Evaluation of the main approaches to personalities is essential in the context of understanding human nature and psychology. It includes reviewing existing theories and creating a personality profile that includes key behavioral and psychological traits. In addition, one should consider the chosen approaches from the perspective of a theoretical basis, emphasizing the critical aspects. This topic is relevant and essential to study because it contains many unexplored issues. Moreover, humanity has many unstudied points in this area from a technological point of view as well. Thus, for better comprehending the chosen topic, it is necessary to consider the two significant approaches to personality, namely extraversion and introversion, from several perspectives.
Nowadays, the scientific community has managed to identify two main approaches to the study of personality and to personality in general. It is formulated by two groups of traits that have their own characteristics, both in behavior and character (Smith & Krishnamurthy, 2018). Namely, extraversion and introversion are common criteria in psychology for the categorization of personalities, terms which were first introduced by Carl Jung (Nave & Carducci, 2020). Since then, one has been supplementing and correcting these categories of personality based on observations and studies. In any case, these groups have striking differences in their personality profile, which makes it possible to identify which group an individual belongs to clearly. It formulates the relevance and reliability of these approaches and methods for studying personality.
These approaches to personality are multipolar and have fundamental differences in the behavioral profile and features. In general, the differences are constituted by extraversion, including an emphasis on the outside world, while introversion, in turn, is on the inside (Tay et al. 2020). Thus, extroverts are more active, friendly and communicative, while introverts are reserved and retiring. Moreover, the difference lies in the fact that the representatives of these categories choose different ways of directing vital energy or libido (Esteban et al. 2020). Namely, introverts prefer the preservation and accumulation of libido, while extroverts share it with people around them.
Identifying a personality profile is necessary for a more detailed and up-to-date analysis of the chosen approaches. It includes the common character traits, mood, habits, temperament, and other related psychological factors inherent in a particular personality (Robertis, 2021). As it was mentioned, extraversion is characterized by the flow of vital energy to the surrounding world. In turn, introverts usually accumulate and maintain libido, avoiding contact with people as a need to waste energy.
Thus, the personality profile of an extrovert includes openness, friendliness, and activity. Extraversion is formulated by six main groups of common personality traits, namely Cheerfulness, Activity-Level, Friendliness, Assertiveness, Gregariousness and Excitement-Seeking (Hancevich et al. 2022). In other words, it is constituted by all possible ways to share life energy with the outside world. Extroverts are sociable because new acquaintances are necessary for the exchange of information and vitality. Moreover, it manifests itself in increased activity, promoting performance and moving forward. Extroverts are impulsive, sociable, have little control over emotions, which can be explained by increased sincerity, and have a wide circle of acquaintances.
Further, extroverts tend to wear more decorative clothing, in some cases sacrificing practicality. In addition, they try to decorate their workspace, for example, putting candies on a table or taking spare chairs. Thus, subconsciously, extroverts perform those actions that contribute to contact with people (Hancevich et al. 2022). They prefer lively parties with many guests, where there is an opportunity to make new acquaintances, concerts, performances, and other crowded places. Extroverts easily interact with people around them, having the opportunity to show those emotions that they show with long-familiar people.
In turn, introverts have characteristics, temperament, and psychological factors opposite to extroverts. They are closed and prefer loneliness, quiet calm places, and small companies of already familiar people (Mak, 2021). Primarily, it is explained by the fact that introverts, as already indicated above, prefer to accumulate and preserve vital energy. That is, they subconsciously avoid and perform actions aimed at getting away from strangers so as not to waste their libido. More precisely, introverts try to avoid social activity and excitement since these processes stimulate the production and return of social energy. Besides, most often, introverts prefer not bright, comfortable clothes that would not be conspicuous.
Speaking of the workplace of an introvert, they will make attempts to isolate themself from others. One will not decorate the table or walls, put spare chairs, lay down sweets, etc. On the contrary, an introvert will prefer a closed space from an extreme point in order to be able to observe everyone and not be surrounded (Mak, 2021). It is stated by the fact that the introvert does not want to have an unexpected social interaction, for example, when one decides to scare or trick. In addition, as a rule, introverts tend to be pessimistic to a greater extent, while extroverts are mostly optimists. Introverts control their emotions and strive for a calm, stable life, they are non-aggressive and avoid any manifestation of strong feelings.
Further, it is worth considering the above behavior models of introverts and extroverts in the context of existing related theories. The first theory, namely the social activity hypothesis, states that an extroverted behavior pattern is more appropriate for a person (Peck & Whitlow, 2019). It is explained by the fact that due to such qualities as sociability, communication skills, and friendliness, extroverts create for themselves life circumstances favorable for success. An example would be a corporate party in a company, if an introvert is likely to come up with a reason to avoid a noisy evening, an extrovert will certainly visit it. Moreover, by interacting with superiors and colleagues, an extrovert will strengthen relationships at work and will most likely have a better chance of promotion in the future.
However, the theory has a criticism that the results of the study and the wording are too vague. In other words, those criteria for evaluating the success of a person are chosen, which are not always key ones. In many top companies, only professionalism is important in an employee, but not sociability. Moreover, an introvert may perform better because one will be focused on work, not on communication. Finally, today many companies work remotely without the possibility of meetings, and in this case, communication skills will not be a privilege. The same goes for the level of happiness, which, according to the theory, is higher in extroverts. However, this trend is observed only in some regions and not always.
The next model, which describes the dependence of well-being on extraversion as well, is the public attention theory. Thus, extraversive behavior includes the motive to get and keep as much attention from others as possible (Peck & Whitlow, 2019). It is achieved through conversation, jokes, support, and other socially positive methods. As a rule, it is favorably perceived by others, which contributes to a positive attitude and strengthens friendly relations. Moreover, one of the fundamental qualities of public attention is its ability to be useful. It is the favorable reaction of others that stimulates extroverts to continue to demonstrate this pattern of behavior. Accordingly, one begins to increase the demonstration of energy, enthusiasm and emotions, which are positively perceived by the environment.
Speaking of assessment, which can be used from theories to assess the behavior of a person, one can highlight several aspects. First, as already indicated, the most significant theory for evaluating a person’s behavior is the grouping into extraverted and introverted one. Talking about the hypothesis of social activity, the assessment is based on the interaction of extroverts and introverts with the environment. For example, extroverts have more acquaintances who may not be close friends, while introverts usually have only a few friends with whom they have a special relationship. Thus, a greater number of acquaintances formulates more significant social activity and, accordingly, an extroverted model.
Further, the assessment of behavior in the context of the theory of social attention is argued by the degree of external influence on the environment of extroverts and introverts. Thus, extroverts try to get attention since it is a key factor in their behavior. Namely, to get a reaction to certain actions, after which social interaction follows (Martin, 2022). Moreover, extroverts are more likely to receive a positive reaction, that is, not to engage in negative methods of attracting attention (Bleidorn & Hopwood, 2018). These actions are aimed at obtaining friendships, although, as already indicated, they do not turn into strong long-term friendships. In turn, introverts are prone to introspection, for which they do not need public attention and social interaction.
In the context of the issue under study, it is worth noting the third alternative type of personality, namely ambiversion. Representatives of this type do not demonstrate only a model of introverted or extroverted behavior. A feature of ambiverts is that one demonstrates extraverted or introverted behaviors depending on the situation. Moreover, it is difficult to determine where the motivation comes from, namely from the outside, like with extroverts, thus, from the reaction of the public, or from the inside, like with introverts. In addition, ambiverts show flexibility in communication and reaction when interacting with others. For example, when working in a call centre, ambiverts showed better performance because they made balanced decisions and built communication.
In addition, two significant approaches to personality, evaluation and categorization, were identified and compared, namely the extraverted model and the introverted one. These are two opposite approaches that are categories for evaluating a person’s behavior. The extrovert model includes such qualities as openness, sincerity, communication skills, the need for communication, and the need for attention. Moreover, extroverts have many acquaintances, on the basis of which their social activity has high rates. In turn, introverts are closed, introspective persons. As a rule, they avoid social interaction in order to accumulate vital energy, unlike extroverts. Related theories are the social activity hypothesis and the public attention theory. According to these theories, the assessment of behavior comes from the degree of interaction with the outside world, which differs significantly between introverts and extroverts.
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