The Role That HRM Plays Within The Strategic Direction Of An Organization Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

For an effective operation, organizations need human and physical resources; properly managed organizations have an appropriate number of personnel with experience and expertise (Bandt and Haines, 2002). To ensure that the right number of people is available when required, human resources management should develop effective framework of personnel management. In contemporary business world, business leaders are forging a certain direction for their company to enhance competitiveness.

Human recourses management (HRM) has a role to play in strategic direction of an organization. Effective personnel management is one role of managers; it is concerned with people at work and their relationship with their employer. Well-managed human resources results into an orchestrate team (McGoldrick, Stewart and Watson, 2001). This paper discusses the role played by HRM with the strategic direction of an organization.

Roles of Human resources management The role played by human resources department involves those that look into the interests of employees, employer, and third parties like the government, labor unions, and employees relatives. When the roles are played well, then an organization can be assured of a motivated work force that yields high returns. Highly motivated employees are a benefit to their organization and also have a chance of career development. The following are the roles of human resources:

Human resources planning

Management should ensure that employees’ need at one particular point is known and measures taken to ensure right number are maintained. Planning involves using past staff needs and predicting the future needs. Employees can be sourced internally or externally: to ensure that there are adequate plan, then management should understand the availability of employees. The main aim of human resources planning is to ensure that there is the right number of employees, at the right time, at the right place, and at the right cost.

HRP helps the organization create and develop employee training and management succession programs. Training programs ensure that the right people are trained at minimum cost. Management succession programs eliminate unfair promotions. This programs therefore reduce both management and employee conflicts. Through HRP, management is compelled to assess critically the strengths and weaknesses of its labor force and personnel policies. Collective actions are therefore taken to correct the weaknesses.

When managing change, consultations with the affected groups and individuals may occur at an early stage in the change process, decisions can be undertaken unhurriedly and by considering all relevant options, rather than being taken in crises. Through human resource planning, an organization is able to adhere to equal employment opportunity (EEO) policy through analysis of the different employees it has. The organization is able to identify areas in which it is biased in employing (Paauwe, 2009).


When a particular department establishes area/areas that require more employees, the hiring process starts timely enough that at no point will the organization suffer a deficit. When placing advert/adverts for position/positions, whether internal or external, it is important to define clearly the minimum qualifications required and the responsibilities of the successful candidate. When applications are received, they are sorted, and short listed candidate are contacted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the recruiting organization organizational culture, interviews take different angles. Some organizations have aptitude tests only, others have the panel interview and others have more than one stage of interviews. Whichever the method, the objective of the process is to give the human resources management team an opportunity to learn the strengths and weak points of an applicant, then relate them to the demands of the advertised position. This will assist the when choosing the best candidate.

Labor shortfalls and surpluses are avoided since HRP ensures that there is the right number of employees as the organization may require achieving its goals. Cases of corruption in form of “ghost workers” are rarely reported in organizations whose management undertakes HRP honestly and seriously. Careful consideration of the likely future human resources requirements could lead the firm to discover new and improved ways of managing human resources (Storey, 2007).


Successful candidates need to be oriented to their new environment; they need to learn the organizational culture and code of conduct of their new company. Organizations code of ethics defines how an organization responds to internal or external stimulus. In most organizations, they are in blueprints and an internal policy. They form part of organizational training needs. Organizations that uphold high respects for their code of ethics maintain good internal and external relations with their stakeholders.

Training, appraisal and motivation

To enable employees perform their duties effectively, continuous training system and employee’s appraisal is important. It helps management establish areas that needs improvement. Some organizations have employees training as a continuous process to ensure that employees are up-to-date with the changes in the industry.

Motivational measures should be put in place to ensure that employees are loyal to the organization and they work efficiently. This ranges from attractive salaries or/and benefits, to developing a good working environment. This ensures that employees are retained as assets in the organization (Storry, 2005).

Enforcing employment contract and related legal laws When an employee has been employed in a certain organization, there is the contact that the employee signs with the company, the HRM have the role of ensuring that the contracts need have been complied with accordingly. When this is done, then the company will be at peace with authorities and the employees will have their psychological contracts fulfilled.

Employees sell labor and their intellectualism to their employer; at the end of a certain period, the employer is expected to compensate employees for the work done; the employment contract specifies the rate of pay as well as any benefits thereon. Employment is a legal engagement where the employer engages an employee for a consideration. Wages and remunerations are among the financial gains that an employee’s stand to benefit from his employer (Legge, 2004)

We will write a custom Essay on The role that HRM plays within the strategic direction of an organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tangible and non-tangible benefit includes paid leaves, insurances, loan agreement policies and sick leaves. In most organizations, labor cost constitutes a large portion of the organizations budget; when it comes to company’s performance, wages that an organization pays has an effect on the company’s competitiveness directly and indirectly, it supports the strategic plans and actions developed within the organization. In labor-intensive industries, the cost of labor is high than in capital-intensive industries.

There are some internationally recognized labor laws that give minimal direction to the wage rate payable in certain industries; they are developed with agreement with domestic governments after considering the nature of the industry and its benefits to international community.

If a company is in an industry regulated by international labor laws, then its human resource management has the role of enforcing the policies. Different countries after considering their economics standing have set some regulation of wage rates payable; domestic legislations are concerned with minimal wage rate, which all companies operating in the economy are expected to have (John, 2004).

Ensuring fair treatment and legal compliance Human resources policies are internal, national, and international policies. Adhering to these policies is important to avoid conflicts.

Internal human resources policies

Every company has its own policies defining the relationship between the employees and their employer. I have learnt that this document is not a human resources document but a document for the entire organization’s employees. Having one and understanding what it says is crucial. Internal policies define issues like salaries, promotions, appraisal mechanism, transfers and duties and responsibilities of employees.

National policies

Different countries have different labor laws and legislations. Understanding of these laws is important to ensure that there is no violation. Previously, I thought that it is the HRD only, which should understand these laws, however, I have realized that they are national laws that a company should ensure that their employees understand and if possible make a copy to each employee. These laws define discrimination, sexual harassment, taxation policies among others.

International laws

There are some international labor laws that a company should ensure that they are not violated. They include laws on gender discrimination. Understanding of these laws is important in international diversification of a company (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010).

Summary of reasons why HRM is crucial in strategic management of an organization The human resources department has the mandate of ensuring that adequate employees are available at all times. It has the mandate of planning, deploying, employing, training, retaining, and dismissal of employees. When the department is undertaking this duty, it looks into quantitative and qualitative aspects.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The role that HRM plays within the strategic direction of an organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Qualitative means the right number of employees and qualitative means employees with right skills. Workers engage their mind, time, expertise, and intellectualism in their works; they expect to be compensated through wages, salaries, bonuses, and non-cash benefits. According to employment agreement, an employer and employee are obliged to respect labor law in the country of operation and uphold to employment-contract terms and conditions.

Developing an efficient team is the role of personnel management assisted by top and line managers; it starts with human resources planning to appraisal, motivation, rewards, and ends with termination of employment contract. Terms of employment vary with organizations and so do human resources practices like selection, contracting, and recruitment.

One of the major functions of human resources department is developing a compensation strategy that satisfies all the employees irrespective of their rank, an effective reward strategy should be able to trigger motivation and increase the zeal to work-hard in an organization (Armstrong, 2006)

Conclusion The human resources department has the mandate of ensuring that adequate employees are available at all times. It has the mandate of planning, deploying, employing, training, retaining, and dismissal of employees.

When the department is undertaking this duty, it looks into quantitative and qualitative aspects; to ensure that the objectives of the department are met, the company uses the assistance of line and top managers in enforcing and reinforcing the policies set. When undertaking its roles, it should ensure that national and international labor laws have been enforced and rights of employees respected.

References Armstrong, M. ,2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. New York: Kogan Page.

Bandt, A. and Haines, S.(2002). Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.

Beardwell, J. and Claydon, T. ,2010. Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach .New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

John, B.P.,2004. Organizational Behavior, from theory to Practice. New York: Wiley.

Legge, K., 2004. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

McGoldrick, J., Stewart J.,


30 W J Essay a level english language essay help

Identify 3 key concepts, each followed by an explanation, relevant quotes, and/or examples from the readings (with citation, e.g. Suh, p. 6). A key concept can be one single word (e.g. “duhkha”) or a phrase referring to a cluster of ideas (e.g. “five skandhas”). Look for concepts that are crucial in understanding all readings assigned for the week, or for those explicitly explained in one reading and alluded to in another.

Write down the questions you need the professor to explain further during the synchronous session (you may also write N/A if everything seems clear and you do not need me to clarify anything); and Write down one discussion question and post it to the Discussion Board one hour before our synchronous session begins, so that the professor and the discussion leaders can preview the questions

Personal care: This is a trying time and we will only get through it if we remember to take care of ourselves and of each other, physically and mentally. For this part, I would like to “hear” what you have done to take care of yourself and/or of someone else. It can be something as simple as “I went to the gym everyday” or “I took a walk in the Metropark because nature relaxes me” or “I made myself some comfort food.” It can also be something like “I talked to my therapist” or “I checked in with three friends in the past week to see how they are doing.” This part is not meant to be intrusive; it is just a reminder of the necessity of self-care and mutual care


Public Relations Campaign Essay essay help: essay help

Executive Summary The Newlandia Education Foundation (NEF) was established in early 1900 by the missionaries. Formerly known as Newlandia Trust of Hope, the charitable organization has grown tremendously since its establishment (Newlandia Education Foundation 2010). Currently staffed with six dedicated members, NEF has been able to live its dream of promoting education in Newlandia.

The Newlandia government has set aside a small allocation from its budget to support the organization. With three schools to support at the moment in south Newlandia, the funds by the government are hardly enough to meet all the expenses. It has therefore been forced to turn to the public for donations to keep the organization and its projects running. In order to raise public awareness, a successful public relations campaign will have to be launched.

Project Overview A public relations campaign is necessary to raise awareness to the outside world about an existing company. It further helps to raise awareness of the current situation of that particular company (Bobbitt and Sullivan 2008). To understand the problem at hand, it is important to give a brief overview of the project and the need to launch the campaign. Newlandia Education Foundation has been in operation for many years now with its main goal being to provide education to the Newlandians.

It has already established three schools that it is currently supporting in Shalel, Rajan and Calina in the south region of Newlandia. These small schools are proof that the organization is up in hand to provide quality education regardless of sex, religion or even the economic background of the residents. The residents in these villages are struggling individuals who can hardly support themselves financially. Accessibility to these villages is not easy due to lack of proper infrastructure. The roads are in pathetic conditions.

The southerners mostly rely on fishing as their main source of income (Newlandia 2010). The schools are under-resourced and in poor conditions. The reading materials are hardly enough to cater for all the students and the school’s infrastructure is in poor condition. Imagine a situation where children are subjected to sit on a cold floor in a windowless classroom and with inadequate learning materials to gain knowledge from.

It is an un-imaginable scenario but one that clearly portrays the children’s struggle to quench their education thirst. Despite this struggles, one of the school has produced a graduate currently studying teaching at the University of Pacific. This is proof that the education projects undertaken by NEF are not in vain.

The problem being faced by NEF is the ability to keep the schools running to cater for the needs of all the students in Southern Newlandia. With a population of 750,000, the schools are not enough to accommodate all the school-aged children in the region. A project to build three more schools is underway but the project will require support from other communities in Newlandia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Northern and Central Newlandia for example do not seem to understand the situation at Southern Newlandia. They need to be made aware of NEF’s existence and its role in the community. The government also needs to chip in more money to support the organization. A public relations campaign will therefore come in handy to raise awareness and to lobby for public’s support.

Objectives Of The Public Relation Campaign Through an aggressive public relation campaign, Newlandia Education Foundation (NEF) will begin to seek attention from both the members of the public and other donors. A research conducted indicated that only few residents of Newlandia knew about the existence of NEF. Shockingly, it was just a few of them who knew the core business conducted by NEF.

Most people seem to think that NEF is part of Newlandia Children Foundation (NCF) which has gained major popularity among the Newlandians. The campaign will play a huge role to bring out the difference between the two organizations and any other organization in Newlandia that might cause confusion.

The other objective is to win both the public and private support of the organization. The campaign will seek to give NEF the good reputation that it possesses. This will help to shed light on the real intention of the project carried out by NEF for the goodwill of children who are unable to access learning facilities. The establishment of a goodwill and understanding between NEF and Newlandians is the main objective of the campaign.

The campaign will also help to establish and reinforce the professional image of NEF. This helps the public to view the organization in a positive manner hence winning its support. Failure to create a positive image will lead the organization losing its credibility. Positive image helps to create good perceptions of the organization’s good name and the kind of projects that it undertakes.

The general goal of the project will be to raise public and government awareness. The awareness will help NEF raise sufficient funds to run the current and future projects. The public will be inclined to offer any kind of support to keep NEF running. The government on the other hand will be obliged to increase its monetary allocation to support the projects.

Communication Strategy Any public relations campaign should have a set communication strategy in order to achieve its goals and objectives. It targets the audience to whom the message should be communicated to and how the communication will be done. Communication strategy is very essential for the success of public relations campaign.

We will write a custom Essay on Public Relations Campaign specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reaction of the audience is determined upon reviewing the communication strategy. Using the wrong mode of communication can render the campaign futile. The key message to be communicated should also be carefully considered. Misrepresentation of words can alter the initial meaning of the message. The communication strategy to be applied by NEF should therefore be simple and straightforward.

Target Audience

The primary target audience will be the general public and the government. The secondary audience will be private individuals, companies and external donors. The campaign should first and foremost target both the Northerners and Central regions. The North East of Newlandia has a population of over 200,000 people. The region is swarmed with copper mines industries. This is an indication that the Northerners have the financial ability to support the Southerners to access education (Newlandia 2010).

The Central region on the other hand has many industries ranging from agriculture to timber processing. With a population of about 15,000, it is the home of the famous Van On Organic Coffee Plantation, one of the leading coffee plantations in Newlandia. The residents of this region have enough financial power to back the ongoing projects in Newlandia (Newlandia 2010).

The government of Newlandia should also be notified of the situation at the Southern region of Newlandia. The campaign will especially target Mr. K.L Gupta who is currently serving as the Finance Minister and Infrastructure. He is also the chairman of the Newlandia Conservative Party and is actively involved in the politics.

Private individuals include accomplished businessmen in Newlandia such as Mr. Rohan Singh and Mr. Bill Klempf. Mr. Rohan has great influence in the business sector and can easily influence other business owners. Mr. Klempf on the other hand is one of the most powerful business people in Newlandia. Born in an equally powerful family, he owns major booming businesses in Newlandia. Though he rarely gets involved in community organizations, the campaign can lure him to support NEF and the Southerners.

As a businessman, he will be keen to learn the current situation at the Southern region and discover the untapped potential of the region. In a bid to establish himself in the region, he is bound to support NEF’s project initiatives to win over the hearts of the Southerners. The industry organizations are other audiences that should be targeted. Newlandia has established industries and organizations such as the Newlandia Organic Coffee Growers Association and Newlandia Garment Industry.

External donors will also be key targets. The WorldHelp for example is one of an external donor that should be targeted. A multi-national organization based in Atlanta, it is deeply involved in charitable programs all over the world. With a keen interest in such projects being initiated by NEF, WorldHelp will be following the implementation of the projects at a very close range (WorldHelp 2010).

Media and Events

The other important stage of the campaign is to establish the appropriate channels that will be used to deliver the message to the target audience identified above. This includes media activities and events that will help promote the campaign. Use of lobby groups or individuals is also another avenue to gain publicity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Relations Campaign by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main channel that the campaign will use is Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation Television (NBC) which is a public media. The television has wide media coverage. The other public media that will be utilized is the Newlandia Times newspaper. The paper reaches many people who don’t have visual means of receiving news and information. Another form of print media that will be used is the Newlandia Tourism Authority Newsletter.

The newsletter can be used to cover the tourism attractions in Southern Newlandia. With fishing as the main activity in the region, the newsletter will help to attract tourists in the region hence increasing public awareness and support. Lobbyists will also be used to deliver the intended message to the target audience. Newlandia has avid campaigners such as Lakshmi Shankaran, married to Henry Abalone, who is also a campaigner and a journalist.

The couple will provide a fantastic avenue to take out the word of the suffering children at the Southern region. Active involvement in media events held by the Newlandia Business Development Authority will also be an appropriate channel to gain public awareness. Lastly, it will be important to involve the south region local newspaper to highlight the situation at the South. The Mouth Of The South will be utilised for this purpose.

The Key Message

The main message to be communicated to the audience will be the need to support the education programs initiated by NEF. It will also differentiate NEF from other organisations that have initially been confused with. The core business of NEF will also be brought to the public.

The audience should be notified of the hardships being experienced at the South and the need to support the schools currently running. They should also get involved in the future project of building more schools in the region that will be implemented within 18 months.

The Communication Models And Theories To Be Applied The campaign will apply the public information and the two-way asymmetric models as opposed to the press agentry/ publicity and two-way symmetric. In the public information model, it is used to convey correct and true information to the audience. The press agentry/publicity model is full of propaganda and will kill NEF’s credibility.

The two-way asymmetric is also favourable to communicate to the target audience. It will help the organisation to get a feedback from the audience to enable it apply the appropriate theories to convince them. This model is better as it will allow the audience to see the logic from NEF’s point of view. The aim of the campaign is not to negotiate with the public hence the reason to disregard the two-way symmetric model.

The appropriate theory to be applied is the accommodation theory as opposed to the cognitive dissonance theory. The accommodation style allows the speaker to adjust their communication style to accommodate different classes of audience. It is therefore ideal in our project to gain social approval from all the audiences targeted. In cognitive dissonance theory, the audience tend to avoid views that seem not to support their own feelings (Jamieson 1985).

Conclusion The public relations campaign will not only be used to win over the public’s support but also to make it aware of NEF’s existence. The organisation requires monetary support and learning materials that will help the students excel just like one of their student, Rangi.

The learning conditions are harsh, yet the children are willing to go beyond all means to gain that academic knowledge. Their efforts can only succeed if the people of Newlandia can join hands to make their dream a reality. That will be the main task of this public relations campaign, but one that is sure to succeed.

Reference List Bobbitt, R.


Basic Premises of Cognitive Development Theory Essay essay help site:edu

People are not born as smart as they become when they reach their adolescence. At the same time, every infant has to be put in a specific environment to have an opportunity to acquire knowledge and develop his or her intelligence.

The basic premises of cognitive development theory lie in the development of a person as he or she grows in terms of intellectual, analytical, learning, and other skills. Many outstanding researchers contributed to the analysis and application of cognitive theories to educational domains and development of an individual. As such, cognition of the world is developed while a person grows while it can be clearly seen only when a person passes through the stages outlined by researchers.

As suggested in the study by Taylor (2005), “it is obvious that newborn infants are not capable of complex thought patterns but also that they are born with the capacity to develop the ability for complex thought” (p. 8). As such, the cognition of the world is closely related to the development of skills and complex thought in infants while it also progresses with aging. Cognitive development can be clearly understood from theories presented by such outstanding researchers as Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget.

Development of intelligence is one of the aspects that can be seen from the theory of cognitive development. Intelligence is believed to be an integral part of human nature by both theorists under discussion. For instance, Vygotsky thought game an important component of learning because he understood that developing intelligence it is necessary to take into account the preferences and behavioral peculiarities of the age. As such, children should be approached in a different way than adolescents.

At the same time, Piaget believed that children could alter their knowledge with regard to the new knowledge they acquire. For example, “children begin to construct knowledge in new ways at a few critical points in development. When this happens, they revise their theories radically” (Kail


Supreme Court Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Name of the case and its citation The case in Question is the case of “Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S.A, et al. v. Brown et, ux.,” (Syllabus1, 2010, n.p). “Co-Administrators of the Estate of brown, et al., Certiorari to the high court of Appeals of North Carolina Supreme Court No.10-76. Argued January 11, 2011-Decided June 27, 2011” (Syllabus, 2010, n.p).

Parties to the case

The Petitioners are Goodyear Dunlop Tires Corporation, a Tire Company and the respondents are North Carolina residents who lost their sons in a bus accident in France.


There was a fatal bus accident outside Paris in France amounting to the deaths of the respondents sons who hailed from North Carolina. The suit was brought by Goodyear Dunlop Tire Operations based in France complaining about wrongful death damages in the North Carolina state court claiming that the deaths were as a result of a tire failure caused By Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations who are based in Ohio.

The petitioners were three subsidiaries of the Goodyear Dunlop Tires company who took part in organization and operations in France, Turkey and Luxembourg. The petitioners were not registered to carry out business in North Carolina and their tires were specifically made for the European and Asian Markets.

The petitioners did not sell, advertise, solicit, manufacture, design nor did they have a place of business in the United States. They did not engage with the North Carolinas residents in the Buyer-seller contract. However, some of their products managed to penetrate the North Carolina market through their affiliates in the United States of America. They applied for a petition to have the trial taken to France which was rejected.

The constitutional issues in the case

The first Constitutional issue arising in this case was whether the North Carolina Supreme court had general jurisdiction in the matter. This is a contentious issue as goodyear was a company registered in Ohio and did not carry out any of their operation in North Carolina or in the United States of America. In fact there products were only found in the United States due to the actions or inactions of their affiliates.

The issues on jurisdiction that arose in this case were issues of ‘lex fori’. This is whether the North Carolina Court was the most appropriate court to hear the petition as France had the most substantial connection with the case. The mother company was registered in France and companies in the United States were only its subsidiaries. The accident also happened in France outside the United States of America (Ginsburg, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another issue concerning jurisdiction was whether the case in France would be more favorable and comfortable to the residents of North Carolina in terms of affordability and comfortability.

Decision of the court in terms of votes The decision of the court was unanimous. All the nine jury members voted for dismissal of personal jurisdiction by the petitioners.

Opinion of the court

The North Carolina court in dismissing the motion for petitioners and upholding the jurisdiction of the trial courts held that north Carolina would be the most suitable place for the trial of the case as there was organized marketing of the company’s product in the United States Market as the tires that caused the injuries were made according to quality standards of the United States standard and bore markings which were similar to other tires in the united state and accordingly distribution was through a stream of commerce.

The Courts also stated that the victims of the accident were children of North Carolina and the Parents were residents of North Carolina so the courts of North Carolina would be in their best interest. This was because they were going to be cost effective and the residents were accustomed to the procedures of their home courts and had faith that the matter would be handled without prejudice.

Rationale of the opinion and concurring opinions

The above decision is supported by the case of “International shoes company Limited v Washington” (Bickford, 2011, p. 25). Where it was held that as long as there is minimal connection to a state a personal jurisdiction can be made as long as courts handle the matter fairly and without prejudice.

This is also supported by the fourteenth Amendment Provisional Clause. Since the evidence showed that the petitioners actions were regular and continuous action could take place in North Carolina and this is supported by the case of Helicopteros, (466 U. S., at 416.), (Erbsen, 2011).

New opinions

There are also contrary opinions to the decision of the jury in the Goodyear’s case and this is illustrated in World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson, (444 U. S. 286, 297). In this case, it is argued that although a country does have some connection to the facts of the case and particulars of the case in a minimal way, it does not give that country the right to have general jurisdiction of the case provided that the personal jurisdiction of the case would ensure fair play and dissemination of substantial justice (Tizard, 2011).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Supreme Court specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Significance

This is a prima facie case in laying out the procedures to follow in solving jurisdictional issues between the home country and the foreign country (Bickford, 2011).

Reference List Bickford, J. (2011). Opinion analysis: No jurisdiction over foreign Round-up: Posted Thursday, June 30th, 2011. Web.

Erbsen, A. (2011). Personal Jurisdiction, Goodyear v. Brown, and Homely Line Drawing: prawfsblawg. Web.

Ginsburg, B.R, J. (2011) Goodyear v Brown. Web.

Syllabus1 (2010), Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations S.A. v. Brown October Term, 2010. Web.

Tizard, C. J (2011) Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations S.A. v. Brown Syllabus, New Orleans. Web.


The Opium Trade: Why did it flourished in 19th century China Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Lucrative Business

Floating in a Sea of Despair

A Matter of Opinion

Final Argument




Throughout human history, the trouble that emanates from the activities of smugglers, pirates, and black market profiteers has been a major problem for monarchs and other heads of state. The same thing can be observed today from the pirates of Somalia to the Colombian drug cartels.

There are three reasons why smugglers, criminals and lawbreakers would risk their lives to buy contraband such as opium and these are listed as follows: they have found a lucrative business; they are desperate; and they find it a matter of personal opinion whether they must be considered as astute businessmen or enemies of the state. This argument stems from a close study of a book written by Captain Arthur Cunynghame.

Cunynghame served as a British sea captain and also as the aide-de-camp to Major-General Lord Saltoun. He was a commander of a ship under the royal crown of Britain and at the same time commander of troops assigned to the East India Company. The main argument stated earlier was the result of studying Cunynghame’s personal recollection of the cause and effect of the Opium War of the late 19th century. The following is taken from one of his recollections, an insight into the mindset of the people involved in the opium trade and Cunynghame wrote:

The difficulties and dangers which were placed by the Chinese authorities in the way of obtaining it, together with the immense price to which, in consequences, it had obtained, caused its sale to be undertaken only by the most lawless as well as avaricious of the community, who risked their lives in this pursuit … the cruelties resorted by the mandarins in its suppression, and by the smugglers in retaliation, are almost incredible.[1]

Lucrative Business It is easy to understand why business-minded people flock towards a money-making scheme that assures them a tidy profit. This is simply the dictates of human nature. No person in his right mind would do something that promises verylittle pay if there is an alternative source of income that promises a three-fold increase in income.

More importantly human nature dictates that a person should find an efficient method for achieving a particular goal. In this case the goal is to make money and the methodology adopted is smuggling banned products.

The high yield profit from the importation of opium is the result of the insistence of the 19th century Chinese government that opium is destructive to the health and well-being of the general population. Opium was therefore ruled as an illegal substance. It created a dilemma within Chinese society. For many centuries opium was never considered a deadly menace and a prohibitive drug. On the contrary it was viewed as something of a miracle cure that provided relief to different maladies ranging from headaches to emotional stress.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to one commentary “It would be normal at such times for some people to use opium to relieve stress, much as the modern world has used Valium.”[2] As a consequence the demand for opium began to increase dramatically as supply dwindled. It was therefore necessary to deal with the consequences of the demand of paying customers. There was a tremendous incentive to bring in opium from outside sources.

As a result opium began pouring in huge quantities but only through the able hands of smuggler and unscrupulous individuals. The presence of the British merchants exacerbated the problem because just like the others, they saw nothing wrong with the sale of opium. The drug must be regulated and not banned.

It can also be argued that growth of the illegal trade in opium was also due to the porous security and law enforcement capability of the Chinese government. At a time when there were too many ports to unload opium and that there were many areas that cannot be efficiently monitored by nation attempting to manage and secure an incredible land mass – the biggest country in the world. Thus, combining the profitability of the illegal activity and chance for success it was not surprising that many took the risk.[3]

Floating in a Sea of Despair The second major reason why people in late 19th century China would risk life and limb in the smuggling of opium is rooted in desperation. This desperation stems from poverty. Many of the minor players in the opium industry struggled to make ends meet and the possibility of augmenting their income is something that is difficult to pass up. Consider for instance the number of employed needing a source of income. There are also people who went through difficult times and the smuggling of opium was an easy way out.

The sense of desperation is not only limited to monetary reasons. There is also the desperation that comes from those who desperately needed a dose of the opiate drug. There are two forces that intensified this feeling of depression. On one side were the legitimate users of opium and limited their use for medicinal purposes only. But on the opposite end there are the opium addicts that require their regular fix.

It has to be pointed out that there was a serious problem when it comes to the supply of opium. The Chinese people from mainland China are not the only ones consuming large quantities of the illegal substance. When the Lord Cunynghame was on his way to China he passed by Singapore and he documented the deplorable state of the nation of Singapore because many of her citizens were opium junkies.

Many Singaporeans during that time were no longer productive citizens because of the ill-effects of opium addiction. Thus, there was not only competition within Chinese society but there was also competition from abroad. This has incredibly increased the sense of desperation from smugglers, peddlers, and users.

We will write a custom Essay on The Opium Trade: Why did it flourished in 19th century China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Matter of Opinion Cunynghame made a brutal assessment of the opium trade and he said that smugglers and black market profiteers would go to great lengths in order to participate in the lucrative business of buying, selling, and delivery of opium.

Aside from poverty, quick profit, and desperation another major reason why many join the ranks of smugglers can be seen in the ambivalence when it comes to the characterization of the opium smugglers and black market profiteers. The government condemned them as enemies of the state and lawbreakers deserving of extreme punishment. But there are others who see them as businessmen.

The ambivalence was the result of how people interpret the meaning and significance of opium. For those who consider it as a miracle cure, there is no justification why the government should prevent others from using it. It is a matter of freedom and personal choice to be able to use a specific drug that is effective against a particular medical condition. But the Chinese government was quick to point out that overall; opium is a destroyer of society.

The smugglers were encouraged no end by the presence of British businessmen who find nothing wrong with the sale of opium. A smuggler can easily justify their actions considering that other powerful entities are enriching themselves from the sale of what was supposed to be illegal products.

It must have created confusion at first when the government suddenly ruled that opium could no longer be made freely available in China. The confusion was due at first to the fact that no such ruling was ever made in China. For the longest time people use it as a form of herbal medicine.

Furthermore, the smugglers and black market profiteers must have found it difficult to reconcile the fact that the Chinese government sent their attack dogs to capture and punish them but the British with the backing of their government were expected to make a profit from the sale of opium. It did not take long for many of them to realize that opium’s status as an illegal or legal substance is a matter of opinion.

Final Argument There were many ways to shut down the opium trade in 19th century China. The government saw the negative impact of opium use to the general population and used its power to crush the growing industry in the importation and use of opium in China.

Severe measures were passed and captured smugglers were severely punished to act an example for those who are attempting to bring in more opium to the country. But instead of instilling fear, the opium trade flourished. There are no other explanations other than profitability, poverty, and perception.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Opium Trade: Why did it flourished in 19th century China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The opium trade flourished in 19th century China because it was highly profitable. It was an easy way to earn significant amounts of money provided the smugglers and peddlers were not caught. There was a huge demand for it coming from two types of customers.

The first one uses it for medicinal purpose and the second were the high number of opium addicts. The second major reason why the opium trade thrived in spite of the illegal status of the drug is linked to poverty. The lack of reliable sources of income and the lack of opportunities to make good money pushed many to join a gang of smugglers or become a part of a supply chain.

This is why even if the Chinese government made it clear how smugglers should be punished for breaking the law, many were still willing to try. The final reason why the opium trade was such a major success in 19th century China is the realization that the legality of the business is subject to personal opinion. The Chinese smugglers saw how the British government profited from the trade of opium it was therefore unfair for them not to take a slice of the market.

Bibliography Cunynghame, Arthur. The Opium War: Being Recollections of Service in China. PA: G.B. Ziebber


The Culture of Fear Essay essay help online free

Introduction The culture of fear is a new phenomenon growing among the American citizens. It refers to the tendency to adopt irrational scares, especially when advanced by the media, politicians, and monomaniacal advocacy groups. This qualifies as paranoia associated with issues such as road rage, breast cancer, pedophiles, blacks, immorality, plane crashes, among others. Glassner and Wainwright provide the reader with statistics to debunk most of the misrepresentations advanced by the media.

Masquerading ‘experts’ who in reality are phonies with dubious qualifications being trotted up to back the media’s prejudicial notions are exposed with the backing of statistics. An interesting point that Glassner brings to attention is how these journalists seem quick to brush aside genuine experts who seek to discredit their generalizations of solitary incidents into ‘trends’.

Glassner’s ‘The Culture of Fear’ is quite a revelation of matters concerning misplaced fears based on delusions by the press. It touches on issues than include fear for airline safety, road rages, teenage pregnancies, monster moms, youth violence, terrorism, crack babies, pedophilia, kidnappings, overemphasis of diseases such as SARS and West Nile Disease, feminists’ banter on silicone breast implants, and racial stereotyping among others (Glassner 2010, p. 3).

It also provides an explanation of why people succumb to these ploys by the media, politicians and lobbyists. Finally, Glassner offers suggestions on how to counter these irrational fears propagated by such falsities. Wainwright’s ‘A Sociology of Health’ is a complex text on health issues.

For the purposes of this paper, the focus is on chapter two, which discusses ‘Doing Better, Feeling Scared: Health Statistics and the Culture of Fear’. Wainwright’s work is a reflection of Glassner’s many concepts, with more emphasis laid on the statistics, to debunk the paranoia that comes with ignorance. However, he gives a detailed explanation of the nature of ‘actuarial risk’ (Wainwright 2008, p. 91). This paper will discuss both authors’ contributions jointly.

The culture of fear is not new: it continues to breed with the sustaining efforts of the opportunistic politicians seeking votes from the public by playing on people’s emotions through mass media.

It thrives on sensationalism and exaggerated reports of occurrences to keep people tuned in and single-minded advocacy groups that exaggerate the prevalence of certain diseases and conditions to solicit funding. Unfortunately, these extreme, albeit spectacular depictions are detrimental to society in terms of propagating further hardships and eclipsing the real, and usually less popular problems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Glassner posits that the widespread anti-breast cancer campaigns spread fear among affected parties, making it less likely for daughters whose mothers had breast cancer to conduct screening tests. He also gives the example of the hype over illegal drug usage, such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroine.

Focusing on these abusers shifts our attention from the abuse of legal drugs and the negligent prescription of wrong medication by health practitioners. Another instance is the decline to handle violent crimes by instigating bans on gun ownership and possession. The media works on the philosophy ‘if it bleeds it leads’ which explain the gross exaggerations and christening of incidents into trends. It happens when there are several sequential or even sparse occurrences of newsworthy events.

A good example is the youth killings in Littleton Colorado, which earned the title ‘monstrous youth’. Such generalizations of specific people’s crimes into an entire category’s nature are a major reason why paranoia spreads among the public. “Entire categories stand out as innately dangerous…” (Glassner 2010, p. 9). Consequently, parents no longer trust public schools.

Politicians are notorious for their scare mongering, especially during campaigns. Glassner quotes Richard Nixon who once stated, “People react to fear, not love…They don’t teach that in Sunday school, but its true” (Glassner 2010, p. 15). Surely, if that is the motto of politicians, then the country is in for a great scare. The last group addressed in this category is lobbyists, who single-mindedly misrepresent the prevalence of certain diseases and conditions to hike funding, or in support of their ideologies.

A good example is the feminists who launched an anti-silicone breast implants campaign until the FDA banned them in 1992, yet extensive research found no connection between these implants and deteriorated health of individuals who had them (Wainwright 2008, p. 148). The issue of health and fear also occurs in the form of people feeling healthy, yet believing that they will fall ill.

Countless journals constantly present data in millions of Americans with rare diseases, epidemics like SARS, West Nile Disease, and the Gulf War Syndrome. All this is at the expense of numerous Americans ‘actually’ suffering from malaria and malnutrition, among other dangerous conditions. It seems ironical to note that these figures once combined or summed up come up to over 500 million Americans yet the last census only accounts for less those 300 million citizens.

Glassner proposes that there be a shift from the sensational to the mundane if change is to occur. “We have the resources to feed, house, educate, insure, and disarm our communities if we resolve to do so…We can choose to redirect some funds to combat serious dangers that threaten large numbers of people…At election time, we can choose candidates that proffer programs rather than scares” (Glassner 2010, p. 210).

We will write a custom Essay on The Culture of Fear specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He notes that whereas in the last three decades the crime rate has declined by almost thirty percent, press coverage has shot up to 600%! The result of this discrepancy is the appearance of an increasing crime rate. The same applies for many other societal vices on the decline such as suicide rates and abortions.

The public will always be vulnerable to deception by opinion leaders because most people cannot reason probabilistically, and they lack understanding of the rules of inference and statistical evidence. Education on probability may be of help, but the burden lies on the deceivers to correct their ways. The society needs to take accountability for its actions, or lack of actions, especially in failing to route for corrective policies, instead of blaming drug addicts, or blacks, or other marginalized groups in need of welfare and respite.

References Glassner, B., 2010. Introduction to the Tenth Anniversary Edition. In The Culture of

Fear. New York: Basic Books.

Wainwright, D., 2008. Chapter 2, Doing Better, Feeling Scared: Health Statistics

and the Culture of Fear, In A Sociology of Health (pp. 89-96). Oregon: Sage Publication Ltd.


Strategic Management Problem Solution Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary


Organizations Analysis

Present and potential future projects

Effects of implementations of future strategies




Executive Summary Strategic management forms an integral aspect of any organization operations. Strategic management guides an organization towards achieving; its goals, objectives, mission and vision successfully. Some scholars assert that strategic management is a vital tool that helps management to allocate resources effectively. In an attempt to understand how strategic management influences business organizations, this essay looks at the operations of Rotary Engineering Limited Company (REL) and Jurong Town Corporation (JPC).

REL is a world leading petroleum producer, whereas, JPC is a public owned corporation that offers a competitive economic platform for an organization to produce, and enhance its economic improvement. The main activities carried by JTC are; construction, technoprenuer centre, underground oil reservoirs, incubators, wafer fabrication hub, and chemical production.

The company’s mission is to facilitate Singaporean economic performance. On the other hand, REL is a petroleum producing company that operates in Singapore, and in major Asian countries such as; Saudi Arabia, India, China and Malaysia. The company’s mission is to produce quality products that meet customer’s needs. To achieve its long-term goals, the company embraces strategic plans, as the route map to achieving its goals.

A viable strategic management is essential for any organization, as it incorporate organization goals, objectives and mission in relation to the long-term plans. Although, the two organizations operate in different economic structures, individual strategic plans have helped them to cope, both with internal and external environment. Additionally, strategic decisions have steered them towards improving their performance.

Nonetheless, it has not been smooth sailing for the two companies; challenges have emerged, compelling the management to devise alternatives in order to adjust themselves to the demands of steady growth. Induced pressure that results from steady growth has resulted in delegation of duties to subordinate staffs, some of whom are less competent. However, despite of its steady growth, REL revises its strategic policy and management organization to suit the new demands.

Introduction Competitive organizations need to make deliberate measure to cope with the existing cutthroat competition. The existence of such stiff competition renders managers to devise alternatives, and means to remain ahead of their competitors. To achieve this, managers design and implement strategic plans to sustain performance effectiveness. Strategic plan is an evolving initiative aimed at aiding an organization to cope with complex external environment (Porter 1996).

Thus; strategic plan forms an integral part of any organization as it encompasses strategic objectives. The strategic objectives outline both current and medium- term goals, which assist organization in achieving its long-term goals (Dess, Lumpkin


The Oiled Paper Umbrella Research Paper cheap essay help

Abstract Umbrellas have evolved throughout the history of ancient China, Egypt, and the Middle East. Oiled paper umbrella is a type of umbrella that emanated from China during the ancient times and has evolved and dominated the world due to its unique features.

The unique features of oiled paper umbrella include smooth bamboo handle, waterproof shade, light paper, and colorful collections. A study, carried out in colleges, confirmed that students prefer oiled paper umbrella as compared to other umbrellas, thus designers and entrepreneurs should target students and entire youth as potential customers of oiled paper umbrellas.

Introduction The oiled paper umbrella is a special umbrella that emanated from China during the ancient times but has currently gained international recognition that, it is virtually present in all countries. Johnson argues that, versatility of oiled paper umbrella to various occasions and functions has made it gain international significance as compared to the ordinary umbrellas (8).

This implies that, oiled paper umbrella has unique appeal to diverse cultures across the world due to its unique design and variable colors. Since the oiled paper umbrella has dominated the world, this project seeks to establish the unique features that are inherent in the umbrella design that make it appeal to so many people across the world.

Review of the Literature As aforementioned, the oiled paper umbrella is unique umbrella that Chinese invented during the ancient times. The Chinese made the oiled umbrella using bamboo, wax, paper, and various colors that give different tastes. Royal families and emperors used red and yellow colors with special designs while ordinary people used blue or other colored umbrellas.

According to Smith, oiled umbrellas serve several purposes in the Chinese culture in that they do not only provide shade against rain and sunshine, but also as act as artifacts of decorations in weddings and prevention of evil spirits in religious ceremonies (1).

In addition, other people across the world use the oiled paper umbrella as gifts to their loved ones and souvenirs of the Chinese culture. Despite the fact that the oiled paper umbrella originated from China, it has spread across the world, because its unique design and multiple colors appeal to many people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology To establish unique features that are inherent in the oiled paper umbrella, a study was carried out in a college. The survey targeted 200 college-going students and ensured that there was gender balance to enhance the credibility of the research findings.

According to Walter, the appealing features of the oiled paper umbrella include oil that repels water, smooth bamboo handle, and colorful designs (8). Therefore, the study hypothesized that students would cite these unique features as inherent components of the oiled paper umbrellas that have made it dominate the world’s markets with much value.

In the study, the researchers interviewed 200 participants to state the umbrella they like and name its unique features. The researchers displayed four types of umbrellas with five sets, each having different colors. The study collected numerical data in terms of points. When each participant selected the desired umbrella, it was a point; moreover, every named unique feature was a point too.

Expected Results

The study expected that, since the oiled paper umbrella has more unique features as compared to the ordinary umbrellas, it would score more points. Edwards asserts that, artifacts that have many attractive features are more appealing than those with minimal features are (13).

Hence, smooth bamboo, waterproof shade, light paper, colorful collections, and unique design of the oiled paper umbrella are many attributes that made it score more points in the survey. Comparatively, the ordinary umbrellas only have good design features and exist in colorful collections; however, they do not have bamboo and paper components plus waterproof shade.

Therefore, the research findings are relevant to both designers and entrepreneurs since they give an idea about students’ preferences and tastes concerning umbrellas. Designers will employ these findings in designing customized umbrellas that target students and by extension youths, as a generalization of the findings. Moreover, entrepreneurs will employ these findings in targeting youths as potential customers of the oiled paper umbrellas.

Research Project Timetable

The researchers carried out the study on a weekend viz. Saturday and Sunday, between 9am and 4pm, because most of the students are free and have ample time for interviews. Between 9am and 4pm, researchers visited students at various places within the college: in hostels, classes, and field or entertainment centers. The objective of the study was to interview 200 participants, 100 males and 100 female students, in consideration of gender perception of umbrella features.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Oiled Paper Umbrella specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Resources Required

The study required resources such as the interviewers who carried out the study during the two days and analyzed the data. The interviewers used questionnaires and stationery as recourses when collecting required information from participants. Other resources that were critical include samples of four types of umbrellas each having five sets of different colors.

Conclusion Invention of umbrellas began a long time ago, about 4000 years, in various parts of the world such as China, Assyria, and Egypt. Bellis explains that, the ancient umbrellas functioned as shade against sun and rain, but they have evolved with time in that, they currently function as beauty artifacts in weddings, souvenirs, and gifts (5). Due to its unique and attractive features, the oiled paper umbrella has gained international recognition because international designers and fashion industries are reproducing it across the world.

Currently, in Europe and the United States, the oiled paper umbrellas cost between 10 to 100 dollars, depending on quality and design of the umbrella. The study carried in a college proved that students preferred the oiled umbrella to the ordinary umbrellas. Thus, research findings are relevant to both designers and entrepreneurs of umbrellas, for they provide probable tastes and preferences of students.

Works Cited Bellis, Mary. “Who Invented the Umbrella?” Invention History Database, 2011: 1-7.

Edwards, Cain. “Arts and Design of Artifacts.” European Fashions and Designs, 2010.

Johnson, Kenneth. “Evolution of Oiled Paper Umbrellas.” Chinese Exhibitions, 2010: 1-4

Smith, James. “Oiled-Paper Umbrella.” Inventions of the Chinese, 2009: 1-3.

Walter, Paul. “Chinese Oiled Umbrella.” International Arts and Exhibitions, 2008: 1-13.

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The Wabash Watershed Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Climatic changes are as a consequence of both natural and man-made factors. Natural factors may relate to floods, epidemic, warming as well as rising in sea-level.

On the other hand artificial factors may concern pollution including the green-house emissions. In the above mentioned instance, diverse climatic aspects are considerably altered either seasonally or equally permanently. It ought to be noted that climatic variations are a major issue of concern. Both plant and animal life depends on the dynamics of climate to breed or survive. Exploring the issues surrounding Wabash Watershed in regard to the 1961-1990 periods, it can be argued that a lot of disparities can be detected.

During the wake of 1960s the concept of global warming was not a serious issue. As the date testifies the period was in essence clean and free from massive climate changes. As is evidenced by the areas topographical consideration, the population was equally moderate. However, as the region became more and more exposed to increased human activities, the regions weather patterns assumed a new dimension which is testified by the unstable, rain and temperatures.

Thus the data stands as the key indicator of climatic patterns before the effect of global warming began to be experienced. Floods, flash floods, heavy rains and animal immigrations can be said to be some of the effects of mounting rate of climatic changes. Hence, the data wrapping around the scope of maximum temperatures ranging from 1960-to-1990 exposes a trend that shows that from 1960 to 1982 began to increase considerably.

This was followed by disrupted rain patterns and this is also illustrated by the unstable temperatures variations both in short and long term observations. What this shows is that the changing climatic variations are hazardous. Consider the fact that changing temperatures may increase the instances of drought, low water levels, increases floods as well as influx of diseases and diseases resistant organisms. Therefore, the trend is in essence a negative pointer that can be attributed to global warming.

Looking at the entire data presentation it can be said that the environment was gradually giving in to warming. This can be linked to the available data which indicates that in the wake of 1970s the temperatures were deep low, while the subsequent years shows the great deal of variation with an increase in temperatures. And this shows why at some point the region had the coldest season as is evidenced by the wake of January 1977. Thus, it can be established that the issue of environmental warming was affecting the climatic patterns gradually.

With each impact on temperatures so did the variation took place. Hence, the scope of precipitation, moisture, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration and surface runoff took a new dimension. This can be allied to the fact that decreased moisture on the surface, low precipitation as well as increased temperatures played a role in altering the environment as well as the natural buffers that checked the abnormal climatic changes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Climatic changes Though, some theorists envisioned that we would see a more pronounced warming of minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures. This might result in a reduced range of temperatures.

This trend indicates that if global warming persisted so do the abnormal climatic changes that equally affected the natural dynamics of water retention in the atmosphere, where evaporation increased including unstable moisture deficit. In essence, the scope of differing temperature ranges indicates that the global warming is in reality playing a role in reshaping the established climatic patterns.

Thus, in regard to reduced ranges of temperatures, it is evident that the region experienced some of the harshest conditions in the wake of 1970s as well as the dawn of 1980s. More so, this paints a vivid picture of how these changes allied to fluctuating temperatures affected the range and instances of precipitation and evapotranspiration within a duration of 5 years begin from 1980s.

Also the tens years range establishes that in the wake of early 60s some instances of reduced temperature ranges were witnessed. Equally, examining the gradual temperatures recorded an imminent trend observed regards an increased peak from the 1970s and is a pointer that this was the emerging common trend. Many theories that look at global warming envisage more drought and less surplus water conditions for inland or continental locations.

Diverse trends in precipitation can be witnessed along the random instances of specific amount of precipitation And this could be fatal to both animal and plant life. Also incase of low temperatures this may cause droughts as well as an increase in animal migration not to mention an increase in water in the moisture and this may cause freezing.Exploring the dynamics of global warming, we are left with two pertinent challenges, an increase in temperatures, or a drop in temperatures. In both cases drought is pertinent in some regions, it ought to be noted that an increase in temperature may result in shifting sea levels and more so causing flash rains as well as floods.

Generally, what this indicates is that with escalating global and local temperature variations evaporation is expected to increase. Hence, the eventual change would entail having increased moisture which could result in more instances of fog and subsequently result in higher minimum temperatures and this would affect apposite climate for animal and plant reproduction. Therefore, the trend shows that global warming as is explained by climatic theorists could cause fatal crisis in regard to food security in days to come.

Argument The way both maximum and minimum temperatures seem to fluctuate suggests that these changes have deep effect on global climate. In reference to actual evapotranspiration, surplus/deficit conditions and runoff/streamflow, we might expect to get more instances of drought, heavy rains, flashfloods and equally long spells of winds. This can be attributed to the global warming theory that posits that increased instances of greenhouse gases would eventually result in earth’s atmosphere being impacted.

We will write a custom Essay on The Wabash Watershed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason is minimum temperatures are increasing rapidly than global and local maximum temperatures. According to the available data this can also result in an increase in precipitation and this would be precedent by an increase in temperatures and evaporation.

The clear-cut answers to the trends being witnessed can be provided by having well established policies designed to curb greenhouse emissions as well as stop massive deforestation. This would help in controlling the changing instances of temperatures. It ought to be noted that with reduced instances of greenhouses the witnessed climatic abnormalities could be checked.

Also, it is crucial to note that the primary features of greenhouse gases which are water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide could be controlled by having environmental friendly greenhouses and this would entail planting more trees and using less farm chemicals which are released to the atmosphere.

Basically, what this study shows in regard to carrying out studies on environmental issues like global warming is that it is essential to understand what surrounds us. Examining the data it can be stated that the study has provided a new window for human race to understand that mans survival depends on stable environment.

Also it would be prudence to argue that the study shows that stable maximum and minimum temperatures plays a central role in our lives. However, with the emergence of global warming the study makes an informed proposition that global warming is one of the foremost threat to global and local climatic conditions. The study has established that global warming do affect diverse aspects of our very own survival from availability of water to food security.

Thus, it would be instrumental to note that earth’s resources do considerably rely on the balance between maximum and minimum temperatures. The studies do indicate that researching on diverse aspects of the environment would be instrumental in establishing the apposite measures of tackling both natural and man-made features affecting the environment.

Concerning the study on environment and is established by this research it would be also important to examine data regarding crop and animal production. Also examining the information surrounding instances of animal migration, instances of severe drought, heat waves as well as changes in rain patterns would provide a solid insight into how climatic changes are effected by abnormal temperatures, evaporation, surface run off, as well as moisture.

The information from such observations would help in establishing critical measures of controlling global warming or any other instances affecting the temperatures. As the studies depict temperatures plays a considerable role in the manner global climate is sustained or manipulated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Wabash Watershed by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The proposition of this study can be correlated to the fact that global warming is major threat to both animal and plant life. This can be allied to the fact that the established changes could and will continue to impact on the environment if unchecked.

Looking at the implications of the study the foremost thing is to understand that human activities are the core factors in regard to global warming. More so, as the study offers the apparent changes can be controlled and the current status be rectified. As is apparent before the wake of 1980s the global temperatures had not fluctuated as such.

However, with each passing year we have noted in the provided data that moisture deficits increased as the greenhouse emissions mounted. According to the data provided and the critical analysis of the diverse aspects of climatic changes, it obvious that setting the record straight in regard to implications of global warming is core implication of this study.

It is from such observation that the future studies may be based upon in order to establish the apposite strategies of dealing with this issue or a similar one. Thus, to the environmentalist, the research has provided a new dimension of addressing climatic changes. While to the scholars and the government the study has provided a critical insight in regard to the best climatic variations can be managed to avert disasters (Adabashev,1966).

The current trend which can be linked to global warming has a played a global role in creating escalating instances of food shortages as is being witnessed today in Africa. The impact of global warming can also be linked to the random flash floods being witnessed in regions surrounding the Pacific Ocean.

Such issues do have a direct link to climate changes. Examining the manner food security has been compromised over the years or from the wake of 1960s, it can be alluded that climatic changes have played a central role in decreasing food production globally. When we examine the impact within the local scope it is evident Wabash Watershed has exposed instances of decreased water levels as well as high temperatures.

Such instances have in certain quarters resulted in explosion of drug resistant diseases or as is with the tropics the emergency of pests resistant to pesticide. Therefore, the current trend which is predominantly linked to global warming has a critical impact on the entire scope of climate. As is evident climate changes do determine if a particular region would be inhabitable or not.

A good example is the recent tsunami in Japan as well as swam attack in Chad and Niger in northern Africa. If the trends continue in their current direction, the people living within Wabash Watershed may find themselves warped in unexpected cold seasons as well as instances of extreme heat waves. This can be allied to the fact that as the temperature fluctuates so do other features allied to the environment such as water.

Thus, if the trend goes unabated it is likely that in days to come the region may experience instances of dryness or equally frost. Not mention that the available results do establish that the way the region temperatures have fluctuated stability cannot be attained without considering the effects of global warming. The region is no exception, its rivers are running dry, and while the animal life stands endangered this is a pointer that anything can happen.

Some of the major effect the people of this region may encounter may include loss of native and drought resistant plants. Also the instances of extreme cold as was witnessed in the wake of 1970s cannot be ruled out.

On a similar note the people may face a challenge from explosion of epidemic due to decreased temperatures thus giving raise to the growth of disease causing organism. Also proliferation of parasites, prolonged cold and dry seasons, delayed rains, acid rains as well as increased moisture deficit are some of the people of this region may encounter if the trend persists.

This can be as a result of abnormal water loss due to extreme evaporation, random precipitation as well as low forest density. Thus, the people ought to be informed and be sensitized of the dangers correlated to climate changes. As a number of scholarly have established climatic changes do alter the pace of environmental harmony and this in most instances results in catastrophe.

In conclusion, climatic changes due to global warming can be destructive. As the information provided depicts, diverse environmental agents are destroyed where such are allowed to flourish. Therefore, implementing the apposite structures to deal with greenhouses emissions would be a major step in sustaining the normal level of temperatures which are suitable for normal precipitation, moisture levels as well as evaporation (Bonnett, 2008).

References Adabashev, I. (1966). Global Engineering. Moscow: Progress.

Bonnett, A. (2008) What is Geography? London: Sage


American Art and 1920 Jazz Age Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Art during the War

American Art during 1920 Jazz Age



Introduction American art includes the historical paintings and other visual artistic expressions. Realistic paintings of portraits and landscapes are some of the art types produced at the onset of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the height of the industrial revolution in America, the America craft movement which began as a response to the industrial revolution was one of the major developments taking place.

Exhibitions that were done in New York City such as the Armory show of 1913 are examples of modern art that started penetrating America. Before this show, artists from America concentrated on western paintings and arts from European countries. When the First World War ended, Paris was used as the center of art in the world. Since this development, movements have sprung in America that have completely changed modern art.

Art during the War The period during the war in America was characterized by a negative attitude towards fine arts. Most of the art that was produced during this period included paintings from famous painters like Washington Allston. This caused the painters to become disillusioned with the status of the art.

Apart from paintings, portraits were another form of art that received much popularity. These portrait paintings exhibited the kind of energy possessed by builders of the American nation and the confidence that was in them. During this period, there was also a remarkable emergence of genre painters. They were involved in painting the American scene. For example, Audubon provided detailed and impressive paintings of birds alongside other paintings of other figures that were regarded as legendary (Henkes, 2001).

In the first half of 19th century, the first school of American landscape painting came into existence. This school of art painted landscapes with descriptions of the American people. Their work of art was a show of appreciation to nature that has continued to define American art.

In addition, the Americans passion for objects was depicted through paintings. Portraits of sculpture are also another form of art that was prevalent during the war period in America. Though artists like John Frazee had not received intensive training in producing art, they produced original and excellent work from wood and marble. The sculptors of America were highly influenced by neoclassicist personalities from Denmark.

American Art during 1920 Jazz Age With the end of the war and its characteristic art of paintings and sculptures, American art started to change in the 1920s with the arrival of the Jazz movement. This period was characterized by the emergence of jazz music accompanied by dance. The movement was sparked by the advent of radio after the end of the war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The arrival of jazz movement brought about totally different cultural practices and art. The most instrumental pioneers of Jazz music are the African Americans although it was later suited to white Americans. African Americans only used the white Americans to make the jazz culture popular. The jazz culture made it possible for African Americans to share their cultural ideals. Places like New York were often used by African American artists as centers for playing jazz.

The jazz music introduced by African Americans played in most radio stations causing youths in the 1920s to shun the traditional cultures that were being propagated. During this period, there was also a complete shift in art after the introduction of fads and radio concerts.

Throughout 1920s, jazz music was very popular despite stiff competition that was coming from other forms of music. Common dances that had been developed by the African Americans became popular as part of American art among other white Americans. The radio stations embraced these new forms of music so the Americans were given a chance of enjoying new artistic forms (Infoplease, 2011)

Conclusion The Jazz age was truly a turning point for the American art from the art that existed during the period of war. During the war, American art was characterized by paintings and sculptures that represented the Americans aspirations and their love for culture. However, there was a complete change in art after the introduction of the jazz music. It initially originated from the African Americans but later spread to other white Americans.

References Henkes, R. (2001). World War 2 in American art. Carolina: McFarland.

Infoplease. (2011). After the Civil War. Web.


Understanding Media and Communication Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



“Form of realism”

“Modes of representation”


List of References

Introduction Films are lengthy plays recorded on electronic devices, which focus on telling factual, mythical, tradition, scientific and fictional stories. A film results from the creative skills of the producer who writes the script that the actors follow while acting. Most films attempt to replicate real situations, which have transpired in the past. Conversely, music is a composition that consists of lyrics. However, visual images as evident in the presence of images and sounds lack in music.

Evidently, such media platforms pass information to the mass in an extensive manner. Nonetheless, they make use of different styles thus translating the intended messages. This paper aims to contrast the two media platforms based on certain aspects that include ideology, realism and audience. Transmedia narratives are story narrated over different media platforms. A story falls into this category once it conforms to three or more media platforms.

The exponential developments in the media world have facilitated the growth of transmedia narratives. Diversification of media platforms will be the predominant factor driving the growth of transmedia narratives by creating more platforms. The discussion below compares two media platforms thus music and film. The discussion exemplifies the techniques and devices used in storytelling in music and films (Abba 2009).

Ideology Ideology is a general term that describes certain ideas or values that people follow. Overtime, mass media has been an avenue that fosters definite ideas. This means media platforms can lead to changes in ideologies. Films have the capability to tell lengthy and complex narrative because they can accommodate a dynamic cast. In addition, they make use of sound and picture in messages. Film uses different techniques to suggest its significance.

On the contrary, music uses few techniques since it faces limitations. Music only makes use of sound. Therefore, it cannot integrate all the techniques and devices into sound. However, films can integrate the techniques and devices into sound and images. The visual ability in films means that they have the capability to influence persons. Music can influence ideologies due to its rhythms and creatively used lyrics.

Essentially, both are influential; however, films seem to exude significant influence. With the digital advancement, a filmmaker can now film complex pieces. In order to enforce certain ideologies, films use devices such as rhetoric techniques. Music and film have applied rhetoric relatively equally. Evidently, rhetoric refers to any part of the story where the storyteller asks a question yet the artist comprehends the answer. The style is evident significantly in film than music (Post and Gold, 2006).

Audience Transmedia narratives exude diverse story lines. Transmedia narratives require fanatical audience that will endeavor to follow the variety of stories that exist. These narratives capture a wide range of audiences because they are present on numerous media platforms. It worth noting that music commands a large crowd than film because it is cheaper.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A vital element of transmedia narratives is that they bring the audience on-board. Once the audiences participate, they can adjust the storyline making it linguistically and ethnically suitable for the industry. This means that the audiences have a certain level of responsibility to add to the entire plot. This makes transmedia narratives more acceptable. The level of participation in altering the plot would be minimal since film involves diverse issues that include cast and resources.

Conversely, altering the plot would be easier since it involves lesser people and resources. This means the flexibility of music gives it an edge over films, which are rigid. Transmedia allows a single story telling on a multitude of ways. With the technological advancement, transmedia will help to explore previously untapped market. Indeed, it would suit audio oriented stories while film would be suitable for graphical and audio oriented stories.

“Form of realism” Realism involves making a representation of real life situation in literature of arts. It fundamentally involves replicating a real situation. In contrasting the two media platforms with regard to realism, it is imperative to analyze their capability to replicate situations and scenarios. Films are competent of replicating situations exemplarily since it has both visual and audio capability. When they have a trained cast, they can bring out any story magnificently well.

However, films require a substantial amount of resources to support the crew and equipment. Story telling on film requires an assortment of skills. This is because a film requires a script, which captures the basis of the story. Conversely, the process of storytelling in music is considerably simple but requires a gifted person. Telling a story in a song requires the singer to blend in the ideas, which is not an ordinary fit.

However, storytelling through music is much simpler and inculcates fewer techniques and devices. On the contrary, storytelling through films involves many devices since it can accommodate a larger cast. This means that it can have antagonist protagonist, narrator, foil, and confidant. The antagonist, narrator, and antagonist represent the varying views, which may exist due to a certain story.

The use of such a cast gives depth to the story telling in films since the story has to give space to allow the varying speakers to assert their views. Such diverse thought brought about by the cast will trigger the audience to pay attention. This means that the audiences are not just ordinary listeners. It is challenging and impractical to integrate such a cast in a song because it would lose certain aspects such as rhythm.

Indeed, films have the capability to replicate a situation given the right cast and resources. These are attributable to the sound and visual aspect of films. In addition, film allows the audience to see the narrators and members of the cast. Music integrates poetry into lyrics to create rhyming words and thus improve rhythm in the song. Poetry represents the most incorporated style in music (Khlentzos 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Understanding Media and Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Modes of representation” These modes present model of film making utilized in the past. These modes represent the patterns that film production engaged. These modes apply in film making by providing guidance to the filmmaker on the procedures to follow. This reveal an aspect of film making that is procedural (Isaken


Personality and Emotional Development Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Personal development of every child is as important as acquisition of scientific facts and learning of the basic laws of the universe. Ability of a person to apply social-emotional skills in adulthood can be considered as a positive contribution of the system of education to it. Positive social development in a wider range of social roles and responsibilities of an individual can be reached through such personal skills and capabilities as leadership, respect to others, non-abusive behavior, and ability to negotiate.

An individual should respect others, be able to negotiate over certain issues, avoid verbal and physical abuse to persuade a person or display his/her emotions or ideas, and try to succeed in all activities he/she participates in. as such, all abovementioned skills can be analyzed in complex with regard to their close connection to each other.

Family environment can be as encouraging as discouraging in terms of development of social-emotional skills of children. As such, the best qualities of the family environment that can positively contribute to the development of social-emotional skills in children include the following:

Encouragement of initiatives and leadership skills in children can make them be more independent and active in their activities;

Respect for decisions of children as well as other adults in the family is the key quality to developing of respect and non-abusive behavior in children;

Discussion of problems openly is aimed at making children not afraid of having their own ideas and making decisions in accordance with the viewpoints of other members of the family. If parents notice some changes in the behavior of their children, they should be ready to discuss it openly within the family and with the teacher.

At the same time, family environment can have negative effect on development of social-emotional skills. In this respect, the qualities that can inhibit the child’s development for a range of roles and responsibilities in society include lack of respect in the family to the opinion of other members.

This can be seen through prohibitions and denial of a child’s own will when parents tend to decide what is ‘better’ for their children. Existence of this quality in the family may prevent a child from obtaining such social –emotional skills as leadership and ability to negotiate because he/she is taught at home to have no personal viewpoints.

On the other hand, such quality as verbal or physical abuse can prevent a child from respective adults in general and those who can resemble the one who makes the child suffer from abusing. Moreover, a child can treat abusing as a norm of behavior and use it as an argument when he/she can see no chance for peaceful negotiation. In addition, physical and verbal abuse can be the reason for a number of other problems in a child’s development.

Classroom environment can be really encouraging for students in terms of development of their social-emotional skills that can be further applied to a wider range of roles and responsibilities. For instance, a teacher can introduce group activities so that children could practice their leadership skills and show respect in reaching an agreement while working on the assignments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As suggested by Slaving et al. (2003), “cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn” (cited in Slavin, 2009, p. 46). Besides, a teacher can “create rules in the classroom that recognize positive behavior, such as co-operation, caring, helping, encouragement and support” (Elias, 2003, p. 8).

At the same time, another positive quality of the classroom environment that can contribute to development of social-emotional skills is relationship between students and attitude of the teacher toward interest groups and encouraging students to make friends.

Classroom environment can become the reason for problems a child encounters in terms of social-emotional development. For instance, if a teacher does not care about the relationship between classmates, children can behave in a negative manner affecting others and preventing each other from making progress.

Besides, a teacher can negatively affect children in case he/she show disrespect for one of student or another teacher thus showing a vivid example. Probably, students would follow such an example and disrespecting people with no reason and abusing them verbally or physically to show them superiority would become a norm.

Such theorists as Erik Erickson and Maurice Elias have contributed greatly to understanding the necessity of developing social-emotional skills of children.

For instance, Erik Erickson introduced a number of virtues that can be developed in a specific age; as such, competence is one of the virtues that can be developed in the age of 6-11 years and a teacher should make sure that no child feels inferior when comparing himself/herself to other children in class. At the same time, Maurice Elias presented explanation of emotional intelligence, a concept that can be seen when people try to respect each other and negotiate to reach and agreement.

References Elias, M. J. (2003). Academic and social learning. Brussels, Belgium: International Academy of Education. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Personality and Emotional Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Slavin, R. E. (2009). Educational psychology theory and practice (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


Indigenous people in Australia Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Prior to the arrival of the Europeans in the Australian continent in the 19th century, the land was inhabited by a group of people who are today referred to as the Aborigines. According to Lydon (2005, p. 201), archeologists have estimated that these people have been on this continent for about 60,000 years. In addition, he notes that these people had managed to develop their own social, political and economic system although when the European landed on the continent, they regarded these systems as backward and archaic.

Indigenous history of Indigenous peoples in Victoria


The housing crisis Term Paper best essay help

The housing crisis is an economic bubble affecting many areas in the United States. House prices were high and peaked in 2006. Gradually, the prices began to decline in 2006 and 2007.

They’re still lowering to date. As this picture unfolds, it emerges that any form of the housing bubble of the United States leaves a ripple effect which directly hits not only the valuation of homes, but also the states home builder’s, the home supply retailing outlets, the real estate industry as a whole as well as the mortgage markets. The crisis has posed a very huge risk to the American economy.

As Randel stated, “the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates during the period of 1995-2000 which created easy credit for banks to make loans. Rates were extremely high by 2006 hence lowering demand and increasing monthly payments for adjustable mortgages” (Randel, 144). This increased supply and consequently ended up in further lowering housing prices.

Popular belief that houses as opposed to other investments do not fall in value sparked the huge number of Americans to buy homes. However this is not the case.

Furthermore, it’s also widely believed that homes result in above average returns on investment. It is therefore only reasonable to take for granted that the price of houses only just manage to top price increases over the elongated term.

In the years of 2005 through to 2006, there were copious advertisements as well as shows on television which were aimed at enhancing investment in the real estate sector. Books on real estate investment were being marketed and sold all over. This sparked investment in the housing industry.

Clarey observed the fact that, “as home prices began to rise in early 2000-2001 following reduced interest rates, purchase of homes was on the rise” (Clarey, 256). Speculators bought houses in large numbers with an intention of selling them back for a quick profit.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the undertakings occurred well over twenty years ago, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were considered responsible for the credit crisis that resulted after the housing bubble of 2001-2007 burst. The two companies had a huge government backing and were both chartered by the US government as government sponsored enterprises (GSE’s).

The treasury department of the United States of America has been widely criticized for going out of their jurisdiction in the field of spending taxpayer’s money. This authority is preserved for congress only and this is held in the constitution of the United States of America.

The treasury also stands accused of overstepping boundaries that are put in place by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. The two companies operating as monopolies had more disadvantages than benefits. Scrutiny by Sowell revealed that “the two companies made huge profits because they purchased and invested in mortgages and mortgage based securities with lower capital requirements than other financial institutions and banks” (Sowell, 213).

In 1977, the (C.R.A.) Community Reinvestment Act was passed. The act offers a scaffold for organizations that deal with finances, institutions of the community as well as local and national governments to be able to mutually encourage banking services geared towards the entire people of a society.

The C.R.A. basically ruled out lending of money in biased ways with consideration to factors such as race; this is referred to as “redlining”. The Community Reinvestment Act also gives confidence to efforts to fit the credit requirements of all categories of people in a society. These include inhabitants of modest to lower income areas

The US congress, being in charge of the government regulatory authority largely contributed to worsening of the housing crisis. In the year 2008 alone, the government of the United States of America apportioned well over US $ 800 billion to extraordinary credit as well as salvage that was relation to the housing bubble in the United States of America.

More than half of that money was directed to the quasi- governmental organizations of the Federal Housing Administration as well as the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Furthermore, the treasury department on December 24, 2009 went ahead and made an unprecedented pronouncement stating that it was going to support Fannie Mae as well as Freddie Mac by giving them unending financial aid for a period of three years from there henceforth.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The housing crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was against a backdrop of their recognition of the fact that they had incurred losses of much more than US $ 400 billion till then. During the large number of house buying, some brokers handed low interest mortgages to parties that were not qualified to handle large debt.

Lenders did not factor customers’ claims of income and promoted adjustable rate mortgages as they promised greater returns than fixed rate mortgages. Currently uninformed house buyers are unable to meet the terms of their respective contracts and are defaulting on their payments. Many Americans have already lost their houses to foreclosure. It is the laxity in government regulation that has greatly affected the mortgage industry.

By signing the 2008 housing and economic recovery act into law after it had been passed by the congress of the United States of America, President G. W. Bush made wider the ability of the institution FHFA to control Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac that had spiraled out of control.

The law also enabled the treasury department of the United States, the clout that would lend finances to the ailing institutions of either Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. This would be bordered by the sole fact of the quantity of liabilities that the federal government as a whole is allowed to obligate to by the law.

The law that was signed on July 30, 2008 by President G. W. Bush, pushed up the maximum of the treasury departments debt by US $ 800 billion, adding up to a whopping grand total of US $ 10.7 trillion. This apparently was in the hope of the latent want for the treasury department to have the elasticity that would enable those help the Federal Home Loan Banks, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.

In a synopsis, avoiding a repetition of the housing predicament hardly deserves an overhaul of the financial or any other structure. What would work better is an acknowledgement that the key policies on housing in the United States are highly flawed and need to be restructured.

The first step in correcting the situation is to straighten out the United States government policies on housing. Strict requirements may be enforced so as to regulate lending and borrowing activities. Added to that, rules that promote fair, easier and responsible lending practices should be strictly adhered to by the stakeholders. This will be of benefit to both borrowers and lenders in the economy

Works Cited Clarey, Aaron. Behind the housing crash. South Carolina: Book Surge Publishing, 2011. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The housing crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Randel, Jim. What every homeowner and homebuyer needs to know: The housing crisis. Connecticut: Rand Media Co., 2009. Print.

Sowell, Thomas. The housing boom and bust. New York: Basic Books, 2010. Print.


Why slavery is wrong Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Frederick Douglass condemns the act slavery. This is revealed from his arguments and examples he has given that condemn this act.

In his work, Douglass recounts the manner in which slaves were prevented from getting knowledge by their masters in order to keep them ignorant. When Douglass wrote his work, slavery was seen as a normal thing in the society that could not be eliminated. Black people were perceived to be incapable of participating in economic and civil rights activism and thus should be held to work for white people.

Douglass narrates ways through which the whites strategize to keep black people in a state of slavery from birth time and throughout their life time. They do it by not telling them their place of birth and hiding them from their parents. When slave children are growing, they are denied education because they know they would be empowered to live on their own. Slaveholders deny slaves the art of writing and reading so that their story would never be told. According to Douglass, this is an inhuman act.

Despite the fact that slaves are held hostage and deprived of the opportunity to get an education, they should use all means to get knowledge as a means to be liberated. From Douglass story, “he gets to know that the only means to freedom is through education when Hugh Auld warns his wife not to teach slaves because it would ruin them.”

When Douglass heard this story, he got the idea of how whites manage to keep blacks in a state of ignorance so that they cannot come out of their captivity. Douglass sets an example of self education when he learns to read and write using his personal means.

Thereby, freeing himself from slavery and using it to fight for the rights of fellow slaves. According to the book, “Douglass got freedom as a result of self education, but he does not guarantee that education itself gives freedom in itself.” It is a means through which slaves can understand injustice done to them and their colleagues; they get to know that they are equal to their masters in all ways.

In the context of the book, Hugh Auld foresees that this awareness brings suffering and a sense of guilt among slaves. Once slaves are aware of injustices done to them by their masters they live with pain and if they try to escape, their lives will be in danger. This reveals how damaging slavery is to the slaves if they are made aware of their rights.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his book, Douglass reveals how damaging slavery can be to the slaves themselves and their masters. He wrote that, “The moral health of slaveholders is in question when they assert their authority and power on slaves.” Douglass revolves around this theme and depicts it as unnatural act of humanity.

He describes some characteristics of slave masters in order to reveal the negative impacts of slavery. He writes that, several slaveholders have been tempted to commit adultery, rape and even bore children with slaves. These behavior patterns such as adultery threaten to split families of slave masters.

According to Douglass, some men who bore children are forced to intimidate their own children by selling them or punishing them while their wives become nasty. An example is given of Thomas Auld who develops distorted religious ideologies so that he can forget the sins he has committed. As a result of slave holding, Sophia Auld is transformed from a perfect woman to an evil lady. Hence, Douglass argues that slavery should be abolished for the good of all people.

In his narration, Douglass brings out a characteristic of correct and false Christianity. His distinction is that true Christianity is the “Christianity of Jesus” while false Christianity practiced by slaveholders is the “Christianity of this land.” He continues to say that Christianity practiced by slaveholders does not show their goodness but a sign of hypocrisy to hide their brutality.

In summary, Douglass tries to convince his audience that slavery is wrong as seen from his arguments against slavery, and examples he has given. He has proven that it is wrong to enslave others because it is inhuman and against Christian ideals.


The Effects of Intellectual Revolution in US Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ignorance or New Literacy


Works Cited

Introduction Ever since the agrarian, industrial and scientific revolution, the world has been experiencing a lot of changes that have affected the lifestyles, cultures and beliefs of every society in the world. It is due to these changes that people started to fight for human rights, democracy, equality and so on.

Ever since its early days of establishment, USA has been known to be a nation that contains intellectual and rational individuals. These individuals conatin the knowledge and skills required to make a great nation. As a result, the nation has been renowned for its excellence. The main basis of this excellence has been the sustainable education system of the country coupled with favourable social structures that aimed at developing the cognitive capacity of individuals to a great level.

However, with the rapid advancement in technology that has been experienced in the last few decades, the level of rationalism and intellectuality of the people of the United States has become questionable. Is the country losing its intellectual and rational ways? This is the question that many people keep on asking themselves.

Some believe that the citizens of the country have become ignorant while others believe that the country is in the middle of a literacy revolution. These claims have come about due to the changes that are being experienced in the print and visual media. Initially, people used to utilize a lot of print materials. Students used to read poems, books, novels, journals and so on within and outside the class.

This trend has however changed and now individuals are doing more of watching than reading. At the same time, the internet, especially the social media has changed the manner in which individuals interact, think and write. Due to this fact, a study should be conducted to determine the effects of this advancement of the intellectual capacity of the nation. This essay therefore explores the effects of these developments on the intellectual and rationality capacity of individuals of the United States.

Ignorance or New Literacy Severalarguments have been raised pertaining to whether Americans are becoming ignorant to literacy or they are undergoing a great revolution. Several scholars have come up with their theories and opinions pertaining the issue. In her book, The Age of American Unreason, Susan Jocoby states that Americans have changed the manner in which they think and perceive things (Jacoby 1).

According to her, much of the problems that the nation is facing have been due to the ignorance that has risen from the public. This ignorance has come about due to the changes in that the society is experiencing. There has been a rapid decline in the use of print media by the public for the last three or so decades (Jacoby 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People are not reading as much as they used to back in the day. Instead, the spend much of their time watching television, playing video games and surfing the internet. The number of 17 year olds who read nothing other than their course material has doubled between 1984 and 2004 (Jacoby 6). Due to this fact therefore, these individuals do not have the relevant knowledge and skills that are required to build and sustain a great nation. Susan therefore blames technology for the problems that the nation is currently facing.

On the other hand, Thompson and McKean believe that the nation is undergoing an intellectual revolution. According to them, the intensity of this change is so great that it will result to the creation of more rational and intellectual individuals that the nation had never had before. All this can be attributed to the introduction of new technology. Through the use of the internet and social media, individuals have had the chance to read and write about a lot of issues (Thompson 3).

This has in turn developed them into great writers. At the same time, social media and networks such as tweeter and facebook has given them a chance to easily associate and socialize with one another. This has made it easier for them to share information and ideas. These changes have thus made them understand life in a better perspective by being able to define the problem and come up with solutions (McKean 5).

Personally, I tend to believe that technology has increased the thinking capacity of individuals. It has enable people to view issues from a different perspective. At the same time, the flow of information and ideas is much easier. People are now exposed to a lot of things than before.

This has made them to be more intellectual and rational individuals. The state should therefore put much emphasis on the use of technology. A lot of studies and research should therefore be conducted to ensure that technology is used in a way that will bring about positive change to the people of the United States.

Conclusion An intellectual revolution is going on in the United States. This change aims at producing rational individuals who are more learned and ready to face the challenges of life. This change has resulted to a decline in the utilization of print media and an increase in the use of visual media. The nation is therefore not suffering from any intellectual problem.

Works Cited Jacoby, Susan. How Dumb can we Get? Incurable-Insomniatic. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on The Effects of Intellectual Revolution in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McKean, Erin. Redefining Definitions. Web.

Thompson, Clive. The New Literacy. Wired Magazine. Web.