilateral trade treaty was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was formed in 1948 (Kowalski, 2007). This agreement had the major objective of reducing or eliminating tariffs all together in order to promote international trade. The GATT was replaced with the World Trade Organization (WTO), which was formed in 1995.

This new international trade regulator has the primary objective of promoting international trade by administering the agreements made by member states (Kowalski, 2007). Like its predecessor the GATT, the WTO also seeks to promote free trade and prevent protectionist measures by individual countries.

Countries have held talks aimed at producing agreements that will advance free trade and its inherent benefits even further. Stencel (2008) observes that the WTO is the world leader in most of the talks held on free trade initiatives. In spite of the general move towards promoting free trade, trade organizations have still acknowledged the benefits of some form of intervention.

Jackson (2001) notes that while efforts have been aimed at expanding free trade; there has been a trend towards higher degree of intervention and regulations especially by developed economies. These regulations have been necessitated by the realization that in addition to the economic implications of International trade, there are also environmental and social implications.

While trade can be a powerful tool in elevating people out of poverty, international trade has not achieved this noble quest. Oxfam (2002) observes that while international trade has been a source of unprecedented wealth, “millions of the world’s poorest people are being left behind with increased prosperity going hand in hand with mass poverty and the widening of already obscene inequalities between rich and poor” (p.7).

Even the WTO, an organization created to promote free trade, acknowledges that a universal implementation of free trade might not be the best option in the present time. Jackson (2008) accentuates the fact that the WTO specifically refers to “fairness” and has demonstrated a paramount concern with rules and regulations in coming up with international trade arrangements.

We will write a custom Essay on Fair Trade as an Alternative to Free Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inclination towards fairness even by a body that seeks to break down trade barriers and foster free trade suggests that fair trade might be the sustainable and preferred form of trade.

Fair Trade and Free Trade: A definition Fair Trade

Fair trade emerged as a movement that offered an alternative to the conventional way of conducting international trade. Moore (2004) traces the origins of the Fair Trade movement to the post World War II years when US churches began projects to sell handicrafts made by European refugees.

These projects were a form of charity since they hoped to help the producers by purchasing their products at a higher price. There is no universally accepted definition of Fair Trade. However, the most widely used definition developed by FINE defines Fair Trade as:

A trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency and respect, and that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the South. Fair trade organizations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. (Moore, 2004, p.74).

The Fair Trade model differs significantly from the normal supply-chain model of business in that there is monitoring and certification inbuilt in the system to guarantee that fairness and accountability is achieved. Free trade advocates assert that the openness to the international economy prompted by fair trade will catalyze economic development for all countries.

On the international level, the main certification body is the Fair Trade Labeling Organization International (FLO) and it is an association of producer organizations, traders, and labeling initiatives (FLO International, 2010).

Fair trade is a concept grounded in the belief that paying producers in the developing world a fair price will promote sustainable development and therefore accelerate economic growth in the third world (Stencel, 2008). Fair trade has therefore emerged as both a movement and a set of business initiatives that aim to improve the socioeconomic conditions of producers in the developing world while encouraging environmental sustainability.

Free Trade

The free trade theory advances that the ideal market environment is one where goods and services can flow among nations without any government-imposed restrictions such as taxes, tariffs, or quotas. The free trade movement has therefore sought to lower trade barriers between countries and promote the movement of goods and services between countries (Sidwell, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fair Trade as an Alternative to Free Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the free trade ideal has not been achieved, liberalization measures, which aim at reducing trade barriers, have been in action for many decades and they aim to eventually remove all trade restrictions thereby achieving free trade. Economic arguments have been the most important contributors of free trade since historical times.

The liberal concept was formulated by Adam Smith in 1776 and in it, he argued that free trade leads to international division of labor and the subsequent interdependence between countries (Sidwell, 2008). This interdependence is good since it fosters stability, prosperity, and peace for all participating nations. The liberal concept therefore calls on nations to abandon any kind of trade restriction because they will only mitigate the positive impacts that trade has on the individual country and its trading partners.

Free trade is supported since it promises to bring about economic benefits to a country by encouraging the participation of the private sector and increasing competition. Free trade activists are opposed to fair trade, which they regard as a form of protectionism because it tries to limit the free market (Glockner, 2010). Free trade advocates feel it is best to let the market work on its own since freer trade promotes economic well-being not just for a marginal group of producers but the entire global community.

Positive Impacts of Free Trade

Free trade benefits both the customers and the producers. The customers gain since they have a bigger variety of products to choose from since products are obtained from all over the world. The prices are also lower due to the economies of scale and competition among suppliers.

The suppliers also gain from an increase in turnover and therefore make significant profits. Kowalski (2007) claims that trade barriers are responsible for the high price and limited choice that consumers have to deal with since tariffs and other barriers to trade distort the market.

Free trade results in increased efficiency and the production of higher quality goods. The theory of comparative advantage holds that a country is able to maximize its wealth by concentrating on things it does better relative to other nations and buying other products through trade (Kowalski, 2007). The free trade model therefore avoids wastages and enables consumers to enjoy the best goods and services.

Free trade leads to greater openness and greater integration with the global economy. This integration is beneficial for all countries with the WTO observing that “trade liberalization helps poor countries to catch up with rich ones and that this faster economic growth helps to alleviate poverty” (Jackson, 2001, p.25). The rate of economic development for developing countries that have opened up their markets has been phenomenally high. On the other hand, countries that have resisted opening up to trade have developed at significantly lower rates. This suggests that open trade has a positive impact on the economic well being of a country.

Negative Impacts of Free Trade

Free trade leads to loss of jobs as some industries are rendered unprofitable due to competition from foreign players. Free trade opens up the local market to foreign competition (Kowalski, 2007). If the local industry is still in its developing stage, it might not be able to compete favorably with the mature foreign competitors.

Without some form of protection through tariffs or trade barriers, the infant industries cannot survive in the competitive international trade arena. The foreign industry will be able to provide higher quality goods at a lower price and this will drive the local industry out of business. This will increase unemployment levels in the country as industries are forced to close due to the intense competition from the international market.

Free trade exposes producers to frequent price fluctuations and small-scale producers especially in developing nations might not be able to cope with these price uncertainties. Sidwell (2008) observes that free trade is based on “free individuals voluntarily seizing market opportunities, rather than attempting to manage production and restrict the market place” (p.5).

The system is characterized by an absence of any price-fixing mechanism and the trading partners rely on the forces of supply and demand to dictate the market prices. In this system, producers are exposed to market fluctuations and they are at risk of suffering from loses if the market prices are poor.

Free trade takes place in an uneven playing field, which places the developed nations at an advantage. The primary good produced by most developing nations is agricultural products. These countries are unable to gain a good price for their exports due to government action by developed nations.

Many industrialized countries, particularly the US, offer subsidies to their domestic farmers. Swain (2009) observes that these subsidies are an effective mechanism of protecting the farmers from prevalent market realities that would make it impossible for them to make a profit.

However, the subsidies come at a high cost for developing world producers who cannot compete with the underpriced and overproduced goods from the First World. In effect, these subsidies keep food prices artificially low and make it impossible for producers from developing countries to compete with the subsidized products from farmers in the rich countries.

Khor (2000) reveals that the developed countries demand that the developing countries reduce their own trade barriers on agricultural products, which allows the cheap subsidized products from the developed world to flood the market.

For a country to experience notable gains under free trade, it has to fulfill a number of key conditions. The country has to have perfect access to markets, an ability to adjust production techniques to suit the market needs and increase or decrease production in response to market realities, and a good infrastructure.

The country should also have a well-developed human capital base and enterprise capability for new exports. Most developing countries have not yet achieved these conditions and they are therefore unable to cope effectively with the rapid trade liberalization imposed on them.

Khor (2000) affirms that in the context of agricultural production, conditions such as adjusting outputs in response to market information are simply unachievable. In addition to his, most developing countries are unable to determine how fast their exports grow since they lack the necessary infrastructure to facilitate increase in trade.

Free trade promotes the exploitative practices that huge corporations engage in as they try to reduce the cost of production. Multinational companies such as Nike have engaged in the outsourcing of production to developing nations (Wladimir, 2009). This helps the companies to benefit from the wage differences and therefore cut production costs and gain greater profits.

Free trade is not concerned with the conditions under which production takes place. While most developed countries have stringent safety standards, majority of the developing countries have low safety standards and there is little concern for the welfare of the workers. Free trade encourages the exploitation of the poor who provide the labor, sometimes in unsafe environments, for international businesses in return for minimum wages.

Multinational Companies (MNCs) such as Nike have been accused of ignoring the poor human conditions under which their subcontractors produce their goods. The subcontractors who are in countries that have poor human rights records pay their workers pitiful wages and offer harsh working conditions. MNCs are not take advantage of the fact that they are not legally accountable for the actions of their foreign subsidiaries since the subcontractor is an independent legal entity (Wladimir, 2009).

The preoccupation with increased production and reduced production cost has led to the environmental impacts of business being ignored (Jackson, 2001).

Economic growth normally takes precedence over economic considerations as can be construed from the failure by some countries to take part in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol out of economic considerations. The USA, China, and India refused to participate in the agreement that promised to have a positive impact on the environment since the binding measures proposed would come at an economic cost.

Fair Trade as an alternative to Free Trade Clearly, conventional international trade practices, which are aimed at promoting free trade, are not adequate in promoting sustainable economic development especially for the developing nations. The neoliberal concept of free trade has proved to be incomplete in addressing the unique conditions faced mostly by producers in developing nations (Glockner, 2010).

Free trade is devoid of social and cultural considerations and the focus on liberalization and deregulation fails to address development issues in the third world countries. The fair trade movement seeks to counter the harmful impacts that free trade has on the poor nations.

For the numerous benefits offered by free trade to be enjoyed universally, all participating countries need to be equipped properly to participate and enjoy the same benefits.

At the present, developing countries are disadvantaged since most of them depend on the export of raw materials whose prices have been systematically decreasing while the prices of imported capital increase. Practicing free trade is therefore not beneficial for all and only fair trade can ensure equality among all participating nations. Fair trade proponents propose that developing countries should be treated differently in the international trade setting.

Merits of Fair Trade

The Fair Trade Movement guarantees that producers are able to earn a decent living by dictating that produce purchases must pay laborers a price “sufficient to make a living” in order to quality as Fair Trade certified.

A study by Ronchi (2002) on the impacts of fair trade on Costa Rican coffee farmers showed that the farmers who were involved in fair trade had incomes that were on average 39% higher than their peers in the free trade system. This group of fair trade participants exhibited a higher improvement in their lives with 33% being able to keep their children in school longer and repay all their long-standing debts.

Fair trade practices respect the cultural diversity of the various participants in trade and producers and buyers consider themselves as equal commercial partners and treat each other with mutual respect.

This is significantly different from the free trade principles where the producers and the buyers are unequal commercial partners with the buyers having a higher bargaining power that enables them to dictate the prices that are mostly unfavorable to the producers (Glockner, 2010). Big businesses are able to impose unfair trade terms on small farmers who have to agree since they lack alternatives or any real bargaining power on the issues.

The principles of the free market involve the buyer seeking the lowest price with little regard for the long-term human relationships with the producer. Ehrlich (2010) observes that in the free market, the buyers do not consider the harmful effect that low prices may have on the developing nation producers.

Fair trade principles contradict this free market approach by taking into consideration the long-term human relationship between the buyer and the producer. The buyer seeks to buy at a price that will ensure that producers are able to make a decent living.

Fair trade overcomes the limitations of fluctuating prices by using a price-fixing arrangement. Jackson (2001) asserts that the stable income guaranteed by the fixed price paid to producers through fair trade is the most important benefit accrued by producers through the system. This arrangement greatly benefits the producers in a number of significant ways. To begin with, the set price is always fair since it takes into consideration the needs of the producers thereby ensuring that they are able to make a profit and enjoy a decent standard of living from their products. Small farmers greatly benefit from the insurance against price fluctuation and they are able to better plan their operations due to the assurance of consistent sales.

While free trade proponents frown upon protectionist measures, such measures are a necessary to shield developing nations from unfair competition from developed nations. Developed nations already have an economic head start and they enjoy the best production facilities and technology.

Pitting such economies against the poor developing countries in a free trade market is unfair since the two parties are unevenly matched. Some mechanism for giving the developing world an advantage in international trade is therefore necessary. Fair trade proponents “seek special protectionist measures for the poor” (Sidwell, 2008, p.5). Fair trade fosters development by providing a safe environment in which disadvantaged producers can join the global market.

This development is promoted by providing an avenue though which producers in developing nations can get higher payments for their products. Fair Trade recognizes that there is a great disparity between the capability of producers in developed nations and developing nations. The movement therefore seeks to enable the developing country producers to become sustainable businesses both in the local and international marketplaces.

Fair trade encourages sustainable development in developing countries therefore making reducing or doing away with the need for aid by these countries from the developed world. It does this by acknowledging that existing world trade practices that are rooted in free trade principles are harmful to the developing world.

Fair trade therefore seeks to promote a just distribution of wealth among nations. Sidwell (2008) notes that most consumers in the developed world view fair trade as “the purest form of aid” and deem it more effective than giving to charity. Fair trade is a potent development tool through its underlying “trade-not-aid” philosophy. It acts as a poverty reduction initiative by providing the means through which developing nations can participate in the global market under conditions that are favorable to them.

Fair trade initiatives remove the middlemen who end up taking majority of the profits gained by farmers. In a free market environment, famers in the developing world are mostly made up of individuals who are uneducated and unaware of the market conditions.

The farmers have to rely on the middlemen who know their way around the market and can therefore get the produce to the international market (Moore, 2004). The middlemen buy the goods from the farmers at very low prices and end up keeping most of the profits. Fair trade removes the middlemen from the business cycle and the farmers are therefore able to keep most of their profits.

Fair trade results in safer working conditions for workers in the producing nations. Since producers are the primary stakeholders in the Fair Trade business relationship, they are expected to fulfill some conditions by the buyers. Moore (2004) states that producers are expected to make positive steps towards providing safe and healthy work conditions and other social benefits to their workers.

Producers have to demonstrate a commitment to worker safety and social benefits in order to be included in the Fair Trade program. Gross violation of worker safety may be grounds for being omitted from Fair Trade market.

Since producers want to benefit from the financial gains and security that are inherent in fair trade, they provide the most favorable working conditions for their workers. Fair trade also ensures that exploitative practices such as child labor are not utilized during production. The constant monitoring of producers ensures that they adhere to the set labor standards and avoid any exploitative practices.

For participants to benefit in free trade, they have to have credit access and adequate capital investments. Most small-scale producers in third world countries lack access to financial facilities. They are therefore unable to venture into the international market and enjoy the benefits of free trade.

Fair trade tries to remedy this by providing access to pre-financing and credit for the producers (Stencel, 2008). Through their cooperatives, farmers are granted finances that they can use to buy the necessary farm inputs and therefore produce the trade commodities.

Producers are able to enjoy lower interest rates on the credit they obtain through fair trade. According to FLO International (2010), buyers are required to offer producers pre-financing at attractive interest rates. This move by the fair trade movement has led government agencies and conventional banks to start offering cooperatives and producers access to credit at competitive rates.

Fair trade induces local capacity building by strengthening the local producers’ capacities. Ronchi (2002) observes hat fair trade encourages institutional capacity building and farmers are encouraged to sell their products through cooperatives. These institutes encourage the improvement of product quality by individual farmers and the producers are also taught about new marketing strategies that can be employed to increase sales.

The producer organizations set up workshops and seminars to teach farmers about new cultivation methods and effective marketing strategies. Considering the fact that most farmers have little education and do not know much about international trade, the lessons provided on the export process are some of the most valuable benefits of fair trade (Ronchi, 2002).

Free trade results in producers being thrust into an aggressive market for which they are not well prepared. Fair trade tackles this issue by introducing producers to the international market in a sheltered environment.

Producers are able to deal directly with buyers in an environment of trust and mutual respect. Ronchi (2002) states that the direct experience with buyers and mutual trust and respect environment increase the confidence of producers who then feel better empowered to deal professionally in a conventional market system.

Fair trade takes positive action to deal with the harmful environmental impacts that free trade encourages. Producers in the Fair Trade market are encouraged to conduct their production in such a way that they mitigate environmental damage. Before being accepted into the fair trade network, the producers have to comply with a number of requirements that emphasize on sustainable development and environmental development.

The standards for example state that producers must undertake their operations in such a way that they “establish a balance between environmental protection and business results through the use of a combination of measures such as crop rotation, cultivation techniques, crop selection, careful use of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides and, as relevant, shade production” (FLO, 2010, p.15).

Registered producers are also expected to reduce their use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and in as much as possible, try to use non-synthetic fertilizers and biological means of disease control. Periodic FLO inspections occur to ascertain that small producers have complied with the requirements and if not, they are rejected from participating in the fair trade network.

Case Studies Oxfam

Fair trade has gained the support of a number of reputable international organizations including Oxfam. Oxfam is “an international confederation of 17 organizations networked together in more than 90 countries, as part of a global movement for change, to build a future free from the injustice of poverty” (Oxfam Australia, 2012).

The organization aims to increase development in the world by ending poverty and injustices. According to Oxfam, the current application of free trade contributes to the poverty experienced by low-income developing countries.

Oxfam (2002) reveals that developing countries seeking to improve their economic situation by exporting to developed nations face disproportionate tariff barriers compared to those encountered by developed countries that export to the developing countries. Practices such as farm subsidize in the Developed nations lead to trade distorting in the international trade arena with farm products being at an artificial low price.

Oxfam sees fair trade as a more beneficial system for small producers in the developing world. The organization therefore promotes Fair Trade products in the developed world and it encourages consumers to buy these products and make a difference in the lives of the producers in developing countries. Through its commitment and campaigning efforts, fair trade products have gained greater visibility and achieved higher sales.

Corporate Involvement

Fair trade principles have become prevalent and major corporations are today taking part in the fair trade market. The multinational corporation Starbucks is engaged in the marketing fairly traded coffee through its various outlets all over the world.

This development has been prompted by an increase in consumer demand for coffee produced under socially and environmentally friendly conditions and the increased advocacy of established Fair Trade organizations. Involvement of companies such as Starbucks in the fair trade movement has expanded the market for fair trade products and therefore benefited the producers in the developing world.

Criticism to Fair Trade In spite of the numerous benefits attributed to fair trade, the movement faces some criticism due to its philosophy and market practices. Fair trade does not encourage diversification of products by third world producers. As it currently stands, fair trade focuses on a small spectrum of products such as coffee, bananas, and cotton.

Glockner (2010) suggests that this focus makes farmers in developing nations specialize more on specific products thereby increasing their dependence on the foreign market. This is not sustainable since the demand for the products that the farmers over-specialize in cannot be guaranteed in a free market economy.

This claim is corroborated by Lindsey (2002) who notes that increased specialization led to an oversupply of coffee on the fair trade market and this decreased the international price of coffee therefore hurting all coffee producers.

Economists argue that the fair trade movement is doomed to fail since it ignores the free market realities through its interventional schemes to lift prices (Lindsey, 2004). This makes it possible for inefficient producers to remain in the market since fair trade guarantees them some profit despite their poor production methods. A free market would force such producers to improve their efficiency and the quality of their products or else risk being forced out of the market.

Future of Fair Trade Fair trade has gained significant popularity in today’s market and fair trade products are among the fastest growing segment of the food market. Even so, fair trade still accounts for a modest 1% of the global market. This is a very small market share and if the advantages attributed to fair trade are to be felt by more producers, the figure needs to increase dramatically. Due to the limited scope of fair trade, comparably fewer producers have been able to prosper from the movement and majority of the producers have been left out.

Ehrlich (2010) notes that the inefficiency of the fair trade value chain is to blame for the small volumes of products traded through fair trade. These inefficiencies in processing, trading, and marketing lead to higher mark-up prices for the consumer. The growth of the market is therefore limited since there is limited demand for these non-competitive fair trade brands with a high price.

Poncelet et al (2004) advices that fair trade should focus on the creation of high-quality products in order to foster growth of the market and therefore increase the volumes that can be sold. The authors also suggest that fair trade production should implement policies that encourage diversification. This diversification will promote economic growth and sustainability since the producers will not be solely reliant on a few key products for trade.

As fair trade has become more recognized, its products are today distributed and marketed through mainstream channels such as supermarkets and supply chains. Proponents of fair trade express their fear that the fair trade label may be used as an additional marketing tool by corporations that do not ascribe to the fair trade philosophy. Low and Eileen (2005) state that this fear is not unfounded since fair trade products placed alongside their non-fair trade alternatives on supermarket stands have experienced a 30% increase in sales. Corporations might therefore set out to exploit this market appeal of fair trade products. Involvement of corporations in the fair trade movement is a positive development since it increases the volume of sales for fair trade products. The movement should therefore increase its monitoring process to ensure that the big corporations live up to the philosophy behind the movement and foster the development of developing country producers.

Discussion While fair trade is critical of free trade, they both support globalization and an increase in international trade. The significant difference is that fair trade incorporates a broad range of social justice issues as opposed to free trade, which is primarily concerned with trade liberalization.

Efforts by the fair trade movement over the past two decade have been aimed at including social justice issues. As a movement whose primary goal is to fight the negative effect of Free Trade, Fair Trade has succeeded and remains to be the most “practical and campaigning response to the perceived and observed injustices of the capitalist system” (Moore, 2004, p.79). The movement has improved the livelihood of thousands of producers in the developing world and fostered socio-economic development.

The Fair Trade movement is gaining popularity with consumers in the First World countries becoming increasingly aware of this concept of fair trade. Fair Trade organizations have demonstrated that offering producers in developing countries fair prices for their goods can help offset the inequalities that a free trade system creates. The success of the fair trade system has demonstrated that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that have a benefit to the environmental and producers in developing countries.

Conclusion This paper has argued that fair trade can serve as an alternative to free trade. It began by offering a brief overview of international trade and its importance to the world. While trade has led to the creation of wealth for nations, producers in the third world still experience widespread poverty.

This reality has forced people to reconsider the assumption that free trade is the best way to create wealth and benefit all of humanity. The paper has revealed that fair trade is the only way through which developing countries can counter the massive non-tariff barriers that Northern countries impose on them and therefore enjoy gains in international trade.

Fair trade guarantees a fair price for the producers therefore securing the rights of these exporters who are harmed by the free trade model. Fair trade is rapidly gaining popularity and many organizations and consumers are using it as an alternative to free trade. The principles and key philosophies of fair trade are necessary for producers in developing countries to improve their livelihoods and experience sustainable growth.

References Ehrlich, S.D. (2010). The Fair Trade Challenge to Embedded Liberalism. International Studies Quarterly, 54 (1), 1013–1033.

FLO International (2010). Generic FairTrade Standards for Contract Production. Bonn, Germany: Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International.

Glockner, C. (2010). Analysis of Fair Trade as a Concept of Sustainability. Vienna: GRIN Verlag.

Jackson, K.E.(2001). Free Trade, Fair Trade: Trade Liberalisation, Environmental and Labour Standards. UNEAC Asia Papers, 4(1), 21-34.

Khor, M. (2000). Rethinking Liberalisation and Reshaping the WTO. Davos: World Economic Forum.

Kowalski, K.M. (2007). Free Trade. NY: Marshall Cavendish.

Lindsey, B. (2004). Grounds for complaint? Fair Trade and the coffee crisis. London: Adam Smith Institute.

Low, W.,


Why Does Conflict Occur in the Employment Relationship? Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Application of Theories in Analyzing Workplace Relationship

Developing a Quality Workforce

Maintaining a Quality Workforce


Reference List

Introduction Work is basic to the individual condition. It establishes what we accomplish during much of our active lives. It encourages human interaction and it enables people to establish their sense of uniqueness.

It enables people to fulfill their material needs and to benefit from modern inventions and achievements of civilization. “Our views towards work and its management have undergone significant changes over the past couple of decades, with much of it being the product of national contexts being increasingly subject to global economic influences” (Abbott 2006, p. 187).

As a result, Administrators should try to devise better organizational strategies that can enable them to deal with workers efficiently. This paper examines causes of conflict in employment relationship with specific reference to Wal-Mart Company.

One of the evident challenges in many organizations and companies is the occurrence of disagreements among employees and their managers. Workers can settle disputes that strain their relationships through various mechanisms. Generally, “most squabbles in organizations often revolve around issues related to wage demands, terms of service, administrative strategies, and company goals” (Dunlop 2008, p. 276).

In broad terms, “employment relationship is concerned with the theory and practice associated with the management and regulation of the employment relationship” (Dundon 2007, p. 234). Specifically, it deals with social and sometimes political aspects of the workers association and the sharing of authority between the administration and workers. It is also concerned with the occurrence and expression of disputes and the legal and social regulatory structure in which workers relationships exist.

Employment relationship is a modern expression that defines industrial relations. Industrial relations generally refer to the upholding of the association that exists between labor organizations and administration, and related processes that encompass collective bargaining, dialogue and discussion and industrial dispute (Daniels 2006, p. 24).

The application of the expression ‘employment relations’, instead of industrial relations indicates the socio-economic and legal progress made in the employment relationship that have been witnessed over the past few decades (Stone 2005, p. 124). Disputes usually arise in employment relationship due to the absence of consultation by administrators with their laborers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, workers can frustrate the restructuring plans of a company if they are not involved in making such decisions. “Since participation is often concerned with negotiation, conflict may occur between employees and management, particularly, where employees participate in higher-level decisions and differing interests are most likely to be visible” (Stone 2005, p. 127).

Wal-Mart is a leading retail chain in the United States of America. Founded in 1962, the company has since doubled its fortunes to become the dominant player in North America’s retail industry. Wal-Mart has since opened 3,800 stores in America and 2,800 stores across the globe.

In 2010, the company hosted over 2.1 million workers in America and other parts of the world. Notwithstanding its financial fortunes, Wal-Mart has faced serious challenges in managing its multicultural and large labor force. It has not been able to provide a work environment that meets the expectation of its workers and the public.

Wal-Mart’s failure to manage its human resources appropriately has had negative effects on its reputation and financial performance. Thus, there is a need to make changes in the company’s human resources management system.

Application of Theories in Analyzing Workplace Relationship A number of theories can aid the analysis of the causes of conflict in employment relationship. The Unitarism theory begins from a number of suppositions and values which states that employment dispute is a preventable feature of interactions between administrators and workers.

Disputes in the work environment may occasionally occur between these two parties, and they are an irregularity in a relationship, which is intrinsically likely to be helpful. “Those holding this perspective perceive managers and employees as having a common interest in the survival of their organizations, such that when conflicts occur it is unlikely to manifest itself to a point that will render the firm insolvent” (Fox 2006, p. 56).

Personality challenges, unsuitable staffing, and promotion activities, usually cause separations and lack of unity in an organization. A rational administrative team should eliminate potential causes of disputes that may interfere with the normal operations of an organization.

We will write a custom Essay on Why Does Conflict Occur in the Employment Relationship? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the management team should execute impartially and equitably staffing and promotion activities. Administrators should establish proper communication channels and alert workers about the core interests of the organization. Human relations theory that is guided by unitarism will form the basis of analyzing the employment conflict at Wal-Mart.

Human relations theory states that minimizing workplace disputes depends on the capacity of workers to gain self-satisfaction in the organization. In this case, employees are a distinct entity from other materials applied in the production (Legge 1995, p. 345).

Thus, “if workers are denied autonomy on the job, or are reduced to acting as mere extensions of the machinery they operate, it is argued that they will invariably find ways to subvert the methods of control that enforce these conditions” (Gennard 2002, p. 202). The most important job of administrators is to influence industrial relations to make workers feel comfortable in serving in an organization.

In addition, workers should contribute on matters related to the management of the organization (Beardwell


Witchcraft Fiction Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Witchcraft Fiction Transformation

Women Victimization and Affirmation

Women, Satan and God


Works Cited

Introduction The Malleus Maleficarum is a historical book that was written in the middle age. The term Malleus Maleficarum means ‘The witch hammer’. The book guided investigators as they eradicated witchcraft in the society. The effect of this historical book is intensive in the modern society despite the time that has elapsed since it was first published.

The essay will discuss women’s victimization and affirmation in relation to witchcraft. Moreover, the relationship between witches and demons will be outlined. Historical ideologies based on witchcraft as discussed in the Malleus Maleficarum and how such ideas can be transformed by fiction will be scrutinized.

Background Christianity doctrines failed to accept the existence of witchcraft and dismissed the ideology of Malleus Maleficarum as mere superstitions.

Witchcraft victimized women to a great extent as sentence of witches was fatal. The historical book solved the problem of uncertainty, as witches would only be branded if they fitted the description. In fact, approximately 9 million women were hanged or burnt alive after they were regarded as witches.

Before the guidelines, witches were branded based on mere suspicion or failure to comply with Catholic doctrines. The Malleus Maleficarum intensified the works of investigators and was regarded as a book that was soaked in blood. The witch hunting exercise took place for a period of 250 years and realized good results (Kieckhefer 24).

Witchcraft Fiction Transformation Witch hunting was meant to eradicate evilness that was associated with witchcraft in the society. Emphasis was on witches and not wizards since women engaged in witchcraft more than men did. The investigators’ court judged both witches and those that were accused of sacrilege.

The Catholic doctrines did not agree with ideology of existence of witches who could transform nature permanently. According to Christians, belief in magic powers of witches was regarded as blasphemy. The devil and witches could not cause permanent transformation on human beings, according to Christian doctrines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the suffering that was inflicted on Job involved natural factors like diseases, which are manipulated by God. Christians argue that if witches and demons had power to transform nature, then there would be a lot of disorganization in the world (Ankarloo and Clark 11).

The Malleus Maleficarum argues that the power that is influenced by physical factors, like that of a witch cannot exceed natural phenomena (Broedel and Hans 9).

The devil has power to study the stars and witches call on his intervention in their evil acts by observing certain star patterns. It should be noted that, the devil and witches cannot manipulate the pattern of stars; nature cannot be transformed by demons or witches. The craft that is used by the devil, like in the instance of studying the stars, can never be adequate to transformation nature permanently. Permanent situations like disease or cure can only exist by other power and not that of devils and witches (Ankarloo and Clark 16).

Power influence among the witch, devil and God has been scrutinized in the Malleus Maleficarum. Permanent transformation can only occur when the superior power influences the weaker powers. For example, the devil could cause permanent transformation of nature only when permission is granted by God.

There are those scholars who postulate that witchcraft and magic do not exist. Others argue that there is witchcraft although its influence and effect on nature exists in the mind. In addition, there are postulations that although magic may be imaginary the cooperation between the witch and devil is real (Kieckhefer 20).

The three postulations have been nullified in the Malleus Maleficarum as none of them adequately explains the effects of the devil and witches. According to Thomas S., witchcraft exists and it is a sacrilege to argue that there are no witches. However, transformation of nature by demons and witches is only possible if permission is granted by God. Notably, it is wrong to postulate that effects of witches are imaginary.

Devils have power over men and can transform them if God permits. According to Malleus Maleficarum, angels who fell from heaven became devils and were more powerful than human beings. Witches are defined as women who try to behave like these devils and win more people to their religion (Kieckhefer 12).

We will write a custom Essay on Witchcraft Fiction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The belief that the effects of witchcraft can only be presented mentally was also misplaced and its application led to false persecution of people. For example, there are women who were branded as witches simply because they confessed having a strange illusion. According to the Canon law, witches were supposed to be killed as stated in the Holy Scriptures.

Malleus Maleficarum has been associated with death and suffering of many people based on social structure. The book encouraged hunting of witches and in the process innocent people were killed. It should, however, be noted that Malleus Maleficarum also had positive impact especially on women.

Witch branding was more specific and there were more investigations than judgments after Malleus Maleficarum was introduced. There are arguments that the historical book was discriminative as women were the only victims. Moreover, the method used to suspect and brand witches was not fair. Witch hunting was the only way to cleanse the society off evil and prevent spread of crime to male gender (Ankarloo and Clark 17).

The scientific field was regarded as being sacrilegious in the middle age. The historical book used the information that was well known to enable people cope and understand nature. Malleus Maleficarum tried to unite people by eradicating witchcraft in the society in the best way possible.

Although Christians differed with the analogy of witchcraft, the effect of Malleus Maleficarum was intensive and penetrated all levels. It should be noted that, before the Bible, Malleus Maleficarum guidelines were universally used to save people from evil (Broedel 16).

Women Victimization and Affirmation There are different approaches that have been used to comprehend the nature of witchcraft. The female gender has been associated with a higher incidence of witchcraft as compared to the male gender. The Malleus Maleficarum compares a woman, tongue and Ecclesiastes as they commonly reach extremity.

When a woman is holy and righteous she is known for the best virtue and when she becomes evil her wickedness is extreme. A woman is described as evil that can never be avoided by the society. Women are portrayed as being naive and are easily tricked by the devil into witchcraft.

Moreover, women are easily influenced by spirits than men thus are easily converted into witchcraft and superstitions (Kieckhefer 18). In addition, women are portrayed as gossipers and, therefore, spread evil to fellow women at a higher rate than male gender. There are postulations that the subordinate role assigned to female gender renders women vulnerable to witchcraft and superstitions. Society victimizes women and they shield themselves with witchcraft.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Witchcraft Fiction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are perceptions that women are less intellectual than men are and are thus likely to fall into witchcraft. For example, according to Malleus Maleficarum, only one woman could comprehend philosophy. Furthermore, the first woman was formed from a bent rib, which shows that women are imperfect and cunning. Women are described as being weak in faith and easy trusting, traits that are required in witchcraft (Ankarloo and Clark 11).

There are allegations that the women who were weak and intellectually challenged by men saw witchcraft as the only means of vengeance. Women are associated with poor memory and most married men said that their wives were the cause of their sorrow. Women who practiced witchcraft had their love converted to hatred and by all means sought vengeance.

The voice of a woman is said to be deceitful, as she does not mean what she says. Most of kingdoms have suffered due to women wickedness. For example, wicked Jezebel was cursed due to her wickedness and led to destruction of Jews. Women are also known to go to extremity to get what they desire.

For example, women dress and adorn themselves to capture the attention of men. According to Malleus Maleficarum unsatisfied sexual desires that are more pronounced among women are the root causes for witchcraft and superstitions. It should be noted that witches are more likely to be infidel, ambitious and sexually unsatisfied. Since women were most likely to be involved in witchcraft as compared to men, Malleus Maleficarum aimed to reduce the majority (Broedel 27).

Despite the wickedness that is associated with women, there are instances where they are praised in the Malleus Maleficarum. When the naive nature of a woman is not corrupted by witchcraft, then she will be holy and righteous. For example, God appointed Mary to be the mother of Jesus Christ because she was righteous.

Women innocence is greatly valued as virgins are seen as being pure and not evil. Sex was sacred and adultery was punished by death. Women accused of having sexual relations with the devil were branded as witches and killed (Kieckhefer 22). On the other hand, those who valued their purity were greatly rewarded.

Women, Satan and God According to varied arguments, witches work in conjunction with devil and it is impossible for them to cause harm on human beings without cooperation. The Malleus Maleficarum uses various approaches to determine whether harm can be a sole responsibility. The analogy of Job in the Bible has been used to show how devil inflicted suffering on him in absence of a witch but with permission of God (Ankarloo and Clark 21).

The superior power of the devil must not consult the inferior power of the witch before any action. Consequently, inferior power only consults superior power when the task is beyond its ability. Christians dismiss the idea of existence of any power that can transform nature permanently. The Malleus Maleficarum states that permanent transformation can only be done in accordance to the will of God.

The devil does not need the witches to complete his mission but rather uses them and in the end destroys them. According to this perception, witches are used involuntarily by the devil and should not be punished for actions that are beyond their control. On the contrary, there are arguments that evil is voluntary and should not be seen as a responsibility. For example, a person rapes for pleasure and not obedience to some power. Witches should be punished because they find pleasure in evil deeds (Stewart 8).

Since the devil is in a spirit form, he requires witches to get in contact with humans. It is impossible for the devil to cause harm or cause permanent transformation without any intervention by witches. There are arguments that transformation can be realized by power of imagination and not necessarily by body contact. For example, a person is not likely to sit on a broken chair simply because he imagines the possibility of falling.

Transformation in this case is not caused by body contact but by invisible power of imagination. Malleus Maleficarum argues that magic should not be associated with evil powers simply because we are not aware of how the effect of transformation is realized (Broedel and Hans 23).

Conclusion Malleus Maleficarum played a great role in eradication of witchcraft in the middle age. Women have been prejudiced and affirmed in this literature. Scholars and psychologists have different perceptions in regard to Malleus Maleficarum. There are those who criticize the book for being responsible for deaths of many innocent people in the middle age while others appreciate its efforts.

Historians should appreciate the efforts of Malleus Maleficarum in eradicating witchcraft. The guidelines could not be perfect to ensure that no innocent soul was lost during the witch hunting exercise. The approach was directed to women because they were the majority, and this should not be seen as discrimination.

Works Cited Ankarloo, Bernard, and Stuart Clark. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe in the Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 2002. Print.

Broedel, Peter. The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft: Theology and Popular Belief. Manchester: Manchester University. Press. 2004. Print.

Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 2000. Print.

Stewart, Maxwell. Witchcraft in Europe and the New World. New York: Palgrave publishers. 2001. Print.


Public Relations Plan – New Startup Company Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help

Table of Contents Company’s Name and Logo

Executive summary of the situation

Business Objectives

Public Relations Objectives


Public Relations Programs

Reference List

Company’s Name and Logo The name of the company is New Startup Company. This is a chain of stores that deals with two sets of consumer goods. There is a segment that deals with consumer goods and the segment that deals with fashion. This is a new name that is supposed to help in reestablishing the brand of the company. The company’s logo will also be changed.

Executive summary of the situation The case presented in this paper focuses on a company that performed excellently in the past. However, the company no longer performs well in the present time. Several managerial problems or weaknesses are linked to the declining popularity of the company in the market.

The company has lost its stability and is about to be closed. There are declined sales, lower customer turn up and dead stocks. The management of the company has been focusing on how to deal with this unremunerative situation. It is pointed out that the main cause of poor performance of the company is lapses in management. This is seen in a number of business trends, which have been seen in the company for the past few years.

They include regular complaints from customers about the services that they receive from the company, complaints about high prices of goods and services and frequent employee strikes in the company. The company has also been accused of being inactive. This means that it has failed to promote its goods and popularize its services in the market besides shunning corporate social responsibility.

All these issues point to one thing; the failure of the company to embrace public relations in its practices. Therefore, a public relations oriented plan is crafted in this paper. It is aimed at revenging Smarktlinks. In the plan, business objectives, as well as public relations objectives are clearly stated and explained. The strategies of reviving business are outlined and incorporated into public relations programs.

Business Objectives According to Gaulden


The National Petroleum Construction Company Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction The National Petroleum Construction Company is a global construction company which received many awards in fabrication of steel structure sections. It was established in 1973 as a Public Joint Stock Company and its fabrications facilities are located at Mussafah – Abu Dhabi.

It started with providing and fabricating the required steel structure for the onshore and offshore Oil and Gas production industries. In 1978, it developed and widened its operations by inaugurating a custom pipe coating facility at the field. In 1979, the company fought an escapade into offshore activities for the Oil industries, installation and knitting works.

In 1986, NPCC began the manufacturing storage tanks which are used in storing various types of petroleum products. In 1994, NPCC built a new modern facility in Mussafah which can produce and fabricate up to 67,000 tons of steel annually. After that by just two years, another modern facility was constructed for fabrication of pressure vessel.

This facility has a capability of producing 6,000 tons per year of pressure vessels in different type and size. The Company takes all developing steps and urban growth carefully to achieve the goals and achievements over the years. That dynamic growth strategy makes NPCC to reach a place in league with the major international EPC contractor of the Oil and Gas industry.Aqeel A. Madhi is the Chief Executive officer and HussainJasem Al Nowais is the chairman-GHC of the NPCC.

Nowadays, NPCC is regarded as a successful and fast-developing global company that ensures high quality services and products in the sphere of gas manufacture, storage, engineering, and installation. More importantly, the company sustains a competitive advantage in integrating offshore and onshore projects.

Core values The National Petroleum Construction Company is an excellent provider of offshore and onshore services in the sphere of production of gas, as well as delivery of petroleum products. The NPCC takes prides in its highly competitive and confident employees who are able to control and coordinate of advanced technologies. The company is actively involved in the production, testing, and inspection that take control of the modern technologies.

The NPCC ensured well-equipped environment in which employees operate. Therefore, the company’s managers realize the importance of ensuring a favorable organizational culture that motivates their employees, as well as provides highly effective coordination and collaboration. The Board of Directors is conscious about its strategic objectives and, therefore it is committed to producing high quality products that meet the established international standards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees are considered as the most important and valuable asset of the company. Therefore, the staff strives to ensure training and development programs for their employees, as well as provide efficient social schemes. According to the NPCC managers, wellbeing of their employees can guarantee expert services for their clients.

Products and Technology The company, as the provider of offshore and onshore activities, also offers the following services and products to their customers (Product


Tourism and language Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Tourism is beneficial to any country’s economy. It brings people from different cultural backgrounds together. In addition, it connects people who speak different languages. Tourists visit sceneries for various reasons. In this regard, they find themselves in unfamiliar environs.

Sometimes tourists face obstacles in their line of activities. These include language barrier, different cultures, remote areas, hostile natives, poor infrastructure, and meager facilities, among others. These are essential elements for successful tourism excursion. However, of great concern to tourist industry is language barrier. Language is very important as it ensures effective interaction and communication with the locals.

Language is therefore very important in tourism as it acts as the gateway to local environment. In essence, effective tourism cannot be achieved without proper communication channels. Various countries have initiated language-training centers for minimizing language barrier. This paper will explore various articles on tourism and language. It will also seek to establish its significance in tourism (Jayaprabha and Saredha 267-282).

Tourism and language Tourists visit different sites all over the world annually. Most people in Europe and America take time off visiting various sceneries throughout the world. Countries like Egypt, Kenya, Dubai, the United States, and Brazil, among others receive millions of tourists each year.

Moreover, due to their varying origins, they speak different languages that require translation for better understanding. In most cases, tourists take time to learn the language of their hosts. This enables them to interact best with the hosts. In some instances, they use tourist guides as interpreters. However, this does not offer better cultural bonding than the former. Tourism language is therefore essential for all prospective tourists.

Tourists who wish to visit the United States usually take English tests to allow for good interaction with the hosts. Moreover, those that go to countries in Asia and Africa also take the opportunity to learn local languages like Swahili, mandarin, and Arabic, among others (Cheng, Li, Petrick, and O’Leary 53-61).

Scholarly article Remodeling a changing language of tourism: from monologue to dialogue and trialogue

This article, by Graham, gives a description of the remodeling of tourism language. Graham gives an account of the top-down approach utilized in the earlier decades of tourism. During these periods, instructions were taken from above, that is from the industry without negotiation by the tourists or the toured.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, tourists would incur avoidable expenditure in this structure of management. Tourism industry was therefore framed in accordance with the social control that existed during these periods. The author goes on to state that tourism language was articulated in a monological discourse as well as in unilateral with little chance of diversion.

However, this has since changed with the advent of technological advances. Digitalization of communication has proved significant in changing the modernist project witnessed in the nineties. This has allowed for a shift from top down approach to an interactive setup (Dann 59-70).

Technological advances such as the advent of the internet, among others, has brought about these changes since customers are able to channel their complaints through the digitized forum for better handing of their grievances. Present evidences show complete transformation of tourism language due to the digitalized communication system.

This has brought about egalitarianism as well as ethos of dialogue, which was once none existent. Moreover, even trialogue can be done successfully in the current situation. In essence, the author gives an account of the changes that have occurred in tourism language over the past century. He therefore concludes that a better democratization has been achieved with the shifting paradigm of media in tourism language.

The article is well researched with sources from credible journals among other references. Graham has written numerous publications on tourism and existing trends. He has a deep understanding of the industry and he has done well to relate its complexities with regard to social control. Tourism language has therefore undergone numerous changes over the past century (Dann 59-70).

Web article Central America’s language tourism

The article emphasizes on the importance of English to groups like Spanish, Italians, and French who attend English classes in Britain. In the process, they see great sceneries and they are referred to as language tourists. This is similar in other cities such as Antigua, Granada, and Leon, among others.

These cities have beautiful sceneries that attract large groups of language tourists. For instance, the article gives a description of the happenings in London during summer, when language tourists flock London. During their visits, some of the tourists catch a glimpse of Big Ben and the queen, among others.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourism and language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also get an opportunity to interact with locals, which provide them with a combination of learning, culture, and fun. Those who go for Spanish language schools have several tantalizing locations to visit. These include old towns, Mayan lakes, volcanoes, and hammocks among other popular routes for tourists (Mulcair 1).

The article also talks of the splendid locations for studying Spanish language at affordable prices. Moreover, it gives tourists an opportunity to interact with the locals in those areas. Hospitality in such areas is essential for it has increased the number of language tourists in those towns.

The author goes on to describe possible tourist attraction centers that thrive in Central America. In addition, Mulcair provides listeners with tantalizing elaboration on language tourism in Central America (Lewis 1). The article is well researched by a BBC correspondent who has experience in writing tourism articles.

Moreover, the article is balanced with exquisite description of events in intriguing manner. The article also gives fact on old colonial towns in Central America that drives tourism. In addition, it gives details on tourism routes that pass through Mexico. The article; therefore, emphasizes on the importance of language in tourism. It gives evidence of language tourism as a show of this fact (Mulcair 1).

Opinions Translating your tourism website in other languages – is it worth it?

This article talks about translation of tourism website into different languages to enable access from various people. This is important in tourism since its essence is to invite as many different people as possible. Wintle goes on to describe the various options utilized by website owners to access people from different cultures and languages.

In this regard, the author gives a vivid description of the differences that exist between simple translation and multilingual websites. The author does this by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of all the methods provided. Firstly, Wintle explores a simple translate which is also known as Google translate.

This method involves on the fly translation of website information by Google translate. Wintle gives its advantages as quick and easy to use. However, the article also mentions its disadvantage as inaccurate. Moreover, search engines cannot pick it. Its presence in other countries is also limited (Wintle 1).

The next option that the author describes is known as the multilingual site. In this case, one or more pages of a website are translated into other languages. It has the advantage of allowing for indexing by search engines. This helps in attracting more traffic and hence tourists. This option incurs a high cost and may be complex to materialize given that each page may require translation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and language by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third option, as Wintle says, is the dedicated websites for each target market. In this case, websites are translated in accordance with the required target language. Wintle believes that this is the best option although it has its associated costs that are quite high.

Nonetheless, Wintle agrees that tourism websites require translation into various languages to attract more tourists. The paper is based on Wintle’s opinion, which is derived from research. This viewpoint is quite understandable given the level of explanation and depth involved. Language is therefore quite essential in tourism (Wintle 1).

Popular information source English for tourism

This article, by Hardwick, emphasizes on the importance of English as an international language. In fact, she states that the language is essential for anybody who deals with tourists from any part of the world. She therefore goes on to elaborate on a course that introduces various aspects of the language for tourism purposes.

In this regard, the article tackles the main points in English. Likewise, it emphasizes on essential vocabulary to enhance service delivery in tourism industry. In addition, the article gives description of English for tourism on various areas. These include hotel English, airlines, ethical tourism, destinations, responsible tourism, and business travel, among others. It encourages both tourists and the industry to invest in English as it improves understanding.

The website also contains articles written by other professionals like Richard Sidaway, among others. The article contains important information on hotel amenities that are common in various hotels around the world. In this respect, it tries to educate tourists and tourist guides to have such information at hand for better service delivery in the tourism industry (Hardwick 1).

The British council website is a popular information source where various people who range from tourists to students research information that are related to travel requirements and English tests, among others. Information provided in this website must therefore be credible to ensure that only correct information relating to travel and tourism is taken.

This source is therefore credible despite not having references as may be given in other scholarly articles. Moreover, information received in the article is meant for a wide range of people. This requires use of understandable language. In this regard, the article has used simple language for universal use and understanding. In addition, the article uses facts based on observations made throughout the recent past. For instance, English language is well known to be utilized in almost every part of the world (Hardwick 1).

Conclusion Tourism and language are inseparable. Language complements tourism and the converse is true. Tourism has developed over the years to allow for interactive liaison between the stakeholders involved. Moreover, it has abandoned the top-down approach previously observed.

The articles are quite essential in giving an in-depth description of the relationship between tourism and language. Moreover, they attribute these changes to technological advances that have brought about globalization. In essence, understanding of various languages is essential for success in tourism industry (Hemingway 1).

Works Cited Cheng, Chia-Kuen, Li, Xiang, Petrick, James, and O’Leary, Joseph. “An examination of Tourism Journal development.” Tourism management. 32.1 (2011): 53-61. Web.

Dann, Graham. “Remodeling a changing language of tourism: from monologue to dialogue and trialogue.” Pasos. 10.4 (2012): 59-70. Web.

Hardwick, Carolyn. English for tourism. 2012. Web.

Hemingway, Alexandra. Using your language skills: Hospitality and tourism. 2012. Web.

Jayaprabha, Palanisamy and Saredha, Arumugam. “Automatic conversion of web content into ontology-based resource description language for tourism domain.” International Journal of innovation and learning. 12.3 (2012): 267-282. Web.

Lewis, Benny. Where are all the language tourists? 2012. Web.

Mulcair, Amy. “Central America’s language tourism.” BBC. 28 February 201: 1. Travel. Web.

Wintle, Fabienne. Translating your tourism website in other languages – is it worth it? 2012. Web.


Tourism and Cultural Change Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction Cultural change is prevalent in virtually every part of the world. This change is highly influenced by cultural mix, which is brought about by tourism. Tourism brings people from different cultural backgrounds together. It ensures that cultural mix is achieved. Over time, cultural mix brings about change, which is usually gradual. Tourists visit various sceneries throughout the world. This ensures that they meet different people from varied cultural backgrounds.

In essence, cultural change is a result of tourism and media, among other factors. However, tourism plays a significant role in cultural change. Cultural change has raised concern over its long-term repercussions. For instance, a number of cultures have been swallowed by others considered superior. This has brought about cultural decay in various parts of the world. Cultural change is highly observed among the youths.

Furthermore, some cultures merge to form new ones. A number of countries have initiated plans to preserve their cultures. Moreover, some tourists go about exploring for unique cultures. These include the Maasai culture in Kenya and the Bushman culture in Namibia, among others.

It is therefore essential that cultural change be closely monitored with a view to preserving cultures that are beneficial to society. This paper will explore various articles on tourism and cultural change. It will also seek to establish its significance in tourism (Butler and Hinch45).

Tourism and Cultural change Cultural change is widely evident throughout the world. Various ethnicities have lost touch with their cultural backgrounds. Media is widely blamed for this change. However, tourism is also a big factor in cultural change. People from different cultural backgrounds meet in tourism industry. In the process, cultural mix is achieved as they try to move along.

This is highly evident among tourists that go for exploratory purposes with the intent of migrating to those areas. Once they migrate, it is only a matter of time before cultural change starts. Tourism; therefore, has a big influence on cultural change. It begins the onset of cultural change.

This is quite detrimental to inferior cultures. For instance, most western cultures have swallowed their superior counterparts. This has destroyed diversity and cultural prowess that was once magnificent. Moreover, the introduction of international languages like English, Spanish, and French, among others has worked to escalate cultural change. Tourism and cultural change are; therefore, inseparable since they complement each other (Loulanski 837-862).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholarly article Cultural tourism in an ethnic theme park: tourists’ views

Yang’s scholarly article explores cultural tourism through the perspective of tourists. It looks at factors that affect cultural tourism on the side of tourists. The paper explores experiences of tourists in cultural tourism with a view to ascertaining factors that influence cultural tourism.

To achieve this, the author borrows from several sources like secondary sources, informal interviews, surveys, and observation to come up with quality research on the subject. In this regard, the author explores their views on cultural authenticity and experiences, among others.

From these results, the author finds that most tourists are more concerned with satisfaction than specific issues relating to authenticity of cultural assets. In essence, they are not concerned with the specifics of cultural change; instead, they are concerned with overall satisfaction and experience from tourist sites. This shows that less focus is placed on monitoring cultural change than on overall satisfaction.

That is, cultural change takes place unnoticed. The article also mentions that a number of tourists showed concern about misinterpretations, high costs, and poor service, among other issues in the sites. This shows perceptions and cultural differences between the visiting and the visited culture. In essence, the article gives experiences and views of tourists on cultural tourism. The paper is; therefore, well research with a view to establishing cultural changes caused by tourism (Yang 320-340).

Web article Authenticity and commodification in changing tourism trends

This article talks about issues of authenticities, which relates to culture commodification. The authors affirms that commodification of cultures is common in various sectors of the industry. In fact, she claims that this occurrence in culture is relevant in many destinations globally. She lists the numerous authors that have contributed to this topic over the years.

These include MacCannell and Shepherd, among other theorists. Moreover, she reviews the concepts of authenticity in the concept of cultural change. In addition, Bougot explores the advantages and disadvantages of culture commodification. Moreover, the article goes on to explore staged authenticity as a resistance tool utilized by some host communities. The article continues by stating its shortcomings in conducting literature review on cultural commodification.

Moreover, it focuses on the impacts of commodification in locals that reside in areas sites but are not actively involved in tourism industry. This shows how essential cultural change is to the tourism. It also shows the impact caused on locals by cultural change. This paper is well researched with a view to establishing commodification and authenticity trend s in tourism. It succeeds in doing this although it calls for further research on the same.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourism and Cultural Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author uses a wide range of sources to support her arguments. These sources are derived from credible texts that are important in strengthening her arguments. Moreover, she relates these trends to the modern tourism techniques like poverty tourism. In essence, tourism has led to commodification of culture (Bougot 1).

Opinions Group pushes cultural tourism

The article emphasizes the need for cultural tourism. It gives a detailed discussion of the need for a push towards cultural tourism. In fact, the author uses quotations to show evidence of the need for increased cultural tourism. In this regard, the author pushes for preservation of heritage to attract cultural tourism.

It gives examples of Filipinos who have worked towards preserving heritage for tourism purposes. Moreover, the author talks of the need to empower artisans as proposed by one of the members instead of saving them (artisans). Moreover, the author emphasizes on cultural preservation by mentioning the venue, which was chosen after its listing in the World heritage sites, this was done in 1999.

The author shares information from the forum in which they discussed ways of preserving world heritage for increased cultural tourism. Moreover, the author attributes need for heritage conservation to function as a medium for resolving conflicts, rebuilding post-disaster societies and resuscitating peacekeeping (Orejas 1).

The author also believes that preservation of heritage sites brings about many benefits to the community and its neighborhood. These include benefits in education, economy, and psychology. These are important in building strong relationships between individuals concerned. In essence, the author attributes peace building to preservation of cultural assets like heritage sites.

The author goes on to mention the fact that communities that preserve literature are important in attracting cultural tourism. In essence, the author emphasizes on the need for cultural preservation for the greater good of society. In this regard, the paper does not encourage cultural change as seen in other sections of the paper.

In fact, it emphasizes the fact that varied cultures promote cultural tourism. This is important since most communities have devalued their cultures and instead acquired other cultures to achieve tourism. This paper is well sourced since it is based on opinions of theorists and researchers on cultural tourism, among others (Orejas 1).

Popular information source The Impact of Culture on Tourism

OECD is a popular information website where materials related to tourism and economic developments are retrieved. The website has information on tourism and cultural change as it connects different countries with common objectives of economic development. Tourism plays an important role in economic development of these countries as they seek to increase their revenues. This article tackles impact of culture on tourism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and Cultural Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It begins by lauding facts on the importance and presence of cultural tourism. In fact, it considers cultural tourism as the most increasing and biggest global tourism niche in the world. It then goes on to affirm the importance of culture in enhancing tourism. The paper also notes that creative industry is also partly involve in enhancing tourism.

Culture brings about attractiveness and competitiveness for promotion of tourism. The paper asserts that most locations around the world are actively improving both their intangible and tangible cultural resources to improve their suitability as tourism destinations. Moreover, this is aimed at bringing uniqueness in a globalized world (OECD 1).

The paper also goes on to explore effects of culture on tourism. Moreover, it examines the connections between culture and tourism. In this, the paper states that culture is one of the main driving factors in tourism industry. It states this because culture enhances the uniqueness and attractiveness of tourism destinations around the world. Likewise, it adds to the competiveness of these destinations.

However, this can be seen to bring about cultural change since the motivation is tourism and not culture. In essence, the paper concurs with the fact that the need for tourism has led to cultural change. That is, locations around the world are working to shape their cultures in a manner that would attract more tourists.

In this regard, change is unavoidable if tourism can be achieved. In fact, numerous locations have even opted to leave their cultures and strengthen others for tourism purposes. For instance, some communities that consider their cultures unattractive have acquired cultures they consider attractive to lure tourists. This is detrimental to culture because it promotes cultural decay (OECD 1).

Conclusion Tourism and cultural change are attached. Tourism influences cultural change. On the other hand, cultural diversity also influences tourism. For instance, some tourists visit people to learn their culture. In the process, there is cultural exchange with brings about change. Cultural change can also be attributed to other factors like technological advances, which has made tourism easy and fast. In addition, media and internet have played important roles in influencing cultural change.

However, it is essential to note that tourism has also contributed towards preservation of culture. This is evident in countries like Kenya and Tanzania where The Maasai culture has been preserved for tourism purposes. Nonetheless, this is quite rare because, more often than not, tourism brings about cultural change (Reisinger and Turner 112).

Works Cited Bougot, Claire. Authenticity and commodification in changing tourism trends. 25 Nov. 2011. Web.

Butler, Richard and Hinch, Tom. Tourism and indigenous people: Issues and Implications, Jordan Hill, Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2011. Print.

Loulanski, Tolina. “The sustainable integration of cultural heritage and tourism: a meta-study.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 19. (2011): 837-862. Web.

OECD. The Impact of Culture on Tourism. 2012. Web.

Orejas, Tonette. Group pushes cultural tourism. 13 Nov. 2012. Web.

Reisinger, Yvette and Turner, Lindsay. Tourism and Politics: Global frameworks and local realities, Kidlington, Oxford: Elsevier Ltd., 2011. Print.

Yang, li. “Cultural tourism in an ethnic theme park: tourists’ views.” Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. 9.4 (2011): 320-340. Web.


Tourism and Material Forms of Culture Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction The tourism industry has experienced massive growth over the years. It is one of the world’s principal businesses and has been sustained by the increase in international trade. Its contribution to the global GDP in 2011 was 9% with 255 million people working in the tourism industry (World Tourism and Travel Council 1).

Many people travel far and wide to see, discover and enjoy the culture and heritage of other people. In turn, it has led to civilization and peaceful coexistence among the world’s inhabitants.

Tourism has both positive and negative impacts in a community or region. Tourism helps in preserving traditions, financing the guarding of the customs and heritage, improving dialogue and mutual understanding and alleviating poverty. Its negative impacts include damaging of the heritage through depletion of resources if not well run and administered and social degradation.

Tourism has to be well managed to ensure sustainability in the long term. Preservation and enrichment of cultural tourism can be achieved through involvement and participation of local communities; formulating policies to guide the local governments or regions in managing their tourism sites and changing people’s attitude and perception of tourism.

Cultural tourism is that form of tourism that involves a country’s or region’s lifestyle, their history, art, architecture, religion and beliefs that aided in shaping their way of life. It is one of the biggest and fastest growing worldwide tourism markets. Cultural tourism has become very competitive and attractive and as such, many countries have taken a keen interest in it as a source for economic development. Therefore, they are vigorously developing and promoting their tangible and intangible cultural assets to ensure their uniqueness and attractiveness.

Each country has its own unique cultural attraction sites. In this research, four regions are described. The regions selected are Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea area in Thailand, Azerbaijan, Egypt and Brazil. The various forms of tangible cultural tourism in the regions are highlighted, their impact on the economic growth and how the local government is involved in ensuring sustainability of the cultures.

Forms of material culture Material culture can be termed as a form of culture that comprises all tangible, physical and man-made artifacts, objects, resources, items, spaces and expressions that define the past and modern day. Forms of material culture include buildings such as churches, temples, mosques, industries and temples; monuments; artifacts; goods and products; historic towns; archeological areas; landscape; and tools.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More UNESCO has tried setting a global structure for protecting the various forms of culture and heritage. Through the various conventions and declarations held since 1972, arts, monuments and different types of built environment have been protected (Robinson and Picard 18).

Research examples Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea community, Thailand

Tourism is a key revenue earner for the Thai Republic. The industry successfully developed due to the injection of more than ten thousand million baht to improve and ensure its growth (Buranakitti, Keraaatiburana, and Wata 86). Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea area covers Lad Bua Luang, Song Pee Nong and Bang Len districts.

The tangible cultural assets in the Liab Klong community comprise of archeological sites, native foods, traditional goods, raw materials and agricultural products.

In the three districts, the material forms of cultural attractions include a shrine of the city god; Rat Bua Luang, Tri Para Sima and Suttawat temples; Ya Mi Auk Koy Rot, Nu Rul Da Ya, Na See Rud Deen and Al Furqon mosques; Phraya Bunluea, Pisorn, Kwang Wat Tee, Lamrang Nong Plamor, Mekala, Mue Kong, Lak Chai and Ton Tan canals; products and goods from shells, coconuts, corn peel, flowers created from menthol and dried grass frames; and native foods such as preserved fruits, baked bagasse fish, coconut candy and crisp rice (Buranakitti, Keraaatiburana, and Wata 88-89).

From the examples given, it is seen that this community has many tangible cultural assets and therefore, preservation is of utmost importance.

The massive growth of the tourism industry has come with its own positive and negative repercussions. The standards of living of the people have tremendously increased. This is attributed to the income generated from tourism, both directly and indirectly. Despite this, nature, environment and culture have all been negatively affected.

To ensure proper management and conservation of tourism sites, the Thai government through the local government organization decided to engage the local community and entrepreneurs by holding seminars where ideas could be shared on ways of improving the community’s cultural sites.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourism and Material Forms of Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, it came up with a three year development plan (2010-2012) for promoting transport and all public utilities in the area; improving the education system and promotion of indigenous knowledge to preserve religion, art and culture; educating people on the significance of natural resources and environment through promotion of programmes for improving landscapes and eliminating waste products and coming up with a methodology for managing the income generated from tourism (Buranakitti, Keraaatiburana, and Wata 90). With all these efficient measures in place, the tourism industry in Thailand is set to blossom and grow.

Azeri culture of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is one of the ancient nations of the world. It has many cultural monuments and works of art. Due to its location and different climatic zones, it is very attractive for tourism. Artists in the country decided to explore their abilities and creative skills and therefore came up with fine and rich works of folk arts.

The folk arts are used to exhibit the people’s way of life, their artistic tastes and the state’s image and significance (Baku Tourism Information Center 3). Other cultural assets include historic buildings and monuments such as Azikh cave, maze of alleys and remnants of fortification such as the Palace of Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower.

The tourism sector contributes 10% of GNP, 8% of export and 8.1% of jobs (Bayramov, Aliyeva, and Mikayilov 1). However, the sector is unexploited. This is seen clearly when compared to Turkey which earned US$20.807 billion in tourism revenue in 2010. Cyprus made a profit of US$2 billion while Azerbaijan earned US$100 million (Bayramov, Aliyeva, and Mikayilov 2).

The sector is untapped and impeded by high costs of travel and hotel accommodation, poor service quality, low levels of tourism marketing and promotion, poor infrastructure, lack of skilled guides and interpreters, difficulty in visa processing and lack of travel guide books (Bayramov, Aliyeva, and Mikayilov 5).

To increase revenue generation from tourism, the Azerbaijan government should aim at improving infrastructure such as electricity, water, gas and proper sanitations; increasing commuter buses to tourism sites as well as providing traveling guides in the buses; construction of more restaurants in the tourist localities; building and improving hotels for accommodation purposes and ensuring the services offered are of high quality meeting international standards.

Since most historical spaces are closed, the government should ensure that these sites are refurbished and reopened to the public. Educating the local people on the ways of protecting their cultural sites and ways of earning income from tourism should be encouraged and lastly, the government should ensure that extensive marketing and advertising is done both internally and internationally.

Cultural tourism in Egypt

Egypt is an African country with numerous monumental landmarks making it one of the most popular destinations. Tourism is one of its major income earners. Examples of landmarks in Egypt are the famous pyramids (Giza, Sakkara, Dahshour, Abu Rawash and Mydoum); Luxor temple; the Sphinx; museums such as Egyptian and Coptic; Sultan Hassan Mosque; castle of Qaitbay; monastery of St. Paul and amphitheatre of Kom El-Dikka.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and Material Forms of Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Egypt’s tourism sector was producing annual revenue of more than US$12 billion (Global Heritage Fund 3) with an economic growth of 7% per year (Reuters 2).

In early 2011, there were nonviolent demonstrations demanding for a change in government and leadership. This revolution hugely impacted on the tourism sector as fewer tourists visited the cultural sites due to fear of the upheaval. This led to a decline in the revenue generated by US$4 billion (Global Heritage Fund 3). Political stability has since prevailed after election of a new government.

In 2012, the economy growth rate was 2% and the number of tourists visiting Egypt in the first nine months stood at 8.8 million with an additional 4million expected by the end of 2012(Trade Arabia News Service 1). It is projected that the number of tourists will increase in 2013 to 15million (Trade Arabia News Service 4). The Egyptian government, through the Egypt Tourist Authority is boosting the tourism sector by funding and supporting festivals to ensure a continuous stream of tourists into the country.

Cultural tourism in Brazil

Brazil’s tourism economy is the fastest rising in Latin America. In 2011, the industry contributed US$79 billion to the GDP and 7.7 million jobs (World Travel and Tourism Council 1). The industry is boosted by the influx of tourists to its world heritage sites. These sites include historic towns and centers of Ouro Preto, Olinda, Sao Luis, Diamantina and Goias; Sao Miguel das Missoes ruins; Sanctuary of Bom Jesus Congonhas; City of Brasilia; Pantanal Conservation area and Jau and Iguacu National Parks.

However, Brazil’s tourism industry is hampered by the lack of adequate infrastructure such as airports, ports and hotels; poor service delivery and lack of properly trained workforce (Lohmann and Dredge 1).

With the FIFA world cup being hosted in Brazil in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016, the government is tasked with improving and increasing the airports, ports and hotels to accommodate tourists expected there in 2014. Moreover, the government has invested in the industry by increasing its funding by 5.2% and marketing tourism (World Travel and Tourism Council 4).

Conclusion The examples described above show the importance of cultural tourism on a country’s economic growth. Tangible cultural assets have become vital elements for promoting tourism. Proper management of cultural and heritage sites ensures sustainability of tourism and enhances economic growth. Involvement of local communities in protecting the cultural sites, offering quality services, good infrastructure and ensuring security of tourists are some of the factors that develop tourism.

Works Cited Baku Tourism Information Center. “Azerbaijan Culture: General Information on Azeri Culture.” Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan. 2012. Web.

Bayramov, Vugar, Leyla Aliyeva and Xalid Mikayilov. “CESD Policy Report on Tourism Sector in Azerbaijan.” Center for Economic and Social Development. July 2011. PDF file. 15 Nov. 2012.

Buranakitti, Sarinyarapat, Ying Keraaatiburana and Chakraphat Wata. “The Cultural Tourism Development Model of the Local Government Organization in Liab Klong Phraya Bunlea Community.” American Journal of Scientific Research. 58 (2012): 85-96. Euro Journal Publishing Inc. Web.

Global Heritage Fund. Heritage on the Wire: Egypt’s Tourism Sector Tumbles amid Violence. 2012. Web.

Lohmann, Gui and Dianne Dredge. Tourism in Brazil: Environment, Management and Segments. Routledge. 1 June 2012.Print

Reuters. “Egypt Invests in Tourism and Film Industry to Boost Economy.” Al Arabiya News Channel, 23 Sep. 2012. Web.

Robinson, Mike and David Picard. “Tourism, Culture and Sustainable Development.” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2006. PDF file. 15 Nov. 2012

Trade Arabia News Service. Egypt Sees 12million Tourists in 2012. 15 Nov. 2012. Web..

World Tourism and Travel Council. Brazil is leading the Travel


Doing Business in India: Outsourcing Manufacturing Activities of a New Tablet Computer to India Report college admission essay help

Introduction The main aim of the report is to explore and state the conditions according to which it is possible to choose India as the most appropriate country for outsourcing in relation to the tablet computer industry. The justification of the choice is provided in the report with references to the criteria which are significant for operating within the industry successfully.

India can be discussed as the most suitable country for outsourcing because its labour market is characterised by the highly educated and skilled work force, high quality services provided, possibilities for cost savings, and developed technologies along with favourable government policies, and the fast growing infrastructure, and these factors can be considered as beneficial for implementing effective outsourcing policies (Bullen, LeFave,