Week 1: Definition and Meaning of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the act of starting or reviving new or existing business in order to capitalize on new and emerging opportunities in the business industry. An entrepreneur is a person who owns a business venture or a firm and is in-charge of its development (Nielsen
Challenges within Transportation and Logistics Management and Viable Solutions to These Problems Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction Execution of Transportation and Logistics Management operations in the global market consist of many challenges that affect a firm’s ability to operate efficiently and cost effectively.
Conversely, each of these challenges possess solutions that could potentially minimize situations that could prove detrimental to a Transportation or Logistics Management firm’s ability to maintain a certain level of service at an acceptable level of cost.
These challenges and solutions can vary based off variables in the world and the firm’s ability to adjust to them.
Challenges facing transportation management Terrorism
The rise in terrorism has had impacts on nearly all forms of transportation. But maritime and air transport have been the worst hit.
The events of Tuesday 11 September 2001 are not the earliest instances of terrorism to affect transportation. During the early 19th century, Mediterranean pirates from North Africa Barber states captured merchant ships and terrorized their crews.
Ships were held in exchange for ransom. What followed has been a long protracted war pitting governments and sea pirates. In the past few decades, piracy has more than tripled in the coasts of the lawless Somalia, Nigeria and along the Malaccan straits.
Today’s pirates are not merely armed men, they are often trained fighters using state of the art weapons and speedboats and equipped with the most modern satellite phones and GPS gadgets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Piracy today is not as simple as that of the yester years. Political agendas and ideologies are playing part making shipping a very costly endeavor.
Figure1. Shows vessel attacks in 2010
Piracy has direct economic costs on doing business. Delay in delivery of goods tops the rank. However, the costs of ransom have the highest financial implications on transportation.
In November 2010, owners of Samho Dream, a South Korean Tanker paid a total of $9.5 to Somali pirates in order to release the ship and its crew.
Figure 2.Table showing the cost of Somali piracy ransoms in the last two years
Figure 3. Cost of excess Insurance Premiums from transiting around the horn of AfricaThe cost of insurance (war risk, kidnap and ransom, cargo and hull) has increased making the cost of doing business more than triple.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Challenges within Transportation and Logistics Management and Viable Solutions to These Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conversely, the price of imported good could rise by 10% in the near future.The worst hit region in the world is east Africa and especially Kenya. Cost of doing trade in this region is very high with the Kenya Shipping Council estimating that piracy by the Somali increases the cost of import by up to $9.8 million per month.
Solutions to maritime terrorismFigure 4. Macroeconomic costs to selected countries per year
The private sector has no capacity to eradicate maritime terrorism. Nations must be willing to work together and help each other eliminate this evil. Transportation agencies should consider the following measures;
Convoys: This strategy was especially applied during the World War II in North Atlantic Ocean against German U-boats. Shippers realized that their security lay in numbers if they were to survive piracy attacks. This trick is applicable but modern shippers argue that maintaining uniform speed will be costly.
Variance: shippers vary their routines as much as possible in the hope of avoiding piracy. However, merchants find that varying schedules is at times difficult as they have to strict deadlines. The best thing that the transport are doing is removing the time and date from their cruises. This information is often available all over the internet thus endangering ships.
Shifting cargo: To avoid possible piracy attacks, shippers have come up with a strategy where they change the cargo aboard to items less attractive to pirates. Such a move has been applied by banks in Nigeria which had branches in an island. The bank now maintains electronic transaction and has thwarted an otherwise challenge that almost drove it out of business.
Offensive measures: Many shippers have equipped their vessels with measures to combat pirate attacks. Some of these measures include the Long-Range Acoustic Device (LRAD). LRAD is capable of producing sirens that force terrorists whose ears are not protected to back off giving ships time to gain speed. The Inventus UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is a state-of-the-art surveillance system that’s capable of flying for long distances over water and sends photos to a ground station. This ensures real-time aerial surveillance and has been successful in thwarting maritime attacks in several cases.
Secure-ship: This is a non-lethal electric fence that surrounds the whole ship. This special fence is supplied with a 9000-volt pulse that discourages boarding attempts.
Increased costs, familiarization of international shipping policies, and coordination of intermodal transportation assets
Modern market forces, environmental concerns, sky rocketing fuel prices, and terrorism are causing the increase in cost in transportation for the maritime, air, rail, and motor. Increased costs are transferred to consumers and this is likely to result in economic problems (Konings, Priemus
The Scientific Revolution Essay essay help free: essay help free
The Scientific Revolution reveals a history of development of science that has gradually transformed the views of people on nature and society. Traditionally, the scientific revolution dates back to the eighteenth century, the advent of the Renaissance epoch.
However, ancient Greece was the pioneer in developing science. In particular, the emergence of philosophy as a progenitor of other sciences emerged in Green has given rise to many other disciplines.
In general, scientific revolution can be presented through three historic views on science, including classical, medieval, and modern.
All these periods involve significant contradictions, frictions and challenges that contributed to the modern image of science.
The supporters of humanistic theory agree with the ideas of great influence of people on the development of science. Therefore, all the identified periods represent important historical figures that invested into the scientific progress.
Specific attention should be given to considering such great minds as Plato, the brightest representative of the Hellenic world, Augustine and Aquinas, Copernicus, Kepler, and Cicero.
The representatives of this period is distinguished by logic character of thought that is engaged intensely in deliberations such important questions as life and death, as well as by negligence of conventional virtues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The medieval period was the hardest for the development of science because of the strict restriction imposed on developing humanitarian disciplines. The Church marked the decline of secular thought that was confined to recognizing Jesus and divine rule.
Therefore, science was highly neglected in society because of increased dominance of religious scriptures. Moreover, religion denied scientific advances because of the threat of increased attention to scientific documents and discoveries that withdraw divine doctrine.
According to Tarnas, “the resurrection Christ brought to mankind was present in the Church” and, therefore, each human being should be attached to the divine doctrines (148). Dependence on the church had created a serious obstacle science because of recognition of biblical history and knowledge only.
Spiritual authority of the church dominated significantly and required full obedience from Church members. The necessity to follow religious tradition was explained by the formalization of rules and established of strict norms in educational and social spheres.
In other words, those people who indulge into studies science were regarded as the one withdrawing divine laws.
The emergence of the Western culture has given rise to the development of new directions of scientific development that differ substantially from the doctrines and rituals previously established in the Church.
Medieval thinkers became obsessed with new options for the evolution of human civilizations. At the end of eighteen century, the era of Renaissance marked the continuation of the philosophical thought of Greek period.
We will write a custom Essay on The Scientific Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In particular, the Aristotelian natural philosophy received further progress in the advances introduced by Copernicus, the scientific thought related to heliocentric theory of astronomical model of the Solar system, as well as the position of Earth in it.
Heliocentrism opposed significantly to medieval thought about the geocentric theory of Earth system. Limited vision on science, therefore, prevented the medieval thinker to introduce new concepts and frameworks.
The period of revival of Greek philosophy dates back to the sixteenth century, which is also marked by Copernican Revolution. Further scientific progress was introduced through the work of Johannes Kepler who presented the model of elliptical orbits.
The given period is represented as the second revival of the Scientific revolution after the period of educational “darkness”.
In general, the Copernicus Revolution was both the contributor to the development of the era of Enlightenment, as well as the mark of the scientific evolution in various academic fields.
The era of Renaissance had a potent impact on the shifts in religious views on the world. At the same time, religion itself made significant contributions to the development of science and education.
In particular, classical knowledge transmission was due to the contributions made by Byzantine science that transferred their experience to the Renaissance Italy and Islamic countries. Arabic knowledge also spread over the European countries.
In fact, the Christian world has left rich heritage to the Islamic world and provided a foundation for the development of new sciences. Tarnas writes, “…classical civilization had been snuffed out in the West, its great works and ideas left to the Byzantines and later the Moslems to be preserved as in museum” (90).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Scientific Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this respect, the religion served as a driving force to spread of scientific knowledge and experience all over the world. Interaction between Islamic and Byzantine culture also gave rise to the emergence of various discipline and formation of secular thought.
In conclusion, the Scientific Revolution is a sophisticated ongoing process that underwent several complex stages. Its beginning takes root in the Greek philosophy, faces challenges in the medieval period, and experiences rise in the era of Enlightenment.
All of these periods contributed greatly to the development of new scientific theories and concepts. Although religion reflects antagonistic vision on science, it still provided scientific world with a solid foundation for further evolution, as well as introduced basic for revival of classical thought.
Works Cited Tarnas, Richard, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas that Have Shaped Our World View. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993 Print.
The Atlantic Slave Trade Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction/Thesis statement
The author’s criticism of the historiography
The evidence that the author uses to support their argument
Ways in which the chapters of the book relate to the thesis
Criticism of the author’s work
Introduction/Thesis statement Atlantic slave trade began in 1444 and it led to the massive movement of the African slaves to the western nations with the sole aim of providing cheap labor. The movement of slaves from Africa is termed as one of the major migrations to have happened in human history.
The Africans were forcefully moved to the western hemisphere and in addition, these slaves were looked down upon as inferior. The Atlantic slave trade had a significant impact on Africa as well as the United States of America.
The Africa Continent was deprived manpower whereas the United States of America was able to boost its economic growth due to the presence of cheap labor.
Due to revolution in the Dutch Republic, many citizens entered into the slave trade, which is mainly considered to have been as a result of accident rather than by design.
This paper will therefore seek to review Postma’s book: The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815, giving the implications and the participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade.
The author’s criticism of the historiography The author criticizes the historiography of the Dutch participation in the transatlantic slave trade by pointing out that the participation of the Dutch in this trade was not given the attention that it deserved.
The participation of the Dutch covers approximately two centuries all filled with diverse complexity ranging from the geographical dimensions to the demographic and complicated economies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main aim of the Author writing this book was to bring to light the participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic trade and giving it the attention it deserved.
Rawley and Behrendt in their book: The transatlantic slave trade: A history, points out that the Dutch participated in the slave trade as early as 1528 when the slaves were being transported to the Spanish colonies (2005). The author refutes this by elaborating that the transporters of these slaves were the Germans and or the Flemings who originated from Belgium.
In the light of the above, the author adds that the earliest participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade occurred in 1596 (Postma, 2009).
The evidence that the author uses to support their argument Postma (2009) points out that in the early stages of the slave trade in Africa, the main participants of the slave trade, mainly the Portuguese could send the expedition to the west coast of Africa to capture the slaves and the author points out that the number of slaves that were captured was approximately two hundred and thirty five slaves all of whom were sent to Portugal.
The author tries to justify the participation of the Dutch in the transatlantic slave trade by pointing out that in 1596, Rotterdam Skipper and Pieter Van Hagen captured approximately one hundred and thirty slaves from Africa and moved them to Middelburg, the capital of Zeeland.
This information is credible since it provides prove of the Dutch’s participation in the slave trade.
Ways in which the chapters of the book relate to the thesis Postma has organized the book in various chapters each of which relate to the transatlantic trade. In chapter one and two the author tries to explain the start of the slave trade and the causes of such trade.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Atlantic Slave Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the three subsequent chapters, the author shifts his focus to Africa and explores the Presence of the Dutch in Africa.
In chapters six and seven the author tries to examine the conditions that made slave trade favorable for example the need for labor in the western nations as well as the presence of people from Africa who could provide the cheap labor.
In the last four chapters the author sheds light into how the slaves were housed and fed. These slaves were mistreated in the workplaces and they lived in very poor conditions. Perhaps the author points out the presence of slave have raised many morality questions in the modern times.
Some information that was provide by the author are not necessary or example his explanation on the roe of the Catholic Church in the slave trade has little significance in the thesis.
Criticism of the author’s work The events that took place during the transatlantic slave trade are clearly explained as well as the factors that led to the start of the slave trade. The participation of the Dutch in the Slave trade was due to the establishment of the large farms in the Dutch Republic that it required extensive source of labor.
The implications that the slave trade had on the western economies are explained but one of the major shortcomings of this book is its failure to elaborate on the implications that the slave trade had on the African continent.
The African continent was deprived of man power since strong men were taken away thus the labor force declined drastically. Families were also separated which resulted in psychological suffering among the family members.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is true to say that the author has contributed to the literature of the event because he gives insights into what happened during the transatlantic slave trade as well as the implications of this trade on the western economies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Atlantic Slave Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The book can form the basis for other studies since the future scholars may endeavor to learn more about the implications that this trade had, politically, economically and socially to both the African continent as well as to the western hemisphere.
The transatlantic slave trade had a major implication since it formed the basis for the continued migration of the Africans to the western hemisphere.
It is an event that is worth studying because it gives a clear picture of what really transpired during this period of slave trade.
References Postma, J. M. (2009). The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815. Cambridge.Cambridge University Press.
Rawley, J. A.,
Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve Case Study online essay help: online essay help
The management of Peachtree Healthcare has to determine to what extent their technologies should be standardized. They can choose a monolithic information system that will be implemented in each hospital and clinic that is currently run by Peachtree Healthcare.
Yet, they can also adopt a Service-Oriented Architecture that will enable this organization to conduct a selective standardization of their technologies and major practices. In both cases, the company will have to spend a significant amount of money, but the success of this investment cannot be fully ensured.
Thus, the management will need to determine which model best suits the needs of the organization. This is the main question that is going to be discussed.
One of the approaches that this organization can take is complete standardization of technologies and practices. This strategy can give several benefits, for example, cost savings and better time-efficiency.
Therefore, they can choose a monolithic information system which is a single set of technologies and applications that will be installed in every clinic or hospital of Peachtree Healthcare. The main advantage of this strategy is that technologies and practices will be consistent throughout the organization.
Yet, one should take into account several structural factors. Peachtree Healthcare includes trauma centers, community hospitals, teaching clinics, or rehabilitation centers. Thus, it may be difficult to develop a single information system that can fit the needs of these medical institutions.
Furthermore, as it has been noted in the case study, many procedures cannot be effectively standardized. For instance, pharmacy record keeping can be based on the best practices. Yet, one cannot say the same thing about the protocol for treating different forms of cancer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is one of the reasons why complete standardization is not always possible. Apart from that, physicians should be able to care about the wellbeing of the patient without being limited by standards or restrictions imposed from outside.
Furthermore, the adoption of a monolith information system will necessitate the redesign of many business processes, and extra training of the staff. Apart from that, the complete redesign of the existing IT infrastructure may not be efficient.
The thing is that some of their current technologies can function quite effectively and there is no need to remove them. Finally, the management of Peachtree Healthcare should not forget that the adoption of a monolithic system will make this organization less responsive to change.
For example, hospitals can adopt business models or medical practices when they are given some degree of autonomy. Complete standardization can deprive them of this autonomy. These are the main drawbacks and benefits of this approach.
Another strategy that this organization can choose is to implement a Service-Oriented Architecture. The main benefit of these technologies is that they allow a greater degree of flexibility.
In particular, some physicians have various note-filling preferences. Some of them choose to enter the information about the patient directly into a database, while others chose to dictate these data for later transcription.
Apart from that, SOA can help this company to standardize only some elements of their IT infrastructure while allowing various hospitals and clinics select software. The main limitation is that this technology has not been widely adopted in healthcare setting.
We will write a custom Case Study on Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main limitation of this model is that SOA have not been fully tested in medical institutions. The management of Peachtree Healthcare cannot guarantee that this technology will prove efficient.
On the whole, the discussion of these issues shows that Peachtree Healthcare should adopt a Service-Oriented Architecture. As it has been said before, this framework will enable this organization to replace those parts of IT infrastructure that do not function properly.
As it has been shown in the case study, the management of Peachtree Healthcare feels insecure about the adoption of this technology because it has not been widely used in healthcare organizations. Yet, one should take into account that the adoption of SOA infrastructure is a gradual process.
The company can replace some poor-functioning components of their IT systems with SOA-built services. Provided that these changes yield good results, the company can continue their adoption of SOA information system.
Moreover, the developers of SOA information systems will be willing to suit the needs of Peachtree Healthcare.
They will even agree on lower price for their services, because they also want to win the trust of healthcare institutions. Under such circumstances, Peachtree Healthcare can receive a high-quality product at a reasonable price.
Overall, these examples show that the redesign of an IT system should be based on close analysis of organizational structure, its size, and major activities. Peachtree Healthcare would have to adopt a system that can allow the greatest degree of flexibility.
Such a goal can be achieved by using a SOA-based information system. Admittedly, this strategy can be associated with some risks, but the same thing can be said about the so-called monolith systems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Too Far Ahead of the IT Curve by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This organization should strive for the standardization that is based on the best practices, but the management must make sure that Peachtree Healthcare remains open to new ideas, models, and practices. This result can be achieved with the help of SOA infrastructure.
psychiatry medication case study essay help online: essay help online
Select one of the cases to address in your initial post.
Be sure to address any drug interactions and point out the mechanism of how the drug may be working.
Each post will need to include a reference or article to further support your information/stance, make sure to cite all references.
Initial posts are due by the FIRST Sunday night.
Be sure to post your replies by end of the module. (at least two replies to other students)
JK has a 31 year history of psychotic illness. He is diagnosed with schizophrenia, disorganized type currently on clozapine but continues to threaten himself and others. He has a history of hallucinations, severe psychomotor agitation, elopement, assault on others and self-destructive behavior including swallowing razor blades and jumping from a motor-cycle. Five-years ago he murdered his friend by hammering him in the head because he thought he was a vampire. He was found mentally incompetent to stand trial and resides in the facility. He is in denial of his illness and the murder and upon provocation rapidly develops threatening behavior to himself and others.
Current medications: clozapine 300mg BID; fluvoxamine 25mg BID
Review each of the following, what would you recommend?
switch to another antipsychotic
increase clozapine dose
augment with lamotrigine
augment with risperidone
augment with a benzodiazepine
PJ is a 9 year old boy diagnosed with ADHD at age 5 and has been on both Adderall and Concerta with poor effectiveness. He has a history since age 3 of impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity. In the past year, he has become more oppositional and disruptive in class to the point of teachers feeling he is a threat to other children and themselves. Testing suggests he is a bright child with ADHD and pediatric mania who suffers from oppositional defiant disorder but not conduct disorder; with multiple learning disabilities.
Current medications: mixed amphetamine salts 30mg qAM and 20mg at 11am
Review each of the following, what would you recommend?
augment with a mood stabilizer or lithium
add an atypical antipsychotic
increase stimulant dose
augment with guanfacine ER
Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Infrastructure Critical to Exports: Report
Doubts on Euro Quick Fix: Danger Zone
Blackwood Halt Raises Querries on Tinkler Deal
Resource Tax to Fatten Mining Giants’ Bottom Line
According to the Federal Attorney General, curbing online piracy involves the copyright owners, the internet service providers, and customer advocates.
Internet users who are found to make copies of movies and music will be given warnings. If they fail to adhere to the warnings, they will be sanctioned and even disconnected from internet services.
Former Attorney General, Robert McClelland, instructed the secretary, Roger Wilkins, to address the issue secretly through negotiations. The secretary opted for an industry-based solution.
He agreed to go for other options like legislation if the industry failed to comply. The talks proposing internet providers as liable have delayed thus Attorney General’s department went ahead to initiate the industry-based program.
The response was positive, and discussions are on-going to determine whether to warn or educate the abusers. The subject on costs is being negotiated, and it is expected that the ISPs will cover these costs (Colley, 2012).
Infrastructure Critical to Exports: Report The Australian government report indicates that containing expenditure and building infrastructure would benefit Australia. This will ensure the doubling of the country’s profitable freights by 2025.
The bureau of resources forecasted that the 493 million tonnes of iron ore produced annually would grow up to 1.08 billion tonnes. On the other hand, coking coal would almost double in growth from over 150 to about 300 million tonnes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will be achieved through an improved infrastructure as noted by BREE and Resources Minister, Martin Ferguson. Ferguson further noted that the available infrastructure would support the country up to 2017.
Thus, more infrastructures were essential. From the world economy’s approach, long term growth comes with reduction in commodity prices as projected by BREE.
The Reserve Bank reported that the reduction on commodity prices by 1.7 per cent to 9.9 per cent is attributed to reduced prices for iron and coal (Yeates, 2012).
Doubts on Euro Quick Fix: Danger Zone Recurrence of the European debt crises can lead to consequences like civil war. However, this will only be avoided if German leaders agree to entangle the Eurozone nations’ fortunes.
The effects of this may be global; however, the share markets, especially in the US, may be restored if the issue is addressed successfully by European leaders.
Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, will have no option but to give in to measures that unite Euro nations before the year ends. The awful effects of a broken Euro currency will be felt on the economical, social and political fronts.
This will see the fall of Eurozone which is likely to go down with the German economy. The head of research at Bell Potter Securities, Peter Quinton, noted that the bailout package needs to be tripled for Eurozone to stabilize. This is necessary since the US share prices are going up (Whalley, 2012).
We will write a custom Essay on Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blackwood Halt Raises Querries on Tinkler Deal Blackwood Corp, a listed, coal explorer may be required to give an explanation for the 5.30 billion dollar privatization bid for Whitehaven coal.
The information provided is inadequate to explain the allocation of 28.4 million dollars meant to fund a drilling campaign. Whitehaven Coal received 5.2 million dollars from the Tinkler group.
This included support from the share holders. This was not enough, and Tinkler sought a further 17 % from Whitehaven or else the group would be forced to raise further equity and buy them out.
Tinkler privatization is likely to fail given that Whitehaven shares keep going down. This is assumed to have prompted Blackhood to request for a trading halt and ask for debt payment.
This was expected although Tinkler denied this allegation, and instead, said that the placement was still on course. He further noted that there was no relationship with Blackwood yet (Manning, 2012a).
Resource Tax to Fatten Mining Giants’ Bottom Line Analysts from Deutsch Bank reported that BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto would have to initiate mineral resource tax. This was to be done by depositing 1-3 billion dollars each in their June accounts.
This will be treated as income and will be reflected in the records of both companies. The head of Australian mining research, Paul Young, affirmed that the iron ore miners were likely to give in despite the reduced coal prices.
The mineral resource rent tax was initiated on July 1st based on the historical involvement of the miners’ investment in the mines. However, it did not tax them on earnings obtained before the investment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The tax is 30% of the earnings obtained from coal and iron ore. This excludes the capital expenditure and the annual depreciation.
The starting base is likely to be based on the book value due to the availability of previous records (Manning, 2012b).
References List Colley, A., 2012. ‘Deal to Combat Piracy Nears for Australia’, The Australian. Web.
Manning, P., 2012. ‘Blackwood halt Raises Querries on Tinker Deal’, Business Day. Web.
Manning, P., 2012. ‘Resource Tax to Fatten Mining Giants’ Bottom Line’, Business Day. Web.
Whalley, J., 2012. ‘Doubts on Euro Quick Fix: Danger Zone’, Herald Sun. Web.
Yeates, C., 2012. Infrastructure critical to Exports: Report. Web.
Religion and morality Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Religion and its relation to public morality
Religious principles vs. moral approaches
Introduction While discussing the question concerning the interdependence between religion and morality, some basic points on the issue must be considered. First of all, it is necessary to point out that religion and morality cannot be regarded as synonyms and therefore, should be analyzed separately.
One is to keep in mind that morality does not depend upon religion; so, for this reason, one can conclude that rightness and wrongness are not based on religious studies. People choose their own way to act, and their decision does not depend upon the God’s will.
Religion and its relation to public morality Keeping in mind a wide range of religious movements, one can probably notice that the viewpoints on religion are rather ambiguous.
For instance, some representatives of a new atheism are of the opinion that religion poisons everything. In our days, people’s faith can be regarded not only as a basis for human morality, but also as a great evil.
Thus, let’s remember “the evils perpetrated by the Spanish Inquisition and the Catholic leadership’s scandalous protection of clerical child abusers” (Gaillardetz, 2008). The case seems to prove the assumption that the modern religion is toxic to human society.
On the other hand, nobody will deny the fact that religion may shape people’s attitude to public morality. Taking into account certain religious commandments, one can notice many ties between correct moral behavior and a wide range of religious principles.
In other words, it is religiosity, which seems to be based on certain moral approaches, but not vice versa.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religious principles vs. moral approaches Still, the issue of human morality must not be regarded within religious perspectives, because it exists independently of religion. Morality is related to certain codes of conduct, which are set by societies.
Furthermore, it is necessary to understand that different societies accept the term in their own way; it depends upon a person’s mentality what moral principles can be followed or neglected.
There is a variety of moral approaches, and some of them take the priority over others. That is to say people have a right to choose how to live, behave, etc. and their freedom of choice does not depend upon the God’s will.
There is a strong need to differentiate between morality, religion, etiquette and law. Making distinctions between the issues can give people an opportunity to interpret morality in a proper way.
Generally, it should be noted that in most cases people consider religion as a basis for morality, because some of the rules of conduct required or prohibited by faith coincide with the codes of conduct established by societies.
On the other hand, “religions may prohibit or require more than is prohibited or required by guides to behavior that are explicitly labeled as moral guides, and may allow some behavior that is prohibited by morality” (Gert, 2011).
Conclusion As far as morality can be regarded as rather contradictory phenomenon, one can probably agree with Darwin’s opinion that an objective standard of morality is absent (“Answering the New Atheism,” 2008).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Religion and morality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this reason, it becomes evident that there is no sense to discuss human morality within religious perspectives. The only appropriate way to combine the issues is to consider religion and religious morality.
In other words, one can state that while religion may sometimes be the cause of evil, without religion there is no basis for religious morality.
References Answering the New Atheism. (2008). Stay catholic. Web.
Gaillardetz, R. (2008). Catholicism and the New Atheism. Americamagazine.org. Web.
Gert, B. (2011). The Definition of Morality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.
Nok Culture’s Main Characteristic Features Report college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Many people tend to take art and design for granted yet it is prevalent in our everyday lives. Art is the use of imagination, an individual’s perception and expression of something special.
This can be in form of fine arts such as paintings and sculptures, visual such as television, advertisements and logos, and architecture. Design incorporates simplicity and effectiveness; it tries to solve the difficulties faced by man in the day to day life.
Factors such as cost effectiveness, materials, negatives (environmental) and function are well-thought-out by designers. Together, designers and artists play a vital role in the society.
Through their innovative pursuits, they portray a picture or a reflection of the world we live in. They help represent our culture, agriculture, social custom, beliefs and religion.
Art and design is everywhere, from our phones, laptops, pens, bottles, clothing, roads, vehicles, trains and aero-planes (Davidson, 2000).
One of the most significant pieces of art is the Nok art, a testament of the Nok culture. The Nok culture appeared in the region of West Africa in Nigeria. It describes the Nok Sculpture of northern Nigeria which date from 500BC to 200AD.
The Nok sculptures, the terracotta statues, are considered as the earliest traces of the remarkable tradition of sculpture south of Sahara. Discovery of the sculptures in 1943 indicate the use of iron, the practice of smelting for tools and forgery.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Nok sculptures varied in sizes from miniature statues to massive sculptures of kneeling, seated and standing postures, mostly of kings and priests. Depicting humans and animals, the most popular of the Nok sculptures are the terracotta heads.
The main characteristic feature of the Nok terracottas is their hollow structure. They are sculpted from clay rolls and dried by firing in open air and closed ovens. Fragmented and eroded by damage and age, some Nok heads are believed to be part of complete bodies.
Many of these sculptures were modeled individually in an additive technique; others were sculpted in the subtractive technique. This characteristic subtractive method suggests a comparable carving practice (Rupp
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Report essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Moving from Basel II to the Basel III- Contributing Factors
Features of Basel III
Implications of Basel III in Australia
Introduction The task of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is to provide a forum for regulation of activities in the banking sector.
The main objectives of the committee are to promote understanding of main issues of supervision and promote development of quality methods of banking supervision (Tarullo 2008, p. 6).
The main subcommittees of Basel Committee are the Standards Implementation Group, Policy Development Group, Accounting Group and Basel Consultative Group (Scott 2005, p.16).
The committee developed accords that are used in supervising banking sector. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the factors that led to movement from Basel II to Basel III, features of Basel III and how it differs from Basel II.
Additionally, it evaluates the effects that the new accord has on the financial institutions in Australia.
Moving from Basel II to the Basel III- Contributing Factors Basel 1was the first and it determined the minimum amount of capital that financial institutions had to maintain. The purpose of this was to minimize credit risk and banks that had international operations had to maintain a minimum of 8% of capital (Gup 2005, p. 46).
Basel II was an improvement of the first accord and determined the amount that financial institutions had to set aside to cover operational and financial risks that they and the whole economy face.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third is Basel III that gives financial institutions a period of three years to satisfy all set conditions.
Australia is among the first countries to adopt the requirements of Basel III. Basel Committee encourages countries to adopt the requirements so as to provide a better regulatory environment and reduce the vulnerability of the world’s financial system.
Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA), the Australian capital markets regulators, took a cautious and conservative approach in implementing Basel III recommendations (International Monetary Fund 2009, p.25).
APRA proposed two amendments to the draft that controlled the activities of the Australian capital markets. First, it proposed that all capital instruments to be governed by law in order to be included as Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital.
The reason for this proposal is to ensure that any conversion or write off is implemented and that implementation is done within a short time.
The second proposal was on treatment of joint arrangements. Joint operators were expected to be accounted on a proportionally consolidated method while joint ventures were to be accounted for using equity method.
Additionally, APRA made recommendations regarding implementation of the Basel III requirements. The proposals were on reporting standards, capital adequacy and the forms of reporting.
We will write a custom Report on The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also proposed introduction of new reporting standards and fair values. Ultimately, the recommendations were implemented and the influence on the ADIs is varied.
Features of Basel III Basel III accord and the Basel II accord have many differences. This section focuses on the differences and changes that Basel Committee adopted to improve the supervision of banking sector of the world.
The minimum capital requirement that the committee expects financial institutions to maintain was retained at 8% in Basel III. However, Tier 1 minimum capital requirement according to Basel III is 6%.
This is different from Basel II that required Tier 1 capital requirement to be 4% (Choudhry 2001, p. 285). Basel 3 also has a higher quality of Tier 1 capital.
It requires a large part of the common equity and it has tightened the criteria for inclusion in Tier 1 capital.
Additionally, Basel III has increased the quality of Tier 2 capital and the inclusion criteria in Tier 2 capital have also been tightened.
Basel III also has a requirement that most capital deductions be made to Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) instead of 50% from Tier 1 and 50% from Tier 2 as it was under Basel 2.
Tier 1 capital is that which is always available freely to take up losses without making the bank wind up operations while Tier 2 absorbs losses incases when a bank winds up.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other feature of Basel III is the introduction of Conservation Buffer which is a new measure. Conservation Buffer aims at ensuring that financial institutions maintain a buffer capital which is above the minimum capital requirement (Gregoriou 2009, p. 198).
This capital buffer is to cushion banks in cases when they make losses especially during economic and financial down turns.
Banks will thus be able to draw from this buffer during such stressful periods. However, constraints in the spread of earnings during these periods will be applied as capital ratios of the banks get nearer to the minimum requirement.
Another feature of Basel III is the introduction of a Counter-cyclical Buffer of Common Equity and national circumstances are to determine the implementation of this buffer.
The intent of this action is to facilitate the achievement of vast macro-prudential factors. This is attainable through fortification of the banking sector from excessive expansion of credits. In addition to these features, Basel III strengthens the rules used in the calculation of risk weighted assets.
It also adds minimum requirements to ensure the protection of the tax payers. These minimum requirements are to ensure that the capital that a bank has is able to absorb losses in cases when a bank’s operations become non-viable.
Implications of Basel III in Australia The implications of Basel III accord implemented in Australia are varied and are based on various circumstances.
The writing off or conversion of a regulatory instrument due to an event triggered by an issue to do with capital or non-viability has adverse effect on an ADI (Ayadi
The Types of Shoppers Classification Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
According to the classical theory of consumerism which refers the public to the middle of the 20th century, women are discussed as the target audience of different kinds of shops.
Nevertheless, today the situation is different, and men are also interested in the process of buying new things and clothes, and they often express the same attitudes to this process as women do.
The explanation to this controversial issue is in the fact that the phenomenon of consumerism is in a constant development, and it demands new victims for the progress.
However, not all the representatives of real shoppers discuss themselves as the victims of the passion for purchasing.
Although today it is possible to buy almost everything which can be made from any material, it is significant to concentrate on the process of buying the items of the clothes because now this process has a lot of similarities for women and men and also classify the shoppers according to the peculiarities of their attitude to the process of purchasing, and discuss such types as the ‘coat-hunters’, ‘shop-addicted’, and ‘brand-loving’ shoppers.
Clothes can be discussed as a specific category of shop-products, and it can even become a kind of religion for either men or women who forget about their gender differences when they are in a huge store with a lot of departments which attracts the audience with many bright lights and vivid colors.
Nevertheless, the general attitude of the consumers to these places can be quite different as well as the attitude to the particular process of shopping.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The proper analysis of the attitude of those persons who prefer to go shopping and buy different kinds of clothes is the main goal of this classification.
The first category of shoppers can be determined according to these persons’ habit to search for the definite prey.
The attitude of the ‘coat-hunters’ to the process of buying can be compared with the attitude and behaviours of real hunters who can imagine a lot of stores and their numerous departments as the wild jungle.
However, the ‘coat-hunters’ always know what type of coats is necessary for them, and they cannot be confused with the variety of the goods presented in the stores.
Moreover, they are ready to wait for days and months till this coat or hat becomes available for purchasing or even has the magic sign ‘sale’ on it. However, the scenario of the situation can be different, and the ‘coat-hunters’ have to spend a lot of periods of time waiting for the item of their dream because they really know what they need.
Men from this category are more successful than women in looking for a necessary item because they can wait longer and act rather unemotionally while being in the store without references to the other interesting objects which can attract the women’s attention and prevent them from ‘waiting’ and ‘observing’ in the jungle.
The second category of shoppers which is important to pay attention to is the ‘shop-addicted’ persons. According to the main principle of the classification, these shoppers discuss new items of the clothes as a kind of ‘drugs’ for them.
We will write a custom Essay on The Types of Shoppers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary for these people to buy much in order to satisfy their addiction, but the effect from purchasing a new portion of clothes is not long that is why it is significant for them to come back to the places where they can find new clothes.
The ‘shop-addicted’ persons do not choose the definite element of the clothes to buy, the fact of purchasing as the process is more important for them. The typical features of the ‘shop-addicted’ people can be various.
Thus, the shop assistants of all the available departments in the store are often able to recognize the ‘shop-addicted’ persons.
Moreover, this kind of addiction is common mostly for women because of their habit to use the process of purchasing as the way to overcome certain stressful situations and to change the mood.
The next category includes those persons who suffer from the more specific kind of addiction than the representatives of the second category.
The attitude of the ‘brand-loving’ persons to the process of purchasing can be comparable with the attitude of gourmands to their favourite food, but with references to such a detail that gourmands prefer definite dishes cooked by the famous chefs, and the ‘brand-loving’ shoppers prefer all the dishes cooked by all the famous chefs.
Therefore, it is extremely important for the ‘brand-loving’ people to taste a lot of them. The ‘brand-loving’ shoppers can be often met among men who want to accentuate their acquired status with many ‘significant’ details or hide their real status under the heap of these details.
‘Brand-loving’ women usually orient to their friends, and their main task is to shock the opponent with a number of brands used together rather than with the quality of the presented goods.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Types of Shoppers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are a lot of categories and principles according to which it is possible to classify shoppers.
The presented variants of categories which are the ‘coat-hunters’, ‘shop-addicted’, and ‘brand-loving’ shoppers reflect the tendencies in the modern development of the phenomena of consumerism and fashion and accentuate the combination of these concepts with references to the shoppers as the objects of the processes, but not the subjects because the representatives of the mentioned categories form their attitude predominantly according the rules of fashion, but not according to their real desires.
The difference between the categories is also in the fact that shoppers can reject or follow the impact of fashion on the process of buying.
McJournalism in the UAE Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Low Levels of McJournalism
Evidence of McJournalism in the UAE
Introduction The media has emerged as one of the most powerful forces in modern day due to the huge influence it has over the society. It is able to affect people since the reports it provides inform individuals and help them to gain new perceptions on issues going on around them.
A person’s opinion on various issues is coloured by the media since it provides the “backdrop against which we make sense of new conditions and information” (Gentz
Concept of Environmental Ethic in Society Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Environmental ethics is a relatively new field, but it already gives rise to numerous debates among philosophers and scientists. The articles that are included in this portfolio are aimed at discussing the ways in which people should think about nature and other species.
The authors discuss a variety of approaches to this problem, for example, deontological perspective or utilitarianism. In my view, people have to accept the premise that their survival is dependent on the sustainability of environment.
Overall, it seems that in the future, environmental ethics can shape laws, and daily activities of companies or individuals, yet, at its principles have not been fully articulated.
One of the issues that are highlighted by the authors is the anthropocentrism of contemporary environmental ethics.
In other words, even people who are not indifferent of environmental problems, think about them only because they can have an impact on human life.
For instance, people can focus on such issue as water and air pollution, oil spills, or the depletion of natural resources. Yet, very little attention is paid to inherent value of environment.
This framework implies that nature has to be fully subordinate to the people. This perspective also suggests that many environmental problems can be overlooked provided that they do not directly affect the activities of people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the extinction of many species can be made acceptable because it does not impact people. I agree with scholars who critique this utilitarian interpretation of environmental ethics.
The thing is that ecosystem is not a set of independent elements; in most cases, they are closely interconnected. For instance, the extinction of birds or animals can eventually affect forests and even lead to deforestation of many areas.
This is why one should not look at the environment only from utilitarian perspective. The problem is that many people cannot see the inherent value of nature.
This question is not only theoretical because it can affect various human activities, for instance, animal activities or the preservation of endangered species.
The second question that these reading made think of is how one can make environmental ethics obligatory for organizations and individuals. Certainly, there can be different approaches to environmental ethics.
One can take utilitarian or deontological perspectives, but it is always possible to institutionalize the principles of environmental ethics. The problem is that some organizations only claim to care about environment, but these claims are not always backed up by their actions.
Besides, many companies are simply forces to follow the environmental regulations imposed by states. Yet, there is no internal stimulus for them to do it.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Environmental Ethic in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the articles included in the portfolio prompt individuals to reevaluate their views on nature and environmental problems. So, one has to formulate the principles that people should follow.
This is why I support the idea of environmental ethics. In view, researchers and thinkers, why try to establish its key principles, can help governments avert many problems.
This discussion shows that the key principles of environmental ethics still have to be formulated and turned into norms. Although this field of ethics is relatively new it can organizations and individuals.
Overall, the debates over these questions may not be settled in the near future. Yet, the fact that this issue is discussed by intellectuals indicates that people’s attitude toward environment can change in the future.
A Comparison of “A college application essay help: college application essay help
The essay compares the two stories, in a manner that shows that both authors have certain similarities. Both authors clearly show the influence of parenting, in inspiring their children into autonomous and independent thought.
The authors emphasize on the role of fathers in the family and especially, in the building of character in their children. The authors also show that men are sexist and stubborn.
“The story A
The Great Migration Essay best essay help
The period between 1910 and 1970 witnessed a massive movement of African-Americans from the United States’ rural south to the urban north (Spencer, 1987). Historians estimate that more than 6 million African-Americans were involved in this great exodus.
The United States’ population experienced a significant change during the Great Migration. New York and Chicago were some of the northern cities that witnessed the influx of African-Americans.
Before this migration, the population of African-Americans in these cities was only about 2 percent.
A clear demonstration of the changes caused by the Great Migration was the doubling of the number of African-Americans working in industries.
Causes Several factors contributed towards The Great Migration. First, there was a worsening racial situation in the South especially due to the Jim Crow laws. This situation brought about educational, economic and social marginalisation.
Other factors were the pursuance of employment opportunities in the rapidly expanding industrial sector in the North and better education facilities (Johnson, 2012).
Moreover, the boll weevil infestation, coupled with the plummeting world cotton prices, adversely affected a large part of the Southern cotton fields forcing sharecroppers and labourers to migrate in search of alternative means of employment (Spencer, 1987).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering that this was an era of war, there were numerous opportunities in the North for African-Americans. In addition, the First World War and the Immigration Act of 1924 significantly minimised the movement of European immigrants to the burgeoning industrial centres of the North (Spencer, 1987).
As a result, there were more opportunities for African-Americans in various factories due to the need for labour to meet the increasing demand for industrial goods.
The 1927 Mississippi Floods also contributed to the Great Migration as they displaced a large number of African-American farmers and labourers.
Effects Due to the massive movement of people to the North, there was a considerable increase in the demand for housing. This brought about hostility between the immigrants and the locals.
As a result, residential segregation gained favour in several cities with the motive of ensuring that blacks stayed away from the neighbourhoods that whites inhabited.
Even though the Supreme Court declared municipal residence segregation as unconstitutional, whites adopted a formal deed restriction, which bound the owners of white property in a particular neighbourhood not to sell to blacks (White, 2005).
Due to the restrictions regarding housing, several African-American neighbourhoods mushroomed in the cities. Harlem became the largest city predominantly inhabited by blacks.
We will write a custom Essay on The Great Migration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hostility between African-Americans and whites also presented itself in matters relating to employment. Whites, especially the working class, were afraid of the threat posed by the immigrants concerning labour.
Whites feared that African-Americans would negatively affect their pay rates and their ability to secure employment.
The whites’ tendency to protect what they considered as their territory created a racial divide that sometimes resulted in violence.
The Great Migration had a significant influence on various aspects of lives. The key areas concern language and culture due to the influx of people from different backgrounds.
As more African-Americans settled in the North, they transformed their rural lifestyle to fit into the urban culture and in the process introduced the black culture. Furthermore, the Great Migration had negative effects in the Southern states as the black population declined immensely in these states.
For example, in Mississippi and South Carolina, both of which experienced massive movements, the black population declined to about 35 percent by 1970s (Johnson, 2012).
References Johnson, D. (2012). Important Cities in Black History. FactMonster.com. Retrieved from https://www.factmonster.com/us/us-cities/cities-black-history
Spencer, R. C. (1987). The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1987/03/art5full.pdf
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Migration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More White, K. (2005). Women in the Great Migration: Economic Activity of Black and White Southern-Born Female Migrants in 1920, 1940, and 1970. Social Science History, 29(3), 413-455.
Unrecognized Beauty in William Wordsworth’s Poem She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways Research Paper essay help: essay help
In his poem She dwelt among the untrodden ways, William Wordsworth speaks about the woman who played an important role in his life. The author does not clearly tell that he was in love with her, but the readers can see that she definitely produced a long-lasting impression on him.
It should be noted that She dwelt among the untrodden Ways is one of the so-called Lucy poems, dedicated to an unknown woman whose identity was never fully disclosed (Kumar, 2003, p. 229).
One of themes that Wordsworth explores is the idea that beauty can often go unrecognized by others; however, other people’s recognition is unnecessary for a person who can appreciate beauty.
The imagery of the poem, its language, and structure are the main elements that help the author to convey his meaning and feelings for Lucy.
One of the things that catch the attention of the reader is the metaphors that Wordsworth uses. For instance, he compares this woman to “a violet by a mossy stone half hidden from the eye” (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167).
In this way, the author shows that the beauty of this person could be unnoticed by many people. Yet, this image also implies that for the narrator, this woman stood out among many others because a violet definitely contrasts with mossy stones.
Yet, the readers know that this beauty was certainly recognized by the narrator because he compares her to a lonely “star” (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again this metaphor implies that for Wordsworth Lucy represents the greatness of nature (Walz, 2007, p. 26). This is how the author emphasizes the beauty of this person, at least in his view.
Another linguistic element that is worth discussing is the use of understatements or the expressions that state something in very restraint form.
For instance, he does not simply say she died. Instead the author chooses the expression “ceased to be” (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167). Thus, the narrator shows that Lucy was a strong presence in his life, and her very existence was very important to him.
Furthermore, the speaker does not mention his sorrow and the feeling of loss. Instead he says that her death was “the difference” to him (Wordsworth, 2008, p. 167).
In this way, Wordsworth seems to suggest that his feelings for this woman and his sorrow may not be expressed with the help of words. This is one of the key ideas of this poem.
Furthermore, one should not disregard such a literary element as the structure of the poem. It can be divided into three parts or stanzas and they symbolize the development, perfection and fading of beauty and love (Kumar, 2003, p. 229).
The first stanza describes the environment in which this woman grew up. The readers can see that Lucy grew up in a very inconspicuous where very few people could appreciate her beauty.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Unrecognized Beauty in William Wordsworth’s Poem She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stanza shows how her beauty was discovered and what it meant for the narrator, while the third passage shows the impact that the death of this woman produced on the narrator.
Overall, William Wordsworth’s poem shows that beauty often exists only in the eyes of the beholder. As a rule, it does not require acknowledgement of other people.
The author shows that Lucy deeply affected his life and creative work, even though other people did not pay much attention to her.
The main strength of this poem is that the author expressed his feelings for this woman by using very concise language and powerful imagery.
Reference List Kumar, S. (2003). A Companion to William Wordsworth. New York: Atlantic Publishers
Policies and political instruments of public action, from global to local Report (Assessment) writing essay help
Table of Contents Research Question
Research Question What influenced the conduction of this research study are matters concerning the tropical forests. There are various policies, as well as, instruments of public action evident in the issue of tropical forests both local and global.
Therefore, the research question is; what policies and political instruments of public action, from global to local. This research question is significant and worth investigating.
This is because, studies conducted in the past on the same topic have been few and, therefore, there is no much knowledge regarding the policies and political instruments of public action, from global to local.
It is due to this that the researcher of this research study decided to research on the topic to provide a deeper insight towards the matter and perhaps add up to the already existing information, in addition to, filling the gaps in the past research studies on the same topic.
Study Hypothesis The policies that can be identified as affecting the tropical forests are constructed, implemented and translated into instruments by several parties in a precise and clear manner. The evaluation, adjustments or even distortions of these policies are facilitated by the social factors.
Research Variables There are a number of relationships, which this research study is interested. However, they are abstract in nature. This implies that there the manner in which they are operationalized might not be subject to validity and the measurement given to them might not be valid too.
The measure of the makers of policies’ participation is abstract, and as such, it will require establishing estimates of the values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review The effects of instruments used in the making of tropical forest policies or even those that concerns environmental services, which according to Zhihua