Table of Contents Results
Results The housing policies and property laws in Dubai and Abu Dhabi are developed to protect the interests of the UAE citizens.
The government housing policies oriented to the Arabs in Dubai and Abu Dhabi are citizen-friendly, and the citizens have the opportunity to choose among several developed housing programmes to participate in which are sponsored by the emirates’ government, and they are in progress because of the continuous investments.
Thus, following the research findings on the issue, it is possible to state that foreigners have the limited rights to buy the property in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. In Dubai, the Emaar Real Estate Company and Jumeira Projects are responsible for intermediation and control over the process of buying the property (Oxford Business Group 2007, p. 237).
The focus of Abu Dhabi’s authorities is on satisfying the housing demands of different categories of the emirate’s population (Emirati Housing Programs 2013). The citizens of Abu Dhabi can use the opportunity to apply for the loans in order to buy the houses and to participate in housing programmes oriented to providing the houses for the decreased fees.
Thus, while participating in the housing programmes, 78% of the Abu Dhabi population can solve the housing problems and buy the houses as compared to 80% in Dubai (Kazimee 2012; UAE Social development: housing 2013).
Discussion Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the most economically developed emirates which can be discussed as providing the example of the successful progress for the other emirates.
Having analyzed the current literature, reports, and research findings on the property rights, housing policies, and real estate sector in Dubai, it is possible to compare the accomplishments of the two emirates’ leaders in solving the issue of property rights and development and implementation of the effective housing policies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the fact that the housing policies and associated programmes in Abu Dhabi and Dubai differ in some points, the basic principles and followed property rights are similar as well as the governments’ orientation to the emirates’ progress. Differences in the emirates’ policies and programmes are caused by the differences in Abu Dhabi and Dubai’s directions with references to their tourism and housing sectors.
From this point, the main focus is put on promoting the citizen-friendly housing programs in Abu-Dhabi and on the development of the real estate sector in Dubai because of the emirates’ directions for the further progress.
Such programmes and actors as the Sheikh Zayed Housing Programme, the Mohammed Bin Rashid Housing Establishment Services organization, the Dubai Properties Group, DAMAC Properties, Emaar Properties, and Nakheel Properties play an important role in promoting the housing sector in Dubai and guarantee the further stabilization of the economy within the sector in relation to the developed and implemented housing policies and programmes (UAE Social development: housing 2013).
The regulatory agencies in both the emirates work to protect the interests of the citizens and to prevent the possible crises associated with the housing policies and programmes.
Conclusion Seven emirates as government bodies form the United Arab Emirates. The political system of the state is based on the constitution of 1971. It is possible to state that the economic system of the United Arab Emirates is one of the most developed systems of the Middle East because of the role of the oil sector in the state’s economy.
Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the leading emirates in the country characterised by the most developed economies. Having analyzed the development of Abu Dhabi and Dubai with the focus on the housing policies and property rights, the government housing programs used in the emirates were compared with references to the current research on the issue in relation to their effectiveness and possible differences.
The main trends in the real estate markets of Abu Dhabi and Dubai were analyzed properly, and it is possible to state that the economic and environmental sustainability of Dubai and Abu Dhabi depends significantly on the effectively worked out housing policies and programmes.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Report: Abu Dhabi 2007 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Emirati Housing Programs 2013, .
Kazimee, B 2012, Heritage and Sustainability in the Islamic Built Environment, WIT Press, Ashurst.
Oxford Business Group 2007, The Report: Abu Dhabi 2007, Oxford Business Group, Oxford.
UAE Social development: housing 2013. Web.
Brazil Sustainable and Productive Agricultural Practices Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
Introduction Brazil is the second fifth largest country in the world geographically and in terms of population. In this view, Brazil epitomizes on the ongoing global tension pitying biodiversity preservation against sustainable agricultural practices and economic growth.
Brazil is a key emerging economic power, which has a GDP of US$6040 billion and a GDP per capita of US$326.21 billion in 2004 (European Commission, 2007). The country’s environment is one of the richest in the world because of not only the flora and fauna, but also because of its ecosystems, which contain an excess of 15 % of the plant and animal species known to botanists (Saxena, 2005).
The country is the source of water and also a water table of up to 12% of the available freshwater worldwide the Brazil is also undoubtedly one of the leading producers of food and biofuels in Latin America and globally (Ferreira et al., 2012).
To continue with this trend of leading in food production and water, the country should try to institute measures, which aim at reducing the negative effects of poor farming methods, while improving farming practices.
Therefore, this paper discusses how sustainable and productive agricultural practices can be used to promote economic development and conserve the environment, and thus prevent the occurrence of vicious cycle. The interdependent relationship between the environment, government and businesses lead to changes in economy and market.
Economic stability is largely linked to the governmental institutions, in connection with the society and public demands. Brazil’s environment involves an intricate cooperation between the government, society and nature. Many aspects depend on how the society views nature with the linkage to the government and how it is being treated in the economic setting.
One of the key aspects of any nation is to be able to interest the government, public or society in the products or services that are being offered to people and organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Understanding the Vicious Cycle
Leadership Style of Managers Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Styles of Leadership
Leadership and Hospitality Industry
Leadership, Gender and Culture
Introduction Leadership is the process of putting up a practice for people to throw in their efforts to make something happen (Burns 1978, p. 6). In a nutshell, leadership is perceived to mean the capacity to put in order a group of people to accomplish a common objective. The kind of a leader that an organization has will determine the direction that the organization will take in terms of development.
Visionary and exemplary leaders will steer an organization to prosperity and success, while inefficient leaders will drive the organization to disarray and disorder (Burns 1978, p. 6). The people under a leader will often derive their modes of behavior from their leader. They always look upon the leader to give them directions and instructions that are aimed at steering the organization forward (Chen,
Carbon Energy Taxations Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion and Analysis
Introduction For many years, companies, businesses, individual, and other entities have used fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide during combustion. Carbon dioxide is a gas that emanates from the reaction of oxygen and carbon during combustion of fossil fuels. However, carbon dioxide is not friendly to the environment as it leads to various negative effects such as pollution and global warming.
The environmental effects caused by extensive release of carbon dioxide compelled countries and environmental activists to look for ways of reducing consumption and the use of fossil fuels, as they contain high amounts of carbon.
Some of the strategies used include legislations such as the Kyoto protocol, which is an agreement imposed on developed countries to minimize the amounts of carbon fuels used by their industries (Lungerfold, 2010).
Another important strategy was the introduction of carbon taxes, a cost effective technique where countries pay a certain amount of tax depending on the level of carbon dioxide that they emit from fossil fuels into the environment.
The prime goal of carbon taxing strategy is to reduce the negative environmental impacts of carbon dioxide. Therefore, this proposal explains the economic impact and effectiveness of carbon taxes in environmental protection.
Literature Review The effects of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases such as global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, acid rains, and pollution of air forced states and environmental activists to devise strategies of minimizing the effects of carbon dioxide on the environment. Among the strategies devised is the use of carbon taxes, which is a form of tax charged on the amount of carbon emissions released into the environment (Hsu, 2012).
The strategy is a market-based option whose main objective is to help mitigate the negative impacts of carbon dioxide and conserve the environment. States and countries apply carbon taxes on delivery, supply, and manufacture of products. In addition, application of the strategy extends to the use of fuels and the amount of carbon emitted in the process of production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tisdell (2005) argues that, “the imposition of the carbon tax is to reduce the rise in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide and prevent the onset of the greenhouse effect, which is a public issue of global warming” (p. 194).
Therefore, carbon taxing is a cost effective and environmental friendly strategy that helps reduce the effects of carbon dioxide by discouraging businesses, industries, individuals, and other entities from using fuels that contain high carbon content.
Carbon taxing is a strategy employed by states and countries to minimize the use of fossil fuels that contain high carbon levels. The application of the strategy entails charging a certain amount of tax on the level of carbon available in the fuel. Consequently, imposing the tax on fuel that has carbon leads to a relative increase in the cost of fuel (Hsu, 2012).
Hence, individuals, businesses, and industries look for alternative sources of energy like natural gas, oil, and coal that contain little amount of carbon so that they can minimize the cost of production. This leads to reduced use of fossil fuels, which contains high levels of carbon and a subsequent reduction of environmental effects of carbon dioxide.
Miller (2007) argues that human activities have increased emissions of carbon dioxide, which have accumulated in the atmosphere for many years as a greenhouse gas and cause global warming. Thus, it is evident that carbon taxing is one of the strategies that reduce the negative effects of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the environment.
Taxing of carbon content in fossil fuels is a very effective strategy if properly implemented by countries. The strategy reduces emission levels of carbon dioxide from human activities such as businesses, homes, and industries.
Since the strategy levies a certain amount of tax on the carbon content present in fossil fuels, many businesses, and industries opt for alternative sources of energy so that they can reduce the cost production (Miller, 2007). Hence, an overall reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.
We will write a custom Essay on Carbon Energy Taxations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reduction of carbon dioxide emission leads to low levels of environmental degradation and economic constraints associated with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. According to Hsu (2012), the negative effects of carbon dioxide emissions display a relationship of cause and effect, not a mere correlation.
Thus, for every emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, there is an increase in the level of environmental degeneration, which leads to lower rates of productivity. Therefore, carbon taxing of fossil fuels significantly reduces environmental problems linked to global warming and emissions of greenhouse gases.
The carbon tax is a cost effective market-based strategy that does not only discourage the use of fossil fuels with high carbon content, but also brings revenue to countries implementing the strategy. States and governments use carbon tax to address the challenges brought about by the emissions from carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
All aspects of state or government feel the effects of carbon taxes because an increase in the cost of production leads to increased cost of products. Hence, even the low-income earners in the society feel the effects of the strategy. Lungerfold asserts that, “keeping in mind the potential amount of the carbon tax revenue and distribution could have appreciable impacts” (p. 138).
Furthermore, carbon tax has its foundation on the principles of economy. It focuses on the principle of unconstructive externalities, which represent unpaid costs. Thus, imposing the tax on fossil fuels that contain carbon ensures that consumers who use the fuels pay for the effects of carbon dioxide emissions.
Discussion and Analysis The proposal will analyze whether taxing carbon content present in fossil fuels is an effective strategy of discouraging their use.
In addition, the paper will determine if the strategy is cost effective by assessing whether its implementation increases revenues to countries and states, but does not hurt the economy of the government. The proposal will also check the magnitude of the policy in line with its implementation and if it affects the citizens who reside in the country.
Ekins (2009) notes that the cost of fossil fuels will increase due to the carbon tax imposed on the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the paper will analyze how governments use carbon taxes to address the challenges occasioned by carbon dioxide and emission of greenhouse gases.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Carbon Energy Taxations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It will also assess whether the implementation of carbon taxing strategy to minimize the negative effects of carbon dioxide leads to increased product prices and cost of living. Moreover, the proposal will check if economists and states use the policy of the carbon tax based on the negative externalities principle.
The proposal will analyze if the principle dictate that only the potential users of fossil fuels with high carbon contents pay for the effects occasioned by the carbon dioxide emissions. This implies that the proposal will analyze the economic impact of carbon taxes on governments.
In addition, the proposal will identify the negative effects of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases such as destruction of the ozone layer, acid rains, pollution, and global warming. Moreover, the proposal will check the efforts that countries have put in place to address these negative effects.
The paper will also study the progress made by governments in implementing carbon taxing in the production, delivery, and supply of products to consumers and business people. According to Tisdell (2005), the main objective of the carbon tax is to minimize the impact of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
Furthermore, the proposal will analyze the amount of tax charged on carbon contents present in fossil fuels. In this view, the proposal will examine what the states and governments have achieved in reducing emissions from carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases in terms of environmental conservation and economic development.
Moreover, the paper will analyze how states and governments are implementing the policy of carbon taxing. It will also check the effectiveness of the policy in discouraging potential consumers, businesses, and industries from using fossil fuels that have a high content of carbon.
Furthermore, the paper will check the extent to which carbon dioxide emissions from industries and other human activities pollute the environment, lower productivity of environment, and increase the cost of goods and services. The proposal will assess how states and governments use carbon tax strategy in minimizing the use of fossil fuels that contain high levels of carbon.
It will also analyze how states apply the policy like charging a certain amount of tax on the level of carbon emitted from fossil fuels. Additionally, the proposal will determine if the policy of carbon taxing has discouraged business people, industries, and individuals from using fuels that have high carbon content.
According to Karnosky (2001), carbon dioxide has extensive effects on plants and other forms of ecosystem as it leads to global warming, which results in climate change. Moreover, the proposal will determine whether businesses and industries have employed alternative sources of energy like solar, hydro-electricity, and wind, which are friendly to the environment in production.
In addition, the paper will analyze the level of success on the state or the government in ensuring that businesses, industries, and individuals minimize the use of fossil fuels that have high levels of carbon. The analysis will establish if the carbon taxes have reduced environmental effects of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
The proposal will analyze the country’s level of involvement in the implementation of carbon taxes. It will also check if the strategy helps reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide in processing plants and businesses. Moreover, the proposal will analyze the progress made by governments in discouraging factories and business firms from using fuels that contain high levels of carbon.
The proposal will check if the reduction of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions has led to increased revenues and environmental conservation as well as productivity in countries. Furthermore, Jiang (2012) highlights that, for systematic and sustainable development, a state should practice conservation strategies that support continuous development of the country for present and future generations.
Therefore, the proposal will identify the level of the carbon tax charged for carbon content of fossil fuels and analyze if the tax has any impact on the use of fuels, which contain a high amount of carbon.
This paper will also seek to identify if the measures, put in place by states and governments, are functional and instrumental in curbing or reducing carbon dioxide emissions from industries and business establishments. It will also identify if carbon taxing provides the required solutions to economic and environmental challenges that transpire from the emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
Conclusion Tax imposed on the carbon content of fuels is one of the strategies devised by countries to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The strategy imposes some amount of tax on the content of carbon present in fossil fuel used by industries and business entities especially in developed countries.
The proposal discusses how states and governments can employ the strategy of carbon taxes to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and minimize the negative effects that it causes. Governments usually charge a certain amount of the carbon tax on the content of carbon present in fuels. Therefore, this leads to an increase in the price of fossil fuels, yet many people, businesses, and industries rely on the fuel.
The increment discourages business entities, individuals, and industries from using the fuel and encourages them to look for alternative sources of energy so that they can reduce the overall cost of production.
Furthermore, when businesspersons, individuals, and industries shift from the use of fossil fuel that contains high carbon content, it lowers the emission of carbon dioxide and minimizes the negative effects of carbon dioxide. Overall, carbon taxing aims at protecting the environment from global warming caused by the emission and the accumulation of carbon oxide in the atmosphere.
References Ekins, P. (2009). Carbon Energy Taxations: Lessons from Europe. London: Oxford University Press.
Hsu, S. (2012). Case for Carbon Tax: Getting Past Hangups’ to Effective Climate Policy. Washington : Island Press.
Jiang, X. (2012). Legal Issues for Implemementing Clean Development. Shangai: Springer, Publishers.
Karnosky, D. (2001). The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green House Gases on Foresty Ecosystem. New York: CABI Publishing.
Lungerfold, T. (2010). Cap and Trade: Kyoto Protocol: Greenhouse Gas. New York: The Capitolnet Publishers.
Miller, T. (2007). Living in the Enviroment: Principles Connections and Solutions. New York: Cancage Learning.
Tisdell, C. (2005). Economics of Environmental Conservation. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.
The Legal Environment of Human Resource Management Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Abstract The aim of this paper is to examine the legal environment of human resource management. Here, the paper will discuss various legal issues influencing human resource, as well as the various recommendations to counter those legal issues.
In addition, the paper will explore the various rules and laws that govern human resource management including employee ethics. Specifically, the paper will explore discrimination, sexual harassment, and disability as some of the legal issues that need to be considered in human resource management.
Introduction Due to the globalized competition and the advancement of technology, most organizations are currently operating in an unpredictable environment. They need to put into consideration the legal environment of human resource management in order to undertake their operations within the scope of recommended legal standards.
Indeed, human resource is a very important asset in any organization; therefore, every organization needs to manage it properly. Human resource refers human capital, work force, or talent, which normally includes the skills and knowledge that employees working in a given organization possess (Holton and Trott, 1996).
Therefore, human resource management is the process that involves the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and proper management of employees in business enterprises or organizations.
In addition, human resource management is wide in scope and includes other functions such as rewarding or compensating employees as well as offering leadership and mentorship programs to employees in accordance to employment and labor laws.
This paper will assess and discuss the legal environment of human resource management including issues such as hiring and firing, sexual harassment, employee safety and security, and accommodation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Legal Environment Human resource was born from the civil or people movements during the early years of 20th century, where scholars started to find ways off creating business worth and value via the use of strategic management of workers.
Due to technological changes, environmental differences and global interactions, today’s human resource has evolved to include talent planning, work succession, labor relations and even industrial diversity (Ulrich and Brockbank, 2005).
Managers need to understand the legal environment of human resources under which they operate, given that different laws and regulations have different implications to their continued operation. Indeed, this understanding and compliance to legal requirements is mandatory, since human resources are always required to perform all their duties as required by law.
Generally, the HR makes decisions based on the following. Firstly, it is important to consider legal issues while hiring employees and the benefits to offer them. Secondly, the human resource must consider accommodation to be offered to employees and the procedure to follow when firing employees. Thirdly, he or she must consider whether to compensate or not, and if so, the policies and procedures to be follow.
Other issues to consider include sexual harassment, disabilities, absence from work and workers safety policies. Lastly, the HR should take into consideration the importance of discrimination policy in the organization, as this tends to be a very sensitive issue in human resource management (Jonathan, 2010).
There are various changes in law, which have caused human resource personnel to make poor decisions. The next part of this paper will discuss some legal environment issues in human resource, which include, discrimination, sexual harassment, hiring laws, hostile working environment, health conditions, and accommodation policies (Ulrich and Brockbank, 2005).
Discrimination Employment discrimination may be described as the practice that involves treating some employees differently or an employee differently from others. This discrimination may be based on gender, race, religion, age, tribe, nationality, or even cases of disability. Here, the persons who face discrimination may be denied employment, promotion, or they may even be demoted without reasonable cause.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Legal Environment of Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Again, discrimination may occur in form of poor working conditions and even failure to accommodate employee who qualify for accommodation due to the reasons of their affiliation.
This kind of discrimination is very harmful in an organization, as it tends to break down relationships due to differences and barriers created. Other forms of discrimination occur due to class status, where people are treated based on their assumed class; however, the most common discrimination practices are based on color, race, sex, religion, tribe, and nation of origin.
It should be noted that, discrimination is a criminal offence (although this also depends on the country in reference) according to international labour laws. Therefore, managers should avoid discrimination in the work place with the help of the following federal employment laws applicable in the US (Thompson, 2011).
First, Civil Rights Act plays a big role in the employment environment as it aims to promote an all-inclusive employment in the US. Indeed, the international labour regulations call for equal treatment of all employees in organizations regardless of their physical, social, economic, or political affiliation or status.
Secondly, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act tends to protect people of all ages and especially those above the age of 40 years against being overlooked in employment. This is because most organizations resist employing people of this age in preference of younger people due to a number of reasons, among them being the cost of labour and energy/enthusiasm level.
Thirdly, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act is an important legislation that protects pregnant women from discrimination because of their condition in job status, promotion, hiring, and compensation.
The Older Workers’ Benefits Protection Act on the other hand tries to give more protection to workers during difficult conditions, especially after retirement when they are too old to access further employment opportunities.
Lastly, the Disabilities Act prohibit discrimination against people living with disability in all areas of employment including hiring, promotion, compensation, working conditions among others (Walsh, 2012).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Legal Environment of Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important that, when faced with discrimination problems, the human resource managers should first consult legal professionals to provide legal counsel. These may include specialized lawyers and even experts in the employment laws or employment tribunals.
Sexual Harassment Every organization is required by labour laws to have a sexual harassment policy that guides its employees on matters of sexual harassment. Generally, illegal sexual harassment is any unacceptable and uninvited sexual advances or actions/words that make the recipient of such actions uncomfortable; it can be either male or female.
Indeed, sexual harassment is an illegal activity or a criminal offence punishable by law. When such cases occur in employment, it is important for one to submit to the employment terms and conditions as required by law. This is because such conducts always cause problems in the work place, leading to poor performance and later bringing hostile working environment.
It may also lead to loss of talent, as the affected persons may decide to quit because of harassment. Again, it is important for the human resource manager to consider the frequency of such conducts in the work place, as well as the main culprits.
In most cases, sexual harassment occurs when sexual favors may be demanded in return for getting or retaining a job or a job-related benefit (Thompson, 2011).
However, the Civil Rights Act is very clear on matters of sexual harassment; therefore, any aggrieved party may report or sue under Civil Rights Act. Sexual harassment guidelines are also provided in the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of international labour laws.
Accommodation In cases of accommodation, the human resource manager should ensure that proper and reasonable accommodation is given to employees for higher work output including provision of hardship allowances. While considering this, the nature of the job and size of the company should also be put into consideration.
Again, the workers’ terms of agreement should also be put into consideration, as this cannot be ignored. Here, the Civil Rights Act and Equal Employment Opportunity Act requires “employers to make reasonable accommodation to facilitate employment of disabled individuals” (Jonathan, 2010), unless there is reasonable cause to show that such a move would have severe and adverse effect on financial position of the employer.
Nevertheless, it is important to provide an environment where both the employee and the employer feel comfortable in performing their roles in the organization (Jonathan, 2010).
Hiring Employees While hiring employees, it is important to treat all of them equally as provided in the Equal Employment Opportunity Act. The law prohibits discrimination against any person based on their status; indeed, the HR should use merit when hiring employees. Here, the best-qualified candidate should get the job without any bias, even if the candidate is living with disability or she is woman (yet the employer prefers men).
Again, age factor should not be used to deny a qualified candidate the job. In addition, job termination and promotions should be done as provided for in the laws. Lastly, when hiring new employees, it may be important to request for proper health records where necessary, but health conditions or body physical appearance should not be used to prevent a qualified candidate from getting the job (Walsh, 2012).
Firing of Workers Workers are an important asset in any business firm or organization. Therefore, in cases of their hiring and firing it is important that legal procedures be put in place and be considered prior to firing employees in order to ensure that this process take place effectively and successfully.
For example, in cases of scandals on one of the employees in the work place, it is always important that legal procedures be adhered to while firing them. Again proper legal counsel must be consulted to establish the truth of all the allegations made against the employee in question.
Again, when the employee is found to be wrong it is good that his or her firing be done in accordance with the organization’s policy as well as in accordance with both national and international labour laws (Ulrich and Brockbank, 2005).
Employees’ Safety and Security All organizations or employers are required by law to provide a safe and conducive working environment to all their employees. This is provided for in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 commonly known as OSHA Act, which stipulates that all employers need to provide working environments that are free from danger or harm to their employees.
In addition, where occupations tend to have high risk of danger, employees are supposed to be provided with protective gear at all times they perform their duties. Where employees feel the conditions under which they work are not safe enough, they have an obligation and right to call upon OSHA authorities to come and inspect the premises and environment they work in.
Therefore, it is the obligation of the human resource managers to have a policy that provides for workers safety and ensure such a policy is complied to at all times to avoid being in conflict with OSHA guidelines.
Conclusion From the discussion above, it is important that human resources managers comply with labour laws as well as other legal requirements related to human resources in order to ensure employees work in a conducive environment. This will also allow all parties to realize and understand the limitations of their work as well as gain knowledge about legal departments in their business sectors.
The understanding of the legal environment will also help human resources managers to concentrate on matters that are pertinent to the growth of business rather than wasting time in court battles related to violation of labour laws (Ulrich and Brockbank, 2005).
The discussion above has looked into the discrimination issues encountered in work places, which are based on the grounds of gender, sex, color, nation of origin and age; this should be addressed effectively, as labour laws prohibit any form of discrimination and terms it as an offence.
In addition, people living with disability should never be discriminated against in accordance with the Equal Employment Opportunity Act.
Various legislations related to human resources include the Civil Rights Act, Family Act, Equal Employment Opportunity Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act and.Pregnancy Discrimination Act among others. All these legislations have special regulations that managers are required to comply with at all times in order to ensure that they provide proper working conditions to all their employees.
References Holton, F.E.,
Evolution of Television Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Evolution of television (TV) is a chronological breakdown of television advancements since its invention. Television broadcasting is a telecommunication transmission and reception of sound and images in motion. The pictures are either monochromatic (black and white) or colored.
A basic TV system is a combination of the transmitter, medium of transmission, and a receiver. Benoit (2013) argues that television may also refer to the physical television set, mode of broadcasting, or various programs that the TV network airs.
Research shows that in 1926 Farnsworth was the first person to transmit real-time moving images from a transmitter to a remote receiver. In another experiment, he transmitted radio-frequency signals from a transmitter to several receivers operating at the same radio frequency as the transmitter.
This development was the foundation for television broadcasting in 1939. During the World War II, America used television broadcasting for live coverage of war fronts. However, mass TV broadcasting and transmission began after the World War II in 1948 (Cesar
Central heating systems Essay college essay help near me
Introduction Central heating systems are important in the hospitality industry since residents rely on such systems to keep warm during winter or other cold seasons (Oreszczyn, Hong, Ridley, and Wilkinson 259). These systems ensure that residents enjoy a comfortable environment as they relax, dine or sleep.
Heating entails the raising of the temperature of an area (building) for the sole reason of maintaining a comfortable environment. For efficient heating, buildings must be structured in certain ways and the electrical and mechanical systems examined.
Some of the earliest methods of heating buildings included the use of an open fire. Other sources include the use of a fireplace and cast-iron stoves. With time, modern space heaters have been developed. All these sources are referred to as direct heating processes.
This is due to the fact that energy conversion to heat takes place at the area of heating. A more recent technology in heating is referred to as central (indirect) heating. This is whereby energy is converted to heat at a different location and transferred to the site where heat is required. The heat may be transferred through different mediums including steam, air or water.
Central heating was also considered useful due to the increase in size of buildings and industries (such as the hospitality industry). The hospitality industry is characterised by large buildings (hotels and restaurants). Therefore, this calls for the use of a central heating system in order to ensure efficiency in heating of the entire space.
The hotel and hospitality industry is keen at ensuring customer satisfaction, which calls for the need for a comfortable environment within the accommodation and dining areas (Humphreys 132). Advancements have been seen in the central heating systems.
Cost-effective methods have been introduced with time in order to ensure that the heating systems do not contribute to huge costs since businesses are meant to minimize costs as much as possible. This paper will discuss the trends in the central heating systems in the hospitality industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Components of Central Heating Systems and Fuels Used The main components of a central heating system include the source of heat and appliances for heating, medium of conveying the heat (ducts or pipes) to the area where heating is required, and spaces for releasing heat. Heat may be released through radiation, convection or both. The use of forced-air distribution involves moving heated air through the building using fans.
This method uses pressure differentials in order to force air in areas of low pressure. Another method of transferring heat is through radiant heating. Heat is transmitted to the surfaces of the building.
These include the ceilings, floors and walls. This causes a convection cycle of heat around the space and causes uniform heating of the air in the building. Radiant heating is advantageous in that it does not involve any visible heating equipment.
There are several factors to consider while designing a central heating system. Some of them include the following:
Amount of physical activity in the area
Effects of solar radiation
The amount of physical activity in an area is also a consideration while setting up heating systems because the human body usually gives off heat energy. Individuals performing strenuous work dissipate a lot of heat. Therefore, the heating system should be designed in such a way that rooms with heavy human activity should not be heated as much as those that do not contain heavy activity.
The hotel setting is made up of different areas with different human activities. Rooms with heavy activity include the kitchen areas. Heat should be kept at about 13 degrees Celsius in order to allow the extra heat from the bodies to be dissipated. Other rooms with less activity should be kept at about 24 degrees. These areas include the domestic living rooms or where sedentary workers stay.
Fuels may also be used to produce heat. This involves the production of energy from a reaction between hydrogen and carbon in the presence of oxygen. When heat is produced, it is transferred through water or air as mediums. This systems work through circulation.
We will write a custom Essay on Central heating systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is whereby the heated medium is constantly replaced. The equipment used depends on the medium to be used. When air is used, the combustion chamber is referred to as a furnace. On the other hand, if water is to be used, the combustion chamber is a boiler. The main fuels used in the above case are fuel oils and gas.
Air Heating Air heating is one of the ways of providing heat in hotels and restaurants. However, air can only carry limited heat for shorter distances as compared to steam and water. This is due to the fact that it has a low density. In these systems, heat is transferred from the furnaces. It passes through air ducts to the rooms in the building. The warm air is released through registers into the open spaces.
Since warm air is lighter than cool air, warm air rise into the ducts and is transferred to the rooms. The hot air can also be motor-driven by fans. This way, hot air can be forced through smaller air vents and for longer distances. This is especially applicable in large hotels and restaurants that consist of many rooms that require warming.
Water Heating The use of water as a medium for heating in a central heating system is favoured. It is preferred due to the properties of water (high density). This implies that it can hold more heat energy and the temperatures may be easily regulated (Shipworth, Firth, Gentry, Wright, Shipworth, and Lomas 53). The hot water from the boiler is transferred through a series of copper or steel pipes to the areas that require heating.
These metals allow heat to be dissipated into the building (rooms). As water becomes cooler, it is redirected for reheating. The cycle then continues.
The hot water is forced through the pipes in the building using a pump driven by motors. This implies that the boilers may be placed at any elevation since water would be pumped up. There are two factors that must be considered while constructing a hot water system. They include the following:
Allowance for expansion of the water
Provision to allow air to escape through valves
Hydronic Heating One of the trends in the central heating systems is the use of hydronic heating. This process involves the heating and circulation of water throughout the building. They may also be circulated under floor heating coils. In this case, heat is transmitted using water as a medium. Various ways can be used to heat this water. Examples include the use of electricity, gas or solar.
The heat source may be situated inside or outside the building. As heat from the hot water is dissipated, the water is circulated back for reheating. This is done until the desired room temperature is attained.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Central heating systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The use of hydronic heating for central heating is effective since it ensures that each room within the building is heated to comfortable and desired temperature (Shipworth 14). The control panel is usually placed at an area that is easy to access in order to ensure that the temperature is easily adjusted.
Choosing this kind of central heating system is valid when one needs to cut on costs. Installation of the hydronic central heating system may be expensive but is worth the price. It offers efficient service and the running costs are reduced and manageable. Hydronic central heating also provides radiant heating. This means that radiant heat is used to warm the rooms.
This is as opposed to the use of warm air for heating. Radiant heating ensures that even the objects and individuals in the room are heated. The heated objects may then transmit the heat. Since these objects remain warm for a long time, the house is kept warm for longer. The other methods of using push fan for heating is not effective since it forces warm air through the building and only warms the air.
The objects in the building remain cool. Therefore, this implies that there is immediate loss of heat from the building. This also means that such a heating system must remain operational for a longer time in order to keep the building warm. Using a fan to force air also contributes to loss of heat.
Air pressure in the building is increased. Therefore, the air path is affected and this implies that the air may not be able to flow back for reheating. For this reason, operational costs are increased. Therefore, hydronic heating provides a cost-effective choice for central heating in the hospitality industry.
Steam Heating This system uses steam for heating. Steam is usually generated in the boiler and transferred through pipes just as hot water is transferred. Steam heats the radiators and causes the heating of the rooms within the building. As the steam gives off its heat it cools (condenses) to form water.
Water is then returned to the boiler. This may be done using gravity or using motor-driven pumps. Each radiator must have valves that allow air to escape. This is necessary since steam may not be able to enter the radiators. However, this system is not preferred in many hotels and restaurants today because it is bulky and unattractive.
Electric Heating One of the widely used heating systems today is electric heating. This method involves the passing of an electric current through resistors. When this is done, heat is generated. These resistors may heat water or air. When air is heated in a room, warm currents circulate the room causing uniform heating.
Electricity may also be used to generate heat using heat pumps. This involves pumping heat from a cooler area to an area of higher temperature. The equipment used is a refrigerant. It is used to pump heat from sources with low temperature to spaces that require heating. Such refrigerants double as air conditioners during summer and heat pumps during winter.
Gas for central heating systems Gas is one of the cost effective fuels used for central heating in large buildings such as office complexes, hotels and restaurants. The use of gas is also considered environmentally friendly since it does not produce carbon emissions (Hossein 1304). It is usually a clean fuel that is tidy in nature since it does not produce ashes or smoke as compared to coal and other fuels.
The use of gas for central heating may be seen as cost-effective when compared to the use of electricity. Its cost-effectiveness is realized if gas is used in a large scale. Therefore, this choice may be applicable for central heating in large hotels and restaurants.
Dual Fuel Systems As the name suggests, the dual fuel system uses two sources of energy. Its operation resembles the hybrid vehicles that use both electricity and gasoline to operate. When the vehicle is under light driving conditions, electricity is utilized. However, the fuel engine must take over when more horsepower is needed.
The dual system operates using electricity during mild weather. However, at very low environmental temperatures, the use of electricity may become less cost-effective. Therefore, the use of oil or gas is automatically started.
The heat pump is similar to a refrigerant but operates in the opposite direction. This implies that instead of cooling the air, it provides warmth. The traditional heat pumps loose efficiency when the outdoor air temperature drops significantly.
In fact, it has been argued that it is among the least cost effective when compared to other sources of energy (gas, propane, oil). However, new breeds of heat pumps have been developed so as to increase efficiency even at temperatures below zero (Ljubenko, Poredos, Morosuk, and Tsatsaronis 1303).
Green Solutions in Central Heating Systems Due to the rise in gas and oil prices, there has been a need to use alternative energy sources for central heating systems. Climate change is also a concern when it comes to the type of fuel used and this has forced the need for green solutions.
One of the major efforts has been to cut the use of fossil fuels to a minimum. Water heating in buildings is widely used around the globe. Efforts towards energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources would go a long way in saving on costs and ensuring that climate change is curbed (Groscurth and Brauer 2511). The hotel and hospitality industry needs to embark on the solar age.
Solar Thermal Heating This system is currently widely used. This means that this technology has matured and has been embraced. It is among the fastest growing renewable technologies and is widely accepted by conservationists since it is friendly to the environment (Steg 4450). This is so since there is no emission of greenhouse gases. Other fuels are non-renewable and may be over-used. This is why the use of solar energy is the way to go.
The sun provides free energy that can be used to produce energy necessary for heating water and providing heating for open spaces in buildings. The choice of solar heating is also favoured by the government due to the ever-increasing costs of fuels. Therefore, solar heating is a form of return on investments. Solar heating can be use for the following:
Supplementing space heating in buildings
Generating heat for air conditioning systems in buildings
Hotels and restaurants may employ the use of solar thermal heating. It is also important as a marketing strategy for environmentally conscious individuals. Hotels that have swimming pools may also benefit from solar heating to heat the water.
Heating of pool water is usually done using the surplus heat from the energy used to heat the building. Therefore, this means that the pool water is heated at no extra cost. This also means that the heat energy is not wasted. This implies that this venture is cost effective.
Just like any other large building, hotels and restaurants often require huge air conditioning systems. Solar thermal energy may be used to provide heat for such conditioning systems (Duffie, and Beckam 11).
Components of solar thermal heating system The main components of the solar heating system include the solar collectors and the storage tanks. The roofs of the buildings are usually mounted with solar collectors in order to capture direct or indirect sunlight (Lindenberg, Bruckner, Groscurth, and Kummel 602). After being heated, the water is transferred into storage tanks. Heat storage may be in the form of short-term storage or seasonal storage.
Short-term storage involves storing heat to be used for a short period of time. This may be during the rainy season, for example. Seasonal storage is storage of captured solar heat over a period of several weeks. This is usually applicable where there are a large number of occupants in a building. Therefore, this may be applicable in the hospitality industry where accommodation is provided.
Another type of storage is the borehole heat storage. This is whereby solar-heated water is transferred underground using boreholes. Since soils have low thermal capacity, heat can be retained. The aquifer heat storage is another type of storage system that is cost-effective.
This is whereby groundwater is used to store heat. However, this system may only be adopted in areas with specific hydrogeological conditions. Solar heating may be used for both centralized and decentralized heating systems. For central heating, the four or two-pipe system may be employed.
The advantages and cost-effectiveness of using solar energy for central heating may be seen in three ways as follows:
Trends in oil prices – With the increase in oil and gas prices, solar heating becomes a cost-effective choice for central heating
Conclusion Central heating systems are very useful in the hospitality industry since comfort is a priority for the residents. This is mainly applicable during winter or during cold weather. Central heating systems provide heating of the interior in order to make the conditions conducive for inhabitants. The heating system has evolved with time. Long time ago, open fires were used for direct heating.
Some of the early heating methods that may still be in use today include the use of the fireplaces. However, direct heating does not apply for large areas. For large areas such as hotels and restaurants in the hospitality industry, central heating systems are adopted.
This involves heating of a medium and transferring heat to a destination far from the heat source in order to provide heating. Sources of energy for central heating include oil, gas, electricity and solar energy. Some of these sources are more cost-effective while others provide more heat energy than others do. The suitable central heating system should be installed to suit the needs of the building and its inhabitants.
Works Cited Duffie, John, and William Beckam. Solar engineering of thermal processes. New York: Wiley, 1980. Print.
Groscurth, Hamburg, and Wien Brauer. “Support of renewable energy sources in liberalized electricity markets.” Energy 16.1 (1998): 2505-16. Print.
Hossein, zolfagharyazizi. “Environment pollution and the future prospects of central heating systems.” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5.12 (2011): 1303-1306. Print.
Humphreys, Mike. Thermal comfort temperatures and the habits of hobbits. London: E
History of Old Regime Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Europe, before the Second World War, was torn up by the governing classes and the interconnection between bourgeoisie and proletariat. Land ownership and agriculture became the determining factors in the amount of power a class had and this was the key issue that would allow any change. Those who had the power did not want to let go of it or the attributes that allowed possessing the said authority.
The separation from the Old Regime came at an extremely slow pace in Europe, in comparison to Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. The movement towards the republic was the key goal of the people, demanding their rights and freedoms acknowledged but the direction was being constantly halted by economic domination of the ruling class in agriculture and “traditional manufacture” (Mayer, 11).
The Old Regime was being supported by those who owned most land and in turn, they greatly influenced the government and the policies that were put in place. Bourgeoisie is thought of as the part of the nation that moved the progress, as they had the most influence on all the aspects of social life.
Background Mayer has always raised controversy whenever she stands to speak about the history of revolutions that took place in many regions. She compares the state of affairs in Europe and close by nations through uncovering the reasons that delayed liberalism and greatly influenced the onset of the World War.
This book raises various issues that reflect disparities among various scholars and philosophers but also created a different perspective as to the change in politics and the fall of Old Order.
Perspectives of Arno Mayer on the Industrial Revolution in Europe She explains that Europe was well prepared to participate in the First World War even though most of its enemies were not aware of these plans. Physical and ideological adjustments had already taken place long before there were rumors of an inevitable war. In addition, civilization had already taken place in most parts of Europe even before anyone though that there was going to be a war.
But even with the increase of tensions, the governing classes were not going to let go of their dominance and power in society. The way out was to adjust the already existing policies to the new ones, “the old elites excelled at selectively ingesting, adapting, and assimilating new ideas and practices without seriously endangering their traditional status, temperament, and outlook” (Mayer, 13).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is interesting that no global changes would be sufficient enough to deprive the land owners and those in control of their power. Their selfish ways were indifferent to people’s rights and the condition that Europe and nation were in.
She added that the old regime was the greatest beneficiary of natural resources in Europe including land, minerals and power. In addition, Mayer confirms that people in the middle class were on bad terms with one another and this became a self destruction tool used to fight them.
They were not well aware and exposed to politics and this became a major blow in their operations. They could not fight the nobles since their ideologies were based on issues of human rights like good working conditions and improved salaries.
The old order was being supported by both the government and the bourgeoisie. This ensured that those who were in power continued to get more wealth and barricade their evils with money and influencing regimes.
The working class had little ability to overthrow the regime because all authority concentrated in the minority of the governing class. All manufacturing and industry was tightly controlled and there was little possibility to change either working conditions or the positions of those in charge.
The much wanted increase in literacy, reduction of poverty and disease was the want of many and the government was constantly bombarded with the message but nothing was being done. This is a well realized fact because there was no material gain for those with all the rule. On the contrary, resources would have to be spent to better the lives of the working class and this was not the goal.
It took longer to achieve and implement changes as people were divided regarding the intervention of the state in business activities although most of them preferred that there should be limited interference.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Old Regime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This explains why liberalism (conservative) is adhered to by many European parties that consider their ideologies as liberal. The few that still follow social liberalism are puppets of the old order that was not willing to shed their ideologies.
Mayer argues that the proletariats were willing to enter coalitions and form governments that would listen to the people and all parties including those in opposition.
In addition, she stated that the new order was very determined to revolutionize Europe through their numbers and not war equipment, strategies or economic influences. They believed that the power of a state belongs to the common man who toils and works to ensure the economy survives thus it should offer opportunities for individual growth.
The clear separation between classes is not a surprise, as a similar picture can be observed today. But presently, there are regulations that would prevent total domination of the ruling class. The unstable condition on the nation, due to violent conflict was another great influence on both the morality and physical state of the countries.
The war was fought both on the streets and countryside where peasants, religious leaders, workers and members of different unions. She explores the events that led to the evaporation of feudal leadership that was replaced by Darwinism.
The proletariat wanted a regime that would offer liberty, fraternity and equality to everybody regardless of their economic. On the other hand, the bourgeoisie was very much committed in preserving their culture and failed to realize that their opponents were determined to liberate Europe even if it meant death.
It is easy to understand that when people become oppressed so much that they have nothing to lose, they will resort to any means necessary to change the order of things. The limitations of the time and human rights were a major determinant in the ways these changes were taking place.
Mayer argues that the proletariats were disorganized and illiterate and this contributed to their defeat. However, they never gave up and continued to work to ensure the old order is replaced even though this was going to cost them money and even life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Old Regime by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The beginning of the 18th century saw the bourgeoisie restore the old order and almost everything lost was recovered. However, there existed antagonism between these groups leading to political wars over the following two centuries. This period was marked by conflicts between the proletariat and bourgeoisie with each group wanting to compel the government to consider its pleas.
It is interesting to note that “The conventional wisdom is still that Europe broke out of its ancient regime and approached or crossed the threshold of modernity well before 1914” (Mayer 5) but it is a major setback in understanding the historical development of power separation in Europe.
Communism was gaining ground in many nations and there were fears that this was going to erupt into a massive demonstration that would affect the old order in all European states. This necessitated the need to form alliances that would help to fight enemy troops.
The need for an established order which allowed for greater control was the goal and it would not be overthrown easily. The labor force was a significant driver of the industrial revolution witnessed in Europe since they were exposed to political activism courtesy of their involvement in worker’s union that advocated for their rights.
Conclusion There is no denying that Europe was very much influenced by those in power and that there is a close connection between the state the nation was in, the World War and what followed. The fact that the masses are demanding a change does not mean that those with power will listen and change their policies to suit the majority.
Even though these issues are historically significant and are considered a part of the past, this sort of problem still exists today. The shift from class separation to liberalism was a major change in Europe that has led to the modern world. It would be wise to use this as an example, to prevent group domination over people’s rights and equality.
Works Cited Mayer, Arno. The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War (Second Edition) (Verso World History Series). London: Verso, 2010. Print.
The importance of Sustainable Purchasing and Supply for Organizations in Gaining Competitive Advantage Case Study cheap essay help
Introduction Most scholars and non-scholars assert that the concept of managing the purchasing and supply chain is modern phenomenon. However, literature recognizes the management of the purchasing and supply chain as an ancient phenomenon that railroad organizations used periods prior to the fiscal 1900 (Gryna 2001, p.416).
As the purchasing and supply chain phenomenon continuously gained stature, individuals trained in the decisive procurement decision-making techniques. Such individuals were absorbed to play different roles including purchasing and supplying raw materials to support business operations (Gardner 2001, p.30).
Thus, despite the vexing organization problems, it is apparent that integrated and sustainable organizational supply chain management strategies help businesses to gain competitive advantage over other market rivals.
The paper discusses the importance of sustainable purchasing and supply for organizations in gaining competitive advantage. The paper first discusses the concept of procurement followed by the benefits derived by businesses for effectively managing the purchasing and supply chains.
The paper discusses the importance of a good purchaser and supplier relationship, and the concept of competitive advantage. Finally, how the selection of a reliable supplier is an important issue in creating competitive advantage is discussed.
The concept of procurement In all organizations including the oil and gas industry, the department of purchasing forms a central component when returns, credit, and purchasing orders are processed. In such corporations, the procuring processes materialize to be very complicated.
For instance, in the oil and gas industry case study the procurement procedures incorporate the acquisition of both the services and products from either a single or multiple suppliers (Chase, Aquilano
The murder of Helen Betty Osborn Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
The murder of Helen Betty Osborn has attracted much attention of journalists, police officers and writers. It should be noted that this crime could be significantly motivated by racism and sexism. More importantly, the failure to investigate this crime properly was attributed to many prejudices that governmental officials could held against Aboriginal people of Canada.
This paper is aimed at discussing the way in which this problem was explored in different sources such as the report of the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission and the poem Helen Betty Osborne written by Marilyn Dumont.
Despite the fact that these sources differ dramatically in terms of style and form, they highlight the idea that the state can marginalize Aboriginal people in various ways. This is one of the main observations that can be made.
It should be noted that the report of the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission consists of three volumes. The second volume is supposed to address various issues that were related to the murder of Helen Osborne and the actions that were taken by the police (The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission unpaged).
In particular, the authors focus on the reasons why the investigation of this case was so prolonged. Much attention is paid to the problem of institutional racism. According to the results of this study, many police officers suspected mostly Aboriginal students and disregarded other people that could be involved in the murder of this woman (The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission unpaged).
Furthermore, the authors argue that many witnesses could be excluded from the investigation only because they were of Aboriginal origin (The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission). These are some of the main challenges that were identified in this source, and they suggest that in many cases Aboriginal people could be discriminated on the basis of their race.
The authors of this report want to present an unbiased evaluation of the key events. Additionally, they do not try to make any unbiased claims about the behavior of police officers and governmental officials. They do not argue that Helen Osborn was murdered because of her race.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, they give a very critical evaluation of police officials who were responsible for the investigation of this murder. These are the main stylistic peculiarities of this report. This document can be a good overview of this case, and it is more suitable for people who want to know more about the main circumstances of this event.
In turn, Marilyn Dumont’s poem also explores the tragedy of Helen Osborn’s death; however, she wants to discuss these problems in a literary form. She wants to speak about the collective experiences of many women who fallen victims of abuse.
Furthermore, the writer mentions such names as Donald Marshall, Richard Cardinal, or Anna Mae Aquash (Dumont unpaged). It should be taken into consideration that these are the people who became the victims of social injustice. In this way, the author shows that Helen Osborn was not the only victim of injustice (Dumont unpaged).
Additionally, in her poem, Marilyn Dumont wants to show that she was deeply touched by the death of Helen Osborn. This is why the first line of this literary work starts with the phrase, “Betty, if I set out to write this poem about you it might turn out instead to be about me” (Dumont unpaged).
This author also raises the problem or racism in Canadian society. In particular, she mentions that native women fail to reach the so-called “standards of womanhood” (Dumont unpaged). These are some of the problems that are of greatest importance to Marilyn Dumont.
Furthermore, this poem is aimed at highlighting some of the main stereotypes that people can have about Aboriginal people. For instance, many people spoke about the alleged promiscuity of Native Canadian women (Dumont unpaged). In this way, the author wants to explain why so many of these women could be victimized by the police because of racial stereotypes existing in the society.
Certainly, this poem differs dramatically from the report of the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission. Marilyn Dumont does not want to sound objective and she wants to discuss her own impressions.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The murder of Helen Betty Osborn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, her writing is extremely engaging and the poem raises a great number of thought-provoking questions about the relations between the state and Aboriginal community. It seems that her exploration of this problem is also important because Marilyn Dumont evokes compassion for people like Helen Osborn. This is one of the major achievements made by this writer.
Overall, this sources show that the death of Helen Osborn raises a great number of questions about society and the relations among various groups in this society.
The sources that have been discussed suggest that many Aboriginal women could be victimized only because of their gender and race. By looking at this case from different perspectives, one can better understand various issues that were related to the case of Helen Osborn. This is the main benefit of these readings.
Works Cited Dumont, Marilyn. Helen Betty Osborne. 1 Aug. 2009. Web. .
The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission. The Death of Helen Betty Osborn.1999. Web. .
Advertisements should be controlled by law and business regulatory bodies Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Moral Argument about Digital Photo Enhanced Advertisements
Introduction In this essay, I argue that the government and business regulatory bodies should control advertisements to protect customers from being deceived by businesspersons. The marketing managers have the responsibility to develop high quality advertisements that will increase the market share. Digital photo enhancement technology helps to enhance images making them appealing to customers.
However, some businesspersons use this technology to acquire competitive advantage in the market for low standard products that do not meet the needs of the customers. They use the technology to dupe customers concerning the quality of the products.
Consequently, deceived customers purchase low quality products after relying only on the information provided by advertisements. It is, therefore, crucial for government and regulatory bodies to control advertising and enhance honesty of businesspersons.
Moral Argument about Digital Photo Enhanced Advertisements Advertising is carried out for the benefit of the businesspersons who need to maximize their profits by increasing sales volume for their product. The seller’s interest limits the freedom of the buyer to get to know more information about the product rather than that contained in the advertisements.
In some instances, sellers go overboard by presenting misleading information about products through the advertisements. Such a move is immoral since it leads customers into purchasing products that do not meet their needs, hence, losing their money to greedy businesspersons1.
According to the international business ethics and policies, a universal business rule, businesspersons ought to be true and honest to stakeholders. Therefore, it is moral obligations for managers to use methods of advertising that adhere to the business policy, in addition to attracting customers in, the targeted market.
Greedy businesspersons do not adhere to universal rule and give false information to customers through digital photo enhanced and manipulated advertisements. They lure customers to purchase products of low quality by depicting them as superior in their advertisements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, deceived customers end up getting frustrated after a product fails to meet the highly pre-anticipated expectations. In order to protect customers from being exploited by greedy businesspersons, it would be prudent for the business regulatory bodies to ensure that business operations are conducted in accordance with the business policies and ethics.
Monopolistic markets are the most affected by misleading advertisements. Sellers are not afraid of competitors and, therefore, their ego to be in control of the market makes them lose moral authority to clients.
In order to protect the clients, business authorities should encourage other business entrants that would bring competition to the market. In addition, a law on advertisements should be enforced to curb the illegal advertising trend. On the other hand, to protect vulnerable clients, business authorities ought to introduce and enforce a law that would enhance honesty in adverting.
The presence of misleading advertisements in the media shows that the government and business regulatory authorities have failed to discharge their duties of protecting customers against exploitation. They have the authority to monitor if businesses are conducted in accordance with the rules outlined in the business licenses and policies.
One would advocate for the regulation of advertisements whereby an advert has to be approved before it is aired to the public. In that case, regulation should be based on conformity of the nature of the product and information on the advertisement. This would help in ensuring that advertisements serve the intended purpose and do not deceive the customers.
Deceiving advertisements indicate failure by the business to produce products and services that meet the intended value to the customer. At the outset, a businessperson has to consider the ability of the product or service to attract new customers by meeting their needs.
Business people opt to use false advertisements that convince the targeted customers that their products and services meet the unsatisfied needs. Business people that violate the advertisement laws and policies ought to be penalized for failing to produce services that meet the intended value upon deceiving the customers2.
We will write a custom Essay on Advertisements should be controlled by law and business regulatory bodies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At outset, businesspersons are extremely optimistic about treating their customers with respect. The idea of false advertisements hardly crosses their minds. However, their optimism fades away when the real business environment challenges them and they opt to gain competitive advantage through false advertisements.
Businesspersons have a moral obligation to respect their customers and to avoid any action that may tarnish their trust for the business products. This would help in ensuring that businesses are left in the hands of honest and courageous businesspersons whose advertisements are real and reliable to customers3.
There is hardly any, market that respects and upholds the freedom of customer in choosing where to buy their products. Business persons use all methods to lure customers to purchase their products. Eventually, this leads to unhealthy competition prompting businesspersons to look for alternative ways of making their products appealing.
One of such alternatives is enhancement of the products’ images using digital photo enhancement technology. Businesspersons should avoid using digital photo enhancement technology in their advertisements in order for customers to have the freedom to choose where to purchase the commodity. In some few decades ago, advertisements were carried out without excess photo enhancements, as exhibited today.
Therefore, it would be prudent for all businesspersons to carry out their advertisements honestly and leave the freedom of choice at the customer’s disposal. In other words, businesspersons should mind about sensitizing the customers about their products with a limited persuasion. By so doing, it would be hard for the fake products to get their way into the market since customers would have the freedom to choose.
Digital photo enhancements have created unhealthy competition in the business environment. This has been made possible by presence of low quality products that use convincing adverts just like their counterparts. This stirs an unhealthy competition whereby businesspersons compete with dishonest competitors for the same target market by using communication media to attract customers.
Solution to this problem can be found by adhering to social contract theory that advocates for the respect of stakeholders. This would ensure that businesspersons do not use photo enhancements that are deceiving hence eliminating the fake products from the market.
Products’ markets designed for the youthful and middle-aged populations are the most affected by advertisements made by excessive digital photo enhancements. This is because the target market is highly influenced by the product’s physical appearances.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertisements should be controlled by law and business regulatory bodies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, businesspersons have opted to make advertisements that comprise of appealing images that do not reflect the real product. It is the responsibility of the government and regulatory bodies to protect customers from deceiving businesspersons.
They need to ensure that products designed for youths and middle aged are not using excessive photo enhancements to acquire a market advantage, as this result to the exploitation of customers4.
Youthful and middle aged populations are the key drivers of the economy because they consume more than other populations. There are business opportunities for products that are highly consumed by youth and middle-aged.
Prudent businesspersons who deal with products and services intended for youthful and middle aged populations often use imagery appealing advertisements as a competitive advantage and a survival strategy5.
In conclusion, the government and business regulatory bodies ought to protect customers. They can achieve this by introducing laws that govern methods of advertisements.
Customers would have the freedom to purchase their products from their preferred businesspersons since they would be using honest methods to advertise their products. Unlawful businesspersons who are caught using deceiving enhanced advertisements should be punished, and their licenses revoked if found to produce fake products.
Above all, the responsibility of curbing this unlawful behavior lies at the disposal of the customers. They should seek for information about a product from other sources apart from relying on advertisements.
It would be prudent for a customer to demand a sample product before purchasing the product they presume that it could serve the intended purpose. As a result, businesspersons would shift their focus from photo-enhanced advertising to other methods that give honest and reliable information about the product to potential customers.
Bibliography Chris, Hackley. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach. Washington D.C.: Sage, 2009.
Shaw, William H. Business Ethics. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Weiss, Joseph W. Business Ethics: A Stakeholders and Issues Management Approach with Cases. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008.
Footnotes 1. Hackley Chris, Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach (Washington D.C.: Sage, 2009) 67.
2. Chris, Hackley, Advertising and Promotion, 78
3. Joseph W. Weiss, Business Ethics: A Stakeholders and Issues Management Approach with Cases(New York: Cengage Learning, 2008), 231
4. William Shaw, Business Ethic.(New York: Cengage Learning, 2010), 90
5. Shaw, Business Ethics, 78
International Human Resources Term Paper essay help
Any country highly values human capital which is the most important input into the day-to-day operations. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that each and every employee is satisfied with the conditions of work so that the employee can deliver to the maximum.
As a result, companies that have invested in better human resource management have advanced more besides getting the best output out of their employees. Human resource management is concerned with the general welfare of the employees as well as the relationship between employees and employers. However, they way human resource is handled differ from one country to another.
While other countries prefer participatory kind of human resource, others have autocratic type of management. Even where the type of management is the same, some principles are different. Since France and Canada are in different continents, the way human resource management is handled in these two countries is different.
The first factor that is compared when people are looking at international human resource management is job design and analysis. Job design refers to the description of roles and duties of each person in an organization (Jackson, 2002). On the other hand, job analysis refers to the acts of deciding the specific job requirements by keenly looking into existing conditions.
This can be done in order to make decisions such as recruitment or the type of training that existing employee need to undergo to enhance output. In Canada, job designs are formulated using National occupation Classification (NOC) as a guideline. In this regard, the job design explains the title of the job, fully outlines the task to be accomplished as well as the description of the conditions under which one will work (Catano, 2009)).
It is important to note that employers are required to explain in detail any extra requirements. The job descriptions are used by human resource managers to determine when extra training or development is required.
However, research is done to collect information about a given job and determine what exactly is required. Job design is then developed for each organization depending on the feedback collected from the survey.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that continuous survey is conducted to know when specific job requirements change for example due to technological improvement to evaluate the type of training required at that particular point in time. Working conditions are very crucial in France because the French are very sensitive on how they are treated (Lawler
Qualitative Research Proposal writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Purpose
Qualitative research objectives
Reasons for selecting this methodology
Purpose For this project qualitative analysis will be conducted using the focus group discussions. The primary aim of the task is to point out the sentiments of Nando’s consumers to the new delivery framework developed by Nandos.
The focus shall be on quantifying the attitudes of consumers to Nando’s as an institution, and the services it offers. This will help determine whether the new idea that the company will be introducing will work in the market and whether its impact on the total income of the company is a risk worth taking.
Qualitative research objectives To find out what the population think of Nando’s as a company.
To find out how consumers put Nando’s rate Nando’s amidst competing establishments.
To find out what consumers think of the Nando’s brand and advertising
To establish the opinion of consumers on the services and products offered by Nando’s
To find out the areas Nando’s consumers would like to see improved
To register the feedback of customers regarding the features they would like to see bundled with thee delivery service
To find out which media the customers would like to use to access the service
To find out the rates that the consumers feel should be charged for the service
Methodology-Focus group The focus group method of analysis has been selected for this task because it enables one to get varies responses from different classes of people. In order to identify the participants of the focus groups, invitations shall be handed out to patrons of different Nando’s outlets and some sent via E-mail as well. Invitations will also be placed on popular food websites within the region of coverage.
These methods have been selected for the invitation because they are inexpensive and just as effective as placing advertisements on bill-boards and newspapers. In order to ensure that individuals are interested in offering their input, freebies, such as free meals will be given to participants.
The plan is to have a turn-out of 30 people and it will be pointed out in the various invitation platforms that the selection will be done on a first-come-first-selected basis. On the day of the discussion, the attendees will be grouped into three groups, each having ten people. Each focus group will have one moderator and will sit for a total of 90 minutes. Camcorders will be installed in place to record the sessions, for later evaluation.
Reasons for selecting this methodology The primary reason for using focus groups is that they are not as expensive to conduct as other methods of research (Fern, 2001; Morgan, 1997; Puchta, C and Potter, J, 2004).
In addition, by virtue of the fact that the researcher interacts directly with the respondents, he can pose even deeper questions than can be permitted by the other methods of research (Krueger and Casey, 2006). Focus group data is also easy to analyse and evaluate and given the needs of the current research, the methodology will work perfectly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sampling There will be no special sampling process for this analysis. This is because the invitation platforms selected are bound to attract responses from varying demographics. However, in the invitations there will be the requirement that respondents must be regular Nando’s visitors.
A simple telephone questionnaire carrying questions that only a regular Nando’s patron will know the answer to will be conducted in order to make sure that the project meets its laid down objectives. Individuals who respond among the first 30 but are established not to know anything much about Nando’s will be replaced by other applicants.
Procedure A trial run will be conducted on a limited number of people, in order to find out just how effective the invitation process will be. This will provide room for modifications in the event that the process does not work as fluidly as envisioned.
The invitations will then be sent out and the advertisements placed on the selected platforms. Once the needed number of participants is reached, emails will be sent out informing people that the selection process is complete. Banners will also be placed in respective websites informing the public of the end of the process.
Data Analysis The videos recorded at the times of the sittings shall be replayed by three individuals each recording different elements. Two people will be collecting the responses of the attendees, while one will be focusing on the interactions between members of the group. On an individual level, the analysis will focus on how strongly an individual feels about a particular issue.
Evaluating the response of each individual to different questions will determine whether his opinion changes over time. At the group level, the data collected can show whether the different participants have a common view on something.
The collected data will be tabulated alongside the laid-down objectives and a correlation and regression analysis used to show the relationship between the attitudes across different sections of the Nando’s clientele.
We will write a custom Proposal on Qualitative Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Fern, F 2001, Advanced focus group research, SAGE, New York.
Krueger, A and Casey M 2006, Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, SAGE, New York.
Morgan, L 1997, Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, SAGE, New York.
Puchta, C and Potter, J 2004, Focus Group Practice, SAGE, New York.
Arthur Andersen Ltd. Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Unlike Enron’s case, Arthur Andersen Ltd was more concerned with ethical and moral codes, as well as with organizational culture motivating employees to accomplish objectives. Despite this advantage, the audit department faced the conflict of interest problem that focused mostly on a rigid competition to raise profits and bring in revenues.
The emerged rivalry between accountants has led to the financial problems that are connected with shifts in priorities. Due to the fact that the concept of “tone at the top” is adopted by Arthur Andersen, it is possible to assert that the company’s partners planned to be driven by the revenue generations (Brooks and Dunn 105).
However, in case considerable risks are undertaken to increase profits, the probability of the emergence of audit problems, causing unfavorable outcomes is more evident.
With regard to the above-presented case, the AA managers followed Enron’s footsteps and made similar mistakes in terms of their financial objectives. Specifically, due to the absence of strict regulations, Enron’s accountants put all the employees under the threat by concealing information about profits.
Lack of transparent reporting of balance sheet led to the disaster. So, AA failed to acknowledge the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles that do not allow the shares recording as the rise in stakeholders equity if they are not issued for cash.
Focus on rivalry rather than on the main principles of corporate social responsibility prevented the Enron’s managers to settle the problem and develop profound internal control for carrying out business transactions. The debate on the demise of the company specifically concerns the influence of professional and business goals on public sector.
At this point, Enron tragedy as occurred as a result of failure of the accountants to take responsibility and report to the governmental authorities about the fraudulent operation occurred at the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current legislature and codes have taken the Enron case into the deepest consideration to develop a set of rules that could guarantee protection for employees, as well as enhance accountants responsibility for business activities.
According to AICPA, “Although members not in public practice cannot maintain the appearance of independence, they nevertheless have the responsibility to maintain objectivity in rendering professional services” (n. p.). Enron’s accountants failed to follow these principles and, therefore, they would have been accused of the violation if the provisions had been introduced during this period.
Responsibility to other employees is another corner stone that relates to Enron’s case. This section is also mentioned in the corporate governance regulations that control the accountant activities.
According to Clarke, “…the legislature, regulatory and market responses to Enron will make the corporate governance system better though there is a danger of overreacting to extreme events” (328). Taking advantage of the Enron’s case, the managers should learn much from the tragedy and make conclusions in terms of their responsibility in front of their most valuable asset – employees.
In conclusion, while developing a business organization, the executives should establish corporate priorities in relation to their liabilities to the personnel. Failure to reach integrity and objectivity in carrying out business can become a serious obstacle to increasing profits and gaining a competitive advantage over other companies.
External and internal aspects should be considered equally to be able to sustain the company’s growth. Corporate governance initiative also relies on respect and responsibilities imposed on employees and managers.
Works Cited AICPA. ET Section 55 – Article IV – Objectivity and Independence. n. d. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Arthur Andersen Ltd. Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Brooks, Leonard, and Paul Dunn. Business and Professional Ethics: For Directors, Executives and Accountants. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Clarke, Thomas. International Corporate Governance: A Corporate Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.
Roles of a Manager as a Leader in Their Ability to Provide Motivation and Leadership Across Cultural Borders Essay best college essay help
What are the roles of a manager as a leader in his/her ability to provide motivation and leadership across cultural borders?
Cross-cultural leadership demands that leaders motivate and influence individuals from diverse groups to attain a valued result by appealing to the meaning systems and shared knowledge of such individuals. Adair (2006) argues that the modern day transcultural manager differs from the traditional international manager with respect to the cross-border nature of the skills and tasks that he/she is required to perform.
As good team leaders, managers should also be in a position to motivate their subordinates. This is important so that they can expand their horizons of vision, goals and acceptance. However, the incorporation of cross-cultural considerations complicates the definition and role of a leader.
For example, some things might be acceptable in one culture but totally unacceptable in yet another culture. These variations compel managers to adapt various solutions to the challenges and dilemmas that they could be faced with in the various countries.
Research studies on expatriate managers reveal that factors like openness and flexibility go a long way in enabling managers to institute such solutions. These research findings are in line with the concept of universal practices or cultures that are often adapted by effective leaders across the globe (Adair, 2006).
They include being decisive, motivational, and honest. Leaders should also endevours to impact the same practices to their subordinates. At the same time, we need to be aware of the fact that such universal practices are also indicative of cultural specifics.
What this means is that whereas some leadership practices like instating on subordinates being team oriented or taking part in decision making can be readily implemented in certain cultures, this is not the case with other cultures. Leadership might also call for ambiguity management and polarity leadership. A manager operating across cultural borders might at times be faced with a hard time in identifying the aforementioned choice.
For this reason, different leadership traits work for different cultural settings. For example, in the market-pricing and developed countries, the key focus is on transformational as well as visionary leadership that can help organizations reach new levels of success (Adair, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, transformational leadership underlies the ability of a leader to change the culture of an organization and its profitability as well. On the other hand, a market-pricing culture requires an instrumental type of leadership in which the leader motivates his/her subordinates by rewarding them for having achieved the set goals.
Conclusion Global managers have to contend with a multitude of challenges in trying to execute their duties. For example, they need to ensure that resources have been allocated uniformly, employees have been selected using the due process and that potential mergers are scrutinized adequately. They also need to consider cultural influences of the decisions that they make.
Bounded rationality concepts indicate that global managers arrive at their decisions following certain rational models. They are also affected by motivations while making their decisions.
For instance, social motives affect their decisions. When global mangers cross from one cultural boundary to another, this is likely to influence their moral compass and as such, they need to draw from ethical guidance models in arriving at ethical decisions.
A manager should be a good negotiator and communicator so as to negotiate well across cultural boundaries. They must first demonstrate openness in handling business strategies. Nonverbal communication such as the use of various ambiguous gestures, touch behavior and eye distance can all influence negotiations and there is need for the manager to be aware of these.
A manager who is dealing with cross cultural issues needs to posies leadership skills. In addition, they need to motivate their subordinates accordingly. Various cultures require different types of leadership styles and as such some leaders are better suited for handling certain cultures, and not others.
Reference List Adair, J. E. (2006). Leadership and motivation: the fifty-fifty rule and the eight key principles of motivating others. London: Kogan Page.
We will write a custom Essay on Roles of a Manager as a Leader in Their Ability to Provide Motivation and Leadership Across Cultural Borders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leo, C., Bennett, R.,
Privacy in the Digital Age Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Anonymity and the Internet
Advantages and Disadvantages of Anonymity
Controversies and Responses
Introduction Social, economic, and technological advances have dramatically increased the amount of information any individual can access or possess. Unfortunately, this has also brought about various challenges that must be addressed1. Generally, information is a vital treasure in itself, and the more one has the better. Having valuable, intellectual, economic, and social information creates enormous opportunities and advantages for any individual.
Even though information is a treasure, it can also be a liability. Besides constantly seeking ways to acquire, keep, and dispose of it, users of information also want to make sure that what is seen and heard privately does not become public without their consent. In the present technologically advanced society, a number of factors have contributed to the high demand for information and hence the need for anonymity, security, and privacy.
Increased public awareness of the potential abuse of digital communication, especially the Internet is one major concern for all stakeholders. To a large extent, most Internet users are concerned about privacy and do not want all the information they send or receive over the Internet to be connected to them by name2.
This paper presents arguments indicating that it is critical for governments to impose restrictions on Internet privacy. According to Kizza 3 anonymity refers to the state of being nameless or having no identity.
Since it is extremely difficult for anybody to live a meaningful life while being totally anonymous, there are different types of anonymity that exist including pseudo anonymity and untraceable identity.
Pseudo anonymity is where one chooses to be identified by a certain pseudonym or code while untraceable identity implies that one is not known by any name.
Anonymity and the Internet For many people, anonymity is one of the biggest worries as far as using the Internet’s is concerned. The virtual world may make it easier for dissidents to criticize governments, for alcoholics to talk about their problems and for shy people to find love4. However, anonymity also creates room for dishonest people to pose as children in chat rooms and criminals in order to hide from law enforcers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such, Internet anonymity seems to cut both ways. According to proponents, preserving anonymity on the Internet may be the cornerstone of safeguarding privacy and a vital part of the constitutionally protected right to free speech. Critics have, however, argued that online anonymity permits people to affect others and not be held responsible or accountable for their actions.
In general, the use of the Internet has created room for individuals to operate in secret, without any one being able to tell who they are. In particular, the Internet provides two channels through which anonymous acts can be carried out. These are anonymous severs and anonymous users.
Anonymous Servers With advances in software and hardware, anonymity on the Internet has grown through anonymous servers. These may be full anonymity servers or pseudonymous servers. When full anonymity servers are used, it is impossible to identify the packet headers.
In the case of pseudonymous servers, pseudonyms are usually placed inside packet headers to conceal identity. In the process, the actual identity gets hidden behind a pseudonym and any packets received thereafter are relayed to the real server. Anonymity servers are able to accomplish this through the use of encryption5.
Anonymous Users Other options are also used to allow users to adopt false names to hide their identity as they use the Internet. With false names, they can proceed to use message boards or participate in chat rooms without being recognized by anyone.
This has sometimes led to sensitive or highly personal information being posted to user groups, news groups, and chat rooms. In addition, popular protocols are also used to provide anonymity to the users. Generally, these protocols accept messages relayed to servers with arbitrary field information.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Anonymity To some extent, anonymity may be used to curb bad behavior and to warn culprits that they are being watched. This contributes greatly to ensuring that everyone in the organization behaves appropriately. Although whistle blowers are sometimes controversial, they are reliable in a number of occasions such as when there is abuse of office and resources. Secondly, anonymity can be useful to those in charge of national security.
We will write a custom Essay on Privacy in the Digital Age specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It may be used by underground spies to gather useful information for national defense. Where there is intimidation and fear of punishment, anonymity may be used to reveal useful information. Anonymity is also good for strengthening relationships and the security of some people6.
One of the disadvantages has to do with the fact that anonymity can make it easy for criminals and fraudsters to commit crime. It can also make it difficult to access information that may be useful for settling disputes.
Controversies and Responses Anonymity, according to its defenders, is a right protected by the American Constitution. In a notable 1995 case concerned with the distribution of anonymous pamphlets, the Supreme Court noted that anonymity is some form of a shield for individuals. Enshrined in law or not, the power to remain anonymous is often taken for granted by members of democratic societies.
Many authors have written controversial works using pseudonyms, politicians comment confidentially using generic titles like a spokesperson, and one of the first principles of journalism is never to divulge the identity of an anonymous source. It is important to note that anonymity is central to free speech and free speech is central to democracy.
According to Lambert7, anonymity can be a weapon that damages or destroys reputations. Defenders of anonymity are always concerned that the idea of anonymity on the Internet is regarded differently from any other kind of anonymity.
If the Supreme Court recognizes that anonymous books and leaflets are a justified form of free speech, the argument goes that Internet communication should be treated the same. Where anonymity is concerned, radio and television are treated differently from books because they are broadcast media.
They are not disseminated the same way and are harder to ignore. Although critics charge that Internet anonymity should be subject to special regulation, one of the basic premises of devising laws for the Internet is that they should be technologically neutral.
According to law enforcers, the Internet’s built in anonymity makes it a safe haven not just for whistle blowers and dissidents but also for criminals and terrorists. In November 2002, newspapers reported that the Pentagon had briefly considered and rejected an idea called e-DNA, which would have tagged natural Internet traffic with personalized makers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Privacy in the Digital Age by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since human DNA is unique to every individual, DNA samples taken from crime scenes can often be used to trap criminals. In much the same way, the Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) hoped that Internet traffic tagged with e-DNA makers would be traceable to individuals and their computers. Had the plan not been scuttled, it would have outlawed most forms of Internet anonymity.
However, if anonymity is a cornerstone for democracy, as proponents allege, it would seem to be worth going to some lengths to defend. Apparently, this would require more than passing laws to protect Internet users who want to remain anonymous.
Ultimately, the recognition of the different kinds of anonymity might be necessary, followed by the treatment of the various forms of anonymity in different ways, including legal protection for uses of anonymity that are not connected to criminal behavior.
It may also be necessary to come up with ways to distinguish between those hiding behind their anonymity to commit crime and those using it for whistle blowing purposes. The distinction will help organizations to determine if it is necessary to allow anonymity in a given situation.
Strangely enough, anonymity may be complicated or simplified through the Internet given that communication via the Internet happens secretly and determining a user’s identity can not be done with absolute certainty.
Conclusion As has been discussed in this paper, anonymity has its good and bad side. If left unchecked, innocent individuals in the society will be subjected to undeserved suffering. In a number of cases, therefore, it is necessary either for a local authority or national legislatures to pass laws that regulate when and who can use anonymity legally.
In the current environment of the Internet, there are serious debates on the freedoms of individuals on the Internet and how these freedoms can be protected when dealing with people on the Internet under the cover of anonymity.
Bibliography Kizza, Joseph. Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. Chattanooga, TN: Springer, 2010.
Lambert, Laura. The Internet: Biographies. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005.
Schwabach, Aaron. Internet and the Law: Technology, Society, and Compromises. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006.
Footnotes 1 Joseph Kizza, Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. (Chattanooga, TN: Springer, 2010), 23.
2 Aaron Schwabach, Internet and the Law: Technology, Society, and Compromises. (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), 45.
3 Joseph Kizza, Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. (Chattanooga, TN: Springer, 2010), 24.
4 Laura Lambert, The Internet: Biographies. (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 53.
5 Joseph Kizza, Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. (Chattanooga, TN: Springer, 2010), 31.
6 Laura Lambert, The Internet: Biographies. (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 61.
7 Laura Lambert, The Internet: Biographies. (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 65.
Illegally downloading copyrighted material Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Moral Justification for Sharing Media content
File Sharing Opportunities
Introduction Globally, millions of people engage in some form of illegal downloading of copyrighted material. This practice continues unabated, despite the understanding that the act of downloading copyrighted internet content is illegal.1 The big companies that engage in the production and sale of these internet contents are unhappy with such developments because they fear an erosion of their profitability.2
Policy makers also support the opinion of such companies because they strive to protect intellectual property by preventing the illegal reproduction of copyrighted work.3
However, the legal argument surrounding the download of copyrighted materials outline one understanding of the entire debate regarding the subject because some people believe this legal understanding should also be subject to an ethical and moral understanding of the issue.4
This paper focuses on the moral understanding of illegally downloading copyrighted material by questioning the moral justification for criminalizing the practice. The utilitarianism concept informs the main argument of this paper because this document affirms that more societal benefits (as opposed to negative repercussions) may manifest if the government allows the downloading of copyrighted material.
Moreover, this paper shows that many economic opportunities remain unexploited by disallowing the downloading of copyrighted material. This way, big film and music companies lose a lot of money by failing to adapt to the emerging trends of the digital file sharing market. Comprehensively, this paper demonstrates that downloading copyrighted material should be decriminalized.
Moral Justification for Sharing Media content One reason that motivates people to download copyrighted material from the internet is the lack of a moral justification to prevent this practice.5 Indeed, even though the law criminalizes the illegal downloading of copyrighted material, the act is not morally wrong. These sentiments replicate around the world because many people are now starting to question the moral justification for prohibiting internet downloads.6
Some researchers say many young people question the moral justification for preventing file sharing because internet downloads outline a common form of file sharing.7 For example, if an artist produces a song and wants to share it with the rest of the world, he would upload it on YouTube.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People would then download the song and share it with other people. Regardless of existing laws, many people believe there is no immorality committed by sharing music or video files this way.8 A pivotal issue in this argument is the fair use policy, which justifies the use of file sharing.
For example, if someone borrows a published book from a classmate, the government should not prosecute the lender for helping the friend. Such an act would contradict the principle of fair use. However, the concepts of “borrowing” and “keeping” suffice in this explanation. Their difference rests on a mere technicality, which centers on gaining access to the reading material.
For example, there is no difference between having the book in one’s house and gaining access to the material through a friend, or via the internet. So long as a person can gain access to the material in both contexts, there is no difference between “borrowing” and “keeping”.9
Still, a critic may argue that sharing a file with a friend is very different from reproducing the material and sharing it with a group of strangers.
However, there is no moral justification for terming such a file-sharing avenue as illegal, while YouTube allows people to upload copyrighted digital contents for strangers to gain access (freely). It is therefore unjust to consider file sharing via YouTube as legal, while file sharing through other avenues remain illegal.
Unjust Pricing Another compelling argument regarding the illegal downloading of copyrighted material comes from the moral arguments surrounding the unequal economic potential of different societies. Around the world, retailers often price their goods according to the economic potential of their markets.10
Ordinarily, retailers charge high prices for high potential markets, and low prices for markets with low economic potential. This has been the logic surrounding most pricing strategies. However, regardless of the economic potential for different markets, the prices for online copyrighted materials are often standardized.
We will write a custom Essay on Illegally downloading copyrighted material specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This unfair pricing policy therefore prevents poor people from using “expensive” online contents, while wealthier societies manage to pay the cost of purchasing the same contents. This inequality is unjust.
A previous discussion with Microsoft founder, Bill Gates, acknowledged this imbalance when he implied that it was “okay” for poor societies to download their softwares (illegally).11 Relative to this statement Gates said, “As long as they are going to steal it, we want them to steal ours.
They will somehow get addicted, and then we will somehow figure out how to collect, sometime in the next decade.”12 Through this assertion, it is correct to say that preventing the illegal downloading of copyrighted material in poor societies create an unjust market for online content providers and their customers.
File Sharing Opportunities Big media companies that are involved in the production and distribution of media content fail to realize the immense business opportunities that emerge from internet downloads and file sharing. Indeed, just like the opposition to video recorders from the movie industry (two decades ago), media companies do not realize the potential that exists by allowing people to download and share files.
For example, file sharing gives the opportunity for upcoming artists and film producers to display their materials in avenues that they would not have had before. For example, film and music companies charge a high fee for producing and distributing media content. To some artists, such fees are prohibitive to their quest to gain access to established media distribution channels.
The internet however gives them a new opportunity to present their work without paying such prohibitive fees. They therefore gain access to a global audience that would otherwise be out-of-reach. In fact, most upcoming musicians and film producers would not vehemently oppose the illegal download of their work because they do not enjoy a huge public audience.13
Multiple reproductions of their work would only do more good than harm because it would give them the publicity that they desperately need.
Lastly, there exists some untruthfulness from the assumption that illegal downloads can “kill” the film, gaming, and music industries. In fact, on the contrary, allowing illegal downloads would improve these industries. Recent surveys showed that about 95% of all music downloads were illegal.14 Yet, the digital music business grew by more than 25% in a consecutive three years.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Illegally downloading copyrighted material by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The contradictions of these statistics show that the presence of music downloads do not necessarily mean that it hurts sales, or hinders the growth of the industry. Instead, internet downloads and the subsequent file sharing process increases the market for media content.
Conclusion Comprehensively, file sharing has done more good than harm to the society. Indeed, file sharing has opened an avenue for people to enjoy digital content that they would otherwise have not afforded. Similarly, upcoming gamers, musicians, and film producers have found an opportunity to display their materials to the public, without having to experience the burden of paying a lot of money for mainstream distribution.
Established artists still benefit from the online frenzy that online file sharing creates because they benefit from increased touring and more publicity.
In fact, the only reason established musicians do not fully benefit from online file sharing is because the industry has failed to adapt properly to the phenomenon. Therefore, banning illegal downloads will not work in present-day liberalized society because the provision is unfair, inconsistent, and irrational for the society.
References Cavalier, Robert. The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives. New York: SUNY Press, 2005.
Dhillon, Kamal. “Not wrong, just illegal.” Winnipeg Free Press. Web.
Riley, Gail. Internet Piracy. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2010. Smith, Robert. “How to morally justify illegal downloading.” NBR. Web.
Thurlow, Max. “Ethical Issues in Software Piracy.” E how. Web.
Footnotes 1 Robert Cavalier, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives (New York: SUNY Press, 2005), 44.
2 Robert Cavalier, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives (New York: SUNY Press, 2005), 44.
3 Robert Smith, “How to morally justify illegal downloading,” NBR.
4 Robert Cavalier, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives (New York: SUNY Press, 2005), 44.
5 Kamal Dhillon, “Not wrong, just illegal,” Winnipeg Free Press.
6 Robert Cavalier, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives (New York: SUNY Press, 2005), 44.
7 Kamal Dhillon, “Not wrong, just illegal,” Winnipeg Free Press.
8 Kamal Dhillon, “Not wrong, just illegal,” Winnipeg Free Press.
9 Kamal Dhillon, “Not wrong, just illegal,” Winnipeg Free Press.
10 Max Thurlow, “Ethical Issues in Software Piracy,” E how.
11 Max Thurlow, “Ethical Issues in Software Piracy,” E how.
12 Max Thurlow, “Ethical Issues in Software Piracy,” E how.
13 Gail Riley, Internet Piracy (New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2010), 62.
14 Kamal Dhillon, “Not wrong, just illegal,” Winnipeg Free Press.
The Business Model Canvas Essay writing essay help
The Business Model Canvas (BMC) can be defined as a tool that is used in the generation of a business model. “The BMC is made up of nine building blocks forming a chart that describes a firms value proposition, infrastructure, customers, finances, resources, channels, revenue streams and cost structure”(Shaw 2011).
I am going to describe the business of Spotify.com using the BMC. Spotify is a company that helps its customers get the best music collection for their phones and personal computers. It is a company with a large dataset of music tracks. It also enables its customers to browse music from their friend’s collection lists and from music celebrities (Pigneru, 2012).
Key Partners This refers to the partners that we do business with. They include ,Marantz, Phillips, Onkyo, Sonos, Samsung, Denon, WD, Boxee, Morpher and logitech
Key Activities This involves the main mission as to the existence of the company. Theses are the activities that give a company the meaning for its existence. The key activities for spotify are divided into three;
Production – This involves producing the music and distributing it to the customers and loading it up to their website.
Problem solving – Solving problems faced by customers by making use of qualified IT team. Making sure there is enough music in the system
Value Propositions This involves value delivered to customers.
Customer Relationship This is the association between the company and its clients.
Customer Segments This covers areas where customers are found in the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Key Resources This refers to the resources that make up our value proposition and which will generate revenue and at the same time reduce costs. The resources aim at improving customer relationships and in the distribution of products.
Channels This are the channels of distribution used to get to our customers. It involves using the channels that enable us reach our customers best and in the shortest time. The channel aims at;
Awareness – Creating awareness to customers about our products.
Evaluation – By allowing our customers to evaluate us by having questionnaires that give feedback on our products and services. And having a balance score card for our employees.
Purchase – These refers to the ease with which our customers can pay for our products which can be done through bankers cheque, credit cards, internet money transfer, money orders or in cash.
After sales service – Refers the support given to the customers after the purchase. This includes free delivery to their locations, installation, offering warranties and guaranties and doing regular check-ups (Spinellli, 2012).
Cost structure This touches on the cost structure of our business and creating value for money.
Revenue streams This refers to the income generated from the business. It involves ethical business practices by charging customers fairly. The customers can pay for this revenue streams through negotiated bargaining or buying in the real market prices.
Business model pattern The business model of Spotify has a long tail business model patterns.
Long tail business This is a business model that focuses on selling a few products to a large number of clients. This is because the business is targeting a market that is not very profitable in terms of sales and targeting a specific market can be too costly (Pignerur, 2012). This business mode is working for Spotify because;
There is democratisation in the production of music in the industry. There is advanced technology that favours the company, and the technology was more costly years back. There are also cheap applications that enables customers download music and videos.
There is democratisation in the distribution process. This has been made possible through the internet where the distribution costs are low, the inventory is always available in the internet, there is little communication and transaction overheads and the internet has opened up the niche market
There is less costs of searching for the products in the market. This because Internet Service Providers (ISP) have lowered their costs. Therefore, it is easy for the niche market to get their products cheaply.
The cost of running the business is low and the company can have unlimited number of clients from the mass market. The company can as well subsidize its costs for its loyal customers (svathy, 2012).
Business Model Canvas Designed for: Spotify.com Designed by:
We will write a custom Essay on The Business Model Canvas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key Partners Guided by driving force for partnerships
Optimisation and saving
Decreasing threat and improbability
Obtaining resources in the organization
Marantz, Phillips, Onkyo, Sonos, Samsung, Denon, WD, Boxee, Morpher and logitech
Key Activities Production Finding talent Marketing Value Propositions Newness, affordability, design, reducing product costs, reducing product risk, product branding, developing superstars, artists, hits and quality products Customer Relationship Personalized assistance to customers, customer service, self-service, automated services and co-creation Customer Segments Niche markets Mass markets Particular market segment Market diversification Developing market platform Channels Retail outlets Online Radio and T.V Warehouse Key Resources Human capital Physical locations Finances Intellectual property rights like brand, goodwill, data and patents Cost Structure Extensive automation, outsourcing, overhead reduction, economies of large scale production, variable costs reduction, marketing and talent production. Revenue Streams Sale of music, leasing, sale of assets, consultancy, subscription fees and usage fees List of References Pignerur, A 2012, Business model Generation. A Handbook for visinories, Game changers, and challegers. John Wiley
“Slave culture” was a Culture of Resistance Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction At the time of colonisation, the Spanish and the Portuguese were the pioneers of the slave trade and thus slaves laboured in their farms. In the beginning of 17th century, explorers from the Great Britain entered Africa and gained some form of interest in Blacks.
Initially, the Britons shipped people from West Africa to the United States in order to teach them the English language as a way of facilitating communication that would enable effective trading. Consequently, slave trade started with John Hawkins being the pioneer as he was in a position to capture more than 300 African slaves, who he later sold to the Spaniards (Buchanan 2004).
After the slave trade became deeply rooted, other players entered the trade leading to colonisation mostly in Africa in order to obtain slaves for trade. This paper shall discuss the resistance of slave culture with regard to North America.
A majority of the Africans that were captured as slaves ended up in Brazil or Spain, whereas quite an insignificant number of them ended up in North America. These slaves needed replacement from time to time since most of them died from tropical decrease, hence a decrease in the initial numbers.
In addition, slaves lived under deplorable conditions that comprised malnutrition, inadequate clothing, and poor housing and were overworked with poor remuneration (Stuckey 1988). However, this scenario did not reflect in North America as the number of slaves kept on increasing with time as opposed to what was happening in the Caribbean (Stuckey 1988).
Although there were Indian slaves in North America, African slaves were preferred when it came to the provision of labour. One reason attributed to this preference was that Indian slaves had lived in North America for quite some time, and thus they could easily escape from the provision of forced labour. In addition, African slaves could hardly survive in the wilderness where Indians went hiding.
Resistance to slavery African slaves faced numerous difficulties while living in North America. They lived under deplorable conditions, were overworked, and they lived in houses under very poor conditions. Clothing was not guaranteed as they received clothes from their masters twice a year (Buchanan 2004). The majority of them especially children suffered malnutrition due to poor diet combination and lack of enough food.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More African slaves provided hard labour accompanied with corporal punishments as well as subjection to poor medical services. However, this suffering did not last long as resistance by these slaves started sooner than expected. Researchers hold that slaves resisted since enslavement and slavery were not natural as they violated fundamental rights of human beings (Kuyk 2003).
Resistance depicted by these slaves varied in forms, but all had a common goal of ensuring freedom to the slaves. They formed groups to resist against Americans who treated African slaves as some form of property. The impacts of the resistance were felt at places of work due to the prevalence of forced labour under unfavourable working conditions (Buchanan 2004).
Africans were not happy with the type of treatment they were receiving; therefore, they came up with various ways of boycotting their duties in farms. For instance, they feigned sicknesses, broke their tools, and sabotaged production deliberately (Watson 2009). Although this form of resistance caught the attention of their masters, little or nothing at all was done to stop this trend.
These masters feared that the problem would be compounded by implementing any punitive measures, hence a halt on the production activities (Kuyk 2003). Resistances by African slaves led to negotiations between slaves and their masters concerning terms and conditions of their daily routines.
However, this move was to the advantage of their masters as output increased as slaves worked hard and efficiently under the new and improved conditions (Kuyk 2003).
Africans also used theft as a form of resistance. Those who worked in orchards stole fruits, while those who worked elsewhere stole animals, tobacco, and money among others. However, not all forms of theft were unjustifiable. For instance, slaves stole food as they were provided with inadequate and low nutritional foodstuffs (Kuyk 2003).
While trying to seek additional freedom, some of the slaves fled from their master’s homes. For instance, in 1640, most slaves that resided in Virginia had fled away paving the way for the trend that went on until the time of the Civil War. The majority of those slaves that managed to escape were men.
We will write a custom Essay on “Slave culture” was a Culture of Resistance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the slaves that escaped faced various challenges since they could not communicate effectively due to language barrier and they were not familiar with the terrain in North America (Delombard 2007). Despite these conditions, they never gave up, but pursued their mission, which depicted their ability to withstand the deplorable conditions (Watson 2009).
However, those caught while escaping were subjected to severe punishments including beatings and eating together with some dirty birds. Those who managed to escape successfully sought refuge in some places such as swamps and some free states within North America.
Freed slaves together with the help of sympathetic whites helped to free other slaves from enslavement, an exercise that was conducted through discrete underground railroads. The problem of enslavement nearly ended during the time of the Civil War (Watson 2009). When the Civil War erupted among North American states, most slaves fled from their plantations and masters to join the army in a bid to fight slavery (Watson 2009).
Organised fights and armed rebellions are the most widely recognised forms of resistance studied by most researchers. Researchers document that at least nine rebellion revolts by slaves broke out between 1690 and 1860. New Orleans, Virginia, the city of New York, and South Carolina were some of the states and cities that witnessed these revolts (Stuckey 1988).
During these revolts, slaves came up with other ways to get access to weapons, which they used to fight, while at the same time destroying property through looting and burning, especially buildings and other structures. The fight did not only target the masters, but also other whites.
Many people lost their lives, but the whites retaliated, a move that saw brutal murder of African slaves especially those involved in the revolt (Delombard 2007). In one of the revolts termed as the most bloody in the American history, approximately sixty whites were brutally murdered and in return, a revenge mission was lounged that saw the killing of approximately 100 slaves.
In addition, some of the slaves were hanged together with some of the free slaves (Stuckey 1988). However, most of the revolts failed to bring slavery to its knees, which led to the rising of the Haitian revolution.
The revolution did not end in North America as it spread to the south during the 19th century. Through these revolts, Americans learnt that slavery is intolerable and can hardly go on without unchallenged.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Slave culture” was a Culture of Resistance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Buchanan, T 2004, Black Life on the Mississippi Slaves, Free Blacks, and the Western Steamboat World, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Delombard, M 2007, Slavery on trial law, abolitionism, and print culture, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Kuyk, B 2003, African voices in the African American heritage, Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington.
Stuckey, S 1988, Slave Culture Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America, Oxford University Press, New York.
Watson, A 2009, Slave law in the Americas, University of Georgia Press, Athens.
France’s Economy: Five Key Macroeconomic Variables Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the Main Macroeconomic Variables
Introduction France is one of the largest and most advanced economies in the world. The country achieved its success through diversification of its economy and prudent management of the public sector finances. Unlike other developed countries, agriculture contributes significantly to economic development in France. The output from the agricultural sector comes from livestock and cash crops.
The leading industries in the country include chemicals, automobiles, electronics, machinery, and textiles. The main minerals produced in the country include iron, bauxite, and coal. Nearly 75% of the country’s electricity is generated though nuclear energy. The government has since reduced its participation in the economy by privatizing most of its firms.
This paper focuses on the economy of France by analyzing five of its key macroeconomic variables. These include unemployment rate, real interest rate, gross domestic product (GDP), inflation rate, and the current account balance. Additionally, policy recommendations will be suggested to help the country to revitalize its economy. The analysis will focus on the period between 1980 and 2012.
Background France is among the leading producers of automobiles, aircrafts, cosmetics, and luxury goods. It also has highly advanced insurance, telecoms, power generation, and tourism industries. The country’s labor force has the largest number of graduates, especially, in science disciples per one thousand workers in the Euro-zone.
Following the end of the Second World War, the country experienced a rapid economic growth due to its massive investment in agriculture. During this period, nearly 40% of the population was employed in the agricultural sector. The country’s GDP expanded at an average rate of 4.1% between 1945 and 1975.
Rapid economic growth was maintained through several four-year development plans. These plans had economic development targets that were set by the government, but were mainly achieved by the private sector. From 1945 to 1986, the government focused on implementing policies of nationalization, as well as, intensive intervention in the economy.
From 1981, Mitterrand’s regime focused on nationalizing major firms in key industries such as insurance, banking, and pharmaceuticals. Following the failure of the nationalization strategy, the country embarked on large-scale privatization of its firms in the 1990s.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, the government still holds a large proportion of shares in the countries major companies such as France Telecom and Renault. In the 1990s, the country’s economy maintained moderate growth through investments in modern technologies such as the internet and the expansion of infrastructure.
The formation of the European Union and the Euro-zone contributed to the country’s economic growth by providing a ready market for its exports. However, the economic crisis in Europe and the global economic downturn, which began in 2007, have led to severe reduction in the country’s growth rate.
In 2009, the country’s “real GDP contracted by 2.6%, whereas unemployment rate increased from 7.4% to 10%”. Additionally, the country’s budget deficit as a percentage of GDP increased from 3.4% in 2008 to 7.5% in 2009.
Public debt also increased from 68% to 89% of the GDP in the same period. Despite the efforts made by the government in the last five years, the country has not been able to achieve a growth rate above 2% or to reduce its unemployment rate below 10% (IMF, 2013).
Overview of the Main Macroeconomic Variables France’s real interest rate, unemployment rate, GDP, current account balance, and inflation rate have greatly evolved in the last thirty years. Unemployment rate refers to the “percentage of the total labor force that is unemployed, but willing to work and actively seeking employment”.
Figure 1, illustrates the fluctuation of unemployment in France in the last thirty years. According to figure 1, the country’s unemployment rate rose steadily from 8.07% in 1982 to 10.5% in1988. On average, the unemployment rate during this period was 9.56%. Following the implementation of expansionary fiscal policy that led to a 4.67% GDP growth in 1988, the unemployment rate reduced to 8.98% in 1990 (IMF, 2013).
However, this recovery was short lived since the unemployment rate rose to 11.68% in 1994. From 1994 to 1999, the country’s average unemployment rate was 11.21%. The country maintained a less than 10% unemployment rate from 2000 to 2008. However, the 2008/2009 global economic downturn led to an increase in unemployment rate above 10%.
We will write a custom Research Paper on France’s Economy: Five Key Macroeconomic Variables specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the successes of the French economy has been its ability to maintain low inflation rate. Figure 2 indicates that the country’s inflation rate has been falling from 1982 to 2012. The inflation rate reduced from 11.98% in 1982 to 0.67% in 1998 (IMF, 2013). However, it rose to 1.92% in 2012. The country’s real interest rate has also been falling steadily in the last twenty years as shown in figure 3.
Concisely it reduced from 2.4% in 1993 to 0.12% in 2012 (World Bank, 2013). Figure 4 indicates that France’s current account balance has been very volatile in the last thirty years. The country’s current account was in deficit between 1982 and 1990. However, it recovered steadily after 1992, thereby reaching a surplus of 3.15% of GDP by 1999 (IMF, 2013).
From 2000, the current account has been declining steadily, thereby reaching a deficit of -1.75% of GDP in 2012. Since 1982, the country’s highest GDP growth was 4.67% in 1988, whereas the lowest growth was -3.15 in 2009. Table 1 presents the data used to generate figure 1 to 4.
Macroeconomic Analysis France experienced a high unemployment rate (above 10%) between 1985 and 1988; 1993 and 1999; and 2011 and 2012. The high unemployment rate during these periods is mainly attributed to the conditions in the country’s labor market. France has one of the highest payroll taxes in the world. The country charges 43% payroll tax, which is higher than the rate in nearly all developed countries.
For instance, the United States of America charges 5%, whereas the UK charges 11%. The high payroll tax has contributed significantly to the reduction of the competitiveness of French companies. In order to maintain their competiveness, most French companies have resorted to outsourcing non-core business activities from low wage countries.
In particular, most companies, especially, in the manufacturing sector have relocated their production plants to countries such as China and India, which have cheap labor. This strategy has led to exportation of jobs as companies reduce their workers in order to lower operating costs. For instance, Peugeot, one of the leading automobiles manufacturers in the country, dismissed 8,000 workers in 2012 in order to reduce its labor costs.
From 2000, the government focused on implementing several reforms in order to boost employment in the private sector. The reforms included a reduction of payroll taxes for employees earning the minimum wage, as well as, allowing tax breaks for firms that employ young people or trainees.
These reforms partly contributed to the slight reduction of unemployment between 2000 and 2003. Nonetheless, these reforms did not achieve much since unemployment rate began to increase from 2004.
Not sure if you can write a paper on France’s Economy: Five Key Macroeconomic Variables by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Protection of employee rights is another problem that leads to high unemployment rate in France. The labor unions in France have a lot of influence in the labor market. They always participate in the negotiation of salaries and working conditions in most industries. Consequently, French workers benefit from job security and guaranteed salary levels.
Providing these benefits has been a great challenge to small businesses due to their limited financial resources. Consequently, they are reluctant to create new jobs for fear of the penalties associated with dismissing workers or paying low wages. Low qualification is the major cause of unemployment among the youth.
Due to the high competition in the job market, most employers prefer to hire experienced workers rather than fresh graduates from collages. Fresh graduates (youth) are expensive to employers since they have to be trained before they adapt to the work environment.
Finally, the high employment rate in 2012 is attributed to dismal economic growth that began in 2007. Figure 1 shows that unemployment has been increasing as GDP growth reduces from 2007. The low economic growth has led to reduced profits, thereby limiting the ability of firms to create new jobs or to sustain existing ones.
According to figure 2, France’s inflation rate was highest in 1982. This is partly attributed to the 1978-1979 oil shock that led to a sharp increase in prices of goods. The increase in oil prices in late 1970s led to an increase in the cost of production, thereby causing a general rise in the prices of goods. As the economy recovered from the oil shock, inflation began to reduce, reaching a low of 2.5% in 1986.
Following the expansion of GDP by 4.67% in 1988, the inflation rate rose to 3.5% in 1989 (IMF, 2013). An increase in economic growth is normally accompanied by increased expenditure in the private and the public sector, thereby increasing inflationary pressure. Since 1990, France has maintained an inflation rate below 3%. This low rate of inflation is mainly attributed to slow economic growth and slack in the economy.
According to figure 2, inflation tends to be falling when GDP growth is reducing. The logic behind this trend is that slow economic growth lead to low GDP per capita. The resulting reduction in purchasing power leads to a fall in the demand for goods and services. Consequently, firms reduce their prices in order to remain competitive.
This reduction in prices leads to low inflation rate. In 2009, the GDP contracted by -3.1%, thereby causing a near deflation situation (0.09% inflation rate). The reduction in real interest rate in the last three decades was caused by intense regulation of the banking sector. Concisely, banking-sector regulations did not permit the increase of nominal interest rates to compensate for the loss of currency value due to inflation.
Consequently, real interest rates reduced as inflation increased. Even though the government liberalized the banking sector in late 1990s, the real interest rates did not rise. This is because France’s central bank lowered its lending rate in order to spur economic growth.
Current account balance refers to a country’s net import of goods and services, as well as, net transfer payment and earnings from sources such as rent. In the last three decades, France’s current account has been in deficit except for the period between 1992 and 2004. The deficit that occurred before 1992 was due to the high labor costs that led to outsourcing by most French companies.
Concisely, most companies relocated their production plants to overseas economies with cheap labor. Additionally, some companies outsourced their back office operations to foreign countries. This led to increased imports, thereby causing the current account deficit. The deficit that occurred after 2004 is mainly attributed to France’s participation in the Euro-zone.
In particular, the deficit has been caused by the monetary union in the Euro-zone. The use of a common currency means that France’s exchange rate in the Euro-zone is fixed. Consequently, its currency cannot depreciate relative to other Euro-zone countries such as Germany in order to boost exports and reduce imports.
Figure 4 indicates that France’s current account has been worsening when its GDP is falling and vice versa. This implies that the reduction in productivity as indicated by a reduction in GDP limits the country’s ability to export. Arising GDP, on the other hand, implies increased productivity that increase the country’s ability to export, thereby improving the current account balance.
According to figure 5, France has been able to achieve a rapid growth in its per capita GDP since 1800. Consequently, it has been able to catch-up with other developed countries such Spain and Sweden (Gap-Minder, 2013). Nonetheless, figure 1to 4 shows that the country has not been able to maintain a rapid growth of its GDP in the last three decades.
From 1982 to 2008, France’s average GDP growth was approximately 2%. Other advanced economies such as the USA grew by 3% over the same period. After 2008, France has not been able to achieve any growth above 1.6% (IMF, 2013). The factors that account for the poor performance include the following.
To begin with, the economic model that spurred rapid growth after the Second World War lost its effectiveness from the 1970s to 1990s. This is because the country has been experiencing a sharp decline in returns on capital, labor productivity gains, and investments since 1970s. Low productivity among the working class has also contributed to the country’s poor economic growth.
The number of hours dedicated to work per full-time employee has reduced considerable in the last three decades. France’s investment efficiency has reduced substantially in the last four decades. Investment efficiency refers to the “variation in GDP in relation to net fixed capital formation”.
The combined effect of low productivity gains and reduced investment efficiency led to a reduction in firm profits, thereby limiting growth. Consequently, firms focused on cost reduction and maintaining profitability rather than expanding their markets. The reduction in profits limited the firms’ ability to make new investments, thereby slowing job creation.
The resulting increase in unemployment rate led to a reduction of wages. Consequently, aggregate demand fell, thereby discouraging economic growth in the 1980s. In the 1990s, the government introduced labor market reforms such as fixed-term contracts.
These reforms enabled most firms to return to profitability. However, they did not succeed in enhancing domestic demand in order to promote economic growth. Even though investment rebound in late 1990s, France did not define a new economic model to sustain a rapid growth.
Due to unfavorable labor market conditions and low profits, most French companies embarked on foreign direct investments in the 1990s. This strategy did not only lead to capital flight from the country, but also worsened its current account deficit and unemployment rate.
France is yet to recover from the shocks of the Euro-zone crisis and the 2008/2009 economic downturn, which have reduced its economic growth in the last five years.
Policy Recommendations The following suggestions can help France to return to rapid economic growth. To begin with, unemployment can be reduced through labor market reforms. These include wage compression that involves lowering the minimum wage rate and implementing a negative income tax.
A lower minimum wage will encourage local firms to create new jobs, whereas a negative income tax will compensate employees for the income lost through the reduction of the minimum wage. The payroll tax should also be reduced in order to encourage local firms to create jobs by investing in France rather than relocating to other countries. The current account deficit can be corrected by increasing net exports outside the Euro-zone.
This is because the depreciation of the Euro against other currencies will make France’s exports more competitive. The current account will improve as exports increase and imports reduce. The government can avoid deflation by loosening its monetary policy.
The resulting increase in money supply will encourage investment and consumption, thereby preventing deflation. However, loosening monetary policy should be moderate in order to avoid high inflation. Finally, France should improve its economic growth by reforming its tax system. Concisely, it should raise taxes for the high-income earners and lower taxes for the low-income earners.
This will ensure that the government has adequate tax revenue without discouraging expenditure among the low-income earners. Reducing the budget deficit to 3% of the GDP will negate the need for austerity measures in future, thereby encouraging growth through public and private expenditure.
Conclusion The aim of this paper was to analyze the French economy. In particular, it focused on the evolution of the economy’s GDP, unemployment rate, inflation rate, current account balance, and real interest rate in the last three decades. Results show that GDP growth has remained dismal in the last thirty years.
The factors that account for the slow growth include high labor costs, lack of an effective growth model, and low investment efficiency. The current account has been deteriorating. Similarly, high unemployment has been a persistent problem. Nonetheless, the real interest rate and inflation have been declining. In light of these revelations, the government should take immediate measures to improve the economy.
Appendix Figure 1: Unemployment rate Verses GDP growth
Figure 2: Inflation rate Verses GDP growth
Figure 3: Real Interest Rate Verses GDP Growth
Figure 4: Current Account Balance Verses GDP Growth
Figure 5: Gap-Minder
Table 1: Data for figure 1 to 4
yeas GDP Inflation Unemployment CA Bal Interest rate 1982 2.418 11.978 8.069 -2.099 1983 1.227 9.46 8.421 -0.853 1984 1.499 7.674 9.771 -0.145 1985 1.614 5.831 10.23 -0.064 1986 2.252 2.539 10.363 0.31 1987 2.387 3.289 10.5 -0.484 1988 4.671 2.701 10.006 -0.465 1989 4.184 3.498 9.396 -0.46 1990 2.625 3.38 8.975 -0.791 1991 1.034 3.217 9.467 -0.495 1992 1.478 2.366 9.85 0.279 1993 -0.665 2.106 11.117 0.708 7.02 1994 2.248 1.661 11.683 0.596 6.69 1995 2.044 1.778 11.15 0.466 6.80 1996 1.067 2.084 11.583 1.231 5.23 1997 2.189 1.283 11.542 2.657 5.38 1998 3.377 0.667 11.067 2.621 5.46 1999 3.287 0.533 10.458 3.147 6.17 2000 3.686 1.716 9.083 1.452 5.05 2001 1.834 1.606 8.392 1.756 4.86 2002 0.928 1.885 8.908 1.247 4.29 2003 0.901 2.141 8.892 0.723 4.51 2004 2.54 2.143 9.258 0.541 4.84 2005 1.826 1.751 9.283 -0.485 4.50 2006 2.468 1.669 9.242 -0.576 4.55 2007 2.289 1.49 8.375 -1.003 3.70 2008 -0.083 2.817 7.817 -1.744 4.6 2009 -3.146 0.099 9.5 -1.333 4.70 2010 1.664 1.493 9.729 -1.558 3.12 2011 1.693 2.141 9.633 -1.95 3.32 2012 0.122 1.924 10.138 -1.734 2.54 References Boyes, W.,
Friedman’s Defense of the Free Market Theory Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for the Failure of Friedman’s Arguments
Introduction The free market theory refers to the ethical perspective that the sole responsibility of business executives is to maximize profits by engaging in legal activities. A free market is an economy in which buyers and sellers engage in trade based on the forces of demand and supply with no government interference through taxation, subsidies, and regulation.
Milton Friedman supported the free market theory by emphasizing the importance of freedom in all activities, including economic transactions. He asserts that the government’s involvement in the market should be limited to the prevention of fraud and the maintenance of the market’s integrity.
Friedman also argued for the implementation of a negative income tax to ensure equality in the society. Finally, he argued for a free society in which there is a volunteer military, free choice of schools, and elimination of licenses. I will argue that Friedman’s defense of the free market theory fails to explain the realities of contemporary economies.
Friedman’s Arguments Friedman stated four main reasons to support his argument for the free market theory. First, he argued that the sole social responsibility of a firm in a free market is to maximize profits. Thus, private firms are expected to channel their resources only to projects or activities that lead to increased profits. This means that businesses should avoid unprofitable corporate social responsibilities such as funding education.
The argument on profit maximization is based on the rights theory, which emphasizes the superiority of an individual’s rights. Concisely, managers have a legal right to maximize profits. Thus, entrepreneurs should be free to engage in any legal business activity that leads to high profits. However, their activities should conform to the constitutional laws and ethical standards.
Second, he argues that government intervention in the economy should be abolished since it is ethically wrong and leads to high inefficiency. This argument is based on the premise that a market that is free of government interference will enable consumers to make the best choices in terms of the goods and services that they want.
According to Friedman, the roles of the government should include the provision of services such as defense, education, and enforcement of laws that facilitate free and fair competition. Friedman believed that the government’s involvement in production leads to the creation of monopolies, which limits the freedom to trade by eliminating the production of alternative goods and services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, government interventions such as subsidies and tariffs should be eliminated because they hinder free trade. For instance, import tariffs increase the prices of imported goods thereby, making local products more competitive than imports.
Third, Friedman proposed the implementation of a negative tax to ensure equitable distribution of income. The negative tax involved replacing welfare programs with cash transfers to all citizens whose incomes fell below a predetermined income floor.
This was a utilitarian policy since its aim was to ensure that all citizens are able to access basic needs such as food and shelter. Friedman argued that collecting taxes without the taxpayers’ consent is ethically wrong.
Finally, Friedman believed that a free society should be characterized with the freedom to choose schools, volunteer military, as well as, abolition of licenses and social security programs. He proposed the introduction of the school voucher system to enable students to study in learning institutions of their choice.
Friedman argued that hiring military personnel through the draft system was against the concept of a free society. In particular, individuals should be free to decide on whom to sell their labor to in a free market system.
According to Freedman, licensure programs, as well as, wage and rent controls should be abolished because they reduce market efficiency and prevent free trade. Additionally, expenditure on social security should be abolished because it increases the taxpayers’ burden.
Reasons for the Failure of Friedman’s Arguments I argue that Friedman’s defense of the free market theory fails to explain the realities of contemporary economies due to the following reasons. To begin with, Friedman’s argument that the sole social responsibility of the firm is to maximize profits is unfounded. This is because it implies that managers are only responsible to shareholders who are interested in profits.
We will write a custom Essay on Friedman’s Defense of the Free Market Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The premise that businesses should only focus on profits is justified by deontological ethics, in which individuals choose actions based on what is right rather than good. Concisely, managers focus on maximizing profits, which is the right thing to do rather than supporting communities (good act).
However, this justification does not hold because businesses operate in communities; thus, their actions must be driven by utilitarianism. According to the stakeholder theory, managers are also responsible for making decisions that satisfy the needs of the customers and the community.
Thus, the social responsibility of a firm cannot be limited to profits. It is not morally right for a business to maximize profits, while it neglects the communities that it depends on. This explains the massive investments that companies make in social responsibility initiatives such as environmental protection in order to obtain public approval.
The argument that the government should not intervene in the economy does not hold because it is based on the principle of protecting the absolute right to liberty. Conflicts of interests and market failure are likely to arise if individuals are allowed to exercise absolute liberty in business. This can be illustrated by the failures of the economies that have tried to eliminate government regulation.
In America, liberalization of the banking industry led to consolidation of major banks in the 1990s. This led to the concentration of wealth among a few entrepreneurs, thereby worsening the gap between the poor and the rich.
Additionally, minimal regulation of the banking industry contributed, in part to the 2007/2008 financial crisis in America, thereby causing sufferings to innocent employees and customers of the financial institutions that were distressed. For instance, some employees lost their jobs, whereas some customers lost their investments in banks.
In 1975, the government of Chile implemented the free market system by eliminating the minimum wage system, and privatizing its firms. By 1983, Chile’s unemployment rate had tripled, whereas its gross domestic product had reduced by nearly 20%. China, on the other hand, has been able to achieve economic prosperity in the last three decades through government intervention in the economy.
Friedman’s negative tax is supported due to the success it has achieved in the countries that have implemented it. However, it does not solve the problem of unequal income distribution, which is its main objective. This is because the cash transfers can only be made to people who are working.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Friedman’s Defense of the Free Market Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the unemployed would remain poor. Friedman’s argument that imposing taxes without the taxpayers’ consent is wrong is unfounded. This is because taxation is based on legislations that are available for reference by everyone. The issue of consent does not arise since taxation has been approved by the public through the constitution.
Finally, the argument for a free society with a volunteer military, school voucher systems, as well as, elimination of licensure programs and social security expenditure is not practical. This is because the country must always have a ready army to protect it from unforeseen attacks. School voucher systems have achieved very little success because education in private schools is often very expensive.
Licensure programs cannot be abolished because not all professionals have the virtues that would enable them to behave ethically. According to utilitarian ethics, expenditure on welfare or social security is necessary in order to help the needy and the old who are not able to support themselves financially.
Conclusion Friedman supported the free market theory because he believed that it would enhance trade, improve efficiency in the government, and provide individuals with the freedom to engage in any legal human activity. I have argued that Friedman’s perspectives do not hold in the contemporary economies.
For instance, a negative tax only helps the employed low-income earners rather than the unemployed. Contrary to Friedman’s view, recent events such as the 2007/2008 global financial crisis indicate that a mixed economy with considerable government intervention is the most desirable system.
Works Cited DesJardins, Joseph and John McCall. Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2005. Print.
Jennings, Marianne. Business Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
McEachern, William. Macroeconomics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
Gilgamesh and Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Every great story requires a hero or heroes. The success of any story depends on how well the readers can align and relate to the story’s hero/heroes. Some stories create heroes that progress from the mythical world into the real world. One of the stories that feature an ancient hero who is still popular today is “The Epic of Gilgamesh”.
This Mesopotamian epic features a number of heroes including King Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh, the ancient Mesopotamian King is on a quest of immortality. The type of hero epitomized by Gilgamesh can be analyzed using Joseph Campbell’s “monomyth”.
Campbell discusses heroism in his book “The Hero with a Thousand Faces”. According to Campbell, there are three main stages in a hero’s journey. These stages include separation, initiation, and return. All these stages in a hero’s journey have sub categories.
For instance, the separation stage encompasses a “call to adventure, refusal to heed the call, and a crossing of the first threshold” (Campbell 34). Gilgamesh as a hero can be analyzed using definitions from Campbell’s book. Gilgamesh’s journey of heroism coincides with Campbell’s monomyth.
According to Campbell, a hero’s journey begins with a departure from something or somewhere. This departure involves a call to adventure. At first, the hero refuses the call but eventually he crosses the threshold. In Gilgamesh’s case, the call to adventure begins when a trapper asks for his help. The trapper requests Gilgamesh to help him deal with “a fellow who comes from the mountain” (Kovacs 8).
Through this initial call, Gilgamesh is introduced to a world of nature that he finds hard to understand. Campbell notes that after this initial call to adventure, a hero will often refuse to accept the request. Gilgamesh exemplifies this refusal when his compatriot Enkidu tells him not to go on the quest.
Although Gilgamesh’s initial refusal lasts for a very short time, it is still signifies initial hesitation. After this initial refusal, both Enkidu and Gilgamesh eventually agree to face Humbaba in a quest that takes part inside the cedar forest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Campbell asserts that after a hero accepts the call to adventure, he is then likely to acquire supernatural help. This help often comes from a “protective figure that represents destiny’s power” (Campbell 70). Gilgamesh receives this power from Shamash the sun god.
The supernatural power in this case is requested by Ninsun, Gilgamesh’s mother. Before she addresses Shamash, Ninsun “washes herself with the purity plant, dons a worthy robe, and puts on her crown” (Kovacs 17). She does this in order to get the attention of the revered sun god.
The intervention of this supernatural power gives Gilgamesh the bravery to face the fierce Humbaba. Shamash is able to defeat Humbaba with his fire spitting mouth using his thirteen winds. The only difference between Gilgamesh’s heroism and Campbell’s definition is that the hero in this story does not refuse to accept supernatural help.
Campbell asserts that heroes often possess a “hardened heart” and they are initially reluctant to accept help from supernatural beings. Gilgamesh does not align with this mode of heroism because he is eager to enlist Shamash’s help in his quest against Humbaba.
Before an ordinary human being can be fully transformed to a hero, he has to cross a threshold that opens up his life to danger and darkness (Campbell 77). This threshold is often protected by a larger than life entity. In Gilgamesh’s case, this happens when he enters the cedar forest that is protected by Humbaba the terrible.
Campbell states that a hero has to cross the threshold and enter a world of “darkness and unknown danger”. Gilgamesh’s transition is preempted when the author writes that Gilgamesh and Enkidu “stood at the edge of the forest…gazing at the entrance to the forest” (Kovacs 41).
According to Campbell, the hero is initiated after being separated. This initiation stage is characterized by the hero’s metamorphosis. During this stage, the hero has to undergo various trials and tribulations before achieving an exalted form.
We will write a custom Essay on Gilgamesh and Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For Gilgamesh, these trials are exemplified through his “journey through the; scorpion beings, road to the sun, garden of jewels, waters of death, and eventually to Utanapishtim’s home” (Kovacs 93). After all these trials, Gilgamesh has almost achieved a new life form.
The last part of a hero’s journey according to Campbell is the Hero’s return. Once a hero has overcome all his trials, he must contemplate a return. In addition, the hero has to return with a significant victory. Sometimes the hero refuses to return at first but he eventually agrees. At the end of his journey, Gilgamesh does not show any strong reservations towards returning to Uruk.
However, in one instance he asks Utanapishtim what he should do. After agreeing to return, the hero often discovers a way to shorten his return journey according to Campbell’s monomyth. This does not happen to Gilgamesh because the epic does not include a quick return scheme for the hero.
The “Epic of Gilgamesh” is a story about the heroic exploits of an ancient king named Gilgamesh. The hero of this story is modeled in accordance with Joseph Campbell’s monomyth. However, there are few disparities between Campbell’s definition and Gilgamesh’s heroism.
Gilgamesh accepts his call to action and then goes through trials to reach to the end of his quest. At the end of the story, he has to return to his kingdom in Uruk. Therefore, his journey as a hero coincides with Campbell’s monomyth.
Works Cited Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Princeton, NJ: Princeton U Press, 1990. Print.
Kovacs, Maureen. The Epic of Gilgamesh, Stanford, CA: Stanford U Press, 2007. Print.
Motorola Phone Company Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Company history
The company’s executive team
Successes and failures of Motorola Phone Company
Company history Initially, Motorola Corporation was a multinational company in the telecommunications industry and was based in the Illinois. However, the company was later divided into Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions, with each operating as an independent company (Spencer, 2011). The move took place in early 2011 after the company ran into massive losses between 2007 and 2009.
However, of the two branches of independent companies, Motorola Solutions stands out as immediate replacement of the entire Motorola Corporation. The corporation was founded in 1928 and was initially known as Galvin manufacturing Corporation. Later in 1930, the corporation introduced a Motorola radio that was used in cars.
The company was founded under “the stewardship of Paul Galvin together with bill Lear as the investor, who later created the brand name Motorola” (Spence, 2011, p.38). With massive developments in the line of telecommunication, Motorola demonstrated the first portable phone in 1973. The corporation continued in production and sale of mobile phone handsets, until when it was overtaken by the Nokia Corporation in 1998.
Over time, the corporation was involved in a series of innovations in technology; for instance, production of the first GPRS cell phone in 2000, first wireless cable modem gateway in 2002, production of the first handset that used a Linux operating system and java technology in 2003 among many other innovations.
After the split of the entire Corporation in 2011, Google purchased the Motorola Mobility later in the same year and it has its headquarters At Libertyville where it deals with the production of mobile handsets (Spencer, 2011).
Company’s culture Researchers call for businesses to have their own, but unique styles in running day-to-day affairs of the organizations. The culture practiced within an organization is quite crucial as it determines a company’s direction towards achieving its goals and objectives. Culture incorporates several aspects that include the working environment offered to employees and the company’s vision (Mitchell, 2008).
Vision and mission statements of an organization guide employees and the entire organization towards ensuring success. Within the culture of Motorola Mobility Company, many bureaucracies are applied within the company, hence causing more stress to employees. However, the company applies high technology in their production, hence the high quality phones marketed under the company’s brand name all over the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In trying to increase its efficiency, the company has been involved in constant reorganization since 1990s (Crockett
How Cleaning Products Affect the Body and Skin Research Paper essay help: essay help
Cleaning products consist of household products and skin care products. Household cleaning products include glass cleaners, toilet cleaners, floor cleaners, shower sprays, laundry powders, dish washing detergents, fly sprays and oven cleaners, while skin care products include make-ups, shampoos, soaps and perfumes (Mcdermott, 2012).
Our body and skin comes into contact with these products often through direct or indirect touch.. This paper discusses the effects of cleaning products on the human’s body and skin, the process in which these chemicals get absorbed into the body, diseases caused by cleaning products and how to prevent the skin while using these products.
Most household and skin cleaning products have negative effects on human health, since they have harmful toxins. To hide the massive amount of chemicals and toxins they hold, manufacturers make sure that these products have lovely perfumes. Such manufactures only seek to make profits, while ignoring the health and wellbeing of consumers.
According to Hill (2010), the main negative effects of cleaning products include lung problems and skin irritation. Irritation causes the skin to itch, redden, or swell (Hill, 2010).
This irritation stops when exposure ends. Nevertheless, an irritant that is also an allergen poses more severe problems. If allergenic chemical exposure occurs for the first time to an allergic person, the skin reacts and then recovers after exposure stops similar to a non-allergenic person.
On the other hand, if the sensitive person experiences constant exposures, the reaction develops in severity and reaction takes place with reduced amounts. An example of a household cleaning product that is both an irritant and an allergen is formaldehyde.
Hill (2010) also explains that some cleaning products may have systematic effects on the skin. These effects occur after absorption and circulation of chemical substances in the body. According to Hill (2010), the antibiotic neomycin is responsible for indirect effects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another negative effect of cleaning products on human body and skin is that they can affect lungs. Reactive gases like ozone, chlorine, or formaldehyde (household products) can directly spoil lungs and mucous membranes in the eyes and nose (Hill, 2010)..
Besides, airborne elements such as silica coal, asbestos, or even powder can directly harm the lungs, if used too liberally, and their adverse effects are severe or mild. Inhalation of dust may just irritate in the short run, but chronic contact can interfere with function of lungs. Long-term exposure to silica dust causes silicosis, while coal dust causes black lung disease and cotton dust brown lung disease (Hill, 2010).
Similarly, organic liquids can harm the lungs. Inadvertent inhalation of a liquid solvent of gasoline can harm lungs severely or cause fatality. In addition, Stellman (1998) explains that Ammonia solvents, which clean grease, cause irritation to the eyes and skins. She also mentions that other cleaning products like drain cleaners cause skin burns and eye problems, since they are caustic.
Chemicals in cleaning products get absorbed into the body through the skin, or by inhalation. According to Mcdermott (2012), absorption of chemicals and toxins in cosmetics, skin care products and household laundry occurs through the skin. During absorption, these chemicals get into body cells and blood organs.
Conversely, Hill (2010) explains that absorption occurs through the lungs, during inhalation. Inhalation of volatile organic substances from household products occurs into the blood stream via the alveoli of lungs.
To reduce impacts associated with cleaning products, one may consider using organic and natural alternatives. Local supermarkets now have a variety of organic makeup, household cleaning products and skin care brands (Mcdermott, 2012). Using such products is beneficial as it removes toxins from the skin.
Besides, a person should make sure that there is good ventilation to protect the eyes, when using cleaning products with Ammonia (Stellman, 1998). Further, a person should wear facemasks and gloves when using drain cleaners to avoid damage to eyes and skin burns. Persons who react to soap dust should as well wear facemask, or use disposable respirators.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Cleaning Products Affect the Body and Skin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, a person should follow correct ways when handling cleaning products to make sure that cleaning products do not pose any risks to human health. For instance, a person should store cleaning products in containers that have clear labels and are far from food containers. On the same note, a person should never mix cleaning products with chlorine bleach, since chlorine becomes hazardous.
In conclusion, cleaning products have significant effects on both the body and skin. Some cleaning products cause irritation while others affect the lungs. Lung diseases include silicosis, black lung disease and brown lung disease. Therefore, we should adopt good practices like wearing facemasks and gloves when handling cleaning products, depending on their nature.
Again, we should always be careful when choosing cleaning products to use at homes. Some factors that we should put first while choosing these products are their impact on health. Alternatively, we can use organic and natural products that serve the same function with artificial cleaning products, since they have no harmful effects on human body.
References Hill, M. K. (2010). Understanding environmental pollution. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Mcdermott, M. (2012). Beyond happiness: The 12 principles of enduring bliss. London, England: Balboa Press.
Stellman, J. M. (1998). Encyclopedia of occupational health and safety: Vol. 3. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labor Office.
Elasticity of Demand Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Price Elasticity of Demand
Cross elasticity of Demand
Income Elasticity of Demand
Effects of Substitutes on Elasticity
Proportion of income Devoted to Goods and Elasticity
Customer’s Reaction to Huge Increases in Price
Elasticity and Total Revenue
Introduction People purchase goods and services according to their abilities and needs. Given the scarcity of resources, consumers are usually compelled to make choices not only on the type of commodities to buy, but also on the quantity of the commodities to purchase. The general law of demand states that consumers are likely to reduce their quantities of consumption in case prices increase.
Nevertheless, the law is not specific in explaining whether quantity demanded will be reduced by a higher or a lower margin in response to increase in price. Moreover, there are other factors that affect demand besides price. This problem is solved by the concept of elasticity of demand.
Elasticity of demand informs people on the direction of change in demand resulting from not only a change in other factors, but also the magnitude of the change.
Price Elasticity of Demand Sensitivity of demand to changes in price varies from one commodity to another and it is measured by price elasticity of demand. In this regard, price elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage change in demand for a given commodity due to unit change in price of the commodity (Taylor, 2006).
Demand of most goods decreases when prices increase because they become relatively expensive. However, for goods which people buy because they belong to a certain class, increase in prices usually leads to increase in demand.
Demand of a given commodity can either be inelastic, elastic or unitary elastic as far as price elasticity of demand is concerned. Inelastic demand is when a huge change in price causes small changes in demand. This type of demand is usually exhibited by those commodities that consumers cannot do without, for example food.
In case of increase in price of these commodities, consumers reduce consumption of other unnecessary commodities to sustain consumption of necessities. On the other hand, elastic demand refers to a situation where demand of a commodity changes by a larger percentage than the percentage change in price (Mankiw, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Commodities that people can do without exhibit elastic demand because people will reduce quantities purchased or even stop buying the commodity immediately the price increases. Lastly, the demand can be unitary elastic. This means that percentage change in demand is equal to percentage change in price.
Cross elasticity of Demand Demand of one commodity is usually dependent on the price of other commodities. In this regard, if price of one commodity rises, quantity demanded of another commodity can increase or decrease depending on whether the commodities in question are substitutes or complements.
Cross elasticity of demand is the measure of how dependent demand of a given commodity is on price of another commodity. Cross elasticity of demand can either be positive or negative depending on whether the goods are substitutes or compliments (Mankiw, 2011).
Complimentary goods must be used together thus decrease in price of one commodity automatically affects demand of the other commodity. Cross elasticity of demand of these commodities is negative. This is because when price of one commodity increases, it leads to a decrease in the quantity demanded of the commodity thus decreasing the quantity demanded of the complementary commodity.
On the other hand, cross elasticity of demand for substitutes is usually greater than zero. An example of substitute commodities is tea and coffee. If the price of tea increases, people will reduce the quantity of tea they take and instead increase the quantity of coffee they consume (Landsburg, 2010).
Nevertheless, whether the magnitude of the elasticity will be more than or less than one depends on whether the commodities are perfect substitutes or not.
Income Elasticity of Demand Consumers can only purchase the quantities that their disposable income can afford. As a result, income levels are highly influential when dealing with changes in demand for any given commodity. Income elasticity of demand refers to the percentage change in quantity demanded of a commodity arising from change in income levels of people, assuming that other factors are held constant.
We will write a custom Essay on Elasticity of Demand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, it is important to note that different groups of commodities respond differently to changes in income. In this regard, taking into consideration whether a given commodity is an inferior or a normal good, income elasticity of demand can either be positive or negative (Taylor, 2006).
As far as inferior goods are concerned, demand decreases as income increases. This is so because people buy luxurious commodities according to their economic and social status. Therefore, people usually change their demand of luxurious commodities as often as their income changes. Moreover, there are very many substitutes to inferior goods that a consumer may take in case of any change.
On the other hand, demand of normal goods increase with the increase in the levels of income. In addition, people really do not have much of a choice on whether they will consume normal goods or not. Consequently, income elasticity of demand is positive for normal goods. However, for normal goods which are necessities, the income elasticity of demand is positive but less than one (Landsburg, 2010).
Effects of Substitutes on Elasticity Consumers have perfect information concerning the products they want to consume. Moreover, consumers take into consideration all the available opportunities before making any decision. Furthermore, if a commodity becomes more costly either due to increase in price or decrease in income, consumers will compare what they will spend on substitute commodities and choose a cheaper option (Taylor, 2006).
Let us take an example of coffee and tea. These two commodities serve exactly the same purpose all other factors held constant. If the price of coffee increases making it more expensive compared to tea, consumers will reduce their consumption of coffee.
Assuming consumers had no other commodity to use in place of coffee; they would slightly reduce the quantity of coffee consumed but still adjust their budgets to accommodate the changes.
However, since they can still take tea without being affected in any way, consumers will quickly replace coffee with tea in their budgets thus highly reducing the quantity of coffee demanded. Consequently, since substitutes increase the options that consumers have when price and/or income changes, they increase elasticity of demand.
Proportion of income Devoted to Goods and Elasticity It should be noted that elasticity of demand is also dependent on the proportion of income that people spend on a given commodity. Demand of goods which consume higher percentages of income is usually elastic (Mankiw, 2011). Demand of salt will be less elastic compared to that of computers for any typical consumer given that salt consumes a very low proportion of the budget.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Elasticity of Demand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Assume the income of a consumer is $1000 per month and the price of sugar is $3 per kilogram while that of a refrigerator is $300. Assume also that prices of both commodities increase by 25%. The new price of sugar will be $3.75 per kilogram while that of refrigerator will become $375.
It can be seen that price of refrigerator increases significantly by $75 compared to that of sugar which increases by only $0.75. In this regard, equal percentage increase in price of two commodities causes different effects on the budget depending on the proportion of income spent on the commodity. Consequently, demand of refrigerator will be more elastic compared to that of sugar.
Customer’s Reaction to Huge Increases in Price As a rule of thumb, consumers will always react to increases in price by reducing their demand. However, in the short run people do not have very many options. Some are very busy and cannot get time to go around and see if there are other substitutes.
Therefore, there are some other people who will be compelled not to alter their demand in the short run despite increases in price. However, in the long run, people will have had enough time to look for substitutes and also adjust their budgets. As a result, demand will reduce further. Therefore, demand is highly elastic in the long run compared to the short run (Taylor, 2006).
Elasticity and Total Revenue From the graph, demand is elastic when prices are between 50 and 80. Here, an increase in prices will cause more than proportionate decrease in quantity demanded thus causing reduction in total revenue. When the price is between 40 and 50 units, the elasticity of demand is equal to one.
As a result, percentage change in price causes equal but opposite percentage change in quantity of goods demanded. Consequently, increase in price will leave total revenue unchanged. On the other hand, when price ranges between 0 and 40 units, a demand is inelastic. In this scenario, any increase in price causes less than proportionate decrease in quantity demanded leading to increased total revenue (Landsburg, 2010).
References Landsburg, S. (2010). Price Theory
In the Realm of the Queen of the North: Reading between the Lines of Erin Robinson’s Work Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
It is hard to nail down what exactly makes dark stories so appealing to the general audience. Whether it is the fact that the author leads the reader beyond the boundaries of the socially acceptable or makes a cautious warming about the threats that await for the reader in the craziest of all the crazy worlds, the weird charm of “dark” stories magically works, and Edin Robinson’s “The Queen of the North” is a graphic example of that.
A very dark parable about a young teenage girl who had her fill of suffer, “The Queen of the North” offers a journey into the mind of the victim who managed to fight her own way to finding her own identity and leaving the tragic past behind.
Among the issues that immediately drive the reader’s attention, the scene where Jimmy finds the gift and tries to take his revenge on Josh on Karaoke’s behalf (Robinson) must be the most tension-filled elements in the whole story. As a matter of fact, the vengeance thread in the story disrupts the atmosphere of desperate, yet accepting state that Karaoke is in.
Though one might think that the given thread is included into the fabric of the story to restore the balance between the good and the evil and introduce the idea of a noble vigilante, the actual meaning of the given scene is much more prosaic. Succumbing to the cruelty of the world around her, Karaoke is dragged to share the same ideas of morality as her offenders have.
Thus, the picture of despair is complete – even the victim is unable to escape the vicious circle of meanness. At the same time, the fact that Karaoke and Jimmy succumb to the meanness of their environment means that they finally become accountable of their actions and are ready to take decisive steps.
The above-mentioned turns the story into a farewell to the childlike innocence that the lead character used to have and signifies her maturity and readiness to enter the world of adult life.
Among the specifics of the Queen of the North, the fact that Robinson put Karaoke’s life track in the context of history is rather peculiar. Helping Robinson allude not only to certain issues, such as feminist or anti-colonial movement, but also to exact instances of violation of people’s rights, the historical context serves its purpose perfectly in the book.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The novel renders the numerous aspects of feminism as much as it explores the gloominess and loneliness of being a teenager. Karaoke is, perhaps, one of the few female teenage characters that are neither taken for granted, nor introduced into the novel as a token girl and a damsel in distress.
The story is told from the perspective of the lead character, and even the title of the novel points to Karaoke and her life track. At this point, the reader starts understanding that the scenes of violence in the book were actually added not for the sake of raising shock values, but for the sake of showing the audience the reverse side of chauvinist world.
Finally, the issue of anti-colonialism should be addressed. Though voiced in a much more subtle way than the feminist ideas and having considerably less emphasis on it, the problem of colonialism is also considered in the novel. On a more subtle level, the idea of colonialism as a completely pointless practice that was bound to wear its welcome very early is expressed through the liberation of the main character.
As it has been mentioned above, getting rid of her naivety, Karaoke finally learns to take account of her actions and make mistakes. The given transformation makes Karaoke a symbol of the victim of colonialism that was finally liberated.
However, even incorporating the elements of feminism and hope into her work, Robinson still does not let the reader shake the weird feeling of despair off the shoulders; in the chosen settings and with the chosen life story to tell, there is no wonder that the reader feels dismay.
Absorbing the bitter experiences that the humankind had to go through over the past few decades, including the new wave of feminism that has helped women win over several positions, yet did not lead to any cultural revolution; the effects of colonization and the hopes that went astray as soon as the colonization showed its negative side; and the relations of power, which proved another bubble to burst, the story leaves a lot of food for thought and even more questions to be answered.
Erin Robinson has shown the reader the dark side of life, leaving no room for naïve delights. However, the darkness pays off; knowing the enemy means winning half the battle, and Erin Robinson knows it. The Queen of North still keeps hear head high, which means that not all hope has been lost.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on In the Realm of the Queen of the North: Reading between the Lines of Erin Robinson’s Work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Robinson, Erin. “Queen of the North.” Traplines. Toronto, CA: Knopf Canada, 2011. 207–208. Print.
The Samurai History in Japan Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Socio-economic Challenges that Kobushin Samurai Faced
How Katsu Used or Abused his Status as a Samurai to Survive
The Realities of the Urban Life
Dilemma of the Low Ranking Samurai in the Tokugawa Regime
Socio-economic Challenges that Kobushin Samurai Faced Samurai faced a number of challenges, which were both economic and social. In the 19th century, Samurai was the respected royal class of Japan. However, its power faded so fast due to the public mistrust. This was mainly because of the stagnation of income owing to the fact that the society was undergoing change.
Members of the Samurai were unable to achieve their economic interests because of poor returns and oppressive policies. The daimyos and the shogun could not increase taxes because rice farmers were reluctant to appreciate the role of the samurai in society. This affected the Samurai in the sense that the populace lost trust to an extent of refusing to submit taxes, which were in a form of food.
The shift from agriculture as an economic activity to merchant trade affected many people since some individuals became poorer. They could not even sustain their families. This meant that they could not pay taxes to the Samurai. The daimyos had no option, but to increase tax rates for peasants. This complicated everything because the community experienced social disorder.
The rates of crime went up because of frustrations. Katsu noted that the peasants threatened to organize demonstrations, forcing the Samurai to change the strategy as regards to adjusting the tax rates upwards (71). The social position of the Samurai and its economic chances were insidious, which resulted in the internal and external conflicts.
This affected the existence of Kobushin because it was brought down. The royal class attained adequate power that placed it in the top position, with high culture and high social rank. This social position affected economic chances of the Samurai because the higher the social position, the better the chances for attaining high economic positions.
Another challenge that faced the Samurai was the issue of change because the leadership could not handle change. The role of the peasant was always to provide foodstuff and offer taxes in a form of food. However, there was a new trend whereby the society was changing from agricultural society to the merchant society.
The economic activity was changing because the community was adopting trade and quitting agriculture. Before the community changed its economic activity, merchants were viewed as the necessary evil because only unavailable products could be acquired from them. The society was growing at unprecedented rate because the challenges of urbanization were being felt for the first time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People had to shift from mechanistic societies to what were referred to as organic societies. This was not an easy task (Vaporis 33). The Samurai was not allowed to engage in trade or any other activity that would benefit it economically. The society had become complex since everything relied on economics meaning that those with economic power controlled everything in society.
The Tokugawa laws stated that the Samurai had to offer guidance to the society, but not engaging in profit making activities. Merchants became very rich because the new social and economic trends favored them.
Some peasants benefited directly from the new laws because they engaged in trading activities with the merchants. The power of the Kobushin Samurai was at risk because its social status did not allow it to engage in trade. The society was changing at the rate that few people had anticipated meaning that traditional ways of doing things could no longer hold.
How Katsu Used or Abused his Status as a Samurai to Survive Katsu had to abuse his status to survive because the society was changing so fast. The new dynamics of society demanded that every person adjusts his or her views to conform to the new trends. During Katsu’s era, there was a tremendous growth of agricultural production. Moreover, the population grew at an alarming rate because there was a reported seventy percent growth.
Tokugawa policies supported land reclamation, which supported agricultural production in various parts of the country. There was adequate peace because of the disarming of peasants and local leaders, which boosted development in various parts of the nation. It is reported that the land cultivated was increased by over one hundred percent meaning that there was surplus production.
Katsu could not sit back and watch the changes taking place without getting involved. Tokugawa regime introduced the use of fertilizers and modern farming techniques that improved people’s living standards. Katsu could not be a part of the changes because of his status in society.
He had to keep off from all economic activities that would make him rich. However, he changed his position when he decided to be a thief because the book reports that he stole and lied to many people to achieve his interests in society. He allowed himself to mingle with people of all characters including beggars, thieves, priests, merchants, gamblers, and the holy.
We will write a custom Essay on The Samurai History in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the samurai culture, this was unacceptable because the member of the royal class was expected to conduct him or herself in the manner that befits their status. In other words, Katsu was willing to do virtually everything to ascend to a higher economic status, including spoiling his own reputation and that of his family.
Instead of living in accordance to the culture of the Samurai, Katsu involved himself in activities that were contrary to the provisions of the traditional culture. For instance, he participated in producing goods that would generate profit. This was not allowed because it was considered exploitation.
Members of the ruling class were not expected to exploit the poor by disposing cheap goods at an exorbitant price (Yoda 89). Katsu posited that he engaged himself in the making of lanterns, care parts, and umbrellas. Moreover, he accepted to take up cheap jobs that were contrary to his culture such as car painting, gate keeping, and plastering.
Katsu commented that he was willing to live in accordance with the provisions of the culture, but he would not be able to live a comfortable life. Living a pious life would not bring any greatness to his family hence he decided to engage in activities that contravened the culture.
The Realities of the Urban Life Urbanization was one of factors that forced Katsu to readjust his view as regards to the traditional culture. The emergence of cities posed serious challenges to both the mighty and the working class. The city life presented new opportunities, as well as challenges to individuals. Katsu was forced to adopt a new way of life whereby he would interact with individuals perceived to be impure.
Katsu lost greatly due to the emergence of the cities because he was always paid in fixed stipends, which were disbursed in terms of rice. The stipends were paid based on an individual’s social position in society. Urbanization contributed to the increase of prices of commodities, which was not commensurate to the increase in production.
The new trends of the city demanded that people pay out their bills in monetary terms meaning that the samurai was to exchange the rice received with money. This would not be enough because the living costs had gone up yet taxpayers could no offer more taxes. The Samurai existed at the mercy of the moneychangers and the merchants who had taken over the economic systems of various towns, including Osaka and Edo.
In the market, there was an unstable price for rice, meaning that moneychangers could decide the price at which they could buy the major product. The economy was growing so fast, yet the Samurai was not allowed to engage in farming and commerce. This was a challenge because the leadership of the city was becoming weaker and weaker while traders, who were ranked low socially, were the economic powerhouses.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Samurai History in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The emergence of the cities presented new challenges to the Samurai in a number of ways because they were forced to engage in activities that were forbidden culturally. Contacts between people were official meaning that individuals did not meet just to talk about the social problems. For instance, an individual needed an appointment with any of the merchants to discuss any issue.
The role of the Samurai was diminishing because the city had complex challenges that demanded effective forms of administrations. For instance, the Samurai was expected to act as an example to other members of society regarding morality.
Other members of society would follow the ways of the Samurai in terms of observing cultural rules and regulations. Moreover, other forms of crimes emerged due to the urbanization, for instance, prostitution, muggings, kidnapping, and carjacking emerged as new forms of crimes that would not be prevented. Even the Samurai was not spared.
Dilemma of the Low Ranking Samurai in the Tokugawa Regime The Samurai was expected to follow the culture that was so strict on its members, whereby each individual was supposed to keep off from activities that would hurt the members of society. During the Tokugawa regime, it was very difficult to convince people to live in accordance with the values of the Samurai’s culture because of the changes that were taking place in society.
The changes were taking place rapidly. The Tokugawa regime tried to disseminate information regarding the life of the Samurai through promotion of education and increasing literacy. The Samurai belonged to the royal class whose major aim was to defend the community during war. To the Samurai, death was considered normal because it was inevitable.
To preserve unity in Japan, involvement of the Samurai was crucial because it was respected all over. It became extremely difficult to convince people to appreciate the role that the Samurai played in the Japanese society. This was the dilemma of governmental officials because they found it difficult to abolish the role of the Samurai.
There was divided loyalty among government officials as regards to the role of the Samurai. Some believed that the Samurai had no role to play since its members had abandoned the fundamental ideals that characterized the royalty.
Some Tokugawa officials noted that the Samurai motivated the soldiers because they were regarded as the highest family in the land. To be a good soldier, an individual had to forfeit all other things and concentrate on serving the nation. Therefore, the role of the Samurai was important.
Works Cited Katsu, Kokichi. Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai. Tucson: The Univ. of Arizona Press, 1995. Print.
Vaporis, Constantive. “To Edo and Back: Alternate Attendance and Japanese Culture in the Early Modern Period.” Journal of Japanese Studies, 23.1 (1997): 25–67. Print.
Yoda, Tomiko. “A Roadmap to Millennial Japan.” South Atlantic Quarterly, 99.4 (2000): 629–668. Print.
Sex and Gender Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction More often than not, the concepts of sex and gender are used interchangeably. However, a deeper look into each concept will reveal that the two are quite distinct from each other, and using them interchangeably, to say the least, is wrong. This essay seeks to distinguish the two concepts and show how biology and socialization have contributed to the formation of sexual behavior and gender identity in the modern Western society.
Distinction of Sex and Gender Sex is basically about the observable features, while gender has to do with habits inculcated in a person. Further, sex refers to the state of being either female or male. Gender is all about being masculine or feminine. It is important to note that the concept of sex is universal but that of gender is not universal; different societies have different outlook to gender (Nordqvist 2011).
Let us further look into the following examples regarding the distinction. In regards to sex, vaginas are characteristic of females while penises are of males accordingly.
Females breastfeed their offspring but males do not breastfeed. In the class of mammals, females conceive and give birth but males cannot naturally conceive nor can they give birth. Males by nature have testicles while their female counterparts are endowed with ovaries (Nordqvist 2011).
As far as the gender is concerned, the following are some of the characteristics associated with it. Where household chores are at play, the females tend to do more of them than males do.
Professions like nursing are usually seen as those from the females’ field while professions like engineering are labeled as male professions, yet these professions are a mixture of both males and females (Nordqvist 2011). In such country as Saudi Arabia, males are allowed to drive cars while their female counterparts are prohibited to get involved in driving.
What is evident from the distinctions is that sex is a natural or biological characteristic while gender has to do with culture or the society. It is society that assigns roles and even imposes stereotypes on different sexes. Let us then see how biology and socialization have contributed to such a distinction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Contributions of Biology and Socialization to the Formation of Sexual Behavior and Gender Identity in Modern Western Society.
In regards to sex, biology will look at the anatomy and refer one to either male or female. This identification will include one’s physical look, sexual reproductive organs, as well as deeper investigation of various features, such as sex chromosomes, inner reproductive systems, and sex hormones (Gender spectrum 2013). After examination of the above mentioned features, biology assigns sex, in particular, male, female or hermaphrodite.
From then on, the society instills gender to male or female species. Gender is taught through culture, religion, learning institutions, peers as well as the media. Gender is therefore, rightly classified as a social construct. Social constructs are closely monitored by the community and have different things assigned to them ranging from mode of dressing, toys, and clothes as well as walking styles.
Consequently, these issues become ingrained in the minds of different sexes to such an extent that at a tender age of around three years one is aware of the expectations and roles of their gender in the society (Gender Spectrum 2013).
In conclusion, therefore, it must be underlined that sex is natural and universal but gender is culturally based and inculcated by the society.
Works Cited Gender spectrum. “Understanding Gender”. Web. .
Nordqvist, Christian. What is the Difference Between Sex and Gender? Web. .
We will write a custom Essay on Sex and Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Consumer relationships management Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Critical success factors of CRM program
Introduction Consumer relationships management (CRM) program is a business approach aimed at improving relationship between the business organization and customers (Vazifehdust et al., 2012). The business organization is the main service and products providers.
Triki and Zouaoui (2012) suppose that customer relationship management program (CRM) is a technology-based program established to create and add value to the relationship between parties in a business environment. According to Gordon (2011), a business environment comprise of a business organization, customers, other competitors and suppliers.
CRM also helps in reducing losses and maximizing profits (Triki
The Impact of FDI on the Indian Economy since 1990 Report essay help: essay help
Introduction The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a major source of income for a majority of economies across the world. Developed nations like the United States of America have an astounding percentage of their staggering economic totals annually coming from foreign investments whether from those that are based in the United States or the returns and royalties of their multiple firms abroad.
FDI inflows and outflows can largely determine who dictates the terms of in the international economic arena based on one’s financial muscles. For this reason, governments of countries with rich histories of contention or conflicts have set their differences aside and entered into agreements that would foster trade between them and thus enhance their FDI inflow.
This move should explain regional treaties on the limitation of barriers on tariffs that are commonly referred to as Free Trade Agreements. The effect of this multinational cooperation lies in the very competitive status of the international market and a country that can successfully make itself attractive enough for investors to consider it as an investment destination, which goes a long way in securing its own economic growth and development.
This paper focuses on the impact of FDI on India since 1990. Nevertheless, it begins by issuing a brief overview of FDI history in India since it attained independence in 1947. This segment is helpful in explaining the sudden unparalleled growth of its FDI ratio post 1991.
The paper follows this analysis by addressing the FDI index since 1990 to date and providing a comprehensive reflection of why the figures changed as they did. It also outlines the implications of these new figures on India as a country from an economic, political, and socio-cultural perspective.
Finally, the paper concludes by offering recommendations on how in future, India could manage its FDI scales better and reap more results from the same.
Definition and Background: An analysis of FDI since independence FDI, which stands for Foreign Direct Investment as aforementioned, refers to the fund that often flows between countries as in flows or out flows.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This fund presents the respective states or nations with the option of either reaping the benefits of investments or return the profits into the pool and achieve higher profits by improving performance, thus enhancing their position in an international scale or perspective (Borensztein, De Gregorio
Increase in Gasoline Price in February 2013 in the USA Essay essay help online free
The US had experienced a massive rise in gasoline price during the month of February this year. From macroeconomics perspective, there are limited resources that human beings use carefully to satisfy their endless needs.
The price of gasoline, a by-product of oil, highly depends on the price at which oil is acquired from the producers like the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the distribution cost, taxes, currency devaluation and the refining cost.
Currently, the price of oil is also influenced by the worldwide demands and supply of oil and the Iranian sanctions. During the month of February, gasoline price rose; a trend that can be attributed to the above factors, which are going to be analyzed in depth.
Devaluation as a possible factor means the reduction in value of a currency like the US dollar with respect to other monetary units (Currencies: What devaluation actually means, 2013). Clearly, a country that experiences devaluation will have to use more of their funds to acquire services and goods in comparison to other countries.
The immense pressure on the US dollar for over six years had lowered its value by close to 40% (Why Are Gas Prices So High?, 2013). The US dollar, as one of the major currencies of trade is highly prone to market changes. The US citizens, therefore, had to spend a lot of money at the barrels due to the decline in value of their currency.
Additionally, the demand for crude oil in the US and the whole world had been on the rise hence causing the rise in the price of gasoline. The number of consumers in the market at any given time will affect the quantity of product demanded.
For instance, if there are a few customers in the market, the demand curve will shift downwards, indicating a decrease in the quantity demanded at that time (Scarcity, choice and opportunity cost, n.d.). However, when there are many customers in the market the demand curve will move up, indicating an increase in the quantity demanded. The movement in the demand curve alters the price of a product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the graph, a decrease in the quantity supplied will shift the supply curve upwards thereby raising the equilibrium price of a product. This is a sign for high shortage of the product. Therefore, the continued demand for gasoline in the US amid the decrease in supply can be viewed graphically as resulting to an increase in the price of gasoline (Factors Affecting Supply
“The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” by D. H. Lawrence’s Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
One of the main reasons why D. H. Lawrence’s story The Horse Dealer’s Daughter is even today being commonly referred to, as such that represents a high literary value, is that despite having been written in 1914, it contains a number of themes and motifs that fully correlate with the realities of a contemporary living.
This, of course, implies that, after having been exposed to this particular Lawrence’s story, readers should be more likely to choose in favor of a discursively adequate stance in life. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the earlier suggestion at length, while focusing on the specific themes of ‘futility’ and ‘female sexuality’, prominently featured throughout the story’s entirety.
Probably the most distinctive feature of The Horse Dealer’s Daughter is the fact that the story’s plot-line can be followed with ease. After having sustained a commercial bankruptcy, as horse-ranchers, the Pervin family members (Joe, Fred and Malcolm and their sister Mabel) ended up having no other option in life but to sell their farm and to split apart, while seeking a better luck elsewhere.
This caused Mabel to succumb to depression and to decide to end her life by the mean of getting herself drowned in the pond. However, the village’s physician Jack Fergusson noted Mabel’s suicidal attempt. He rushed to the pond and succeeded in bringing Mabel back to life.
This resulted in prompting the latter to assume that Fergusson was in love with her. While fearing that, had he told Mabel that this was far from having been the case, she would try to drown herself again, Fergusson agreed to marry Mabel.
Nevertheless, despite the apparent simplicity of its plot, Lawrence’s story can indeed be referred to as being utterly powerful, in the discursive sense of this word.
This is because, as it was implied in the Introduction, in The Horse Dealer’s Daughter the author did succeed in exposing the conceptual fallaciousness of the idea that there is a ‘big-daddy-God’ up in the sky, which helps people to face hardships, and that one’s virtuousness is the key for him or her to be able to attain happiness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The validity of this statement can be well illustrated in regards to the character of Mabel, which Lawrence describes as a somewhat non-talkative, but utterly responsible woman, who was willing to take care of her brothers at the expense of denying itself the prospect to be able to advance in life: “For months, Mabel had been servantless in the big house, keeping the home together in penury.
She had kept house for ten years… So long as there was money, the girl felt herself established, and brutally proud, reserved” (136). This, however, did not pay off – as time went on, Mabel was growing increasingly aware of the sheer absurdity of the situation when, despite having proceeded with an essentially self-sacrificial existential mode for a number of years, she was not going to get ‘rewarded’ even the slightest.
However, it was not only this character’s willingness to address her ‘womanly chores’ without uttering a word of complaint, which gave her a huge credit, as an individual, but also her ability to remain thoroughly rational, while facing the impossible odds.
Apparently, Mabel was intellectually honest enough to recognize the fact that, in order for people to ‘qualify’ for life, in the first place, their existential posture may never cease being thoroughly dignified. This explains Mabel’s decision to commit suicide – she was just a little too perceptually noble to be trying to hang on to life, despite being aware of its futility: “Mindless and persistent, she endured from day to day.
Why should she think? Why should she answer anybody? It was enough that this was the end, and there was no way out” (136). Therefore, despite the sheer unnaturalness of Mabel’s decision to end her life, we nevertheless cannot help respecting it. The reason for this is apparent – this decision was not even slightly irrational.
Quite on the contrary, it reflected the character’s ability to exercise a complete rationale-based sovereignty over her body – something that only intellectually advanced and courageous individuals can do. Apparently, Mabel was well aware of the fact that there can be no any ‘deep meaning’ to futility, and that the best way to deal with futility is to end it for good – regardless of what may be the concerned act’s moral implications.
Thus, it will be fully appropriate to suggest that the Lawrence’s story is indeed fully consistent with the ‘godless’ realities of post-modernity – specifically, with the fact that, as of today, more and more people grow increasingly aware that the concept of euthanasia should not necessarily be associated with the notion of ‘wickedness’.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” by D. H. Lawrence’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After all, once there is no God, which may have a ‘higher purpose’ to cause people to endure suffering, there can be very little sense in making one’s suffering prolonged – pure and simple.
Hence, the key to the Lawrence story’s continual popularity with readers – despite this story’s emotionally disturbing sounding, there can be a few doubts as to the story’s intellectual progressiveness, as it does encourage religious readers to reconsider the soundness of their infantile outlooks on the meaning of life.
There is another reason for us to think of The Horse Dealer’s Daughter, as being de facto modern – the fact that it contains a number of scientifically legitimate insights into the female psyche’s actual working. The legitimacy of this suggestion can be shown in relation to the manner, in which Lawrence expounds on what prompted Mabel to assume that Fergusson was in love with her.
There is a memorable scene in the story when Mabel utters the word ‘love’ for the first time: “’Who undressed me?’ she (Mabel) asked, her eyes resting full and inevitable on his face. ‘I did,’ he (Fergusson) replied, ‘to bring you round.’ For some moments she sat and gazed at him awfully, her lips parted.
‘Do you love me then?’ she asked” (141). This, course, suggests that Mabel associated the notion of love with the notion of nakedness. Nevertheless, contrary to what some critics suggest, this particular plot-development did not mean to accentuate the fact that Mabel was somewhat ‘odd’, in the psychological sense of this word.
Quite on the contrary – by exposing Mabel, as an individual incapable of distinguishing the earlier mentioned notions from one another, Lawrence wanted to stress out that it is in women’s very nature to think of love and sex, as essentially inseparable discursive categories.
This is because, unlike what it happened to be the case with men, whose sexual organs are ‘external’, women’s genitals are ‘internal’. Therefore, whereas; men can well mentally detach their psyche from their penises, women are quite incapable of doing the same.
We can say that woman’s whole body functions as one big sexual organ, which explains why women get easily aroused, as the result of even such ‘non-sexual’ parts of their bodies as hands being touched.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” by D. H. Lawrence’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is exactly the reason why, as today’s sexologists are being well aware of, whereas; male sexual arousal can me compared to a skin-itch, which goes away after having been scratched, female sexual arousal is best allegorized in terms of a skin-rush, which only gets worse, while scratched.
Whereas, men are only sexual from time to time, women are always sexual. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about Mabel’s assumption that, by having undressed her, Fergusson wanted to express his true feelings. As Weininger noted: “If a woman were asked what she meant by her ‘ego’ she would certainly think of her body…
The pride of the female is something quite peculiar to herself… it is an obsession by her own body” (122). There is another peculiar aspect of the female sense of self-identity – women are only able to become fully conscious of themselves, if they succeed in ensuring that men do covet them sexually.
According to Weininger: “A woman does not value herself by the constancy and freedom of her personality… (she) can only value herself at the rate of the man who has fixed his choice on her; if it is only through her husband or lover that she can attain to a value in her innermost nature” (123).
This explains the actual significance of the scene, in which Mabel appears to radiate a strong emotional triumph, because of her realization of Fergusson’s ‘love’: “She looked at him again, with the same supplication of powerful love, and that same transcendent, frightening light of triumph…
He (Ferguson) was powerless” (141). Apparently, it only took Mabel less than a second to attain the sensation of self-worthiness, as a result of having assumed that Fergusson was in love with her all along – hence, causing this character to instantly drop the thoughts of suicide.
Thus, Lawrence’s exploration of the theme of a ‘female sexuality’ does not merely appear to be fully legitimate in the conceptual but also in the ideological sense of this word, as it does undermine the politically correct myth that the particulars of people’s gender-affiliation have no effect of their cognitive predispositions. After all, as it can be seen in The Horse Dealer’s Daughter, this is far from being the case.
Women are women and men are men. Moreover, women cannot live without men and men cannot live without women – this is just the way things are. Denying this fact, as feminists do, constitutes a violation of the laws of nature. This message is clearly conveyed between the lines.
Given what has been said earlier, it appears that there is indeed a good rationale in referring to this particular Lawrence’s story, as being intellectually enlightening to an extent that even today, it continues to provide readers with the scientifically sound insights into the societal significance of the surrounding reality.
This is the reason why The Horse Dealer’s Daughter will continue to emanate a strong reading-appeal into the future. I believe that this conclusion fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.
Works Cited Lawrence, David Herbert 1914, The Horse Dealer’s Daughter. PDF file. 27 Mar. 2013.
Weininger, Otto 1906, Sex
Expanding into Mexico: Benefits, Risks and Impediments Report (Assessment) college essay help near me
Introduction Globalization and improvement in communication have opened up the international market. Most of the companies venturing into these markets seek to increase their sales volume, diversify their operations, increase the profit margin, avoid excessive competition in the domestic market and also increase their market share.
Though the benefits of expanding globally are enormous, there are many risks and impediments that may hamper the expansion process.
These risks include price fluctuations, exchange rate volatility, political influences, legal and regulatory rules. The company management must therefore carefully evaluate the target market so as to project the expected profits and understand the challenges in order to develop effective entry strategies.
Prior knowledge needed prior to expanding into Mexico Before the company can expand to Mexico, it is necessary for the company to evaluate various factors that are imperative for the overall success of the expansion strategy. First, the target market is very important as it forms the consumer base for the company. Currently, Mexico has about 110 million people. It is the 13th largest economy in the world and the 11th most populous country in the world.
The country trades with the USA as the most important import and export partner. The nation has an elaborate transport and communication network which is ideal for doing business.
Most of the residents are in the upper middle class level. The country is an emerging power and has become one of the industrialized nations. The country supports several trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) according to which it trades with the USA.
Profitability The company hopes that the business will be profitable due to the large population in the country. Since the country is expanding to a market where the competition is not very high, it expects to capture a large portion of the market and hence the business will be profitable. In addition to the large target market, the country labor force is enormous as compared to the USA.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The labor rates are lower in Mexico and hence the company will reduce its operations costs, and this will increase the profit margins. The company expects that Mexico has lower taxes and lower rental rates which increase the profit margins.
Potential risks Despite the increase in profits that are expected, the company has several risks that may affect the running of the business. The crime rate is very high causing a lot of uncertainties and instabilities. In Mexico, the market is controlled by cartels which are hard to break up. These cartels pose significant threat to the company as the cartel can cause physical damage to the new company structure and workers.
Competition: The other potential risks come from the competitors. These are the local companies that exist around Mexico and they deal with the same commodities as this company.
Changes in laws and regulations: changes in the legal system can pose a significant challenge to the company. Laws limiting international investors and promoting domestic companies could affect the company’s operations internationally. International companies may be required to pay extra tax which increases the final product costs in relations to the domestic market prices.
Political instability: political instability in the Mexico could result in reductions of the company’s profits.
Exchange rate changes: Exchange rates fluctuations affect international prices. If the country’s monetary policy is not effective, inflation would affect the prices of production factors and raw materials and this would affect the company’s profitability
Changes in trade agreement: Changes in trade agreement between USA and Mexico can also affect the profits and operations of the company in this area.
We will write a custom Assessment on Expanding into Mexico: Benefits, Risks and Impediments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Common and Civil law systems in Mexico The Mexican legal system originates from the Greek, Roman, and French legal systems. The law is similar to other common laws around the world. The current Constitution that governs Mexico is based on the Constitution of 1917. The country has a well organized and evolved legal system in contrast to the perception that most foreign people have that the country’s legal system is not adequate.
The Mexican laws are similar to the most of the laws in the world as opposed to the US legal system. The US common law is derived from the case laws, statutory laws of England and American civilizations while that of Mexico is derived from the Roman laws that were later refined by the French. In the US, case laws are commonly used to solve judicial cases while in Mexico, case laws are rarely used.
The Mexican laws require that international companies running businesses in Mexico are affected by the Mexican law either directly or indirectly even if the business is not located there. The country’s administrative laws are formulated by agencies. They include labor, financial, banking, and taxations laws. These rules are gradually overriding the traditional Mexican laws.
Dispute resolution One of the main recognized dispute resolution methods is through arbitration. The law applies to all national and international parties to a dispute unless there are international treaties and laws forbidding the use of arbitration.
The Mexico commercial arbitration statute was passed in 1993, and it is used in dispute resolutions. The arbitration law requires that both parties agree to arbitrate. The failure in arbitrations results in the court litigation where the contract laws apply (Mueller 2).
Contract law The fundamental rules that govern Mexico are found in the civil codes of many states in Mexico. These laws stipulate the basic rules of contractual engagements and rules regarding patenting, trademarks, and the negotiable credit instruments. The contract law identifies 20 types of contracts such as associations, bond, chattel mortgages, agency, lease, purchase and sale, deposits, and commodatums among others.
Employee labor violations The Mexican labor laws are drawn from the Constitution. They indicate the minimum wage that employees can earn. The laws also state that those paying on an hourly rate must not go below the minimum wage that is allowed. The method of payment is the subject of employees’ consent. Companies must follow these minimum requirements to avoid violations.
Labor contract: the Mexican laws provide the minimum contract period for both executive and non-executive employees. Non-executive employee must be trained for three month while the executive employee must be trained for six months.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Expanding into Mexico: Benefits, Risks and Impediments by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Outsourcing: the Mexican laws prohibit certain forms of outsourcing. Any outsourcing works must be of a specialized nature and not similar to the work that employee within the company can do. These laws mean that workers will have to get extra benefits due to any additional work. Most companies do not subcontract ordinary works.
Termination: The Mexican law details the causes for termination of employment such as fraud, insubordination, drug, alcoholism, immoral conduct among others. The company venturing abroad must understand these laws.
Human rights violation The Mexican laws ban all forms of racial, ethnic, national origin, age, disability, health, religion, sex and marital status discriminations. The company must ensure that this does not occur. In Mexico, the human rights abuse is on the rise. Despite the current laws governing the human rights, there are still much human rights abuse in the country (Amnesty International 4).
There are large criminal organizations that control the drug and human trafficking trade which the government has not been able to deal with. Criminal gangs always target human rights activist and journalists who expose their cartels. This makes most residents live in fear due to crimes, lawlessness, torture, murder and other atrocities.
Impunity in this country is high; crimes are committed by security and military personnel when fighting the drug cartels. Victims are tortured in remand with some common methods as electrocuting, beatings, chocking someone with a plastic bag, threats, and spraying someone with water (Human Rights Watch 3).
Child labor law violations In Mexico, child labor laws are high violated. Currently, one out of five children works. A total of 4 million kids under the age of 17 years work. The country is currently working towards eliminating child labor, and it has already ratified the UN convections on rights of the child of 1989.
Perceptions of organization’s that engage in human rights violations and child labor laws Though many see human rights abuse and child rights abuse as being against the law, the government has no machinery and power to control these acts. When establishing the company, it is imperative that human rights are taken into accounts and the company should not engage children in work.
European Union The European Union (EU) was formed in 1992, and it is one of the most influential international organizations of the world. The EU was previously known as the European Economic Community. The EU has is based on several policies formed by parliaments, commissions, and ministries.
Today, the trade relations between the EU and Mexico are regulated with the help of a free trade agreement which was signed in 2000, providing the country with the additional possibilities in relation to the development of trade relations with foreign countries. The agreement is based on general democratic principles to protect the interests of both parties.
The partnership between the EU and Mexico contributes to the economic growth of the country significantly, with references to the stimulation of the investment flows between Mexico and the international organization. It is possible to speak about the EU as a large export market for Mexico, and this fact contributes to the discussion of the trends in Mexico’s foreign trade.
Mexico is rich in minerals which are exported to the EU actively. Moreover, Mexico exports transport and electric equipment to the countries of the EU. It is important to note that the country also imports more innovative variants of the transport and electric equipment from the EU (Derham).
Mexico supports the active trade and political relationships with the EU because a lot of advantages provided for the country. The first advantage is that the EU is a single market which enables companies to trade at an international level using one currency. The second advantage is the monetary union.
The EU countries trade with one currency and this makes it easy for a company to trade without the impact of exchange rate changes. The prices of different commodities remain constant. The EU also promises environmental protections and war prevention to the member states, and hence, there is political stability which is suitable for good business (Derham 7).
Lastly, the removal of the trade barriers allows companies to expand to other regions within the EU. From this point, Mexico received a lot of opportunities to develop industries and markets depending on the improvement of the effective trade and political relations with the EU.
Thus, the main purposes of the EU-Mexico cooperation are to guarantee the free and open trade markets for the parties, to avoid the competition while focusing on the productive cooperation, and to establish the norms of the successful cooperation according to the democratic principles and legal standards.
These relations are important for Mexico as well as for the EU because they allow concentrating on the investment flows, liberalization of the markets, open and effective relations between governments.
Participating in the agreement, Mexico receives more opportunities to develop trade relations with the European countries according to the globally adopted rules. Thus, the agreement guarantees the countries’ following democratic principles and protecting human rights.
Furthermore, minerals and transport equipments are exported and imported by the EU and Mexico to contribute to the further development of the fields. Today, it is possible to speak about definite Mexico’s privileges within the global market which are associated with the active relations between the EU and the country because Mexico is one of the largest partners of the EU in Latin America (Denti; Derham).
Focusing on the certain disadvantages of the EU as an organization, it is important to pay attention to The main disadvantage of the EU is the loss of national sovereignty of the members of the EU. When nations join the EU, they have to obey the rules and regulations set by this economic block which is rather irrespective of the repercussions.
Another disadvantage is the fact that small nations have the limited influence on the economic policies set by the EU (Denti 5). However, these points are urgent for the countries which are the members of the EU. The cooperation with the EU is advantageous in its character for all the countries-partners of the organization.
Mexico has the closest trade and political relations with the USA, but the focus on the trade and economic relations with the EU provides the country with the opportunity to expand the spheres of the economic impact and diversify trade relations.
As a result, Mexico can compete successfully within the global market while developing the cooperative relations with the EU (Denti). That is why, the agreement between Mexico and the EU adopted in 2000 opened a lot of possibilities for the economic integration and stimulation of the investment flows.
Conclusion In conclusion, Mexico is a good country for the company to invest in. There are huge profits expected from the business. Though the legal system is not well established, there are laws in place to protect foreign investors. The main problem with their legal system is the implementation of the laws. The company should go ahead and invest in this country though appropriate risk management strategies must be formulated.
Works Cited Amnesty International. Mexico Laws without Justice: Human Rights Violations and Impunity in the Public Security and Criminal Justice System. 2007. PDF file. Web.
Denti, David. The Influence of Small States in the European Union. Iceland: University of Iceland, 2007. Print
Derham, Mark. European Union: Risk-Benefit Analysis. 2010. Web.
Human Rights Watch. World Report 2012: Mexico. 2013. PDF file. Web.
Mueller, Christa. Arbitration in Mexico. n.d. Web.
BP in Russia Case Study essay help
Table of Contents Process
Causes of failure in strategic alliances
Firms in different economic sectors are increasingly incorporating the concept of strategic alliance as one of their best management practices in an effort to develop their competitiveness. However, strategic alliances such as mergers and acquisitions are characterized by a relatively high rate of failure.
This is well illustrated by the case of BP. The firm failed in its effort to acquire a number of firms in the Russian oil industry. There are a number of factors that organizations should consider in their effort to form strategic alliances such as mergers and acquisitions. Some of these factors are evaluated below.
Process Ensuring strategic consistency –A clear corporate strategy should be developed in the process of undertaking mergers and acquisitions. The two parties involved in formation of merger and acquisition should participate in development of the corporate strategy in order to ensure a high level of consistency.
Building shared value– Before entering into a merger and acquisition relationship, it is important for the top management teams of the firms involved to evaluate the degree of shared value between the two organizations. One of the factors that led to failure of BP and Rosneft merger is poor management of the strategic alliance. This is evidenced by the fact that the merger was characterized by conflict of value between the two firms.
Development of a merger plan– To increase the rate of success in mergers and acquisition, it is important for the firms involved to develop a comprehensive merger plan. The plan should outline the roles and responsibilities of parties involved in the merger. In the process of acquiring Rosneft, BP did not develop a merger plan which led to its failure.
In addition to the above elements, it is important for a strong interface team and a clear communication plan to be developed.
People The human factor is one of the most important elements that firms involved in mergers and acquisitions should consider. This arises from the fact that it determines the success of the pre-acquisition and post-acquisition processes.
Additionally, a strong relationship between the workforces of firms involved in mergers and acquisitions should be developed. Another element of human factor that should be integrated relates to change management. Effective management of change aids in eliminating possible resistance from employees.
Technology Firms involved in merger and acquisition should undertake effective system integration in order to promote communication and information sharing amongst employees.
Causes of failure in strategic alliances Culture shock
One of the major factors that cause failure of mergers and acquisition is culture shock. In the course of their operation, firms develop organizational culture that is unique from other firms. Formation of strategic alliances may result in conflict of culture between the two firms involved.
This may limit attainment of the desired objective. Therefore, it is important for firms’ management teams to conduct a comprehensive cultural analysis prior to making their merger and acquisition decision. The analysis will aid in determining the degree of cultural fit between the firms and hence the probability of the merger succeeding.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poor integration
Lack of effective organizational integration is another factor that causes failure of mergers and acquisitions. Information about a possible merger and acquisition may lead to uncertainty, anxiety and fear amongst an organization’s employees. Consequently, it is important to ensure that such information is effectively communicated in order to ensure employees of their job security.
Lack of effective control
In addition to the above elements, mergers and acquisitions fail due to lack of effective control. Therefore, it is important for firms involved in merger and acquisition to ensure that effective control is incorporated.
Turnaround at Nissan Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Currently, the key task for management is successfully executing change in organisations. Organisational change denotes the set of different activities that yield an alteration in the course and progressions that influence the manner in which organisations operate. This paper analyses the case study of the triumphant turnaround of Nissan.
The paper explores what was done to better effectiveness, adaptation, and human dealings, and the manner in which the potential transactions amid the performance determining factors were dealt with.
Additionally, this paper will evaluate the features and expertise that elucidate successful tactical leadership perspective of Carlos Ghosn. Finally, the cross-cultural deliberations Carlos must take into consideration when executing change at Nissan is examined.
What was done to improve efficiency, adaptation, and human relations, and how were the potential trade-offs among these performance determinants handled?
Tactical leadership is a complex issue that entails managing organisations and assisting them in dealing with the current internationalised business setting (Laschinger et al. 2001). Various researches affirm the significance of tactical leadership in illustrating that an organisation is an indication of their pinnacle leader.
Different studies concluded that tactical leadership is connected with several constructive organisational outcomes (De Luque et al. 2008). Tactical leadership is majorly seen as a part of the critical propellers of efficient policy execution.
Pliable and adaptive leadership means that top leaders have an impact on the fiscal performance of any organisation through their influence on the major determining factors of the fiscal performance of organisations (that is, human dealings, efficiency, and adaptation).
Leadership and management studies offer powerful proof that pliable and adaptive leadership is vital for the majority of managers (Elenkov
Developing ISO Standard by Hydra Trading LLC Research Paper online essay help
Introduction This is an internship development report on Hydra Trading LLC (Hydra), which provides logistic services to the army, but does not have a quality standard for its products, services, procedures, and processes. The report shows all stages involved in developing the company to achieve the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard.
It identifies weaknesses of the company, methods used to locate weaknesses, and methods of upgrading these weaknesses in order to improve quality standards within the company.
The need for a quality management system is a strategic decision for Hydra, which can facilitate processes and procedures of logistic services and products. The firm must meet various needs, specific objectives, products, and services in its quality management systems (ANSI/ASQ, 2000).
This report covers 15 weeks and provides recommendations on how to achieve ISO standard for the company.
Hydra Trading is a logistic solution provider to “the United Arab Emirates (UAE) military, civil defence, government organisations, public, and private Sectors”.
Internship Log File Weekly Report Week 1
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations The week of 01/09/2012 Introduction and Identification of logistics challenges in the company Logistics Analyst: Roles include:
Evaluate all activities of logistic process
Make necessary recommendations for improvement
Providing efficient customer support service
Manage people and communicate with team
Processing and packaging orders
Supply Chain Manager:
Control all aspects of the supply chain, from start to the end
Provide customers with delivery deals and other services
Coordinate some elements of purchasing and warehouse
Provide administrative duties
Identification of key processes (quality management processes for safe delivery of products and services)
Procurement and purchasing design
Customer relationship management
Internal audit systems
Identification of the company challenges
Flexibility: since recession, the company suffered financial setbacks, but it has responded with few innovative ideas for growth
Sustainability: the green movement present serious challenges to the firm. The company will have to invest in green technology and production to manage its operation for eco-friendly environment
Innovation: the company has not adopted mobile technology and other smart gadgets to facilitate transfer of information and reduce costs of running the business
Quality: the company strives to save costs but does little to improve quality
Capacity shortages: lack of reliable drivers and transporters, which have led to increase in costs and delay
Product damage: the company transport sensitive and dangerous cargo to the army. In some cases, accidents cause damages to such cargo. Packing should address effects of bumps, shock, and exposure
Security: bandits may target the cargo during transportation than any other time. There is a need for adequate security for the army cargo
The week’s activities have provided valuable lessons for understanding roles, key processes, and challenges of the company
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 10/09/2012 Understanding the organisation and the need for introducing the ISO standard in the company Logistic analyst
Supply chain manager
The army requires the company to supply its cargo persistently and continually in their original conditions
Ensure that the firm meets its obligations
Objectives for achieving effective delivery and customer satisfaction
Continual service improvement
Ensuring conformity with the customer’s demands
Meeting regulatory and security challenges
The company lacks any quality standard guideline, hence, the need to introduce ISO standard
Benefits of ISO
Increased efficiency: a company that has ISO standards has high-levels of efficiency
The processes are simple to follow once introduced. Therefore, training and planning for transition are simple steps
Increased revenue: a firm with ISO standard has efficient standards, improved productivity and financial management
High morale among employees: the ISO defines roles and responsibilities for all staff members, training, and accountability systems
ISO standard provides international recognition to the company
ISO standard has ability to gather sufficient data for factual decision-making
Improved relationship with customer because of ensuring customer’s standards during transportation
Documentation of all processes enhances identification of errors and discrepancies within the chain
Improve accountability and audit processes for effective decision-making
Conclusion The company needs ISO standard in order to enhance operation, performance, and profitability.
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 17/09/2012 Gap analysis
Supply chain manager
The need to understand quality management principles
The company lacks any ISO standard, thus, will cannot make any comparison
Gap analysis helps in identification of challenges and areas for improvement
Quality management depends on the management team
The top executives must:
Define quality policy for the company
Define measurable objectives to ensure that quality management strategies are possible
Ensure that employees achieve objectives by ensuring that the objectives align with the quality requirements
Provide communication channels for the process
Conduct quality management reviews in order to determine the impact of quality initiatives in the company
Management team must support the process with all required resources for effective implementation
Executives must ensure continuous review of the process based on the market pressure and emerging challenges
Gap analysis is necessary for understanding challenges and the roles of the management team in promoting quality improvement initiatives in the firm
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 24/09/2012 Developing the project plan
Supply chain manager
Quality improvement initiatives require a plan for effective implementation
Reviewing challenges from the first week and outcomes of gap analysis and roles of management team
Communicating with the team head of departments and managers
Define the time frame for the project (12 weeks)
The firm must select the type of registrar for its ISO standard
Informing the employees of the quality management process
Decision on key stakeholders, participants and period for the project after evaluation of the gap analysis findings
Arranging for the ISO standard meeting
Identification of roles and responsibilities of all participants
Ensure that the project has adequate tools and support from all stakeholders
Identification of external factors that may have impacts on the project, such as assistance, resources, and other project assistants
Defining the project deadline
To reduce burden on resources
To provide for critical path that guides the project phases
Provide realistic estimates of amount of resources and time required to complete the project
Conduct meeting for feedback purposes
Conclusion The company shall rely on its personal assigned in these departments to facilitate the implementation of the process The firm must implement its quality improvement project based on a written project plan The process of developing a project plan is necessary in order to determine the work flow and resources needed for the project
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 01/10/2012 Working with the team to develop objectives and implementation plan Logistic analyst
Supply chain manager
Logistic analyst assistant
Logistic manager assistant
Supply chain manager assistant
Developing objectives for implanting the quality improvement plan is mandatory for the success of the project
The objectives must focus on eight core areas of quality management
Focus on customer’s needs
Creating a process of quality improvement
Decision-making processes based on facts
Beneficial relationship with suppliers and other external partners
Systematic management approach
NOTE: the objectives and quality plan must stress:
Roles and responsibilities in key areas in the plan
Develop objectives based on the prevailing market conditions and customer needs
Highlight the need to meet customer’s needs
Developing methods of communicating to employees and other assistants, if any
Highlighting relationship among all key phases of the project
Conclusion: the team and the objectives that focus on eight key areas of quality improvement shall ensure that the project addresses key concerns in the company
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 08/10/2012 Implementation of the plan: The use of the team approach
The team approach has two groups (steering team and task team)
The company adopts the new procedure for ISO standard
Supply chain manager
Logistic analyst assistant
Logistic manager assistant
Supply chain manager assistant
This is a team of six people
The team shall lead the quality improvement plan
The team’s core roles include meeting to discuss project progress, resolve emerging challenges, review and allocate available resources, and coordinate the design of the new quality management system
The team has key people in the company with management and administrative roles in supply chain , logistic, and analysis
The choice of the team is strategic for the authority the project requires for decision-making
Steering team has the responsibility of leading the project
The task team formulates all processes and document requirements for the plan
The steering team reviews, monitor, and make changes to proposals of the task team
The task team must determine the requirements and procedures for developing quality management systems
The task team must evaluate the requirements for improving quality and the current organisational practices
The steering team must develop the project period and assign specific tasks to the team
Task team designs the new approach to allow the company meet ISO standard benchmarks
The ISO standard steering team must review the process for approval or modification. After approval, the team introduces the new procedures to employees
The company adopts the new system in order to improve quality
Conclusion: The team approach is effective because it accounts for effective decision-making, allocation of resources, leadership involvement, collaborative approach, and thorough review of the approved procedures. Hence, it ensures that the project focuses on key objectives of the quality improvement plan
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 15/10/2013 Implementation (a step-by-step approach)
Assign specific dates to all objectives (the project uses Gantt Chart)
ISO Steering team: Logistic analyst
Supply chain manager
Identify members of the team, including senior executives
Identify employees who will take specific tasks
Determining workload and availability of resources
Inform the team
Assignment of tasks to specific employees or as a team
Reviewing responsibilities assigned to individuals in order to ensure balance
Identification of a task team leader to facilitate the process and promote communication
Team leader takes the responsibility for the task
Identify adequate resources for the project
Identify the need for training or assistance among team members
Use Gantt Chart to assign project specific dates
The plan relies on information from the planned objectives and
Allocate dates based on availability of resources
Identify tasks preferred tasks
Identify management responsibilities
Note the amount of time required for successful completion of the task
Conclusion The Gantt chart is necessary for indicating the projects and their milestone. It will allow the team to know projects, which are not on schedule
Task Assignments table
Task Group Team members Team leader Quality Manual Document Control Control of Quality Records Management Responsibility Competence, Awareness and Training Resources management Procurement Purchasing design Production Customer relationship management Internal audit systems Design, Development, and Management processes Innovation Flexibility Sustainability approaches Project logistics Supply chain management Warehousing and distribution (availability of storage facilities and warehouses) Dangerous chemicals Non-conforming products Corrective actions Preventive actions Data collection and analysis Week 8
We will write a custom Research Paper on Developing ISO Standard by Hydra Trading LLC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 22/10/2012 Training
ISO standard requires that all employees undergo training in order to understand their functions in relations to quality improvement initiatives
All employees in the company Training project managers and team leaders in order to ensure effective implementation of the project
Training employees to understand ISO standard and its importance to the company, how it will affect their roles, improve quality, and opportunities the ISO standard provides
The team must understand all details of the project in order to perform their duties well
Internal auditors need training on ISO standards
Training is also necessary in introducing employees in technical areas of the project in order to reduce cases of errors In case of any challenge, the team should perform root cause analysis in order to identify the source of the error Conclusion Training is mandatory for successful implementation of the project because project implementation faces a number of challenges, which may lead to its collapse All employees in the organisation must understand the importance of ISO standard to the company and support its implementation
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 29/10/2012 Documentation
Supply chain manager
Logistic analyst assistant
Logistic manager assistant
Supply chain manager assistant
Most documentation requirements are general, but the team must identify processes that can support the project
Identification of documentation processes
Outline an overall view e.g., an entire department
Identify specific areas like, supply chain, purchasing, warehousing, distribution, customer service, tracking systems, quality control, receiving, product control, and other services
Identify how these process affect one another, a flow diagram may be appropriate for explanation
Management in the department should provide details of their operation management. This must contain all processes that affect logistic services to the military
It is important to identify documents, which are relevant to the company quality management system
Identify processes that require documentation
Use guidelines for future identification of documents
Management team must take part in this process
After the project implementation, documentation and their identification processes must form the new part of quality control in the company
Quality manual processes
There are ISO standard firms that offer quality manual procedures. They save costs and time
Controlling documents and records
The company must implement and strict method of controlling all documents and records
The steering committee must assign documents to specific team or individual
Types of documents to control
Define the document e.g., guides, diagrams, illustrations, presentation materials, manuals, and work processes among others
The document may include any shared materials, communicated information, correspondences, sharing knowledge, and any document that serves the purpose of quality improvement for the company
Document approvals Only approved document are suitable for use. This is to prevent the use of wrong information or limit abuse of information.
More than one department or individual may approve a document.
Document update Should ensure that only updated version of the document is available for references
Create a way of identifying old versions
Define what to do with old versions of documents
Highlight the date of update, reasons for the update, the person responsible for the update, and function that is relevant to the update
Deploy automated system to replace manual management of documents
Identification of documents The company must identify its documents
The ISO standard requires that a firm should have a way of identifying its documents, which may include numbering, location, and naming of the document among others
Employees should know where to find documents or information
Removal of documents Any employee who removes a document must state its purpose and the party responsible
There must be a document backup
Conclusion The ISO standard requires the firm to protect its documents by all methods possible as a way of protecting quality management system
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 05/10/2012 Use and Continual Improvement
Design and development
All employees in the company Putting the quality management system into action comes after completing design and documentation
All employees must participate in the process by following documented procedures
The team must understand what changes have taken place after the implementation of the quality improvement procedures
All employees must collect data in their departments about changes in procedures
The firm must base its decision on data collected and analysed
The process must address:
Reduce cases of damaged cargo
Reduce customer’s complaints
The firm must initiate improvement plan for improvement plants, which failed to achieve the intended objectives
Senior managers must initiate the improvement plan
The decision should address:
Adoption of flexible processes
Enhance innovation or upgrade the system
Respond to green movements
Address customer’s concerns
This is also task management, which must offer the right tools for improving the system, responsible employees, period, and resources required
The roles of senior executives are paramount for the success of this project
Every team must get results for a task or sub-task assigned
The ISO standard is keen on design and development process because this is where the firm may fail
The firm shall adopt a simple method based on identification, implementation, and following the outcomes
The method shall eliminate risks and ensure that the project meets required standards
Conclusion Some processes may be new to the firm or have undergone change. Therefore, the firm will find it necessary to improve them Internal audits are necessary during these stages
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 12/11/2012 Resource management
Customer satisfaction and or service
All employees The ISO standard recommends that a firm should management all its resources, infrastructure, and workplace, which facilitate achievement of quality improvement standards
The company must account for all its resources
Both infrastructure and a suitable working environment provide optimal conditions for the realisation of the project objectives
The firm must account for all resources and services that support realisation of the project objectives, which include transportation services, communication channels, warehouse and distribution among others
Communication with customers
Communication with customers is crucial for the company
The ISO standard has conditions for communicating with customers
The firm must define what information to relay to the customer:
Information about services
Information regarding enquiries, transportation status, delivery status
Information about customer’s complaints about qualities of the delivered products, storage, and security of the cargo during transportation
Method of relaying information to the customer
The organisation deals with security cargo and confidential information about the army. Therefore, its channels of communication must be secure
The firm should provide specific contact person to handle army’s enquiries
The firm should determine the appropriate method of handling complaints by providing effective corrective action
Conclusion The firm must maintain its resources and provide effective and secure communication channels with army
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 19/11/2013 Control purchasing
Supply chain manager
The firm must evaluate and control the purchase system
The firm must work with suppliers who can meet its standards and have ability to supply
The parameter for a suitable supplier should include the following:
Schedule of delivery
Meeting customer’s demands
Innovation and use of technology to facilitate logistic services
Credibility of the firm is necessary because of the nature of cargo under delivery, and the firm should deliver the cargo without challenges
The suppliers’ financial strength
The firm should be available to transport the cargo where the army needs them e.g., in training camps and warehouses
The ISO standards requires the firm to document all purchasing activities
The firm must define the purchasing process
The process must note all the product characteristics
The firm must establish a cargo control quality before making the delivery to the army
The management team must have sufficient knowledge or receive training in purchasing control systems
There should only approved dealers, transporters, and suppliers for the firm
Conclusion The purchasing control system aims to establish and define external relations, legal requirements, standards, and customers’ needs
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 26/11/2012 Control of Nonconforming Product, Services, and Operation
All employees All employees must engage in identification of nonconforming products and services
Non-conforming products include
Services and products that fail to meet the specified requirements
Organisational processes that do not meet the industry practices and regulation requirements
The firm must review transportation systems, transportation facilities, security issues, environmental compliance, communication channels, and legal requirements of delivering army cargo
The ISO standard requires a firm to identify all non-conforming products and services
The aim is to control their usages, transportation to customers, and or mixing with other services and products
The processes of identifying all non-conforming services and products require documentation
The process must include methods and people responsible for identification of non-conforming products and services
The method must provide a clear process of handling any detected non-conforming products and services
The firm cannot ignore the procedure because it is a mandatory process in establishing an ISO standard
The firm must identify people who must be responsible for the identification of non-conforming products and services
The responsible team must review all stages of identifying non-conforming products or services
The process is a part quality management procedures, which a firm must document in its list of controlled procedures
The firm must identify the necessary action for non-conforming services and products such as:
Elimination of such products and services
Notifying the customers about changes
Notify all relevant bodies both internal and external parties
Implement corrective measures
Conclusion The firm must eliminate all non-conforming services and product because such services and products reduce quality standards All services and products must meet regulatory requirements, customer’s specifications, and intended outcomes
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 03/12/2013 Internal audit
Supply chain manager
The firm must assess effectiveness, conformity and locate opportunities for improving its quality improvement project
It will help the firm to prepare for the subsequent external audit
The firm must compare all processes against requirements of the ISO standard
The firm must establish an internal audit team to conduct the audit requirements
An internal audit must establish the effectiveness of the new system
Internal audit is necessary as a way of preparing for Registration Audit
The firm must conduct an internal audit two months prior to the Registration Audit
An internal audit must be within the time frame in order to conform to ISO standards and meet the company’s quality improvement standards
Qualities of the internal audit team
Honesty, credibility, and integrity as part of the ethics requirement
The audit program must account for the following
Quality standards for services and products of the firm
Account for ISO standard benchmarks
Evaluate processes and procedures of the company logistic services and products
The audit must review whether the firm has achieved its quality needs
Show departments audited
Employees who participated in the audit
Reference to previous audit results, if any
Presentation of audit findings based on the evidences
All non-conforming processes, procedures, products, and services
The audit is necessary to improve the quality management system
Date Activity Who Discussion of the results, conclusions, and recommendations 10/12/2012 Ready for ISO registration
The firm must identify a registrar
This is a long-term relationship (three years)
The aim is to review the firm’s quality management system against the ISO standards
The company must prepare all employees for the registration audit
Employees must the date of the audit and its purpose
The process aims at preparing employees for the audit processes
The auditor looks for signs of compliance among employees
Employees should be familiar with the quality management processes and procedures
Preparing facilities for audit
All facilities must be neat and void of any non-conformity
Every facility must have its supporting document
All documents, materials, and any other facilities must be in the right place
Preparing for the registration auditor
The firm must provide a copy of the quality management system to the auditor
The team must have an area in which it will evaluate the findings
Conclusion The firm is ready for the audit registration
Reference ANSI/ASQ. (2000). ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9000-2000 Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. Milwaukee: American Society for Quality.
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Data Communication Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Since time immemorial, the need to convey messages has been an integral part of human life. Today, communication is almost a basic necessity. Communication, which is the transmission of messages, takes different methods. Throughout the ages, the methods of communication have continuously evolved.
This communication evolution has moved from the early development of language and symbols to the present day use of advanced computer technology. The use of computer and internet forms the basis of data communication, which refers to transmitting digital messages.
These digital messages that thereafter received by other electronic devices called receivers. According to Blanchard (2007), the amazing development brought about by today’s use of data communication and networking is the enormous distances, short time period and accuracy in which messages are sent.
Communication network is concerned with connectivity of the computers, in order to enable sharing of data between the communicating parties. Such communication networks include the Local Area Network (LAN) for short distances and Wide Area Network (WAN) for long distances.
With the ever evolving and advancement of technology in communication networks, focus has now shifted to fine tuning the accuracy of transmission and security of the message being transferred.
The challenge here is brought about by the increasing need to convey data to distant places and to multiple destinations, which technologically results to distortion of messages as well as exposing the message to possible disclosure to unintended persons. Data communication has therefore, hugely eased message transmission.
In addition, data communication has continued to advance, while adhering to the rule of increasing the rate of data transmission with the least possible data interference and guaranteed data security (Strangio, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Blanchard, E. (2007). Introduction to data communications. Calgary, AB: Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.
Strangio, C. (2012). Data communication Basics. Introduction to Digital Transfer, 55, 3-7.
Organizational Effectiveness of Siemens Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Multiple Cause Diagram Showing Factors Creating a High Performance Culture The main issues that come out as the central drivers of the high performance culture at Siemens are the setting of team and individual targets, promotion of people excellence, talent management, and performance management.
High Performance Culture at Siemens Setting of team and individual targets Desire to create a sense of ownership in the employee’s the business Company’s preferred basis for creating business goals Employees need to know their role in the organization Promoting people excellence Focus on achieving a high performance culture Supporting employees to become experts in what they do The company works towards the creation of a large global talent pool Managing talent (people) Focus on the personal growth of all Siemens employees Mentorship Managing talent (talent) Job enrichment Job enlargement Rewarding responsibilities Performance management Honest Performance evaluation Linking of the organizational strategy to individual plans The main issues arising from the diagram reveal the centrality of the company’s operational philosophy in regards to their employees. In essence, the issues that lead to a high performance culture at Siemens stem from a central philosophy. This example shows that the philosophical model chosen by an organization plays a major role in the programs developed by the organization.
The second set of issues that arise from the diagram is that Siemens promotes measures that increase employee productivity at a personal level. This is the basis for high performance in the organization. The best measures that an organization can put in place to measure its performance must include the measurement of individual performance.
The third element that arises from the diagram is that the organization uses many measures to promote high performance. It does not limit itself to a single measure. It runs several programs concurrently that meet the motivational needs and the aspirations of the employees.
Closed-Loop Control Model Figure 1: Control System for performance analysis
The main components of the control system for performance analysis are system goals, the inputs, the outputs, the feedback path, and the sensor. The system goals in the context of an organization include having highly skilled employees. Other goals may be highly motivated employees or high performing employees. There are two inputs in the performance analysis system.
Employees are one of the inputs. They are the ones that the system tries to improve. The other inputs include training programs and mentorship programs. Inputs are the commitments the organization makes to ensure that the employees have the best environment for personal and professional development.Figure 1: Control System for performance analysis
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main output from this system is employees with better skills. It can also be employees with better attitudes or increased motivation. In a system, all inputs must form part of the outputs. Information is a special kind of input that may change. In this sense, it is not necessary to account for all information inputs because it ends up in some other form in the outputs.
The final part of this system is the feedback path. Performance appraisals are the feedback mechanism that helps the organization to measure the change in the skill level of employees. Performance appraisals mean all the activities the organization may undertake to measure an employee’s performance and not just a quarterly meeting.
Organizational Goals and the Role of Goal Unity in Siemens
Organizational goals are high-level aspirations set to guide the development programs of a business. Organizational goals also refer to the low-level goals within departments and at personal level set across the business towards the achievement of the organizational goals. Therefore, organizational goals refer to the sum total of the goals an organization sets to achieve its objectives.
Goal unity is very vital in organizations. It refers to the ability to align all goals set in the organization to overarching aims. Goal unity makes the organization function like an organism. All the efforts that the members of the organization make contribute towards the achievement of the goals of the organization.
The role of goal unity in an organization is that it enables all the members of the organization to align their abilities and resources towards the achievement of the main goals of the organization. This is the basic ingredient in the success of businesses. When an organization achieves goal unity, it experiences three distinct advantages.
First, it experiences synergy. Synergy is the tendency of people working as a team to achieve more than the sum total of their individual performance. The achievements that an organization makes because of goal unity give it a unique advantage in productive terms compared to similar organizations that have no goal unity. Secondly, goal unity leads to better resource allocation and prioritization.
An organization with goal unity will receive better returns for a given amount of resource outlay. Such an organization is also less likely to waste its resources. Thirdly, goal unity is the basis for the development of certain strategic advantages.
We will write a custom Case Study on Organizational Effectiveness of Siemens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The possession of goal unity by an organization shows that the organization has a focused approach to dealing with issues. In this sense, the organization is able to adapt to change. It is also able to align its resources to take advantage of any opportunities.
In the case of Siemens, the company achieves goal unity by developing its overall goals from the individual goals of each employee. The elaborate components of the high performance culture ensure that there are multiple channels of attaining goal unity.
Long Term Impact of Performance Related Pay on Organizational Effectiveness
Performance related pay refers to financial considerations or special rewards offered to an employee based on their output. It differs from the normal pay because it arises from the performance of an employee. Its role is to motivate employees to perform better.
For instance, a sales representative may get performance related pay associated with the amount of sales. Performance related pay rewards results and not effort. It is possible to find a correlation between performance and results, yet it is also possible to put much effort in a job without producing measurable results.
The first advantage of performance related pay is that it insulates the organization from payments not associated with results. In a sense, it ensures that the organization gets value for its money. Secondly, it serves to motivate high achievers in the organization.
It shows that an organization values those that bring in the best results. Thirdly, performance related pay makes sales planning very easy. It is easy for it to know how much money it will make out of a given business deal since the only costs the organization incurs are costs associated with successful sales.
The disadvantage of performance related pay is that if an organization relies on performance alone as the basis of pay, some employees suffer. For instance, a receptionist cannot do anything to increase the number of people served at the reception. The only way to determine whether a receptionist qualifies for performance related pay is by taking qualitative measurements.
Such measurements are very difficult to quantify in monetary terms. The second disadvantage is that beyond a certain point, money loses its motivational power. Employees look for elements such as job satisfaction, opportunities to grow, and increasing responsibilities. Failure to recognize these changing needs make performance pay ineffective.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Effectiveness of Siemens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third problem with performance pay is the measurement of performance. In some jobs, it is very difficult to know how to assign a performance value to the nature of work.
For instance, is there a straightforward way of measuring the performance of a delivery truck driver? Is it the number of kilometers covered, or is it the hours spent at work? Which of these two options generates value for the organization, and makes sense to a truck driver?
Performance related pay, unlike scientific management does not require elaborate measurements. Scientific management gives an organization more work in terms of the identification of parameters to use in the planning and management of work.
Performance related pay simply finds a parameter that meets the objectives of the organization and usually leaves the details of the work to the specific employees. This flexibility gives independent minded employees a very good working environment. It is however very stressful for employees who would otherwise thrive in a closely controlled environment.
In Siemens, the organization seems to employ scientific management adapted to its needs. The management philosophy at Siemens is adapted to reduce the impact of scientific management, when applied in its pure form.
The organization takes great care to ensure that they provide the best environment for employee to excel in their work. One of the main criticisms against scientific management is that it tends to ignore the interest of the workers in favor of the interests of the organization.
It looks at employees as machines that produce a uniform output. In reality, each employee is unique. Siemens recognizes this fundamental weakness of the scientific management system. The application of scientific management principles in the company adjusts the method to eliminate its weaknesses. Siemens focuses on the individual strengths and the interests of the employees.
This ensures that the employees are able to concentrate on what they do best. The performance management systems at Siemens all aim at the individual worker. Each worker has a unique performance profile developed by a wide range of performance measures that constitute the high performance culture at Siemens.
The Role of the Organizational Structure on Effectiveness and Performance
The Roman Catholic Church (RCC) is an outstanding organization because of the effectiveness of its organizational structure. The administrative distance between a pope and a local priest is only four levels. These levels consist of the pope, an archbishop, a bishop, and the parish priest. The church illustrates that the strength of an organization can be its administrative structure.
Good structures encourage high performers to take charge of their work because the structures ensure that these high performers receive all the support they need for their work. Organizations with good structures also make it easy for information to reach decision makers, and for decisions to flow to the rest of the members of the organization.
If the RCC adopted a different structure, it would have created bottlenecks in its structure. The first casualty of a poor organizational structure is communication. Once the communication lines of an organization clog, the organization loses its capacity to grow. Organizations with poor structures also tend to lack proper authority and responsibility structures.
As soon as employees realize that they are not answerable for their actions, systems fail. Similarly, a high performing organization needs clear structures that allow rewards to flow to employees. Similarly, clear responsibility lines make it easier for the organization to find ways of motivating demoralized employees.
As an organization, one of the strong points noted in the Siemens organizational structure is that it promotes individual responsibility while it emphasizes teamwork. Teams in the organization are not amorphous groups.
They are actually a collection of individuals, each with clear roles and responsibilities, working towards a joint goal. The company takes great care to ensure that all the employees have a clear role to play in the organization. The employees answer as individuals but their performance counts towards the contribution of their teams in achieving organizational goals.
The Role of Organizational Culture
An organization that fails to develop an enduring culture soon loses its identity. An organization’s culture defines it in many ways. It gives an organization a basis for making decisions. Culture establishes the working relations within the organization. It is the source of a unified approach to issues. For instance, there may be changes in policy regarding hiring.
However, the speed with which a hiring decision takes effect may be a factor of organizational culture. If the culture is such that everyone in the organization communicates rapidly, a hiring decision will move up and down the leadership ladder on the strength of the organization’s culture.
This example illustrates the impact of organizational culture to communication. Culture is the total expression of the values, norms, and processes of an organization. Each organization has its unique culture. High performing organizations such as Siemens tend to adopt cultural elements that support the organization’s overall goal rather cultural elements that lead to wastage.
Siemens’ organizational culture promotes individual development, the establishment of organizational goals derived from individual targets, and a commitment to the management of talent in the organization. Each of the activities Siemens promotes in relation to goal setting and performance reviews aim at developing careers of individual employees.
The organization seeks to ensure that all employees are on track towards their career goals. The organization is reinforcing a goal setting culture built on strong goal setting practices by the development of organizational goals derived from individual goals. It is an interesting approach to planning because in many organizations, plans move from the top levels of management to the lower levels.
The result of such systems is that the organization fails to take advantage of the innovative resources available in the lower levels. The final element in the organizational culture of Siemens is the commitment to the management of culture in the institution.
Organizational culture requires careful management to endure change and to deliver needed change. Culture can change for the worse if not one keeps an eye on how it is developing. Siemens uses multiple systems to ensure that all its employees have sufficient drive and motivation to achieve their best.
Importance of Investing in People for Organizational Effectiveness
The first reason that demonstrates the importance of investing in people for organizational effectiveness is that investing in people within the organization leads to distinct competitive advantages for the organization.
An organization that invests in its people ends up with a unique workforce with high job-related skills. This can give the organization an edge in the marketplace because of its capacity to react to market forces quickly using its human resource.
The second reason is that investing in people gives an organization the ability to retain its best people. Talent is one of the main factors defining competition in many organizations today. The organization with the best talent wins. As such, investing in employees makes them feel valued and it enables them to decide proactively to remain with the organization for the long haul.
Investing in people leads to organizational growth. As the Siemens case demonstrates, investing in people gives the organization the required capacity to pursue growth in various regions. Siemens develops the talent of its employees in a way that insulates the company from talent shortfalls.
More importantly, investing in people makes Siemens capable of rapid growth whenever opportunities present themselves. This strategy allows companies with stronger policies regarding investment in employees to take advantage of new opportunities more effectively, in comparison to companies that recruit to pursue growth opportunities.
One of the strong positive results of investing in people within an organization is that it makes the organization a learning organization. When an organization promotes learning, it makes its growth potential to increase. Investing in people inculcates a learning culture in the organization that in turn contributes towards a strong learning culture in the organization.
Finally, developing an organization with a strong attitude towards learning puts it on the path to profitability. Improved profits in an organization result from better execution of strategy.
This is a product of investing in people. Within an organization, it is possible to invest in people in specific aspects of business performance to encourage people to improve their performance in the selected areas. In this sense, one of the most effective ways of ensuring an organization produces the best results is by investing in its people.
Reference List Froot, KA 2008, Foreign Direct Investment, Univesity of Chicago , Chicago.
Jeyarathmm, M 2008, Strategic Management , Global Media, Mumbai, India.
Walker, DM, Walker, TD
Concept of Cruise Industry Essay college admission essay help
Introduction Cruise industry is an international sector that is growing faster offering tourism, leisure activities, and travel services. There have been several important changes in the industry in order to offer facilities that are comfortable and affordable. Cruise companies are competitive in the world market through improved commercial strategies and investment in research in order to offer high quality services.
The industry is modern to serve customers through specialised services. These include small sized ships, vessels for sailing as well as yachts to access remote destinations where larger liners are prohibited. Cruise Industry began in the year 1970 with the first industry in North America.
Since then, it became popular offering tourism services and reaching many people all over the world. Cruise industry has many ports as well as destinations where personnel come from all continents (Berger, 2004).
Description of Cruise ship industry Cruise ship industry has many large ships with the capability to offer facilities such as venues for celebrations, services for children, opportunities for enhancement, sports grounds and health facilities. The industry has improved designs for ships and provision of new ports.
The cruise operators have customised services where ships offer transport services to all customers as well as ensure that they increase income obtained through variety of services offered. There are challenges that Cruise Industry faces which include competition, increased capacity and failure of destinations to accommodate large ships.
Cruise industry attracts new customers to the sector as well as takes care of the demands of the existing ones. The industry continues to grow and expand the products offered and identify the needs of different customers.
There is a need to know the behaviour of customers as well as their expectations, what satisfies them and their motivations. The industry recruits skilled workforce for managing all the activities so that the services offered to the customers are of high quality (Berger, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The capacity of passengers has increased because of the large ships that increase the amount of revenue generated. This also increases a profit due to the economies of scale and the industry able to benefit. When new ships are designed, their sizes dictate the cruising routes to be followed because the big ones can only pass through the Mediterranean ponds.
The tall superstructures make them unsuitable in oceans that have strong winds such as the pacific. The sectors in the Cruise Ship Industry have increased number of passengers where it caters for all the classes in the market. Globalisation in the Cruise ship industry helps to internationalise ownership and reduce players who are involved in the business (Chin, 2008).
Overview of Two Major Cruise Corporations Carnival Corporation
Carnival Corporation operates globally and is among the largest companies all over the world. The brands available are Holland America line, Seabourn, Carnival cruise, Costa Cruises as well as Princess. The brands offer products for vacation to customers according to the leisure time, languages spoken and cultures. The tour company called Princess Alaska and Yukon in Canada attracts more than ten millions people in one year.
The services offered to guests are of a high quality at an affordable rate, which enablesCarnival to make profit. The stock of Carnival trades in London and New York using symbol CCL.
Headquarter of Carnival is in Florida and London and operates one hundred ships with two hundred thousand guests, at least 277, 000 people who sail any time and 77, 000 employees to work in the ships. Carnival has eleven brands, which are controlled in a geographical location. The Corporation controls the operations in the United Kingdom and North America.
Ted Arison who was the pioneer of the industry begun Carnival Corporation in the year 1972. The corporation sold its shares in the year 1987, which were amounting to 20% of the total number of shares owned by the company. The capital generated helped the company expand through acquiring other companies.
The name was changed to Carnival Corporation in 1992 and expansion continued up to the year 2000. During the month of September 1997, Pan Am Corporation purchased Carnival Corporation, which later faced economic challenges due to the rapid expansion. It was declared bankrupt and the flights scheduled for February 1998 were postponed (Douglas, 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Cruise Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Royal Caribbean Cruises
Royal Caribbean Cruises is a global company that offers vacation services with forty-one ships and six brands. There are services and onboard activities offered, which include sun decks, simulated surfing, and facilities for exercise, rock climbing and Royal Promenades. It operates mid-sized ships that have been updated according to the modern improved technology.
Royal Caribbean dinning places are flexible where people stay together to have lunch or breakfast and they can book the services in advance. The activities during the day include rock climbing, golf courses as well as fitness activities.
Evening entertainments are Vega-style shows that are impressive to all the people who enjoy them. There is music for entertainment in public rooms and ice show, which are a unique performance as well as street performers who are found only in this ship.
The accommodation includes ocean view cabins, suites, grand pianos and balcony cabins. The passengers are provided with private lounge, which is a privilege for those who are most frequent customers. The ships for Voyager class have promenade view and inhabitants use bird’s eye view to see the city.
Internet is available to all passengers at an affordable rate in the cafes where they are charged according to the amount of time spent. Royal Caribbean cruises were begun in 1960 where the owners wanted to expand rapidly in the United States of America. The company has introduced shipboards since the first ships because of innovations. In 1990, there was a challenge to design a ship that could be used everywhere.
The ships that were available could not be used for cruising all over the world. This led to change in 1995 when new ship was designed for the new era. The ship was for Sovereign class, small, bigger cabins, passengers enjoyed more space, open deck and most luxurious (Douglas, 2004).
There has been a development of new markets in order to reach many customers. In 1990, the company designed new ship to redefine the industry and make it Sovereign. Project Eagle was popular in the year 1999 among all the mega ships because many customers preferred to use it.
The facilities available were indoor promenades, which were designed using the new improved technology in order to cater for customers’ needs. When the new ships began to operate, the old ones were not efficient and eventually disposed. Royal Caribbean in the recent years has designed larger ships to accommodate many passengers. It enlarged its version in the year 2006 when it got the sea freedom.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Cruise Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The design of voyager-class had features such as amenities and Water Park. The ship could accommodate the highest number of passengers at that moment. The passengers who used Royal Caribbean were mostly from North America aged between thirty and fifty five years.
Most families preferred shorter cruises for seven-night especially when children in the United States of America were on vacation and the ships were always operating with many passengers on board.
One Cruise Line Described In Details Holland America Line
Holland America Line ship is middle-sized and accommodates few guests compared to other lines of cruise with improved amenities for travellers. Two guests are served by one member of the staff, which guarantees quality services of the premium cruising. There are spacious decks, staterooms and the verandas are private.
The place where public rooms are located has comfortable furnishings and artwork of high quality for the guests. The dining area is enjoyable to suit different tastes of customers during the festive seasons.
This line has a long history of transport services and vacationers who use it throughout the year are satisfied. There is a continuous improvement of the design of the ship and onboard services that make loyal customers always come back for the services.
There are different destinations at Holland America line where it accesses seven continents and more that three hundred and twenty ports of all types worldwide. There are different classes of fleet with unique features that have helped customers to have stupendous experience.
Every ship has traditional dining and specialty dining where the restaurants available are significant to the customers. The accommodation available in every ship is modern as well as comfortable with entertainment and fitness services (Lester
Effects of Labor Unions on Multinationals Case Study online essay help: online essay help
No multinational company can avoid employing nationals of the country where it has subsidiaries. However, employees in many nations have organized themselves into labor unions. In this regard, multinational firms are always faced with the problem of dealing with labor unions of the country in which they aim to invest.
Multinationals usually come from different countries with different regulations regarding how labor unions carry out their daily duties. As a result, they need to come up with strategies that can enable them to avoid conflicts with local labor unions.
To begin with, multinational companies will need to understand the regulations that are put in place to monitor the operations of labor unions. This will help in guiding managers about the extent to which they can go during their negotiations. Moreover, it will be vital to understand the influence that various organizations for example, religious organizations have on labor unions.
If there is an organization that can negotiate better, then a multinational company may choose to use the organization as an entry strategy. Arguably, the most crucial point to understand about labor unions is their structure. It will be difficult to deal with labor unions whose structural make up is unknown.
Additionally, multinationals will need to give their subsidiaries liberty to make policies regarding negotiations with labor unions. This will not only provide flexibility to accommodate local culture, but will also ensure that local regulations are easily met. Furthermore, multinationals should be ready to approach each venture objectively to avoid stereotyping which ends up leading to conflicts.
The argument that labor unions do not have much influence on the relationship of employers and employees is misplaced. Labor unions are very powerful in some nations and will determine whether an organization will get employees or not. Almost every organization aims at reducing its expenses as much as possible, wages included.
In this regard, wages highly influence the relationship between employers and employees. However, labor unions are very influential in fixing average wages in a country. If labor unions have high bargaining powers, they can raise the wages that employees are paid thus reducing profits of firms.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, labor unions have the ability to prevent firms from altering either their levels of employment or the terms of employment. In this regard, labor unions can determine whether firms will implement lay off policies or not. Similarly, in some instances firms cannot close plants or even relocate without consulting labor unions.
Moreover, it should be understood that labor unions have powers of requesting governments to increase restrictions on firms. Labor unions have also the ability of restricting international firms from synchronizing operations. This increases structural costs thus affecting competitiveness of firms. Consequently, labor unions have a lot of influence regarding relationships between employers and employees.
Having standardized products and services is advantageous for firms because it makes the process of integration of operations easy. It is quite easy for one expert to work in several branches if a firm uses standardized operations. In this regard, McDonald’s do not have to employ an expatriate each time they open a subsidiary.
On the contrary, the firm can take an expatriate from one of the existing subsidiaries to oversee implementation of operations in a new subsidiary until the new staffs learn how to carry out day-to-day activities.
Moreover, firms with specific products as well as services can come up with a common training center where employees will be trained on what is expected of them. This will require very few expatriates to accomplish the task. As a result, I am not surprised that McDonald’s employs very few expatriates.
Employing local managers is among the strategies that a multinational firm may use to manage local labor unions. This strategy has various advantages. To begin with, local managers are well informed of the local practices and governmental regulations. Similarly, local manages will be in a good position to deal with the problem of cultural differences given the fact that they understand it perfectly.
On the other hand, there is a possibility that labor unions will be more flexible when they are negotiating with one of their own rather than when they are negotiating with a foreigner. This will ensure that the firm gets a favorable deal which will not be costly.
We will write a custom Case Study on Effects of Labor Unions on Multinationals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, local managers will be able to understand the language used by the local people thus giving them an upper hand compared to foreign managers. In addition, local mangers are better placed to eliminate fears of local labor unions about multinational companies which might worsen negotiations.
However, local managers can also have disadvantages. Firstly, there is the ideology that multinational companies have vast financial resources. This can make local managers to settle for high wages that will reduce profits of the firm.
Secondly, local managers might not be well conversant with the operations of the firm and will therefore not be carrying a true picture of the firm. Moreover, negotiations require somebody who is fully aware of the firm’s organizational culture and local managers may not be the best people to do this.
“Top 5 HR Trends in 2013” Essay (Article) argumentative essay help
Source Of The Study The source of this study is an article titled ‘Top 5HR Trends in 2013’. This is a source obtained from the society for human resource management, India. The source’s materials are all copyrighted.
Area Of The Human Resource Covered
The area of human resource covered is the Top 5 Human resource trends in 2013.
How The Text Book Covers This Topic
‘5HR trends in 2013’ elaborates on the changes in the corporate business and how organizations want to cope with these changes. It talks about the highly competitive market and the influence of the nations world powers (Parry, 20).
There are various changes in the global market that exist such as massive reliance of the social network and shift in global power. The HR tries to respond to all these changes by amending their policies and practices in the most effective way.
Summary Of The Article The article ‘Top 5 HR trends in 2013’ addresses some of the critical issues that are being implemented by organizations. This has been associated with benefits that the organization is likely to receive.
One of the trends is the rise of the HR Business Partner. Here, the HR department is required to establish and implement new methods of recruiting staff members. This will ensure that the organization is at the same level with its competitors.
The article confirms that success will be attained by organizations that want to thrive. This is through deploying of work to people optimally. For this to happen, the organization needs to get the right people for their respective jobs. Organizations tend to become agile, cohesive and responsive in their function as a whole and to the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the emergence of competitive corporate world, organizations are embracing the idea of One World, One HR. This is urgency of globalizing their strategies and operations. Currently, there has been the emergence of shift in the global balance.
Asian countries, particularly India and China, are gradually becoming world powers. In fact, the practices and models of Asian management have become influential. The emerging countries tend to cooperate and trade between themselves. As a result, it builds tensions and risks that can cause a financial crisis.
Organization leaders tend to be multilingual, adaptive and internationally mobile. By globalizing their strategies, HR has to be flexible with the diverse cultures and political status of various nations.
This requires thinkers who are conceptual and collaborative. They should be diverse to blend in different environments. Best global organizations have a flow of authority, information and ideas from various directions rather than one point (the top).
For a while now, it has been difficult for organizations to engage employees to the maximum. Human Resources have tried to Enhance Employee Engagement. The article states that, though there has been an improvement in enhancing employee engagement, the issue has always been a massive problem to Human Resources.
The article reveals a report from AON on the Global Employee Engagement in 2012 (Sharma, 1). The report shows that there is a small improvement in the employee engagement levels. However, AON concluded that the employees’ issues are not a primary focus to organizations.
In line with that, a study on the Global workforce revealed that only 35% of 35,000 workers are highly engaged. It is quite evident that organizations need to focus on uplifting the physical and social wellbeing of the worker. They need to provide appropriate resources, tools and a friendly workplace for the workers.
We will write a custom Article on “Top 5 HR Trends in 2013” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The article reveals that HR and Technology have become inseparable and indispensable. The HR has fully exploited the existence of technology. This is the use of facilities such as emails, e-learning and other forms of database tools. Most readers acquire information from the internet.
The internet is a cheap, reliable and an efficient means of communication. Organizations have created websites to disseminate information to the people. Workers have engaged in sharing information through ‘blog posts’ in the websites.
Organizations use the internet as a networking tool in order to reach out to their customers. Mobile tools and the social media have become a ground of opportunity for organizations to share knowledge. The social media are an interactive ground where organizations can interact with the people. However, use of the social media is highly sensitive on controversial matters. Organizations tend to be cautious when using the social media.
HR and Analytics have also been associated with the new trend in HR management. Analytics is something that HR cannot do without. Analysis is vital for any department. This is necessary to gauge the effect and work of the department.
The HR requires analytical data of their work to be aware of the human capital management policies and practices on the business goals (Parry, 75). The analytic data should come from both the HR department and other departments. HR analytical data is useful in evaluating the performance of the HR.
Analysis Of The Article The corporate world has become a competitive arena. Organizations want to strive to maximize profits and be the best in the market. The HR wants to move forward in steering the company to achieve its goals.
Organizations seek to recruit quality personnel to provide quality services. The HR requires professionalism in the work. This involves being agile, cohesive and responsive.
The employees are the core of the organizations output. There has been a slight improvement in the employee engagement according to the AON survey. The slight improvement is not substantial to improve the performance of the employees. Organizations need to improve their employee engagement in the best way possible.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Top 5 HR Trends in 2013” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizations are on the verge of globalizing. This means that there will be a lot of competition in the global market. With the shift in world power, other nations will seek to find appropriate strategies to reach top heights. Globalization will bring in diversification, flexibility and collaboration in the global organizations.
Technology is the only tool that the HR has exploited. Information from the internet is accessible to most organizations. The deductions from this are that organizations want to reach all parts of the world. The idea of organizations being locally based restricts organizations to various benefits and opportunities.
HR needs analytical data to gauge its performance. The data results on the HR status will determine the next step.
Conclusion Despite the economic turmoil, political indifferences and social diversity, organizations want to strive in the global market. Organizations want the best quality in order to give quality results. Through the HR, organizations can employ appropriate strategies to thrive in the competitive corporate business.
The HR has coped well with the current global changes, most notably in the Technology sector. However, it has done poorly in trying to engage the employees to the best manner possible. This year will see a massive change in the HR which will try to cope with the global trends.
Works Cited Parry, Emma. Global Trends in Human Resource Management. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Print.
Sharma, Rajeshwari. “Top 5HR Trends in 2013”. Society for Human Resource Management.12.1 (2013): 1-4. Web.
“Before Sunset”: Paris Is Still the City of Love Essay college essay help online
The film Before Sunset (2004) dwells upon a story of two people who meet after a long parting in one of the most romantic cities of the world. The movie is about love and it is but natural that it is set in Paris. Notably, a variety of films reveal the romantic facet of the French capital and Richard Linklater’s film also highlights some of the most romantic parts of Paris.
Some people may say that the city is an ordinary urban settlement which is no different from the rest of the cities in the world, but such film as Before Sunset proves that there is something special about the very planning of the city. The two people are trying to figure out whether they can be together and their dialogue is hardly interrupted by other people.
The people in love are in the heart of the urban city but they are still in their own intimate shell as Paris suggests such intimate venues as narrow streets, cozy cafes, picturesque parks and boats which help people enjoy the intriguing views of Paris.
One of the most remarkable features of Paris is that it has so many narrow streets which create a really special intimate atmosphere. Thus, the two people need privacy as they want to spend time together. It could be really difficult in the majority of urban areas of the world, but Paris is a special place. There have been many attempts to zone the city to adjust it to the changing needs of the changing society (Gordon 19).
However, the narrow streets are still there and they form a really amazing network. This specific planning can be regarded as a certain heritage of the Middle Ages when European civilized urban areas were much alike (Macionis
Human Resources Professionals and Compensation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Differentiation and competitive advantage
Introduction Compensation packages are extremely important particularly in attracting resourceful employees. By definition, a compensation package is a combination of benefits given to employees by their employers with the inclusion of insurance, guaranteed raises, wages, as well as other perquisites. Compensation packages usually include unswerving wages.
Even though salary is crucial to employees, bonuses, whether monetary or otherwise, are also imperative for a motivated workforce. Contemporarily, people looking for jobs go for companies that offer competitive compensation packages especially companies that have incentives similar to what the job seeker wants.
Another popular benefit is time off whether paid or not, and thus human resource management comes in since it is the department in charge of ensuring that employees are fully satisfied so that they can be productive (Boxall
Stream-Of-Consciousness Technique: Joyce’s “The Dead” and Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Heart Of Darkness
Introduction Stream of consciousness is a flow of ideas and images without any particular order. Sang discusses that stream of consciousness is “composed of the continual activity of the characters’ consciousness and shower of impressions” (173). Stream of consciousness is associated with direct and indirect interior monologue.
Direct interior monologue includes the characters unuttered thoughts presented in a way that they are unregulated by the author’s language. The indirect interior monologue consists of the character’s thoughts as presented by the omniscient narrator (Sang 173).
Stream of consciousness may be characterized by a continuous flow of words that violate grammatical order. The theme of words may shift from the motif that initialized the process.
Retail Management in UK Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The fashion and apparel industry in the United Kingdom has experienced steady growth as more customers embrace renown brands such as Ralph Lauren, Nike, and H$M. The fashion industry and Apparel of the UK has an estimated market value of £50 billion.
Specifically, this industry is estimated to be growing at an annual rate of 7% as fashion becomes popular in the UK. At present, the fashion industry command 6% of the total market value of the consumer purchases in UK. The market share is expected to expand further to 15% by 2015.
The fashion industry in the UK at present is controlled by Ralph Lauren, Nike, and H$M who have managed to establish a household name for their fashion brands. Moreover, promotional services adopted by these companies have spurred the growth of fashion production in the United Kingdom market.
In addition, adoption of efficient and reliable technology in the marketing of these products has positively skewed the market to the advantage of these three retail giants. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly review the aspects of store layout and design, retail pricing, and merchandise assortments in these retail stores. The treatise adopts a comparative analysis module.
About these Companies Nike Inc
Nike Inc is one of the top sports footwear and accessories designers in the world. At present, the company controls a market share of 30% of the UK athletic market. This company stocks sports balls, bags, and eyewear, footwear, and sports shoes for adults and children. The London store is located at Westfield London Shopping Centre along Oxford Street (“NIKE Free: Products and Market”, par. 5).
Treatment Programs for Juvenile Offenders Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Role of the youth in the juvenile treatment programs
Parents and the Community
The Program Administrators
Introduction Juvenile offenders require a special treatment in order to make them avoid repeating offensive behavior because juvenile crimes have been rated high among the major determinants of the crime rates in society. Unfortunately, most of the people do not directly attribute crimes to children. They assume that children cannot be involved in criminal activities due to their innocence.
However, researches by juvenile offenders researchers like Schemalleger (2008, p 542) have indicated that 10% of 99,794 juvenile arrests that were made in United States in 2008 were of children aged 12 and below. It is also heart wrenching to realize that 17% of all police arrests made every year comprise juvenile offenders.
This finding is very alarming. Therefore, it calls for various stakeholders in juvenile treatment programs to be zealous since children only comprise 26% of the United States’ population. The figure indicates that adolescents are capable of committing crimes unless they are tamed at an early age.
Since most of the juvenile offenders are adolescents, various stakeholders can correct this behavior through proper treatment, which is of paramount importance to focus on especially the roles that various stakeholders in the treatment programs play.
When the stakeholders strengthen the output of their particular roles in treatment of juvenile offenders, the effort will eventually reduce the rate of crimes in the future by having every stakeholder in various treatment programs understand his or her roles and the impact of their role on its success.
Although correctional institutions and various governments have always centered their efforts on the use of scare straight programs when dealing with juvenile offenders, it has been widely discredited due to its lack of efficiency and effectiveness. Various non-confrontational methods have been shown to perform better than scare-straight programs.
Such non-confrontational juvenile treatment methods include discussions and positive reinforcement, educational programs, family programs, re-entry programs, youth recreation programs, and community-based programs. In all the programs, various stakeholders are involved. The effectiveness of such programs therefore largely depends on the contribution of the key stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, since the increasing rates of juvenile crimes forced various stakeholders such as parents, the youths themselves, and various administrators such as lawyers and police to develop juvenile treatment programs, the stakeholders become integral in implementation. The paper endeavors to discuss the impact of various stakeholders in treatment programs for juvenile offenders.
Role of the youth in the juvenile treatment programs Youths have a role to appreciate juvenile programs and their objectives. Youths who participate in the juvenile treatment programs are the major stakeholders. In fact, the whole program is designed to change them from delinquents to law-abiding citizens in their states.
Schemalleger (2008, p.546) asserts that the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 was meant to make the court focus on children’s interest in case of a crime rather than on their criminal acts thus indicating that all juvenile treatment programs are designed for the good of the youth involved in the crime.
In fact, in the Illinois court judges were barred by law from referring to juvenile offenders as criminals instead of delinquents. All delinquents should therefore play their rightful roles in the implementation of juvenile treatment programs since it is geared towards their well-being.
The youths who have been involved in the crime have to accept the circumstances under which they been associated with criminal activities. Acceptance of one’s situation is a great role that can enhance the success of the treatment program. The youth must appreciate that all other stakeholders in the juvenile treatment program are focused towards his or her success in the future.
The other role that the youth involved in the juvenile treatment program should play is that of feeling guilty of the committed offence, which marks the beginning of the healing and the change program. For the delinquent to reform from their criminal acts, they must begin by accepting that what they did is wrong and is punishable in the society.
In fact, according to Schemalleger (2011, p. 547), when the delinquents are pampered, they continue with criminal activities even when they have been tried in courts of law thus making young criminals not to be remorseful about their evil acts.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Treatment Programs for Juvenile Offenders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The assumption that, when children commit a criminal act, they do so unwillingly and that they should not be regarded as criminals is misleading. As Dammer and Albanese (2011, p. 264) argue, due to the assumption of guilt, the Juvenile Court Act of 1938 flopped. From this Act, the court was to assume that it was the ultimate parent to all juvenile offenders to compel the state to use non-punitive measures in handling delinquents.
Moreover, juvenile offenders could not be taken through the formal judicial procedures in prosecuting crime acts. Consequently, by 1980 the rate of juvenile crimes worsened (Dammer
Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz Essay college admission essay help
Introduction Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz was among the highly ranked scholars of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which was referred to as the Grand Mufti from 1993 to 1999. He also headed the prevention of vice and virtue propagation committee in Saudi Arabia. The committee advocated for the things that are proper, permissible, correct, and acceptable within Saudi Arabia based on Islamic teachings.
Describing the biography of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz, Call to Islam laments, “his decisions were unchanged, and his retrogressive opinions were given great prominence in Saudi Arabia” (Para.1). Arguably, his respect in the public forums accrued from his traits characterized by bigheartedness, feel affection for the widows, underprivileged, and orphans, humility, and integrity.
Because of his high-caliber education combined with these traits, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz was accorded high respect in Saudi Arabia. Some of his rulings especially the ones related to the subject of cosmology, issues on women rights, and the appropriateness of the decision to station various foreign troop in the soil of Saudi Arabia in the era of Gulf war were often contentious thus attracting hefty controversies.
The aim of this paper is to discuss and describe the life of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz from his childhood to his death. An effort is also made to describe his works and contributions to the society of Saudi Arabia.
His Childhood and Youth Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz was born on 21 November (the month of Dhu al-Hijjah) 1910 in the city of Riyadh. His love for Islam reflected in his later life was largely contributed by the fact that he was born in a family that had a magnificence love for Islamic religion and its teachings.
Unfortunately, he lost his farther at a tender age. Commenting on his father’s death, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz is quoted by Call to Islam saying, “my father died when I was three years old…I only had my mother who took care of me and educated me encouraging me to learn more about Sharee’ah…she also died when I was twenty six” (Para. 3).
His mother was incredibly instrumental in bringing Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz up and or helping him to develop the capacity to memorize the Qur’aan fluently by the age of fourteen years. She also aided him to study a couple of Islamic books. Nevertheless, economic life for him was not very easy when he was thirteen years old. He worked with Muhammad, his elder brother, in the market where they sold men’s gowns (Bishts).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz played pivotal roles in supporting his single parent family, he never at any time forgot or ignored to study Hadeeth, Qur’aan, Tafseer, and Fiqh. He started to lose eyesight at the age of 16. This challenge culminated from the infliction by infections in the eyes.
This ailment continued so that at the age of 40 years, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz became blind. However, blindness did not shutter his love and desire for knowledge. He completely dedicated his life to study Islamic books. Apart from learning from the books, he also interacted and learnt more aspects of Islam from a myriad of Shaykhs.
Education During the early years of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz, there were no formal schools as they are today in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, as discussed before, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz got an opportunity to acquire an immense knowledge on Islam via his undying effort to read literature on Islam coupled with the scholarly aid from the Shaykhs. Shaykh Muhammad Bin Ibraaheem abdul-Lateef Aalush-Shaykh was one of the shaykhs.
Indeed, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz spent about 10 years with the shaykh. The shaykh later picked him to become Al-Kharj judge. According to Call to Islam, other Shaykhs who were instrumental to education of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz on Islamic matter included “Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Abdul-Lateef Bin Hasan Aalush-Shaykh and Shaykh Sa’ad Bin Hammad Bin ‘Ateeq, the judge of Riyaadh city at that time” (Para.4).
In the narration of the education history of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz, Shaykh Hammad Bin Faaris, and Shaykh Sa’d Wakhas al-Bukhaaree cannot go unmentioned.
While Shaykh Hammad Bin Faaris helped him to master Arabic grammar, Shaykh Sa’d Wakhas al-Bukhaaree was an outstanding scholar in the field of Tajweed. Therefore, Shaykh Sa’d Wakhas al-Bukhaaree helped Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin to master the reading of the holy Qur’aan.
His Achievements Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin stood out as an outstanding example of good Muslim youth among those who lived in his time. According to Business and Finance Club, “…his main concern (besides studying Sharee’ah) was Da’ wah both inside and outside the country” (p.3). He also got involved in a myriad of activities of charitable organizations.
We will write a custom Essay on Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These activities included the undying support of all Da’wah organization coupled with various Islamic centers situated across the globe. He also facilitated the establishment coupled with the supervision of various schools, which offered teachings on the holy Qur’aan.
His biographers refer the effort as one that was inspired by his love for Islamic religion. Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz also took central roles in the “foundation of an organization that facilitates marriage for Muslim youth” (AbuKhalil 45). Arguably, this achievement spelt out the unquenchable thirst for Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin to establish a society that was founded on strong Islamic religious principles.
His Career and Job Titles Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz had a well-built career profile. Between 1938 and 1951, he was recommended to serve as Al Kharj judge by his shaykh Abdul-Lateef ash-Shaikh. In 1951, he was given a teaching opportunity at Ma’had al-‘Ilmee. On his transfer to Riyadh, he taught at the faculty of sharia in the institute for science in Riyah between 1951 and 1961.
Later, in1961, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz was appointed as the deputy leader of the Islamic University of Madinah. Later, he was confirmed the head of the same university. Following the death of the chancellor of the university, Muhammad Bin Ibraaheem Aal ash-Shaykh in 1970, he assumed his position until 1975.
He quitted from this position in 1975 when “a royal decree named him the Chairman of the Department of Scientific Research and Ifta with the rank of Minister” (Call to Islam Para. 9). In 1992, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz was appointed to take the position of grand mufti of the republic of Saudi Arabia.
Serving in this capacity, he was also put in charge of the “Head of the Council of Senior Scholars and was granted presidency of the administration for scientific research and legal rulings” (AbuKhalil 53).
Until his death, he also held other positions including the presidency of the permanent committee for research and Fatawa. He was a member and the president of global league for Muslims constituent assembly. Besides, he served as a member of Islamic Da’wah higher committee for Saudi Arabia among others.
Writings, Lectures, and His Teaching Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz gave several lectures coupled with speeches either confidentially or openly in the Mosques. Although the sermons and lectures were many, they revolved around common themes. Such themes included the position of Islam in the world coupled with specific issues that influenced Islamic Ummah or nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His lessons were drawn from the Fajr prayers, meetings with delegations from the Muslim nations, and sittings with people when Magrib prayers were concluded and or while attempting to resolve people’s problems and helping the needy. Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz also delivered lessons to people he invited to have lunch with after prayers of Ishaa.
Normally, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin was preoccupied with many tasks such as his ministerial job. However, he also managed to secure time to address various issues afflicting the Muslims through his books. It is important to note now that Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin’s books were over 60 different copies. Their full discussion is beyond the scope of this paper.
Nevertheless, it is crucial to pin point that all his books addressed a number of issues all fitting subject matters like Tafseer, Fiqh, Hadeeth, Faraa’id, and Tawheed. Some of the books also touched on issues such as Zakaah, Umrah, Salaah, Hajj, and Da’wah.
Although the entire Muslim community respected and applauded his works, they did not go without criticisms. The next section scrutinizes the critical reception of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz’s ideas and opinions.
Critical Reception of His Important Work and Ideas Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz’s position on women’s rights attracted many criticisms. For instance, AbuKhalil described him as being unnecessarily harsh on women by arguing that he had an altitude that was inflexible towards women (147). Marshall also accused him for “being a bulwark of restrictions on women rights” (33).
Both AbuKhalil and Marshall drew their argument from the Sharia law provision that testimonies in courts of law provided by a single woman were not sufficient.
In this regard, Marshall quotes Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz’s argument that women’s “…shortcoming in reasoning is found in the fact that their memory is weak and that their witness is in need of another woman to corroborate it” (34). Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz also went in the record to have issued fatawa unfairly against women who drove cars.
Another issue that put Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz in the light of criticisms is the issuance of a fatawa on the gulf war issues. He issued fatawa, which gave permission for deployment of troops coming from non-Muslims nations in the soils of Saudi Arabia. The sole mandate of the troops was to defend the kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the Iraqi army.
Some critics such as Kepel argue that this decision opposed the position held by Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz in 1940 in which he was opposed to the deployment of troops from the non-Muslims nation in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (125). With regard to Jehl, “his fatawa overruled more radical clerics” (17).
Responding to these criticisms, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz is quoted by Jehl condemning “those who whisper secretly in their meetings and record their poison over cassettes distributed to the people” (18). This argument means that, contradictory or not, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz’s decisions were appropriate if at all they meant protection of life.
Osama Bin Laden also criticized him claiming that he was flexible, weak, and prone to influence. This criticism arose from Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz’s decision to endorse Oslo’s peace accord signed between Israel and PLO.
However, he defended his position. To support his positions, he cited the Hudaybiyyah Treaty claiming that peace treaty, even with non-Muslim nations, was appropriate if it was instrumental to safeguarding the life of people.
His Death On 13th May 1999, Saudi Arabia woke up to meet the reality of the death of Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin at the age of 88 years.
After the Friday prayer on 14th May 1999, several thousands of people headed by Crown Prince ‘Abdullaah, scholars, Fahd bin ‘Abdul-‘Azeez, Prince Sultaan, and many shaykhs from the Muslim nations conducted funeral prayers for the late Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz at Masjid al-Haram within the city of Mecca. He was later laid to rest at Mecca’s Al Adl cemetery the same day (Saudi Gazette Para.2).
Conclusion Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Bin was one of the high-ranking scholars of Saudi Arabia. He dedicated his life to explore Islam and its teachings. He deployed his knowledge in a wide variety of careers, which he served diligently for the benefit of the Muslims within Saudi Arabia and the Diaspora. His works and ideas remain embedded in his scholarly works reflecting subjects such as Tafseer, Fiqh, Hadeeth, Faraa’id, and Tawheed among others.
Works Cited AbuKhalil, Asʻad. The battle for Saudia Arabia: royalty, fundamentalism, and global power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Business and Finance Club 2011, Fifty Years Achievements of Administrator and Ruling Master, HRH prince Abd al-Aziz Bin Baz. Web.
Call to Islam 2012, Biography: Shaykah Abdul-Aziz Bin Baaz, 2012. Web.
Jehl, Douglas. “Sheik Abdelaziz bin Baz, senior Saudi Cleric and Royal Ally.” New York times 14 May 1999: 17-18. Print.
Kepel, Gilles. The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2004. Print.
Marshall, Paul. Radical Islam’s rules: the worldwide spread of extreme Shari’a law. New Jersey: Prentice hall, 2005. Print.
Saudi Gazette. Al-Adl: One of Makkah’s oldest cemeteries, 2012. Web.
Film Review: The Wabbit Came Who Came to Supper Essay essay help: essay help
The essay analyses the Warner Brothers classic animated short film The Wabbit Came Who Came to Supper (1942). The movie is a classic animation produced in the post Second World War period. The movie featured two classic cartoon characters Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd.
This essay analyses the movie in relation to its social discourse and theme. One of the themes apparent in the movie is that of a rabbit as a trickster. The figure of a trickster has often been popular in classical and modern mythology and it has often been associated with other animals like fox, which captures the imagination of common mind as a charlatan.
In modern mythology of the popular culture, rabbits have become a common insignia of a trickster. The character of Bugs Bunny has been popularized as a comic charlatan through children’s animated cartoon. Further, the gendering of Bugs in the movie is apparent and is discussed with its effect on the audience.
The movie The Wabbit Came Who Came to Supper begins with Elmer having cornered Bugs Bunny in a hunting trip with the help of his hounds. Bugs Bunny is saved due to a telegram Elmer receives from his Uncle Louise.
The telegram states that Elmer had inherited 3 million dollars from his uncle, however, this fortune is conditional to Elmer’s treatment of animals, especially rabbits. Bugs, with characteristic panache, take advantage of the situation and moves into Elmar’s house. As Elmer, mesmerized at his own good luck, enters his home, he finds Bug taking a shower, singing “Angel in Disguise”.
This infuriates Elmer, but the Bug reminds him of his uncle Louie’s will. Daunted by the possibility of being disinherited from 3 million dollars property, Elmer gently wheedles Bugs Bunny to leave his house. He softly pats on Bugs Bunny’s head, however, the latter accuses Elmer of having hurt him on the head, and threatens to tell Uncle Louie.
Bugs Bunny even calls a number, however, is humbly requested by Elmer to refrain from informing him of his misdeed towards the rabbit. Elmer skillfully apologizes, to the rabbit but throws him out of the house deceitfully. Nevertheless, Bug fakes illness and enters the house again. Later, another telegram arrives informing Elmer of his uncle’s death and the news of his inheritance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the irony of the situation is apparent as the telegram is directly shown to the audience who can see that all the fortune was taken away as tax payment by the government and Elmer now inherited a debt of $1.98. Furious at Bug’s intrusion in his life, Elmer throws Bug out of the house. Elmer then receives an Easter present. When he opens it, he finds several baby bugs Bunnies who leaps around the house.
The short animated film was made in 1942. The director of the movie was Friz Freleng, considered the creator of the character of Bugs Bunny. Michael Maltese wrote the story and Richard Bickenbach did the animation of the movie. The music director was Carl W. Stalling. Mel Blanc performed the voice for Bugs Bunny, and Arthur Q. Bryan did that of Elmer.
The year of production of the movie is significant as it was produced in 1942. The character of Bugs Bunny was popularized during the Second World War period. In this era, the Bugs bunny movies saw a few changes in the design of the characters. Elmer was altered to a fat, beer-bellied character. Further, there was a reversal in the characterization and the position of the characters in this era.
Traditionally, Elmer ahs been the archenemy of Bugs Bunny and he was always hunting for Bugs. However, in the movies produced in the Second World War period, there was a marked role reversal, and Bugs became the tormentor of Elmer. Similar trend was observed in the movie The Wobbit Who Came to Supper.
The character of bugs Bunny is a typical trickster who cannot be connected with any literary creations or folklore. Apparently, he appears to a figure generated to entertain. However, Bugs too have certain atypical characteristics of a trickster. Bugs Bunny is a personification of a real trickster famed in popular culture. Bugs Bunny has a typical rabbit shape and figure.
The long ears of the bunny and the short tails also enhance the movements and schema of certain scenes. Further, the fetish the rabbit has for carrots is atypical in most of the other movies. However, in this particular movie carrots were not shown. In this movie, Bugs has been made human in many ways. First, Bugs Bunny is the hunted in the beginning of the movie, where his being a rabbit is emphasized.
However, as he moves to Elmer’s home, he retains the image of a smart, cunning, conniving human, ready to pounce on any opportunity to better his position. He wears symbolic clothes, and is shown wearing a towel when he was taking a bath, and when he disguised himself in female undergarments.
We will write a custom Essay on Film Review: The Wabbit Came Who Came to Supper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this movie, Bugs is engaged in extremely human activities, like playing the piano, singing a son, taking bath, shaving, etc. however, Bugs is cunning enough to utilize his characteristic small size to his advantage. However, prevalence of violence in the cartoon movie is apparent.
Elmer running with his gun to shoot Bugs Bunny whenever he is infuriated, beating up, throwing away, are frequent scenes in the movie. Further, a few other human traits that are apparent in the characters of the movie are cunning and opportunistic as we see in Bugs Bunny and greed in Elmer.
Though the story of The Wabbit Who Came to Supper is one of the unlikely movies to have explicit sexual images, it is famous for one of such depictions. When Elmer holds Bugs at gunpoint in the bathroom, he comes out of the tub, wrapped around in a towel, and accidently the towel slips, displaying his genitals to the audience. Further, cross dressing ahs often been observed in Bugs Bunny movies.
This was seen in this movie too. Bugs disguises as a woman in her underwear, who shouts out when Elmer opens the door. Such sexual innuendo were common in Bugs Bunny movies, however, they remained a trifling and minor part of the movies.
One reason for these hidden and trivial subliminal message in the movies may have been because cartoon movies were historically targeted to children audiences. In modern society, overt expression of sexuality remains a taboo, especially to children.
Further, such covert messages in the movies can also be observed as a resistance to the conventionality prevalent in the 1940s America, an era known for its resistance towards sexual openness.
The movie analyzed demonstrates Bugs Bunny as a trickster who intrudes in the life of Elmer, and the traditional hunter becomes the hunted – a typical depiction in the 1940s Bugs Bunny movies. Further, the implied sexuality and gendering in the movie is also discussed against the conservative society of the 1940s America.
Reference Schlesinger, L. (Producer). (1942). The Wabbit Who Came to Supper [Motion Picture]. USA: Warner Bros. Pictures.
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Introduction to Macroeconomics: Sequestration and Its Impacts on an Economy Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Effects of sequestration in the multiplier model
Impact on unemployment and inflation in the short and long run
Introduction Sequestration is a practice applied in the U.S. federal government to cut the cost of spending. This follows if the government expenditure exceeds the gross revenue in the fiscal year. According to Colander (2010), sequestration dates back to 1985 when the Balance Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act was formed to impose automatic cuts in the government spending.
It involves the cancellation of resources allocated in the budget uniformly. In 2011, the Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which was aimed at cutting about $500 billion in the defense department for a period of 10 years. This will see a cut of $47 in the first financial year.
If there rose a disagreement on additional cuts between the Senators and the Representatives, the government would be forced to impose $1.2 trillion as additional cut in a period of 10 years. Half of the cuts would come from the Federal agencies and the rest from the department of defense. The additional cuts are reffered to as sequestration.
Effects of sequestration in the multiplier model Sequestration has an overall effect on multiplier model. As noted by Brue McConnel (1999), economists have pondered over the question of how a net increase in the exports may increase the equilibrium output of an economy by more than the actual net increase.
This idea is referred to as the ‘multiplier effect’. In generic terms, when someone spends money, this spending becomes someone else’s income, hence, creating a multiplied effect on the income and spending within an economy. A net increase in exports is supported by a net increase in the production and output of final goods.
This is because there may be several steps leading to production of the final output; the in-between production steps will create additional jobs and interim outputs generating a net higher increase in the economy. Theoretical ideas from the economists suggest that increased production encourages specialization and extension of information and knowledge from leaders in technology to laggards.
As confirmed by Sercu (2009), this transfer, rationally, would result in the increased production of both export goods for internal consumption as manufacturers capitalize on the knowledge gained and economies of scale. Increasing net exports will cause a multiplier effect on the economy as described by economists and deduced from logical observations and reasoning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An increase in export is considered as productivity improvement which results in a positive impact to the economy. This enables realization of industries’ expansion and thus improved government revenue and creation of employment. Increase in export extents the benefits to third parties who include workers, business owners, stakeholders, and partners.
Government spending includes both limited government expenditure and consumption, but does not include transfer payment effected by the state. An increase in government spending above its potential bears both long-term and short-term effects.
According to Choi and Devereux (2005), an increase in the permanent spending results in an increase in the released money, thus, an increase in the circulating currency. An increase in government spending above the equilibrium results in the budget deficit, which means that the government has to borrow to fund its functions. This contributes to an increase in interest rates and subsequent reduction in the rate of investment.
An increase in the interest rate would translate to less borrowing from banks and other financial institutions. This would affect the performance of enterprises due to lack of finances, particularly those that depend on bank loans. This would then lead to an increase in inflation thereby affecting the real money supply.
Prices for common commodities would go up affecting the living standards and citizens’ purchasing power. The multiplier model offers a graphical display and assumes a constant level of price.
It quantifies the multiplier effect with the AS/AD model (Colander 2010, p 635). An increase or decrease in the multiplier results in an ultimate decrease or an increase by a factor, which is more than the first change contributed by the multiplier effect.
Graph showing old Keynesian versus new Keynesian government spending multipliers (Bussing-Burks
E-commerce Website for Music Videos Report (Assessment) college essay help
Table of Contents Goals
Goals This website will be used to market various local and international musicvideos from different musicians all over the world. The main aim is to generate web traffic so as to attract more than one thousand visitors per day.
By doing so, the business will be able to grow as the visitors will watch previews of released music videos online. They can purchase them online and thus the company will be able to grow in profits and revenue.
The main audience being targeted is the youth who are between their early teenage and late teen years. This is because they are the ones who are usually interested in the latest trends in the music industry. From the site, they will be able to access the latest single hits fashion trends in the industry.
The site also provides them with the physical address of the business where they can purchase the videos. More so, they can still order them online and have them delivered at their premises. Such convenience is what makes them visit the site again.
Requirements The website should be able to support various advertising contents for upcoming musicians as well as established musicians who are basically selling their design labels. Being a music video website, it should support live streaming of videos and downloads. The browser type is also relevant as the customers’ bandwidth capability should be taken into account to enable browse.
The bandwidth will also determine determines their frequency of visiting the website. Another requirement is to ensure the website can support various browsers, adjust to different screen sizes especially mobile phones since most use their phones when browsing.
Site Plan The website’s goal is to ensure there is a minimum of two hundred visits per day and downloads of more than one gigabyte of data. The site plan ensures that the audience is provided with a chat zone with the management of the music store as well as the web master.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They can also be allowed to comment and chat among themselves. The content required in the site is images of the musician albums, mp3 music to accompany the videos, download video files and messages from the musicians.
The hosting of the site can be done in any domain but most preferably is the “.com” domain as it matches an entertainment website. The site requires a lot of bandwidth for the storage of the video clips and online streaming of the videos.
The preferred budget in designing the site will be manageable, although, the website will be able to generate more income through downloads and affiliate advertisements. The site can be managed by two members of staff who will be dedicated to uploading new videos and answering the customer comments and concerns. The achievement of the website can be analyzed after a month’s timeline.
Geography of Southeast Asia Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Map comparisons Chinese immigrants form the largest minority group in the Southeast Asia. Noteworthy, their arrival can be traced back to the eras between Ming and Qing dynasties. Nevertheless, the largest influx falls between the years 1870 and 1940, the last phase of colonial rule, evident by over 20 million immigrants thronging the region.
Basically, they were motivated by the fact that, the European powers incorporated them into their system as administrators in their new colonies, and they too acted as trade partners. Eventually, they penetrated big cities, formed ‘Chinese town,’ and hence they were commercial kingpins.
This did not auger well with the Europeans powers, who noticed the burgeoning Chinese population cum influence and hence; they were forced to restrain them but with the Second World War on the horizon they were unsuccessful. Hitherto, Southeast Asia is a home to majority Chinese immigrants (over 30 million).
On many occasions they have been victimized by their hosts (Indonesian Muslims) with regard to their religious allegiance (Christianity), and their commercial superiority. However, the economic miracle that is enjoyed in the Pacific realm is owed to them.
The colonial power (French) that ruled a quadrant of this part of the sphere had christened it Indochina. As such, this is a manifestation of Chinese influence in this realm.
Buoyed by opportunities for settlement presented to them by European powers following the upheavals present in their motherland, many Chinese (seafarers, traders, fishermen among others) felt home and safe in this realm. As such, overtime, Chinese population and influence in social-political issues increased to date (Kimble 510).
The degree of ethnic mosaic present in the Southeast Asian map typically portrays how diversified a culture is the realm. Basically, this region is a composite of cultures including Indo-Aryan (Hindustan), Miao Yao, Monkhmer, Chinese, Tibeto-Burman, Indonesian, Thai, Vietnamese, and Papuan among others. To further complicate this realm there exist cultural minorities that don mainly the Indonesia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These include Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, and Balinese among others. In a synopsis, the discrete groups that constitute this realm belong to unique religious affiliations. In essence, while the western part of the realm (Myanmar) is synonymous with Buddhism, majority of Indonesians are Muslims. On the other hand, majority of the Chinese speaking people that constitute the ethnic minorities of this realm are Christians.
These observations differ from the information provided for in figure 7-2 which gives a blanket religious pattern. However, the largest religious affiliation displayed by the most populous culture (Indonesians) is Islam. Buddhism has had quite an influence though biased in some regions like the Singapore in small pockets.
A state’s boundary forms the most sensitive part of a nation and thus; can spark wars between disputing parties. With respect to Southeast Asian map, many a positive feedback can be said about the post-colonial boundary. While a majority of the post-colonial maps (most notably in Africa) have unclear delineation, Southeast Asian maps are clearly defined and demarcated.
When drawing the map, unlike other maps, several factors were considered e.g. population densities. However, even with these many a diplomatic relations have been strained. For instance, the boundary between Papua and Papua New Guinea is a precarious situation. Significantly, boundaries are classified according to the “cultural landscape they traverse” (Schaefer 230).
The scope of this question requires that antecedent boundaries (boundaries that traverse inhabited tropical rainforest) be listed from several maps of the world. Examples are boundaries between: Malaysia and Indonesia, Nigeria and Mali, Cameroon and Nigeria, and many more others (MacLeod and Jones 677).
Map 1: Physical geography of Southwest Asia.
Map 2: Political cultural information.
We will write a custom Assessment on Geography of Southeast Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Map 3: Economic Urban Information.
Works Cited Kimble, Hebert. “The Inadequacy of the Regional Concept” London Essays in Geography 2.17 (1951): 492-411. Print.
MacLeod, George, and Jones Mother. “Renewing The Geography of Regions.” Environment and Planning 16.9 (2001): 669-800. Print.
Schaefer, Frankline. “Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43.3 (1953): 226-245. Print.
How College Athletes Deal with Stress and Manage Time Report argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction College student athletes engage in sports for various personal reasons and interests. Participation in college sports is based on personal choices and leaves the athletes with stress issues involving competition in the sports, maintenance of good grades and social life as well as time management for all these activities (Kimball
“Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful?” By Ariyachandra and Watson Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Over the course of the years, computers have become an integral part of the business environment. This has been as a result of their efficiency, accuracy, and speed which has revolutionalized the manner in which business is conducted.
An important concept that has risen with the continued usage of computers is that of Data Warehousing and various architectures of the same have been implemented.
This paper shall summarize and analyze an article by Ariyachandra and Watson “Which Data Warehouse Architecture is Most Successful?” which attempts to provide an empirical research on the strengths of the major warehousing architectures in use today.
Article Summary Ariyachandra and Watson begin their article by highlighting the fact that there exists huge controversies over which is the best data warehouse architecture. They articulate that the major architectures in existence are the “hub and spoke architecture” and the “dart mart bus architecture”. The authors lament that despite the importance that an architecture choice can have, there has been little research on the topic. As such, this article is intended to shed light as to the different architecture choices.
In their study, the authors primarily investigate 5 data warehousing architectures namely: “independent data marts, data mart bus architecture with linked dimensional data marks, hub and spoke, centralized data warehouse and federated.” The authors noted that while this was not a conclusive list of all the architectures in existence, this sample consisted of the core ones since other architectural types were a variation of the five.
The study is achieved through a Web-based survey which is targeted at individuals who undertake physical data warehouse implementations at various organizations. The surveyed companies were small to large companies. From the study, it was discovered that the mostly popular architecture was the hub and spoke followed by the bus architecture. Since this data warehouses had to be used in conjunction with a platform, it was observed that the most common platform was Oracle followed by Microsoft.
Since there had to be a measure by which the relative success of a particular architecture was measured, the authors chose to use the following attributes: “information quality, system quality, individual impacts and organizational impacts.” By contrasting the score that each architecture acquired on this varied matrixes, the authors were able to compare the success of the different architectures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The findings indicated that Independent data marts were the least popular as they received the lowest score on all counts. The authors conceded that this was in line with the commonly held perception that an architecture that favored the independent storage of data was undesirable by most organization.
The studies furthermore revealed that the 3 centralized architectures only had marginal differences in their average score. This emphasized the popularity with which centralized systems of data storage were viewed in the industry. From these findings, the authors declare that none of the three architectures can claim superiority over the others.
In conclusion, Ariyachandra and Watson acknowledge that the reason why the competing architectures have survived without any one of them gaining a significant edge over the other is because they are both successful for their intended purposes.
As such, organizations are content to utilize any of these three architectures since no single architecture is dominant in system quality of informational quality. The authors also note that as the differing architectures have evolved over time, they have become more similar in nature which explains their almost similar scores on the success metrics.
Analysis of the Article Main Issues addressed
The article underscores the importance of data warehouses to any organizations success. A data warehouse is a center of information and its administration and it is considered as a “subject oriented, integrated, nonvolatile and time variant collection of data in support of management’s decisions” (Blazewicz 393).
As such, the article asserts that making the right architecture choice for an organization’s data warehouse is an issue of great importance. While there exist numerous studies that describe the various architectures, the authors of this article illustrate that there is little to no empirical research through which the success rates of the various architectures can be compared.
The study that the authors undertake to fill this informational void that is created by a lack of studies dealing with data warehousing architectures reveals some important truths about the various architecture types in existence. The main discovery is that independent data marts are hugely unfavorable since they do not allow for interactive accessibility of information to assist in decision making.
We will write a custom Essay on “Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful?” By Ariyachandra and Watson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relationship of Article to the Course
The authors highlight at the start of the article that its major purpose is to investigate the successes of the various data warehousing architectures. The article places emphasis on the importance of a centralized database system, a fact that has been articulated in this course.
From the article, it is clear that at an industrial implemental level, centralized architectures are preferred to independent data architectures. This is because a data warehouse consists of a variety of different data that is collected, unified and updated and placed in a manner that is accessible for management support in decision making. In such a scenario, having a centralized integrated database is more useful than having stand alone databases.
My Thoughts on the Article
I found the article highly useful as it gave a brief yet informative overview of the various data warehousing architectures and their success rates in the industry. In my opinion, the authors wrote the article in a clear and precise way which was highly readable.
They avoided overloading the reader with a lot of background information on the topic and instead concentrated on giving a discussion on their study, its findings and the significance of their findings. A figure was also utilized to show the five data warehouse architectures that were studied. By using this figure, the reader could at a glance tell spot the significant differences between each implementation. This was therefore a very effective mode by which information was provided in the article.
The findings of the study which had been conducted by the authors were provided in a tabular manner. Not only was this a highly readable means by which to display the results but it also enabled one to compare the results for the different data warehouse architectures at a glance.
The authors also reconciled their studies with the commonly held perspectives that centralized architectures were superior to independent ones. The study conducted included a targeted web-based survey. Since the survey resulted in 450 respondents giving useful information, it can be said that this was a big enough data set from which the survey results could be obtained.
The Survey also covered a wide range of companies (small to large companies) hence giving a plausible picture of what was happening in the industry. Various measures were also used to assess the success of a particular architecture in the study. This ensured that the completeness of an architecture was also taken into consideration since if an architecture fulfills only one measure and fails in the other, it cannot be said to be ideal.
However, the length and scope of the article was not appropriate given the depth of the subject that the article as discussing. While the concise manner in which the article was written might appeal to people who have a working knowledge of data warehouses, it is hugely undesirable to the non-expert reader.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful?” By Ariyachandra and Watson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because the authors do not even offer brief descriptions of concepts such as “data warehousing” which are central to the article. This means that the article would be of little use to a person who did not possess at least a basic understanding of the subject. It is therefore obvious that the intended audience for the article is the technically savvy group which had an in-depth knowledge of the subject matter
Conclusion This paper set out to summarize and perform a critical analysis of the article “Which Data Warehouse Architecture is Most Successful?” By Ariyachandra and Watson. The article gives a report of an empirical research in which the strengths of the major warehouse architectures are measured.
The contribution of this article is immense since a comparison of the major architectures has not being undertaken by other previous studies. However, the brevity of the article renders it unusable for the novice reader. Its appeal to an expert audience is however great and the information presented therein invaluable.
Works Cited Ariyachandra Thilini and Watson Hugh. Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful? Business Intelligence Journal, Vol 11, No. 1.
Błażewicz, Jacek. Handbook on data management in information systems. Birkhäuser, 2003.
The Role of Reading Assessment in Education Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Purposes of reading assessment
Purposes of a remediation plan
Introduction Reading assessment is extremely significant when one needs to determine the level of understanding and reading abilities of various students. There are several techniques and tools that help teachers in assessing learners; some of the techniques include language comprehension, reading comprehension and decoding (Schumm, 2006). Teachers often use these techniques and tools for various academic reasons or purposes. Some of the reasons being the assessment, understanding and improvement of a child’s reading abilities.
Purposes of reading assessment Reading assessment is used by educators, to understand the reading abilities of each and every student. Teachers often use assessments to decide on the best solutions and interventions for developing their students’ reading abilities.
Interpretation of these assessments, however, often varies from one instructor to another; therefore, it is imperative for them to, properly, interpret these assessments. Moreover, teacher should also be skillful in assessing their students; since, some assessments may not reflect the students’ abilities, if poorly drafted.
Reading assessment also assists teachers to trace the progress of his or her students i.e. with respect to reading abilities (Afflerbach, 2007). The assessments are often performed time after time; therefore, an instructor can easily note the growth of students’ reading abilities. This enables teachers to single out the underperforming students from the rest of the flock. As a result, he or she will have the capacity to concentrate on the underperforming students, and also design approaches and strategies that aim at improving their abilities.
Reading assessment results are given to guardians and parents of students. This makes them comprehend the abilities of their students, with regard to their reading abilities. Guardians and parents can, therefore, use the results to assist students in building up their children’s reading ability. Moreover, they can also work alongside with teachers, to design and execute the suitable recommendations for their children, with the motive of improving their reading abilities.
Teachers also use assessment to update their understanding of each and every student’s ability (Afflerbach, 2007). This is also the reason why teachers offer frequent periodic tests to their students.
Moreover, these tests also help teachers to establish whether or not their initial approaches and strategies are working. As a result, they will now be able to decide on whether or not to shift from their current strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tests assessments also assist students to understand their reading abilities. They use assessment results to monitor the progress of their reading and understanding abilities. Moreover, student can also use the results to seek and adopt recommended solutions to their weaknesses i.e. from parents, students or teachers. This eventually improves students understanding and reading abilities.
Purposes of a remediation plan Remediation plans are used by teacher for various reasons or purposes. They help students develop their learning and reading skills, in various capacities.
Remediation plan consists of several sections that are used by teachers, to record certain crucial learning information of students. Some of the information noted in the sections includes areas of problems, resources needed and solutions to the problems (Stein, 1994).
Remediation plan tremendously assists teachers in identifying specific areas of interest i.e. with regard to students reading abilities. It assists in noting areas of weaknesses and specific problems faced by students, in their learning and reading process. Teachers, therefore, use these weaknesses and problems to develop an effective intervention plan.
Besides identifying students’ problems, a remediation plan also assists teachers, to link the student problems with the best possible interventions. Teacher can use the noted problems to seek and research on the best intervention plan that can, tremendously, assist students advance their reading abilities. Moreover, the intervention plan will target the exact areas of weaknesses, thus limited likelihood for ineffectiveness.
Remediation plan helps teachers to identify the necessary resources required by students (Stein, 1994). Remediation plan helps teachers to link resources with student problems. This limits the chances of teachers selecting and using irrelevant resources that may not promote the students’ reading ability. Consequently, students will learn using appropriate resources and information that targets their areas of weaknesses. This will, then, be followed by a terrific student improvement in students’ abilities in reading, learning and understanding.
Remediation plan further provide educators with a template for recording certain crucial information of learners i.e. their weaknesses and the related recommendations. Teachers use these templates to communicate back to their students, parents and guardians.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Role of Reading Assessment in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, guardians and parents will, comprehensively, understand the challenges faced by students, and thus assist in designing the best recommendations for their children. Additionally, recommendation plan will also help parents and guardians to push students, to follow the recommended solutions i.e. at the home front. This will, then, be followed by a tremendous improvement in their learning and reading ability.
Conclusion It is extraordinarily imperative to assess the reading ability of each and every student due to various reasons. Assessing students’ reading ability assists teachers, parents, and guardians to, extensively, understand the reading abilities of students. Consequently, they will have a clear framework to decide on the best approaches that may improve their children’s abilities. This also applies to remediation plan, which also assists parents, teachers and guardians to decide on students’ fate i.e. with regard to learning and reading skills.
References Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12. Colorado: International Reading Assoc.
Schumm, J. S. (2006). Reading assessment and instruction for all learners. New York: Guilford Press.
Stein, M. (1994). The Beginning Reading Instruction Study. Darby: DIANE Publishing,
Sustainable, Ethical Business and Marketing Practices Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The sector of business is one of fundamental—if not the most important area of the world today. And in order to succeed in it, individuals, corporate groups or organizations must ensure that they clearly follow the stipulated guidelines and rules that dictate each business. It is at this point that sustainable/ethical business and marketing practices inherently come into play.
So whether you are having a small or large business, online or the normal type of business; sticking to the business ethics is paramount! However, Perez (2010) importantly notes that obeying these ethics is quite rare to find in the current world where “the end justifies the means” and “every man for him” is the order of the day. As a result, “good business people” are more often than not the casualties in this perilous competition where wealth and profits are the only variables that are, seemingly, considered sacred.
On the other hand, doing away with the ethics so that businesses get to operate in a “free market” as opined by the 18th century economic guru—Adam smith opens multiple doors for countless hazardous possibilities (Tutor2u, 2010).
So the question most people seem to be asking themselves is: should we continue being ethical even if we do not make profits, or should we jump ship when ethicalness becomes an impediment to the sustainability and continuity of our businesses? Well, my moral compass does not exactly point north, but I tend to believe that any level-headed person with the adequate knowledge of right and wrong will always be able to find a way of balancing personal progress and societal good.
By finding that balance, the issue of being unethical in your marketing and business practices will be scrapped off. If that does not help you, then I believe the pointers embodied in the researched writings below will concisely steer you to the right direction.
Main Discussion Preliminarily, it is common knowledge that values and attributes like honesty, integrity, fairness, donation to good causes, amicable handling of clients, selling or marketing original safe (tried and tested) products, truthful advertisements and proper treatment of staff are some of the many revered ethical and business practices that immensely attracts people to organizations (Jacob 2010; Rajeev 2010; Tutor2u 2010; and Perez 2010).
However, for one to be truly ethical, there are many more vital considerations that come into play. These considerations are the ones that hugely dictate whether a person is judged as unethical or not. For example, most societies consider the abortion business as being unethical. However, in the case where the birth of a particular child poses surmountable threats to the mother, then I believe, abortion will be the logical thing to be done, don’t you think so?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, BSD Global (2010) and Withey (n.d., p.2-5) articulate that exorbitant pricing of goods (be it in a business or marketing) is quite unethical. However, in a scenario whereby a lot of money was pumped into making the product or rendering a service, a high pricing is relatively acceptable. I know this may disadvantage a couple of people who are financially challenged; but sometimes we have to contend with reality and be human enough to accept that some things are beyond us.
Additionally, when talking about sustainability in marketing and business, BSD Global (2010) says that on top of salient practices like: measuring progress over time, having a mission statement and having good communication systems among many other basics; we should also remember not to be “too’ ethical to the point of our businesses collapsing.
In relations to the above point, we must learn to be professional and soberly engage in tough decisions for the greater good of our companies. For example, you may direly need pump in money so as to sustain your business or marketing. On the other hand, your immediate community (which is your consumer base) requires you to contribute toward some project. This poses a great challenge to you because both sides are important to you.
So in such a scenario, it is advisable to ensure that you engage in the decision that will ensure that you get a chance to help yourself and the community. Withey (n.d., p.2) further illuminates on being ethically right in such dilemmas by saying that something ethical to one person, can be wrong to another; so to stay on the safe side, stick to the code of ethics.
Rajeev (2010) expresses similar sentiments to Withey by saying that the code of ethics greatly helps in balancing the 6 important facets of marketing and business. Firstly, the code of ethics helps us in knowing how to handle the investors in the right way.
Without the investors, running our business is utterly impossible and we should therefore keenly handle them. Secondly, it also stipulates how to deal with employees—who are very fundamental for the growth of any business. Thirdly, it makes us know how to relate to our customers—whose essential role in our companies is even needless to state.
Fourthly, the code of ethics guides in dealing with competition. In as much as we may want to sideline our businesses from our competitors, it is inherent to state that these business or marketing contenders also play a great duty in pushing us towards progress. For example, when they discover a good product, it pushes us to incept even a better one. Again, we can also get to learn important business secrets especially from the high soaring competitors (Withey, n.d., p.2).
We will write a custom Essay on Sustainable, Ethical Business and Marketing Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fifthly, the code of ethics importantly highlights how to stay on the right side of the government on issues like tax payments, trade practices, unlawful activities and even governmental support to companies or individuals. Sixthly and lastly, it assists us to know ways of being environment friendly.
The environment facet can be viewed twofold. Primarily, it warns individuals, organizations and corporate groups from engaging in environmental degradation practices like emitting toxic substances, poor disposal of refuse or even using technologies that are environment friendly (Ashok, 2001).
Secondarily, environment here is composed of the people living around our business or marketing arenas. Ethically, we are charged with the responsibility of committing to assist in community development—commonly known as corporate responsibility (BSD Global, 2010).
Conclusion In finality, it is invaluably important to remind us that in as much as most people portray ethical uprightness as something that does not have tangible rewards, I tend to believe that ethical decency is not just fulfilling to the people who engage in it, but is also immensely rewarding. I, for example, can attest to having been greatly rewarded from my ethical actions.
And I believe that all people who ascribe to religious beliefs (whether a Christian, Muslim, Hindu and other religious circles) or even atheists (who believe in karma); agree that evil begets evil and good deeds bring good tidings. So you really should not have any excuse for behaving in an unethical way.
I concur that some circumstances may make it difficult for you to behave ethically, but that does not mean you can not try. Plus, the success of your business and marketing greatly depends on it, so give yourself a good chance like many other people who have been ethically upright and succeeded (Jacob, 2010).
References Ashok, R. (2001) Ethical marketing for competitive advantage on the internet. BNET. Web.
BSD Global (2010) Sustainable business practices: IISD’s checklist. Business and Sustainable Development: A Global Guide. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable, Ethical Business and Marketing Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jacob, P. (2010) Ethical business practices on the internet. Ezine Articles. Web.
Perez, N. (2010) Maintaining an ethical business practice. Ezine Articles. Web.
Rajeev, L. (2010) Ethical and unethical business practices. Buzzle. Web.
Tutor2u (2010) Ethical issues in business. Web.
Withey, J. J. Ethical dilemmas in marketing practices among small and medium sized enterprises. JABE. Web.
Solving Health Issues in Africa Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction The establishment, operation and the function of many formal non-profit organizations has largely been affected by social, political, legal and economic institutions. In addition, the major big non-profit organizations are found in developed nations but their operations have become largely transnational in nature.
These non-profit organizations (NGOs) continue to perform an important role in facilitating health development in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the critical role of non-profit organizations in confronting diseases in Africa has intensively and extensively been documented.
Furthermore, the work of NGOs working in Africa especially those in health care has been spurred by the shrinking of state health services across the entire continent, a consequence described as ‘hollowing of the state’ which has been caused by increased privatization and structural programs throughout the 1980s and 1990s which in turn placed the burden on NGOs to fill the gap.
These NGOs get much of their funds and donations from governments of high-income countries such as the United States, Japan, and members of the European Union together with other OECD members (Merson, Black and Mills, 2006, p.497).
From time to time, the generosity manifested by the assisting governments has largely varied and usually depends more on the supposed geopolitical importance of the problem than the real and actual needs of the affected populations. The aspect of financial prudence has become requirement for many NGOs which in turn dictates the success or failure of NGOs.
Financial problems for these NGOs has further been fuelled by global financial recession which means that most NGOs have to operate efficiently within limited budget in order to meet the unlimited health requirements in African countries. Buoyed by this observation, this report will propose an expenditure plan that is necessary in making appropriate administrative decisions with regard to budgeting of health care in African countries.
NGOs role in provision of health services in Sub-Saharan Africa The Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced numerous activities that have been spearheaded by non-profit organizations. For instance, the NGOs sector has contributed significantly in the provision of health and education services since the colonial era although many a times, some governments have worked to impose restrictions and measures on NGOs (Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generally, Sub-Saharan Africa is a region that has been credited with experiencing success and prominence in NGOs work of service provision in health, but over time the form and extent on NGOs effort to provide the health services has reduced due to certain reasons such as:
The extent of health problems which determine the demand for services and the roles of state and NGOs sector in responding to the demand;
Government perceived attitude towards the NGOs and also the existing state policies in the health sector which tend to be influenced by political model and regime;
Economic factors which are vital in establishing resources available to the state sector and hence able to finance service provision programs and also the scope of NGOs to participate in service provision; and
The participation and level of interest by foreign aid donors and western NGOs ability in providing resources and influencing domestic social policy which on an evident note has become increasingly important in the context of economic crisis and the structural adjustments that started taking place from 1980s (Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).
In most African countries, the larger population is subjected to poor quality of government health facilities, coverage of such facilities is limited, available technical capacity is inadequate, decision-making process is over centralized and the process of providing the required services is generally overwhelmed by inefficiencies and small corruption (Mburu, 1994, cited in Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).
In addition, the increasing cases of diseases such as AIDS and chloroquine-resistant malaria is resulting in emergence of a resource gap and the sustained argument has been that such resource gap can be filled by the NGOs sector (World Bank, 1993; cited in Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).
Moreover, foreign NGOs continue to exert their presence in Sub-Saharan countries and their presence is seen either in their direct involvement in service provision or through their increased funding for their domestic counterparts and from these, NGOs sector has turned out to be a major source of health provisioning in Africa and such NGOs continue to receive immense support from official donors.
NGOs and Health expenditure in Sub-Saharan Africa Non-profit organizations have played a crucial role in financing health services in Sub-Saharan Africa. The efforts of NGOs in this region have boosted the efforts of the respective governments in the region in their efforts to provide and improve health situation of the people of the region (World Bank, n.d, p.14).
In addition, NGOs sector has channeled a lot of resources which in turn are used in providing for the basic and tertiary health services that would not be available to the majority of the population if the NGOs sector was to withdraw its activities from the society. Overall, non-profit organizations account for almost 35 per cent of all health donations in Sub-Saharan countries (World Bank, n.d, p.16).
The activities of NGOs have been accelerated by the inability of the governments to provide fully and adequately health services to its population and also the profit motive of most private organizations permitted and involved in provision of health services to the population, thereby increasing the prices for vital health care services and products.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Solving Health Issues in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most cases, non-profit organizations have partnered with respective governments in extending and facilitating accessibility of critical health care services and products to the disadvantaged populations.
The graph below shows the comparison between private and public health spending in Sub-Saharan countries. It should be noted that, the private expenditure figures in the graphs below include expenditure figures by the NGOs sector.
Private and Public Health Expenditure in Sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2002
Source: Capobianco, Naidu and World Bank, 2008.
Budgeting for Non-Profit Sector The primary objective of non-profit organization has been regarded to involve provision of service which in many instances may or may not be sold, and in evaluating the performance of such organization, emphasis is put on how well that service is provided by the organization compared to its cost.
From this, many NGOs provide services for which there is no direct financial charge made on consumers and in cases where such financial charge is incurred, it is always negligible when compared to the cost incurred in providing for the services (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.5).
The objectives of any budgetary model adopted by any organization carrying out specified activities are a function of the goals of the specific organization and the accountability regime specified for the budgetary model functioning within the management cycle of the specific organization.
Primarily, the goals of any budgetary model are specifically seen to generate process and display information which, in the initial stages, appear to be proposals but later they become decisions tools employed in order to achieve the organizational goals (Cutt and Ritter, 1984). Second, the goals of any budgetary model reflect the accountability regime responsible for the budgetary model within the organization. This is done with conviction that resources allocated need to be reported and their use also reported in the required manner since all resources are regarded to be scarce (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).
For the non-profit organizations, the aim is to provide service, and the value of service provided is measured not in terms of money but through some indicators of quantity and quality of the service being provided. Service goals for most non-profit sector are generally broken down into three large categories: allocation, redistribution and stabilization (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Solving Health Issues in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, the accountability regime which essentially determines the goals of the budgetary model in non-profit organizations is similar to that of profit-making organization with respect to procedural accountability but differ with respect to consequential accountability.
Non-profit sector’s accounting mechanisms Non-profit organizations and especially government agencies carry out their operations in different political and economic environments than other business enterprises; hence accounting standards for non-profit organizations have developed differently as compared to business-enterprise standards.
Although many principles and concepts such as controlling, reporting, concern for relevance, comparability, consistency and understandability, apply to both non-profit and private sector, the non-profit sector manifests some differences that include: Non-profit organizations have inflow (revenue) and outflow (expenditure) statements but in most cases the concern is on raising and expending resources in accordance to the budget plans; non-profit organizations are expenditure rather than expense-oriented; non-profits emphasis is placed on the sources of revenues and ways the acquired resources are used, and in this respect the organizations are dollar accountability-oriented; largely in non-profits, there is no equity accounting and funds are generally based on legal requirements, further accounting may use either the cash basis or modified cash-accrual basis; non-profits do not typically have operational accountability as a central objective and thus major emphasis of these organizations is placed on stewardship and role of administrators and the management become accountable for the inflow of funds and also their expenditure in attainment of set objectives (McKinney, 2004, p.50).
Funds in non-profit organizations are categorized as resources that are available for the organization to obtain goods and service and these resources may either be restricted or unrestricted whereby in case of restricted resources, the donor or the authorizing body outlines the conditions to be observed or adhered to in using the funds (McKinney, 2004, p.50).
Expenditure Budget model for Non-profit organization With the availability of specification of the revenue budget and ultimate determination of a planning framework of objectives and priorities, the first constituent of the expenditure budget model is the set budgetary terms of reference. In accordance to these set goals the primary function on which information is collected is for budgetary decision-making.
The organization is seen to be divided into specific major programmatic activities and each of which is divided into sub-programmatic activities which can further be described in line-items of expenditure (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.19). The second constituent of expenditure budget model is the specification of the accountability regime.
Accountability regime is classified into two; the procedural and consequential accountability where procedural accountability deals with accountability for propriety where it exclusively deal with inputs while the consequential accountability is concerned with performance in utilizing the available limited resources hence it includes information on the outputs or benefits consequential on utilizing the limited resources (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.21).
Consequential accountability regime is further defined at different levels of sophistication all involving the translation of line-item financial outlays into output-oriented cost concepts that in turn represent three levels of sophistication in the explanation of output described as productivity or efficiency measures, effectiveness measures and measures of the imputed money value of output, therefore these three levels of consequential accountability can be seen as cost-efficiency, cost-effectiveness and social profitability (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).
The third constituent of expenditure budget model is the specification of the scope of the information to be included in expenditure budget in terms of operating and capital expenditures, and the last constituent of expenditure budget model is the specification of the time horizon in which detailed budget information will be required for which spending is formally authorized (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).
Zero-base budgeting (ZBB) for non-profit organization Zero-base budgeting is a budgeting technique that has gained popularity due to its strong push toward analysis of all costs and hence all costs from a base of zero must be justified. The below diagram illustrates elements of a ZBB decision package.
Elements of a ZBB decision package
Source: Finkler, Kovner and Jones, 2007.
The ZBB model builds on a program budgeting apparatus which determines program objectives and the most cost-beneficial or cost-effective method of pursuing program objectives and hence provides a means of implementing of the program objectives at the activity level.
The general ZBB model takes the existing organizational or programmatic structure and the basic logic of the model require some form of top-down guidance on the objectives of the organization within the activity-level budgeting is being carried out. With ZBB model, the organizational objectives provide the context within which the activity objectives can be determined and hence activity levels of effort ranked.
In general ZBB model does not require the objective-oriented structure of program budgeting but instead relies on the existing organizational structure in most cases may be programmatic in nature. Just like performance budgeting and program budgeting, ZBB model dwell heavily on the line-item budget model and therefore responds to the needs of procedural accountability (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).
The objectives of the ZBB model especially for non-profit organization are: first, financial control which reflects the procedural accountability; and second, management which reflects the activity at the organization level for which information is collected for output-oriented decision-making process.
The structure of the budget model requires cost and output information for the established organizational units over specified time period and cross-referenced to the standard line-item presentation is required to achieve the set financial control objectives of budgeting.
Furthermore, the structure of ZBB budget model generally requires that all set of decision packages for the organization as whole be arrayed in rank order and associated with the funding constraint for the organization in the specified period of time so that emphasis is put on those high priority decision packages and which become first in receiving the allocated funds and also the low-priority packages which become first to be eliminated if the overall budget is reduced or inadequate.
In general, the ZBB budget model provides comparison to three major types of alternatives within the decision package for each individual program: first alternative involves ways to produce service or output; second alternative relates to quantity of service or output to be provided; and third alternative, considers the varying levels of quality (Finkler, Kovner and Jones, 2007).
Budgeting with limited resources Non-profit organizations have been forced to work with limited budgets to meet unlimited needs specifically in developing societies. For instance, as an organization dealing with health care in Africa, resources available are limited to cater for adequate provision of necessary drugs: medicines from major pharmaceutical companies; non-generic, non USDA approved; and stem cell medication from foreign sources.
It is evident that limited the organization has inadequate funds and therefore any move to acquire the above medicines need to be a financial sustainable. A sustainable budgeting is required that will encourage and promote obtaining of the subsidized medicines in a cost-effective manner without compromising on the quality of the drugs.
In creating an effective budget for the organization to acquire the medicine using the available limited funds, the first important thing is to access the organization’s cash flow in order to know all the available monies and donations. Budgeting in its nature is a financial exercise that should make provision for expenditure after consolidating the revenue resources. Expenditure in this case is the purchase of drugs for an African country.
In the case the budget need to be done objectively and realistically due to limited funds where most pressing needs should be given the first priority. The available pooled fund should be distributed for each drug depending on the demand and priority.
In essence the needs will always be more than the available resources and as a result the budget may not fulfill all the demands but the organization and especially the board should be judicious in balancing the organization’s pooled funds and expenditure so that the basic priorities are not foregone and that expenditure is only limited to the most needed drugs. To realize the objectives of the organization with regard to limited funds in buying the subsidized drugs the following measures will be necessary:
Flexible budgeting allows the management of the organization to create operating budgets for the various workload levels and this will be done by reviewing the volume of medicine (products) to be provided by the organization and this constitute the workload for the organization.
At the same time the management is presented with opportunity to forecast the changes to take place especially in pharmaceutical operations in foreign environment. A flexible budget provides the organization’s management with the opportunity to understand the effects of adopted workloads.
Cost-benefit analysis for the organization will compare the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed medicine from the selected foreign sources.
In carrying out cost-benefit analysis five-step process is observed: determine the project goals; determine the benefits of the purchase of the drugs; determine the cost and benefit flow at an appropriate rate; and make a decision analysis based on the data collected. To derive a more viable and workable expenditure decision, the organization will use ZBB budgeting model combined with flexible budgeting ideas and incorporating cost-benefit analysis techniques.
Conclusion Organizations are formed and exist to accomplish certain set objectives. Non-profits are not insulated from these responsibilities. Further, finance and other resources become necessary and critical in determining the success in accomplishing organizational set objectives within specific timeframe.
In ensuring the health state of organization’s finances the board has the responsibility to ensure integrity and reliability is promoted in the organization with regard to finances. The board has the mandate to ensure the organization is managed in a fiscally sound way and the organization possesses adequate resources to carry out its programs. Budgeting becomes necessary for non-profit organization in that the income and expenses for the organization will need to be outlined to show the healthy and sustainability of the organization.
Effective financial management and budgeting tools need to be adopted to ensure the financial health of the organization is not compromised and also the organization is in a position to meet its set objectives in cost-effective way. Effective budgeting ensures the organization remains upright in contingency planning process and that the management needs to be assertive and tightly control the expenditure of resources which naturally are scarce while the needs are unlimited.
References Capobianco, E., Naidu, V. and World Bank. (2008). A review of health sector aid financing to Somalia. NW, World Bank Publications. Web.
Cutt, J. and Ritter, R. (1984). Public non-profit budgeting: the evolution and application of zero-base budgeting. Toronto, Institute of Public Administration of Canada. Web.
Finkler, S. A., Kovner, C. T. and Jones, C. B. (2007). Financial management for nurse managers and executives. PA, Elsevier Health Sciences. Web.
McKinney, J. B. (2004). Effective financial management in public and nonprofit agencies. CT, Greenwood Publishing Group. Web.
Merson, M. H., Black, R. E. and Mills, A. (2006). International public health: diseases, programs, systems, and policies. MA, Jones
Growing role of Shale Gas Essay college essay help near me
Adequate, affordable and reliable supplies of energy are essential for social-economic development of any nation. Global energy demand has been rising consistently. High demand for energy in the recent past has led to general increase in global oil prices. Frequent energy crises in the recent decades have motivated innovation in energy sector.
Most recent research studies in energy are oriented towards developing alternative source of energy to supplement or replace fossil fuel. National and international consumption of fossil fuels are anticipated to rise over nest several years. The increase in consumption is however expected to be slower that in the recent years.
Projected increase in fossil fuel consumption in the U.S is, among other factors, as result of anticipated increases growth domestic unconventional gas supplies (Haines, 2006, par 7). According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2009, there is high anticipation of increase production of oil, coal and natural gas in the country (Ziff, 2009, par 2).
Increased production of shale gas is expected to bring high impact in energy mix not only in the United States but also in other parts of the world. The report addresses effect of increasing production and consumption of Share gas in the country. It focuses on technological impact, commercial consideration, and implication of use of Shale gas to conventional gas.
Unconventional natural gas is at the top in national energy discussion. The increasing importance of unconventional natural gas on national energy has led to significant impact on the country’s energy. The significance of unconventional natural gas is not felt only in the U.S but also in other parts of the world such as Australia, Canada, China and some countries in Europe (Fortson, 2009, par 15).
Debate on conventional natural gas is relatively new. In 2000, unconventional natural gas contributed less than 1% of the countries gas consumption. The impact of the unconventional natural gas was not felt until about 2007-2008, but reached its peak in the second half of 2009. Currently, unconventional natural gas is considered as one of the important innovations in energy sector and one that has high potential energy supply in the future.
Shale gas leads as the unconventional natural gas that has significant impact on national and global energy (New Standard Energy, 2010, par 5). It is natural gas derived from Shale. Shale is natural gas potential rock made up of mud that is composed various clay minerals and other minerals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shale gas has developed significantly as source of energy in the country in the recent years. Due to its scale, shale gas is considered as one of the sources of energy that need assessment for development. With development in technology for developing Shale gas, the unconventional natural gas is considered to lead to a paradigm shift in national and global energy in the future.
The figure below shows natural gas production in United States:
Source: Natural Gas Production By source.
Unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas has led to a revolution in energy sector. The impact of shale gas is already being felt in the US and globally. The unconventional natural has led to a transformation in supply and price forecast for natural gas. It has also led to significance on competition among various options for energy.
Today Shale gas contribute to about 20% of gas used in United states, a rise from about 1% 2000 (Kuuskraa, 2007, par 3). It is anticipated that Shale gas and other unconventional natural gases will continue to grow contributing to about half of gases used in the country by 2035. Such an increase will have high impact on energy sector in the country.
For instance, unconventional natural gases contributing 50% of national consumption enable electric power industry to increase is natural gas consumption to about 35 Billion cubic billion per day, up from 19 Bcf currently. Abundant resource for natural gas will have effect o various sectors of the economy. It will have significant influence on choice for power generating technologies.
Considering the consistent growth in demand for electricity and pressure to replace some of the current plants, shale gas and other unconventional natural gas will contribute highly on the overall energy mix (Whitney, Behrens, Clover and Hederman, 2010, p. 108). Shift to unconventional natural gas will affect the relative cost of handling greenhouse gas emissions.
We will write a custom Essay on Growing role of Shale Gas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The abundant supply of Shale gas could also have effect on transportation fuels. It could lead to focus on natural gas vehicle while the gas could be used to run power stations that could be used for recharging batteries for electric vehicle.
Revolution in energy sector brought by unconventional natural gas has influenced consumption of natural gas. It has lowered price outlook for natural gas, gas as a source of energy to be more competitive. The Abundance in supply for the unconventional natural gas has boosted confidence on security of supply for natural gas (Jolly, 2008, par 7). This is a great shift from high natural gas insecurity experiences some few years ago.
As gas consumption is expected to raise, greenhouse regulation with become more of a reality than a possibility. Although there is high expectation for impact of Shale gas and other unconventional natural gas, the limit is subject to relative economies of fuels. Other factors that are expected to affect shale gas consumption include structure of the transport system, configuration for power systems, and public policies such as Greenhouse gas emission control.
Figure shows outlook for unconventional Natural gas
Source: United States Unconventional Natural Gas Outlook.
Technology analysis Although unconventional natural gases are widely available, they were ignored in preference of conventional natural gas. Shale gas deposits in particular were ignored by producers as they sought deposits with higher concentration. The producers mainly preferred high concentration reserves in order to optimize returns from their heavy investments.
Although Shale gas mining has been there for a long time, it was not considered a viable source of sustainable natural gas (Westervelt, 2010, par 5). It is through technological improvement in Shale gas mining that is has become a competitive source of natural gas.
Cost effectiveness of modern drilling, well simulation and conversion has turned Shale gas to potential source of natural gas. The significance of new Shale gas mining technology is evident in increase in Shale gas in the market thus reducing import for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the country and its demand globally.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Growing role of Shale Gas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shale gas production is significantly different from production in conventional petroleum reservoirs. Petroleum reservoirs mainly rely on pressure oil-dissolved gas and gas-cap during early stages of development. Mining also depends on upward hydraulic pressure from water trapping the reservoir.
The production is therefore easier and cost effective due to the nature of the reservoirs. This method of production where water drives and pressure of natural gas is referred to as conventional drive (Curtis, 2002, p. 37). When conventional drive drops due to reduction reservoir’s production, pumping is required in order to bring the petroleum to the surface.
Artificial lift, as the process is referred, leads to increase in production cost. As a reaction to cost effectiveness of artificial lift, drilling companied started to induce hydraulic pressure. The technology helped to increase a well’s production, effectiveness, and reduce cost. Today, advancement in drilling technology has led to a shift from reliance of vertical drilling to horizontal directed to reservoir formation (Mccallum and Womack, 2010, par 13).
Horizontal drilling has not only led to high production but also allows drilling of more than one well from a single well pad. This not only helps in cutting cost but also reduce environmental effect (Sumi, 2008, par 4). Hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling has played a significant on Shale gas production; making it a major competitor to conventional natural gas.
Shale gas production has to consider some factors for it to be successful. The most important factor to be considered in Shale gas extraction is the level of gas in Shale gas reservoirs. Since Shale has low permeability, commercial production of Shale gas requires fracturing in order to produce permeability.
Although natural fractures are sometimes available, they cannot be able to support commercial production making artificial fracturing to be necessary (Ghosh and Prelas, 2009, p. 73). Modern technology in hydraulic fracturing has enabled Shale gas extraction to be commercially viable leading to the current boom. Most of the current Shale gas wells are horizontal. Horizontal drilling and need for hydraulic fracturing tend to make cost for Shale gas production to be higher that in conventional wells.
Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are very important to Shale gas production. Horizontal drilling allows production of Shale gas from a wide geographic area without having to sink many vertical wells. Through the technology, gas production can be done below surrounding farms, schools, airports and other natural and man made features, without interference. Hydraulic fracturing increases gas production making Shale gas production to be commercially viable.
Commercial Consideration Until recently, Shale gas was not consideration for commercial use. Various factors in energy market such as price increase and instability, together with advancement in hydraulic technology has changed the situation. Today Shale gas makes up about 20% of natural gas consumption in the United States (Lashley and Hobbs, 2010, par 4).
Other countries such as Australia, China and some European countries are considering Shale gas as substitute to natural gas. As unconventional natural gas, extraction of Shale gas is challenging. Difficulty in extracting Shale gas has been the major factor limiting production of Shale gas and other unconventional natural gas.
Hydraulic fracturing required for extraction of the gas was expensive making cost of production to be extremely high. The high cost of production made produced Shale gas to be expensive than imported liquefied natural gas. Therefore, importation was preferred way of acquiring fuel gas.
Horizontal drilling and advancement in hydraulic fracturing have reduced Shale gas production substantially making Shale gas as a major competitor to liquefied natural gas (Congressional Research Service, 2009, par 9). Cost effectiveness of the Shale gas production has therefore made economically viable.
The high rate of growth of Shale gas in the country is a major threat to conventional natural gas. Not only is Shale gas reservoirs in the country large but also the gas can be sold at competitive prices. Shale gas therefore has been able to emerge as potential source of energy for the future. The large reservoir for Shale gas and improving effectiveness of Shale gas production is having high impact in national and global natural gas market.
The United States has been relying almost entirely on imported liquefied natural gas. Relying on importation meant that any effect in production in source countries has high implication to the United States. The US currently consumes about 21percent of global natural gas.
This is a large portion from an individual country. Considering the US’s high consumption of natural gas, increase in Shale gas usage in the country will have high implication on global natural oil industry. Considering the countries high potential in Shale gas, the US might turn as an exporter of natural gas in the future (Durham, 2010, par 9).
Currently, the US has shale gas potential capable in supplying the country with natural gas for the next a hundred years. The effect of Shale gas has already started to be witnessed. Before Shale gas revolution in 2009, world prices for natural gas were in constant fluctuations. High commercial production of shale gas has led to stabilization of the prices.
Anticipated growth in Shale gas production in the country is anticipated to exert more pressure on liquefied natural gas. Other countries such as Australia and China are also taking moves to increase Shale gas production in the counties. The national and global increase in Shale gas production is likely to major effect on OPEC (Arthur, Langhus and Alleman, 2008, par 6).
The high monopoly and control in natural gas is likely to change. Russia is the country that will be affected most by the changes. Russia and other oil producing and exporting countries will have implement major changes in the natural gas exportation in order to remain competitive.
Shale gas has competitive advantage over conventional natural gas. The gas has less carbon content relative to conventional natural gas. As urge environmentally friendly fuel alternative continues, Shale gas will be preferred over conventional natural gas. Shale gas is not only environmentally friendly is considered to commercially superior to conventional natural gas.
Exploration for Shale gas is relatively cheap as compared to natural gas. New production technologies have lowered the cost of producing Shale gas substantially making it highly competitive. In addition, Shale gas reservoirs are easily available as compared to natural gas.
Shale Gas versus Conventional Gas Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made Shale gas to be a boom in natural gas market. Analysis is HIS CERA has found Shale gas resource base of about 2,000 Tcf. It is also estimated that additional 3,000 Tcf is going to be discovered in the near future. Shale gas potential in other countries is also high (Lewis and Lawler, 2010, par 8).
For instance, in Canada Shale gas resources is estimated to be more than 500 Tcf. The high potential in Shale gas has major impact on conventional gas. Shale gas is a substitute to conventional natural gas. This mean that increased demand for Shale gas has negative impact on demand for conventional natural gas.
In United States, Shale gas consumption has risen to about 20 percent up from about 1% in 2000. The effect of this increase is already being felt in natural gas market. This has led to stability in prices for natural gases while outlook for future prices indicate price fall.
Many countries are considering Shale gas. Other countries, which have shown strong interest on Shale gas production, include Australia, China, Canada and some European countries such as Poland. Full-blown production of Shale gas will have severe effect on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).
Shale gas might replace LNG as the dominant natural gas. Low cost of Shale gas production enabled by new production technology has made Shale gases a potential source of natural gas. Worldwide production of Shale gas will exert competition on LNG leading to drop in prices. The increased Shale gas production will have negative effects of LNG producing countries such as Russia. The countries may loose revenue due to drop in natural gas export and reduction in prices.
Shale Gas Development in USA United States among the countries that have shown great interest in Shale gas production. Shale gas is considered a solution to natural gas problems in the country. Although Shale gas extraction started in early 1820s in Fredonia, New York, it is not until recently that is has gained popularity as a potential source for natural gas (U.S. Department of Energy, 2009, par 5).
The country has high reserve for Shale gas. Currently Barnett Shale is the largest reservoir for Shale gas and the most active. Other potential Shale producing areas are also being explored. For instance, there has been exploration in West Texas. The country’s Share gas resources are estimated to be about 600 Tcf, a high potential for natural gas supplier (Paltsev, Jacoby, Ejaz, Morris and Kragha, 2010, par 9).
Investments in Shale gas has increased with new and more effective share gas producing technologies. In total, the country has about 35,000 producing Shale-gas wells. Many companies have shown interest in Shale gas. Among the major investors in this area, include Royal Dutch Shell, Contango Oil Co., Chesapeake Energy Corp., Denbury Resource Inc., Devon Energy Corp., Noble Energy Corp. and Murphy Oil Corp (US Energy Information Administration, 2008, par 11). Investment in Shale gas is continuing to attract more investors mainly because high profitability prospect.
Currently US Shale gas consumption is about 20% of natural gas consumed in the country. The consumption is estimated to continue to rise as more investments are made in the area. It is anticipated that about half of the country’s natural gas will be produced locally from Shale gas by around 2030. The high investment in Shale gas might may turn the US as a major exporter in natural gas in the future. This will be a major contrast of the current situation where the US consumes about 21% of world’s natural gas, mainly imported.
Conclusion Source of energy is very crucial for development of any country. Recent energy crises have demonstrated the importance of sustainable source of energy. Many research studies in energy sector have focused of on coming up with alternative source of energy to ensure stability in energy supply.
Shale gas provides one of the most viable alternatives to conventional natural gas. Technological advancement and high investment in Shale gas has made it one of the potential supplies for natural gas. In United State, Shale gas is estimated to contribute about 50% of the country’s natural gas consumption. The impact of Shale gas is expected to be felt in global natural gas production.
Reference List Arthur, D., Langhus, B. and Alleman, D. 2008. An overview of modern shale gas development in the United States. Web.
Congressional Research Service. 2009. Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology, and Policy Issues. Web.
Curtis, J. 2002. Unconventional Petroleum System. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Vol. 86 No. 11, pp 1921-1938.
Durham, L. 2010. Prices, Technology Make Shales Hot. Web.
Fortson, D. 2009. Shale gas blasts open world energy market. Web.
Ghosh, T. and Prelas, M. 2009. Energy Resources and Systems: Fundamentals and non-renewable resources. New York: Springer.
Haines, L. 2006. Shale Gas. Web.
Jolly, D. 2008. Europe starting search for shale gas. The New York Times. Web.
Kuuskraa, V. 2007. A Decade of Progress in Unconventional Gas. Web.
Lashley, M., and Hobbs, D. 2010. Fueling North America’s Energy Future. The Wall Street Journal. Web.
Lewis, B., and Lawler, A. 2010. Analysis: Oil major model challenged by shift to gas. Web.
Mccallum, k., and Womack, J. 2010. Mitsui Bets on U. S. Shale-Gas Project. Web.
New Standard Energy. 2010. What is Shale gas? Web.
Paltsev, S., Jacoby, H., Ejaz, Q. Morris, J., and Kragha, O. 2010. The Future of U.S. Natural Gas Production, Use, and Trade. Web.
Sumi, L. 2008. Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale. Web.
U.S. Department of Energy. 2009. Modern shakes Gas Development in The United State: A Primer. Web.
US Energy Information Administration. 2008. Top 100 oil and gas fields. Web.
Westervelt, A. 2010. Shale Gas Booming Globally, Despite Chemical Dangers. Web.
Whitney, G. Behrens, C., Clover, C. and Hederman, W. 2010. Energy: Natural Gas: The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, Epact Project, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals and Infrastructure Security. New York: The Capitol Net Inc.
Ziff, P. 2009. Shale Gas Outlook to 2020. Web.
Corporations practicing stakeholders’ management will be more sustainable Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Stakeholders influence on corporation’s sustainability
Introduction The following is an argumentative essay on stakeholders’ management and whether the corporations that practice stakeholders’ management are more sustainable compared to the organisations that do not practice this type of management.
The discussion is about the theoretical perspectives underlying stakeholders’ management in the corporation. It also looks into how an organisation balances the stakeholders’ interest with the shareholders’ interests, as they are two different entities with conflicting interests.
It examines the role of stakeholders’ management. In addition, it looks into the existing literature studies on management to prove that the stakeholders’ management leads to sustainability of the corporation.
Stakeholders’ management It is imperative to determine who is a stakeholder in an organisation. A stakeholder is any individual with interest in a particular organisation. A stakeholder is an entity whose contribution to the organisation is influential such that the organisation cannot survive without it (Clarkson 1995).
The stakeholders can therefore be the owners, the government, the trade unions, the political groupings, customers, suppliers, the communities as well as the public. This is because they play an important role in the survival of the organisation.
The stakeholders’ theoretical perspectives show that the organisation is like an organism, which has different body parts and cannot function fully without one of its organ. The stakeholders are similar to the organs in an organisation and are crucial to the sustainability of the organisation (Clarkson 1995).
Stakeholders influence on corporation’s sustainability To determine the extent of influence that a particular stakeholder has, there is a criterion that is used that involves the following aspects. The first aspect is on how the stakeholder influences the financial performance of the organisation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the customers and suppliers are key stakeholders of a corporation as they directly influence the profit that the organisation will make. The second aspect is the stakeholders’ influence on the productivity and operations such as the employees who have direct influence on the productivity of the organisation (Evans
Ethics And Economic Modeling Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Summary: Climate Change and Econom ic Policy
Ethics and Economic Modeling
Summary: Climate Change and Econom ic Policy Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are accountable for increased changes in climatic conditions around the world. This calls for economic policy interventions to curb the situation. The following are some of the greenhouse gas emissions; methane, ozone and carbon II oxide (John, 2012, p.2).
These emissions result from unethical human activities such as, deforestation and unconditional combustion of fossil fuels. Consequently, there has been an increase in the sea level, loss of bio-diversity and an increased damage to the ecosystem (John, 2012, pp.2).
The Australian government has introduced policies to reduce the social costs of pollution by ensuring that the Marginal Social Benefit (MSB) is equal to Marginal social Cost (MSC).
These policies establish regulations that govern human activities, creation of property rights and increasing taxation. However, these efforts have been compromised by the changing nature of human activities that cause pollution. (John, 2012, pp.36).
Ethics and Economic Modeling A Sustained Economic growth is attainable when people’s economic activities are considerate of the social costs to the present and future generations (Gillard, Swan
Mechanics of money Essay college admission essay help
Introduction Barter system of trade was convenient in the primitive society because production was diversified and subsistence. Only the few commodities that one lacked could be obtained through exchange. However, as time progressed, the society shifted to specialization in the production process.
This necessitated for the need for an accepted medium of exchange to use for purchasing needed product and services. Anything commonly used as a medium of exchange is called money (Ashby 1). Money is a sensitive item in the economy and should therefore be controlled.
If its supply is increased, people will buy in large amounts. During these conditions, orders will surpass the production leading to increased prices. As a result, there will be a sustained raise in the average level of prices, a condition termed as inflation. If the supply of money is low, people will not buy much.
As a result, there will be more inventories. This condition will force some business to lay off some workers leading to unemployment.
To encourage sales, some business will lower prices of their commodities leading to deflation. As a result, there will be a sustained drop in the total output of the nation’s producers, which is a condition called recession (Ashby 2).
The Kinds of Money
Anything can be used as money. Notes and coins are the currency that has been authorized by the government to be used as money. Another kind of money is the checking account balances. Checking account balances involves the use of checks, which are not money.
If check were to be counted as money, it will mean that the balance portion not written on the face of the check is forgotten.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Debit cards, stored-value cards, smart cards, electronic funds transfer, web-based payment system, and credit cards cannot be considered as money and neither can they substitute money. Instead, they used in place of checks (Ashby 4).
Coins, notes, and checking accounts balances are considered as money only if they are included in the measured money supply. If payments for the products and services are substituted with direct transfer of ownership of savings certificates, the saving certificates will be considered as money.
The US Money Supply
The money supply of the United States includes the coins and paper currency apart from the amounts in the vaults in the banks, Federal Reserve banks, and the treasury.
It also includes the checking account balances for the USA dollar apart from those owned by United States treasury and domestic banks. This can be represented by an equation bellow
M = CC CA
Where M is the money supply, CA the checking account component, and CC the coins and currency.
From the equation, any activity that increases CC and CA increase the money supply and vice versa. The Federal Reserve banks, banks, and the treasure of US are the only entities with legal powers to create money.
We will write a custom Essay on Mechanics of money specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The money they create and release are the only money accepted as money. This implies that dollars owed by the bank, Federal Reserve System, and the US treasury are not money.
The supply of money can only be useful if it rises when there is a lot of money available for public spending and when it falls when there is little money for the public to spend. This scenario implies that a deposit of $2000 into an account will increase CA by $2000 and at the same time reduce the CC leaving M unchanged.
This implies that the bank is a store that sells cash and checking account balances. On top of that, the bank also sells financial assets such as, certificate of deposits and loan checking account balance.
Velocity of Money (V)
Velocity of money refers to the average number of times a similar dollar is spent in a year for purchasing domestic output only. This velocity is determined by the people through the spending, earning, and saving behaviors. If money spenders spend it quickly, the velocity is increased and vice versa.
On average, the Velocity of the US dollar is about 7.25. However, this figure seems less because of some factors such dollarization, limitation of V to domestic purchase, and little amount of money circulating in domestic market (Ashby 11).
The velocity of money is allowed by the Federal Reserve System because it aids in determine the amount of money the economy needs. The total expenditure on the current domestic output cannot exceed the quantity of money multiplied by its velocity in one year.
Money Producers and Regulators The money creation system of the United States is a three-tier system consisting of the treasury department, the Federal Reserve System, and the banking system. They are explored bellow.
US Treasury Department
The treasury is a department within the executive branch of the federal government concerned with the management of the financial affairs of the government. This department has an internal revenue service responsible for the collection of taxes and borrowed funds from treasury bills, which is used for settling its bills.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mechanics of money by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The treasury is also responsible for the operation of the mint and the bureau of engraving and printing the US’s currency. The coins and notes mint by these agencies are not yet money and thus cannot be spend by the federal government.
They are instead sold to the Federal Reserve banks for purchase by US’s banks. The whole process leads to a modest increase in the supply of money.
The Federal Reserve System
This is a specialized institution mandated with the task of stabilizing and controlling the money and banking system of the United States. Its operation is independent of the congress.
This system was created following the financial crisis of early 1990s (Ashby 18). It has twelve Federal Reserve banks that are owned as private corporations whose stock is owned by banks in their region.
The federal system regulates the size of the supply of money through manipulation of data on the same. It also serves as banks for the federal government whereby it maintains the checking accounts for the federal government. The Federal Reserve Bank further acts as a banker for foreign government and international agencies.
This bank further works in conjunction with other regulatory agencies that are actively involved in the currency regulation, so as to ensure that all players within this industry operates within the required regulations.
Banks are institutions which offer transaction accounts whereby check or related instruments can be drawn to make payments. Traditional institutions subsuming commercial banks, savings associations, and credits unions are regarded as banks.
The establishment of banks is ascertained by a charter after certify that the need for the same and the qualification of the institution. Since money is created through the banking system, the Federal Reserve System has to regulate the banking activities within the State.
The depository institutions deregulation and monetary control act of 1980 streamlined the banking system by giving the federal government full control over all banks
Banking Supervision and Deregulation
Although banks are business entitled for profit making through their own goals, they are carefully regulated. The regulation is for several reasons.
They include protecting depositors, stabilizing the monetary system, for protecting the consumer, and to check on the efficiency and competitiveness. They are discussed in details bellow.
Majority of the banking services are accessed through an account. When one opens an account with the bank, he deposits some money into the same and thereby becoming a creditor to the bank.
However, the customer is exposed to default risk because the bank may fail to honor withdrawal request. This may happen when the banks become insolvent. Thus supervision guards the customer from the same.
Monetary System Stability
Financial transactions involve different instruments like checks, credit cards, cash machines among many. For effective functioning of the same, they need to be accurate, efficient, and fast (Ashby 22). Given the bulky nature of the transactions, supervision is done to enable their smooth operations.
Efficient and Competitive Banking System
Efficient operation of banks is aided by healthy competitions. Banks compete on various fronts such as interest on loans and efficiency of the services offered. In a market where banks are too many, it may not be possible for some banks to realize economies of large scale.
This calls for regulation to check on the same. Also, regulation is extended on the competition between banks and institutions offering loan-able funds to ensure that the competition is smooth and healthy.
Regulation and supervision is done on banks to ensure that they do not discriminate the public and at the same time to ensure that the public is protected from unscrupulous traders.
There are some agencies that have been given powers to regulate and supervise all banks. They bear the ability to levy fines, suspend or remove bank officials, issue cease-and-desist orders, and revoke charters.
In order for uniform regulations, Federal Financial Institution Examination Council was created by the Congress in 1978 for these purposes.
This council draws its membership from the following organs: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of Thrift Supervision, National Credit Union Administration, and State Banking Agency.
The Treasury and the Money Supply Taxes and Loans from the Public
The management of the money of the nation is under the professional hands of the Federal Reserve System. This means that the treasury performs its activities with minimal effects on the credit market and money supply.
Therefore it (the treasury) has created tax and loans accounts in all banks. In the event of paying government bills, the treasury transfers some of the money from the loans account to the nearby Federal Reserve Bank.
This mean that banks loses similar amount of money hence reducing their loaning kitty. However, this is restoring by making a bill of payment.
The treasury writes a check that is taken by the banks, which in turn demands for compensation for the face value from the Federal Reserve Bank. In this way, the banks would have restored their loanable amount.
This process can be illustrated bellow.
BANK FEDERALRESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury gets revenue from taxes or bonds Checking account balances reduces by $2000 Treasury tax and loan account increases by $2000
Treasury transfers funds to the federal reserve bank Bankreserve account reduces by $2000 Treasury tax and loan account reduces by $2000 Bank reserve account reduces by $2000 Treasury checking account increases by $2000
Treasury spends the funds Bank reserve account increases by $2000 Checking account balances increases by $2000 Bank reserve account increases by $2000] Treasury checking account reduces by $2000
From the table, it can be seen that the government receives money for the tax or sale of bonds and spends them without a tilt on the bank reserve or money supply.
It should be noted that if the dates for tax receipt and floating of bonds doe not coincides, the nation will suffer a credit crunch. However, the utilization of tax and loan accounts avoids such happening.
The expenditure by the federal government, which is drawn for tax and bonds, does not affect the supply of money in the bank’s reserves because the same is replenished by sell of bonds and payment made by the government.
Coins and Currency Creation
The treasury is in charge of the US mint, which is used for manufacturing the US coins. It is headquartered in Washington DC. The treasury is also in control of the Bureau of engraving and printing, which prints the paper currency.
The notes are sold for a cost while the coins are sold for their face value to the 12 Federal Reserve banks. The printed notes and coins are not yet money until they go into circulation.
They can only go into circulation after the reserves in the banks runs low, prompting purchase of new ones. The process is illustrated in the table below.
BANK FEDERAL RESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury sells cash to the federal reserve system Cash increases by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000 Federal reserve sell cash to the bank Cash increases by $5000 Bank reserve account reduces by $5000
Cash decreases by $5000 Bank reserve account reduces by $5000 Customer withdraws the cash Cash decreases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances decreases by $5000 Treasury spends revenue from sale of cash to the federal reserve Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances increases by $5000 Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Treasury checking account decreases by $5000
For the case of torn or deformed coins and notes, replacement is done without increasing or decreasing the amount.
If the bank lends to the treasury, the following table illustrates the situation
BANK FEDERAL RESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury borrows Treasury bonds increases by $5000 Treasury tax and loan account increases by $5000 Cash increases by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000 Treasury transfers funds Bank reserve account reduces by $5000 Treasury tax and loan account decreases by $5000 Cash decreases by $5000 Bank reserve account reduces by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000
Treasury spends funds Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances increases by $5000 Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Treasury checking account decreases by $5000
If the Federal Reserve lends o the treasury, the following scenario will arise
BANK FEDERAL RESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury borrows Treasury bonds increases by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000 Treasury spends funds Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances increases by $5000 Cash decreases by $5000 Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Treasury checking account decreases by $5000
Work Cited Ashby, David. Mechanics of Money. Monmouth: Western Oregon University Press, 1996.Print.
Strategic review for PDA Sim Report essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Competition has intensified in the global markets and companies are seeking better strategies of pricing and developing their products to achieve a competitive edge. Adopting appropriate pricing and product development strategy will improve the position of a company in the market by attracting new customers, retaining existing customers and creating customer loyalty.
In addition, these strategies help regulate costs incurred by a company as well as maintaining profitability (Kurtz, MacKenzie
Impact of Resolution Act of 1998 on Women-Workers Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Humor used successfully in a change process
A humorous situation during a change process
List of References
Humor used successfully in a change process We rarely encountered situations where women were successful in their places of work as a result of unfavorable laws. This changed after an improvement to the employment laws by the Dispute Resolution act of 1998 (Parliament: House Of Commons, 2005). Together with recent legislation, this Act brought profound changes in the workplace.
The case of Anna who was employed as a junior sales person, although she was overqualified for the position and hoped to attain the position of sales accountant best illustrates this.
When her boss vacated, she assumed the office, consequently issuing herself with the appointment letter. She claimed to have done this with the utmost respect to the management, thus creating humor in the workplace. After all, she possessed the requisite qualifications. The management adopted the policy of equal opportunities for all, provided they had proper qualifications.
Nowadays, women are evaluated basing on their credentials, as opposed to their gender. The culture of traditionally reserving positions for men no longer exists. The present age has brought with it the elevation of women into positions of authority and influence, where they can determine the stance a company adopts on key issues. More women receive credit and recognition for their inventions (Parliament: House Of Commons, 2005).
It is encouraging to see women excel in the social scene, sports and entertainment. Most of them, especially those in the music industry compete favorably with their male counterparts, some earning higher amounts than them. Sports traditionally considered masculine like football and volleyball, have females participating in them drawing a large number of fans.
Hiring institutions should review their policies on interns and employees without previous work experience. This section of labor providers is often overlooked during the hiring and placement procedures. Most of them are underrated, and their input is often ignored in case they are hired. Every recruit should be awarded an equal chance at the work station to prove their worth, without consideration of their reputation or previous history.
A humorous situation during a change process It is explicitly stated by the Employment Rights Act of 1996, that all employees should be treated fairly and accorded equal opportunities and responsibility based on their ability (Karim
The impact of logging and deforestations on an ecosystem Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help
Introduction The ability to understand and address the effects of deforestation and logging forms the basis towards sustainability of resources, greater social-economic development, political stability and ecological sanctity in the fast globalizing society. Deforestation is not a one state issue as it was previously thought.
In fact, it is a highly diverse aspect with far reaching implications to all environmental aspects. Lawrence et al (2012) point out that the current trend in deforestation around various countries across the world is shocking.
If this trend is not addressed, its cumulative effects would be irreversible and therefore greatly risk the existence of future generations. At this point, key questions that have frequently been asked have included the following: What entails deforestation?
How does deforestation affect a natural forest ecosystem? What are the main causes and resulting effects? What are some of the current efforts that have been put in place to address deforestation? Are these efforts efficient?
The current concerns on global deforestation have been examined in this paper as part of underscore its magnitude on a global scale and the litany of the disaster in the market. To indicate the road path that has resulted into the current precarious position and how it can be addressed, the national policy options have also been evaluated.
Finally, using the market to address the problem of deforestation and logging, the paper indicates the opportunities that can be assimilated to promote sound environmental practices that are equally sustainable while maximizing the returns to the people.
Background and overview The ability to balance between economic development and natural resources capacity to sustainably maintain profitability forms the basis of the human race to match into the future with dignity and vitality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though the understanding of deforestation and logging as analysts concur is highly contested, the revelation of its related impacts has created a critical niche that demands involvement by all stakeholders.
Over the last few decades, the problem of global warming in conjunction with aspects such as deforestation have been cited as the most dangerous disasters in waiting on a global scale.
This has been the case due to its expansive deforestation and destruction of nature that makes even those not involved directly in its destruction to severely suffer the negative effects.
In their publication, Lawrence et al (2012) define deforestation as a permanent destruction of woodlands and forests. The definition points out at indigenous tree as well as vegetation cover which does not include plantations of pines and gums or industrial forests. The role that forest plays in the balancing of an ecosystem is very crucial.
Environmentalists indicate that besides being a source of materials human beings use every day, it serves as a habitat for endemic plants, birds and wild animals. The problem of deforestation has been massive in most regions in the world with recent reports from the World Bank showing a four fifth reduction of indigenous forest.
Other reports indicate that by 2011, half the total forest of the world had disappeared posing a threat to the majority of plant species and animals living in the tropical forests.
On the other hand, logging is part of deforestation whereby trees are cut, processed on-site and loaded into trucks. The latter is a silviculture activity with similar effects like deforestation.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The impact of logging and deforestations on an ecosystem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While some would argue that the logistics behind logging is to remove wood from forest to a lumber yard outside a forest, it is imperative to note that the practice directly connects with deforestation. It is a theft of timber and violates the law.
Figure1: A figure showing the effect of logging
Reasons for deforestation The current fast deteriorating status of natural environment has greatly been caused by poor domestication, articulation, and harmonization of international laws by individual countries and states.
This has been prompted by lack of enough good will to address all issues relating to environment in a holistic outlook thereby compromising the overall resilience of the same natural resources.
Due to much bitterness, scholars have lamented about the reduced capacity to comprehend the inability of their non-inclusive sole conservation strategies which factors not the interconnectedness of the natural environment.
As a result, this has created a strong rift between the conservations and implementing bodies over who is to blame for the mayhem. Over the years, the desire to advance and grow both economically, socially, and culturally have been entirely dependent on nature.
Whereas various countries lag behind in implementation of different conservation laws in their jurisdictions, it is clear that the practice of deforestation and logging is committing the world into a more perilous state than it is currently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of logging and deforestations on an ecosystem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Virtually all products and services are nature-derived. Even for the few that may claim non-derivative status, their transport and eventual spatial temporal application have great connotation of nature.
Studies indicate that deforestation is not a new phenomenon since it has been a difficult issue blamed on numerous factors. Lindsay and Thornton (2012) indicate that some one of the reasons behind deforestation is the growing need among agricultural dependent communities to convert forest and woodland areas into agricultural lands.
It is imperative to highlight that this has been a factor that has been motivated by the demand to feed the ever growing populations. Besides, many societies in tropical countries have over the years turned to cattle ranching and growing of cash crops to earn money and foreign exchange.
As a result, many large forest areas have been cleared and turned into farming zones for livestock breeding and cash crop farming.
Figure 2: A diagram showing deforestation
Additionally, deforestation occurs when businesses within an industry practice commercial logging. The latter has been a method widely used by industries that supply the world market with a variety of wood such as ebony, mahogany, teak, and meranti.
This practice has not only destroyed forests, but has opened up large tracts of land for agriculture. The felling of trees has not only stopped with businesses, but also the construction sector which relies on trees for building.
Effects of deforestation Global warming and climate change
Global warming is the increase in the average temperatures on the troposphere due to excessive emissions of green house gases into the atmosphere. Scientifically, green house gases allow easy penetration of short wavelength radiations from the outer space while obscuring escape of the long wave radiations from the earth surface.
As a result, there has been a direct build up of the surface temperatures in the earth thereby causing vast climate changes. As a concern by the natural laws, this change has been directly linked to massive destruction of natural ecosystems in the world.
Excessive thawing in the polar regions, rising levels of the sea, loss of forests, flooding, higher levels of tropical weather systems and most importantly desertification.
Scientifically, carbon dioxide is an important component in green plants’ photosynthetic process. However, Lindsay and Thornton (2012) point out that human beings have constantly been clearing forests for agricultural purposes, urban development, settlements and industrial development.
Besides, forests have also been cleared as raw materials for wood based industries. On average, Masood and Shah (2012) indicate that about 80,000 acres of forests are cleared every day globally. As a result, the critical role of sinking the atmospheric carbon has greatly been compromised and therefore resulting to greater accumulation of greenhouse gases.
High levels of poverty
While many human activities on forest have been aimed at improving living standards through agriculture, it goes without mentioning that the deforestation has instead increased global poverty levels that have plagued the society today.
In their publication, Lawrence et al (2012) indicate that the immediate concerns for individuals clearing forests for agriculture or burning charcoal for money is neither conservation nor environmentalism. Rather, they are mostly concerned with basic survival. This practice therefore puts the environment under great pressure.
This coupled with intensified mechanization of deforestation by industries has resulted to extremely high rates of forest cover removal. The impact has been a devastating 13 million hectares of land being cleared down every year around the world.
This puts pressure on the natural resources and forest clearance either for alleviating poverty, raising economic status or promoting greater development through mechanization affects the balance in the ecosystem leading to poverty.
A more worrying effect to agree with Bonan(2008) is desertification. The rising temperatures as recorded over the years intensify the severity of draughts, by making more land uncultivable and less habitable.
Floods and submergence of coastal lowlands
According to Betts et al (2001), the rising temperatures over the years have resulted to excessive thawing of ice waters at the Polar Regions.
Consequently, the additional waters has resulted to key submergence and flooding of the low lying costal lands. Islands and low lying regions such as Venice, New Orleans and Indonesia have recorded key losses from floods (Lindsay
Challenges Inherent in Repositioning a Fast Food Chain Report essay help: essay help
Introduction Repositioning is considered to be a very important process for any business because it involves a number of significant elements from the marketing sphere. The basics of repositioning touch upon such steps like product identity, its possible changes, relatives among the competing products, and evaluation of the opinions from the target market.
A careful and successfully carried out repositioning process can benefit the company in a very great way. While trying to reposition fast-food food, there are a number of challenges involved: highly incurred costs, hardly evaluated opinions, constant demand of products. Much money has to be spent during the repositioning process, and, in a period of financial crisis, as is the current situation, it is very important to come up with some cost-effective strategies to succeed in the chosen process.
The company should be fully aware of the new position that seeks to be established because a great amount of losses is possible and inabilities to recover from the crisis within a short period of time prevent proper development of activities. As a result of repositioning, the quality of the products has to be improved, the competing abilities may become stronger, and the fast food organization under analysis is able to define its weak and strong sides.
Discussion Importance of SWOT analysis in repositioning
To come up with an appropriate up-to-date Subway product line, it is important to carry out a SWOT analysis so that it will be easy to define several appropriate strategies on how to advertise and improve the product. A SWOT analysis is very important in the repositioning process.
However, the macro trends are also important and help to determine the best approach to use in as far as repositioning and advertising are concerned. Based on the SWOT analysis, it is apparent that there are several gaps that need to be put into consideration. While trying to update the product line and advertising of Subway, it is necessary to note that the current macro trends which are characterized by a great economic recession and improved technology (Bedekar, 2009).
Unfortunately, due to the current economic crisis, it is not recommendable for the organization to address all the gaps involved. Under the conditions formed, the company should focus on how to maintain its customers as it continues to draw more from its competitors. The only way of doing this would be to make necessary improvements on the product and passing on information about the product. To achieve the purposes set, it is more reasonable to improve the chains of fast food, and to set the value of the products at affordable prices.
Marketing strategy to be adopted by the Subway fast food chain based on the SWOT analysis
Using up-to-date technology. An appropriate marketing strategy is what any fast food chain needs to update: its product line as well as its advertising in light of the current macro trend has to undergo a number of changes. The best way of how an organization may update its product line is the method of improving its product decoration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As obtained from the SWOT analysis, the company’s decoration was perceived to be outdated when compared with its competitors. The appearance of a product is what most customers use to decipher if the product is really worth buying in such times of financial difficulty.
Up-to-date decoration of franchise. Currently, e-commerce has brought many changes with regard to marketing. The Subway should therefore us this new technology to do its marketing. While using e-commerce to market products, appearance of the product is very important, therefore the organization should improve its delivery of products with regard to decoration as well as the means of transmitting information (Hooley, Piercy,
Management skills in 21st century Report essay help
Executive Summary 21st century is like no other. With rapidly technological advancement, managers of corporate organizations are set to meet more challenges related to how technological can be integrated into the management process. This implies that management skills are fundamental to meeting the challenges that corporate organizations are likely to meet in the operation process.
This report examines, in detail, the challenges that 21st century managers and executives are likely face in their organizations. The challenges identified in the report include global shortage of talents, brand management for employers and the need to manage multicultural multinational organizations.
The report also delves in discussing the fundamental skills that the managers and executives of the 21st century need to be equipped with so that they are able to position their organizations at a competitive level in the global business sphere.
The skills discussed in the report include interpersonal communication skills, ability to manage organizational changes that emanate both externally and internally, strategic and visionary manager and having global perspectives for both national and multinational corporations. The conclusion part of the report offers a summary of the whole content of the report. Also, there is the recommendation part that offers a number of suggestions on what should further be done about the subject of management skills in the 21st century.
Introduction The 21st century can be described an information age where information technology is very crucial of running day-to-day business operations (Gabbard
How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons Research Paper essay help free
Nuclear terrorism is one type of Weapons of Mass Destruction terrorism and it is one of the gravest threats posed by terrorism today. It entails the terrorists’ acquisition and use or threat of use of nuclear weapons or materials in which a sustained fission reaction takes place.
Thus, nuclear terrorism is limited to the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium (Pu) bombs; however, some individuals use the phrase in reference to any terrorist weapon using radioactive substances, which entails the use of radiological dispersal devices (RDDs).
Terrorists, with the intention of causing havoc over a wide area, can use RDDs materials such as cesium-137, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. These materials are commonly used in various places around the world. Despite the attempts that have been made to secure nuclear weapons, various gaps remain that may make them available to the terrorists.
As was demonstrated by the 9/11 attacks on the U.S., terrorists desire to cause violence and widespread destruction in the world. Al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist organizations can readily accomplish this by the use of unconventional weapons of destruction, for example, chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear detonation. Among these means of attack, the use of nuclear detonation guarantees the possibility of mass casualties.
A nuclear weapon can lead to widespread destruction in the heart of a city, causing the demise of hundreds of thousands of innocent individuals and making others to suffer from radiation sickness and cancer in the long run (Etzioni, 2004). Moreover, a city’s infrastructure can experience radioactive contamination. This may require several years and a lot of money to decontaminate. The wider economic costs of such an attack can negatively influence the economy of a country.
In this century, the possibility of the occurrence of a nuclear terrorist attack has been increased by the fact that the terrorist groups are not limited to geographical boundaries.
They operate in different places around the world and corporate with other terrorist groups. More so, these terrorists are usually driven by strong religious convictions and they feel that they are heroes when they sacrifice their lives on a ‘godly’ mission causing destruction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To initiate a nuclear attack, potential terrorists must first acquire the destructive weapons. They can be able to accomplish this in three main ways: accessing them illegitimately, purchasing them, or building them (Ferguson, 2006, p.9). All of these possibilities pose significant difficulties to terrorists. However, it is not in order to discount these possibilities to devastating nuclear terrorism.
Terrorists can illegitimately acquire intact nuclear weapons. Currently, different nations have expressed interests in acquiring nuclear weapons, and about 27,000 of these weapons are in the arsenals of eight nations in the world. This makes the terrorists to have a target-rich environment.
Russia and the U.S. have the largest concentration of nuclear weapons. In these countries, the nuclear weapons are usually under intense security, which makes them difficult to steal. However, being hard to access illegitimately does not imply impossibility. To be specific, the shipment and deployment of these weapons outside the areas that they are under intense surveillance can enhance the vulnerability to illegal access.
In a situation whereby terrorists have succeeded in stealing an intact nuclear weapon, they have to find a way of countering their in-built security devices. These weapons are usually protected by security and arming devices, which must first be activated before they are ready for use.
For instance, specialized security locks referred to as permissive action links (PALs) are needed for activating the United States nuclear weapons and they allow only a limited number of trials in entering the right code. Other countries such as Britain, Russia, China, and France have also adopted the use of PALs.
Even though the majority of Russian nuclear weapons have this protection, some of the older Russian tactical nuclear arms are feared to be lacking this security system since most of them may have been destroyed, are about to be destroyed, or have been deployed to unsafe areas.
It is not known whether some countries like Israel, India, and Pakistan use this security system to protect their nuclear weapons. It is feared that terrorists can collude with army officials to provide them with information concerning PAL unlock codes or any other security information.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As much as the terrorists’ acquisition of nuclear weapons seems difficult to surmount; however, concerns have been raised about the security of Pakistani and Russian nuclear weapons (Blair, 2001). This is because some of their nuclear weapons are relatively portable, hence may lack in-built security systems, and they may not be kept in secure locations.
Terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons by purchasing them from a nuclear nation. They can also acquire the weapons when a nuclear nation transfers them to them at no cost. Nonetheless, both recognized nuclear powers and nuclear-armed “rogue” states may not be willing to work together with the terrorists in this regard since they are likely to suffer from devastating retaliation if they are found doing this.
The dishonesty in nuclear custodians and the black market are possible ways that the terrorists can employ in acquiring nuclear weapons. In addition, a coup in a country can bring a regime that is ready to cooperate with the terrorists in their acquisition of the dangerous weapons.
In this perspective, Pakistan is notable as a susceptible route that the terrorists can use to acquire the weapons. The country has a fairly new command and control system which the terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda and Taliban forces, can take advantage of.
More so, these terror groups have a formidable presence in the region and some of the country’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI) agency sympathizes with them. There are attempts that have made to murder Pakistan’s government officials so as to allow the terrorists sympathizers to come to power.
The most notorious nuclear black market started in Pakistan and a metallurgist called Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan ran it. The nuclear distribution network sold nuclear materials and weapons to various nations across Europe, Africa, and Asia. There is no outright evidence that the network supplied terrorists with nuclear weapons or materials.
However, the program supplied blueprints for a nuclear bomb to Libya. Probably, terrorists may have acquired this sensitive information or ultimately they would acquire the information. This black market illustrates that some countries in the world, such as Pakistan, are susceptible to an insider threat.
Terrorists may also possess nuclear weapons by constructing them. At present, no terrorist groups have the capacity to build nuclear weapons and they would need to obtain HEU or Pu to build the weapons. HEU is not present in nature. On the other hand, Pu is present naturally but only in minute amounts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The uranium that occurs in nature contains less that one percent of the type of uranium that is needed for making nuclear weapons; therefore, it must be enriched to make it effective. The type of technology required to achieve this is beyond the reach of terrorists, except they get state sponsorship.
In absence of the industrial-scale resources to enrich uranium, terrorists may acquire existing caches of HEU. Unfortunately, HEU stockpiles are abundant, with about two thousand metric tons available in the world, and Russia and the U.S. possess almost ninety percent of these.
The HEU stockpiles found in less secure regions are susceptible to theft. Similar to enriching uranium, making Pu is beyond the reach of terrorists, except they receive financial and industrial assistance of a state(s) or they steal from the existing stockpiles. The Manhattan Project constructed a basic type of nuclear bomb called the gun-type device, which is less technically challenging since it simply shoots one lump of highly enriched uranium into another to initiate a destructive chain reaction.
The gun-type bomb can only use HEU for starting an explosive chain reaction. A crude HEU gun-type bomb has the capacity of causing widespread destruction and skilled terrorists are able to build this type of nuclear weapon without state-sponsorship (Baker, 2002, p.2).
In conclusion, most terrorist organizations in the world have expressed their willingness to acquire weapons of mass destruction and use them to cause chaos in the world. This calls for establishment of drastic measures that can prevent them from obtaining or accessing these dangerous weapons.
Reference list Baker, R. (2002). Nuclear terrorism. New York: Novinka Books.
Blair, B. (2001). What if the terrorists go nuclear? Center For Defense Information. Web.
Etzioni, A. (2004). Pre-empting nuclear terrorism in a new global order. The Foreign Policy Centre. Web.
Ferguson, C. D. (2006). Preventing catastrophic nuclear terrorism. Council on Foreign Relations. Web.
The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction As President, Barak Obama and other leaders deal with issues affecting Americans, it is clear that times have tremendously throughout history. This change has resulted into transformation of problems and emergence of unique challenges, only known to the current generation. Being one of the most respected American presidents, Abraham Lincoln was confronted with a series of issues, which called for radical and sober solutions.
He is historically remembered for his outstanding role during the Civil War and the fight against slavery, which was augmented by the signing of the Emancipation and Proclamation. Nevertheless, he established the United States Secret Service, which continuously works with other security agencies in the country to promote security and combat crime (Reese, 2012).
This term paper focuses on the internal affairs and budgetary issues facing the Secret Service. Throughout the analysis, the paper will describe the structure, practice and procedure of the Service, and compare it with other agencies. Importantly, the paper is divided into segments, including methodology, discussions and conclusion, structured in a concise manner.
Methodology The issue of security has received a wide range of literature coverage by American writers, researchers and investigators. As a result, the topic has well-documented information, covering different issues, including security agencies like the United States Secret Service. This paper will therefore focus on secondary methods of colleting the information required to achieve the objectives of the research.
In particular, the information will be sourced from books, journal articles and authentic websites. With regard to books and journals, they will be obtained from the university library and from the internet.
United States Secret Service Although the United States Secret Service could be performing other functions today in the United States, it is worth noting that the Service was mainly established to deal with the illegal production of money in the United States. This was based on the fact that the country’s monetary system was somehow disorganized in 1800s; every state issued coins and bills, through banks, which produced different forms of genuine currency (Reese, 2012).
Due to this massive circulation of bills, it was easy for individuals to produce counterfeit money and put it into circulation without being discovered by authorities. It was during President Lincoln’s reign that the country witnessed the highest level of this exercise as more than a third of America’s money was illegal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through advice by the treasury, the president established a commission to counter the problem, which was threatening the country’s economy, a move that was followed by the establishment of the United States Secret Service on April, 14 1865 to execute the commission’s recommendations (Homeland Security, 2011).
The Service became fully recognized in July, 1865, with William Wood being appointed as its first chief. He was highly applauded for his success during the Civil War, and by the end of the first year, more than two hundred counterfeiting plants had been shut down.
This was viewed as a milestone, with most leaders realizing its practical role in taming counterfeiting of money. Its national headquarters was established in 1866, under the U.S. Department of Treasury (Homeland Security, 2011).
Although President Lincoln is considered to be the pioneer of the Service, he never lived to see its achievements and expansion. He was assassinated on the same evening he launched the service, sending the country into national mourning. Lincoln’s assassination was the first in the country’s history, since no other president had been assassinated (Homeland Security, 2011).
As a result, Congress began deliberating on the need of improving the president’s security by including it among the roles of the Secret Service. However, this was approved thirty six years later, after the assassination of two more presidents, James Garfield and William McKinley. As a result, the protection of the president has always been under the Secret Service from 1901, during the reign of President Theodore Roosevelt.
In 1917, threats against the president’s security heightened, forcing Congress to include the entire First Family under the protection of the Service. In 1951, the protection of the vice president was included, as President Lyndon endorsed the inclusion of all presidential candidates, after the assassination of Robert Kennedy in 1968 (Miller, 2008).
Structure Since its establishment, the agency remained under the Department of Treasury, until 2002, when it became part of the Department of Homeland Security. This was achieved after the ratification of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on this, the Service is tasked with the protective-investigative mission, which is aimed at safeguarding the financial infrastructure of the nation, encompassing the integrity of the currency, protecting leaders of the nation, visiting heads of state, selected sites and National Special Security Events (Miller, 2008).
Importantly, the protective mission includes a host of activities, which could be related to identification of threats, counteracting vulnerabilities and the attainment of a secure environment for those being protected. On the other hand, the investigative mission includes enforcing U.S. laws, which are related to financial, technology and electronic offenses (Miller, 2008).
From this structure, it is evident that the U.S. Secret Service has a demanding role, which is key in determining the country’s development. The Service has more than one hundred and fifty offices around the world, with more than 6,700 employees, who carry out varying responsibilities to ensure that its goal is achieved. The following chart shows a summary of the organizational structure of the Service.
It is essential to note from the organizational structure that the Office of Protective Research, OPR plays a major role in supporting the dual protective-investigative mission pursued by the Secret Service. Under OPR, the CIO and the Information Resources Management Division IRM are crucial sources of information technology support and expertise.
In particular, the CIO office provides IT solutions and services, which are paramount in realizing the Service’s dual mission. Of significance is the fact that this office provides strategic leadership, advice, direction and any form of assistance, which is related to IT programs of the entire Service.
Moreover, IRM personnel are handy in developing, providing and management of IT, which is necessary to support the investigative and protective operations of the agency (Miller, 2008).
Moreover, the agency is composed of two major divisions, which are the Special Agent Division and the Uniformed Division. The principal role of the Uniformed Division is to offer sufficient protection to the White House and its environs, the residence of the Vice President, and all embassies, which are located in Washington, D.C.
The division was created by an act of Congress in 1922 and was initially known as the White House Police. This was under the leadership of President Warren G. Harding’s (Gaines, 2001).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Driving Forces The U.S. Secret Service operates within an environment, which continues to expose the country’s leaders, economy and major events to criminal attacks. As the world experiences emerging technology and new weaponry, more criminals are willing to employ these new tactics to threaten the security of the United States (Gaines, 2001).
As a result, the Secret Service examines and incorporates new technology and practices, where possible, together with partnering with the private and public organizations in enhancing knowledge and experience.
Global Economic and Technological Trends Unlike in the past, the accessibility to electronic technology has widely spread in the United States and around the world in the 21st century. Additionally, there has been an increase in international and global internet connection. These advancements have led to exponential growth in e-commerce and online banking across the country.
Likewise, there has been an increase in electronic payment, including the use of credit and debit cards to facilitate international and local business transactions (Gaines, 2001). Due to this, electronic and financial crimes have become more common across the country, than it was before.
Besides this, it is also believed that the complexity of the problem has been contributed by the global scale of the internet and lack of cooperation from foreign countries in prosecuting such cases. In the year 2006, 8.9 million Americans were reported to have suffered identity theft, which had a cost implication of approximately $50 billion.
Budget and achievements According to the director of the U.S. Secret Service, Mark Sullivan, 2011 was a special year in terms of the achievements realized by the agency. This was pegged on an array of issues, including the commitment of employees and professionalism of the entire workforce. In the year 2011, the agency used a total of$1.515 billion to deliver commendable results through its duo protective and investigative mission.
In the same year, the Service provided incident-free protection for 3,284 domestic presidential travel stops, together with 376 international stops for the President, Vice Presidents and other national leaders (USSS, 2011).
Additionally, the budget included 2,355 travel stops by 216 foreign heads of states from 136 countries from around the world. Moreover, the Secret Service was able to secure the enactment of the Uniformed Division Modernization Act, which gave the agency the authority to recruit and retain its workforce.
Aside from these, the agency arrested 9,022 suspects of various financial crimes, which was equivalent to 8% percent increment from 2010 fiscal year. Due to enhanced services, the Secret Service recovered more than $72 million through seized assets, which was equivalent to an increment of 34%.
In addition, the IT infrastructure was stabilized with $47 million investment, which supported the duo-mission (USSS, 2011). In general the Service has continuously delivered outstanding protective and investigative services, coupled with pinnacle levels of loyalty and integrity.
It has exceeded several levels of trust and confidence throughout its history. From William Wood to Mark Sullivan, its leaders have redefined and expanded the foundation and value of the agency, through dedication and commitment to the driving goals.
Failure Whilst the United States Secret Service has been highly rated with regard to its outstanding performance, reputable history and achievements, it has also failed the nation in several ways, which will be highlighted in this segment of the analysis. Many security analysts believe that the U.S. Secret Service as failed to perform its tasks in several terror attacks, which have hit the country.
Among these attacks is the September 11, 2001. It has been argued that the Service was in a position to act in several ways to save the nation (National Commission O Terrorist Attacks, 2010).
A major failure of the Service on 9/11 was its inability to provide enough protection for the president after it had been known that the country was under attack. Even though the president received Secret Service protection on that particular day, he remained exposed to danger in various instances.
On the fatal day and hour, the president entered several buildings, for activities which had received massive publicity even though there was knowledge of hijacked airlines (National Commission O Terrorist Attacks, 2010). The Secret Service allowed the president to give a televised speech, allowing the world to know where he was.
After he left, there was no air cover for his motorcade or Air Force One reinforcement. The Vice President equally remained exposed to attack, as he was evacuated from the office after the first plane had already hit the city.
Conclusion Since 1865, the U.S. Secret Service has remained a major security agency in America. Of great significance has been its role in dealing with counterfeiting of money, which was a serious problem during Lincoln’s reign. Through its duo-mission, the Service has also been on the frontline in protecting U.S. leaders.
However, the Service’s greatest failure was in 2001 when it failed to protect the president and his vice, leaving them vulnerable to attack. Regardless of this failure, the Service needs to be strengthened and empowered to enable it execute its mandate holistically.
References Gaines, A. (2001). The U.S. Secret Service. New York City: Infobase Publishing.
Homeland Security. (2011). U.S. Secret Service’s Information Technology Modernization Effort. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.oig.dhs.gov/
Miller, C. (2008). The U.S. Secret Service: Protecting Our Leaders. Minnesota: Capstone Press.
National Commission On Terrorist Attacks. (2010). The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: Cosimo, Inc.
Reese, S. (2012). The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL34603.pdf
USSS. (2011). United States Secret Service Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report. United States Secret Service. Retrieved from https://www.secretservice.gov/
Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism Essay online essay help
Abstract The theory of institutional racism is frequently used in the field of sociology to explain any type of system of inequity that is based on race. The theory explains how race is used to differentiate society, particularly the institutions of government, private enterprises and institutions of higher learning, such as universities and colleges.
An activist group led by Stokely Carmichael, referred to as Black Power, first used institutional racism in 1960s. A report investigating the death of a black citizen defined institutional racism as the collective failure of an organization, particularly governmental organizations, to offer adequate and specialized services to citizens mainly because of their skin color, civilization and ethnic background.
Since then, sociologists have used the theory to establish the effects of ethnicity in society. For instance, material and social resources are distributed based on racial lines, something that hinders the fulfillment of goals and objectives among a section of the population. In 1990s, the theory took a new shape when blacks and other minority groups pressurized the government to exercise fairness in the labor market.
Currently, the theory is used to explain racial injustices in organizations, given the fact that institutions have failed to stem out racism. This paper will attempt to analyze how institutional racism affects an individual’s opportunities in life. This means that the theory influences other subjects, particularly economics. The paper will go ahead to explain how the theory is used in the field of political economy.
Introduction Institutional racism can be defined as the degree of difference to access of goods, services and opportunities in society. In the American society, the practice is common in the institutions of government, making it hard to rectify the mess. The situation is worsened by the acts of conformers and newcomers since they do not think of other strategies that would help stem out the vice.
In the American society, the government cannot claim to fight racism, given the fact that a single or identified perpetrator cannot be traced. Therefore, it could be concluded that racism has turned out to be a collective action of the American society. Scholars observe that three forms of racism exist, including personally mediated racism, internalized racism and institutionalized racism.
Mediated racism consists of specific social perspectives that are inborn, which facilitate racially prejudiced acts (Dupre 56). This would include differences in abilities, motives and aspirations. It would also incorporate discrimination whereby an individual develops certain forms of actions towards others, considering that they belong to different races.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Racism has led to the emergence of some antisocial acts such as stereotyping, which is defined as commission and omission social acts. This may perhaps entail disregard, distrust, depreciation and dehumanization of other individuals in society who do not belong to one’s race. Internalized racism is a scenario whereby members of the inferior race accept their position in society, as people with low social statuses.
This acceptance is characterized by negative acuities concerning their own capabilities, fundamental values characterized by low confidence, and little respect of other members belonging to his or her race. Such form of racism amounts to stratification based on skin complexion, self-devaluation, such as cultural insults, monikers, negative response towards own culture, acquiescence, defenselessness and despondency.
For school going children, they might end up dropping out of school while other members of black race might end up boycotting political processes such as voting (Naughton 68). Another section of society consisting of inferior races may end up engaging in health-risk practices such as rape, drug abuse and kidnapping. This paper will analyze how all these affect economic prosperity of the nation.
Institutionalized Racism in the US Institutional racism stems from importunate pessimistic stereotypes, which would as well as affect interpersonal relations in social interactions. It is proved beyond doubt that social labeling amounts to racial residential segregation, meaning those believed to be from superior races would have better chances of living comfortable lives that is, in well-established residential areas.
State authorities usually neglect those perceived to be from inferior races meaning they might find themselves living in remote areas with appalling conditions. Minority races are associated with social evils such as rape, kidnapping, mugging and drug trafficking. Furthermore, policy formulators and implementers are usually influenced by race in their process of policymaking.
White Americans have a tendency to believe that blacks and Latinos are lazy individuals, who are less intelligent preferring to engage in shortcuts, such as robbery, instead of working hard to achieve their dreams. This makes it hard for Whites to associate well with both blacks and Latinos.
Institutional racism is different from racial bigotry because institutional racism is supported by the government through formulation of policies that infringe on the rights of minority races.
We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the US, the government has propagated the formation of policies that would always subjugate the minority races economically and politically. For example, the government has always exercised racial discrimination, particularly in the education sector. The public school budgets have always been discriminatory because the government has been assigning quality teachers to schools perceived to be with many white students.
The education policy recommends that schools should be allocated resources based on property values. It is expected that rich neighborhoods would have many whites hence schools in such areas are allocated quality teachers and enough resources. This would have an implication to the economic lives of individuals because students from such public schools are expected to excel.
Those from poor neighborhoods are given inferior services, including undertrained teachers and few resources. This would definitely lead to dismal performance among students from minority races. Such students will end up in mid-level colleges that would only guarantee them low paying jobs, as compared to their white counterparts who join prestigious universities, offering well paying courses in the labor market.
Institutionalized racism borrows heavily from the system theory, which argues racism stems from a number of mutual cumulative aspects. Systems theory does not subscribe to the postulations of reductionists but instead believes in the interactions among institutions, which leads to widespread structural racism.
From the systems theory, it is true that social class theory, as formulated by scholars such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, is directly related to racism. In the US, property appraisal system was formulated in 1930s and was incorporated into the government’s lending system.
The system was purely based on race meaning members from the minority race could not access loans using the same techniques as the whites, who were the majority.
This could be interpreted to mean only whites were eligible to apply for governmental loans since their properties were rated highly, as compared to those of blacks and Latinos.
Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marx’s Economic Theory In economics, financial aspects are usually taught in isolation meaning that politics is to be separated from economics. However, economic life cannot be understood without understanding social and political forces that affect the lives of the minority races in the US and other parts of the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economists could not predict the 1997 economic meltdown in the Asian continent because they failed to incorporate other theories from other disciplines in their investigations. The 2007 global cash crunch was not exceptional because economists did not predict it at all. For economists, they believed capitalism would go on uninterrupted.
In fact, economists gave wrong results in 1998 since they predicted that financial growth of the Asian continent would expand. Economists misled investors to believe that their stocks would generate more profits, which would be used to expand their business elsewhere. In fact, many people lost their capital through defective economic predictions.
Economists utilize mathematical figures and statistics to predict the performance of financial systems. Mostly, they would use graphs and charts to show how economic aspects would be realized. Marx however formulated a theory that would predict economic performance from a human perspective. Marx analyzed the relationships between people and classes.
In this regard, he interpreted the economy to mean a struggle between races, classes and age groups. The economy, according to Marx, is full of contradictions and uncertainties meaning that it is subject to constant changes. In this paper, the theory of Marx shows that economics is not about goods, prices or supply and demand but it is all about people, as well as their social relationships.
It is established that a section of society owns wealth while the other section owns nothing, apart from their labor (Hallman 44). The owners of the means of production are referred to as the bourgeoisies while the working class is the proletariat.
The owners of the means of production utilize their power to subjugate and dominate the inferior class, which is the minority race in the US. Life is all about production and distribution of scarce goods and resources. From the above analysis, it is true that economics should be understood to mean political and social struggles in life.
Marx started his analysis of economic aspects by first appreciating the existence of classical economic theories. Adams Smith and David Ricardo supported new industrialization and the banking system. However, they did not appreciate the fact that the two sectors were dominated by a single race. Other races were incorporated into the two sectors as underdogs.
They came up with a labor theory of value suggesting that the working class was an important element in any production system. The two economics scholars observed that the value of a product would be determined by the amount of time spent in producing it. In this regard, all commodities would be sold based on the labor applied in producing it.
Smith never explained some of the important concepts because he only suggested that the commodity or a service would be sold based on its production costs. However, he did not explain the relationship between the worker and the capitalist. Ricardo came up with another concept that affected the lives of workers in the 19th century.
He argued that workers were spending little time in producing goods and services hence their wages had to decline (Lockheed 19). Marx capitalized on the findings of Ricardo to claim that workers were being robbed of their skills. Following widespread complaints concerning exploitation, economists rejected the labor theory of value, given the fact that it exposed the secrets of the bourgeoisie to the proletariat.
Marx conducted a private and extensive research to define the concept ‘labor’. Marx came up with a perfect answer to issues to do with socio-economic and political economy. Just like other commodities, labor possesses a use-value meaning various types of labor exist.
Some of the forms of labor are important and rigorous training is needed to achieve such forms while others are simple forms of labor, which is readily available in the labor market. In the US, the readily available labor is more than the skilled labor (Chappell 78). The minority races possess this cheap labor meaning they cannot achieve their dreams through employment.
Marx noted that theoretical aspects and the amount of labor applied in the production process influence the exchange of values of commodities. Marx believed that wages are not determined by the expertise of an individual or the skills applied in the manufacture of the product.
Marx differed with other scholars such as Smith and Ricardo because he believed that use value and exchange value could only be applied in the context of labor. According to this scholar, what mattered most was the ability to work not the skills possessed by an individual. He referred to this as the labor power.
Social classes determine the labor power. Those belonging to the white race have higher labor power as compared to peasants belonging to the inferior races, such as African, Asian and Latino.
Race, Ethnicity, Discrimination and Stereotyping Racial and ethnical discrimination and stereotypes are some of the issues that affect economic capabilities of individuals. In this section, we are going to address the issues of race and ethnicity and define and analyze the components of discrimination and stereotyping.
Contemporary discrimination practices have their roots in the history of development of the United States and closely related to American anti-Semitism that was part of the late-nineteenth century racism emigrant from all parts of the world, as well as African Americans, Native Americans and Mexicans.
The discriminatory treatment included closing the doors to immigration from Europe and Mexicans, between 1882 and 1927. Contemporary discriminatory practices are similar for African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans; they include denying equal access to opportunities, certain housing areas or membership in social organizations.
In the contemporary society, there is still a room for hidden forms of racism against ethnic groups mentioned earlier. The situation has changed since the early 1990s, when blatant racism was more common for them.
Barriers to Implementation of Policies Various interpretations of the terms “race” and “ethnicity” can lead to the types of discrimination identified in the first section. Thus, “race” is often associated with physical specifications such as skin color, and “ethnicity is defined through the background, historical or cultural aspects of an individual. Historically, people created various forms of prejudices about race and ethnicity.
Thus, the prejudice that African Americans are “low-intelligent” race leads to the institutional and employment discrimination. There are two models (social and biological), according to which race and ethnicity are defined. Both of them state that there are dominant and subjective race. However, they have considerable gaps.
For example, from the biological perspective, all people have the same construction and functions of the body and it is ridiculous to distribute people into different races. From the social perspective, all people are members of the society they live in and live according to the same social rules, thus, this gap in the sociological model cannot properly reflect race and ethnic identity.
There are voluntary and involuntary models used to promote discrimination. Separatism model suggests that racial groups should be segregated from the rest of society. Assimilation model is associated with the issue of racial supremacy. For example, it defines what races are allowed to assimilate with the dominant culture, and what races will not fit social and political standards of the dominant race.
Pluralistic model define a racial group as a distinguished one and, according to Naughton (14), “groups will not dissolve into an anodyne melting pot, but individuals will have considerable leeway in deciding how and how much group identity matters to their lives”.
Thus, racial profiling contributes to personal, spiritual, political, and procedural conflicts identified in the previous chapter. For example, as it has already been mentioned, the PATRIOT Act’s provisions are discriminatory and leave many individuals especially aliens vulnerable to harassment and torture (Ewing 12).
The race of the individual becomes “an identification” used to attribute him/her to terrorists. Moreover, federal agencies have right to freeze bank accounts of persons perceived as terrorist, it a form of racial discrimination as well. This analysis can be helpful in addressing the issue racism in the United States.
It is necessary to consider the diverse nature of employees within organizations, as well as people in communities, schools and other organizations. Racial prejudices should not be issues for classifying people in “bad” and “good” ones. In addition, international relations should be improved with diplomacy being preferred instead of military confrontations based on racial diversity.
Race and ethnic identity of a person is often a reason for social discrimination. The PATRIOT Act should find different approaches to international relations so that prevent racial and ethnic discrimination.
Conclusion The problem of Ethnicity and race is a big challenge to the policymakers both in private and public organizations. It is an issue that has threatened to divide the country into various subcultures because every ethnic group and race identifies itself with certain distinct features.
The government officials have found it hard to come up with strategies that are all encompassing mainly because of the continued resistance from some groups feeling that their interests are well catered in the plans. In general, the government is trying but more effort has to be put for there to be equality and equity in distribution of both material and non-material resources.
It can be concluded that ethnic and racial groupings cannot be eliminated in the country but instead it can be engaged to function positively. The policymakers should conduct an extensive research to identify how racial groupings have affected the development of the country.
Upon the findings, the government should design policies based on the findings. The issue of extending favors to racial members at workplaces should be discouraged and severe measures ought to be formulated to deal with the problem.
Works Cited Chappell, Marissa. The war on welfare: family, poverty, and politics in modern America. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. Print.
Dupre, Ben. Fifty Philosophy Ideas You Really Need to Know, New York: Quercus, 2007. Print.
Ewing, Doyle. The USA Patriot Act Reader, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2005. Print.
Hallman, Max. Traversing Philosophical Boundaries, New York: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007. Print.
Lockheed, Marlaine. Gender and social exclusion. Paris: Education Policy series publishers, 2010. Print.
Naughton, John. From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg. What You Really Need to Know about the Internet, New York: Quercus, 2012. Print.
Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision Proposal online essay help: online essay help
Executive summary Kamuga Internet Providers is an internet service provider that seeks to begin its operations in partnership with Jamii Telecom in Kenya. A team comprising of a regional director, marketing manager, operations manager, and human resource manager will oversee the management of the company. The objective of the venture is to exploit the vast market in Kenya.
The company will collaborate with Jamii Telecom in offering the internet services to the target market. Among the strategies that the company intends to apply to attract clients, include offering its services at a lower cost relative to other companies. Additionally, the company will run promotional programs like offering free internet services to clients.
To cater for cash shortage, the management will ensure that it identifies those clients that take long to pay for the services and ask them to deposit an amount of money as retainer. Among the risks that the company is likely to encounter include, security risks and sensitivity risks. Nevertheless, there are high prospects that the company will succeed, with its operating profit expected to be approximately $50,000 annually.
Introduction Demand for internet services in the developing countries is in the rise. Majority of the companies in the developed countries outsource their human resource tasks to developing states. This underlines the reason why many business-outsourcing firms are emerging in developing countries like in Kenya. Outsourcing firms process the tasks and send them back to their clients.
All these activities require internet. Demand for internet services in Kenya is what prompted the desire to establish Kamuga Internet Providers, an internet service firm aimed at offering internet services to Kenyan companies. The firm will operate in collaborate with Jamii Telecom, which is a Kenyan company that offers internet services to clients.
This paper will focus on the benefits of establishing the company in Kenya, prospective success, and challenges that might arise in the process of running the company in Kenya.
Advantages of establishing the business Engaging in international trade brings numerous benefits to an organization. These benefits include, risk diversification and growth (Rose and Van Wincoop 387). One of the benefits that Kamuga Internet Providers will enjoy for engaging in international trade will be enhanced growth. Because of high demand for internet services in Kenya, the business will make good returns, which will facilitate in its growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, the business will enjoy a better margin. The Kenyan currency is weaker relative to the U.S dollar. Consequently, the business will require less capital to start, while the returns will be high. Jamii Telecom will also benefit from this investment in different ways. The company’s income will increase. Currently, Jamii Telecom is in partnership with other companies.
Hence, this partnership will act as a diversification strategy to the company. Another benefit that the trade partner is likely to enjoy from this investment is earlier payments. Majority of the overseas payments are made upfront, and Kamuga Internet Providers intends to observe this.
Challenges and opportunities The investment is likely to face numerous challenges, as well as opportunities. One of the challenges that this investment will encounter is cultural challenge. Jamii Telecom and Kamuga Internet Providers operate in different environments. Hence, the two companies use different organizational strategies. The companies will encounter challenges when managing the joint venture.
Besides, there will be an economic challenge. Because of political instability in Kenya, the country’s currency keeps on fluctuating (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics 34). This implies that it will be hard to estimate the total working capital for the investment at a given year. The two partners will have to monitor the business’s working capital and to increase it whenever necessary.
Another challenge will be competition from other internet providers. Already companies like Safaricom and Orange have invested in internet services. Hence, Kamuga Internet Providers will face stiff competition from these firms.
To operate in the Kenyan market, the company will have to obtain a license from the Kenyan government. Besides, the company will site its operation base at a strategic position. To contribute to its success, it will have to look for labor capital. Despite collaborating with Jamii Telecom, Kamuga Internet Providers will require having local employees to facilitate in marketing its services.
Moreover, the company will have to obtain intellectual property protection rights to avoid conflicts with rival companies. This will facilitate in safeguarding its innovations and technology, therefore, enhancing its competitive advantage (Kameri-Mbote 18).
We will write a custom Proposal on Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the numerous challenges, there are many opportunities in Kenya. Currently, the existing internet provider companies focus on key firms and offices. Kamuga Internet Providers intends to target business outsourcing companies, as well as leading institutions like universities and banks. These companies cannot operate without internet.
Therefore, there will always be a ready market for the company. Majority of the companies that source their internet services from Safaricom and Orange, complain about the reliability of their services. Therefore, consumers will be willing to try a new service provider, giving Kamuga Internet Providers an opportunity to expand and consolidate its consumer base.
Covering logistics Logistic is one of the challenges that affect internet-providing companies. Poor logistics lead to consumers complaining about the quality of the services. Kamuga Internet Providers will liaise with Jamii Telecom to supply the internet services through its fiber optic cables. This will ensure that consumers are satisfied with its services.
Besides, Jamii Telecom will help it to do the networking in all the institutions that require its services. For the major institutions like Universities and business outsourcing firms, the payments will be on postpaid basis. The companies will pay after using the services.
This strategy will facilitate in winning the trust from the clients. A Majority of the clients would decline to pay for the services they have not used in fear that they might frustrate them. Nevertheless, requesting them to pay after using the services would encourage the majority of them to use the services.
Key risks The venture might be prone to a number of risks. The risks include security risk and sensitivity risk. As the company grows, it might not be able to secure its broadband, making it possible for unauthorized people to use the internet services. This will call for the company to monitor its broadband regularly and work to enhance its security. Sensitivity risks are other key risks that Kamuga Internet Providers is likely to encounter.
The sensitivity risks include government regulations, interest rates, and exchange rates. Variations in the exchange rate might affect the company’s profit. On the other hand, government regulations like intellectual property rights might hamper the company’s innovation capacity.
Revenue, cost and profit estimates To arrive at the estimated revenue, cost, and profit of the investment, the company will make numerous assumptions. One of the assumptions is that no conflict will arise between the company and the clients, which might lead to clients withdrawing in the course of the contract. Another assumption is that the cost of operations will remain constant throughout the year.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company will also assume that there will be no changes in government regulations or increase in the inflation rate, which might lead to the operations cost going high. It anticipates that employees’ salary will remain constant throughout the year. Apart from the overhead costs that will remain constant, other costs like customer service and billing are expected to vary from time to time.
Operating statement for year 2013 Total Revenue $100,000
Variable costs $ 20,000
Gross Profit $ 80,000
Utilities $ 5,000
Depreciation $ 5,000
Total Operating Expenses $ 30,000
Operating Profit (EBIT) $ 50,000
Startup costs To start this investment, the management will require at least $700,000. This will cater for employee recruitment, marketing cost, rent, and broadband procurement, among other recurrent expenditures.
Marketing strategy Marketing mix is a superior business tool that facilitates in marketing an organization’s products or services. At times, the term four Ps is used to refer to marketing mix (Van Waterschoot and Van den Bulte 85). To promote the success of this investment, the company will employ the marketing mix strategy.
Kamuga Internet Providers will offer its services at lower prices relative to other companies to attract customers. While the majority of the companies offer their services at $0.75 per megabyte, the company will offer its services at $0.5 per megabyte. Besides, the company will run promotional programs to recruit new customers.
It will give its target clients a free internet service for one week. This will encourage many customers to use the service. The company will work in collaboration with Jamii Telecom to distribute its services.
This will help in ensuring that clients have access to its services. Jamii Telecom will help it to lay fiber optic cables in all areas with high demand for the internet services.
Operating plan A management team comprising of a regional director, human resource manager, marketing manager, and an operation manager will run the company. The company will hire local employees to help the management team. From the hired employees, the management team will select a sales team that will be responsible for marketing the company across the country.
Jamii Telecom will assume the responsibility of identifying the suppliers to supply the company with materials necessary for laying down the required internet platform.
Financing plan To maintain a smooth running of the company, the management team will have to identify strategies to cover for cash shortage. Clients that are stubborn in paying for the services will be required to deposit some retainer money, as a strategy for addressing cash shortage.
Besides, the team will make sure that it issues invoices on time for all services rendered. This will facilitate in the collection of cash from the clients. Moreover, it will facilitate in avoiding cases of overdue debtors.
Conclusion The success or failure of any investment depends on the ability of the management team to stick to the laid down business plan. If the management team observes all the outlined strategies, it will succeed in seeing the growth of Kamuga Internet Providers in Kenya.
Works Cited Kameri-Mbote, Patricia. Intellectual Property Protection in Africa: An Assessment of the Status of Laws, Research and Policy Analysis on Intellectual Property Rights in Kenya, Nairobi: University of Nairobi, 2004. Print.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Facts and figures 2012. PDF file. 2012.
Rose, Andrew K and Van Wincoop, Eric. “National money as a barrier to international trade: the real case for currency union.” The American Economic Review 19.2 (2001): 386-390. Print.
Van Waterschoot, Walter and Van den Bulte, Christophe. “The 4P classification of the marketing mix revisited.” Journal of Marketing 56.4 (2006): 83-93. Print.
Valuation Conclusion Essay essay help free: essay help free
In this assignment, you will recalculate the value of the company’s stock based on your company’s specific required rate of return. To do this, you will calculate the required rate of return for your chosen publicly traded company using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). *My company is UPS*
Geography of Australia and New Zealand Report (Assessment) college application essay help
Map comparison Agricultural production and mineral extraction are among Australia’s economic backbone. With regards to agriculture, no other state within the pacific realm enjoys the benefits stemming from this sector other than Australia. To them this is a pipe dream. Australian farmers are a ‘jack of all trades’ (MacLeod and Jones 677). They rear domestic animals and practice farming.
To this end they have a favorable climate to boast about. However, as depicted in figure 11-5, this climate is biased towards the territory of New South Wales, extending along the borders anticlockwise towards Western Australia forming an inverted ‘U.’
The same pattern recurs for minerals though with disjointed areas at some parts of Northern and Western Australia. Among the minerals mined include gold, Iron ore, silver, coal, and copper. On comparing this map with the spatial distribution of population map (G-9) one thing emerges: the population density follows the same path (Kimble 510).
On analyzing the spatial population distributions of both New Zealand and Australia with respect to climatic patterns, several common findings can be drawn. Basically, a population will always be drawn where the climatic conditions are favorable for agricultural production.
For instance, in Australia, the population density within the central part is less. On correlating this with the region’s climate it is evident that the area is located on a dry climate. On the other hand, at New South Wales where the population density is high it enjoys temperate climate. With regards to New Zealand the area receives adequate rain throughout the year (humid equatorial climate with no dry season).
However, the physical geography of the region is what now dictates the spatial population distribution. Both these countries follow the same pattern of population distribution; most settlements are skewed along the coastal lines (Schaefer 230).
Map 1: Physical geography of Southwest Asia.
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Map 3: Economic Urban Information.
We will write a custom Assessment on Geography of Australia and New Zealand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More E-Canterbury Plain
Works Cited Kimble, Hebert. “The Inadequacy of the Regional Concept” London Essays in Geography 2.17 (1951): 492-411. Print.
MacLeod, George, and Jones Mother. “Renewing The Geography of Regions.” Environment and Planning 16.9 (2001): 669-800. Print.
Schaefer, Frankline. “Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43.3 (1953): 226-245. Print.
Local government agencies budget in the United States Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Local government agencies in the United States include county governments, towns, municipalities, and special purpose local governments such as school districts and special districts. County governments are authorized in state constitutions and statutes.
Similarly, town governments are allowed by the existing laws of the land governing various states such as the Northeastern and the Midwestern. However, they only govern a defined area.
Municipal governments govern a corresponding population Centre. School districts govern public elementary and secondary schools while the special districts are authorized by state law to provide specific designated functions (Wilson
The Paradox of Comedy: A Society’s Watchdog and Entertainer Term Paper essay help
A comedy is a play, script or a live performance meant to entertain the audience and make people laugh. Comedy comprises of jokes and satirical lines. Subversive comedy and social comedy are among the broader categories of drama. Subversive comedy reveals the different fissures under the smooth surface of official ideology in society and the play ends in a ritual celebration such as a marriage.
On the other hand, social comedy addresses threats against hegemonic cultures by disciplining upstarts and the commonwealth man in society. Careful analysis of William Wycherley’s play “The Country Wife”, as an example of a subversive comedy, and Aphra Behn’s play “The Rover”, as an example of a social comedy, reveals a clear distinction between the two categories.
Subversive comedy defines the cracks on the unscathed surface of the official ideology. These cracks exist in the Restoration comedy “The Country Wife” through the oppression of the Puritans Commonwealth during their reign from 1642 to 1660.
The play displays how the present government oppresses its citizens to the right of public expression and mocks the societal view of marriage and sexuality in London.
The cynical view of the shift that occurred in the English attitude towards marriage in the middle of 1670’s has portrayed in Harry Horner’s explanation of how he plans to have sexual escapades with London’s upper class women and how they still keep their honor in society as moral beings (Norman 40).
These sexual escapades are carefully planned by Horner’s lie of being a eunuch after recovering from a venereal disease that rendered him impotent. It aims at fooling the husbands and fiancée of the women who get involved with Horner to allow them do so without raising eyebrows.
Major themes, such as hypocrisy, are addressed through the wants of men and women to appear as being more virtuous than they actually are. The importance placed on money in the society given rise to capitalism and absurdity that drives humans to yearn for sex without love is also tackled. Norman’s comment reveals the different fissures in society that are hidden under the smoothness of official ideology (Norman 52).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social comedy in contrast to the latter reveals the rebellion against the ruling élite and main virtues in the society. It addresses threats against hegemonic culture by disciplining upstarts.
In the play “The Rover”, the characters revolt against vulnerability of women towards sexual abuse, and the men that marry women whom they consider of a higher social class as compared to the women considered of low social status and hence branded as whores. Angellica is sexually exploited by Willmore for mistakenly falling in love with him.
Willmore wants Angellica Bianca to marry Hellena but Angellica goes against the society’s view of women being sexual objects and she threatens revenge on Willmore. Hellena’s sister, Florinda, revolts against the practice of women being married off to suitors chosen for them.
She goes against her brother’s will and chooses to marry her true love, Colonel Belvile. Women are also portrayed as capable of being thieves as the girl who according to the false assumption of provincial Blunt, has fallen in love with him (Carlson 530).
In conclusion, it is fair to stress that the comedy mocks the underlying issues in society. Subversive comedy reveals the fissures under the smooth surface of official ideology as the play ends in ritual celebrations while Social comedy addresses threats against the hegemonic culture by disciplining upstarts and commonwealth men in the society.
Works Cited Carlson, Susan. “Cannibalizing and Carnivalizing” Reviving Aphra Behn’s The Rover. Theatre Journal 47.4 (1995): 517-539.Print.
Norman, Holland. The First Modern Comedies: The Significance of Etherege, Wycherley and Congreve Massachusetts: Cambridge, 1959. Print.
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