The Role Of Intranet In Health And Human Services Organization Report College Essay Help Near Me

Table of Contents Secure and effective intranets

Legal and Regulatory compliance

Privacy and Patient Information

Data Storage

Business continuity/ Disaster recovery


We recognize that good health does not just come about. Rather, it is a habit of smart choices and sound clinical care. As per establishment, good care is vital and can only be possible in presence of proper compliance with the health care technology. A company’s technological plan is essential for analysis, growth and development. (Mosenkis, 2005) Intranet should assure broad-based participation of both patients and doctors. In should have value to everyone.

These require a user-friendly interface where navigation ought to be consistent with their use and the controlled. Any new technology should encourage and interest everyone in the organization to using it. It must be one, which employees will use, trust, rely on, and revisit. This paper addresses the issue of intranet and internet in addressing data and information exchange in the health sector.

The management of data in any organization is of critical importance. Intranet enables the quick access to information. Quick access of diagnosis and patients information in the health sector has become of hallmark importance. Intranet should be highly appreciated because it plays a vital role of allowing creation of management information system to support operational, planned and strategic decision-making. (HKUST Cyberspace Centre, 1997)

Secure and effective intranets The security of information is a very important aspect of protecting corporate, employees’, and patient’s confidential information, integrity of controls associated with human resources systems and financial reporting applications.

“A secure intranet infrastructure supports secure connectivity, Strong password, host-based security on all server and client computers, role verification and authentication for certain types of access and effective compliance enforcement mechanisms.” To archive automated life cycle the system need “user accounts, smart cards for strong authentication and an internal Public Key Infrastructure.”

Others requirements include “automated and manual tracking, monitoring and response to active threats to the network and lastly though customized programs that inform network clients about security threats, risks, policies, and best practices is essential.” (Janczewski, 2000)

Firewall is just one of several ways of protecting the network from other un-trusted network users. The actual mechanisms of accomplishing data protection vary in principle. It is a pair of mechanisms that exists to block traffic, or to permit traffic.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ability or strength of blocking harmful and suspicious messages depends on the server system’s firewalls. Some have greater power while others place normal or less emphasis on blocking messages interchange. Access of information among health care facilities users ought to be occurring through proper safeguarded or fire walled public network.

The controlling machine referred to as the server ensures should have the capability of screening messages in both bearings; messages being sent out and those being received so as to ensure and maintain security and integrity of patient’s and physicians information.. According to Mosenkis (2005), when part of an intranet is accessible to it becomes has higher chances of firewall attack.

Legal and Regulatory compliance According to the Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, the security standards implement controls over access to health information and provide audit trails for computerized record systems to meet the needs and capabilities of small and rural healthcare providers.

There is good transmission of information, which physically, electronically and administratively safeguarded to ensure confidentiality. The Legal and regulatory compliance initiatives encompass Security, Privacy, Data protection, Accountability, Backup and record retention (Anton, n.d).

Privacy and Patient Information Privacy is the rights and responsibilities of an individual or organization with respect to the collection, use, retention, and disclosure of personal data. The organization collects sensitive personal data that is private and policies ought to define and govern how to handle and protect information. Individuals ought to be empowered to control the collection, use, and distribution of their personal information.

Data Storage According to Anton (n.d.), the least visible but most valuable asset in any organization is working knowledge. Typical Storage and communication of information is achievable through production processes, standardized procedures for giving services, corporate guidelines and procedures for offering provision for other policies governing the handling of documents. The work supportive documents include “instructions, supplementary drawings, flowcharts, forms, and other supporting information”. (Anton, n.d.)

Important information remains locked to specialized physicians instead of a work setting where it is available when others especially junior physicians need clarification or assistance. This becomes a problem especially in their absence.

We will write a custom Report on The Role of Intranet in Health and Human Services Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This information can easily be lost but implementation of a mechanism should be available to confine and avail it to users whenever they need it in a safe and reliable intranet or through the Wide World Web. (Anton, n.d.) Protection of such information provides access from the administrative point of control to authorize access.

Anton, (n.d.) indicates that the technology that uses internet closely avails knowledge to user’s mainly the employees in the health sector. The ability to access such information at various locations any time has become a reality today. Availing information at whatever time or location is an excellent way of empowering workers.”

Data protection policies apply to everyone who has access the health information regardless of its location, the form it takes, the technology used to handle it, or the purpose it serves. The organization ought to identify and classify important or critical data.

Business continuity/ Disaster recovery For continuity, there has to exist a backup process for line-of-business (LOB) applications just in case a disaster may occur. Formulating Record Retention program, which organizes and manages records and keeps information stored and available for the relevant retention periods is essential. Security is the key to continuity. User accounts provide access to, and security for, granting corporate resources enables access to the network.

Computerization of other areas allows for extra security, and resources’ owners need to grant permission for users to access these areas. System accounts are accounts used to perform services, such as for SQL Server, information exchange, backups, or scheduled scripts in a similar way as user accounts. Distribution and security groups for either sending mail or for granting access to resources increases chances for advances. (Janczewski, 2000)

References Anton, K., (n.d.) Effective Intranet: Intranet journal from Comprose Inc Web.

Janczewski, L. (2000). Internet and Intranet Security Management: Risks and Solutions. Idea Group Inc (IGI). Pp 38

Mosenkis, R. (2005 December 14). Intranet Implementation. Retrieved from:


Philadelphia: Prejudice about Homosexuality Analytical Essay essay help

Philadelphia is one of those movies that can change human attitude to a certain situation, other people, and even the essence of this life. The problems, people with AIDS face in their every day life, prejudice against homosexuals and their style of life, and injustice that is so inherent to current political, economical, and social spheres are the major issues that are properly described in this movie and that open people’s eyes to all those minor problems, people may create to each other unwittingly.

Joe Miller is one of the main characters in the movie Philadelphia, who proves how prejudiced people can be, and how significant their points of view may be for gay people, for establishing justice, and for development of feelings and qualities, which have to be inherent to any person.

Joe Miller’s prejudice against homosexuals and people with AIDS is considered to be one of the major themes in the movie Philadelphia; the cooperation with Andrew Beckett, a HIV-diagnosed gay, makes Mr. Miller change his mind and believe that justice should not depend on the color of skin, sexual preferences, or health conditions, and the relations between people and different groups should not be prejudiced in order to achieve effective communication and collaboration.

Philadelphia is the movie that touches upon numerous themes, and one of them is the development of the relations between two men with absolutely different interests and principles: one of them is Andrew Beckett, who had to defend own position and interests at the court, and Joe Miller, a brilliant lawyer and a homophobic man, who knows not much about AIDS but is still afraid of this disease. In fact, the causes of Joe Miller’s homophobia are not clear enough.

From the very first meeting of Mr. Miller and Mr. Beckett, it becomes clear that Mr. Miller is a powerful lawyer, but his dislike and prejudice for gay people, who have HIV-positive, stands on his way in order to establish justice and help the person, who so loudly requires for help.

Joe Miller thinks that Andrew is even craze a bit because he wants to prove his position and argue each person, who stands on his way. I find the words by Elliot Aronson rather appropriate for the movie under consideration.

“People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy” (Aronson 9). Human position in the society usually defines by his/her communication with other member of the same groups, his/her following the established rules, and his/her abilities to prove the chosen way of life. Joe Miller cannot accept the idea that a gay person, who has HIV positive, is going to argue with people with normal orientation and no health problems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, his prejudice confuses his for a while and makes him see how injustice and unfair other people’s attitude to an ill gay may be in every day life. This is why Joe decides to forget about his principles concerning gay people with HIV/AIDS and put the idea of justice and the idea of right attitude to each citizen on the first place.

Communication with Andrew Beckett, who is dying because of AIDS, changes Joe Miller’s attitude to numerous things. On my opinion, only some slight changes inside of Joe Miller concerning the issue of homosexuality take place. Andrew opens his eye to certain things and proves that gay people do not actually differ from the others and even have more captivating attitude to some things:

Can you hear the heartache in her voice? Can you feel it, Joe? In come the strings, and it changes everything. The music fills with a hope, and that’ll change again. Listen…listen…” I bring sorrow to those who love me.” Oh, that single cello! “It was during this sorrow that love came to me.” A voice filled with harmony.

It says, “Live still, I am life.” Heaven is in your eyes. Is everything around you just the blood and mud? I am divine. I am oblivion. I am the god… that comes down from the heavens, and makes of the Earth a heaven. I am love!… I am love. (Demme 1993)

Andrew comprehends that Joe is eager to protect everything that does not contradict the law, and being homosexual is not out of law, this is why everybody has to respect Andrew’s choice and not to prevent his professional growth, and Joe is going to prove this. Somewhere inside, Joe realizes that his prejudice against gay people and his fear about HIV are so miserable and stupid that he has to be changed.

For example, the experiments, conducted by Lauren Slater, prove that even gay people can be ashamed of personal desires and sexuality. “I felt in my body, the shame of being gay. Why couldn’t I like a girl?” (Slater 59). Lots of people have fear about personal desires, this is why it is quite comprehensible that people with non-traditional orientation may cause fear or doubts in people with normal orientation.

Human life is closely connected to stereotypes, which are created by these humans. Philadelphia demonstrates how a stereotype of homosexuality and the inability to accept gay people as important and equal parts of society deprives a person, who is dying, of a chance to enjoy his last days but spend these days at the court and prove that he and his work has to be appreciated by the others. This movie has to be considered as a really powerful means to show and analyze the relations between people of the same group.

We will write a custom Essay on Philadelphia: Prejudice about Homosexuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feelings of one person may be too influential for the other person, and if these feelings or ideas are wrong, it turns out to be very dangerous to share wrong thoughts and wrong feelings. According to Elliot Aronson, only public judgments make a person conform them (p.21). Joe’s life is full of such judgments, because he spends much time on public and tries to take into consideration both personal judgments and the judgments of other people.

When he starts communicating with Andrew, he comprehends that prejudice, that is so inherent to this society, cannot leave him even in the article of death. Gay people cannot be accepted as equal parts as well as black people always feel a kind of pressure from the whites. Mr. Elliot underlines that the pressure to conform plays an important role in human lives, and if it is public, people have less chances to resist it.

This movie represents one of the possible ways of how to eliminate prejudice and become closer to the problems, challenges, and misunderstandings of the minorities. Communication with the minorities turns out to be a good chance to learn deeper how it is difficult and offensive to take the side that is always argued by people and blamed for absolutely different things.

Elliot Aronson offers to decrease the conformity that has unbelievable power on publicity by means of creation allies, demonstration of self-esteem, use of previous success, support of friends and relatives, and respect among the group. In the movie, prejudice is eliminated due to self-esteem that is demonstrated by Joe, support of family, when Joe’s wife reminds him about their roots and the problems, their relatives faced in the past, and the desire to obtain the truth.

It is not enough for a person to know what is right and what is wrong. It becomes more important to prove the correctness of the chosen position and the chosen point of view. This is what Elliot Aronson tries to represent in his work, and this is what makes the movie under analysis more powerful and educative.

The theory of cognitive dissonance is another peculiar point that has to be mentioned while analyzing the movie Philadelphia and the character of Joe Miller in particular.

This theory implies the development of an uncomfortable feeling that is caused by presence of two absolutely different ideas within one person. Joe Miller always believes that gay people cannot bring something good to this world. “Call me old fashioned, call me conservative… I think maybe you have to be a man to get just how nauseating the whole basic idea really is” (Demme 1993).

He also has a fear of getting HIV by means of communicating with sick people. With time, Miller gets a chance to evaluate gays’ place in this world from the absolutely other perspective and regard them as one more minority just like his race belonging. Miller does not need too much time in order to comprehend that gays should have the same rights as people with normal orientation, because they are still people and deserve to achieve professional goals, earn money, and be an equal part of this world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Philadelphia: Prejudice about Homosexuality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Joe Miller from Philadelphia is a good example of how one person with certain authority can help a group of people to gain respect and recognition among society. Not every country appreciates homosexual movements, but still, it is wrong to deprive gay people of the opportunities, which are inherent to each person on this world.

To comprehend better social psychology means to comprehend better each of its components and the impact of these components to each other. Philadelphia helps to deepen my understanding of how ill or gay people are accepted by people, who do not have any problems with their health or who believe that their sexuality is ok.

Relations between people and the groups, they live in, are not easy, and it is obligatory to study, analyze, and compare the attitude and the reaction of each human. It is useless to divide the abilities of one group of people at the expenses of the other group of people, because sooner or later, justice will find everyone.

Works Cited Aronson, Elliot. The Social Animal. New York: Worth, 1999. Print.

Philadelphia. Dir. Jonathan Demme. Perf. Tom Hanks and Denzel Washington. TriStar Pictures, 1993. Film.

Slater, Lauren. Opening Skinner’s Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: W. W. Norton


Feminist Perspective: My Last Duchess, To His Coy Mistress, and The Secretary Chant Compare and Contrast Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents “My Last Duchess” Feminist Analysis

“To His Сoy Mistress” Feminist Analysis

“The Secretary Chant” Analysis of Feminism Theme


Works Cited

A word is one of the most powerful means for a person to express his or her attitude, to share information, or to show admiration. A poem is a powerful combination of words that is devoted to numerous themes, which are so important in this life, and poetry about women serve as an excellent example of the evaluation of female place and roles in this world, their duties, and their significance.

This essay aims at performing “The Secretary Chant,” “To His Coy Mistress,” and “My Last Duchess” feminist analysis. “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning, “To His Coy Mistress” by Andrew Marvell, and “The Secretary Chant” by Merge Piercy are the three poems that depict the same topic in absolutely different ways. Browning considers women as objects, which call for admiration but still are not worth enough to mention their names, Marvell regards women as a male sexual desire, and Piercy mulls over women as machines, which are ready to perform any function.

“My Last Duchess” Feminist Analysis A dramatic monologue “My Last Duchess,” presented by Robert Browning, opens to the reader a world, where men are eager to take leading positions only, and women have nothing to do but obey them and listen to their orders and words. In “My Last Duchess,” the theme of woman discrimination are depicted clearly. From the poem’s summary it is clear how Browning tries to represent how admiration, jealousy, and self-esteem are united in one man and make him happy and disappointed, weak and strong, courageous, and cowardly at the same time.

In “My Last Duchess” poem, the author depicts women as objects, which may not have names and may serve as the means to demonstrate some precious goods or services. “That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall/Looking as if she were alive.

I call/That piece a wonder, now: Fra Pandolf’s hands/ Worked busily a day, and there she stands” (Meyer 721). This piece of the poem proves that a man does not care about his loss, his wife’s death, and his grief. From the psychological point of view, his attitude depicts him as an indifferent to women’s suffering person. The point is that he gets a chance to demonstrate one more object that he owns now and tell about its price and value. This can be the aspect worth studying while analyzing feminism in “My Last Duchess.”

However, this very object has many disadvantages, which do not suit the Duke: “she liked whate’ er/ She looked on, and her looks went everywhere” (Meyer 722). Such absent-mindedness of the woman and the desire to be friendly with many people cannot be comprehended by the Duke. He thinks such behavior is offensive to his position and his power, this is why this woman is in the past, and the other one is waiting for him downstairs to enlarge Duke’s collection of expensive things.

“To His Сoy Mistress” Feminist Analysis “To His Coy Mistress” is the attempt of Andrew Marvell to depict the role and the place of a woman in accordance with male standpoints and principles. The author does not present feminism in “To His Coy Mistress,” but the poem can be analyzed from a feminist approach. Though received many criticism from various critics, Marvell’s work is worth of studying its main arguments and themes. This poem is a kind of warning to all women against cajolery that is used by men to bed women. Andrew Marvell underlines women’s shyness and modesty that make all women so desirable by men.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In “To His Coy Mistress,” women are portrayed as playfully hesitant and pure human beings, who are waiting for males’ call to “sport us while we may” (Meyer 637). Marvell cries that people do not have much time to enjoy this life to its full extent, and women’s care about their virginities should not prevent both sexes against suffering from lack of love and satisfaction.

“Had we but world enough, and time/ This coyness, lady, were no crime/We would sit down, and think which way/ To walk, and pass our long love’s day” (Meyer 636). The male character does not provide a woman with time to think everything over, the only reasonable point he presents is that she has to have sex with him before she dies. He does not say anything about his possible grief about her death; the only thing that bothers him is the desire to have sex with this woman.

In my opinion, the poems by Marvell and Browning have many things in common, because both of them are about men’s attitude toward women. And this attitude is somewhat similar, because the Duke wants to have a woman to add to his collection of things, and the lover from “To His Coy Mistress” is eager to satisfy his desire and use a woman for this.

“The Secretary Chant” Analysis of Feminism Theme The last poem, where the role of women is correctly described, is The Secretary Chant by Margie Piercy that was published in 1970s. This metaphoric poem describes the woman’s body as the parts of office equipment. A woman spends so much time among all those equipment and secretary things that she merges with them and loses her own identity. The modern world makes any person strong and self-possessed to cope with all challenges.

However, women are the softer sex, and men forget about this truth and try to use women’s skills as well as their own. One more work of art does not depict a woman as the thing alive that deserves respect and recognition just because it is near. Her head is a “badly organized file,” her breasts are “wells of mimeograph ink,” her hips are “a desk,” and her navel is “a reject button” (Meyer 570). This poem is a woman’s cry, caused by unfair dehumanization of women in business.

The point is that the author starts the description of this creature from the body parts, which have to identify her as a woman. The character still believes that she was created to be beautiful and be reproductive, and now, the only thing she can do is “to be delivered/ of a baby/ Xerox machine” (Meyer 570).

In this case, the author depicts a woman as a working machine that cannot just stop doing all this stuff and start fighting against such unfair treatment at work. Sexual discrimination is an essential topic at working places, and Margie Piercy presents one of the most sever comparisons that can be used to women.

We will write a custom Essay on Feminist Perspective: My Last Duchess, To His Coy Mistress, and The Secretary Chant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The paper analyzed gender roles in “My Last Duchess”, “To His Coy Mistress,” and “The Secretary Chant.” Each of the above-mentioned authors represents a kind of fight that happens between a woman and this world. In My Last Duchess, the woman is struggling for respect in her own family; in “To His Coy Mistress,” the woman wants to defend her right to be a virgin, and in The Secretary Chant, the woman has to struggle to prove her equality in the working place.

The role of a woman in this world is excellent, indeed, and the point that only women have the reproduction function should cause respect from the male side. Nowadays, women are so unfair compared to the objects of men’s passion and desire, and the authors try to underline these problems in their poems.

Maybe, a fresh look on the old problems helps to realize injustice the vast majority of women face with and to create a world where rich Dukes would take lessons to be able to paint their wives, lovers would appreciate women’s desire to be a virgin, and businessmen would distinguish women and machines, and make the former happier even at working places.

Works Cited Meyer, Michael. The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. Boston, MA: Bedford, 2008. Print.


Antibiotics resistance among human beings Term Paper essay help online

Table of Contents Analysis of antibiotics resistance among human beings

Effects of the use of the antibiotics to animals

Strategies to reduce potential impacts



The issue of antibiotics resistance among human beings is growing at an alarming rate. According to the Federal Task Force (EFD, 2008) report, the common infections will increasingly continue being scarce and expensive to manage or treat and worse still may become impossible to treat.

This paper is an analysis on the use of antibiotics in the industrial and commercial processes and its effects on human health. The focus is on the meat processing industries and how these practices effects transmission rates and resistance of the antibiotics in human beings.

Analysis of antibiotics resistance among human beings The antibiotics resistance is a condition transferred from animals’ products to human beings. What threat does improperly managed antibiotic usage in the meat industry pose to human beings? What current industrial policies promote usage of antibiotics in meat processing industries? What ought to be done to reduce this issue of transferring bacterial resistance condition from animals to human beings?

For protection over the consequences incurred, the use of antibiotics on animal food and water ought to be highly reduced. Overuse of antibiotics in animals’ food production is the main contributor to the resistance condition. (EDF, 2007) The reason behind the overuse are claims that, antibiotics promote fast growth in animals and minimizes chances of contacting diseases that are related to movement, overcrowding, strains and unhygienic conditions in the modern industries.

Research indicates that majority of the animal waste contains bacteria that are drugs resistant. The EDF research results of 2007 indicate that over seventy percent of antibiotics and similar drugs in the United States are in use on various domestic animals.

Effects of the use of the antibiotics to animals The World Health Organization research results indicate that, the resistant bacteria pose a major risk to human population because transmitting occurs directly through food consumption or contaminated environment. The highest risk occurs when a person consumes half-cooked contaminated food or food that comes to contact with infected food. (EDF, 2001) Majority of the antibiotics and the resistant bacteria in animals passes the system without digestion.

The antibiotics are some of the most indispensable implements for most physicians. The EDF (2001) statistics indicates that at any given time, over forty percent of patient at any health facility receives the antibiotics dosage. The inefficiency of the same drugs is significantly evident today because of the common multi drug resistant bacteria or the body’s immunity due to over use.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Not all people suffer from effects of antibiotics condition. Most adults have strong immune systems that are able to fight the disease causing germs with less strain. Venerability depends on the strength of the immune system as well as the age. Children and infants are more venerable than adults are. According to Shea et al (2001), infants are ten times likely to suffer from the germs compared to adults. The old age group is also more venerable with over sixty-five percent being at risk of infection (Shea et al. 2001).

Research also indicates that, various bacterial species are capable of life threatening conditions and remain resistant to most available antibacterial drugs. Some infections are even resistant to newly discovered antibacterial drugs while some illnesses remain untreatable because of their continual diagnosis and prescription.

The continual resistant has affected other environmental components such as wildlife, soil and air thus a cause of alarm in the medical fraternity.

The over prescription and drug misuse are the main causes of the antibiotic resistance conditions. The effectiveness of a drug depreciates due to overuse in both agricultural and human health care settings. Evidently the human antibacterial drugs such as “tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin” (EDF 2001) are used in the animal health husbandly sectors thus making them less effective even to human beings because they constantly continue to take them unknowingly.

There exists many different and stronger drugs under constant manufacture procedures but the costs remain high thus having to do with the same dosages that are less efficient. According to Shea et al (2001), there are many unnecessary antibacterial prescriptions in the health sectors especially among the outpatients.

This is a global alarm sounding from many worlds’ organizations such as American Medical Association (AMA). World Health Organization (WHO) terms the situation of nourishing animals’ feeds with antibiotics as an unnecessary routine that hinders growth or advancement.

Strategies to reduce potential impacts The corporate and governmental institutes are having direct impact over decision-making procedures regarding the use of antibacterial drugs in both human beings and animals. There is need for increased pressure to marginalize usage through pressing for reform agendas in drugs selling and manufacturing companies as well as the health care centres.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Antibiotics resistance among human beings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Companies with close ties to the animal products manufacturing need to embrace strategies of fighting the impact caused by antibiotics resistance. The playing field need levelling for all companies concern with drugs production, distribution and administration.

The drug producing companies ought to be discouraged over manufacturing of antibiotics added to animal feeds as a way of discouraging the already excessive use of non-therapeutic usage of antibiotics, which would rather be medically important to human beings.

Tough campaigns should ensure that companies involved with selling animal products such as restaurants, fast-food outlets, supermarkets, voluntarily resist buying from producers who abuse the medically fit antibacterial with the aim of making high profits.

The government regulations ought to govern usage of drugs as a way of ensuring level playing grounds. None of the meat production industries should have competitive operational advantage over others. In the U.S., the Congress of the “U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)” should ensure removal of the antibacterial drugs from the animal husbandry sectors. Some of the bacterial drugs such as “fluoroquinolone” need prohibition as a way of combating the drug resistance condition. Evidently, some of the most crucial drugs for treating food related illnesses in human beings are on abuse especially among poultry farmers. (FDA, 2008)

On the campaign tactics, the collection of accurate data pertaining usage of antibiotics in both human and animal’s settings and its resistance effects on human beings need publicity and awareness so as to discourage the usage and enlighten the public.

There is no successful strategy, which lacks financial backup. FDA (2008) congress ought to finance the centres for Diseases Control and Prevention for better chances of fighting antibiotics resistance and encourage gathering of data for analysis (Shea et al. 2001).

Conclusion The main solution to these issues lies upon the companies that are involved in supply, manufacture and usage of drugs. They ought to work closely with the governmental organizations policies and procedure as well as assist other concern non-governmental agencies in gathering and analysis of related information and to come up with ample solutions.

References EDF. 2001. “Antibiotic Resistance: Playing Chicken with Essential Drugs.” Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Antibiotics resistance among human beings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More EDF 2007. “Hold the Antibiotics Please.” Updated July 20, 2007. Web.

EDF. 2008. “Innovative Partnerships First To Reduce Antibiotics Use in Mainstream Pork Production.” Updated March 14, 2008. Web.

Shea, Katherine, Florini and Barlam. 2001. “When Wonder Drugs Don’t Work.” EDF. Web.


Data Warehoisung: Composite Bicycle Frame Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Frame components of performance bicycles

Enhancement of the metal

Current design and usage problems


Works Cited

Frame components of performance bicycles Today the issue of composite materials have become the norm in the manufacturing industries. People prefer the combinations because of the less engineering problems involved as well as the efficiency on the outcome. The issue of reinforcement of two or more merged but differing materials catalyzes the formation of better products.

The production of the composite bicycle frame that combines a metal spine in the midst of a fibre reinforced plastics have been in the market for quite a while but the materials keep changing to allow better performance and cater for improvements. The combination involves metal lugs and plastics that reinforcements with fibre. The modern frames mainly comprise of steel and fibre but the most recent combination involves carbon fibre tubes. (Jeukendrup, 17)

The bicycles made of composite high strength and lightweight metal tubes such as titanium or tubes and carbon fibres have indicated better performance at lower rates. The main aim of the performance bicycles manufactures is to come up with a lightweight but relatively strongly framed bicycle for a good quality ride.

Today’s technology demands for a bicycle frame that is able to withstand the shocks of the rough roads. The combination of materials ought to give out lightweight as well as strength. The most preferred metals may arguably be titanium, aluminium, steel and some plastics reinforced with carbon fibre. Metals such as titanium provides the required low weight and improved steel structure, which supports transmission power even under the harsh and complex motions during the performance.

Comparison between the leg movement and wheel rotation during activity causes the sideways overload especially at the lower part of the frame. According to US Patent Storm (2006), “the carbon fibre provides light weight and strength with requisite stiffness and shock absorption for steering and power transmission under the load imposed in the top region of the bicycle”.

The main difference between the composite metals is their isotopic nature. They have a directional dependent behaviour such that they behave similarly in all the directions. The main differences between these materials and non-composite ones, is the product formed during production process.

The versatility of fibrous composites materials is higher as opposed to metals. Modification utilized meets performance requirements as well as complexity of the activities. The carbon fibre enforced alloy has four to five times more strength over steel or aluminium. The flexibility and shock absorbent ability enables them to endure fatigue more than other metals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Enhancement of the metal The carbon-reinforced epoxies provide support for very high strengths or heavy loads and at the some time has low weights and huge freedom for shape. Carbon is a flexible material that allows simple production of complex parts and ease in modification. It has elevated scale for integration where stiffeners and other core units need implementation to suit specific needs.

They have excellent fatigue survival ability compared to single metals. Investigations indicate that such allowances resist chemicals such as acids. The alloys are long lasting due to their ability to resist environmental harsh conditions such as water resistance to avoid corrosion. Their thermal seclusion ability, ability to retard fire and ability to perform under high temperatures enables it to be preferred over other general metals. (Mitchell, 2006)

Current design and usage problems The bicycles have unique parts produced differently on a daily basis, which requires one to contact the manufacturing industry even for the simplest spare parts such as treads. The user might not have a choice other than place an order. There is need for manufacturing standards that allow every new product to comply to facilitate interchanging of parts.

Today’s bicycles parts manufacturing involves different manufactures. The assembling to single units applies later on. The manufacturing standards ensure perfect fits and functionality. The bicycle components often fracture and this calls for standardizing the testing units and procedures.

Conclusion People ought to know that current bicycles undergo standardization for various weights and thus we should not bleach the usage. There are quite a number of benefits associated with the standards such as diversity of the equipments, establishment of performance criterion and enhancement of safety.

Works Cited Jeukendrup, Asker. E. High-performance cycling. Human Kinetics, 2002 113

Mitchell, David. A. ‘Bicycle Safety and Bicycle Standards’. ASTM InternationalWest Conshohocken, PA March 2006. Accessed from

We will write a custom Essay on Data Warehoisung: Composite Bicycle Frame specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More US Patent Storm. Metal and reinforced plastic composite bicycle frame. Issued on February 7, 2006. Web.


Computer fraud and contracting Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents The law pertaining fraud

Fraud through online

How to interpret the online computer contracting

Current trends of the computer frauds



The law pertaining fraud The law does not provide the consumers with measures to enforcing the online contracts because the argument is that, it is impossible to tell the intention and the consent of the consumer when they signed the contract. In most instances, it is easy for the consumer to identify these malicious programs such as viruses or Trojan horses. On the other extreme end, the computer fraud might be easy to detect if one is able to identify the good software especially among the popular freeware applications available from the net.

The issue may be due to lack of transparency and uncertainty about what the end-user thinks when engaging with such programs. The personal judgement and consent of the user is what determines whether they agree to contract a program especially when the label shows or indicates in an otherwise pernicious manner such as a “spyware.” Some consumers may perceive software labelled “WeatherBug” as a legitimate program while other would take it as destructive software. (PC Hell, 2005)

Fraud through online The scope of online fraud can be clear through definition of the term “Spyware”. As applied in a wide range of computer applications especially software development, the authoritative definition of the term may be difficult.

According to a notice by ABA concerning the Federal of Trade Commission in 2004, (2006)“Spyware is software that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge and that may send such information to another entity without the consumer’s consent, or that asserts control over a computer without the consumer’s knowledge.”

Evidence indicates accurate differences between the merchant and the consumer with regard to online contracts. In most cases, the malicious software programmers have little or no intention over the program broadcast as the consumers may point out after the destruction has occurred.

Most consumers would claim that the software was maliciously loaded on their systems without their authorization while considering the intention of the interface designer may as genuine due to various clicks from beginning to end on the contract interfaces may also apply.

Not all malicious software designers and distributors use these contracting interfaces. As much as such contracting interfaces help to manage the relationship between contractors and consumers, wicked programmers will use programs with interfaces, which do not require user identity to install. Such software developers do this intentionally because they are aware that their products contain viruses and other malicious software and in such situations, they commit “identity theft”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the end-user has not authority of assenting a download or upload then he/she would ascertain theft of individual’s rights. Such software is rare and this reason, this paper addresses the cases where computer fraud occurs through interactive contracting interfaces between the consumer and programmer or the distributor involved in the system.

The contract law can provide meaningful constraints over computer fraud such as software distribution if a mechanism was invented requiring explicit approval and hence notice by the consumer before ordering or agreeing with the loading mechanism. Such a mechanism would actually have an impact over the distribution volumes. According to DeVries, (2003) such a sensible strategy would probably work well in curbing online crime but it would also have a big impact over the distribution of software.

Probably such measures would have disastrous outcomes especially on the information privacy law but this may call for consideration of other measures for instance, the contract terms instructions where experts formulate means of blocking the use of misleading interfaces. This would probably enhance legitimacy of software distribution by providing significant scrutiny over mechanizations of destructive software.

Arguably, promotion of computer fraud occurs through existence of unambiguous software termed as “freeware” or “shareware”. They provide benefits to the end users and in most cases; they have to assent to the agreement by appending a check on the user interface form. In such situations, the user has consent over functionality of the program. Although uncertain, their level of interest determines if they would grant program access in their system.

The freeware may be termed as software whose distribution occurs at zero cost and mainly involves the small downloadable applications compatible with majority of the operating systems. On the other hand, the transfer of shareware from one workstation to another as free trial occurs with the aim that the user might purchase the full version later after testing.

Many end-users will comfortably welcome free information or software from the web for instance information concerning products that they intend to buy. They would hate the popular pot-up dialog boxes but will not be in a position to determine the intentions of a particular marketing company. Some advertisements would solicit the user to access free information but in return, they expose their information for possible attacks or future pop-up advertisements and worse still loading of destructive applications at the end-user system.

Today the basis of the problem can only centre on situations where the software merchant has plausible claim over consumer consent over submission of personal information in exchange of free products or services. Infringement of an existing and protective law occurs because these claims can occur from either side.

We will write a custom Essay on Computer fraud and contracting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consumer can also have a plausible claim that fraud occurred without the personal consent. Contract and application law is therefore ambiguous because of the uncertain outcomes. Liberalization of the contracts diminishes the chances for formulation of contract law because the law ought to provide a framework that provides chances for more and better explicit consent formation before collection of personal information occurs.

Today there is no basis to anticipate that judicial reverence over online fraud will extend to legitimacy of distribution of clearly malice programs.

How to interpret the online computer contracting From the consumer point of view, it might be very hard for them to pick out the malicious persons targeting marketing companies whose aim is to collect personal information from the genuine online merchants. People ought to understand that by agreeing to contracting processes through the online interfaces where one only need to click means licensing various application programs.

The process of downloading an application may involve several other applications without the consumer consent. Spyware programs appends onto genuine programs. It is often to find extra-unwanted programs attached to the main program and the process of download of the required one cannot occur without the full download.

Combination of different programs may also occur in which case people exacerbate the issues of inadvertent or eligible assent because of the fact that the extra programs are difficult to locate and eliminate them or it is inevitable to download them. (Serafin, Manners and Forbes. 2004)

Application of some principles as a guidance though the contract development and signing may be used. Using some standards requires proper analysis but it presents troubling and unsolvable issues regarding assent. Some of these principals include having a written or spoken manifestation of assent before signing of an online contract.

The contract must be intentional or reasonable such that any other parties can treat it as assent. If such manifestation of assent is not involved one should treat the contract as void or a fraud. Manifestation of mutual understanding takes the form of a proposal or an offer, which is acceptable or rejected, by the other involved party. The disadvantage in this case is that neither the offer nor the acceptance is identifiable. The moment of the formation is also not determinable.

Today the “browser wrap” terms that are usually behind the marked hyperlinks provides the terms and conditions for an agreement. The user clicks the option of either accepting of declining with the terms. There are however considerable disagreements regarding the interfaces with the query of whether they can be able to support contracts without prior determination of assent. An important development ought to support apparent manifestation beside the online validation through an interface.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Computer fraud and contracting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current trends of the computer frauds Today, the causes of skipped supervisory re-evaluations by personnel managers are the huge workloads caused by accumulation of information and data or collusion during entry into the databases. The supervisory data reviews may utilize the special codes to hinder computer edits. Bypassing of many important procedural instances is the main aspect that facilitates fraud intentionally or unintentionally.

Research by Miller, (2008) has established that today’s web crime statistics are difficult to obtain because of the various methods, periods and sources that are in use to determine them. Various Internet Fraud Complain Centres such as The “Internet Complaint Centre (IC3)” established in 2000 or the “National White Collar Crime Centre (NW3C),” are addressing the rapidly spreading arena of cyber fraud/crime. They receive, build up a case and then refer it to the “Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)” as a criminal complaint.

The issue of cyber crime/fraud and contracting issues are however taking a slow pace to deal with because they belong to various categories. The consumer can present a crime in an alarming manner while it is a minor problem thus misleading the investigation teams. The issue of unsolicited junk mails and “spoofed” websites that imitate the legitimate ones is the root cause of the complexity involving the fraud cases.

Computer fraud cases involve the “auction fraud, non-delivery fraud, credit or debit cards fraud, non fraudulent complaints such as child pornography or spam/Junk mails.” These are all situations that are accessible through federal laws meant to support the dynamic investigations, developmental analysis and aims to reach out for the public awareness efforts.

Conclusion From the business experts’ point of view, computer fraud and contracting is a crisis they people have to deal with because electronic commerce is has just begun. People are coming to terms with the online procurement process and this unlocks more chances for fraudsters. Fraud and contracting is a bigger problem than what most people would anticipate.

As technology advance, it forces the fraudsters to acquire better skills and thus today’s fraud involves experts rather than the imagined idlers. They have mechanisms of manipulating computers to access the intended information. The best mechanism of protecting oneself against fraudsters is by learning more about fraud and advancing technologically.

Most fraudsters will use spyware to find personal information. Some of this software is able to collect information without the consent of the owner. One basic way of avoiding the transfer of personal information to fraudsters is to get rid of temporally internet files and browser history. Users ought to avoid visiting of suspicious websites. (Wells, 2008)

The issue of identity theft is common today with many victims having to spend huge amounts to clear damaged identities. It is wise to spend on solid protection against fraud other than spend on clearing the mess.

Technology equips the users with software capable of utilizing multiple options of defence against information theft, attenuation, swindles, and other variety of frauds. Good antifraud software should provide advice against dangerous Web sites, rate safety probability, provide automatic safety tune-up, shield browsers and block malicious programs or pop-ups.

The consumer should be a few clicks away from security zone so that they can access them any time they need protection or privileges. By installing updated Virus scanning software, one is able to stay ahead of the hackers or fraudsters.

References ABA.2006. 2004 “Annual Review of Antitrust Law Developments: Annual Review Of Antitrust Law Developments”. New York NY. American Bar Association, 2006.

DeVries W.T, 2003. Protecting Privacy in the Digital Age, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J.

Miller, R. L, Gaines, L.K. 2008. Criminal Justice in Action Cengage Learning.

PC Hell. 2005. WeatherBug Removal Instructions and Help. Accessed from

Serafin T, Manners and Forbes. 2004. “The Federal Trade Commission held Workshops on spyware” Web.

Wells, J.T. 2008. Computer Fraud Casebook: The Bytes that Bite. New York NY. John Wiley and Sons

Winn J.K. 2005. Law, Commerce and Technology. University of Washington

School of Law. Accessed from


Brief overview of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Biological perspective of OCD Patients

Emotional perspective of OCD Patients

Behavioural components of the disorder



Obsessive compulsiveness is neurotic disorders that tend to affect high-class social economics status and higher intelligentsia compared to other neurotics. (Zohar, Insel, and Rasmussen, 1991) The problem is associated with senseless and distressing repetitive thoughts or behaviours in a person.

The situation is difficult to overcome. For instance, a person may become troubled over the cleanliness of their hands, thus a feeling of toughed dirt and they keep washing them every now and then. The strange acts torment the mind and the distractions affect the social wellbeing of the patient.

The mental health professions took the condition as rare considering the number of patients affected. The condition faces various challenges because the affected or their guardians tend to avoid treatment due to the thought of it as a strange untreatable clause.

Resent surveys by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (2009), indicate great improvements over the response. People have understood that the condition faces more prevalence over other common mental illness such as the schizophrenia.

According to Zohar, Insel, and Rasmussen, (1991), the ODC patients faces among others, compulsions, insight, resistance, shame, secrecy, interference and other long lasting symptoms. The disease finally effects the external achievements of a person and societal productivity because of the effect on the meticulousness and persistence.

Biological perspective of OCD Patients Studies and medical indications such as the “PET brain scans”, indicate that the brain of people suffering from OCD, have interlocked structures whereby the parts functions hyperactively in unison. The brain has the “orbital frontal cortex” that is responsible of reporting and soliciting the rest of the brain for error correction. For a person suffering from the OCD disorder, the cortex is hyperactive thus the reaction of constantly correcting what seem to appear wrong. (Meyer, 2005)

In line with Meyers writing (2005) this part of the brain, that conveys sensory information and the thalamus act in unison and therefore presence of any metabolically reaction quadruples a reaction that is dissimilar to the healthy persons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This condition is observable when Bess adopts the mother’s instructions later in her life yet she appeared to resist them during her earlier life. The parental teaching evolves into a cleaning ritual where she suffers from a condition she feels contaminated and thus the urgent need for constant cleanliness.

Secondly, it is biologically proven that these patients suffer from a connection between the “caudate nucleus and the cingulated gyrus”, which are structures found deep into the core of the brain. (Meyer, 2005) They make the patient perceive their focused issue such as the need for cleanliness.

This seems very urgent due to the superficial impact over incorrectness. The perception makes them to suffer from anxiety to address the need, due to the adjusted pulse rates. Evidently, Bess felt the need to address cleanliness urgently regardless of the fatigue.

The treatment involved includes medication such as the often-preferred “Prozac” to reduce the brain activity rate particularly in the caudate nucleus. The treatment may also work out if the patient responding to psychotherapy as applied for Bess case. (Meyer, 2005)

Emotional perspective of OCD Patients Emotionally, obsessive-compulsive behaviours involve anxiety disorders. The condition comes from the related persons. Bess had no choice other that to emulate her mothers behaviours who was the only model in close connection to her. The emotional concept of people from the disorder involves repulsiveness especially from the right attributes.

The guiltiness make them to react differently as it is evident with Bess’s mother, who reacted defiantly in opposition of attempts of despise, conflicts and religious involvement. The behaviours that are common with most teenage patients of the disorder revolve round the sexually related matters. (Zohar, Insel, and Rasmussen, 1991)

Behavioural components of the disorder The Obsessive-compulsive individual tends to suffer from the effect of conflicts over the hygiene concerning the toilet. Evidently, Bess suffered from the conflicts concerning these sanitary issues. The experts link the hygiene issues to the theory of the patient tending to remain in one “anal-sadistic stage of development”. (Meyer, 2005)

We will write a custom Research Paper on Brief overview of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Argumentatively, these recurrences of the toilet sanitation concerns may come about because it is one of the sources of conflict between the mother and the child during development. It is also a stage when the child tries to integrate and model parental behaviours. The child has to consider the concerns and rulings thus their probability of being key aspects connected to OCD.

Most of the OCD patients’ behaviours emerge from the parents whereby one main concern would be intellectualization as a means of dealing with anxiety. This involves concern over key issues that led to conflicts in the aim of avoiding the impact they have.

It works perfectly in the school or work settings and unmistakably it did wonders for Bess when she took her mother’s advice during her school work as well as career tasks but created conflicts when it was done contradictory at home.

The patients have to struggle and maintain their obsessive –compulsive indicators under control by casting the compulsive throughout during the work or school time. The resistance however weakens overtime and the behaviours become severe. This is the reason why such a people engage in time-consuming rituals that overcome real life. Bess’ case has this evidential aspect.

In line with the case study, Bess’s social life is highly affected by her condition, manifested in the lack of activity in her life. She often works late and lives alone thus being forcing her to live a lonely lifestyle. Medically, a person suffers from the ODC when their compulsive and obsessive behaviour becomes extreme to the point of interfering with the normal lifestyle. (Meyer, 2005) According to Bess case, Sleep is a complicated phenomenon in her life to the extent that, she has to do with pills or alcohol to find some.

Conclusion The symptoms of OCD begin during childhood and the process of coping with the embarrassment-involved causes the victim to hide the compulsions and thus the stress evidenced later in life. The process of successfully concealing these problems from friend, relatives or co-workers other than seeking help requires remarkable ability.

The unfortunate consequence of the secrecy becomes evident later on in their lives when medical assistance is inevitable. At this later stage, the compulsive habits are subterranean or profoundly ingrained and often difficult to transform.

Children suffering from the disorder are more prone to other psychiatric conditions such as panic disorders, phobia of being social, learning disorders, hatred, and depression. (Meyer, 2005) This was evident on the case study where Bess remains enclosed in her own cocoon lifestyle.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Brief overview of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The biggest challenge to psychoanalysis regarding the problem is the fact that the individual is highly involved in intellectualization, which they use as a protection mechanism. The most recommended treatment therapy revolves round responsive prevention that involves relationship.

The modification of behaviour through cognition unlocks the brain’s caudate nucleus structure and enables the patient to rebel urges as opposed to giving in. It calls for engagement on extra curricular activities to divert the attention and urge. (Meyer, 2005) The patient has to be guided to enable them understand the problem and this facilitates the ability to come up with mechanisms of fight the problem. The main aim of the therapy is to distort the behaviour to a more enjoyable and productive activity and lifestyle.

References Meyer, R.G. (2005). Case Studies in Abnormal Behaviour. (Seventh Edition). Upper Saddle.

River, NJ: Pearson Education Publishers National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2009). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Accessed from

Zohar, J., Insel, T.R., and Rasmussen, S. (1991). Psychobiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. New York: Springer Publishing Co.


The Plan for a Dream Vacation to Las Vegas, Nevada Creative Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents The Description of the Target Group

Vacation to Las Vegas, Nevada

Travel agent vs. online travel site

Reference List

Visiting to one of the most popular cities of Nevada, Las Vegas, may seem like an endless party, where each member is eager to continue entertaining, without sleeping all days and nights in order to enjoy the beauty of this city, if it is possible.

Huge buildings, touching the sky, multicolored lights, making the city brighter and even warmer, and people afoot – all this creates a picture of a lively city that is always ready to accept one more visitor and present the world, full of events and happiness, to him/her. “What matters is that, like an oasis mirage in a parched desert, Las Vegas is whatever you desire most, if only for a day, a night or a dirty weekend.

Here, everyone lives like the King” (Benson 2007). There are 5 evident reasons to visit Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) an ability to watch amazing shows any time you want; (2) a good chance to observe a Pyramid, Ancient Rome, and the Eiffel Tower; (3) a possibility to drink for free visiting different casinos; (4) a great opportunity to win much and be recognized by the world or loose everything; (5) a funny and unforgettable place to get married.

Las Vegas is worth visiting for many reasons, and I, as a sophisticated travel agent, am ready to introduce you this city and prove that you will never forget your vacations and your trip to Las Vegas, where an opportunity to relax, gamble, and meet new people are available all the time.

The Description of the Target Group The chosen target group for vacation to Las Vegas, Nevada has rather clear purposes to relax, to rejuvenate, and simply to have fun. The choice of this city is obvious: Las Vegas is created for fun, shopping, gambling, and various entertainments, and if people want to have the most amazing vacations ever, the city is waiting for them.

Las Vegas attracts the attention of more that 35 million people annually (Moehring


Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help

Education in Afghanistan is one of the most frequently discussed problems that require certain time and investigations. Many sources admit that the policies of the Taliban were so horrible and strict that any girl could not get a chance to study and enlarge own level of knowledge on the same level with boys. The point is that many female students just could not continue their education, because the chosen programs were too horrible and war-oriented that females did not find it helpful and necessary to visit schools.

The impact of the Taliban on boys and girls’ education in Afghanistan was really great: different educative strategies and concentration on war affairs deprived girls of the opportunity to get education on the same level as boys could do it; this is why the fall of that movement led to positive changes in the sphere of education and promoted girls’ desire to study just like it was described in Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul.

Contrary to popular belief, the Taliban never officially banned the education for females. Girls under the ages of nine were allowed to attend school and share a classroom with boys of the same age. However, once a girl reached the age of ten, she lost the right to attend the school.

The Taliban put a suspension on female education until a segregated education system could be completely organized and implemented. Abdul Hai Muthmahien, the Taliban chief spokesman, admitted that their movement was going to spend more then $ 1 million in order to build schools and provide students with the necessary equipment “Taliban are not against education” (Baker para.2), and even girls should have a chance to study.

The students, who were fortunate enough to attend the schools that remained open, were taught a curriculum, centered on violence and religion.

At the first grade, children, who were six years old, learned the alphabet not by animals, fruits, or joys, like it was inherent to the vast majority of schools all over the world, but by means of religious and war-like terminology: “’J’ was for Jihad, ‘M’ was for Muhjahed, and ‘T’ was for Talib” (Fassihi para.1).

First graders were also taught simple arithmetic like counting bullets. The fourth grade of education turned out to be crucial for many students, because they got a chance to teach more complex math word problems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These tasks involve the following: “If a bullet travels 800 meters per second, and the distance between a Russian and a muhjahed is 3,200 meters, then how many seconds will it take for the bullet to hit the Russian between the eyes?” (Fassihi para. 5)

Each year, a student could advance to a new grade, texts, lessons, and homework became even more graphic; the seventh grade promotes students to study the “jihad manual”, the manual that was laden with instructions for bomb making, gun and weapon descriptions and diagrams, and even how-to’s for killing Islam’s enemies (Fassihi para. 6).

Students were subjected to this style of learning until the Taliban fell after a five year reign. “Belqisa could even continue her education if she wanted…Now it was allowed, but she forbade herself” (Seierstad 175-181). So, a child of any sex could get education, the question is whether the child wants to get such education.

In November 2001, since the fall of the Taliban, Afghanistan faced numerous troubles because of the period of reconstruction and its demands (UNESCO 137). The sphere of education underwent certain challenges and changes as well: schools all across the country held registrations for both males and females.

In Jalalabad, the new minister of education, Abdul Ghani Hidayat, hoped for the turnout at registration and believed that nearly eighty percent of the city’s eligible male and females would register. Despite the lack of text books, furniture, and writing utensils and supplies, Mr. Hidayat was eager to commence the planning and implementation of a new curriculum for the children in order to present them an opportunity to enlarge their level of knowledge and have the same rights as other people on the world have (Witter para. 8).

In spite of Mr. Hidayat’s enthusiasm and desire to support children and their families, it was not enough to make children return to the schools and continue education. The Taliban’s conditions were so strict and repressive that even their leaving did not help to return female students.

The development of innovative computing technologies, the status of English as an international level, and other changes in curriculums require considerable work in the sphere of education (Moreno 398). Wars, which take place in Afghanistan, have serious effect on education in this country: many teachers are killed in actions, many children prefer to go for a war but not to spend time at schools, and many schools have been already destroyed.

We will write a custom Essay on Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All this damage, created as a result of the war, influences education indicators considerably and increases brain drain. Teachers do not find it effective to stay in the country and train children under such terrible conditions. Those, who decide to stay and protect own native land, face such problems like lack of knowledge or experience.

Some teachers do not even have any pedagogic practice, and make use of every day problems to create new tasks and train students. Lack of education leads to wrong perception of information and interpretation of numerous psychological, social, and philosophical concepts. Even if the fall of the Taliban promotes the development of the educational sphere in Afghanistan, students still face numerous problems and do not have chances to cope with them.

Nowadays, education is available for any citizen of Afghanistan. It does not matter whether you are a boy or a girl. The point is that the attitude to education may be different in each family, and the head of one family cannot accept the idea that his women should spend much time alongside men (Seierstad 262), and the head of the other family is eager to help his women to study new material and be smart.

In general, education for boys and girls in Afghanistan sees considerable changes before and after the reign of the Taliban. The sources prove that in fact the Taliban movement did not prevent education for girls; certain conditions may cause some restrictions, but as a whole, girls got the right to visit schools and enlarge their knowledge.

Of course, war conditions deprive a lot of boys and girls of the opportunity to study, this is why numerous school reforms and additional help should be provided day by day. Maybe, this lack of education and attention to social norms and attitude to this life serve as a serious reason of the war. It is high time to think about the ways of how to educate the Afghan people and explain them how wrong and horrible their comprehension of this life can be.

Works Cited Fassihi, Farnaz. “2 Bullets 2 Bullets =?: That Was Math in the Textbooks Used in Taliban-Era Schools.” Newhouse News Service.

Moreno, Juan, M. “Secondary Education in Afghanistan: A Portray of Post-Conflict Education Reconstruction.” Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada 11 (2005): 381-406.

Seierstad, Asne. The Bookseller of Kabul. London: Virago Press Ltd., 2004. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More UNESCO. Education for all by 2015: Will We Make It? New York: Oxford University Press US, 2008. Print.

Witter, Willis. “Afghan Girls Giddy over Return to School.” The Washington Times. (21 Nov. 2001).


Citizen participation in e-governance Essay cheap essay help

E-governance has emerged as a new important tool of reforms and influence over global change. Today pursuing of the government reforms occurs through the electronic governance strategies. Despite the wide embrace over technology advancements, the participation by the citizens is still lagging behind.

The assertion provided in this paper handles the transformation strategies to enhance participation of citizens through e-governance. The logical hypothesis illustrated in the paper show some of the eminent issues that need future considerations. Theoretically and experimentally, the assumptions are that e-governance is the key source to e-democracy.

On this basis, the paper eventually places some anonymous and theoretical considerations regarding today’s reality of e-governance for the support of important issues concerning resource and social advancement. It checks upon the gap between the reality and anticipation of citizen participation electronically and lastly it investigates ways of overcoming the gap.

Knowledge-based society The knowledge-based society is a basis providing power through prerequisite of information and knowledge. Citizens’ participation brings sufficient conversion of services to a more reliable and efficient level. The system reduces data or information transmission time and distance thus improving the diversity and productivity as the basis for change.

Although intolerable to many especially leaders, change is inevitable because it guarantees government, business and individual’s survival. Consistent with Brody et al (247), today change is not an option for consideration but a crucial dynamic characteristic for future advancement.

The government tries to solve its problems through optimal revolutions as well as smooth natural transformations. Worldwide most government are considering the e-governance style and are upgrading the management systems for better high quality customer based services.

The issue of e-governance has experienced a diverse progress since its initiative considering the high pace of the social, economic, technical and environmental capacities. The system centrally focuses on the customer as a transition to engage participatory governance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Management views over e-governance According to Lukensmeyer and Boyd (12), some governments consider citizen participation as an “unnecessary complexity cost factor “to implement in the e-governance system. They include the electronic techniques in their systems but fail to engage the electronic consultation and forums. This is an indication of low citizen participation in governance despite the incredible advancements.

In 2001, the U.S. government brought forward the initiative to modernize the government through “strategic management of human capital, expanded e-government and integration of budget and performance. Citizens ought to demand for the decentralization, digitization and automation of government undertakings.

Electronic innovations are government strategic efforts to find optimal results that restrain problems regarding the internal political, social, and economical factors. The e governance gets support through “transparency, efficiency and participation”. (Seasons, 432)

The electronic governance system utilizes the ICT tool whereby cost and speed of flow determines transfer of information regarding the customers’/citizens’ and services.

The policies not only support the sharing and communication of information but also provide the citizens with administration information to improve service delivery and enable transparency on government proceedings thus inducing the required organizational and administrational change. E-government provides efficiency, transparency and participation to the citizen, environment and the government itself. Automation is the key to innovations over operations through provision of good high quality services. (Seasons, 432)

Citizen participation Politically the citizen action ought to influence policy and decision making procedures. The citizens are involved in the voting exercises, which are political proceedings, and they demand for a close observation over administrative operations known as “administrative participation”. The citizens ought to seek proper administration through their own administrative participation. (Brody et al, 247)

Citizens can participate in governance issues actively through formation of consensus over monitoring particular administrative issues and requests and passively through request for information delivered in a one-way style after the decisions.

We will write a custom Essay on Citizen participation in e-governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regarding the theory that cost and benefits as determinants of electronic participation over governance, the citizens’ participation activity becomes low and relatively limited to nature because the cost is for gathering the information needed for active participation over ideas, subject matters, procedures, opportunity costs and operational costs.

The measure of participation comes about because of benefits analysis. Argumentatively, electronic participation benefits are higher, compared to the cost. (Seasons, 434)

Model of Electronic Governance Relating to the ICMA guidelines of 2004, the National Performance Review, (NPR) had a focus on enhancing the government’s cost effectiveness through the implementation of key conceptual changes such as by enhancing competitive and customers-oriented portals.

The conceptual structure involved in the e-government changes includes some stages such as emergence, interaction, enhancement, transaction and faultless stages. The e-government is a self-efficient system whereby the agencies perform computerized operations to provide simple civic services with the aim of an efficient or effective output.

The participatory governance encourages citizens to engage in interactive activities by linking the services of various agencies in a procedure known as the “public administration proceedings”. (Irvin and Stanbury, 59)

The electronic process takes the assumptions of strengthening governance, improving the service delivery and integrating services among the agencies. The e-governance infrastructure brakes down the wall between the public and government procedures. It allows citizens to take a pro-active role over the procedures.

Process of the e-governance In line with King and Stivers (24), the electronic involvement in decision-making has liberated citizens because of the integrated e-democracy elements and procedures whereby passive information as accessible through a more active participation system.

The relationship between the government and the citizens progresses from a single lane traffic process where the government disseminates the information at its own will and initiative or upon demand, to a more dynamic and involving style. The citizens require chance to form partnership with the authority for a better mutual understanding and interaction.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Citizen participation in e-governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The process of information gathering and convey is lessen through the electronic transfers and the government has a cost marginal gain, while the citizens have the ability to voice their concerns over governance styles and procedures. This is usually the anticipation over implementation of an electronic system but that is never the case. E-governance comes with a lot of workload associated with high demand for expertise. According to Irvin (62), the citizens ought to be well equipping with the knowledge of how the systems work.

The technology is dynamic and this calls for the citizens to have a more vibrant approach over the complexities that are involved. The government may also be reluctant over giving some information especially when the requests touch on the private or confidential matters. The electronic transfer module is liable to data hackers and thus the provision for the private information is a real world impediment over electronic transfers.

The quality of e-governance depends on the “accessibility, usability and credibility”. (Myflorida) Quality determines the service fulfilment and contribution. The factors ought to be the key determinants over cost and benefits involved.

Accessibility is an attribute that connects the digital divides. The accessed information differs in the time of “access, location, universality as well as the quality of service usage.” Equality over participation determines the participation cost, enjoyment and availability of benefits. (Myflorida)

Analyst for a Florida city council e-governance infrastructure Establishment of e-government started in 80’s in Florida but were effective in 90’s in most of the council offices. (ICMA) The system entails a database management system where operational process are developed and stored. An information superhighway infrastructure provides easy and fast access to information. Ensuring the existence of a superhighway is the first initial setup but most authorities fail to implement its usage. The council forms a joint link between its agencies for an impressive and coherent growth.

Setbacks Some of the aspects that need urgent addressing include the low intensity of services due to poor usage and poor participation among the public that is mainly point out by satisfaction indicator.

There is urgent need to redesign operation procedures, to come up with proper orientation procedures and to enlighten the public over the mode of usage. The council face a major setback on lack of sharing information to strengthen cooperation among departments. The majority of the citizens are not familiar with any existing e-governance system and thus they keep visiting the offices literally to seek services or inquire required information, while it would have taken them less time and cost if transacted virtually.

Possible advancements There is need to build services products such as software that achieve real-time participation on the governance and other important matters to maximize the services satisfaction.

The issue of transparency efficiency and endorsed participation is achievable through ensured transparency in the administration. This calls for involving all interested parties in matters pertaining decision-making procedure, finances as well as change.

All the public administration processes ought to take place electronically so that they are in direct contact with the users to lower office visitations. Secondly is the need to have efficient administration that allows and facilitates real-time processing of all administrative operations with the aim of maximizing efficiency.

The government information and proceedings need digitizing to allow mutual sharing and consolidation of all the scattered information in the council’s departments. Lastly is the need for actively participating citizens. This entails the elimination of all the boundaries between the council and the public that prevent participation. The result to these would be free and active citizens willing to shear their thoughts, ideas and requirements for the general growth and advanced democracy.

Conclusion The city council of Florida aims at advancing its democracy through sensitizing the public through a boosted participating public. The public opinion survey level need to be appreciate and taken into consideration.

Good democratic governance call for majority votes and this is achievable on each sector of the council through the citizen led real-time participation in policymaking and disclosure of important information. Citizens can play an active role in development if they actively make decisions concerning governing procedures through a self-controlled system such as e-governance.

Works Cited Brody, S.D., Godschalk, D.R.,


The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

This fact sheet is aimed to inform the reader about the danger that is around groundwater resources and is caused by the impact of agriculture. It will summarize the activities that influence groundwater development, describe the risk, under which groundwater as well as health can be, and analyze the methods of control that can be used to improve the situation and prevent negative consequences.

People have to be aware about the impact of their activities on groundwater and be able to improve the conditions, they live under, and this piece of writing will inform each reader about each detail that will be crucial for groundwater and the activities, which will help to maintain it from pollution.

Groundwater resources and human activities “Groundwater constitutes 97 per cent of global freshwater and is an important source of drinking-water in many regions of the world” (Schmoll et al. 4). Such explanation of groundwater helps to underline the significance of this component in our everyday life and clear up that the problems, which happen within groundwater, may considerably influence our planet.

Groundwater pollution may lead to disruption of this life to its full extent. Numerous activities have been already taken in order to prevent groundwater pollution, but unfortunately the government of any country is not able to solve this problem and save this planet.

Groundwater is available for many users from different spheres of life, and it turns out to be impossible to forbid them using water and purify it of all undesirable chemicals. Population growth provides increasing of living standards and food demands, this is why the sphere of agriculture develops day by day and requires land for cultivation, irrigation, salinity, and, of course, waterlogging.

All these activities that are primary aimed at improving human lives and feeding populations have negative impact on groundwater and promote groundwater contamination within the shortest period of time. Agriculture is considered to be the main factor of environmental pressure that causes groundwater pollution because of intensive cultivation, inability to control water use, and lack of technologies to purify water.

As a rule, groundwater pollution is caused by three reasons:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Agriculture activities;

Industrial activities

Urban living demands

Agriculture and its essence as the major influential factor in groundwater analysis Agriculture is a significant user of groundwater in the sense of abstractions and in the incidental sense that implies releasing nitrates and salts as the major pollutants of water (Dosi vii). More than 1,5 billions hectares are cultivated nowadays in order to meet the demands of people and provide them with a chance to feed and exchange goods in order to survive.

About 18 % of this number is irrigated land, and its water usually comes from surface water that is located in reservoirs. In order to support irrigated land, it is necessary to provide considerable amounts of groundwater. This is why abstraction for irrigation is considered to be one of the most important environmental pressure factors.

And the investigations by Llamas and his team prove that the use of groundwater has raised considerably in the last 50 years (Llamas and Custodio 93). Groundwater use is inherent to many ancient civilizations, and its boom was caused by supply-push factors like availability of cheap pumps and development of drilling technologies at the beginning of the 1920 (Molden 395).

Irrigation and waterlogging play a very important role in agriculture and influence groundwater pollution Unbelievable growth of irrigated agriculture and frequent demand for water requires the use and storing of surface water. Groundwater irrigation started its development at the beginning of the 1900s, but its breakthrough has been achieved in the 1930s, when numerous drilling equipment and technologies became available to people. Irrigation is obligatory “to serve an increasingly productive agriculture, and investments… to adapt yesterday’s systems to tomorrow’s needs” (Molden 353).

Waterlogging takes place in case agricultural land is somewhere over underground layers, where it is hard to reach the necessary amount of water. Such places are characterized by difficulties with percolation of water that may lead to groundwater levels’ rising one day. In order to solve the problems of waterlogging, certain practices have to be taken: source reduction, biological filtering, and reuse of water.

Nitrate and pesticides as one of the principal nutrients that is considerable for groundwater and for health hazards due to their chemical components

Usually, fertilizers are used in order to fasten the growth of plants and gather as much harvest as possible. However, people cannot even guess that the use of any kind of fertilizers lead to dangerous water pollution and the disaster that is waiting for use in future because of groundwater contamination.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Agricultural activities are regarded as the source of nitrate in groundwater. In fact, the leaching of nitrate is a natural process, however, this process usually depends on “the accelerated nitrogen cycle in soil” (Sapek 3) that is considered to be a result of agricultural activities. The risk of pollution by these very nitrates is really high and depends on the interaction that may happen between nitrogen loading and aquifer’s vulnerability.

Definition Vulnerability comprises the intrinsic properties of the strata separating a saturated aquifer from the land surface which determine the sensitivity of that aquifer to being adversely affected by pollution loads applied at the land surface (Schmoll et al. 202).

The process of groundwater pollution that depends on nitrate and vulnerability with loading interactions take place in several steps. Vulnerability of groundwater depends on soil properties, which influence the depth of the pathway on the Figure1. Within this pathway, water and pollutants move together from the surface (soil) to the receptor, gathering certain damage in groundwater, which have been left before.

Figure 1: Groundwater Pollution Governmental framework to prevent groundwater pollution In order to prevent the groundwater pollution and not affect the sphere of agriculture that is crucial for human lives, it is necessary to develop a program that will be able to control the use of water on different levels.

Government has to work out the legislation policy in order to protect and control groundwater resources. It is obligatory to evaluate the impact of agricultural operations, which are influential for water resources.

Groundwater mapping, ground- and surface-water monitoring, watershed models should be developed as well in different regions simultaneously. These activities allow not only to control the use of water but also to analyze what factor and where exactly influence pollution.


Each person is able to help his/her own country and land and prevent pollution of groundwater! It is enough to use pesticides or fertilizers on gardens carefully, deal with other chemicals safely, plant native plants in gardens, and finally control the use of chemicals and oil at streets.

Mass media has to participate in the activities to inform people about the negative impact of agriculture and possible steps, which may be taken to prevent planet’s pollution.

Certain quality standards for water uses have to be settled in order to clean up the most contaminated sites.

Encouragement of the agricultural activities that can minimize the negative impact of groundwater, for example waste disposal or hazardous chemicals within transports.

Conclusion Groundwater is of huge importance to many countries’ development. Its considerable distribution, low costs, and really good quality have already led to productive agricultural irrigation. Many groundwater resources, which aim at meeting human needs and demands for surviving, undergo certain changes day by day, because people create more and more technologies and goods and the use of these sources becomes irreversible.

One of the most frequent source of groundwater pollution is the use of chemicals. Pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides are considered to be agricultural sources of pollution, and the most terrible point is that this waste is usually washed down with the runoff and cannot be prevented. It is not enough for the government to develop a policy and follow it step be step.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to achieve good results and save our planet from a disaster because of groundwater pollution, it is necessary to ask each citizen to participate in the programs concerning prevention of groundwater contamination and be careful with the use of chemicals and other type of waste. If people do not care about the earth they live on, one day, the earth cannot stand human treatment and rebel against all human nation. And it will be a disaster.

Works Cited Dosi, Cesare. Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Print.

Llamas, Ramon and Custodio, Emilio. Intensive Use of Groundwater – Challenges and Opportunities. The Netherlands: A. A. Balkema Publishers, 2003. Print.

Molden David. Water for food, water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Sterling, VA: International Water Management Institute, 2007. Print.

Sapek, A. “Agricultural Activities as a Source of Nitrates in Groundwater.” In Nitrates in Groundwater: Selected Papers from the European Meeting of the International Association of Hydrodeologists, Wisla, Poland, 4-7 June 2002 by Lidia Razowska-Jaworek and Andrej Sadurski. London: Taylor


What Love Is and Why It Matters Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Thesis Statement

Relation of love and stress

Personal perspective of love

Validation of love in relation to Perk


Works Cited

Lack of love during the early childhood life causes poor emotional development during adult life. (Hurlock, 47)The way people respond to stress is not present at birth but is natured as people develop especially during the first few years when the brain is still fresh and young and thus the emotional development is crucial. High activity in the brain is an association to fear, irritability and a reaction of withdrawal from other people.

What is a legacy plan? It is associated with love because it is an arrangement of what one wishes to have but it should include the gift of good record, direction, family and personality. The plan stands to benefit the family, children, and grandchildren beside the personal gains.

It calls for one to keep in touch with the wonderful personality, which existed back when things give the impression of extreme credibility. It is more fun and meaningful to plan for, and wish others well more than it is to have a working financial plan. The family love is a priceless offer. Unlike Oedipus, love is not blind, tragic or compulsive. The true meaning of life is to create love in the human consciousness. Cognisant being must be involved in all aspects and movements involving love. (Vacek, 1996)

Thesis Statement This paper is a critical analysis over the characteristics associate with the definition of love. It firmly takes the notion, “Falling in love entails spiritually nurturing personal and populace growth”.

Relation of love and stress What is stress? Probably it is equitable to physical, mental, emotional or spiritual strain. The most common theory behind measures of controlling stress revolves around love, regular rest and exercise. (Lazarus, 254) Arguably, money cannot buy these quantifiers.

The love for something influences one to fight and attain it. As Peck would put it, our love to achieve anything forces us to willingly focus and change the attitude through pain. Everything that happens to human beings is designed so to conceal what one loves, thus the need to overcome the obstacle.

There is significance in giving a legacy plan to people with a close relation to their obsessions, beside the personal treats. If capturing and delivering love is not possible, as it ought to be, then it looses it eminent value. In line with Lazarus, (254) Lack of internal expression and thought over someone or something causes an under-attraction thus leading to forgetfulness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Naturally, People forget something as a soon as they stop thinking about it. When one loves something /someone, all the love virtues are intrinsically achievable after one goes through some enduring amount of constructive suffering.

Personal perspective of love The secret to happiness would probably be falling in love especially with oneself. Love creates the feeling of having enough energy thus the probably that it is an inborn feature that does not require nurturing but has a feeling that lives within as long as a person keeps taking care of it.

People luck the love because of spending too much time looking for it elsewhere while it is close to them. The external world is made of parents, friends or even strangers and their failure to express love disappoints and causes devastation to someone. The opinion of others especially when negative or against one’s anticipation shatters the personal sense of self-esteem and love.

Everyone wants to feel loved and affectionate. This is almost certainly the true meaning of the peace in the mind. It affects the inner fear and doubts and thus people are able to communicate freely concerning any subject matter. Bestowing wisdom requires an open and free dialogue and that is the reason why children are encouraged to create good rapport with others. Lack of practice over the issue of love early in a person’s life causes an awkward and clumsy feeling thus affecting how one handles some of these affectionate sentiments.

The child’s development with respect to personality and character revolves about love shown or given by the parents. Those children lacking the feel of love experiences negligence and fall short of proper foundation to build character. They undergo deficient in strength for a progressive growth. This is the explanation to existence of enough scientific evidence or correlation regarding the fact that lack of love for the baby diminishes its chances for survival. (Lerner and Damon, 2)

Validation of love in relation to Perk Peck went into deeper details over the definition of love by arguing whether falling in love translates to “romantic love, dependency, self-sacrifice, or even a feeling.” According to him, it probably has something to do with “nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth”. (81) “Love is the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth… Love is as love does.

Love is an act of will namely, both an intention and an action”. Personal motivation also entails ones option, meaning that it is not necessary for people to love but they choose to love.

We will write a custom Research Paper on What Love Is and Why It Matters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is impossible for a person to be a friend to others unless they are a friend to themselves. Originally, this concept applies for the analysis of love as well. The secrecy of attracting admiration depends on ability to attract and respect the personal attributes. Loving in a legitimate manner may be equitable to a desire as opposed to emotional.

The personal decision to love enables one to decide on venturing into a commitment to love regardless of the present feeling in the inner self at that particular period. Conversely, the possibility for a person to shun the personal acts catalyzed by the inner feelings of love is eminent.

One should love others than desire for the same offer of love from them. This calls for the ability to give love to others before they can reciprocate the same aspect. In line with Carter, (10) Loving others first requires one to stretch out of their personal limits, to do what they never longed to. When one stretches to do what they initially thought they would never be able to achieve, they feel victorious over great weakness that existed at the status quo.

Opening ones heart to embrace anyone who comes by or the situation that arises is the best life transformation experience. It is also one of the most important and courageous measure one would take since it entails personal will. When one is expressing love to strangers, then they are taking motivation to be acquainted with a new territory.

According to McGraw, (107) the development of the wisdom and love from the heart is therefore courage, which makes a person bold to taking the right, necessary and honourable action even when it is temporary and uncomfortable. In line with Perk, (80) “We must be willing to fail and to appreciate the truth that often “Life is not a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be lived.””

In his writing of, “The road less travelled”, Perk portrays love as the willingness to extend offer of self-service to others with the aim of nurturing personal and spiritual growth.

According to Perk (81), “A genuine loving individual will often take love as a constructive action towards a person he or she consciously dislikes or lacks actual feeling of love towards. One may perhaps even find the person repugnant in some way.” If a person stops, extending their will to give because of a feeling of poor encouragement, then the loving stops.

This is because love shows that people share their similarities while celebrating their differences. When such kind of relationship fails to exist, then the love is non-existantent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on What Love Is and Why It Matters by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People grow financially, socially, mentally and spiritually when they stretch their limits to help others. It is quite often to face challenges or coincidental situations when still attending other’s chores. The obvious test for love comes when one is tired. When it is the last thing one would wish to do, that is when someone emerges with dreadful need for assistance. The person then is arm-twisted to make a choice on what to undertake next among the possibilities in existence.

Helping others at their most eminent time of need calls, for one to emerge from the comfort zone past the point of pain, but the consents come in handy thereafter. (McGraw, 107) When working under this strain or stress, the ability to persevere to a point of agility is evident and thus the next time one faces similar situations, then the undertaking becomes easier. This is a good indication that loves for performance depends on the ability to undertake a task in a smooth manner.

It is human nature for one to become accustomed to a challenge if they faced similar position earlier and conquered. This causes the feeling for a need to face a more advanced or different challenge. The wish for growth depends on the ability to tackle the challenges involved. By allowing a move beyond the arbitrary accepted limitations, the capacity for love extends. (Perk, 82)

Relationships are the anxious and notorious opportunities to stretch the limits to a next level. This is because the soul is always ready to receive or exceed the limits whenever an opportunity arises.

Consistent with Fisher’s writing, (128) the initiation of love for a stranger or new task involves some deep soul concentration concerning the unrealistic expectations. This attention in most cases calls for some malleability to accommodate the involved persons. Most experienced people will definitely indicate that love would rarely cause them to remain at one point.

It provides a different chance, way of life or routine. The philosophy of love indicates that one should not seek love or affectionate from very far. In most cases, there is someone right behind the door waiting to help. The actions associated with the heart or those concerning love are very strong practically regardless of whether the language is poetic or not

In his writing (230), Perk considers love as a natural driving force that exists behind spiritual augmentation. The writer consideration over the existence of romantic love probably provides a view indicating some misconceptions in today’s or future understanding. He considers the issue of romantic love as mythical.

On the current understandings, love blossoms as a very tender, beautiful touch, a concern regarding care and provides the only moment one can stand out beyond personal feelings to embrace others and feel part of the whole. Most of the time people feel the need to compel their needs as opposed to revealing them. Exposure of personal wounds and weaknesses enable one to be accommodative of others needs too.

The most important feature is the love that arises through this kind of sharing. According to Pecks, (230) analysis, natural love is concern with dependency whereby the truth of love does not entail falling in love but the act of expanding boundaries of one’s ego to accommodate others. True love does not put up with the issue of “falling in love” but the spiritual nurturing of others’ feelings therefore that kind of love requires an effort.

In his perspective of love, Perk, (85) writing of “The Road Less Travelled” show that Love is not a feeling but an investment or probably an important activity. In line with his definition of love, “it is the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth” (85). It is a prime action of nurturing them than just the spiritual growth.

In the writing of “The road less travelled,” Perk, (231) also seeks to address the issue of Cathexis (explanation behind attraction of the opposite sex and love). The attraction is not love but an instinct controlling one to behave in a caring manner such as, cuddling something that they like for instance their pets or kids.

The issue of true love does not survive in isolation. Attraction has to exist in a sufficient and close manner for a consideration of straightforwardness. Love begins after one completes the attraction phase. Therefore it is an action proceeded by another.

It consists of what one does to another. As Perk (231) indicates in “The Road Less Travelled” writing, “Love is as love does”. It is an offer to others of what they need for growth. One must truly know and understand what the other person needs, to be in a position to provide. This indicates the need for initializing at ‘cathexis’ phase.

The issue of loving especially true loving might appear complicated from these perspective. When someone designates their love, then it is not from their want or because they cannot be in a position to own what they claim to love. The issue has nothing to do with the person. People love others from what they do and how they try to undertake tasks. This occurs through the analysis of personality, character, motivation, ability or strength.

Doubtlessly, one need to have sighted the best and the worst of the person they admire. What they see also need to be well and clearly understood. Through openness, people are in a position to express who they are. Living an open-ended lifestyle provides chance for others to consider their offers and it does not require one to dedicate the whole truth. This exercised courage assists one to step out and fight fear.

From a personal point of view, love is certainly a mystery that forms its basis from nature. It is probably comparable to gravitational pull, an unstoppable force or a vast, invisible anxiety that connects things that are alike. People always long for love and wish to love events without any strong basis for their actions. When they find the love, then they awaken to it because it presents care and well wishes without an expectation or demand for any kind of remuneration.

This is a good indication that the well-being of the loved person is not different from the person who expresses that love. True love calls for one to be trustworthy and therefore the love expressed to others is an indication that there exists trust. This is also an indication that the person expressing it is confident and despite the type of outcome, the aspect of love can still exist.

The importance of love for the community is to unite lives, expand people’s thoughts especially about others, connect different people regardless of their origin, race or ethnical group, enhance their personal views and dignify them by nurturing the inner feelings.

Conclusion Love is a universal feeling experienced by everyone or every living being on the earth. The living being in this case is an indication that conceivably, love is not an attribute that is limited to human beings. It is a strange but unique emotional feeling that most likely has no certain definition one could use to describe it.

The characteristic of love revolves about an attached feeling whereby someone feels affectionate towards another or something else. The feeling is very strong and most certainly the reason why it forms a basis for discussion. The reason why people consider love is for the reason that it is a very important aspect in human life that satisfies human emotional needs.

Humans have the innate responsibility to offer and feel loved. The biological structure indicates that the feeling of love is responsible for the formation and maintenance of the societal development especially morally and socially. The birth of a child causes the parents to forget their urgent needs and divert all their attention to the newborn due to the strong feeling of love.

Love is therefore a great thriller or catalyst that enables people to achieve exigent tasks, which probably would remain unaccomplished if love never existed. “Love is an enigmatic emotion that exceeds all the boundaries to change people’s lives”. (Wallerstein, Judith and Sandra, 19)

The magnificence experience of love allows humans to express each other’s feelings with kindness and concern such that love can take a number of emotions. It is an ambiguous ubiquitous relation binding people together in different formats.

Love can be expressed in various ways including the “a passionate lover’s kiss, a tender mother’s touch, a fatherly concern or a brotherly, sisterly affection”. (Wallerstein, Judith and Sandra, 19) The sages have found out that everything and everyone has the ability to expresses love if they nurture their feelings.

Works Cited Carter, Kasey. M. “Loving Others: Faithful Crushers”, Juvenile fiction journal Tate Publishing, 2009, Vol 1, p 10, pp24

Fisher, Helen .E. “Why we love: the nature and chemistry of romantic love” H. Holt Publishers, 2004

Hurlock, Elizabeth. B. “Developmental psychology: a life-span approach” Tata McGraw-Hill, 2001

Lazarus, Richard. S. “Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis”. New York, Springer. 1999, pp.254

Lerner, Richard. M. and Damon, William. “Handbook of Child Psychology: Social, Emotional, and personality development: Volume 3 of Handbook of Child Psychology”, John Wiley and Sons publishers, 2006, pp 2

McGraw, Patricia Romano. “Seeking the Wisdom of the Heart: Reflection on the Seven Stages of Spiritual Development”. Baha’i Publishing Trust, 2007

Perk, Scott. M. “The Road Less Travelled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth”. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, Touchstone, 1978, pp.81, 116-117

Vacek, Edward Collins. “Love, Human and Divine: The Heart of Christian Ethics Moral Traditions and Moral Arguments Series” Georgetown University Press, 1996, pp 248

Wallerstein, Judith and Sandra, Blakeslee (1995), “The good marriage: How and Why love lasts”. Boston: Houghton Mifflin publishers


Managing Bipolar Disorder Report essay help free: essay help free

Bipolar disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disease characterized by range of elevated mood disorders often referred as mania. Depression commonly accompanies these mood disorders depending on the severity of the disorder. Bipolar spectrum, that is, the range of this disorder lies within three broad categories: bipolar II, cyclothymia, and bipolar I. this spectrum depends mainly on nature and asperity of the mood episodes that one goes through.

This disorder becomes full blown in the late adolescence or in some few cases, in early adulthood. Diagnosis relies on one’s experiences together with observable behaviors. Some of the abnormal episodes include distress, disruption, and increased rate of suicide among others. Causes of bipolar disorder include genetic factors and environmental factors, even though in some cases it is associated with positive accomplishments, creativity, and goal nisus.

Problems associated with this disorder include stigma, stereotypes, and preconception against victims of this disorder. Unfortunately, bipolar disorder in most cases is misdiagnosed as schizophrenia and this delays its appropriate management. The prevalence of bipolar disorder stands at 5 million people in America alone.

This implies that, in every 45 adults, one of them has bipolar disorder. It is difficult to diagnose this disorder because there are no specimen tests with diagnosis relying mainly on observation, and this elevates the probability of misdiagnosis as aforementioned.

There are different ways of managing this disorder including mood stabilizers among other psychiatric medications. Practices like psychotherapy find wide application especially in cases where individuals show improved stability in recovery. This paper deals with the different ways of managing bipolar disorder from treatment to any other measure employed towards the management of this disorder.

Bipolar Disorder Management Therapeutic Interventions Antidepressants


This is one of the most efficacious antidepressants and it acts by suppressing neuronal reuptake of nor-epinephrine or noradrenalin and dopamine. 1 Research indicates that, bupropion significantly reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety within the first weeks of its administration.

Apart from the short-term positive results, bupropion has long-term effects and this explains in part why the US opinion leaders have rated this drug highly in terms of bipolar management. 2 Even though this drug may precipitate mania, it is one of the best drugs of treating bipolar disorder and depression.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

As the name suggests, SSRIs promotes serotonin neurotransmission by suppressing neuronal 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) reuptake. 3 This inhibition leads to reduced depression and increases chances of sleep. SSRIs are widely used in developed countries albeit there is limited study on their efficacy. The shortcomings of these drugs include intolerance, development of mixed states and patient’s noncompliance.

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)

These drugs have short-term efficacy with the combination of lithium. TCA functions to reduce depression even though research work indicates that these drugs increase the probability of mania precipitation. 1 Nevertheless, TCA offers the best option in treating patients with ‘drug resistance’ symptoms.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

These drugs act to inhibit the work of enzyme monoamine oxidase and this reduces levels of depression and bipolar disorder. Research indicates that, MAOIs are the best drugs in treating anergic depression, which is common among bipolar disorder patients. 3

However, these drugs have inauspicious effects and dietary restrictions and this provides challenge to the administration of the same. Nevertheless, in combination of lithium, MAOIs function well and the dietary interactions are significantly reduced hence its common application in fourth–line treatments. 1

Mood Stabilizers

Mood stabilizers are compounds that will work to reduce anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder without major side effects. These are prophylactic agents, which are effective in all phases of sickness even though some substances that are effective at particular phases of sickness may fall under this category.


Lithium is one of the most effective prophylactic agents whether used alone or in combination of antidepressants like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It functions well in the long term taking over six weeks to yield antidepressant results. 1 Studies have strongly linked lithium with reduced suicide incidences and this property adds to its efficacy in treating bipolar disorder. However, just like any other compound, lithium has shortcomings including increased regress to mania and depression.


Even though there are limited studies of carbamazepine, the few existing one shows that this compound has antidepressant effect. 4 Unlike lithium, carbamazepine does not lead to relapse to mania and depression. However, the efficacy of this drug is modest at best. In combination with lithium, however, it works to treat acute bipolar syndrome. 2

We will write a custom Report on Managing Bipolar Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Valproate Semisodium (Divalproex Sodium)

This is valproic acid and exists as a sodium salt, as an amide or as semi sodium made by mixture of sodium valproate and valproic acid. 5 It functions through regulating γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. Its mood stabilizing effects results from its association with excitatory membranes. This is one of the commonly used mood stabilizers given that it has fewer side effects compared to the other mood stabilizers.


This mood stabilizer came into scene after it was found out that it would stabilize mood in epileptic victims. This then extended to bipolar disorder where this drug offers antidepressant effects. 1 Lamotrigine works in the short-term and has high efficacy due to its prophylactic characteristics. However, in some cases, individuals may develop serious skin rash with continued use of this drug. 1


This is newly modeled anticonvulsant compound based on GABA. 1 Even though there is little research to determine its efficacy through placebo-controlled experiments, earlier studies indicates that, it can be used as adjuvant with other depressants like tricyclic antidepressants. 1


Antipsychotics are gaining popularity especially after research indicated that combination of amitriptyline, which is an antidepressant and perphanazine, which is antipsychotic, showed high efficacy in treating bipolar disorder. 6 This combination had higher efficacy than any other drug used alone.

However, these combined drugs expose bipolar patients to high chances of tardive dyskinesia and sedation among other effects like obesity. 1 Most other antipsychotics and antidepressants can be used as add ups to mood stabilizers to manage bipolar disorder. 6

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

There has been wide application of ECT in treating both bipolar and unipolar disorders but there is no enough research on the efficacy and the dosage of the same. 1 However, there is evidence that ECT reduces the effects of bipolar disorder.

Psychological Intervention Given the fact that, bipolar disorder may result from both life experiences and environmental factors, it is important to note that, these same factors contribute largely to the recovery of a patient. 7 For instance, an individual may have high expectations in say examination, which may interfere with sleep/wake cycle due to serotonin imbalance.

These experiences increase mania relapses and may lead to depression. Therefore, social support is necessary in managing bipolar disorder. Studies indicate that victims of bipolar disorder are likely to recover quickly under the care of family members or psychologists. 7 Home-based treatments establish coherent daily routines and caretaking that enhances the chances of quick recovery.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Bipolar Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Psycho Education

Psycho education offers information on bipolar disorder and arms patient with adequate information on how to cope with the illness and manage it successfully. 8 Family members also know how to handle a bipolar disorder patient and this process results to effective management of the same.

The information comes inform of video tapes, workbooks, or drafts that help to develop personal relapse prevention strategy. 7 Studies strongly link psycho education to improved recovery processes as it changes patient’s attitude and he or she complies with medication regiments, thus resulting to improved recovery.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

The framework of cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on alleviating psychological problems that lead to mania and depression. 7 Its main purpose is to address cognitive, behavioral and changes that lead to depression or relapse to mania. This strategy helps an individual to halt any further progress of the disorder as medication takes effect.

Through cognitive-behavioral therapies, an individual becomes aware of bipolar disorder symptoms and it becomes easy to deal with the symptoms as they arise. It also arms individual with the necessary techniques to face and handle stress-causing situations like strained relationships and financial stresses among other issues that lead to stress and depression. 7

Family-Focused Therapy

This form of therapy entails psycho education, problem-solving acquirements, and communication skills that help the family to handle bipolar disorder effectively. It helps families to come up with structures that checks mania relapses together with compliance to medical regiments. 8

This prepares family members to anticipate future relapses, creates awareness on how to reduce incidences that lead to relapses, and establishes a strong relationship between patient and the family, a factor that leads to reduced relapses. 7 Fundamentally, family-focused therapies act as adjuvant to medication. Moreover, home-based care offers a better recovery option compared to hospitalization.

Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy

Under the contexts of “unstable or disrupted daily routines lead to circadian instability and affective episodes in vulnerable individuals”, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy came to being. 9 This therapy seeks to rectify noncompliance to medication, stressful life occurrences, and social rhythm disruptions. 7

Through the combination of these three rectifying methods, an individual stands high chances of mania recovery together with reduced chances of relapse. To counter stressful incidences, patients are required to maintain veritable sleep/wake cycles to maintain serotonin levels hence reduced chances of relapse. 9

They are also advised to engage in practices that lead to social stimulation that would result to mood stabilization. This therapy is more of counseling starting with pinpointing the cardinal interpersonal problem; setting targets to counter the identified problem; laying down plans to accomplish the set targets, and finally developing management strategies that would effect the laid down plans. 7

Personal Developments

Despite the fact that bipolar disorder management relies on medication and counseling, there is important role that an individual can play to ensure quick recovery and relapse prevention. A deep-set free will to overcome this disorder goes way beyond medication in the recovery process.

Individuals should have hope; that, all is going to be well. 7 This entails a strong conviction that one can cope and overcome his or her condition. Persistence and patience plays a major role towards recovery. Patients ought to understand that the way to recovery is long and there are no cutoffs. Patients need to develop self-discipline coupled with self-advocacy and this combination will enable someone to live a full life void of worry and anxiety; a factor that reduces relapses with a great margin. 7

Patients also ought to learn more about this disorder and this helps to acquire better management skills. It is important to note that self-efforts towards recovery will work in concert with all other strategies to ensure quick and effective recovery together with relapse prevention. 7

Conclusion Bipolar disorder may be a devastating condition to not only patients, but also family members. Given its complex nature and limited research on the subject, this disorder remains a big challenge to professionals that are involved in the management of the same. However, there have been tremendous efforts to manage this disorder through medication, psychotherapy, and personal developments among other strategies.

There is assortment of drugs used in managing bipolar disorder with some working as antidepressants, mood stabilizers, or antipsychotics to reduce the effects of this disorder. On the other hand, psychotherapy entails psycho education among other varieties of therapies, which act as adjuvant to medications. Psychotherapy mostly entails practices that would result to reduced relapses together with preventing progress of mania and depression alike.

It is unfortunate that people with this disorder stand high chances of divorce and social isolation among other factors that lead to disruption of normal life. Nevertheless, with proper medication and the right attitude, individuals can manage to live relatively normal lives. There is hope.

End Notes Gin, Malhi, Philip, Mitchell, and Shahzad, Salim. “Bipolar Depression Management Options.” 2003. 17 (3); 9-25

Haykal Roef, and Akiskal Harnt. “Bupropion as a Promising Approach to Rapid Cycling Bipolar 2 patients.” 1990. 51:450-5

Montgomery, Scott. “Efficacy in Long-Term Treatment of Depression,” 1996. J Clin Psychiatry; 57: 24-30

Ballenger, John, and Post, Roxanne. “Carbamazepine in Manic-Depressive Illness: A New Treatment.” 1980. Am J Psychiatry, 137: 782-90

Calabrese, Jael, Markovitz, Potz, and Kimmel, Susan. “Spectrum of Efficacy Of Valproate in 78 Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Patients.” 1992. J Clin Psychopharmacology, 12: 538-68

Parker, George, and Malhi, Ghal. “Are Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Also Atypical Antidepressants?” 2001. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 35 (5): 631-8

Steinkuller, Andrea, and Rheineck, Jane. “A Review of Evidence-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Bipolar Disorder. 2009. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 31 (4): 338-50

Morris, Col, Miklowitz, Dowtz, and Waxmonsky, Jared. “Family-Focused Treatment for Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Youth.” 2009. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 63, 433-45

Zaretsky, Aely, Rizvi, Suel, and Parikh, Shik. “How Well Do Psychosocial Interventions Work In Bipolar Disorder?” 2007. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 52, 14-21


Ways of Childcare and Protection Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Benefits of the care centres

Childcare transition


Works Cited

Earlier it was evident that very little that could be done over childcare and protection especially against disasters. It is important for one to consider ways of placing measures of protecting children against adversity. Today the childcare centres have taken eminent measures to control some common injuries and damages especially those caused by catastrophes.

The current generation comprise of majority of people who are spending most part of the early childhood development in out-of-home care facilities where the caregivers seem to have or provide eminent meaningful love, stability, security and stimulated relationships.

This might be the reason why the day-care centres whose mission is to protect children and give them proper care are considered as more safe and preferable than majority of the homes. According to Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen people ought to question what they know with regard to childcare (172).

The care is valued as very important like many basic types of equipment in the home setting such as automobiles, but although not rateable in monitory terms, contradictory, the parental care is infinitely the hardest thing to find and purchase.

Benefits of the care centres The question many parents should be asking themselves should be an analysis of whether this trend of transition on childcare represents advancement or is a setback. It might be beneficial for today’s parents but quite a setback or tomorrow’s generation and thus the need for analysis.

There are a lot of opportunities as well as risks involved in early childhood care transition as provide by the care centres. In line with Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (87), the children from the care centres seem to do intellectually better than those who stay put accustomed to their home settings. The children centres provide better verbal, memory and comprehension guidance making the child to be in a position to identify people’s feelings or point of view.

Some research studies have also implicated the childcare centre. It indicate that this children have less respect over rules, demands or mother’s/caregiver’s requests compared to their counterparts in the home setting. (Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen, 90) These children are less polite, respectful, agreeable and compliant to regulations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Childcare entails converting these negative traits to respectable social behaviours. According to the argument placed regarding the childcare centres, the children probably gunner good social skills but become bossy. They may learn to be friendly and outgoing but aggressive and rude.

Facetiously, suggestions are that these children become successful in future but not the friendly bosses or chief executive officers. It is as if the care centres promotes the social advancements on some children and lead to social or behavioural problems in others.

Childcare transition The bringing up of children today is very different in various economically advanced countries. The care of very young children was predominantly a private activity but today to a significant degree, it involves government or private enterprises. Children are now spending most of their childhood life in childcare centres and this raises the concerns over the effects.

In line with Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen, (99) there is no enough proof over the effects of daycares on the behaviours of the child especially its future. Therefore, the claims of future detrimental effects remain tentative without compelling evidence until further research proves otherwise.

The researches carried out indicate that boys taken to the day care centres become more sociable than those at home do. The girls at day care centres do well in “anatomy, problem solving and belligerence” therefore; the care centres do not eliminate the dissimilarities between sexes.

Other differences are notable in early childcare centres such as venerability of boys to the environmental factors and events compared to the resilience of the girls. Many would pose the question of weather “Boys are worse off than girls when under childcare; the answer is a weak ‘maybe.’” Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (102)

The family background setting might be the only influence over the advantage children may have in their future lives. The sensitivity depends on the development of the brain. This influence may be limited to the relationship with the caretaker or the role love plays in development of intellect and emotion.

We will write a custom Report on Ways of Childcare and Protection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Debatably, the development of the child’s brain depends on the fostering provided at the centre as well as their ability to have a sense of agency. This architectural development of the brain is disreputable if the child faces stress and probably this calls for the family member care to dealing with the stress.

These aspects may form the foundation over the importance of the child having enough early interactions with the family members especially the parents. “Good-quality care may serve as a protective factor for children from disadvantaged backgrounds, but its effects are not inevitable, nor do they wipe out family disadvantage.” Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (161) The advancement of technology is now providing the researchers with eminent tools for gathering and analyzing details in a more conclusive conviction.

Conclusion Parents are however expressing concern over the tension created by effects of childcare. Although the effects are yet to get proper basis through excellent research, the worry is evident. The researchers have the important role of communicating positive aspects of the care centres other than speculative effects.

They should also encourage the parental home care for the even development of the child. The parents should feel that their children are doing well at the off-the-house care units, and thus it becomes a positive benefit for both of them.

The care centres should empower parents and encourage them to inspect the early childhood care centres to ensure they feel comfortable over the facilities’ safety, accurateness as well as the educational perspectives.

“Parents should appreciate that the quality of a child’s home life is still likely to be the most important factor in his or her development, even for the children who spend many hours in childcare each week.” Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (165)

Works Cited Clarke-Stewart, Alison, and Allhusen, Virginia. D. “What We Know About Childcare”, (New Ed), Harvard University Press, 2005


Transracial and International Adoptions Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Anthropology and adoption

Adoptee challenges relative to birth parents


Teenage pregnancy


Work risk

Terrorism and extremism


In many societies, children have the privilege of growing up with either both or one of their birth parents present. Therefore, the perception of adoption is that of a family with fragile ties, for the adopted child is not from the family’s bloodline.

Transracial and international adoptions are superlatively more precarious due to the fact that physical attributes, cultural and ethnical inclinations coincide to tell the difference between foster parents and their adopted children. That is why both the parties involved in the adoption process stand to loose during its progression.

The biological parents loose their child while the foster parents loose a chance to conceive and leave their own heritage. The adopted child looses even more in terms of lineage, culture and behavioral traits. This causes the adoptees to undergo painful psychological adjustments while they try to place themselves in their adoptive family.

On the other hand, Oceanic and Eskimo societies have a very casual approach to adoption unlike most western societies and to them adopting a child needs not be a legally frustrating process. In Hawaii for example, the preceding ruler, Queen Luliuokalani was an adopted child and the documented process of her adoption was very simple in that her biological mother just gave her to the administrating chief who adopted her.

This form of adoption was and is quite popular with the chiefs and it sends a message of unity and accordance to society. More civilized societies like America only apply for adoption in moments of crisis, contravening the Oceanic method of adoption that is a lucid selfless act of love and compassion.

These societies treat adoption as a social obligation, and it is deeply entrenched into their culture. These close-knit societies offer an advantage to the biological parents of the adoptee for they can still monitor their child’s progress and consequently maintain the bonds between the parent and the child. An Adoptee can be moved from parent to parent for a short or long periods depending on the prevailing circumstances of the biological parents.

Anthropology and adoption The management of adoption in anthropological prose brings about sagacity that the notion has already been resolved. Anthropologists err in obliging this notion on others rather than embrace examination thus amplify the criterion of study. The indenture of a child is considered as an aspect of affiliation due to demographic conditions rather than a major social and cultural event.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This disregard points out the conventional approach in analysis taken by anthropologists. This is reflected back into society especially in the western world, which views adoptees as predestined persons who fall between the kin and non-kin dimensions.

Such presumption are however not worldwide and other distinct societies view kinship as a special connection with a child either by feeding or spending time with it and a child is perceived to be born to and of society. Therefore, kinship is attributed to the fostering society and the environment a child grows up in, as a result kinship is considered designated rather than definite.

The study of adoption is hence crucial to anthropologists not only as a means to devise biological links, but also a way to discover the importance and inference of certain facets of culture that affect ethnicity, family and individual and hence influence human nature, human character and human behavior.

Adoptee challenges relative to birth parents Conversely, adoptees in both western and isolated societies need to be shielded from harm. The essential motive of adoption is to form a stable and safe environment for a child to grow in so as to achieve its potentials determined by the consenting parties involved. One factor that is keenly observed is the ability of a parent to properly raise a child and the influence the parent has on this child.

Western societies have witnessed an expanding generation of younger parents who are prone to irresponsibility and unsociable behavior. Such parents would obviously provide a degraded setting for their child to grow up in and consequently negatively affecting the child’s growth and development.

Civilized societies have mechanisms in place that extract the child from any harmful setting and it has also been discovered that indigenous societies also had social structures that were responsible for the welfare of any child born to that society. After being born, the child is placed in foster care and the biological parents might still be allowed to visit and engage with the adoptee, and this kind of adoption is referred to as open adoption.

However, there are particular instances that may forbid a child from accessing information regarding his or her biological parents and this kind of adoption is known as closed adoptions, even though they are quite seldom. Discussed below are some of the reasons why a child’s rights to find his or her biological parents may be revoked either by the government or the foster parents;

We will write a custom Research Paper on Transracial and International Adoptions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Addiction If a biological parent happen to be of a negative influence to the adoptee is the first factor. The circumstances surrounding the extraction of a child from his biological parents’ home may vary, but of interest is; are the parents responsible for negligence. Some biological parents might be drug addicts or alcoholics and such kinds of parents are basically suspected of having a poor moral compass.

An adoptee would be highly discouraged or forbidden from interacting or even finding out about them for their union would more often than not lead the young child into the realms of drugs or alcohol. Children tend to relate more with what their parents do and a connection with parents who have a destructive personality might lead that child down that same road.

Teenage pregnancy You may also encounter young parents who gave birth in their teens and were unable or unwilling to support the child and still hold onto that mentality. Teenage pregnancies have been on the rise since mid 20th century and young mothers who are courageous enough not to have an abortion often end up giving up the child for adoption for their own subjective reasons.

Others may find taking care of a child is a huge burden especially when coupled with school and other personal ambitions. By the time the child is grown up and ready to face his or her biological parents the then young biological parents would most likely have gone and started a more stable life and the adoptee being only a faint memory. This means that to allow a child to meet up with such biological parents would be setting them up for disappointment and emotional torment.

Crime Hardcore criminals like rapists, murderers and robbers are generally not good role models. If adoptive parents or the adopting agency is aware of their criminal record, it is unlikely that a child would be allowed to find them. Psychologists believe that biological parents, especially mothers have a tremendous influence on their children and they link this to the vibrations of the mother’s voice that reach a baby while still in the womb.

Studies have shown that the mother’s tone is firmly etched into the child’s brain during fetal development and as such, the mother’s voice continue to have command over a person even when they are separated for a long time. If for example a mother has criminal traits and conveys them to the child as they speak, chances are that gradually the child will imprint these words and begin to manifest criminal behavior.

Work risk Biological parents may also be forced to give up their children for adoption due to the nature of their work. Absentee parents that are travelling almost every day of the week or officers who go undercover for several months or years are less likely to provide stability or emotional comfort that a child needs. They may also lack the option of leaving a child with relatives and so eventually decide to give it up for adoption.

Foster parents can therefore revoke the right of that child to find his or her biological parents because introducing them to his or her life could only bring chaos and confusion to the child, destabilizing his or her emotional balance. This could be reflected in poor grades in school, sudden outbursts of violence or a child may even turn suicidal.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Transracial and International Adoptions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the case of undercover police officers or high profile criminal lawyers, criminals may discover the person’s connection to the adopted child and may end up kidnapping him or her to use the child as leverage to avoid either arrest or prosecution. This inevitably brings grief to the foster family and so foresight is applied by barring the child from finding out his or her biological parents.

Terrorism and extremism Parents suspected of being terrorists or religious extremists may also be a cause for revocation of an adopted child’s rights in finding his or her birth parents. Terrorists are well known to have the inclination to use close family members to carry out acts of terror.

This can be one of the consequences if the adopted child is allowed to find his or her birth parents. Religious extremists on the other hand could be responsible of instilling propaganda and antisocial ideology into an innocent child. Children born of such parents may be forbidden from accessing them or any information about them for the sake of their psychological and emotional stability.

Abuse Another reason that would lead to barring of an adopted child from finding out about his or her birth parents is violent and abusive conduct of the biological parents. It is possible that the child was being abused from a very tender age by either of the parents before he or she was extracted and put up for adoption. If this is the case, it is highly unlikely that the child would be allowed to find his or her birth parents.

It has been scientifically proven that bad memories tend to linger in the subconscious, and a familiar sight like of the parent or smell of their perfume could act as a trigger allowing a wave of abusive memories to flood the child’s mind. This could gradually or immediately change a child’s behavior to one that is withdrawn and this can take time and a lot of expensive counseling to cure.


Poe’s life and how it influenced his work Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Born in 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts, Edgar Allen Poe was indeed one of the establishers of fictional mystery writing. He is considered the adherent founder of detective story writing, a leading designer of the science fiction genre and also the master in macabre anecdotes.

In his halcyon days, he was critically acclaimed as one of the top brass poets to hail his generation and though an American by birth, his reputation was colossal away from home in England and France. It is only after the legislative body of the Lovecraft school and French-influenced writers like Robert W. Chambers publicized his work, that America took interest of this prose intellect.

Early childhood Edgar Allan Poe together with two of his siblings, were born into a family headed by parents who were peripatetic actors. After their father’s desertion and their mother’s demise due to consumption- now known as tuberculosis in 1811, a Richmond businessman John Allan together with his wife Frances Allan took up the responsibility of caring for the then young Edgar.

Though they never formally adopted him, they gave him the name ‘Allen’ and had him baptized in 1812. In 1815, the family travelled to John Allen’s birthplace in, Irvine Scotland where Poe attended grammar school and while there, puzzled his teacher by reciting passages of English poetry and writing what was considered genuine poetry. He was later enrolled into the Reverend John Bransby’s Manor House School at Stoke Newington, which later became the setting for his story ‘William Wilson’. (Benton 56).

Youth The families moved back to Virginia in 1820 and in 1826, Poe become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster while attending one-year language classes in the University of Virginia in 1826-1827. During his time there, Poe’s engagement to Royster was broken off by her family and he also became estranged from his foster father after he refused to cater for Poe’s gambling debts (Benton 18).

While there he composed some tales, however his novice works were not recognized and little is known of them. Poe dropped out of the university after a year and traveled to Boston in April 1827, supporting himself with unusual jobs such as a clerk and newspaper writer under the pseudonym Henri Le Rennet (Krainik 6).

Writing career Poe went to live at his aunt Clemm’s Baltimore home in 1831after 3 years in the military, and shortly afterwards published Poems by Edgar Allan Poe and also started placing short stories in magazines, one of which titled “MS. Found in a Bottle,” won him a $50 prize in1833. In 1836 Poe married his 13-year-old cousin Virginia Clemm, daughter to his aunt Mrs. Maria Clemm (Weekes 124).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This became a turning point in his life for he begun a career as a writer in the Southern Literary Messenger (Krainik 12). In 1837, he lost his job due to excessive drinking and he moved to New York, where he published “The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym” in 1838. This led him to Philadelphia, where he worked as coeditor of the Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine, giving some of his best fiction like “The Fall of the House of Usher.”

In 1840, he published “Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque”, which turned out to be quite popular due to its gothic essence and with him in the limelight. Poe left for the fictional editorship job offered by “Graham’s Magazine” in 1841 but left a year later.

1843 saw him publish “The Murders in the Rue Morgue, The Man That Was Used Up and The Gold Bug”, for which he received a $100 prize for, from a Philadelphia newspaper (Ostrom 33). In 1844, Poe got a job in the “New York Mirror”, which he held onto until 1845 publishing the famous poem “The Raven”, until he switched to the editorship job offered by the Broadway Journal, where he published two volumes of “The Raven and Other Poems and Tales”.

The raven Edgar Allen Poe was among the first writers who attempted to make a living out of writing albeit all the hardships he experienced. The Raven was published in 1845 while Poe was still writing for the New York Mirror.

Stanza 1-6

The narrator is tired and weak but still awake in the wee hours of morning reading an ancient book of knowledge. Just when he is about to fall asleep, he is startled by the sound of what he assumes is a visitor knocking. He opens the door to find no one there and starts having disturbing thoughts only for the word Lenore to pass through his mind. He goes back to bed only to hear a louder noise, this time from his room’s window.

Stanza 7-12

He opens the shatters only for a raven to fly in. the raven is rather scruffy in appearance but its presence brings some comical relief to the narrator. He feels privileged to have such a creature in his room and the fact that the raven answers his question of what its name is with the word “Nevermore”, adds to his excitement. He concludes that the raven must have been owned by a disaster prone master, who used the words “nevermore” so often that the raven had them etched into its soul.

Stanza 13-18

Now occupied with the raven, he senses the air has became denser and can smell perfume aroma that makes him think the raven could be Lenore. He suspects the bird is a prophet but accuses it of being evil, but nevertheless a prophet. He begs God to bequeath him with Lenore, but the raven replies “nevermore”. He gets irked by this and chases the bird away but the raven is unshaken and now assumes a kind of demonic demeanor as the narrators hopes are crushed by the raven.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Poe’s life and how it influenced his work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Raven was non-didactic poem that has numerous occurrences of alliteration, internal rhyme, repetition, imagery, refrain and hints of onomatopoeia. Written in narrative speech, it begins on a rather depressing note; with the narrator “weak” and “weary”. Alliteration is used here to stress the disposition of Edgar Allen Poe as he wrote this poem.

This was at a time when his wife was unsound from a ruptured blood vessel and had contacted tuberculosis. He is yearning for companionship and more so love and going to open the door in the dead of night to show his desperation. His fixation on Lenore is metaphorical thus Lenore is seemingly the ideal woman he has in mind. The poem is reflective of Poe himself who appears to have sought solace in the Bible during hard times as depicted in referring to it as an ancient book of knowledge.

The alleged knock on the door might have been used to identify with his first love Sarah Elmira Royster, to whom he was engaged to while in the University of Virginia in 1826. He reasons that his engagement was rushed and it is symbolized in the poem by the narrator gathering courage and going to open the door at night expecting a visitor at the sound that is obviously not a knock.

The sound itself could be the urgency in which he felt in finding love and the darkness depicting his “blindness” to love at the time. Opening the door and finding no one might mean the desolation he felt when he lost touch with his first love Royster, whom he later realized was married after he dropped out from the University of Virginia in 1827 and hence the whispered word, “Lenore?” meaning where is my ideal woman? (Weekes 22).

In my opinion, the raven is used here to depict his dying wife Virginia Clemm due to a few reasons. First is the loudness of the tapping of the window lattice, which might have been used to describe his exigency to find his ideal woman, Lenore.

The raven flying in through the window could have been used to represent their unconventional form of marriage, taking into account that Virginia was in fact his cousin. Secondly, he smells perfume in the dense air when engaging the raven, the perfume depicting impressions of love he might have been feeling for her.

He later vehement denies the thought that the raven could be Lenore, meaning his affection for his wife was superficial and their union only of convenience. Thirdly, Virginia was a lot younger than him and was still in her teens when he married her. His metaphorical use of a raven that spoke could have been used to mean how limited he thought her intelligence was and how he further thought she had a negative attitude portrayed in the word “nevermore”.

This attitude might have been instilled by her mother who he refers to as the raven’s master, because she most likely had a lot of predicaments through out her life. One is also inclined to think that Virginia mostly wore dark clothes and had shaved her head leading to the comparison with the raven, (Krainik 14).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Poe’s life and how it influenced his work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His expression when the raven first enters his chamber is one of comical delight. He is amused by raven’s facade and adjusts himself on his velvet seat in order to engage the bird. He then discloses that he won’t be surprised when the raven leaves in the morning as other friend have done that before and his hopes have previously flown away. This is quite a powerful choice of words because it shows the disenchantment Poe had regarding lovers and hopes.

Prior to writing this poem, Poe had on several accounts lost his jobs in among others, the Southern Literary Messenger, Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine and the military. He had also written several books, none of which was recognized. To add on to this, he had lost his first love and had been disowned by his foster father who could have left him a sizable inheritance, depicting a man who was accustomed to loosing.

None better support this than the questions he asks the raven, well knowing the answer will be “nevermore”; is there balm in Gilead? …, shall I clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore? (Benton 56).

His attempt to chase away the raven to no avail seems to suggest that Poe had tried to part ways with his wife to no avail. The crow strategically perching above the chamber door seems to imply the wife was dominant or her family had influence over him.

The final stanza is of a particular interest because it seems to imply his wife’s condition had deteriorated and she was either semi-lucid or in a comatose state hence the connotation that the raven’s eyes looked like a demon that is dreaming. Poe ends this poem with the felling of exasperation and despondency trying to imply that there is a connection between him and the raven’s shadow.

The shadow could have meant the looming death of his wife. He could therefore have come to the conclusion that he will never have any real chance of finding love thus …” And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor shall be lifted — nevermore!”

Work Cited Benton, Roberts. “Friends and Enemies: Women in the Life of Edgar Allan Poe”. Works of Poe. June 2 1999. Web.

Krainik, Cumins. “The Sir Moses Ezekiel Statue of Edgar Allan Poe”. Baltimore. April 2 2007.Web.

Ostrom, Johnson. “Poe’s Literary Labors and Rewards”. Poe’s Work. Feb 5 2001.Web.

Weekes, Krutz. “Poe’s Feminine Ideal”. Literature review. Nov 16 2003.Web.


Approaches to Human Illness from a Biomedical Anthropology Perspective Analytical Essay custom essay help

Interest in health issues has characterized human reflection and endeavor since early civilization. Thoughts of ill health likely characterized the life of prehistoric man as he went about his daily chores of hunting and gathering. The search for means to stop the functional losses allied to ill health continues today.

It is with this understanding that Nguyen