In his book, The Souls of the Black Folk, WEB Du Bois is examining the situation the Africans, who were American citizens, faced after the historic American Revolution war. These people were slaves before and had become American citizens after being freed from slavery by President Abraham Lincoln. The whites looked down upon these black Americans. They also mistreated and despised them. The whites considered themselves superior than the blacks and believed that nothing good could come out of these black Americans.
The whites considered the black Americans poor and chaotic. They denied the African Americans the opportunity to access basic requirements like education, health care and running businesses. Through this unfair treatment, the African Americans found themselves in a state of confusion. They looked at themselves through the eyes of other people (Du Bois, 12) and considered themselves inferior to the whites.
They believed that they were Americans and, at the same time, their color and discriminatory practices against them made them believe that they were Africans. These Negros never wanted to give up any of the two statuses because they believed it had some good to offer, a situation that put them in the state of “double consciousness” (Du Bois, 13). They therefore held on to their African culture and at the same time wanted to embrace the American culture and lifestyle.
Double consciousness is a situation where one is convinced of who he or she is and at the same time believes to be what other people thinks he or she is. “… this double consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity.
One ever feels his twoness,” (Du Bois, 12). Such people hold on to the two personalities thus trying to live like two souls competing for one body. In Du Bois’ account, the concept of double consciousness was aggravated by the white’s stereotypes, which made the Negros (the African Americans) to doubt the truth they had about themselves. In addition, racism made black Americans to be segregated from the American community and watered down the understanding that the Negros were both African and American.
The Afro-Americans strove to attain self-consciousness and change their double consciousness to a satisfactory truer self (Du Bois, 13). Even though the African Americans desired a better self, they were not ready to change any of the two natures to suit the other.
They had to make use of their formerly dispersed, wasted and forgotten mind in order to get out of the problem they were facing. As a result, the African Americans formed a movement that helped them to revolutionalize America and the world so as to enable them to participate fully in the development of their country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The African Americans employed their skills such as poetry, literature, plays, concerts and music to express what they felt and how they wanted the whites to treat them. They came together and formed an alliance where they used plays and music to discourage stereotypes and discrimination. They formed an alliance and named it the Harlem Renaissance. This alliance grew and became popular among the African Americans.
World War 1 and the social and cultural changes in the United States accelerated the growth and popularity of the alliance during the start of the 20th century. The Harlem renaissance brought democratic reform to the American people. However, the Renaissance ended abruptly due to the great depression and their assumptions about the importance of culture that did not relate to the social and economic realities.
The African Americans sought better standards of living in other parts of the United States of America. They migrated from the southern farmlands to the northern industrial and town areas. At first, the African Americans received some level of acceptance by the whites and they lived with them in the Northern cities. They established their businesses and started growing in their economic status. Despite this, the whites still looked down upon the blacks and controlled most aspects of their lives like in markets and the economy at large.
The blacks found a better life in the neighborhood for some time. This led to a higher influx of the Whites from the south leading to their increase in population. The population of poor blacks in the region increased, as most of them were jobless and from poor background. This situation led to increase in social evils as some became thugs, formed groups of thugs, and disturbed the peace of the people in those areas.
Du Bois uses the veil as a metaphor throughout his work. In his book, Du Bois stated that the “Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil” (Pg 12). A veil is like an opaque curtain that separates different groups of people. It makes people to be ignorant of what is taking place in the other group because they cannot see it.
The veil makes things obscure and acts as a mask preventing the whites from seeing what is of importance in the whites. It covers, hides and conceals the blacks who are born “in the veil” making them invisible to the American whites. Du Bois indicates that the veil makes the experience of the African Americans invisible to the whites. In a sense, he wants to lift up the veil for us to see and understand what is taking place inside the veil.
The veil that separated the whites and blacks was color. This veil followed the people throughout their lives from birth to death. This means that the veil of color separated the way the blacks and whites treated each other in all aspects of their lives with the blacks being discriminated against in social life, political life, in hospitals, churches, schools, streets, jails and even in graveyards (Allen, 2). Color separates people in the United States making them live as different communities in one region.
We will write a custom Essay on The souls of the black folk specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This causes harm to the inhabitants and destroys democracy. The African Americans feel alienated but at the same time feel themselves as worth people with their own culture and traditions. This thought gives the blacks a dual perception, which Du Bois referred to as “double consciousness”. Du Bois suggested that the African Americans have an important identity valuable and profitable to all the inhabitants of America. The current conditions in which they thrive prevent this identity from developing or becoming fully exploited.
Through their various cultures, the white Americans put blocks and divisions on the black Americans. Du bois’ philosophy has been useful in development of American political theories. It has also influenced many people in the tradition of Africana theory. It has been important in development of the race theory through his argument that race has some real meaning even though it is difficult to define that meaning.
The book addresses the concept of domination where some people use their race to dominate others and exploit them. Such is evident in the world today. Still the whites are marginalizing the blacks and alienating them in major aspects of development of the American nation and the world at large.
The whites have not fully agreed that the blacks can provide beneficial input in development efforts than they can do. The whites still discriminate the blacks and deny them good opportunities in education, social standing and in political issues. As a result, the double consciousness still exists in the blacks to some degree. The blacks, however, are struggling to overcome this and have been contending with the whites in the social, economic and political aspects.
The American political theory today has undergone transformation, becoming better than it was decades ago. Science and social science philosophies have helped broaden the intellectual horizons thus improving the prospects of the political theory. This has helped reconcile the conflicting philosophies and traditions of the African Americans and the White Americans (Held, 14).
The transformation has also enabled the common citizens to track and participate in the formulation of the political theories and policies. The policies have largely accommodated the African Americans and allowed them to participate actively in the political activities of the American Nation. The new political theory has reviewed the aspects of sovereignty, democracy and justice to all people (Held, 16).
Despite all the transformations and struggles, the African Americans have endeavored to avoid racism and discrimination; it is notable that this still exists up to now. According to Brown N. Kimberly, Du Bois’ desire was to see double consciousness eradicated (Brown, 31). Double consciousness still exists but it is no longer an urgent objective.
Discrimination and racism still exist, although it is at a lesser degree than it was during the time of Du Bois. Some people are still struggling with their identity and mixed cultures as was experienced by the African Americans. Political instability and social injustices experienced by the people aggravate this problem. Economic disparities and differences in social standing makes some people look down upon others and make them to develop the double consciousness problem, to some degree.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The souls of the black folk by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The political status of the Blacks in the American nation has undergone major transformations. Today, the black Americans have a share in political posts in different ranks. This shows that the whites have accepted the contribution of the African Americans and their social standing, intellect and role they play in society.
The African Americans of today are not be haunted by the double consciousness as much as it were with those of some decades ago. The new political theory has changed much in terms of policy on how all people aught to treat others. As a result, the African Americans have equal opportunity with the whites in access of all services needed by them. Even though this is the case, there are still some stereotypes. Some of the people still feel superior and thus mistreat others because of their color, race and ethnicity.
The whites need to recognize the struggles of the black Americans and recognize them fully as humans and treat them with the respect they deserve. They should recognize them as part of them and fully incorporate them in all development plans and activities. The whites need the intellect, resources and power of the African Americans in running the activities of the nation corporately.
Works Cited Allen, Ernest. “Ever Feeling One’s twoness: “Double Ideas” and “Double
Consciousness” In the Souls of Black Folk.” A Journal of African And Afro- American Studies 9.5 (1992): 1-6. Print.
Brown, Kimberly N. Writing the Black revolutionary Diva. Bloomington: Indiana University press, 2010. Print.
Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Forgotten books, 2008. Print.
Held, David. Political Theory today. Stanford, Calif.: Stamford University Pres, 1991.Print.
Impact of Modern Digital Technologies on Film Industry Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Film Industry in Modern Life
Modern Digital Technologies
Introduction The importance of digital technologies is integral indeed: a number of cultural products, services, and ideas undergo considerable changes within a short period of time due to the possibilities available. With the help of numerous digital technologies, people from different industries are able to make their dreams and ideas come true in order to impress the viewer, amaze the critics, and meet the vast majority of expectations.
The film industry is considered to be one of those spheres that is under the influence of digital technologies, and the development of the technologies determines the development of the movie industry. “Movies challenged political, economic, and social systems for control of popular culture in foreign markets as much as they did at home, prompting attempts to keep American movies from destroying national identities as well as domestic film industries” (Daniel 2003, p. 224)
Digital technologies are defined as the integral driving force for movies between the 1990s and the 2000s. Though independent animations existed since the 1950s, their popularity was dated from the 1990s when animators got an access to digital technologies as well as many movie directors.
In this paper, the evaluation of the film industry and numerous impacts of modern digital technologies on the chosen sphere will be introduced; though the development of digital technologies cannot be constantly integrated with the existed business models in the movie industry, the impact of technologies remain to be considerable for in time identification of threats like competitions, high demands, and viewer’s expectations, there are still some challenges and risks which have to be evaluated and forecasted to achieve the desirable success in the chosen industry.
Film Industry in Modern Life Film industry as it is and business models in the film industry. The film industry is a unity of numerous models which are responsible for various institutions of film making like support of production companies, screenwriting, post production, festivals, actors’ choice, etc. The main purpose of the film industry is to present a movie that “tells the story” and make the viewer conclude the idea (Lehman
History of Teotihuacan Civilization Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Between 1st and 7th century AD, Teotihuacan was one of the largest empires in its time that was even larger than Roman Empire. Incidentally, it was during the same time that the Roman Empire was also a formidable civilization many thousands miles away in Europe; during this period the Teotihuacan Empire area of influence is thought to have stretched between Guatemala all the way up to Texas (Millon, 1988).
It is estimated that it was during the 500 AD that the influence of the Teotihuacan reached its peak before it started gradually declining over the next 150 years or so and was virtually non-existent by 750 AD (Archeology.com, 2010). During it height of civilization in 500 AD, Teotihuacan Empire was ranked as number five on the list of the largest cities in the world at the time and one of the earliest and largest Mesoamerican urban centre with inhabitants above 200, 000 persons (Archeology.com, 2010).
By the time that the Teotihuacan civilization was collapsing around 7th century, its city had became a major economic centre and contained some of the most advanced and impressive architectural structures such as the renowned Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the moon.
Several theories have been advanced by archeologists and historians on possible factors that contributed to the collapse of one of the greatest empires in Mesoamerica and in the history of civilizations. Notable convincing theories that have been advanced as the reasons that contributed to disintegration of the Teotihuacan civilization include disease epidemics, drought, economic collapse and foreign invasion (Tainter, 2003).
While there could have been many varied factors that might have interacted and contributed to the collapse of Teotihuacan, there could only be a handful that was central to the disintegration of this civilization which would appear to have been invasion and economic decline.
These two theories would be the focus of my discussion in the following sections where I would be describing why these were the central theories that directly led to collapse of the Teotihuacan, in fact as I will show later in this paper there is only one major factor that led to fall of the Teotihuacan dynasty.
The actual origin of the rise of Teotihuacan civilization is not yet well known. However, it is estimated that it must have occurred during the Preclassic period in 100 CE, about 100 AD (Sanders, 1976).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was originally found as a religious city and built-in Mexica highlands in a valley called Teotihuacan where it derived its name which is taken to mean the “City of gods” and was probably found by the Otomi, Nahua and totonac tribes that are widely credited for its origin (Sanders, 1976). During their earliest periods of civilization, Teotihuacan appeared to have lived and settled alongside another significant tribe in the region referred as Cuicuilco (Sanders, 1976).
Because Teotihuacan had access to an expanse area of Navaja Mountains that contained obsidian deposits, which was a vital trade commodity, they were able to rapidly increase their influence beyond their original are of settlement. The Mesoamerican agricultural trinity that involved beans, maize and squash served to further spur the growth and development of the Teotihuacan because of the increased trade of this commodities in the region.
From an early stage Teotihuacan was able to control the key commodities that were the backbone of the agriculture and trade industry as well as the obsidian mineral that was used in production of ceramics. Teotihuacan, therefore, became not only a strategic city for trade purposes but a significant centre of obtaining this scarce resource at the time as well (Santley, 1989).
In this new arrangement, the purpose of the Teotihuacan city become a crucial one as a location of batter trade that involved exchange of agriculture commodity that it did not produce, with critical minerals that it directly controlled which were obsidian and Anaranjado ceramic (Santley, 1989).
The choice of Teotihuacan location was also strategically located from where it easily became the centre and an integral player of the Mesoamerican trade; from the north it traded with Altavista, was bordered by Tingambato from the west who were also it trade partners, Matacapan from the Gold coast region and finally Tikal Monte Alban tribes from southeast (Santley, 1989). It is due to this economic leverage and strategic position that enabled Teotihuacan to yield the political and cultural clout that it had in the Mesoamerican region.
The figure below is a map of the region during the height of the Teotihuacan civilization in the Mexican area that presents the extent of the empire in context of other cultures that existed at Mesoamerican during the same period as reconstructed by archeologist based on the historical findings.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Teotihuacan Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Source: Archeological.com, 2010.
Because Teotihuacan was primarily a religious centre and trade city, it happened to become a significant civilization to other tribes in the region due to it religious artifacts that imported to far places like Tikal, Copan, Monte Alban and Kaminaljuyu which were chiefly attracted to it because of its religious themes (Adams, 1977). Indeed the extent and scale of the Teotihuacan in Mesoamerican region reached it far ends and was felt in almost all notable civilizations that existed at the time.
It is from these religious artifacts that had now provided archeologists with crucial information that has enabled them to piece together the true extent of the Teotihuacan Empire, its influence and all the related pieces of the puzzle that made up the Teotihuacan civilization at the time. In the following section of the paper, I am going to describe in detail the rise of the Teotihuacan Empire, structures, culture and factors that made this civilization very influential in Mesoamerica.
This description will provide the foundation from which I will base my theory of the factors that eventually led to its disintegration that I will discuss in another chapter. This because to understand how the Teotihuacan civilization might have possibly collapsed, it is essential to have a working knowledge of their way of life, political structure and economic factors that were central to its power.
There is no doubt that the rise of Teotihuacan Empire was very rapid at a time when other influential civilizations such as the Maya also sought to dominate the Mesoamerican region. It is probably this rapid growth that also made the decline and fall of the Teotihuacan as rapid as it has began; within about 150 years, the empire rapidly declined and was virtually non-existent.
At the time of it collapse Teotihuacan city covered an area of approximately 12 square miles with a maximum possible population of 250,000 inhabitants that provided it with the political and economic relevance that it most relied on for its dominance (Diehl, 1989).
It had impressive architectural structures that included pyramids, temples and palaces that were beautifully decorated with stone carvings. Notable architectural structures that adorned the city include the Butterfly Palace, Palace of the jaguars, Palace of the Quetzalcoatl and the Temple of the Feathered Conches (Diehl, 1989).
This was not the only major elements that made the Teotihuacan city stood out; extensive excavations of the archeological sites also indicate that the city had advanced knowledge in the field of medicine, astronomy and theology which would indicate that it probably served as an essential centre of learning as well (Millon, 1974).
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Teotihuacan Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The interaction of the Teotihuacan Empire with the Maya civilization served an essential function of furthering the empire’s interest in areas of cultural, economic and political influence in far regions that were previously under the control of the Maya. Indeed, there is archeological evidence of religious artifacts, trade routes and architectural structures that indicated Teotihuacan influence on other civilizations, notably in Maya cities such as Copan, Tikal and Kaminaljuyu (Archeology.com, 2010).
Because Maya was an influential and a very expansive empire in its own right in Mesoamerica, it became one of the most critical and influential empires in the whole of that region. Besides cultural and religious influence, Teotihuacan relied on use of colony towns as a strategy of political administration which enabled it to further its establishment and ensure tight control of critical areas of interest that it wished to have a stronghold.
Huapalcalco and Tepeapulco are some examples of the Teotihuacan colony towns that were located in different areas of critical strategic importance; both of these colonies were located along river tributaries and in proximity to valuable minerals such as quartz, obsidian and lime which were the key trade commodities of the Teotihuacan (Santley, 1989).
As we shall establish later in this section, trade was indeed a central aspect of the Teotihuacan Empire having realized early the strategic importance and leverage that could be obtained from controlling significant trade commodities and its movement.
But because Teotihuacan Empire was faced with logistical challenges that involved transportation like all other civilizations of the time, it had to rely on transport that utilized the rivers.
Control of the river tributaries through which a significant volume of trade was undertaken was, therefore, a significant way of controlling the trade routes that also reinforced their dominance.
This approach of controlling crucial trade routes was one of the methods that must have been contained in the Teotihuacan handbook of conquering other civilizations. In the book “The Collapse of Complex Societies” by Tainter, archeological reconstruction of the Teotihuacan Empire indicates that this civilization had three approaches that they used to conquer and dominate other civilizations in the Mesoamerica region (Tainter, 2003).
The first approach required just the use of military might that involved forcefully taking over the strategic towns of interest and setting up an administrative base from where they would literally run the town so to speak (Tainter, 2003). This approach worked for cities that were near the Teotihuacan city since it involved stationing administrators and military personnel that was permanently based on the village but in close proximity to their headquarter to enable constant supplies as well as ensure effective control of the town.
The second approach involved direct military takeover, as was the case in the previous method, but a different administrative strategy was used. In this case, the Teotihuacan Empire imported and set up a sizable colony of its people that were permanently established in the town as observers that also facilitated the administrative of the town (Tainter, 2003). Finally the Teotihuacan opted to seize and control the significant trade commodities and trade routes where military options were not viable (Tainter, 2003).
This is the strategy that Teotihuacan used to reign over the Cholula tribe that could not have been overcome and administrated militarily; to achieve this, the Teotihuacan would usually capture and dominate weak villages that surround the target in order to isolate it from other partners.
This approach served the intention of cutting off the enemy from crucial trade routes that had now been taken over by Teotihuacan, thereby effectively sabotaging their opponent. Throughout the regions that Teotihuacan dominated, a characteristic pattern could be established that involved three areas of dominance; economic dominance, political dominance and cultural dominance, at other times religious influence was also the case.
This was the legacy of the Teotihuacan Empire in the region and represents the A to Z of the extent of strategic activities that Teotihuacan dynasty applied to conquer other civilizations in the region. We can, therefore, conclude that this four areas, i.e. trade, political, cultural and religion, were the centers of power in which the Teotihuacan Empire was founded (Norman, 2001).
This inference is essential since any theories that had been advanced to explain the collapse of the Teotihuacan Empire must be based on the context of this perspective which must consider these centers of influence from which the city was able to flourish.
In our next section, we are now going to analyze how the actual collapse of the Teotihuacan civilization might have taken place based on all the circumstances that we have discussed above and by particularly paying attention to the roles and influence of the Teotihuacan city in the wider Mesoamerican region. But first let us briefly review the process and stages involved in the collapse of civilizations according to one authority in the subject, Joseph Tainter in his book The Collapse of Complex Society.
Discussion of Collapse
Collapse of complex societies refers to a process of rapid disintegration of a society that must flow “from a higher to a lower level of complexity” (Tainter, 2003).
In order for a society disintegration to be described to have “collapsed” two essential characteristics must be present, i.e., it must take place rapidly and must result to a much less complex society (Tainter, 2003). This is the description of Tainter’s idea of society collapse which he aptly summarizes by stating “A society has collapsed when it displays a rapid, significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity” (2003).
The primary characteristics that indicate the process of collapse in a society include reduced specialization in trade and economy by the society members, lack of centralized administrative structure in the society, reduced investment in significant areas of society interest such as in architecture and trade, breakdown in communication channels and overall disintegration of the society system among other factors (Tainter, 2003).
Overall, concept of collapse is described to occur as a result of four major factors; first, because of the inquisitive nature of humans that motivates them to solve problems (Tainter, 2003). Factor number two is because of the nature of the sociopolitical systems of any form of civilization which would require energy by design for its sustainability (Tainter, 2003).
Because of this use of energy required by civilizations, it becomes even more costly when societies expand and become more complex because more energy is required; this is the factor number three (Tainter, 2003).
Finally based on the cost-benefit analysis of the marginal returns that the presence of the civilization is yielding it becomes unnecessary to continue investing in the system anymore which leads to the collapse mainly because of its unsustainability Tainter, 2003). This is what Tainter describes as the “point of diminishing marginal returns”. The essence of this concept is based on the fact that most often collapse of complex societies is usually a factor of the problem-solving abilities of the institutions of the specific empire (2003).
But since the complexity of a civilization is also a factor of the ability of the problem-solving institutions, the results are a cycle whereby problem-solving institutions are used as the driving force of attaining the necessary growth of that the empire requires to expand, what Tainter refers as “complex” (2003).
The downside of this success is the failure of the very problem-solving institutions in addressing the complex phenomenon of the new civilization that they have facilitated, thereby leading to their collapse. The trick therefore according to Tainter’s theory of collapse would be to determine the right point of complexity that a civilization should not seek to surpass lest its problem-solving institutions, which it relies on to function fails, but which he also points it is impossible to achieve (2003).
The gist of Tainter’s theory on collapse is summarized by attributing all forms of social collapse to just one theory of economy; all other factors that are often directly linked to the destruction of a civilization according to him are just side factors that actually emanates from this major factor of economy.
Tainter recognizes that there are indeed limits to economic growth from which point further increase can only lead to increased investment that only realizes marginal returns (2003). To support this theory, Turner provides archeological evidence from bone remains by comparing the nutritional status of Roman subjects before and after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
The point that comparison makes is that Roman subjects appeared malnourished just before the collapse of the empire but improved dramatically thereafter, it collapsed (Turner, 2003).
Closer to our times, Tainter provides a comparative analysis of the cost-benefit analysis in the agricultural sector; “to raise world food production from 1951-1966 by 34%, for example, required increasing expenditures on tractors of 63%, on nitrate fertilizers of 146%, and on pesticides of 300%” (2003). There is no doubt that this figures do not add up because of the sizable energy-deficient that is lost in the process.
Even on matters of environmental pollution control, more energy input in the scale of 520 times would be required for instance, in order to approximately reduce Sulfur dioxide pollution by a factor of just 10 (Turner, 2003). This is probably the reason the US still remains adamant in ratifying the Kyoto protocol in full or committing itself to any long term drastic reductions on environmental pollution.
Theories of Collapse that led to Teotihuacan Fall
Generally, there are seven categories of factors that Tainter acknowledges as causes of collapse in complex societies; this is the consensus that many other experts also advance in their explanation of why civilization has always historically collapsed. These seven theories are resource depletion, catastrophes, inappropriate response, invasion, conflict, mystical factors and economics (Norman, 2001).
Suffice to say that some of these theories hold no water because they are largely not supported by the vast literature of documented historical writings that recorded the rise and fall of notable world civilizations such as the Roman Empire, Cholula civilization or the influential Maya civilization that existed in the 3000 BC (Rosenfield, 2002).
Neither does the archeological evidence that has been unearthed from location of these civilizations appear to support them; a typical example is mystical factors. In this section, I will briefly describe various theories as I seek to relate them to the fall of Teotihuacan civilizations.
We do know for a fact that Teotihuacan Empire mostly relied on a vibrant trade that existed in the larger Mesoamerica region that it exerted its influence. Except for this key sector that Teotihuacan heavily relied on for its survival, there were also other areas of influence that the empire was most notable for which included cultural, political and religion.
Resource depletion theory would, therefore, appear to be a credible reason that would have possibly ended the reign of this dynasty; indeed this is one of the reasons that appear to be a common denominator as a theory of collapse that contributed to the decline of major world civilizations. Resource Depletion theory, in this case, links the collapse of a civilization on lack of crucial resources that a society rely on for its sustainability which could be caused by reduced yields, environmental changes or mismanagement (Tainter, 2003).
If therefore, for some unknown reasons the production of agricultural yield of the three types of farm commodities drastically reduced during the time of Teotihuacan reign, this could explain the fall of the empire. But for this to have happened significant changes in environment must be shown to have occurred continuously during the 150 years that the Teotihuacan Empire was gradually collapsing.
Because there is no form of evidence that indicates any change in climate that could have reduced crop yield for this long duration of time, we can determine that this was not one of the primary reasons that led to the fall of Teotihuacan civilizations.
It is unlikely that the short duration of climatic changes and droughts that are cited to have coincided with the fall of Teotihuacan would significantly have impacted on the might of this empire, nor the archeological evidence of malnourished skeletons. In the latter case, other factors such as war would provide the same evidence since in times of war food and other essentials usually become scarce commodities.
Not even the theory of inappropriate response that attributes the collapse of complex society to inability of an empire to adopt to cultural changes would seem plausible due to lack of evidence to support such claims. Such is also the case with catastrophes, which is only credible if there is evidence of it occurrence that is well documented and collaborated by other events of the time as would be the case of volcanoes, earthquakes and diseases.
This too does not appear to have been the cause that led to the fall of Teotihuacan Empire. It is mostly thought that Teotihuacan collapse is attributed to three fundamental theories; foreign invasion, collapse of trade route and probably internal unrest (Rosenfield, 2002). The latter has been advanced as a theory more recently because of the selective nature of the manner that the city structures were burned down.
It attempts to disapprove the earlier widely held theory that attributed the burning of the city to foreign invasion because it was thought to have been undertaken on the whole town. With this shift of the archeological evidence, it would appear that the city was probably burned down because of internal conflict between the elites and people of lesser classes, primarily because the burning was only undertaken on architectural structures of the elites.
However, I must critique this theory on two fronts; one because history indicates that powerful empires applied tight leash on their subjects using apparatus of power that were often in control of the elites, which would mean that any possibility of an internal coup by lesser members of the societies would have been met and vanquished very firmly.
Two, I would think that the strategy of seizing power has not yet changed even after thousands of years, more so since the present plan of forcefully seizing power are derived from the lessons of history which did not involve burning of palaces and temples by the dissidents.
This leaves us with only two theories and only one very credible theory that must have caused the historical Teotihuacan Empire to collapse. There is no doubt that the collapse of Teotihuacan was attributed to trade, which would, therefore, make the theory of economics as the most credible version of what might have caused Teotihuacan collapse.
If there was foreign invasion in the city, then that must be viewed as the last straw that finally sealed the fate of this once great empire having been severely sabotaged economically and therefore very weak at the time. If new political alliances in the region started taking shape over the long duration that Teotihuacan started declining, it would explain the systematic collapse of the trade routes that the empire had established throughout the Mesoamerican region that finally rendered it irrelevant.
More likely, the Teotihuacan civilization collapsed because it was unable to effectively sustain itself because of its large areas of influence that had become costly, cumbersome and impossible to administrate which would also mean it was becoming increasingly difficult to secure and control the trade corridors.
Conclusion Give that Teotihuacan Empire only relied on trade and had noticeably failed to foresee the need to diversify its sectors of influence; this outcome would not be very surprising.
Even if this was not exactly the case, based on the theory of diminishing marginal returns, it would still appear that the collapse of Teotihuacan was as a result of trade. Because trade was the tenet that Teotihuacan Empire was found, built and sustained, it would stand to reason that any form of adverse attack that indirectly or directly interrupted trade had implications of sabotaging the empire because of its reliance on trade routes and thereby undermine its relevance in the whole of Mesoamerican region.
References Adams, R. (1977). Transformations in Prehistoric Mesoamerica. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Archeology.com. (2010). Teotihuacan: The City of the gods. Web.
Diehl, R. (1989). A Shadow of Its Former Self: Teotihuancan during the Teotihuacan: A.D. 700-900. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Rosenfield, E. (2002). Piecing Together the Fall of Teotihuacan. Web.
Millon, R. (1974). Teotihuacan in New World Archaeology: Theoretical and Cultural Transformations. San Francisco: Freeman and Company.
Millon, R. (1988) The Last Years of Teotihuacan Dominance in the Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
Norman, Y. (2001). Theories of Collapse of States. Web.
Sanders, W. (1976). The Agricultural History of the Basin of Mexico in the Valley of Mexico. Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
Santley, R. (1989). Obsidian Working, Long-Distance Exchange, and the Teotihuacan Presence on the South Gulf Coast in Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Tainter, J. (2003). The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Second Generation Identity and Language Use Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Second generation identity use
Second generation language use
Second generation identity use One of the discussions in the book about second generation, focuses on the issue of identity for the second generation children. According to Portes and Rumbaut the second generation children in America have had some struggles with their identity because they have been the children of two worlds (147).
Many of them, for example, those coming from Korea had parents who had lived in very homogeneous communities. The parents thus tried to maintain the close knit communities for themselves and for their future generations in a heterogeneous society (Portes, and Rumbaut 149).
The author presents the experiences of the Korean community to communicate the common struggles that the children faced and how they tried to solve the problem of identity. One of the ways the author presents is the use of solidarity rallies (Portes, and Rumbaut 149). These rallies cut across different generations with the common goal of perpetuating the history, custom and culture of the Korean community.
Sometimes resistance came like it did for the Cubans who after migrating to Florida found that the local initiated a referendum against their migration from Cuba to Florida (Portes, and Rumbaut 149). These isolated the Cubans who were already in Florida. This brings to mind the question as to whether those who settled in America early should have had so much power in controlling those who immigrated later.
The experiences of these immigrants is contrasted to that of the Early Europeans whose ethnicity projected outward with intermarriages and thinning out. While the early immigrants were accepted without discrimination, the later immigrants already came with ethnic ties that pitted them against the majority of those already settled into America (Portes, and Rumbaut 181).
The question of identity is therefore very relevant when considering legacies. This is because identity greatly influences the activities and orientation of groups as they try to settle in a new world.
Second generation children might not forget their culture easily since even when they are likely to distance themselves from it, the world they live in may always place them in their ethnic groups (Portes, and Rumbaut 181). It is not clear therefore if ethnic discrimination is likely to end in America. If indeed it will end, then the paradox is on what will need to happen to help achieve this goal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second generation language use A discussion of importance in the book is the language as used by the new second generation. Most of the second generation began to use English as they undertook education and jobs. However their English was the bases for much discrimination and mistrust by their American counterparts (Portes, and Rumbaut 115). Many of them were discriminated due to their accent. Sometimes this came with approval from political offices.
Bilingualism was often treated as a handicap even though research reveals one language does not necessarily make a speaker any worse at another. The author refers to studies that proved children who were bilingual had strong cognitive abilities compared to those who spoke one language (Portes, and Rumbaut 116). However schools remain monolingual in America (Portes, and Rumbaut 128). Should languages be offered as part of the core studies of children as they join school?
In contemporary America especially where there is a lot of cultural diversity bilingualism has come to be appreciated even admired. Admiration has also come from first generation and ethnic communities that are closely knit (Portes, and Rumbaut 134). This is because the children can communicate within the family easily without a language barrier between the older and younger generation. The author also reveals that bilingualism has also affected family relationships especially between parents and their children.
Children who are fluent in English and their parent’s native language experience better relationship with their parents (Portes, and Rumbaut 134). The children are also more confident and more proud of their culture when they can speak their parent’s language fluently. However the school system has been poor in propagating the acquisition of a second language (Portes, and Rumbaut 138).
Languages are not offered in many schools and even those who are bilingual find they can only use English. This has created a break where given the languages in America the country does not benefit from the positive effects of bilingualism (Portes, and Rumbaut 135- 140). The statistics in the book reveal difficulties in retention of parent’s language.
The author has presented the issues of the new second generation in a clear manner and challenged the reader to think critically about the effects of immigration especially upon future generation who have to undergo challenging circumstances before they can live the American dream. The question for a society like America could be how the society can best benefit from the linguistic intellectuals of a diverse society with many languages.
Work Cited Portes, Alejandro, and Ruben Rumbaut. The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. 1st ed. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2001. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Second Generation Identity and Language Use specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Mass cultural phenomenon Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The five elements chosen for analysis are five Lady Gaga videos; these are videos of her most popular songs and they include: ‘Telephone’, ‘Bad Romance’, ‘Paparazzi’, ‘Poker face’ and ‘Just dance’. This pop icon was selected because she is the ideal representation of what Americans look for in pop culture as seen through her videos.
Analysis The first is the Telephone video. Some critics have claimed that this video took pop music to another level. In the video, Lady Gaga shows up in prison attire where she has to enter her cell. A strip search is done and Lady Gaga remains with nothing but pasties. After the prison scene, Lady Gaga along with her co-singer Beyonce Knowles are spotted at a restaurant.
While in the restaurant, famous celebrity Tyrese Gibbons is killed. As this happens, Lady Gaga and her co –singer get onto motorcycles with American flag like attires and appear to ride into the sunset (You Tube). The video goes on and on but these earlier portions are enough to give a reflection of pop culture and hence mass American culture.
First, the ease with which violent scenes are enacted illustrates how American music consumers have become comfortable with such scenes. Also, half nude depictions of the singer indicate an over sexualization of females in pop culture. This video also depicts female strength since Lady gaga and Beyonce appear to ‘handle their own’ when they easily escape from the restaurant after the motorcycle scene (Donnelly, 15).
The second video is Just dance. This video starts when Lady Gaga gets into a dull party. People can be seen sleeping and are visibly bored by the lack of music (MTV). However, Lady Gaga’s acquaintance switches on the stereo and this soon injects life into the party. All the people at the location start to dance.
Most of the scenes in the video involve different dance moves and Lady Gaga herself. This video still propagates the theme of sexualization of women owing to her dressing. However, it also shows that Americans tend to appreciate self expression. The video is about being oneself and simply letting go without caring much about what others think.
In the Paparazzi video, Lady Gaga is first seen with her boyfriend getting intimate; however, some paparazzi appear and try to get shots of them. She soon realizes that this was a trick by her boyfriend and confronts him violently about it (MTV). Eventually, she is thrown over by her boyfriend and then lies in a pool of blood (Saxberg, 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paparazzi capitalize on these moments by taking snapshots of her. In another scene, Gaga walks from her vehicle into an aisle with crutches on and the help of some dancers. She is wearing silver attire that looks metallic like. After this scene one can see pictures of dead models. The latter video shows the inclination of most pop music listeners towards the bizarre.
When Gaga lies around in her own blood, this is a bit wacky and can really disturb those who may be watching. Also the scenes of the dead models are also stomach churning to say the least (Lamb, 13). The video illustrates how freakish scenes seem to attract more attention or how American culture is inclined towards dark scenarios. Even the kind of dressing that she chooses i.e. metallic is testimony to this inclination towards rebellion in music.
Poker face is set in a mansion where Lady Gaga wears a mask made out of mirrors. She then appears in another scene where people are playing strip poker (MTV). The females appear to be loosing and as each of them looses, they are required to keep removing elements of their clothing.
Eventually, these women start to kiss one another. The video then shows other scenes of her doing crazy things but these all relate to the theme in the song which is gambling and sex. The poker face video addressed a rather controversial issue i.e. bisexuality. Women can be seen kissing each other even when they are humoring flirts from their male counterparts. The video appears to endorse freedom of sexuality.
The unconventional choice of theme is what has led to a lot of buzz around this video (Cinquemani, 7). Lady Gaga’s success illustrates that members of the pop culture appear to endorse freedom of choice as seen through the gay scenes in the video. One can assert that American culture promotes free will and lets people decide what they want even in this video.
In the Bad Romance video, lady Gaga is kidnapped by some Russians who then go on to sell her. She has on glasses that have a razor shape and a golden dress. The songs starts and she can be seen in white and knee length boots where she frequently sings while facing the mirror (Lapowsky, 45). At some point, Gaga emerges with a crown and diamond studded outfit. She is auctioned to some men and one of them takes her. In the next scene, she is scene with the same individual on a bed.
A fire starts and burns this man while she continues with her music. At the end of it, she is seated next to a skeleton with a cigarette in hand and the bra she has on appears to give off some sort of sparks (Interscope records). The continual appearance of death in lady Gaga’s videos is testimony to the prevalence of violence in American mass culture. However since Lady Gaga is triumphant on this scene, then it shows that females can take care of themselves and do have the ability to tackle whatever comes their way.
We will write a custom Essay on Mass cultural phenomenon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The Lady Gaga’s continual success in pop charts all over the country shows that she has been received by the public. Consequently, her messages are acceptable and even a reflection of what her supporters are looking for.
Works Cited Lapowsky, Issie. Lady Gaga’s on fire in her new Bad Romance video. New York Times, 2009.
Interscope records. Lady Gaga’s bad romance video. Interscope. 2009. Web.
Lamb, Bill. Lady Gaga: paparazzi. New York Times, 2009.
MTV. Lady Gaga paparazzi music video. Official page. 2009. Web.
Cinquemani, Sal. Lady gaga: the fame review. Slant magazine, 2009.
Saxberg, Lynn. We have seen the future and it looks a lot like Lady Gaga. Ottawa Citizen, 2010.
MTV. Poker face video. 2008. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mass cultural phenomenon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MTV. Lady Gaga Just dance music video. Official page. 2008. Web.
Donnelly, Matt. Lady gaga, Beyonce world premiere their telephone video. Los Angeles Times, 2010.
Youtube. Lady gaga telephone video. 2010. Web.
and answer the question below. Write at least 100 words and no more than 200 words. NO Plagiarism! cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Use your favorite search engine to find 10 daytime high temperatures from where you live(which is 73,75,77,79,81,81,82,82,82,84 Degrees in North Carolina). After obtaining this data, perform the following calculations from Week 9: Mean Median Mode Midrange Note: To earn full credit for your initial post you must show all of the process (i.e. the “math”) on how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and midrange.
How Saudi Banks Deal With Money Laundery Research Paper a level english language essay help
Introduction As the world develops, new challenges are emerging. The 20th century ended with the world facing a number of challenges; for instance poverty reduction and eradication of diseases like polio were the main concern. These challenges were brought together in the 7 millennium development goals in which countries were supposed to tackle by the end of 2015.
Much improvement has been done, though to achieve the goals completely is still a milestone for some of the developing countries. As the world tries to fulfill the millennium development goals there has been advancements in technology with globalization being at its peak. The last two decades has seen countries joining alliances and becoming members of international bodies which aims at making the world a global village; by enhancing free movement of goods and services within countries.
While globalization has advantages disadvantages cannot be missed in that with the advancements in technology, which has made money transfer easier and countries conducting free trade among themselves a new crop of crime has emerged. Money with no legitimate sources such as drugs and extortions can now be deposited in secret accounts throughout the world with the main aim being tax evasion and hiding from the authorities in case the process which the money was obtained through is illegitimate.
These illegal transactions are what amount to money laundering. Money laundering costs governments a lot of money through tax evasion and also due to the fact that when the money is deposited in foreign accounts it helps those countries develop by investing with the money while denying the same opportunity to invest. How the governments are trying to curb money laundering remains an issue. This study will try to cover what the Saudi bank, whether alone or with assistance of the government, is doing to control this crime.
Money laundering can thus be defined as the illegal process of engaging in money transactions in which due to the origin or the function of the money, the identity, source, and the destination is hidden in order to evade questioning or detection. Others define money laundering as the conversion or transfer of illegally acquired assets for example the proceeds from a criminal activity with the main aim being to hide the origin of the money or concealing from the authorities the amount of money one has.
When individuals engage in money laundering not only do they expose their communities or governments to criminal activities but also the integrity of the financial institutions in which the transactions are carried in is lost and most of the time, though not aware, the individual may expose his or her country to security threats as has been happening of late where laundered money has been used to finance terrorism as noted in the Muslim world.
The Process of Money Laundering
For a money launderer to be successful in his activities, the following is the process in which he undertakes to make sure that the source is completely concealed. The first step involves deposition of money in the bank account or any financial institution offering the services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deposition can be done locally or the money may be shipped to international bank accounts where they are deposited. The money can also be used to buy expensive assets such as beaches, vehicles, and precious metals which are subject to reselling at later dates. The second step involves what experts call “layering”. Layering often involves transferring the money into different accounts in order to separate the proceeds from their origins.
The accounts can be given to different people from the family or just coded bank accounts, whereby, incase one wants to withdraw the money a code is required to withdraw the same. The main aim of this step is to cheat or make the audit trail longer if ever detected. The money can also be converted to financial assets such as bonds or shares and be invested for quite a while in order to hide the identity further. The last step involves legitimizing the proceeds.
This step involves using the bought asset as collateral to loans; others go to the extent of producing invoices to non existent organizations this process makes the money appear as if it was gained honestly and it would require the best money laundering detectives to detect any crime from a professional money launderer.
Money laundering activities take place through abuses of both the formal and informal financial channels. The issuance of joint accounts and the latest discovery of money transfer through mobile phones for example the M-Pesa in Kenya can provide a very good platform for money launderers. While the formal institutions pass through the regulatory system, the informal institutions usually operate outside the regulatory system and thus monitoring their activities can be such a hefty and involving procedure.
These informal institutions allow their users to exchange and transfer money or value across borders with minimal or no physical movement of money or paper transactions. Although these systems might be serving for legal and honest purposes, they can be used by money launders as they provide high level of anonymities thus one can escape scrutiny by the financial regulators and other law enforcing agents.
As technology advances, new and efficient methods of detecting money laundering activities have been devised and this has caused the money launderers to transfer their operations to the countries with weak jurisdiction or in countries poorly equipped to detect the crime.
Why not engage in money laundering
According to the available statistics, money laundering is among the largest industries in the world and it is associated with all manners of crime be it cartels, drug trafficking and even extortions. This has in the past forced the US and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to adopt money laundering laws whose main aim has been to try and reduce financial secrecy and promote transparency among the finance industry players.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Saudi Banks Deal With Money Laundery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But even as these laws continue being enacted more will be needed from the private sector and other financial institutions to take more responsibility in finding ways and measures to eliminate practices that enhance crime, undermine financial systems otherwise they will also damage their own reputations (Zucchi
Singapore’s Advancion in Economy, Tourism and Other Economy Building Sectors Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Singapore is a country in Asia and is known officially the Republic of Singapore. It is an island country which is at the south of Malaysia. Singapore is a small country which has a population of about 5 million people. The population mainly consists of people of Chinese origin, Indians and other Asians of diverse origins.
It is worth noting that Singapore has a busy port, one of the busiest in the world. Due to its small size, Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Her population has a large percentage of foreigners who go there for leisure, business and other activities. Singapore is also a leading financial center in the world.
Singapore has among the best living conditions in Asia. According to the current statistics, the country boasts excellent living conditions in Asia. It has also been ranked as the world’s number 1 in city infrastructure because of how the city is planned (Contact Singapore 2010)
Diet and nutrition
Nutrition in Singapore is complete with proteins, vitamins and starch together with other nutrients. The major source of proteins is pork and chicken meat, calcium is also included in the diet. Crabs and fish are sources of calcium. Vegetables and fruits provide major sources of vitamins in their diet.
Typical Singaporean meals are meat and vegetable recipes. They range from certain traditional foods that are sources of proteins.
Most common food
Most common food in Singapore is meat dish and vegetarian dishes which come in a range of recipes. Crab, Mee Siam, Opor Sotong Bak KutTeh and crisps are among the common traditional Singaporean foods. Smoked spicy chicken, cucumber and Bak Kwa are also common at home and across major hotels in Singapore. Most of the mail meals are usually accompanied with strong chillie. Vegetable dishes of Singapore include, melons and mango salads,
Malnutrition in Singapore is greatly reduced because of implementation of important health policies by the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Housing
The real estate in Singapore is highly developed. The city has houses which it offers for sale or for rental purposes. Management of public housing is usually done by the housing and development board which is involved in building and maintaining public houses. Residential property in this city can generally be categorized into two, public housing and private housing whereby most of the population dwells in the more affordable public housing (Contact Singapore, 2010).
Types of houses available
The types of houses available are mainly apartments, bungalows, condominiums, public housing flats, shophouse, semi-detached terrace house and townhouses.
Shop Houses at Back – Arab Street,
Source: Travel guide
Rent or own
Rental properties are present all over Singapore. Own houses are also provided for by the real estate upon purchase.
Single family/multiple family dwellings
Most people in Singapore who have families usually live in larger houses. The houses may be mainly townhouses. The detached single family house is also common in Singapore. They are mostly found in the affluent areas of the city, in Singapore.
As a comparison houses in America are mainly the Creole cottage, American craftsman house, conch house, cracker house and many others. Multiple family dwelling units are found especially in apartments and in flats. This is because they save on space and money. Single family dwelling units are usually more expensive thus preferred only to the willing and able (Travel guide 2010).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Singapore’s Advancion in Economy, Tourism and Other Economy Building Sectors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clothing
There are both modern and traditional clothing in Singapore. Most clothing in Singapore depends on the weather. In hot sunny weather, lighter clothing is common. However if the weather is emotionally rainy, thick clothing is preferred.
Modern clothing in Singapore
Recreation, sports and others
Singapore has a host of sporting activities. Leisure in Singapore is also highly developed. Horse riding, cycling, bowling, g-max reverse bungy and Cinemania are some of the examples of Singaporean sports.
Social security for retirees in Singapore is provided by the government and the private sector. This is present as a compulsory scheme for any worker in Singapore.
Health care system
The healthcare system in this country is mainly placed under the government. The ministry of health is responsible in implementing health policies in Singapore. The country boasts a universal health care system where access to medical facilities because there are compulsory medical schemes that ensure that saving is a must for its citizens. Public health is much advanced in Singapore. Hospitals and major health centers are well equipped with world class facilities which offer services to the people around.
Singapore has a lot of aesthetics for its citizens. When you visit the city, you will be encounter colorful buildings and scenery. Color is given priority in Singapore. Most street buildings are given a colorful finish such that there is pomp of color along one particular street
Currently there are more than 300 companies that offer the services of visual arts. This industry has been growing day by day such that since time immemorial, European painters and local talented people showcased their talents in Singapore.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Singapore’s Advancion in Economy, Tourism and Other Economy Building Sectors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are many people who are well known all over Singapore for being involved in the development of this industry. Some of them are, Chen Chong Swee and Georgette Chen who were teachers at some of the schools involved in this industry. The artists of Singapore are also well known worldwide. The industry of visual arts in Singapore has also made major global contributions (Flickr, 2010).
Singaporean styles of music range from jazz, rock Indie music across to patriotic songs. Singapore has many religions which include Chinese and Indian religions. Singapore is tolerant with other types of music and cultures from all over the world (Teo et al, 2008). Musicians in Singapore have been involved with other artists to emerge at the top of the global scene. This is attributed to the mixture of cultures all over the country.
The presence of performing arts in Singapore and her neighbors is well known beyond her continental borders. Performing arts is much advanced in this country. It is mainly used as a leisure activity in entertainment and recreation (Flickr, 2010).
Photo of performing arts in Singapore
Source: flickr, Shotorphotography, (2010)
In Singapore, folklore dates back from the years preceding its independence period. The period of colonial Singapore is characterized by the building of some parts of its city center. Since the end of the Second World War, Singapore has been experiencing a glorious growth from strength to strength. Singapore gained independence from Great Britain.
Conclusion Singapore as this study reports is much advanced in economy, tourism and other economy building sectors. It is also a popular place for international visitors who go there for tour or investment. Therefore, life in this city is much favorable for many different cultures.
Reference List Contact Singapore (2010). Living conditions. Web.
ExpatSingapore (2010). Housing in Singapore. Web.
(2010). Clothing in Singapore. Web.
Flickr, Shotorphotography (2010). Performing Arts in Singapore. Web.
Teo , T, Hargreaves, D
Strategic Political Partnerships and New World Essay online essay help
Introduction Asia is one state which presents a very dynamic region in the third-world countries over the past twenty years. The dynamics includes Chinese growth, the coming up of India, regional collaboration, economic, trade and security issues.
A case study of Southeast Asia reveals that its governance has greatly influenced the political, economic and social environment of many states. The Southeast Asian Nations have developed new models of economic collaboration and new political roles which have in effect sculptured international systems of the world (Wurfel and Burton, 1996).
The recent global crisis and the subsequent melt-down of powerful economies is what triggered the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to seek more international cooperation. Other than economic cooperation, this partnership is also being sought in the political arena (in fighting terrorism), knowledge and technology transfer, and support for development projects.
Asia is hopeful of providing a compact economic alternative due to regional integration with powerful economic giants like China and India and Russia. The trend of the rest of the world is in fact towards the Asian Nations (Wurfel and Burton, 1996).
The New World Order
The new World Order refers to the coming together of the world’s most powerful nations to secure and sustain world safety, peace and security. The other terms that can be used interchangeably to mean the new world order include globalization, one world government, and global governance. There are many people who dismiss it as just a mere theory, but a closer investigation into the history, clearly reveals its establishment as a fact. The coming up of the new world order was in fact prophesied in the Bible (Lineman, 2007).
The New World Order’s intention is to create a one world government which will control and regulate all the other nations under an international law.
The setting up of this global government is slowly taking its roots in the political arena and especially in the United Nations. There is a Commission for global governance established in the United Nations which forecasts a world court, a one police force and a global tax.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, there are several organizations that have so far been set up which ascribe to the New World Order philosophy which include: the media personalities, the Club of Rome, the Trilateral Commission, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, the Council of Foreign Affairs, etc. The economy is also affected since there are free trade agreements among nations, International Financiers like the International Monetary Fund, Bank of International Settlements, etc.
The third area of concern is religion, where there are plans to come up with a new world religion. This is evidenced by the existence of such organizations as the World Council of Churches, and the Parliament of World Religions. Moreover, there has been a growing concern over the environment. Moreover, there are talks of global warming, which is an environmental problem, as well as proposals to adopt socialism in order to curb this menace (Johnston, 2008).
Arguments for the New World Order
There are arguments that the New World Order bring about positive ethical changes. For example, nations have embraced the positive normative behaviors and beliefs which create more space for moral interaction and acquisition of desirable concepts. In addition, institutionalization has resulted to articulation of the wrong cultures into better practical and credible practices.
For instance, gradual integration of colonies led to the abolishment of slave trade and forced labour (Crawford, 2002, p. 99). Many non-consented humanitarian interventions by regional organizations have resulted in more effective methods of fighting overwhelming catastrophe (Johnston, 2008).
Arguments against the New World Order
It is viewed that the New World Order will result to socialism/collectivism/Maoism or capitalism. This capitalistic form of governance reserves no rights for an individual thus all rights and powers emanate from the state itself. Socialism is deprives individuals the freedom to expression and instead enslaves them.
The involvement of an international body to fight global warming is viewed as a loophole to taking over ownership and exploitation of resources. Additionally, when it comes to execution of justice, the International court is empowered to deal to deal with the guilty without the interference or protection by the nation (Gjelten, 2009).
Case study: India and China The strategic political partnership in alignment with the New World Order
The New World Order has its affiliation in the political arena which is evidenced by the dynamic changes in the structure and customs of global politics (Grammy and Bragg, 1996).
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Political Partnerships and New World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More China and Japan have not been left out in this, for instance, China actively sought diplomacy towards India, changing Sino-Indian relationship from one that was of distrust to a strategic partnership. It is however seen like China had other hidden intention other than acquisition of a stable bilateral relation. They promised to co-work together to attain a more cohesive International political and economic order.
The integration between the Chinese and the Indians was formed partly in order to reinforce their international matters by tapping the global market opportunities and developing stable and prospering states, and attain an economic order. The two states further agreed to increase activities in their bilateral trade relations. The United States, for instance, has approached the Southeast Asian Nations to reinforce their security concerns so as to take advantage of their international influence (Wolters, 1999).
China also intends to strengthen the security within a given region in order to acquire a more profitable position to disseminate American dominance Additionally, China has always ensured that it actively participate in regional political, security, and economic organizations in anticipation that China’s influence will dissuade multilateral groups from operating.
It is well documented that China has signed two treaties or agreements i.e. ASEAN’s Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in the South China Sea, and the Declaration on the Code of Conduct at the ASEAN-China 2003 meeting. The signing of these two documents, China pledged for non-violence and non-interference and other problem solving machinery that have been sponsored by ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
Additionally, China spearheaded the formation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) which constitutes the’ Shanghai Five’ group. The Shanghai Five group put emphasis on boosting confidence among its members and fighting terrorism. Current findings reveal that SCO has assimilated India, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iran as passive members thus expanding their scope of governance to South Asia and West Asia.
Moreover, the SCO, under the control of China and Russia, has supported for the Shanghai spirit which claims that there should be shared trust, equality, coordination, respect for different civilization, and common development. These principles tend to oppose the traditional measures the United States employs to maintain security hence their culture is eroded (Gjelten, 2009).
There emerged a convergence of both India and China on several critical issues. One, they converged in quest for The Asian nations stability. Secondly, they realized that energy supplies required security. Additionally, the convergence was aimed at eradicating any form of dangerous extremism from neighboring states. Moreover, to gain mutual benefits from economic association involves an amalgamation of different colonies.
In spite of the positive achievements in the established ties among these states, there were already established boundaries to which these relations could occur. These limits were a challenge to the involved people since most are the times when they caused frustrations and circumscription in the already established relationships. Therefore the struggle for cultivation of tight security ties with other nations by the Indians continues up to date.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Political Partnerships and New World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, global war against terrorism has resulted into greater changes, thus leading to more strategic relationships. Furthermore, the relationship between china and other nations is viewed as an instrument for fostering stability to south East Asia as well as other Asian nations. This move is anticipated to be beneficial to all and sundry of the included states, not only in Asia, but the whole world (Chossudovsky, 2003).
Conclusion The formation of cooperative riparian institutions has faced rivalry. There seems to be a conspiracy by the super powers to acquire power advantages over the less dominant nations. This is because security concern is mostly not the priority of the se lobby groups (Volgy, et al, 2009. The active participation of China has raised concerns among nations since it has done diplomatic manipulations in the governance of many states.
The arms control and disarmament efforts of the superpowers have been accused of being inordinately concerned with propagandistic goals while disregarding the primary goal of promoting stability and peace. It is therefore seen like their primary goal is not the pursuit for national security (Inis and Kenneth, 1994). The stability of the Asian nations is of paramount importance to all other countries. For example, the Iran-India agreement of 2003 has fostered peace and stability, though the strategic principles are still underestimated.
It is strategic in that there is no forced cooperation between the involved countries. This move is of great significance in promoting world peace and calmness, thus all nations all over the globe are encouraged to embrace the new move. Current researchers all over have been enthusiastic in finding out possible channels of global assimilations in order to counteract major rivalries among nations. There are several recommendations that have been put forward, which include; all nations should long for peace and unity.
In addition, every nation should embrace the others regardless of their origin and status. More over, trade cooperation should be enhanced with an aim of boosting the economy. Finally, there should be harmony and co-existence in all aspects of life, i.e., social, political, economical and spiritual grounds, which are an excellent, move for promoting peace and unity (Victor, 2003).
Reference List Chossudovsky, M. l., 2003. The globalization of poverty and the new world order. 2nd edition. Global Research.
Crawford, N. C., 2002. Argument and change in World politics: ethics, decolonization, and humanitarian interventions. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Web.
Gjelten, T., 2009. Economic Crisis Poses Threat to Global Stability. Journal of global economics, Vol.12; issue 18, pp 105-156. Web.
Grammy, A. P. and Bragg, K., 1996. United States-Third World Relations in the New World Order. NY, Nova publishers. Web.
Inis, L. C. and Kenneth, W. T., 1994. Community diversity and a new world order. Understanding Political Realism. University Press of America. Web.
Johnston, D. M., 2008. The historic foundations of world order: the Tower and the Arena. London, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Web.
Lineman, W. B., 2007. “In Recession, China Solidifies Its Lead in Global Trade“. The New York Times. Web.
Victor, L. A., 2003. Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Web.
Volgy, T. et al. 2009. Mapping the new world order. John Wiley and Sons publishers. Web.
Wolters, O. W., 1999. History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. NY, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Wurfel, D. J. and Burton, B. L., 1996. Southeast Asia and the New World Order: the political economy of a dynamic region. NY, St. Martin’s Press.
Gun Control in the United States of America Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Argumentative On Gun Control
Reasons people keep guns
Reasons for Gun control laws
Argumentative On Gun Control Gun control refers to the efforts put by the government to regulate or stop gun possession or sale by the public of a given country. Guns fall under firearms, which are classified into three broad categories; Handguns, Riffles and Short guns. They can be either automatic or semiautomatic. The automatic guns operate in such a way that, they “continuously fire bullets as long as the trigger is pulled” (Agresti and Smith, 2010).
Statistics from the United States of America show that out of a population of three hundred and seven million people, three hundred millions possess guns, accounting to around 97% of the population. However, in countries where possession of firearms by the public is illegal, it is very easy to acquire guns when one needs and unlike countries like US where firearms possession is legal, criminals possess the most firearms.
Different people in different parts of the world argue differently on the matter concerning gun possession by the public, which can have either a positive or a negative impact. For instance, people may keep guns for self-defense and protection against crime, hunting, target shooting, and clay bursting among others. The following essay will outline, describe, and weigh the reasons for gun possession and control around the world.
Reasons people keep guns Most people argue that they keep guns for self-defense. They feel that the police may not be present all the time to protect them or their families from situations threatening their lives. In addition, some people feel that, as gun ownership decreases, the incidences of crime also drops since people are able to protect themselves (Chastain, 2010).
For instance, statistics show that in 1993, 0.5% households in the US used guns for defense in a situation where someone would have been killed if he never used a gun. In addition, 3.5% had used a gun in protection of their family and their property, 40% had stopped a planned attack after realizing that the victim had a gun, and 34% had ensnared a criminal using a gun, among others (Agresti and Smith, 2010).
Reports show that in many countries, most guns are owned for criminal purposes regardless of the fact that it is illegal to possess firearms. In addition, anyone who wishes to obtain a gun can easily obtain one in some situations; thus, cases of shootouts, homicide, and robbery are a very common scenario (Crooker, 2003).
This is the case almost everywhere in the world where most criminals use guns to accomplish their mission. In 2008, roughly armed criminal committed 8% of the crimes in the US. Such cases included robberies, rape cases, homicides, and many other kinds of assaults.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many parts of the world, many people keep guns for hunting because traps or bows and arrows cannot hunt some game. Although this may be justified, challenges come in when the hunters use the firearm for the wrong purposes. The primary reason may be hunting but at times, these hunters use the guns to commit violence or to do illegal poaching. However, it is important for the hunter to be well equipped with enough knowledge on how to operate the firearm lest he bladders with the firearm (Kleck, 2005).
In countries where public can possess firearms, children are born, and as they grow up, they buy guns because their parents also owned one. At times, the parents may buy guns for them as gifts, while others find it cool to own a gun and go shooting with friends. In such cases, the gun owners may not be very careful on how they handle the firearms and the result at times is devastating (Valdez, 2003).
Gun control Gun control is an important but very challenging task in every country because the victims always embrace it negatively. When gun control measures are enacted, the criminals find means of strengthening their actions thus endangering the life of people.
According to the statistics from US, legalizing gun possession endangers the life of people because it is not possible to differentiate between criminals and law-abiding citizens. In most cases, countries put gun control laws in place to prevent access by criminals and minors. Therefore, Federal measures should be enacted because this is the only way to regulating gun ownership (Valdez, 2003).
In countries where gun possession is legal, it is important to ensure that people acquire licenses for their firearms so that they may be careful to use them for the right purpose. By registering firearms, it is easier to do investigations incase of a crime. In America, gun control policies have been debated repeatedly in vain.
This is because the citizens in possession of guns outnumber the militia meaning the government will never succeed in getting firearms from the hands of its citizens. The incidences of mass shooting like the Columbine High School scandal are a clear indication that having guns in public hands is not safe (Gettings, 2010).
The second amendment act in the bill of rights reads, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a Free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.” This amendment encouraged people in service of the state to keep arms, which was fine because it was not their personal interest but job requirement.
We will write a custom Essay on Gun Control in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reasons for Gun control laws Gun control laws are the laws that define the situations under which it is right or wrong to own firearms. In Washington DC, murder crimes are low due to strong gun control laws while in Indianapolis, high rates of murder cases are a result of weak gun control measures (Williamson, 1008). Though people may feel secure in possession of firearms, it would be even more secure if no one was in possession since no crime is likely to take place.
In real sense, in a situation where someone uses a firearm for security purposes, he may either injure the victim or be injured. People may also shoot one another unintentionally when they are playing or a person is not having the right skills to use a gun. Moreover, when the public is in possession of guns, it makes it hard for the police to maintain law and order since they can be entangled in a scandal (Liptak, 2009).
Conclusion Gun control policies and possibly abolishment of public possession of guns is the best step that the world can take today. This is because increased case or homicides, and robbery with violence are a result of so many guns in the public hands. Incase of places where abolishment is not possible, strong policies should be enacted in order to ensure guns are in possession of the right people and are serving the right purpose.
References Agresti, J. and Smith, R. (2010). Gun control. Web.
Chastain, R. (2010). Why Own a Gun. Web.
Crooker, C. E. (2003). Gun control and gun rights. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Gettings, J. (2010). Milestones in Federal Gun Control Legislation. Web.
Kleck, G. (2005). Point blank: guns and violence in America. NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gun Control in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liptak, A. (2009). Justices Will Weigh Challenges to Gun Laws. Web.
Valdez, A. (2003). Gun Control. NY: InfoBase Publishing. Web.
Williamsons, M. Reasons for Gun Control. Web.
Traditional Culture no longer is prevalent in Japanese Society Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Traditional Japanese cultural paradigm is no doubt under a serious threat with the arising of Japanese independent mind westerners, who do not claim any inherent trait in being Japanese. If this is not the case, Japanese art history must not have suffered at the hands of cultural politics of Euro-Americans who are most likely prefer to compare Japanese traditional iconography with other cultural groups.
Many scholarly writers and neo-traditional artists support this notion by providing insufficient reasoning of being Japanese or foreigner, they believe it does make no difference to characterize Japanese traditions akin to comparing with Americans or Westerners in general.
I don’t chime in with them and opine that comparing Japanese culture with that of any other is not worth to concern the contemporary modernization in Japan. Unlike others I don’t believe the onus shoulders onto the significance of ‘change’, but it is the technologically driven society that has taken place rapidly and has intervened with intrepid lifestyle of the Japanese, marking the culture towards a panorama, asunder apart from the traditional Japanese shift.
It would not be right to claim that Japan has lost its cultural significance at all, and that all it is left with is the debris of the electronic revolution. Instead, what I have realized is that Japanese post modern societal trends have failed to realize the altruistic striking feature behind Japanese studies on pre-modern art, especially when it comes to Japanese lacquerware products.
Yiengpruksawan suggests the difference between traditional and modern day imagery of Japan, (Yiengpruksawan 2001, 105) as traditional picture presents a grotesque view telling epics of Japanese warfare whereas the modern day Japan contradicts it.
I don’t believe in this stance either, for the reason that traditional urushi art and craft in Japan is itself a memento of pre-war era, which has left its vestiges of the nineteenth-century European template in the segmented art form of painting and sculpture that now is renowned as an amalgamation with the American decorative art, particularly lacquerware.
The process of commercialization in the nineteenth century Japan has made the Japaneseness less viable in the art and crafts, which to this day, have phased out gradually by the modern day masterworks of Japanese art. Withering away traditional Japanese art to contemporary culture governed by the refinement of electronic era is a plight, particularly to those who are engaged in the profession of reuniting traditional art with modern one, and even to those who want to conserve what antique craft history has bestowed on us.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fact not much has been written on the Japanese lacquerware, is itself an answer to the dubious question whether or not the urushi has been retained in the contemporary Japanese society? From the beginning of the naturalization of lacquer implant, as a monument of Japanese art history, the government was supposed to make intricate measures so as to avoid its unnecessary availability to the European countries as well as the United States, which it had not derailed.
However with the phasing of the government policies in to the adoption of the 1870s epoch (Yiengpruksawan 2001, 105), it was aimed to enhance the exports of lacquerware to Western countries. Such a welcoming note and exposure of Japanese handicrafts and monuments kept up with the pace of the economic competition until it was marketed by certain change of ‘modernization’ by the Western countries.
By modernization, it is meant to be enhanced, economically available to Westerners as a result of vying with one another, and ultimately lost its value in the Occidental world. The buyers manifested a line of what today can be called as distinction between the old art and the new one. And so the Japanese lacquerware lost its traditional heritage that once it had over the world.
Another reason of phasing out lacquer products goes with the chronicles of Hayashi who in 1980s used his apartments as galleries and shops to display and sell his bronze and lacquer ware products to Paris (Merritt 1990, 13), but as soon as it dawned upon him that his clients had more interest in prints than in lacquerware, he started merging and derailed a coalition of prints with other lacquerware products.
In all the process, Japanese authorities helped to sell out the best of prints to foreign collectors, and never showed up any enthusiasm in marketing the oriental lacquerware.
The manufacturers and the retailers of such traditional art are now use to what we see as a new attitude of pluralism. This attitude has its own significance in the sense it markets whatever it feels can be blended with the recent globalization trend. Diverse cultures, inheriting art and crafts, and countless heritages, all are blended well with the global cultures of mix and match traits.
All this inherited from the West has brought along with it unique repercussions that add up to the loss of original Japanese lacquerware and handicrafts. McCausland mentions “There are now museum collections and university departments of world art that are better redefined as ‘the universal museums’” (McCausland 2005, 688). By universal museums, what I perceive McCausland wants to point out is the contemporary plight of our generations at the hands of our heritage destruction.
We will write a custom Essay on Traditional Culture no longer is prevalent in Japanese Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Of course, the word ‘blending’ that I have used above best goes by ‘destruction’ because any change, addition, or subtraction to a heritage memento, that even fulfils the criteria against which contemporary society is lured to the market is indirect destruction caused by the people of the society. Further it is marked by dignity by the government, when such heritage is placed in museums in collaboration and coalition with the globalized trends.
The metaphor with which original heritage of oriental lacquerware was once considered no longer attracts the countrymen, and why would they do so? When no attempts have been made by the Japanese government to restore their ancestral heritage, often which the nations wonder as priceless have really gone so ‘priceless’, that no Japanese either inspires or admires it.
So for the foreigners, why would they like the classical Japanese monuments, though depicting true stance of elegance when at the same time Japan is producing the finest quality electronic goods and equipment? This is not to say that globalization is the culprit here, but to some extent it must be held responsible for petering out the traditional Japanese culture that once was admired throughout the globe.
Manga/ Anime Characterization Essay college application essay help
Introduction The quest to develop and identify one’s individual identity is very dominant in the manga/ anime characterization. Narrative driven structures that combine visual art forms are used to depict a broad range of phenomena that deals with the search for individual identity (Bryce n.d). Twins can be characterized in manga/anime presentations to try and show the inner struggles they go through in defining their identity, otherness, inner conflict, sexual maturity and the view of human goodness or evil.
Twins in manga/anime characters are therefore created to embody the personal, psychological struggles of an individual twin, independent from the other his/her half. Psychological issues that represent twins struggles with the real self against the expected self, the split and fragmented self and the internal conflict between the ego and the super ego. The narratives in manga/anime therefore seek to bring out the anxieties and uncertainty about individual identity among twins.
Twins Offsprings developed from the same zygote and produced in the same pregnancy are referred to as twins. The scientific process involved in the development of twins is widely understood by medical experts. However their psychology that deals with how they relate in different aspects of life is quite puzzling. Even twins themselves have not been able to clearly articulate what they go through life in relation with people who are not twins. In the twins’ world, there are fraternal and identical twins.
Identical twins share far more features and genetic make up than fraternal twins. As a result they are likely to have a stronger bond and in some cases, their likeness goes beyond physical features to include their intelligent quotients (Perry 2002). Twins make up approximately 2% of the world population, a significant number that makes them an interesting constituency for study.
Twins can be looked at from the Manga/anime characters perspective; these are different characters but of the same kind and they form interesting subjects of study in terms of identity. Identity in this case will be explained through the otherness, self acceptance, inner conflict, sexual maturity, and change of or perception of human goodness or evil by the twins.
The pattern of twinship that twins share creates some sort of identity struggles that they find hard to overcome (Klein 2003). Many twins share a bond that goes beyond that of ordinary siblings. While the majority of people are born separate and learns intimacy as they grow up, twins are born intimate and learn to find separation (Rajamanickam 2007).
The bond and the emotional connection that accompanies it forms an interesting psychological study work. However, there are studies that have been conducted on the effect of nature versus nurture in twins.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Klein, where twins were left to stay and grow up together, the bond grew with time and their identities were more a like, but in cases where they were separated, they developed different identities but stuck to their childhood identities as either bad or good kids (Rajamanickam 2007). In manga/ anime characterization twins are characterized by identical male or female twins who look similar and exhibit strong bonds especially in western culture and/or jealousy or rivalry especially in Japanese manga characterizations.
It is important to note that representation of twins in Manga/anime characterization comes in narratives told in the form of animations, caricatures and tales are used to show the characterization of twins. Intersubjective relationships between the self and the other are therefore used in portraying the double in twins (Bryce n.d).
The philosophical principle where one person changes his perspective for the other is referred to as otherness. Otherness of a person in psychology represents the self. It involves the study of the cognitive or affective study of someone’s identity. The self that makes the otherness in human beings therefore plays an important role in human motivation, identity and cognition. Identity here will be the most important factor as far as twins’ otherness is concerned.
Twins comprise to the group of individuals struggling to find the true sense of self. The otherness is a position of outsideness that is needed by a twin to complete the self (Bryce n.d). Depiction of the outsideness is normally achieved by creation of caricatures like cartoons that play roles of the other twin and how he/she thinks. The caricatures also behave in a completely individualistic way reflecting the thinking of one or both twins in their quest to attain independence.
According to (Klein 1995), twins have unique struggles of identity. The reality of twinship more often than not overwhelms the push for development of self identity in twins. The struggles breed conflict struggle in terms of competition and sharing and separations that are always stressful and traumatic (Klein 1995). These conflicts best captured by animations e. g cartoons which are better placed to capture the situation compared to narratives.
Some psychologists have argued that it is possible for twins to have separate identities. This because they owe allegiance to their twinship, and it’s a reality they cannot escape. They also need to develop the self as a separate human being. The difficult and sometime impossible to choose, situation leads them to having double identities.
In the quest to develop their identities through the self, twins have many obstacles, especially the fact that they live in world where most people do not understand what it means to be a twin. The lack of understanding of twins comes out in the various anime/Manga characterizations that producers have developed.
We will write a custom Essay on Manga/ Anime Characterization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stereotyping is common in such tales, and caricature presentations that seek to explain the self in twins. The bond that exists between them and whatever they do to cope with their predicament is only understood by themselves and close people like husbands, wives and siblings.
In building a blended identity, twins often feel isolated due to the lack of understanding from people, and only find reprieve from the close people who can stand their close relationship. They have difficulty in relating with other people and surviving alone. For the twins who are never separated in early childhood, the shared identity bond lasts through out their lifetime. It is made up of shared thoughts and emotions that make their functioning away from each other difficult (McMahon 1999).
However in cases where separation takes place in childhood and nature shapes their identity, twins will develop like other human beings who were born single. Medical observers are quick to point some exceptions do exists where even twins separated at birth exhibit similar development of the self, hence identity. Despite efforts by parents or guardians to nurture separate identities, they always remain attached to their twins hence achievement of a complete self is difficult.
According to Newman and Newman, self acceptance comes from positive feelings that someone feels come from the acceptance he receives from other people (2008 p 410).
Stereotypes people have toward Chinese Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Stereotypes are considered as the pictures formed in the mind of individuals looking into their social worlds. Individuals hold different views concerning other people’s way of life and what the society expects of them.
They also exist from the point of view of the person who is being stereotyped. The society is made up of different social groups living in diverse geographical areas. Each group perceives itself as being superior and all other groups are regarded to be inferior to it. For example the Americans white perceive the black Americans to be lazy and ignorant thereby denying them employment opportunities.
The effects of stereotypes are much more than the simple perceptions in peoples mind. Certainly, the discriminating individuals have negative beliefs about the targets of their discrimination. The stereotyped individual’s self esteem and worth are lowered as they struggle to fit in the society. When stereotypes are consensually shared within a society, their consequences become much more destructive, because they affect entire groups of people in a common way.
The individual approach to stereotyping has primarily been associated with the prevailing social cognitive tradition. The basic assumption of this approach is that, over time, people develop beliefs about the characteristics of the important social groups in their environment, and this knowledge influences their responses toward subsequently encountered individual members of those groups.
We can therefore say the stereotypes develop as the individual perceives his or her environment. The perceived information about social groups is interpreted, programmed in memory, and then retrieved for use in directing responses. This paper looks into some of the stereotypes held about the Chinese people, how Chinese students respond to these stereotypes,
Problem Statement Several researches have been conducted on Chinese stereotypes and each of these studies comes up with different stereotypes. Most of these studies focus on the major stereotypes held about the Chinese but forget to address the effects of these stereotypes to the Chinese students especially the ones studying in other countries. It is not clear why people have so many stereotypes towards the Chinese but most people believe that, Chinese have a strong relationship to their culture.
Research Questions This paper seeks to answer the following research questions
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What are the major stereotypes people have towards the Chinese?
How do Chinese students feel about being stereotypes?
Do these stereotypes affect the social lives of the Chinese students?
What is the relationship between culture and Chinese stereotypes?
Literature Review There are so many perspectives held about the Chinese. According to Rand, et al (2007), “The Chinese are quiet, peaceable tractable, free from drunkedness, and they are industrious as the day is long. A disorderly Chinaman is rare, and a lazy one does not exist.” However, there are some American students who hold that, Chinese are cold, distrustful, and cunning.
They perceive Chinese as people who are like taking advantage. These stereotypes seem to be based more on hatred than the general perspective of many people (Walkey, 2010). Other people believe that, the Chinese are smart people and are born to be leaders. In the classroom, they are perceived to be good in mathematics and science subjects and like helping other students although they rarely participate in group discussions.
Most of the Chinese hold some of these stereotypes to be true although they strongly disagree with others. For instance, they do not believe they are terrible drivers, or that they are bananas as some people call them. There is a strong relationship between the stereotypes held towards the Chinese and their cultural heritage (Nikolas, 2006).
It may look absurd that, cultural teachings are still going on in China consideration the rapid changes that are taking place in the global world. Many radicals have tried to give China new ideologies although they have not succeeded. It was because many Chinese strongly hold to their cultural tradition to a point that it has become almost impossible for them to shake it off completely (Ward, et al. 2001). This shows how significant the Chinese culture is to the Chinese people.
It has managed to persist in the world of western civilization and seems to persist until the end of time. However, the significant of culture and cultural identity in the age of globalization remains a question that is yet to be answered. Some radicals hold that, culture will soon become a museum piece to which they are only ironic references possible, while others claim that, it looks absurd to talk about national cultures in this age of globalization. Walzer (1994), observes that,
Societies are necessarily particular because they have members and memories, members with memories not only of their own but also of their common life. Humanity, by contrast, has members, but no memory, and so it has no history and no culture, no customary practices, no familiar life-ways, no festivals, no shared understanding of social good (p25).
Then, another question emerges, does culture and cultural identity apply to other parts of the globe or is it only applied in China? Do people in other communities share the modern or post-modern Western perspective and anxieties about culture? Walzer only address the issue of shared understanding of the social good but does not address the shared understanding of art and or aesthetics (Witzell
Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis Essay essay help: essay help
An ethical awareness inventory is an instrument that is used to identify an individual’s central ethical style by demonstrating their prevalent ethical philosophies used to make ethical and moral decisions.
The inventory descriptions are then used in analyzing individual’s perspective on ethics and determining their consequent basis for ethical decision making. Although the general perspective presented by the inventory may not exactly fit an individual’s perspectives, the instrument results provide crucial insights into an individual’s general approaches and views with regard to ethical issues.
The ethical awareness inventory indicated that my profile was more strongly aligned with an obligation ethical philosophy and least aligned to a results based ethical philosophy.
An obligation oriented ethical style indicates that such individual generally tend to base their ethical perspectives on obligation or duty to perform moral acts or make moral decisions. Ethical conduct in this case appeals strongly to the conscience. Making ethical judgments thus entails examining the person’s intent in carrying out their actions rather than the results of their actions.
Emphasizing on intent and conscious in obligation oriented style opens the style to risks of individual’s egocentrism and conformity to group thinking, which may distort individuals conscious and intent (Paul and Elder, 2006). Nonetheless, an obligation oriented philosophy results to a perspective that regards ethical principles as universal, and as intended at promoting individual autonomy and freedom besides laying an emphasis on respect for human dignity.
Understanding your ethical perspective and ethical decision making driving forces is a crucial step in preventing misunderstandings between an individual’s ethical perspective and an organizations’ perspective. Individuals should select career options or work for organizations that hold similar ethical perspectives to their own.
Ensuring there is no mismatch between the individual’s ethical perspectives and organizations dominant perspectives would also aid an individual in career development as few ethical based conflicts are likely to be present. Fewer conflicts would give the employees better opportunities for career development, promotions and reduce employee’s chances of terminations and demotions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One other way of reducing the mismatch is through formal educational experience and educational training. Potential conflicts may occur where a mismatch exists between individuals in their ethical philosophies and perspective.
For example, a superior who may hold results philosophy may opt for the most beneficial choice to be undertaken especially where a cost benefit analysis clearly indicate that it is the right choice. However, an individual with an obligation oriented philosophy may still desire for a choice based on a moral duty or obligation.
An obligation oriented individual who believes that use of cost benefit analysis is not the best method to deal with ethical issues may thus find themselves in conflict with most organizations that use a cost benefit analysis to make ethical decisions. Education experience may impart a person with various reasoning skills that will further aid in decision making and more so in ethical decision making (Paul and Elder, 2003).
An ethical inventory is thus clearly an important tool in identifying individual’s general prevalent ethical perspectives, philosophies and style and their consequent underlying ethical decision making criteria. Using of the tool for both an individual and the employees may aid to reduce a mismatch between an organizations ethics framework and the individuals and also reduce ethical conflicts amongst employees.
Individuals can also use the instrument to understand the way they make ethical decisions and thus reduce conflicts by selecting to work for those organizations that they most agree. Still, use of various concepts to aid in ethical decision making can further aid individuals in ethical decision making.
References Paul, R.,
The Salem Witch Trial Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Witchcraft operations in Salem
Cause and trial of the witchdoctors
In the courtroom
Defense of the accused
Challenges of the trials
Introduction Salem is a village in Massachusetts, which is a state in the New England region, in the North East of the United States of America. In the year 1692, it was afflicted by a certain kind of mysticism that drove some of the villagers into hysteria.
The hysteria manifested first in young girls whereby the girls exploded into bizarre behavior whose natural cause could not be traced. The young girls could be seized with convulsions, blasphemous screaming and melodramatic behaviors which were not normal. Since the physical source could not be traced, the community was led to believe that witches had invaded Salem.
The term witch should be understood and used in caution here. This is necessary in order for one to understand the trials of the witch in Salem. During the 17th century it was believed that a witch is a person who had made a treaty with the devil so that there will be an exchange of a soul for evil powers which the witch can use to torment human beings (MacBain, 4). It is quite normal for victims of these powers to claim to have experienced horrible dreams and illusions.
They would also experience physical pain and exhibit bizarre habits which could be alarming to the community. The perpetrators of this evil act would be identified by the villagers, investigated, tried and then condemned if found guilty. In a village such as Salem, a person found guilty of performing witchcraft would be hanged. Thus the word witch is a strong word used as an accusation of Satan’s treaties. If someone were found involved in this pact, it would lead to death. Salem villagers were religious.
Thus religiously speaking, a witch is a follower of an ancient pagan belief system (MacBain, 4). The discovery of this fact led to a series of activities aimed at flushing out all the witchdoctors who had run amok with their evil activities. Since Sale was a religious village, its inhabitants began praying and fasting in order to get rid of this satanic evil (Sutter 5).
Witchcraft operations in Salem Witchcraft in operation could manifest in several ways. All of these ways alter the normal and natural ways things operate and cause abnormal things to happen (Sutter 7). The effects were usually seen in human beings, animals and plants. Salem was not an exemption. Witchcraft would go as far as killing infants and adults (Fradin
Post Colonial Literature Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Central Themes in the Two Poems
Criticism of the Two Poems
Comparison of the Two Poems
Introduction In the modern times, a hot debate has emanated on colonialism and post colonialism and what they stand for. It is an area that has attracted so many writers with a lot of criticism based on different opinions. In their poetry, Judith Wright and Bhatt explicitly bring out post colonialism and modernism as major themes albeit in different ways. This has been achieved through their use of discourses on rhetoric questions, imagery and metaphor (Bery and Murray 2000).
The two writers embrace irony and symbolism to forward their discussions concerning the oppression brought about by the colonialists on the natives. This paper is a review of the these two poems; Judith Wright’s Two Dreamtimes and Sujata Bhatt’s A different History where it is going to primarily compare and criticize sentiments postulated by the poets in their literary work.
Central Themes in the Two Poems In her poem Two Dreamtimes, Judith Wright presents the Aborigines as poetic symbols to represent the entire historical oppression and injustice that instilled fear and guilt. Judith’s observation concerning the aggression and instability of the Aboriginal post conquest past extends to stand for the entire human race.
On post colonialism, Judith Wight talks of how both the whites and the black natives have lost in terms of culture and property then she proposes forgiveness and unity of the two groups as the only solution tom their problems (Wright 2002).
On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt in her poem A different History, talks of the environment and cultural degradation that is rampant in the modern post colonial era. She also elaborates on political oppression meted against the once colonized nations by their former colonial masters (Bhatt 1995). Sujata symbolically uses India to represent all those countries that are still experiencing these effects of post colonial oppression.
Both writers have dwelt so much on emphasizing the importance of culture as a sense of belonging. Judith Wright shows how the whites looked upon the blacks as minorities and never wanted to associate themselves with the black race. From her poem, we see the persona explaining how his parents warned him not to play with the black children. The white settlers grabbed all that belonged to the native Aborigines and left them piteous without anything to cling on.
However, with time, the two groups ended up loosing to their colonial masters due to their disunity. Sujata talks of the oppression directed towards the minorities and how everything had become oppressive in all dimensions. She admires the native Indian culture. This meant to arouse a sense of belonging and also show how much is lost when a country loses its cultural background due to modernism and post colonialism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both writers embrace culture as an important aspect of every community and individual. They have also vividly shown how modernism has brought about multiculturalism and erosion of cultures (McLeod 2000). The two poems pose intellectual questions to the reader and stimulate critical thinking and analysis of the entire theme of post colonialism and modernism.
Criticism of the Two Poems From her work, it is very true that Judith Wright was both an environmentalist and a social activist. The writer uses her childhood and lifetime experiences to vividly point out on various contemporary but fundamental issues affecting the society. For instance in her poem
Wright points out on post colonialism and racial segregation which she says was ‘eating up’ the society which was a hindrance to development. Also, she is keen to highlight cultural alienation versus modernity as another key issue of major concern but what she fails to indicate is how effective her notions and perceptions were practically applicable in during the times in which her poem is set.
Harsher criticism has been leveled on her work asserting that she does not present herself a person who lived in the contemporary society she writes about since she does not appreciate the fact that the issue of racial segregation was a lot more complicated than simply a given race being oppressed. There was the reality of where these segregated persons came from and their social standing both economically and politically at that time.
On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt uses her multicultural experience to clearly air her criticisms on matters she thinks are of concern. In her poem, she succeeds in bringing to understanding vital concerns like culture, oppression and post-colonialism. With all the traces of a bard and postcolonial uniqueness, she demonstrates her passion for the local traditions and linguistic communication. In this poem, Sujata Bhatt shows the significance of culture and language to any particular individual and how they help define someone.
In her dual multicultural milieu, she freely uses language as a tool to further her ideologies through writing that is drawn from her vast experience after having lived in three continents (McLeod 2000). This notwithstanding however, Bhatt’s work can be criticized in the way she leans so much on her multicultural experience to present her surmises. Over reliance of personal perceptions and beliefs bereaves her work scientific and universal acclaim since it may be dismissed as lacking empirical facts and realities.
Comparison of the Two Poems Looking at the poem, ‘Two dreamtimes,’ there is an aspect racial segregation that is very evident in the first two stanzas, “You were one of the dark children I wasn’t allowed to play with-riverbank campers, the wrong color, (I couldn’t turn you white)” (Wright 2002, p.35). White children were not allowed to mingle with the black children. This was a form of oppression that the writer brings to light in her work. The stanza also states that black was a wrong color.
We will write a custom Essay on Post Colonial Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This literally means that blacks were treated with a lot of contempt by the whites who looked upon them as an inferior race. This was extended even to their children who were warned never to associate with the black children. The writer’s criticism of this vice is depicted when she refers the black as, ‘riverbank campers, the wrong color’ and finally says, ‘(I couldn’t turn you white).’ Here, the writer is being sarcastic of the descriptions given to the blacks by her parents.
Scramble for property that belonged to the natives was a common phenomenon as evident in the poem, “late I began to know they hadn’t told me the land I loved was taken out of your hands” (Wright 2002, p.35). When the colonialists arrived in ‘their colonies,’ the white settlers grabbed all that belonged to the natives including land and went ahead to sell most of it for their own lavish interests (Bery and Murray 2000).
This left the natives with nothing but a state of hopelessness while the white settlers continued extravagantly enjoying what was not theirs. This is shown when the persona in the poem says, “The sullen looks of the men who sold them for rum to forget the selling the hard rational white faces with eyes that forget the past” (Wright 2002, p.35).
The writer uses irony when she says that the white settlers traded the land they had grabbed from the natives for rum. This brings out the contemptuous attitude of the writer towards the imperialists. Her criticism is furthered when she negatively describes the whites and assigns innocence to the blacks in her description (Dohra 2007).
There is an aspect of cultural degradation that was as a result of colonization from the same poem. The oppression the natives were subjected to caused them to remain hopeless and their traditions and practices faded away with time. There was no time since even what used to be their own had been snatched away fro the leaving them as piteous beings struggling for existence leave alone survival.
From the poem it is said, “Over the rum your voice sang the tales of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming” (Wright 2002, p.35). The once happy and beautiful culture was lost and people were mixed in the multi-culture without any identity. This led to a feeling of withdrawal among the colonized (Afzal-Khan 1993).
The writer goes ahead to highlight how the Aborigines are oppressed by the colonial laws when she openly critics these tyrannical laws as, ”Raped by rum and an alien law, progress and economics” (Wright 2002, p.35).The use of the word ‘raped’ shows how these laws and regulations were evil and also reveals the writer’s negative attitude towards (Moore-Gilbert 1997). This negated perspective of the law is almost a direct opposite of what Bhatt surmises in her poem where she presents a similar case but rather using more benign terms.
There is violation of human rights especially against women who are viewed as weak beings that deserve no right a case that is brought out by both poets in their work. Women were double colonized by the colonial rule and also by the entire society. This is shown in the poem, “Telling sad tales of women (black or white at a different price) meant much and little to us” (Wright 2002, p.35).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Post Colonial Literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This explicitly illustrate that all these exploits were offensive but no one had the right and courage to stand and fight against them. People were so oppressed that they had given up in life and just took life as circumstances dictated to them (Bill, Gareth and Helen 1998).
In addition to this, the two authors tend to share common views and both tend to critic the outcomes of colonialism and post-colonialism. They both accentuate the importance of culture but are disparagative of colonialism and post-colonialism consequences (Elmer 1995). Concerning culture, Sujata Bhatt says uses the first stanza to create a culturally entrusted society where the set norms are respected by everyone. She says, “Here, the gods roam freely…every tree is sacred and it is a sin to be rude to a book” (Wright 2002, p.35).
Judith Wright on the other hand talks of cultural dilapidation as a result of colonialism when she says; “Over the rum your voice sang the tales of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming” (Wright 2002, p.35).
The two poems also criticize both colonization and post-colonialism effects through the use of language techniques. Sujata Bhatt employs the use of rhetoric questions to forward her criticism (Kerwin 1997). This helps infuse critical thinking in the reader’s mind and hence make him or her think alongside the writer throughout the poem. For example she says, “Whose language has not been the oppressor’s tongue?” (Wright 2002, p.35).
This statement engages anyone reading it to pause and think broadly concerning the subject matter. Conversely, Judith Wright capitalises on the uses of satire, sarcasm and irony to surface her criticism. She also uses imagery when she says, “We the robbers robbed in turn” (Wright 2002, p.35). She directly refers to the white settlers as robbers and thus, she succeeds in delivering her denigration.
Conclusion In summing up, in my own view, Judith’s work is a picture of what is happening in the modern post-colonial era. Despite getting freedom from colonialism, there is still indirect oppression in terms of leadership, trade and resource exploitation imposed by the once colonial masters on their former colonies (Greg 2004).
These countries still receive unfair terms of trade in the world market and do not really benefit from their products and services (Childs and Williams 1997). This sentiment that is central in her poem has been articulated better than Bhatt has presented her central theme of societal injustices in post-colonial times.
References Afzal-Khan, F., 1993. Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R. K. Narayan: The Realm of Mythic Realism. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP.
Bery, A. and Murray, P., 2000. ‘Introduction’ in Comparing Postcolonial Literatures: Dislocations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bhatt, S., 1995. A Different History. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bill, A., Gareth, G. and Helen, T., 1998. Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge.
Childs, P. and Williams, P., 1997. An Introduction to Post-colonial Theory. London: Prentice Hall.
Dohra, A., 2007. “Introduction: ‘This Is Ma Trooth,’” in Rotten English: A Literary Anthology, ed. Ahmad. New York: W. W. Norton.
Elmer, A., 1995. The Art of Brian Friel. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Greg, G., 2004. Ecocriticism. New York: Routledge.
McLeod, J., 2000. Beginning Postcolonialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Moore-Gilbert, B., 1997. Postcolonial Theory: Contexts, Practices, Politics. London: Verso.
Wright, J., 2002. Collected Poems. Sydney: Angus
Code switching and millennial generation Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The millennial generation is extensively influenced by technology. This generation has had access to mobile phones, digital equipments and the internet. The Millennials prefer text messaging, IMing, and social networking sites rather than conventional forms of communication such as phone conversations (Godwin-Jones 13).
Consequently, technologically-inflected version of English has evolved. There has been fear that the technologically-inflected version of English is having effects on standard written English. Although the Millennial generation has learnt to code switch between the two versions of English depending on audience, it is unquestionable that technologically- inflected version of English is affecting standard written English.
Discussion Code switching is a common practice in the multilingual world. Individuals have to switch from one language to another in order to communicate effectively. In most cases code switching is common in minority linguistic groups while in a dominant language (Auer 78). The practice is also common in bilingual or multilingual individuals. Individuals who code switch tend to choose the language to use automatically depending on their audience.
Technology has led to unmistakable two versions of English. The millennial generation’s version of English does not adhere to standard words and rules in Standard English. Words such as ‘wassup’ ‘gd ngt’ ‘gr8’ ‘luv u’ have evolved because of need to write shorten words and phrases when text-messaging and IMing.
The millennial generation has perfected in use of the technologically-inflected version of English considering that they have been brought up during the era of technology (Godwin-Jones 19). However, the Millennials have to communicate with other individual in the society. In school, they have to communicate with their educators, write academic essays and make presentations. In such situations, they have to use Standard English rather than the technologically-inflected version of English.
Code switching between technologically-inflected version of English and Standard English has become necessary for millennial generation. At school, students use technologically- inflected version of English when communicating with their peers on social issues. For example, students are unlikely to use Standard Written English when updating their status on social networking sites like Facebook, when text-messaging their peers or when using Instant Message applications.
However, they switch to Standard English when writing to their instructors on academic issues, when writing academic papers or when writing a formal letter. It is clear that the students choose the version of English to use depending on their audience and subject. For instance, students are likely to use Standard Written English when responding to discussion topics on academic discussion boards, but use technologically-inflected version of English in a sports blog.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of technologically-inflected version of English has effect on standard written English despite of code switching between the two. Text messaging, blogging, IMing, social networking sites and other modern forms communication have become common and frequent (Godwin-Jones 17).
The language used in the new forms of communication is likely to find its way to Standard Written English. For example, frequent use of abbreviations such as HR, HRD, HOD, and ALT in Standard English can be attributed to frequent use of technologically-inflected version of English.
Summary Among other reasons, code switching is motivated by the need to show social solidarity among members of the millennial generation. Technologically-inflected version of English is not just a communication tool but also a social identity for the millennial generation. In school, the main challenge for English trainers is how they take code- switching as a tool for communication rather than viewing it as threat to Standard English.
Works Cited Auer, Peter. Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Godwin-Jones, Robert. Emerging Technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing Language Learning Strategies