Abstract This paper deals with the effect of the Gettysburg Address on the United States of the present days. Despite the fact that the era in which the Gettysburg Address was written is gone, as well as the American people whom the speech was intended for, its legacy still lives on.
While Lincoln obviously intended the speech for the soldiers and their families, i.e., the people who had witnessed the Civil War, the ideas that the Gettysburg Address incorporates are still topical for the modern American citizens. However, some of the ideas conveyed by Lincoln in the Address can be interpreted in a different way nowadays.
Introduction: Embarking onto a Time Machine
Being future-oriented is important, but sometimes it is necessary to take a retrospective on some of the historical events to make sure that valuable lessons from previous experiences are learned and none of the past mistakes are repeated.
Since even today, in the realm of democracy of the United States, certain political and social remain unresolved, one of the greatest and the most memorable speeches of all times, the Gettysburg Address, deserves taking a closer look at. Understanding what the latter means for the modern society will help solve some of the issues on the United States’ agenda.
What Gettysburg Address Meant back in 1863
Before going any further, it is essential to evaluate the meaning of the Gettysburg Address on the people of 1863. Despite the fact that not a single word of the Gettysburg Address has been changed, for the modern people, it means something other than for those whom this speech was intended first for. Taking a look back in time will allow to see what Lincoln tried to convey in his message to the American people.
First and foremost, the Gettysburg Address touched upon the key principles of democracy and “a new birth of freedom” (Elmore, 2009, 40). In addition, the speech addressed the idea of nation’s identity and integrity: “The metaphor of birth and rebirth is the unifying metaphor of the Gettysburg Address” (Elmore, 2009, 40).
The last and the most important segment of the Gettysburg Address concerned the grief of those whom the war had taken their family members or beloved ones from, reassuring that “… a nation torn by civil war could restore itself” (Elmore, 2009, 42). Expressing his concern and empathy, Lincoln managed to make the Gettysburg Address the most powerful and inspiring speech in the history of the United States.
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Of course, for modern people, the Gettysburg Speech means not exactly what it did for the XIX century America. Now that the threat for the nation to be torn apart is no longer in existence, the Gettysburg Address has turned into a guide into the brave new world of future. With the help of the democratic principles that are established in the Gettysburg Address, people will be able to see how much democracy has progressed. Moreover, the Gettysburg Address shows the necessity to put a stop to often occurring instances of discrimination.
It is obvious, however, that in the modern settings, the Gettysburg Address cannot be interpreted in the same was it was in 1864. Nowadays, the speech must be considered through the lens of the present-day reality. With new developments and new challenges to face, the postulates of the Gettysburg Address can gain a new shade of meaning.
The meaning of the Gettysburg Address in the context of peacetime
Needless to mention, the Gettysburg Address was meant for the people who knew the price of the terrible bloodbath that the Civil War was. Lincoln obviously addressed the people who knew what it was like to lose, which means that the people of 1864 took the speech much more personally and quite literally. Therefore, the mentioning of the thousands of dead soldiers does not bring the audience to tears; it rather reminds of their obvious duty to respect other ethnicities’ rights.
New epoch, new challenges: on the existing types of discrimination
It might seem that it has been quite a while since the principles of democracy have been established for people to have any sort of racial prejudice discriminate against other ethnicities.
However, according to the existing records, over the past few years, discrimination is still an issue in the United States: according to the data offered by Ferber, in 2000s, the motivation behind 82% of hate crimes in the USA was race (Ferber, 2012). Therefore, Gettysburg Address, which proclaimed equality and democracy, still bears its initial purpose of guiding people towards creating a democratic society.
The Gettysburg Address in advent of the new type of society
Speaking of the way people’s attitude towards the Gettysburg Address has changed, one must mention that the speech was written and performed in a completely different epoch; moreover, it was witnessed by a different kind of society.
To be more exact, the gap between the industrial society of the XIX century and the post-industrial one that people live now in is quite tangible. However, there are certain similarities between these two society types; each of them are driven by technological progress, and each aim at establishing equality as their guiding principle.
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While fighting for the rights of the people who are discriminated against is very noble, not all members of the modern American society may accept the ideas of Gettysburg Address easily. There are several reasons for people to perceive the Gettysburg Address in a wrong way, and these reasons need to be discussed.
Corruption of power and the related threats
It might be argued that the ideals of the modern society are not the same as the ones of the 1864 and that there are traces of corruption in the government (Genovese
Road to Revolution Essay scholarship essay help
The American Revolution was one of the key events that took place in America during the second phase of the eighteenth century. In 1607, the British brought many drastic changes in the American society that interfered with their civilization. During this time, Britain was much preoccupied with advancing its economy. In this regard, Britain enacted colonial policies that would favor its maximum exploitation of its colonies. This paper discusses the road to American Revolution.
The revolution started in 1763 when the ‘French and Indian war’ ended. The British Proclamation of 1763 was meant to help them create governments for the new colonies, forester peace among vanquishers, and facilitate British commercial interests in the colonies (Allison 2-17). The British government had incurred many expenses during the war and it was keen on regaining its lost resources through taxing its colonial subjects.
Accordingly, many taxation measures were implemented in order to generate revenue for the British army in America. The Sugar Act was implemented in 1764 and it was meant to reduce tariffs charged on non-British merchandise sourced from West Indies. It was also supposed to facilitate the collection of those goods. This act was followed by the first Stamp Act, which was implemented from 1765 in order to provide income for the army (Brinkley 23-105).
Soon after the enforcement of this act, the Quartering Act was also put in place in 1765, and it was intended to enable the British army to have access to social amenities. More taxes were levied on goods that were imported through the enforcement of the Townshend Act that was introduced in 1767. The British also implemented the Navigation Acts, which further strained the economy of the Americans.
The Americans resisted the new taxes imposed on them through various methods. For example, they refused to buy goods imported from Britain. The harsh economic policies led to serious economic disillusionment, which sparked off violence in various parts of America. In March 1770, a serious picketing incident in Boston led to the gruesome massacre of five Americans by the British troops.
This was followed by the burning and sinking of a British mercantile vessel in Rhode Island in 1772. “On 16 December 1773, some colonialists destroyed many tons of tea in Boston and the event was termed the Boston Tea Party” (Middlekauff 56-89). In reaction to the spate of violence, the British government immediately responded by imposing more punitive measures on its subjects.
In mid 1774, the Boston Port Act was sanctioned and it led to the cordoning of the Boston Port, which later resumed its operations after the compensation of the East Indian Company. “The British Congress further proclaimed Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act and Massachusetts Government Act in the same year” (Guevara 78-109).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Americans argued that these Coercive Acts were arbitrary infringement on their prerogatives. Consequently, in late 1774, the colonists organized a demonstration during the First Continental Congress.
As the hostility escalated, many colonists engaged in chaotic protests that culminated to American Revolution in 1775. Independence was finally granted to the American colonies in 1776. From 1777, the Americans started making constitutional changes that would enable them develop their country. The struggle for independence was very difficult for the Americans. However, through a concerted effort they managed to dislodge the British from their territory.
Works Cited Allison, Robert. The American Revolution: A Concise History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey, New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hil, 2009. Print.
Guevara, Che. The Economics of Revolution, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Companies Ethics: Benzene and Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Benzene exposure
The Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure
Scenarios of Bribery/Gift Giving
Benzene exposure Benzene is a toxic substance if consumed above the recommended minimum levels. The company understands all the regulations that are intended to keep the environment clean and non-toxic to human beings and other animals. The decision by the company to release benzene into the local water resources used for domestic purposes is a real issue of concern.
Professionally, the company will not break any laws by releasing the toxins into water resources. The concentration of the toxic substances will be far much below the recommended levels. This implies that if the toxins are released into water, no harmful effects are anticipated (Harris, Pritchard
Summary of concepts/ideas by Christine Matheson Essay college essay help online
The article by Christine Matheson emphasizes the importance of consumers being environmental conscious in their purchasing patterns. Specifically, the author highlights the need for consumers to adjust their buying behaviors by refusing to support firms and businesses whose operations contribute to environmental pollution.
For example, she opens the article by noting that her writing is “…a bunch of ideas to help you become a greener fashionista “(Matheson 116). Therefore, the author outlines the need of consumers to employ green shopping strategies. Such an adjustment will contribute towards elimination or minimization of the opportunity cost incurred in the process of undertaking waste management.
The author asserts that it is imperative for various industries to adjust their production processes. Some industries that contribute to environmental pollution according to the author include the fashion industry and the transport industry. The author calls for consumers and producers to appreciate the importance of recycling in lowering the rate of environmental pollution.
Additionally, she underscores the importance of industries in diverse economic sectors embracing sustainable technology and adopting renewable energy in their production processes. For example, car and vehicle manufacturers should adopt hybrid technology.
Additionally, the author is of the opinion that limiting the high rate of environmental pollution, which is currently being experienced, requires collaboration of individual and government efforts. This assertion arises from the fact that the government will be required to institute laws, institutions, and infrastructure to enhance reduction in the current rate of environmental pollution.
Summary of concepts/ideas by Collin Beavan Similar to Christine Matheson, Collin Beavan emphasizes the importance of protecting the environment. Collin identifies consumers as the most effective agents of change. The author asserts that it is fundamental for consumers to adjust their consumption behaviors. He alludes to the importance of consumers establishing an ecological balance in their consumption processes.
For example, he asserts that consumers should design, implement, and adhere to environmental friendly rules that guide their consumption processes. Rather than focusing on the incorporation of systems that contribute to minimal or no environmental pollution such as adoption of sustainable technology and use of renewable energy, the author is of the opinion that social change is the only missing ingredient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He posits that he believes, “…in rising to the challenge rather than shrinking from the obstacles” (Beavan 61). Therefore, to achieve this goal, consumers should develop a comprehensive understanding of what they need in life, which should form the basis of developing the necessary technical and social systems. Thus, consumption should be based on socio-technical design.
Despite the contribution of the government and other institutions in limiting climate change, Collin Beavan is of a different view. The author cites change of culture as the most effective avenue of countering environmental pollution and climate change. The author appreciates the fact that cultural change can have a significant effect compared to instituting legislations and systems to deal with the same.
The author further opines that despite the perception that individual effort is minimal in tackling an enormous challenge such as climate change, individuals’ input can lead to the development of a positive culture towards climate change within society. Consequently, individuals, as opposed to systems, are the agents of change “because it is upon the definition of a good life that our socio-technical designs must be used” (Beavan 62).
Conclusion In a recap, the two authors try to illustrate the role of consumers in limiting the high rate of climate change. Adjustment of consumption behavior has been highlighted as one of the most effective ways through which consumers can aid in countering the high rate of climate change. However, to be effective, it is necessary to develop effective systems.
Works Cited Beavan, Colin. “The Year without Toilet Paper.” The New York Times, 22 March 2007: 61-62. Print.
Matheson, Christie. Green Chick: Saving the earth in style, Illinois: Sourcebooks, 2008. Print.
The Importance of Value Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
From a psychological perspective, values can be presented as broad preferences of individuals about various actions and outcomes. At this point, they express individuals’ sense of morally justified action. Values also allow people to distinguish between right and wrong, as well as shape their attitudes and perceptions about other individuals. Shared beliefs have influenced the formation of social norms under which people should observe behavioral patterns accepted in society.
As a result of social development, belief systems have been premised on different norms in terms of morale, ethics, and individual choices. These discrepancies are predetermined by the presence of cultural values that influence people’s perceptions of such issues as the good, evil, or justice. Due to the emerged differences, a number of value theories have been developed. In sociological studies, value theory is associated with individuals’ views that are shared by a community, as well as how those views change under certain conditions.
While discussing the importance of value, many Western theorists, including Max Weber, Talcott Parsons and Emilie Durkheim inclined to believe that values are regarded as independent variables. However, the supporters of traditional sociologists withdrew the concept of value and focus on cultural dimension that builds the foundation for value creation. At this point, although values are often identified with common notions and concepts, their meaning is differently represented across cultures, leading to subjective and objective judgments.
This is of particular concern to religious norms that often influence people’s attitude toward the political power and social norms. For instance, some countries consider the important role of religion in shaping social, cultural and political relations whereas other societies insist on the separation of religion and social system because the former is more associated with personal values.
In fact, considering social values as products of individual behavior, the emphasis on behaviorism and observational philosophy should be placed. The introduced theoretical frameworks are influential for development of educational systems that encourage a learning process as a set of activities focused on understanding morale, ethics, and law. The learning process reflects individual’s engagement in gaining experience about acceptable norms of behavior, as well as deeper understanding of self-image.
Finally, learning provides individuals with the accepted definitions of the right and wrong. In order to control value creation, social sciences refer to the political, social, and cultural institutions studying various dimensions of human organization based on empirical evidence. The proposed framework contributes to comprehending the common values that are accepted in societies, as well as those shaped in various cultures.
As it has been mentioned before, social values can refer to cultural norms that are considered in a broader context. Hence, norms create rules and principles of behavior in various situations whereas values define what actions should be considered as morally right or wrong.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although cultural norms base on broader meanings, their understanding differs in various societies. Although cultural values are regarded as objective principles, they are still premised on individual’s attitudes toward specific traditions and norms recognized in a particular culture. Hence, values reflect the human ability to analyze and synthesize various aspects and principles that bear especial meaning to them.
For instance, various communities have a specific set of principles and rules that distinguish them from other communities. This is of particular concern to professional communities in which members adhere to specific philosophy and vision of an organization. Hence, although many company’s values differ, the development of global standards influence their normative systems. Due to the globalization process, organizations often address such issues as cultural diversity, human equality, and individual values.
Values can change across time to adjust to new conditions and challenges. If a member of a community adheres to a value that contradicts the commonly accepted norms, the community’s authority can impose certain regulations that encourage adherence and conformity to accepted behaviors.
As a result of such violations, fixed values are often controlled by legislature. The development of the legal system has contributed to the development of the international law that introduces global standards in such fields as healthcare, education, culture. There are many non-governmental organizations, including the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization, that provide consistent frameworks for shaping global principles of accountability and legitimacy.
In conclusion, values constitute overwhelming definitions that encompass personal belief systems and socially accepted norms. They also refer to the preferences about such concepts as moral action, ethics, and human behavior. In the course of social development, theorists have worked on various frameworks that can justify value creation across cultures and communities. Although the presence of diverse value systems, there are specific standards that should be followed by the world community.
These standards are monitored by international organizations and, therefore, violating rules can lead to imprisonment and punishment. In general, the existence of fixed values is not justified because societies are constantly developing, introducing new norms, perceptions, and preferences. At the same time, acceptance of diversities in belief systems is also important because it expands individuals’ perception about moral and immoral actions.
Death Comes to the Archbishop Essay college essay help: college essay help
In the article Death Comes to the Archbishop, Norman Cantor focuses on the life of Thomas Bradwardine. Cantor details how the archbishop’s endeavours in science and psychology made him one of the greatest scholars of Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. As a young boy, Bradwardine was a bright student.
He later joined Oxford University where he studied mathematics, philosophy, and theology. By the age of 30, he had become a faculty member of the university. In the year 1323, Bradwardine joined Merton College where he studied Masters of Arts. At Merton College, Bradwardine met a group of scientists who were devoted to studying astronomy, physics, and mathematics.
With the help of these scholars, Bradwardine published several scientific treatises, which made him one the best-celebrated philosophical and theological persons in Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. In the next paragraphs, this article describes the philosophy of the Oxford school towards the relationship between faith and the natural world.
As illustrated by Cantor, the philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that God was a supreme and infinite being. This implied that from their perspectives human beings could not question God’s deeds. Equally, it was believed that human beings could not understand God’s actions clearly. However, Bradwardine and his fellow scholars believed that human beings had the capacity to investigate and understand the natural world.
Based on Bradwardine’s treatises, it is apparent that philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that there were relationship between faith and the natural world. For instance, Bradwardine asserted that God created the earth and several other planets in the universe. This view contradicted with the religious doctrines that were widely upheld by the public. As highlighted by the article’s author, Bradwardine’s innovative doctrine was little known outside Oxford.
Although Oxford school of thought philosophers had developed innovative theories on nature, these theories were never developed during their lifetimes. For instance, the Bradwardine theory of the universe implications was never developed because the theory could have contradicted with the then religious and moral beliefs.
Similarly, deeper understanding in the field of biomedical sciences was blocked by the people’s faith. By then, medical theories developed were ineffective since they had no basis on science but rather on faith and psychology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the Black Death had not struck down Bradwardine, the modern science would have been different. Although some of his theorists on nature were never developed until the 16th century, it should be noted that some of his innovations such as his experiments on optics led to the inventions of eyeglasses.
In this regard, if Bradwardine lived longer he could have come up with more innovative theories and inventions. Similarly, his death marked the end of Oxford School of thought. Therefore, if he could have lived longer he could have influenced his fellow elites to advance his theories and inventions.
Equally, by the time of his death Bradwardine was 50 years old. This implies that at the time of his demise he was still in the productive age bracket. Therefore, if Bradwardine had lived longer there are higher chances that he could have convinced those in power to believe in some of his scientific theories. As evident from bibliographies of great inventors such as Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, Bradwardine’s great ideas could have created an intellectual revolution if he could live longer to expand and implement his ideas.
The Phantom Menace of Sleep-Deprived Doctors Essay college application essay help
The article written by Darshak Sanghave is aimed at discussing the causes that underlie medical errors in hospitals. In particular, the author focuses on such a problem as sleep-deprivation experienced by many interns. Furthermore, the author mentions the lack of coordination among different practitioners.
Yet, this article can be related to various economic aspects of economics. One should first speak about health economics that evaluates different strategies implemented by medical organizations. For instance, Darshak Sanghave discusses the advantages and disadvantages of 30-hour overnight shifts. The author shows that this approach is largely ineffective because it greatly impairs the quality of healthcare services that patients receive.
Additionally, Darshak Sanghave touches upon a question that has long been studied by many economists. In this case, one should focus on the relationship between demand and supply. Judging from the examples given by the author one can say that many medical organizations cannot meet the demand for their services. This is why interns have to work almost round-the-clock. This is one of the problems that should be addressed by hospital administrators.
Furthermore, economists often focus on the efficiency of investment that is aimed to improve the quality of products and services. Despite the increasing cost of healthcare, patients still fall victim to medical errors. Therefore, it is vital to develop strategies that can improve the work of medical institutions.
These issues are relevant not only to hospitals, but to many other organizations, including private businesses. On the whole, Darshak Sanghave’s can be assigned in a course of economics, because it shows how different economic concepts such as production of services, supply, or demand can be applicable to various fields of human activity.
Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din (commonly known as Saladin) stands apart as the single most prominent figure in the history of the Middle East. Because of his exploits in the Crusades, Saladin is perceived as the chief “hero” of the Crusades by both his Islamic side and the Christian side. Saladin was able to establish a strong dynasty and lead his army to victory against the Crusaders. This paper will set out to discuss Saladin with emphasis on his military expeditions, and his encounters with the crusaders.
Early Life Saladin was Born in the village of Tirkik, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) in the year 1137 to a prominent and influential Kurdish family from the area. A few years after his birth, his family immigrated to Aleppo (which is modern day Syria). Saladin grew up in modern day Syria and he was an avid scholar of the Islamic religion. He embarked on religious studies until the age of 18 when he was appointed deputy to his uncle, Asad Ad-Din Shirkuh, who served as a military governor for Nur al Din, the emir of Syria (Grossman 303).
Early Expeditions Saladin’s first military expeditions were carried out in the north of Egypt under his uncle Shirkuh’s command. Saladin engaged in a military expedition in support of Shawar, the caliph of Egypt, who had been driven out of Egypt by powerful local lords.
Shawar had asked for help from Nur al Din to regain his position as Fatimid in Egypt. This military campaign was a success and Shawar was able to defeat his rivals and reestablish himself as Fatimid. Following this victory, Saladin and his uncle remained in Egypt to represent the interest of the Syrian Emir.
Shawar was opposed to the presence of Syrian forces in Egypt and this led to his falling out with Saladin’s uncle. As a result, Shirkurh and Saladin engaged in military expeditions against Shawar. Shirkurh commanded four military expeditions into Egypt to fight against the Fatimid and the local lords who were resisting Syria’s over-lordship (Grossman, 303).
These rebellious local rulers were acting with the support of the Crusaders in the Holy Land who also feared Syria’s overlords. With Saladin’s help, Shirkuh carried out military expeditions against these local rulers as well as the caliph of Egypt therefore establishing Egypt as a Syrian stronghold. Shirkuh’s death in 1169 gave Saladin a chance to become the head of Syrian forces in Egypt.
Saladin’s Personality Historians record that Saladin was serious and contemplative by nature. In his early years, he was not enthusiastic about the military expeditions by his uncle but took on active fighting roles during the invasion of Fatimid Cairo. He established himself as a courageous soldier and a brilliant strategist. Saladin was a just ruler and he was often personally involved in the grievances brought forward by his subjects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gibb documents that in reaction to the abuses carried out by his governors and officers, Saladin issued decrees prohibiting illegal taxes and other oppressive practices against his subjects (48). Saladin’s justice can further be demonstrated by his decision to spare all the Christian inhabitants of Jerusalem even though his army was far superior to the Christian forces and he could have destroyed them if he wanted to (Byfield 73).
Saladin was a modest person, owing to his religious background. He wore simple clothes and he treated the men of religion with whom he regularly associated himself with as colleagues in spite of the fact that he was the Sultan. However, he commanded great discipline among his subjects and did not condone unruliness.
Byfield states that Saladin has an instinct for iron discipline and when his Sudanese guards were accused of being disloyal to him, he massacred them (74). Rioters in Cairo were hanged and the unruly Bedouin Arabs were engaged in battle under Saladin’s command.
Saladin’s Mission in Syria, Egypt and Palestine Nicolle observes that Saladin’s prominence began when he took on the role of Nur al Din’s governor in Egypt (15). As the governor of Egypt, Saladin set out to change the official faith of the country from Shi’a to Sunni effectively abolishing the Fatamid caliphate in Egypt. The conversion of Egypt from Sunni to Shiite was very significant since it made it bridged the division that Syria and Egypt had had for centuries because of religions considerations.
Saladin also embarked on an ambitious recruitment effort for a new army that would be loyal to himself and not the Fatimid Caliph who had died in 1171. At the same time, Saladin tried to foster loyalty to himself instead of Nur al Din, the Emir of Syria under whom he served.
When Nur al Din died in 1174, he was succeeded by his ten-year-old son. In the months following the Emir’s death, Saladin marched from Egypt with his loyal army, took over Syria, and proclaimed himself Sultan of the vast territory (Byfield 74). Saladin ventured into Palestine in 1177 following the breakdown of the truce with the Crusaders. He hoped to recover some of the territory that the Crusaders had taken and establish a Muslim stronghold in Palestine.
War against the Crusaders Saladin’s first engagement with the crusaders was in 1170 when he tried to capture the southernmost fort of Jerusalem. This early efforts were unsuccessful and the Crusading knights were able to rebuff Saladin’s forces. A truce was signed and this fragile peace deal was able to last for a decade.
We will write a custom Essay on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fragile truce lasted until 1180 when the Frankish Prince Reynald of Chatillon attacked Holy Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina. In retaliation to these attacks by Prince Reynald, Saladin vowed to vanquish the Christian forces and execute Reynald for his action against the Muslims. Saladin’s victory over Frankish forces at Hattin is regarded as one of the most spectacular in military history. He was able to defeat the Frankish knights in the battlefield and force them to abandon their quest to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Having destroyed the Christian army, Saladin continued to seize the remaining Christian strongholds. In a few months, Saladin was able to launch an attack against Jerusalem. His attempts at breaching the walls of the City of Jerusalem using siege engines was thwarted by Christian defenders who protected the city. However, the Christian force was weak and they therefore bargained for a peaceful surrender with Saladin. Following this surrender, Saladin was able to seize Jerusalem on October 2, 1187.
The Third Crusade was prompted by the great defeat of the second Crusade by Saladin in 1187. On hearing the news of how Saladin had decimated the Christian army, Richard I (popularly referred to as Richard the Lion Hearted) declared that he was staging a Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem. In the first clash between Saladin and Richard the Lion-Hearted, Saladin’s Army was defeated. A serious of battles continued with Richard pressing Saladin’s forces until they withdrew to Damascus.
The Ayyubid Dynasty Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty and established Egypt as its power base. This dynasty was able to survive though to the 13th century. As the governor of Egypt, Saladin was able to establish an Ayyubid army that was solely loyal to him. With this Egyptian Ayyubid army, Saladin set out to expand his empire first in Egypt, and then next to Syria where the Emir had died. This expansion missions were successful and Saladin was able to establish himself as the ruler of vast territory in the Middle East.
The Death of Saladin Saladin died in 1193 after a period of brief illness. By his death, he had succeeded in creating a vast and strong Dynasty that would last for over a century. Historians record that because of his irresistible impulse for giving; he did not even have enough money left to pay for his funeral when he died since his vast wealth had been given to his poor subjects.
Saladin was buried by his subjects in a magnificent tomb in Damascus with an inscription reading, “Oh mighty God, let his soul be acceptable to thee” (Grossman 304). Following Saladin’s death, his brother al Adil took over the leadership of the Dynasty.
Conclusion This paper set out to provide an informative discussion on Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, who was one of the most fascinating personalities in the history of the Middle Ages. The paper has highlighted Saladin’s early life and his early military expeditions. It has highlighted that through warfare and diplomacy, Saladin was able to bring Egypt into harmony with the Syrian government. However, this great figure will always be remembered for his military conquest against the Frankish Knights and the seizing the Holy City of Jerusalem.
Works Cited Byfield, Ted. A Glorious Disaster: A.D. 1100 to 1300: The Crusades: Blood, Valor, Iniquity, Reason, Faith. New York: Christian History Project, 2008. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gibb, Hamilton. The Life of Saladin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. Print.
Grossman, Mark. World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Boston: Infobase Publishing, 2007. Print.
Nicolle, David. Saladin and the Saracens: Armies of the Middle East 1000-1300. London: Reed International Books, 1986. Print.
Colonialism and Economic Development Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Aid Withdrawal
India’s Take on the Matter
Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal
Introduction Most developed countries are opting to stop the aid they give to various developing countries. This is due to the fact that countries which were once colonies of various nations from the west are now economically stable. Many of the countries which depended on foreign aid for their development are now able to individually fund their projects.
Consequently, many developed nations have opted to reduce or even permanently eliminate the foreign aid. Britain is one of the countries that have announced its intention to stop its foreign aid to India by 2015. However, contrary to the expectations of many that India would get disturbed over that move, the reverse has been actually the case.
Reasons for Aid Withdrawal It has been realized that developed countries which were once economically stable are now facing financial crises. On the same note, the donor countries have gone back to the drawing board to determine if actually the aid is as important as deemed, and if the aid achieves its expectations. Given the economic problems that are facing many developed nations, their economies need money to spend.
In this regard, these nations have to choose between giving aid to foreign nations and solving their own internal problems (Mandhana par 3). Therefore, emerging markets have found themselves on the receiving end when any decision to reduce aid is taken. On the same note, though India used to be among poor countries, it has now turned to be among the world’s economic power destinations with the ability to donate money to other low income countries.
India’s Take on the Matter For a country that has been receiving aid since its independency, the information was expected to come as a rude shock. On the contrary, this information was not received by India as negatively as it would have been for developing countries due to several factors. To begin with, the amount of money that Britain has been injecting into India’s economy to fund various projects, is very little compared to the amount that India injects into the same projects.
On the same note, despite the economic difficulties that are facing almost every country in the world, India’s economy has been growing at an impressive rate for a relatively long period of time. As a result, India has been able to elevate its status to a lower middle income country (Mandhana par 7). Similarly, India can afford to donate to other countries for example, the Philippines, implying that India is not that poor. As put by the then Prime Minister, India does not depend on the foreign aid for its economic development (Mandhana par 8).
Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal Though India did not seem concerned about the announcement that the foreign aid will be withdrawn, there are economic repercussions of the decision by Britain. Firstly, though India’s economic growth is impressive, there are still a lot of people living below the poverty line (Mandhana par 15). These people highly depend on the aid from foreign countries for their basic needs. Secondly, Britain’s aid has highly influenced the health sector and its withdrawal will have significant implications.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The article brings into the forefront issues that are emerging between former colonies and their masters. Countries that were once dependent on foreign aid have now turned into economic giants and can no longer be considered as being underdeveloped. On the same note, it highlights the trends that are most likely to be taken by most developed nations, the United States of America being one of them. Developing nations should therefore take caution not to be too dependent on foreign aid because no one can tell what is in store.
Works Cited Mandhana, Niharika. “A Global Shift in Foreign Aid, Starting in India.” New York Times. 2012. Web.