Zheng He was considered as one of China’s renowned explorers during the Ming dynasty, although much debate remains about his exploratory abilities. During this era, China played a pivotal role in the global trade as it was the sole supplier of silk goods to the world. China in turn, imported spices, incense, and cotton goods. In this article, the author seeks to find the objective of Zheng He’s voyages, and in doing so, he takes an opposing stand to the hypothesis that Zheng He was an accomplished explorer.
The author bases his argument on the fact that Zheng He’s fleet was heavily armed, and was more suited to providing a security function rather than an exploratory one. A second basis is made on the fact that Zheng He did not discover any new lands but went to already established lands. The author of the article goes on to outline facts to support his hypothesis.
First the author analyzes Zheng He’s journeys. Zheng He’s initial three journeys were identical, and he used trade routes that were known to Arabs, Indians and Indonesians for thousands of years. With regards to Chinese traders, the routes were familiar to them for several hundreds of years.
The trade route covered modern day Vietnam, Java, Indian coast and back to China relying entirely on the monsoon patterns. The fourth voyage took a different turn in that Zheng He went further on to Hormuz from India as opposed to going back to China, as was the case in the first three voyages. This could hardly be described as an exploratory expedition, as it was an established trade center where caravan routes from Middle East and Central Asia met the sea trade route of Indian Ocean.
It is in the fifth voyage that some exploration is seen, whereby Zheng He went to Arabia and further on to the east coast of Africa. Zheng He landed along the coast of modern day Somalia and Kenya. Zheng He’s sixth journey, hurriedly arranged as the emperor put a temporary ban on treasure voyages, took him to distant places.
His last journey, done for old time’s sake, was made at a time when the political climate was changing, and the new emperor frowned upon trading with foreigners. In as much as Zheng He reached Africa in his last three voyages, this is not a reason to call him a formidable explorer.
This voyage followed the same route as the fourth voyage that reached Hormuz. Smaller boats from the Armada made their way to the East coast of Africa as well as the Arabian coastline. The author’s argument is that seven men reaching Arabia can hardly be called exploratory as Zheng He was a Muslim and his father and grandfather had probably travelled to Mecca, as they had the title of pilgrim.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author then goes on to trash Joseph Needham’s, an authority on China, view regarding Zheng He. Needham’s view is that The Ming Dynasty was the greatest influence on Chinese maritime exploration. This, he single handedly, attributes to Zheng He. The author also gives credit to Mills by agreeing with him that Zheng He did not discover any new lands
The second argument that the author makes is that the political climate of the day favored trade across the Chinese borders. Emperor Hongwu looked down on trading with foreigners, as well as receiving tributes from far flung countries. He effectively banned mission tributes carrying treasure to China, and this had the effect of turning numerous Chinese maritime traders into pirates.
After Emperor Yongle, who was his son took over power, the seas were opened and China could once more trade with the world, but at the risk of being attacked by pirates lurking in the seas around the Chinese seas. The pirates mainly raided ships carrying gifts to China; hence they did not reach their intended destination. The ships carried exotic gifts meant for the Chinese emperor.
Zheng He’s fleet comprised of large numbers of military personnel, whose main purpose was to intimidate and quickly ensure submission from subjects along the trading routes. The subjects would then pay tribute to the Chinese emperor using cotton goods and spices. Zheng He‘s primarily role seemed to be more of a policing role for bringing law and order on the trade routes.
Zheng He had immense resources at his disposal, implying that he was trusted by the rulers of his time. The ships Zheng He travelled in were over two hundred feet long and carried six hundred to seven hundred men. In his first voyage, when he attacked a pirate ship, it is reported that he led twenty seven thousand men.
During the Song era, sea power was viewed as a powerful arsenal, and hence, could have equipped Zheng He. It is pertinent to note that during his early years, Zheng He came out more as a “policeman” than a trader or explorer. On his first voyage, he attacked Chen Zuyi, a substantial pirate fleet, killing five thousand pirates. On his third voyage, he was attacked by the King of Ceylon who condoned piracy and specialized on preying on the tribute missions to China.
It was only after bringing peace to the sea lanes that Zheng He was able to conduct some form of exploration, but this again must have been approved by the emperors as the author states that Emperor Yongle and Emperor Xuande both had appetites for exotic gifts. Following Xuande’s death, his mother took over the reins of power on behalf of Xuande’s son and the voyages were banned as they believed that they were expensive to the economy.
We will write a custom Essay on The Purpose of Zheng He’s voyages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author implies that Zheng He’s role was to control and provide protection along the sea lanes. We see here an invisible hand of rulers who enjoyed exotic luxuries, and thus, encouraged voyages. As the rulers changed, priorities changed in that treasure voyages became less important.
All in all, Zheng He was more of a “policeman” equipped and sent by the rulers of the day to secure their interests, which were mission tributes. The Chinese rulers before and after Zheng He did not believe in trading with foreigners.
His exploratory nature was a byproduct of being well equipped in terms of ships and military personnel, so he was able to travel far after securing the sea lanes and subduing any resistance that he met along the way. Zheng He’s fleet provided protection to Malacca against the Thais, proving the point even more that Zheng He was a “policeman”, as opposed to an explorer.
In conclusion, the author has managed to bring forth different perspectives as to Zheng He’s voyages, which show that he played more of a security role whose aim was to instill and maintain law and order on the sea highways. This was in a bid to enable a favorable climate for ships in transit carrying precious cargo.
“The Walking Dead” and the “Bridegroom to the Goddess” in Works by John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The Irish literature is characterized by discussing a lot of social and psychological issues and depicting many mythical images. The Irish writers’ approach to presenting the common theme can be extremely different with references to using irony and satire or mild and pessimistic tone. The play The Playboy of the Western World by John Millington Synge and the poem “The Tollund Man” by Seamus Heaney have few similar features, but the authors discuss the theme of death, accentuating the violent death, in their works.
Although Synge and Heaney use rather opposite approaches to presenting the controversial theme of death in their works where Synge concentrates on satire to depict the social and psychological issues and Heaney pays attention to the spiritual context of the question, the authors provide their vision of the violent death from the social perspective and with references to the persons’ inner world.
In his play The Playboy of the Western World, Synge emphasizes the fact of murdering as the starting point to develop the play’s plot. Thus, the idea of murder is used to represent the problems and conflicts typical for the Irish society of the 1900s along with accentuating the personal attitude to the question as the reflection of the society’s sickness.
Christy Mahon, the main character of the play, is inclined to attract the public’s attention in the tavern with stating that he has murdered his father. Thus, Mahon depicts his action saying, “I just riz the loy and let fall the edge of it on the ridge of his skull, and he went down at my feet like an empty sack, and never let a grunt or groan from him at all” (Synge 113).
The irony of Mahon’s actions is presented with references to the specific language used by the author (Brazeau 160). The unemotional language based on the simple enumeration of the stages of murdering a person helps present the character’s experience and emphasize the irony of the audience’s interpreting the fact of killing.
Synge stresses the satiric inappropriateness of interpreting Mahon’s actions as heroic with the help of remarks. For instance, Michael reacts to Mahon’s words about murdering with the great respect and states, “That was a hanging crime, mister honey.
You should have had good reason for doing the like of that”, and Mahon answers in a reasonable tone, “He was a dirty man, God forgive him, and he getting old and crusty, the way I couldn’t put up with him at all” (Synge 106-107). From this point, the fact of murdering a person makes Mahon be a hero in this small community of a tavern. The reasons to explain the phenomenon can be found with references to analyzing the figures of the listeners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The community of County Mayo needs sensations to discuss, and the personality of Mahon becomes the most interesting theme for talking about. Thus, Synge focuses on the double moral standards typical for the society (Levitt 19). On the one hand, Mahon breaks the moral taboos, and he is discussed as a hero after committing a patricide. On the other hand, Mahon should be hanged after attempting to kill his father for the second time.
The fact of the violent death is presented in Synge’s play as a chance to make the monotonous life more diverse and vivid. The author exaggerates the public’s indifference to the moral and ethical aspects of murdering a person and provides the satirical descriptions of people’s interpreting the problems of death and murder (Levitas; Regan). The villagers are inclined to discuss the person of Mahon as the hero and “the walking Playboy of the Western World” (Synge 190).
It seems that the situation of murdering a father is typical and ordinary. Mahon uses it to create the reputation, and he tries to preserve his heroic reputation while killing the father for the second time. It is rather difficult to state why the villagers want to hang Mahon after the second attempt to murder the father. They can avoid becoming accessories as well as reveal their morality.
The general representation of the topic of death in the play is characterized by depicting some satirical stories. Thus, Mahon is afraid of “the walking dead”, and Pegeen tells the frightening story about the dead man putting “in a narrow grave” (Synge 85, 185).
The situation of Mahon’s mentioning “the walking dead” is rather ironic because his father becomes the real “walking dead” who frightens Mahon and makes him act. Thus, in spite of the villagers’ indifferent attitude to the fact of murder from the perspective of morality, they are inclined to feel fear associated with the theme of death.
Although the theme of death is also vividly discussed in Heaney’s poem “The Tollund Man”, the author’s approach to presenting the topic differs much from Synge’s accentuating the satire of tragic moments in his play. Heaney represents the concept of death from many perspectives in his poem, emphasizing the religious, spiritual, and mythical aspects along with stressing the social problems associated with the theme of the violent death.
In the first stanza, the author depicts his sacred devotion to the Tollund Man who could be sacrificed in order to please the goddess, “Bridegroom to the goddess, / She tightened her torc on him / And opened her fen, / Those dark juices working / Him to a saint’s kept body” (Heaney 12-16).
We will write a custom Essay on “The Walking Dead” and the “Bridegroom to the Goddess” in Works by John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The death of the Tollund Man is violent, but it is sacred as well as the author’s interpretation of the man’s death as the act connected with the problem of spirituality (Liu). Moreover, the Tollund Man is preserved that is why it is possible to speak about the Tollund Man as similar to the Christian saints. Thus, the Tollund Man can be discussed as an idol for the character as well as the reflection of the Christian traditions.
Moreover, the character states, “I could risk blasphemy, / Consecrate the cauldron bog / Our holy ground and pray / Him to make germinate” (Heaney 21-24). The fact of worshipping the deity should not be discussed with references to the character, but it can be analyzed with accentuating his attitude to the death as the sacred act.
The author provides the analogies and parallels in relation to the violent death of the Tollund Man and the problematic social situations in Ireland and Denmark. The ritual of sacrifice in Denmark is associated with the deaths of many people in the Northern Ireland, and the territory is not significant in this case.
The symbols of death are presented in the author’s pessimistic descriptions of the actual facts of murders based on the religious background, “The scattered, ambushed / Flesh of labourers, / Stockinged corpses / Laid out in the farmyards” (Heaney 25-28). The death is presented not only as the sacred notion but also as the real situation which is familiar for many unfortunate people who are the victims of the social orders and conflicts.
The large social context provided by the author makes the problem actual for many people. The death of the Tollund Man as the part of a sacrifice accentuates the unjust character of many deaths of those people who became the victims of “sad freedom” (Heaney 33).
The character stresses that having explored the Tollund Man, he feels lost “unhappy and at home” (Heaney 44). The author observes many features which support the idea that the sacrifice in the Ancient Denmark can be correlated with a lot of murders in the Northern Ireland, his “home”. Therefore, the theme of death is presented through the significant religious and social context.
To conclude, it is important to pay attention to the fact that although John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney discuss the topic of the violent death in their works, the authors’ approaches to presenting and explaining the aspects of the problem are different.
Synge is inclined to accentuate the people’s attitude to the question with the help of irony and satirical interpretations, and Heaney’s tone is rather pessimistic. Synge refers to the understatement of the role of death in the person’s life, especially the violent death. Heaney is inclined to exaggerating the problem of the violent death and its victims with the help of stressing the religious symbolism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Walking Dead” and the “Bridegroom to the Goddess” in Works by John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Brazeau, Robert. “But We’re Only Talking, Maybe: Language, Desire, and the Arrival of the Present in Synge’s Playboy of the Western World”. Irish Studies Review 17.2 (2009): 153-166. Print.
Heaney, Seamus. “The Tollund Man”. Opened Ground: Selected Poems, 1966-1996. Ed. Seamus Heaney. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998. 124-125. Print.
Levitas, Ben. “The Playboy of the Western World”. Modern and Contemporary Irish Drama. Ed. John Harrington. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009. 468-472. Print.
Levitt, Paul Michael. “Fathers and Sons in Synge’s The Playboy of the Western World”. Explicator 66.1 (2007): 18-21. Print.
Liu, Jiong. “Catholic Predilections in the Poetics of Gerard Manley Hopkins and Seamus Heaney”. Religion and the Arts 14.3 (2010): 267-296. Print.
Regan, Stephen. Irish Writing: An Anthology of Irish Literature in English 1789-1939. London: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Synge, John Millington. “Playboy of the Western World”. Modern and Contemporary Irish Drama. Ed. John Harrington. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2009. 68-112. Print.
Lessons from Plato’s book ‘The Apology’ Essay college application essay help
In his book ‘The Apology’, the Greek philosopher Plato provides a version of Socrates speech during his trail a courtroom in Athens. Plato, being Socrates’ wrote the Apologetics to show how the great philosopher defended himself against the charges brought to the court by his accusers around 399 BC.
Socrates was accused of several accounts of corrupting the youth and heresy. Plato’s account of the speech remains a modern inspiration and source of philosophical lessons to philosophers and scholars in the contemporary world. Though called ‘apology’ by Plato, the speech is not actually an apology- Socrates was attempting use his wisdom to justify his teachings and beliefs, and not to apologize for his actions.
First, his concise and clear explanation of his beliefs and the facts that led to his accusation are an indication of Socrates’ ability to defend himself against his accusers basing his arguments on the wisdom he had rather then attempting to discredit his thoughts. In this way, Socrates portrays his reputation he had developed from his great philosophical wisdom by discrediting the pre-Socratics and sophists. He argues that his wisdom originates from an oracle given to Chaerephon by Delphi that he (Socrates) would be the wisest man on earth.
Secondly, philosophers learn that a perfect understanding of human knowledge does not exist. Consequently, a perfect understanding of some terms such as virtue, justice and piety does not exist. In Plato’s ‘The Apology’, Socrates claims that although he possessed super wisdom that was not comparable to that of the Athenian wise men, poets and teachers, he humbly accepted his wisdom and knew that it could not be the most perfect.
Unlike the politicians, poets and craftsmen, Socrates’ arguments provide the modern philosophers with a model of a true and just philosophy. For instance, he accepts the antipathy and resentment, and goes to an extent of risking death rather then diverting from his own wisdom and discourage the students who had believed in him.
The ‘Apology’ shows that Socrates was willing to face death rather than deny his wisdom. It is evident that Socrates’ love for wisdom outweighs human fear of death. He argues that he does not fear what he does not know (death), but fears human lack of knowledge and ignorance as portrayed by his accusers, the jury and the Athenian wise men.
In addition, Socrates speech is a motivation to modern philosophers in that his wisdom consists of ultimate, clear and precise thinking and presentation of ideas. This uniqueness portrayed by Socrates aims at teaching modern philosophers that questioning and clarification of human knowledge is a vital thing than affirming to the knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the speech shows that the role of the philosopher is not to be a critic; rather a philosopher must present the ideas in a concise and precise manner. The important thing is to present the ideas in a manner that describes the cause, process and effect of a given social, scientific and cultural problem.
In what appears to be the most inspiring argument in the field of philosophy, Socrates argues that if he was corrupting the youths in Athens and destroying the society, then the whole society would be corrupt and in the process he would destroy himself. He argues that he was not so foolish to an extent of using his knowledge to hurt his own society. This is an indication that philosophers should be responsible of their knowledge and arguments since the society can easily act according to philosophers’ arguments.
Bibliography West, Thomas. Plato’s Apology of Socrates. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979.
Footnotes Thomas West, Plato’s Apology of Socrates, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979), 54
The Job Cuts in the U.S. Postal Service Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Chapter One
Chapter One The article written by Lisa Rein discusses the expected job cuts in the U.S. Postal Service; in particular, the author reports that approximately 7,500 jobs are going to be eliminated in the near future (Rein unpaged).
To a great extent, this policy is aimed at reducing the administrative costs of the government; nevertheless, the representatives of the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC) argue that these reductions will result in numerous delays in mail delivery (Rein unpaged).
Moreover, according to the finding of PRC, the government will not be able to achieve the expected savings (Rein unpaged). On the whole, this initiative can pose a significant threat to the infrastructure of the country (Rein unpaged).
This article is closely related to the several the concepts discussed in Chapter One of the textbook; in this case, special attention should be paid to government corporations and regulatory commissions that perform different functions and interact with one another; for example, the Postal Service can be a government corporation that serves the needs of the population.
In turn, regulatory commissions like the PRC are supposed to control and monitor different economic relations within the country. The situation described by Lisa Rein illustrates the conflict between these agencies of the government.
Chapter Two Another important event that should be discussed is the intention of the U.S. Supreme Court to review the federal policies regarding same-sex marriage; this issue is closely examined in the article by Adam Liptak. According to the author, the U.S. Supreme Court may review and even reject the legal definition of marriage as a union of a man and a woman; the judges may exclude the notion of gender from this definition (Liptak unpaged).
Adam Liptak emphasizes the idea that nowadays the decisions regarding the status of same-sex marriages are taken by the governments of separate states of the country; in contrast, a new definition of marriage can legitimize the wedlock of same-sex couples and the consent of state governments may not be required. These are the main implication of this case, but at this point it is too early to speak the changes in the legislation of the United States, but this legal debate indicates at a dramatic shift in the public opinion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This event is linked to one of the concepts mentioned in the Chapter Two of the textbook, namely the division of the government into three branches. They have to perform different tasks such as the development of laws, the enforcement of these legal acts and their interpretation. The actions of the Supreme Court indicate that judicial and legislative branches of the government can interact with one another in effort to change the laws of the country.
Chapter Three The recent presidential campaign and the struggle between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney have attracted much attention of the press; in his article, Sean Sullivan examines the disagreement between these politicians regarding such an issue as the redistribution of wealth (Sullivan unpaged). In particular, Sean Sullivan refers to the words of Barack Obama who said that the government should ensure every citizen of the United States should have equal opportunities (Sullivan unpaged).
In part, this goal can be achieved through the redistribution of wealth (Sullivan unpaged). Mitt Romney responded to this argument by saying that such an approach could undermine the core values of the country, for example, the right to property and income (Sullivan unpaged). The events described by the author are closely tied to the ideas explored in our readings, for example, the classic and modern dilemmas of the government discussed in the Chapter Three.
The redistribution of wealth is related to the modern dilemma, namely the need to promote equality in the society and the need to ensure the individual freedom of citizens. Barack Obama and Mitt Romney represent two different to the solution of this dilemma; Obama places emphasis on equality while, Romney stresses the individual freedom of citizen and their right to property (Sullivan unpaged). Therefore, the concepts discussed in the readings have significant implications for modern-day politics.
Chapter Four The article written by Phillip Rucker describes the attempts of the Republican Party to reduce the role of the trade unions in Michigan (Rucker unpaged). In particular, the author focuses on the so-called right-to-work laws according to which employees are not obliged to join the union and pay any fees to these organizations (Rucker unpaged).
One can say that this legislation can almost entirely exclude trade unions from the negotiations between workers and private businesses; overall, this change is more likely to benefit the employers who can dictate their terms to employees (Rucker unpaged). The critics of right-to-work laws believe that these legal changes can undermine the rights of workers; more importantly, this policy can deprive the Republican Party of its influence in Michigan for a very long time (Rucker unpaged).
This article is closely related to the issues covered in the textbook; in this case, special attention should be paid to the role of interest groups that can attract the attention of policy-makers to certain problems or issues and promote legal specific changes. The situation described in the article illustrates the conflict between several interests groups, namely the employers and trade unions; in this case, they have very different goals and priorities that do not coincide with one another.
We will write a custom Essay on The Job Cuts in the U.S. Postal Service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chapter Five In his article, Sean Sullivan discusses the recent disagreement between Democrats and Republicans; in particular, the politicians debate such issues as spending cuts and tax increases (Entitlement debate, unpaged). According to the author, the Republicans oppose to the increased taxes for the wealthiest citizens of the United States; in contrast, Democrats believe that this policy is necessary to fund governmental programs such as Medicare (Entitlement debate, unpaged).
In the opinion of the Republican politicians, such strategies are more likely to harm middle-class people, rather than benefit them (Entitlement debate, unpaged). In turn, Democrats believe that this strategy is not likely to reduce the income of many residents. On the whole, this debate is closely tied to the questions discussed in Chapter 5, for example, such concepts as pluralism and majoritarianism. This disagreement illustrates the principles of pluralism that stresses the needs of different groups.
It seems that pluralism ensures that the needs of particular groups are not disregarded by policy-makers who should remember that their decisions can have far-reaching implications for a great number of people. In contrast, majoritarianism in the Congress can result in the situation when there is no debate or discussion among legislators. This is one the main dangers that politician should avoid when discussing legal or social problems.
Works Cited Liptak, A. “Justices to Hear Two Challenges on Gay Marriage.” The New York Times, 2012. Web.
Rein, L. “U. S. Postal Service announces sweeping job cuts, district office closures.” The Washington Post, 2011. Web.
Rucker, P. “In Michigan, heart of organized labor, Republicans push to limit union power.” The Washington Post, 2012. Web.
Sullivan, S. ‘Romney draws attention to Obama ‘redistribution’ remark from 1998.’ The Washington Post, 2012. Web.
—-. ‘Entitlement debate sparks disagreement along party lines.’ The Washington Post. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Job Cuts in the U.S. Postal Service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Constitution of the US : Issues and Amendments Essay essay help
The constitution of the US is the absolute law of the nation, which acts as a guide to the political culture of the Americans and the law. They are many issues that have been addressed in the constitution of the US, some have been amended a number of times to fit the needs of the society.
Abortion is a good example of an issue that has been addressed in the constitution; it has also been amended a number of times. Under the constitution, the president has a number of privileges, which will be discussed in this paper. The constitution plays a significant role of creating a balance on most pressing issues and making sure that America remains a democratic state.
President’s enumerated powers. In the US, the president has special powers, which have been formalized. The authorities of any president of the US are carefully limited and have been well outlined in the constitution of the US. The president has the power to appoint executives, federal juries, and American ambassadors among other officers of the government.
This power is also referred as the enumerated power of a president. Using the enumerated powers, the president of the US can negotiate treaties with other governments and can even recognize ambassadors from other countries. He or she can also veto bills that are passed in the assembly. As such, the enumerated powers are special authorities, which are exercised by a sitting president and are well-outlined in the constitution.
Special powers available to the president: The American president has several powers: these powers include those that are granted by the constitution, by the Acts of Congress, and other soft powers given to the President as the leader of the nation.
Emergency powers. Emergency powers are categorized into two groups. The two groups of powers are (a) a special power to act during the time of crisis, which is fully based on the president’s decision and (b) the special power to act according to the constitution or formal laws when an emergency has been announced in the nation.
Executive powers. In the executive branch, the president has been allowed by the constitution to manage a wide range of national affairs. Therefore, the president issues rules and instructions, which have a certain force although they never require approval by the congress. An excellent example of executive powers of a president in the US is using the veto on a certain bill that the he (president) does not approve.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Inherent powers. In the constitution, there are certain statements that can allow the president to have power. A statement like ….the executive power shall be vested in a president…. allows a national leader to practice some form of authority. Regulating immigration, acquiring a territory, and ordering deportation of some individuals are examples of inherent powers by the US president.
Is exercise of these powers a positive or negative influence? The president of the US exercises enumerated powers for the good of the citizens and the nation at large. During an emergency, for instance, there is a need to make quick decisions in order to address the situation. However, the congress can take long to make, and implement such decisions and it is, therefore, a positive aspect that the president should make decisions during such critical moments.
Does the president have too much power? In the recent times, the citizens of the US (some of them) feel that the president has become too powerful. Some people argue that the president has so much power that the democratic system is under threat. However, this is not entirely true.
The powers of any American president are set by the constitution and, therefore, the president cannot exercise his powers outside what has been allowed by the constitution. The constitution also prevents the president from using his privileges wrongly. This means that the president cannot breach the rights of the constitution and those of the American citizens. The president does not have too much power.
Differences between judicial activism and judicial restraint: The judicial activism and judicial restraints are antagonistic; the two terms are quite different from each other (. They are both relevant in the US as they relate to the American judicial system. These two are very significant in checking and controlling the powers of the government; they help check fraudulence.
The term judicial activism refers to how the constitution is interpreted in order to campaign for certain values and conditions in a nation. On the other hand, the term judicial restraint refers to the act of limiting the powers of federal judges so that they cannot strike down certain laws in national affairs. In issues of judicial activism, the federal juries are supposed to utilize their powers to correct injustices in the social system only when the other constitutional bodies are in-active.
Therefore, the judicial activism plays a significant role in creating and developing social policies on matters of political injustice, civil liberties and public morality. On the other hand, in the judicial restraint, the court allows the congress and state legislatures to continue with their duties, but can hold them back if they are violating the laws and constitution of the US.
We will write a custom Essay on The Constitution of the US : Issues and Amendments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The judicial restraint and judicial activism are also different in that they have different objectives. The judicial restraint creates a balance in the judicial, executive, and legislative issues while the judicial activism give powers to all arms of the government to overrule certain acts in the constitution.
Weakness and strengths of judicial activism. Some of the key benefits of judicial activism are: (a) to promote democracy by following what is only outlined in the constitution, (b) the judicial activism allows judges to stand firm on certain decisions because the constitution obligates them to do so, and lastly, (c) the judicial activism allows courts to supervise and implement laws, which is part of the democracy. The weakness of the activism is that its reliability is questionable and, therefore, it should be analyzed.
Weakness and strengths of judicial restraints. One of the benefits of judicial restraints is that it allows judges to exercise their authority; this is a form of democracy. This particular right allows the juries to defend the constitution as much as possible. It also allows federal judges to decline to make a ruling on some of the controversial matters. This, however, is usually considered a violation of the constitution, which is a major weakness of the judicial restraint.
The preferred method. The preferred method is judicial activism because it promotes democracy and allows the judges to make and implement decisions as well as standing firm on their rulings.
History of abortion law and its current status in America. Abortion is very common in the society, and it is estimated that almost half the population of American women have at one time terminated a pregnancy voluntarily. History about abortion reveals that during the 1800s, abortion was legal in the US, but towards the end of the 19th century, the abortion act was amended and abortion was criminalized by the constitution.
The constitution banned all forms abortions after the fourth month of pregnancy. Regardless, the number of illegal abortions was relatively high but when the Comstock law was implemented, the number of illegal abortions declined at an alarming rate. During this period, some feminists (including Susan Antony) were strongly against abortion and their work helped in the war against abortion.
In the year 1965, the US banned all forms of abortion but this ban varied from one to state to another. Even though, abortion was only allowed under specific conditions which include (a) to save the mother’s life, (b) in case the pregnancy was as a result of rape, (c) if the fetus had some complications or abnormalities like deformity.
In the year 1973, the Supreme Court said that all the laws on abortion were unconstitutional and it, therefore, allowed abortion within the first three months. Some celebrated this ruling while others including the Catholic Church opposed it. This led to wars and bombing of clinics that exercised abortion. Today, the conflict about abortion revolves around over termination of fetus at the late stages of pregnancy. Supporters argue that such an abortion is good because it saves the mother’s life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Constitution of the US : Issues and Amendments by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, opponents argue that in a majority of the abortions, the fetus can be saved and people only abort as an excuse that the health of the mother is at risk. Presently, abortion is legal in more than fifty states in the US. The issue of mother’s health, which allows the mother to abort even at the late stages of a pregnancy, is a broad one, and it does not have a single answer. As a result, there is no particular reason why a mother cannot abort.
Do you agree with the present status of abortion law? The issue of abortion has brought controversy in the US today. Abortion has become a critical issue in the society with many abortions been done every day. I feel that some people abort voluntarily although they argue that the health of the mother is at risk. This continues to victimize innocent and vulnerable fetus, and the law does not protect them. Therefore, there is a need define and to develop new laws regarding abortion. I do not agree with the current law on abortion.
Conclusion The president of the US has some form of special powers, which allow him to make important decisions during critical moments. The special powers of a president are granted by the constitution, by the Acts of Congress, and other soft powers. Such decisions are applicable during times of emergency.
The term judicial activism refers to how the constitution is interpreted in order to advocate for certain values and conditions (in the US) while judicial restraint refers to the act of limiting the power of federal judges so that they cannot strike down certain laws, which are outlined by the constitution. The major benefit of these two is that they promote democracy in the US.
The issue of abortion has been (and still is) a burning issue in the society today. Presently, in more than fifty states abortion is allowed by the constitution. There is a need to develop laws regarding abortion to avoid the controversy surrounding this topic.
The collapse of the twin towers Essay best essay help
The debate concerning the collapse of the twin towers (The World Trade Center) in the United States of America, has raged on from the advent of the attacks by terrorists. There has been a lot of speculation concerning the collapse, and several experts have carried out, and are continuing with investigations on the actual cause of the collapse of the towers.
This is because they need to understand what happened in a bid to counter any future attacks on gargantuan buildings. Most reports have so far indicated that the main cause of the collapse of the buildings, were the fires that erupted following the explosion, upon impact of the airplanes.
This seems to be the consensus among most of the experts as they strive to offer a logical explanation as to why the buildings collapsed. The reports indicated that it took quite some time for the buildings to crumble (Griffin 113). According to expert opinion, the jet fuel that was on board the aircrafts fueled the fires that started upon the collision. It is common knowledge that jet fuel burns at extreme temperatures.
It is highly flammable and this, together with office furniture and other bits and pieces like carpets and stationery in the building, lit up flames that were estimated to reach temperatures of 2000° Fahrenheit. These temperatures were so high that they able to soften the metal frames that had been used to set up the columns that held the building together.
The trusses were also a main part of the core of the building, in that they held the columns together. Upon impact, the flames erupted weakening the entire structure although the building actually withstood the initial impact. Another aspect that was also brought forth was the fact that the steel that had been used had been fireproofed with fire resistant foam of the highest quality.
Upon impact, the debris and shock loosened and blew away the protective fireproof foam from the steel columns. This left the steel exposed to the flames, which weakened them to the point where they could no longer sustain the weight of the building. The subsequent result was the collapse of the building after the trusses together with the columns gave in to the weight due to the weakening of the steel columns.
The fact that the buildings stood for almost one hour in an upright position enabling many people make a clean get away ought to be considered when making observations regarding the fall of the twin towers. This is because there have been some arguments from various quarters that have stated that the quality of the workmanship was wanting and quite questionable. There has been speculation that there was plenty of cutting corners in a bid to make great savings at the expense of people’s lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These arguments hold no water since the design of the building was hardly compromised, and it was only an act such as the one that took place, which could have caused such damage. Conversely, there are also indications that such an impact had been put into consideration at the time of construction. However, it is prudent to note that the biggest plane at the time the building was being constructed was the Boeing 707, while the ones used to crash into the buildings were the much larger Boeing 767 models.
Works Cited Griffin, David. Mysterious Collapse of World Trade Center 7: Why the Final Official Report about 9/11 Is Unscientific and False, Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Books, 2009. Print.
Expanding Holy Refinery Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction The proposed new power plant by Holy refinery within the City of Bountiful has elicited opposition from the locals and the city council. Reflectively, the Utah medical fraternity has estimated that the proposed plant will cause more than 20 deaths annually. Besides, the local have issues with environmental pollution from air, water, visibility to noise. Since the proposed refinery will use dirty petroleum fuel to propel its pumps, the local are uncomfortable with the proposal due to fear of air pollution.
Despite the fact that Petroleum fluids have become the backbone of modern economics and industrial development in Utah, the above issues have created real concerns. Crude oil and natural gases are environmentally friendly in their natural state. However, they are rarely used in their natural state. This makes it mandatory for the natural gas and crude oil to go through a refining and gas processing.
Emissions from the refining process contain products from the natural petroleum that are contaminated with synthetic chemicals making the total emissions harmful to the environment. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly discuss the environmental and health consequences of locating the proposed oil refinery near the human settlement of Utah. Besides, the treatise identifies solutions to the identified issues and presents a comprehensive plan to revise them.
Problems of refining oil near Utah City Effects on the environment
The sanitization of crude oil and processing of natural gas involves use of artificial chemicals and catalysts such as lead, chromium, glycol, amines among others. These synthetic chemicals contaminate the end products and are burnt along with the fuels to produce numerous lethal by-products in gaseous, liquid or solid forms.
The emission of such air pollutant that did not exist in nature causes environmental effects than can permanently dent the global ecosystem (Islam, Chhetri
Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Rise and Development of Nationalism in China and Japan
Introduction Nationalism means the identities that people have, which they view as distinguishing them uniquely as belonging to a particular nation. Thus, it covers one of the forms of patriotism. Several theories can be employed to provide an explanation of the origin of nationalism. The main ones are modernism and primordialist views.
Modernism theory considers nationalism as a recent societal process, which demands societal structuring for it to develop. On the other hand, the primordialist “describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary behavior of humans to organize themselves into distinct groupings based on the affinity of birth” (Tamir 13).
The paper uses the primordialist view. Based on the theory, nationalism may develop based on cultural artifacts defining people living within a given nation and political-related experiences in a nation among other things. From this point of view, this paper discuses the rise and development of nationalism in East Asia based on historic political related experiences and cultural elements including religion and clothing. Japan and china are used as the main examples in this quest.
Rise and Development of Nationalism in China and Japan Cultural elements may act as mechanisms that can help to instill the perception of nationalism among people living within a common geographical area. Theses artifacts may be depicted through clothing, language, and religion.
With the onset of westernization, Chinese people encountered a dilemma whether to abandon their own clothing styles that defined their heritage and hence a sense of belonging as Chinese nationals or to adopt the rising western styles of dressing. This dilemma motivates Finnane to wonder what Chinese women deserve to wear for them to retain the symbol of nationalism (99).
Given the history of China that is rich in customs, the question is significant since resistance to the degradation of nationalism depicted by dressing style was evident as from 1949 when Mao Zedong declined from wearing black leather shoes and a suit. According to Finnane, the head of state argued, “we Chinese have our own customs…why should we follow others” (99).
This resistance was a replication of over half decade debates questioning the capacity of the western influences to impair the dressing codes of the Chinese people. Over that period, alterations of style were incredibly controversial. They attracted hefty public debates particularly when they involved the question of the women dress. The main interrogatives were whether the women dresses need to be long or short, tight or loose, or cover the arms for them to depict Chinese national women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the reign of Mao, the question on what Chinese people wore attracted superficial analysis. However, dressing styles and the type of clothes that were won by Chinese people acted as wonderful mechanisms of differentiating between China and the rest of the nations in the world.
In this line of thought, Finnane reinforces, “For politically correct Chinese people, clothing at that time differentiated the socialist elect from the rest…for outsiders, it was the single most obvious feature about contemporary Chinese culture” (100). Clothes were depictive of Chinese culture and hence a symbol of Chinese people.
Even though much of the concerns about the alteration of the dressing to have the capacity to erode the culture of the Chinese people concerned what women wore in the ninetieth century, the link between nationalism and the clothing was not only a problem of women: men were also equally worried. This argument is strengthened by the Mao Zedong’s rejection to wear a suit associated with the western culture.
Outside the Chinese context, clothing remains an important symbol of nationalism in other nations in the East Asia. For instance, in India, cladding in ‘sari’ represents a sovereign Indian woman because “the fertile ground for production of future generations both past and future-were embodied in her,” (Finnane 102).
On the other hand, in Japan, a woman dressed in ‘kimono’ profiles an ideal sovereign Japanese woman. From these examples, it sounds essential to infer that the perception of nationalism among people cannot be segregated from the cladding codes acceptable as representing the true national of a given nation because cultural artifacts are depictive of cultural differences among people who are often confined within different national boundaries.
Apart from the rise and development of nationalism from the context of dressing style, religion is yet another crucial cultural artifact that may help to build the perception of nationalism among different people living in different nations. For instance, in Japan, subscription to Shinto is perhaps an essential way of portraying ones strongly grounded spirit of nationalism.
Shinto assumed its shape upon the arrival of Buddhism. This was vital in helping to differentiate the new religion to the indigenous religion in Japan that was the representation of the ‘Japanese’.
We will write a custom Essay on Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Okuyama strengthens this point by further asserting, “Some 100,000 shrines of jinja served by Shinto priests attest to its physical presence nationwide” (94). Shinto defines the religious practices of the indigenous native Japanese to mean ‘the ways of ‘kami’ as opposed to ‘the ways of Buddha’.
Therefore, since the introduction of Buddhism in the 16th century, Shinto practices became definitive of the true Japanese nationalism. However, it is also crucial to note that Japanese people consider traditional customs as defining nationalism in spite of “whether they are Shinto or not” (Okuyama 97). The question that emerges is- to what extent do Japanese people perceive Shinto as a true representation of nationalism?
The response to the above question is perhaps well answered by considering the significance of Shinto shrines among all citizens of Japan including the nobles. In this regard, Okuyama reckons, “since he became the prime minister, Koizumi Jun’ichiro visited Yasukuni Shrine four times: 13 August 2001, 21 April 2002, 14 January 2003, and 1 January 2004” (106).
Nevertheless, even though this may be anticipated to be acceptable within the understanding of the traditional customs of Japanese people, the visits attracted opposition. Consequently, about seven lawsuits ensued as a result.
Nevertheless, Koizumi remained confident that the visits were necessary for a number of reasons. In the first place, the shrines served to portray his nationalism since they formed the places where he renewed vows never to take part in wars. Secondly, “he visited Yasukuni shrines to express relevance and gratitude to all the war dead despite the fact that these include class A war criminal” (Okuyama 106).
Arguably, from this cited reason of why Koizumi visited the shrine, it is questionable whether the shines are the best places to show ones patriotism. However, it is evident that Japanese people have a strong prescription to traditional religious beliefs as the main ways of portraying sincerity in ones commitments to the Japanese people and the nation as a whole.
The analysis of Shintoism as one of the theories of development of nationalism in Japan cannot be accomplished without considering the philosophers’ attempts to ensure the national beliefs were revived and purified.
The idea was to enhance the removal of all foreign ideas that were imported from various nations including China and India. The Shintoism restoration movement began in the 18th century with Motoori Noringa playing proactive roles. This campaign gave rise to the state Shinto with the emperor of Japan then claiming to be of Amaterasu decently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A certain representation that tends to link people together creates the spirit of nationalism. According to Wang, the identification may include “China’s neo-neo-tribe and “Japanese shin shin jinrei” (547).
To Wang, such a representation can be used to secure a market for a particular product because it has high likelihoods of securing an immense success when a product is marketed based on its capacity to create a sense of nationalism. For instance, Wang argues that the term bobo has the impact of bringing Chinese people together by creating messages of premium value (535). What this argument means is that the spirit of nationalism can also be build by the products produced by nations.
Therefore, consumption of such products helps to depict that one is truly a patriot of a given nation. Using the Wang’s analogy, the term bobo is related to being a Chinese and belonging to a bobo class. Subsequently, when a product is sold bearing the tag that it is principally made for the bobos, it means that buying this product will not only mean fitting into the bobo class. Besides, it will also depict one as a sovereign citizen of the nation where the bobos live!
From a different dimension, nationalism may be built based on the experiences that people go through as a nation. Recollection of such experiences helps to remind one of the history encountered, which is definitive of why one is a nationalist of a given nation. This kind of nationalism is perhaps well exemplified by Japan through her Hiroshima trauma.
Painful experiences are crucial reflections of what it takes to be a nationalist since they provide links between different cultures (Caruth 3). Therefore, while Japan may be segregated based on different cultural affiliations, the Hiroshima experiences make Japanese people develop a sense of nationalism, which is critical in helping the nation to employ all strategies possible to ensure that such an experience would never reoccur.
Therefore, the Hiroshima experience is one unifying experience that ensures all Japanese are united together amid their demographic differences (Wood 191). Arguably, this is crucial since nationalism is hard to thrive in an environment that is ruled by segregations.
Conclusion Therefore, based on the expositions made in the paper, it is enough to declare nationalism a representation of people’s identities. The identities help in building the spirit of patriotism. Cultural elements show people’s identities and political experiences especially the ones that culminated into painful experiences.
In this paper, nationalism has been explored through consideration of clothing as one of the ways of presentation of people’s cultural artifacts in the Chinese and Japanese contexts. The Hiroshima experience has also been considered as an example of painful experiences that has helped to shape the Japanese view of nationalism.
Works Cited Caruth, Cathy. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative and History, Baltimore: Johnhopkins University press, 1996. Print.
Finnane, Antonia. “What Should Chinese Women Wear?” Modern China 22.2(1996): 99-131. Print.
Okuyama, Michiaki. Historicizing Modern Shinto: A New Tradition of Yasukuni Shrine. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.
Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Print.
Wang, Jing. “Bourgeois Bohemians in China? Neo-Tribes and the Urban Imaginary.” The China Quarterly 183.3(2005): 532-548. Print.
Wood, Nancy. Vectors of Memory: Legacies of Trauma in Postwar Europe. New Jersey, NJ: Berg Publishers, 1999. Print.
Multiculturalism in the USA Essay essay help: essay help
Multiculturalism in the USA is one of the main issues for the country as being inhabited by people from different ethnical groups it faces a number of difficulties. One of the main problem the USA faces is cultural assimilation. The USA seems not to have personal culture as the number of immigrants who have come to the country has affected the cultural destinations of the Native Americans and now it seems that the whole culture of the USA is a combination of different cultures which exist in the society.
There are many immigrants who have come to the USA and who have almost become native inhabitants of the country. Still, there are Americans who are considered as Native ones, and there are other ethnical groups who inhabit the country, Hispanic Americans, Mexican Americans, African American, Asian Americans and several groups which appeared recently as one more ethnical group in the USA. Hispanic Americans group is the most varied one as it comprises a number of ethnic groups.
Speaking about Hispanic Americans, it should be stated that this ethnic groups stands between Euro-Americans and African Americans, however, the social status of them is not too high than African Americans’ one. Being socially and economically unprotected in the USA, Hispanic Americans do not strive for better lives. Having escaped for a number of countries, from hunger and violence, many Hispanic Americans lead poor lives in the USA, however, they are sure that such life is much better than the life in their countries.
Hispanic American population is divided into the groups, Mexican Americans (67%), Puerto Rican Americans (9%), Cuban Americans (4%), Dominican Americans (2%), Central American Hispanics (7%), South American Hispanics (5%) and other Hispanic groups in the USA (8%). Depending on the specific belonging, Hispanic Americans live in different regions of the USA. Of course, it is possible to meet Mexican Americans all over the USA, however, their greatest concentration is in Los Angeles.
Considering the reasons why these people came to the USA, the first and the greatest wave of legal and illegal immigration of Hispanic Americans was because of the war regime in the countries of their origin. Various revolutions and civil wars made people run away from their countries.
Search for better education and job were other reasons for coming to a strange country. However, the life of Hispanic Americans in the USA is not that easy as it may seem. Even though the USA successfully fights with the remnants of discrimination, there are many prejudices in relation to Hispanic population. Unfortunately, those Hispanic Americans who have darker skin experience more ethnic discrimination than those whose skin in whiter. Poor Hispanic Americans are unable to achieve high success due to their social status.
As for me, all people are born equal and no one can treat them in accordance to their origin. However, I can understand Americans who live in the country and who consider it their homes that the more immigrants come of the USA and become its citizens, the less cultural peculiarities America has.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Looking at the USA it is impossible to state which nation predominates as according to its history and the waves of immigration, many foreigners have come to the place and they consider the country their native home. Thus, the cultures have mixed that created additional reasons to worry for Native Americans who begin to lose their country.
Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Machiavelli and Aristotle’s perceptions towards virtue endure until today. The differences in their perceptions towards politics allowed the two to come up with diverse dimensions of ethics and virtues as well as their role in politics. Aristotle comes up with a clear distinction between personal virtue and civic virtue and has the conviction that the two are autonomous. Hence, “it is evident that the good citizen need not of necessity possess the virtue which makes a good man” (Aristotle “Politics” 54).
According to Aristotle, civic virtue is critical to politics and it facilitates in promoting national harmony. On the other hand, Machiavelli takes a different position with respect to ethics and virtue. Unlike Aristotle, Machiavelli does not find virtue to be of great significance. Machiavelli posits, “Therefore, if a prince wants to maintain his rule, he must be prepared not to be virtuous and to make use of this or not according to need” (65).
Machiavelli vs. Aristotle According to Machiavelli, “if one considers everything well, one will find something appears to be virtue, which if pursued would be one’s ruin, and something else appears to be vice, which if pursued results in one’s security and well-being” (62). Machiavelli uses an empirical approach to explain what entails virtue. He posits that an individual might have limited cognitive abilities and thus can fail to fathom why something is erroneous.
On the other hand, things that were once considered virtuous can turn out to be erroneous. In a way, Machiavelli is referring to both authority and self-examination. At times, people fail to acknowledge virtue not due to flaws in their perception, but because they may have been wrongly instructed. Consequently, Machiavelli believes that when deciding on what is virtuous, people should not consider only what is ethically right or abide by custom authorities.
Machiavelli comes up with a utilitarian understanding of virtue. He claims, “For something to be a virtue in the moral sense, it cannot seriously compromise our worldly well-being” (Machiavelli 69). In this way, he restricts the scope that moral virtue can cover. One wonders if he accords any significance to moral virtue.
Machiavelli considers those leaders that are capable of transforming the world to meet their needs to be virtuous. In addition, he perceives outstanding political skills as virtuous. One of the limitations of Machiavelli’s idea about virtue is that he does not show what virtue really comprises and how one can cultivate it.
Both Aristotle and Machiavelli believed that no virtue could come out of ignorance. Machiavelli posits that when one reflects on everything well, s/he can identify what is virtuous (Machiavelli 62). Hence, one engages in virtuous acts after a thorough deliberation and no one partakes in the acts unconsciously.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Aristotle claims that virtues are temperaments for choice. He holds the conviction that for one to act from virtue, he or she has to determine if his or her undertakings are ethically correct. For one’s intentions to reflect virtue, s/he must proceed with complete awareness of the state of affairs. One cannot proceed out of ignorance. Aristotle asserts that only the premeditated or deliberate actions can be accorded praise.
According to Aristotle, virtue trait is neither defective nor excessive (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 41). He claims that virtue trait does not yield either defective or excessive feelings or actions. Hence, individuals ought to feel and act in line with the mean. Nevertheless, Aristotle posits that it is hard to come up with a definite formula for determining the mean.
In its place, virtuous people should depend on morally sensitive views to understand where virtue lies (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 51). The virtuous people identify and react to the morally significant elements available in varied contexts and modify their intentions and actions accordingly. John McDowell buys to this Aristotelian idea of virtue when he claims that virtue comprises perceptual sensitivity to the ethically pertinent qualities of one’s plight, which is a form of perceptual skill.
Aristotle refutes the claim that virtue depends on nature (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 56). He is against the claim that a person may be born with virtue.
For Aristotle, nature subjects people to embrace virtue. Even though habit facilitates in the establishment of virtues, Aristotle holds that a virtue does not comprise a habit. He states that for an individual to nurture a certain virtue, one ought to partake in activities that resemble the virtue (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 59). Aristotle claims that for a person to develop a sense of justice, s/he should engage in just actions.
The habit of engaging in just actions makes one just. Nevertheless, the habit itself does not make one just. By participating in virtuous actions, an individual is acquainted with what right deeds are like. Once he develops the virtue, he can employ the empirical wisdom to work rightly (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 63). Hence, according to this argument, Aristotle believes that one can acquire virtue, and hence it is not an inherent quality or something given by nature.
Political philosophy Due to their divergent ideas regarding virtue, Aristotle and Machiavelli hold different political philosophies. Machiavelli believes that virtue entails doing what one feels is of great benefit to him or her even though others might suffer from it. He believes in a political system where the leader has absolute powers (Machiavelli 52).
We will write a custom Essay on Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to him, a bad state is one whereby the leader depends on advices from his juniors. Machiavelli believes that for a political system to be stable, one ought to depend on his or her principles and not borrow ideas from other people. He claims that virtues acquired from other people might plunge one to problems when it comes to a point of defending his or her actions (Machiavelli 68).
He claims that it is hard for a leader to maintain power if s/he has not acquired it out of his or her virtue. Machiavelli believes that depending on another person’s fortune or will is disastrous to leaders since such will or fortune is unstable. It becomes hard for a leader to take full control of his or her subjects given that the leader does not develop the art of commanding (Machiavelli 72).
Aristotle holds the belief that political leaders should serve their subjects and not enrich themselves at the subjects’ expense. Based on his perception of virtue, he puts forwards six forms of government.
They include tyranny, oligarchy, monarchy, aristocracy, polity, and democracy (Aristotle “Politics” 58). He compares all the systems of government and castigates the systems that seek to enrich the leader. While democracy bestows power to the public, Aristotle believes that such a government system had adverse effects on the less fortunate in the society.
It promotes insecurity, especially if the poor opt to take to the streets seeking to enrich themselves at the expense of the rich (Aristotle “Politics” 60). Aristotle believes in a political system that promotes sharing of power between the various classes in society. A system of government like polity ensures an even distribution of power among the poor, middle class, and the rich. Hence, the system fosters a peaceful coexistence in the entire society.
Conclusion After analyzing both Aristotle’s and Machiavelli’s ideas, I agree that the two are influential, but in different dimensions. In a bid to identify the correct theorist, I approach the two men from a perspective of an individual that is seeking to determine the most appropriate form of governance suitable for the contemporary world. Aristotle’s views on the objectives of politics, forms of governments, and duties of the public are convincing and they fit well to the contemporary global politics.
On the other side, Machiavelli’s views on the role of ethics and virtue in politics appear to be in line with what is actually happening in the contemporary political environment. Nonetheless, this aspect does not imply that according to me, Machiavelli is the correct theorist. Aristotle is the correct theorist here. Unlike Machiavelli, Aristotle backs all his arguments with real life situations.
Besides, he approaches his arguments from different dimensions and manages to show how one can nurture and practice virtue. On the other hand, Machiavelli fails to back a majority of his arguments with real life situations. Besides, he approaches the idea of virtue from a self-centered approach. Moreover, Machiavelli does not give an account of how one can nurture virtue, thus affecting the credibility of his argument.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concept of Individual Freedom Introduction Rousseau and Mill were political philosophers with interest in understanding what entailed individual freedom. Nevertheless, the two do not share common views regarding individual liberty. Mill perceives individual liberty as freedom of self-control in a mutual context (Mill 11).
He focuses on the development of man’s ethical character through psychological, social, and political liberty. Mill believes that everyone in the society is bound by an equal measure of personal freedom. Hence, the main reason why people come together in the society is to ensure that they do not infringe into others’ liberty.
In addition, Mill has the conviction that the society works to maintain its advancement and prevent its extermination, by giving room for an open personal expression. On the other hand, Rousseau views individual freedom as comprising of a collective body bound by a general will (Rousseau 3). This paper compares Rousseau’s idea of individual freedom with Mill’s idea.
Rousseau vs. Mill According to Mill, a belief is insignificant if it is only approved as a fact without being comprehended by those who embrace it. He elucidates, “There is only too great a tendency in the best beliefs and practices to degenerate into the mechanical…” (Mill13). Mill claims that to curb this issue, a belief should be discussed fearlessly, regularly, and completely.
Otherwise, people will consider it a dead doctrine. Mill claims that for any truth to apply to an individual, one has to use his or her views and judgment in ascertaining the truth. He believes that the veracity of any opinion makes part of its usefulness and no opinion that is against the truth can be of any use. Consequently, Mill believes that for individuals to trust in any opinion, it has to be of significance to them. Moreover, people are different, and thus truth ought to vary from one person to another (Mill13).
Based in these postulations, Mill holds that limiting individual freedom means rendering the entire society inert and inhibiting its progress. Progress comes from allowing individual liberties like personal expression. Allowing individual freedom gives a society a wider range of opinions and ideas to choose from, thus encouraging growth.
Conforming to traditions without understanding their values does not facilitate personal development. Consequently, individual freedom is identical to individual growth. Mill claims that when a person values him or herself, s/he is in a better position to be of significance to others (Mill15). He asserts that through personal development, an individual develops the entire society.
Mill claims that to understand how individual freedom facilitates in social bonding, one ought to understand the interaction between individuals and the state. Mill posits, “The individual is not accountable to society for its actions in so far as these concern the interests of no person but himself” (21). Besides, individual freedom, just like other freedoms, surpasses all other authorities.
Therefore, individuals are allowed an open exercise over them in Mill’s principle. Mill is categorical that the law should not enforce itself, for example on a person acting in a manner criticized by others, since s/he has the ideal liberty to act and bear the cost of his or her actions as long as the actions do not infringe into the freedom of others. The society only takes control of individual freedom if an individual’s actions tend to violate the society’s freedom.
Rousseau views the general will as the foundation of freedom, justice, and order in the society (Rousseau 3). He believes that the general will is superior in the manner that it differentiates the will of individuals. The general will cannot wish or injure itself since it comprises people it affects, and thus all its interests are in congruence with the interests of the people. For Rousseau, general will always comes up with decisions that are beneficial to all (Rousseau 4).
In addition, it derives its generality from the mutual interests that unite people and not from the number of voices. Hence, popular vote can facilitate in making effective determinations. Rousseau claims that in spite of the general will, every person remains independent. Although the “general will” determines what is right, individuals have voluntarily opted to embrace it, thus remaining their own masters.
More particularly, the common dedication amongst all people is such that, “… in fulfilling it … a man cannot work for others without at the same time working for himself” (Rousseau 5). However, it is hard for an individual to detach himself or herself from the general will. This aspect inhibits individualism, as one has to obey the rules of the general will.
The better regime Evaluating the two regimes, one may claim that they both have their benefits and limitations. Although Rousseau’s regime would promote social cohesion as people come together to address common interests, the system would be prone to resistance from its members. In spite of people sharing some common will, they might also have private will that differs with the general will.
In such a case, the regime would encounter stiff opposition as people seek to have space to attend to their private will, which in a way might violate the established general will. Moreover, the dedications that bring people together in Rousseau’s regime are mandatory only since they are communal. It would be hard for one to leave the social body should he or she cease to share mutual interests with others. In such a case, the affected person would not enjoy his or her freedom since s/he would remain in the group unwillingly.
Mill’s regime is better as compared to Rousseau’s regime. The regime not only gives room for personal rights, but also provides the mechanism to safeguard these rights.
Such a regime encourages commitment from the society. In a situation where one is not constrained by anything apart from the effects of his actions on others, it is possible for an individual to pursue his or her personal goals without interference. A regime that calls for people to observe mutual interests not only frustrates individual’s effort to pursue personal goals, but also inhibits innovation.
Every person works towards improving his or her living standards. Consequently, individuals would be willing to go a step further to come up with innovations to help them to pursue their goals. Nevertheless, if people were required to ensure that their innovations are in line with the needs of everyone in the society or a set of regulations agreed upon by the entire society, they would be discouraged from pursuing their goals in fear of violating the established regulations.
Without individuality, it is hard to accomplish individual liberty in society. I would rather be a citizen in Mill’s regime. The fact that this regime promotes individuality makes it possible for individuals in the society to uphold social order. In a bid to pursue personal goals, one has to enjoy personal liberty as well as peace.
In Mill’s regime, people would work hard to preserve their freedom and avoid infringing into the freedom of others. Hence, such a society would coexist in harmony. Mill’s regime would promote individual freedom, order, and justice. In such an environment, it is possible for an individual to make significant steps towards development.
Conclusion Rousseau and Mill present two opposing views about individual liberty. They put forward two regimes that perceive individual liberty in different dimensions. Rousseau’s regime perceives liberty in the form of the general will that brings individuals together to work towards achieving mutual interests.
On the other hand, Mill’s regime perceives individual liberty as independent with every person having a set of personal interests and goals. Mill believes that individual freedom brings people together as they seek to come up with measures to make sure that they do not infringe into the freedom of others. The main limitation of Rousseau’s regime is that it is susceptible to opposition from the members due to conflict of interests.
Moreover, the regime discourages innovation and individual growth as mutual interests bind all members. On the other hand, Mill’s regime has numerous benefits. The regime allows individuals to pursue personal interests as long as the interests do not interfere with the freedom of others. Hence, Mill offers a better regime that can foster not only personal growth, but also societal growth.
Works Cited Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics, London: Penguin Classics, 2004. Print.
Aristotle. The Politics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince, New York: Hackett Pub Co., 1995. Print.
Mill, John. ‘On Liberty’ and Other Writings: Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract, London: Penguin Books, 1968.Print.
Analysis of Marxist Theory Essay best college essay help
According to Marx, primitive accumulation plays an important role in triggering the capitalist relations because it constitutes the starting point of the production mechanism. The point of departure has a historical nature because capitalism is the product of pre-historic development and economic revolutions.
Specific attention should be given to the moment when the production process was separated from the means of production. Hence, when the leading actors, including the high social classes and lower layers offering labor force, entered the free market, even the slight inequalities existing among those groups could be significantly amplified.
As a result, the manufactures depend on the workforce to produce consumer goods whereas laborers were free in choosing the producers to whom they are ready to sell their labor power. The exchange is unfair because the workers make this choice to earn money for living. The service offered by them has become a commodity for the leading employers to offer their specific price.
The historic foundation of the emerging primitive accumulation is explained by the pre-historic existence of the classes that accumulated wealth and the groups who agreed to sell their services for manufacturing goods. Therefore, the workers did not have other choice than propose their own workforce as the commodity which they could sell.
Such a decision points to the emergence of capitalists relations. Such a system of commodity exchange has become the starting pointing in divorcing the manufacturer from the means of producing goods and services. The emerged distribution is also premised on the transformation of social means of production and subsistence into capitalist system.
As Marx states, the main principle of primitive accumulation lies in absence of equality. In particular, the economist elaborates on violent dispossession of the entire social class from taking control over the production means through illegal acts. Such a process, therefore, can be regarded as the victimization of the population that is initiated by the governmental apparatus.
The role of the state in shaping the primitive accumulation is emphasized, although violence was the leading means of controlling the population. In order to explain the nature of the necessary evil practiced by the state, Marx refers to the origins of primitive accumulation taking roots in sixteenth century to examine how this phenomenon was established. In the course of this exploration, the economist finds out that the capitalist structure has developed from the feudalism by dissolution of the constituents of production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gradual displacement of feudal system occurred by means of mutual engagement into developing a new system of commodity exchange. Presenting the human labor as a product that can be purchased has become the trigger of reconsideration of feudalist power, as well as the enslavement of the labor workers. Such a change can also be interpreted as a transition to a new type of servitude. The proposed interpretation differs much from the one introduced by Marx because it ignores the economic strategies of development.
In fact, the labor relations could be accepted as the mutual agreement between two classes entering the free market. Humans possessing labor as the only commodity should be more concerned with selling it to elite class whose wealth is enough to purchase means of production. Therefore, Marx’s explanation of the primitive accumulation seems to be more reasonable because it emphasizes the essence of capitalist system.
Assimilation in American Life Essay essay help: essay help
Assimilation is defined as the process through which different things come together and adapt to each other’s habits, creating completely new habits. (Salins 97). In the human society, it happens when a family or an individual moves to a different location either voluntarily or through unavoidable circumstances and over time they adapt the cultural and social habits of the hosts. Some of the causes of voluntary migration includes education, work, the need to relocate to a different environment among others.
The circumstances which force an individual to relocate on the other hand include war, natural calamities, cultural issue and so on. Assimilation is important to both the hosts and the immigrants since both parties are able to learn a lot from the others in all spheres of life (Chorlton 24). Every culture has something that sets it apart and so the coming together of two or more cultures creates a blend that is neutral and one which is easy to adopt.
James is a citizen of the United States by birth since his parents migrated from Africa before he was born. They came from Kenya specifically which is in the eastern part of Africa. James’ parents migrated to the United States two years before he was born and this was brought about by the scholarship attained by the father in Massachusetts State University.
Since he had already married but without children, relocating with his wife was not such a hustle and it would save his young family from the statistics of families which have broken up due to long distance. James’ father had the option of studying at home but he decided against it since he considered it wise to travel the world and learn other people’s cultures and traditions.
This family arrived in the United States in the year 2005 and settled in Massachusetts where the university is located. From this therefore, it is clear that their choice of state was for convenience since they were not conversant with the country and having to move from one state to another would be hectic and expensive since again they still didn’t have jobs. They arrived as a family of two, husband and wife but later on they bore three children, James being the first born.
For successful assimilation to take place hence ensuring that both parties are comfortable with each other, every member of the family has to play a role (Gordon 64). According to an interview with James, assimilation begins at the point where both the hosts and the immigrants accept and appreciate each other’s presence. This means that the hosts do not develop negative attitudes towards the new presence in the neighborhood and the immigrants do not develop the feeling that they are unwanted.
In most cases, the first reception the immigrants get on arrival determines every other feeling and actions that might occur later on. In his case for the example, the parents were warmly welcomed in the neighborhood they moved into since there were other people from Africa who had already settled there. They were given the best orientation and this made them comfortable in the state from the onset. As a result, both the wife and the husband were able to express themselves with no reservations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This enabled them to pick the culture of the state easily. They were also able to pass over part of their culture to their closest neighbors and to them the time they spent with the neighbors comparing their different cultures was golden. They were also able to understand the rules and regulations of the state within a short time hence were never caught up on the wrong side of the law, a common mishap with most immigrants.
The assimilation strategies that were used by this family were mostly primary and secondary strategies. Primary strategies involved hanging out with the hosts in social places hence being able to develop personal relationships (Early 99).
From these personal relationships, they were able to develop trust with the neighbors and this ensured that they were always given any relevant information especially with regards to matters of security. As a result of this trust, they were not considered as a threat and so people were free to interact with them.
The other strategy that they used was the secondary strategy which is concerned with the relationships created in the workplace and schools as well. On arrival to the United States, James’ parents secured part time jobs so that they could be able to provide for their basic needs. The workplace relationships played a major role in their assimilation process since they were able to interact with people from different professions.
This helped them specifically in choosing their career paths since they were able to know the kind of professions that were on demand in the country. This assimilation can also be attributed to the fact that they were still young and hence more flexible. It is a universal belief that age plays a major role in adaptation to different environments. Elderly people are less likely to pick up new trends as compared to the young age as was the case with James’ parents.
In this family assimilation took place with less effort since each person played their role in accepting the changes. They were however careful not to lose it completely in terms of their culture and beliefs.
They did not fully embrace the American culture but only took what they needed to fit into the community. As for the cultural assimilation, they maintained more of their culture and adopted less of the foreign culture especially in their private lives. In cases such as education where it was inevitable, they were able to embrace it fully (Barth 46).
We will write a custom Essay on Assimilation in American Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In social assimilation, they had to take up the social behavior of the hosts in order to fit into the community. They adopted the living standards of the country which were completely different from what they were used to at home and this forced them to work extra hard so as to catch up.
On marital assimilation, this did not affect them much since they were already married before they migrated, hence not having the need to look for partners in the new country. Both of them were however keen on preserving part of their culture especially where the family order is concerned. Most African families believe that women are supposed to cook and take care of their husbands, a norm that is long forgotten in the western countries.
They therefore decided unanimously to conserve this part of their culture to avoid negative issues in their marriage. The experience this family had in the host country was as a result of the changes that have taken place in the recent past in favor of assimilation. Earlier on, immigrants especially from the less developed countries were not welcomed in most states hence they had a hard time assimilating with the hosts if they ever did.
Works Cited Barth, Kelly. Assimilation. Detroit, Michigan: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Print.
Chorlton, David. Assimilation. Charlotte, NC: Main Street Rag, 2000. Print.
Early, Gerald L. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation. New York, NY: Penguin Press, 1993. Print.
Gordon, Milton M. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1964. Print.
Salins, Peter D. Assimilation, American Style. New York, NY: BasicBooks, 1997. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Assimilation in American Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Belief without Prior Evidence Essay custom essay help
William Clifford’s famous essay The Ethics of Belief is aimed at showing that it is immoral to believe something without sufficient evidence because unjustified opinions can pose a significant threat to others.
In his work, the author demonstrates that in some cases, a person’s conviction can imperil the lives of many people; therefore, one has to ensure his/her decisions are based on facts or reliable observations, rather than wishful thinking (Clifford unpaged). Overall, it is possible to develop an objection to William Clifford’s argument. In particular, there are circumstances when people can derive evidence only when they act on some preliminary and often unsupported beliefs about something.
For example, researchers often try to substantiate a certain theory or conjecture, but their efforts are guided by the assumption that this conjecture can be true. Very often, people’s convictions and opinions lead to the discovery of data that can eventually establish the truth or falsity of these convictions. This paper is aimed at examining this objection to Clifford’s essay in more detail. To a great extent, this critique relies on the ideas of William James who discusses the nature of faith in his lecture The Will to Believe.
First, it should be noted William Clifford formulates his argument in a very concise way; in particular, he says, “it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence” (Clifford unpaged). This is the main claim that he makes in his work.
In order to explain this viewpoint, Clifford describes a situation when a person can convince oneself that something is true without even trying to obtain any evidence (Clifford unpaged). One can remember the famous example of a ship-owner who convinces himself that his ship is safe and takes no effort to determine whether this assumption is true. As a result, he endangers the lives of the sailors (Clifford unpaged).
Certainly, it is possible to accept this example, because it shows that very often an individual can choose to believe that some proposition is true; moreover, he/she does not search for the facts that can verify this proposition. Clifford believes that this behavior is unethical because it can pose a threat to the wellbeing of other people. It seems that this idea should be kept in mind by every person who has to take important decisions.
Nevertheless, the central argument of Clifford’s essay cannot be fully accepted. In some cases, people have act on a certain belief, and only in this way, they can gather empirical evidence substantiating this belief. For instance, in his lecture, William James mentions a chemist who conducts a series of experiments in order to demonstrate that a certain hypothesis is true (James unpaged). Additionally, medical workers have to test a drug on human subjects, even though that they cannot ensure that it is completely safe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can also refer to the empirical studies carried out by physicist who try to demonstrate the validity of their theories or models. In other words, the actions and decisions of these people are based on preliminary and unsupported beliefs. Nevertheless, there is nothing unethical in such behavior; moreover, in some cases, it can lead to scientific discovery. On the whole, such situations are familiar to people who study natural or social sciences.
In his lecture William James argues that researchers often have to act on insufficient evidence and only in this way they can make meaningful discoveries (James unpaged). This is one of the main issues one should bear in mind. William Clifford’s implies that evidence should precede the beliefs or conviction of a person. However, the example provided by William James indicates that this process can be reversed. Therefore, the validity of Clifford’s views can be questioned even by people who conduct empirical studies.
It should be noted that William Clifford might have responded to this objection in order to defend his arguments. In particular, he could have pointed out that many researchers can easily twist facts so that they could fit their theories. Moreover, they may deliberately disregard the evidence that contradicts their hypothesis.
In other words, their studies can become biased, and the validity of their discoveries can be easily undermined. Such a possibility does exist and it creates significant problems for researchers; however, modern scientists take various safeguards to make sure that their research methods are objective and unbiased.
As it has been said before, unsubstantiated conjectures can guide the research efforts of many scientists. This is better for them to have at least unsupported beliefs, than no conjectures at all. Without them researchers may not be able to achieve any progress in their work. This is how one can justify the existence of opinions that are not sufficiently supported by empirical observations. It should be pointed out that very often one cannot gain sufficient evidence.
For example, in mathematics, a statement cannot be called true, even when it is supported by thousands of observations or empirical tests. Therefore, the main task is to find a proof showing that a theorem or conjecture is true in every possible case. This is why mathematician may spend many years in order to prove theorems or conjectures. So, William Clifford’s emphasis on sufficient evidence may not always be justified because it may be difficult to determine when the evidence is sufficient or not.
Secondly, people’s relations with one another are often based on beliefs without sufficient evidence. These beliefs become substantiated only in the course of their day-to-day interactions and experiences. In this case special attention should be paid to the concept of trust or reliance on someone else’s good intentions, expertise, friendship, or loyalty. It implies that people may have confidence in something without having substantial evidence.
We will write a custom Essay on Belief without Prior Evidence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, people can put trust in the competence of medical workers, even knowing that sometimes they can commit errors. Similarly, a person has to rely on the loyalty and integrity of his/her friends, colleagues, or relatives. It is difficult to find something unethical in these actions, in part because they are often inevitable. Very often, these decisions can be based on intuition or impressions produced by other people.
These intuitive opinions may turn to be true or false in the future, but very often people can determine it only through action. So, William Clifford’s approach to beliefs may not be applicable to daily lives of many people whose decisions are based on intuition, rather than empirical data.
Admittedly, one can argue that such behavior can lead to very adverse effects, especially in those cases, when their trust is abused by others. Nevertheless, one cannot say that people always act unethically when they rely on their intuition. Overall, these examples indicate that people can act on unsubstantiated belief and sometimes they can find evidence that support or refute their convictions only in this way. So, this examples show the limitations of Clifford’s ideas.
Certainly, one cannot entirely overlook his argument because he warns people about the dangers of unsupported beliefs and their effects on people. Moreover, his essay clearly highlights the need to search for empirical evidence or at least some confirmation of a person’s opinions.
Nevertheless, he does not take into the possibility that evidence cannot be obtained unless a person acts on certain beliefs or assumptions. In some cases, an individual may have no other options. This is the problem that William Clifford does not address in his essay.
Overall, the nature of belief continues to attract the attention of many philosophers, scientists, and epistemologists who want to. One of the main issues is the need to prove ones convictions by providing logical or empirical evidence.
In his work, William Clifford attempts to demonstrate that it is unethical to have beliefs that rely on insufficient evidence. However, this argument extends only to those situations when people refuse to search for data that can support their conviction and prefer wishful thinking. Such conduct can indeed be criticized from an ethical perspective.
However, very often people have to act on the beliefs that are not fully supported by empirical observations, and only in this way, they can discover the necessary evidence. This is one of the main points that one can make in response to William Clifford’s essay The Ethics of Belief. Still, despite these limitations, the work of this philosopher should be considered by modern scholars.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Belief without Prior Evidence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Clifford, William. The Ethics of Belief. 1 Aug. 2008. Web.
James, William. The Will to Believe. 2 Dec. 2001. Web.
God is responsible for the continuation of evil Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Francisco Suarez: Gods involvement in sinful acts
God’s and Human’s responsibility
Introduction The essay on the problem of evil has been a focus of argument since the sixteenth and the eighteenth century. The argument about the theodicy problem in the early modern philosophy was as a result of the new scientist’s dream. The dream was about a perfect science that could explain everything on the surface of the earth. Philosophers have treated theodicy philosophically by use of ideas to explain the challenge of sin in the present world and theologically to identify, understand and justify sin.
These intriguing questions about God are: Is God able to prevent sin? Is He willing to prevent sin? Is God powerful and good? If God is not able to prevent or unwilling to prevent sin, then He is impotent and malevolent, thus consistent with the existence of sin. If God is all powerful and benevolent, then there should not be a problem with sin (Kremer, 17). In this paper, the focus will be on Hick’s idea that God is responsible for the continuation of sin.
The attributes of God as good and powerful may not be fully understood by human beings. In addition, atheists argue that God’s attributes should be defined based on genuine theodicy showing the consistency in relating God with evil, and not just hypothetical (Kremer, 21).
Francisco Suarez: Gods involvement in sinful acts Suarez argued that God is the cause and answerable to every effect produced by human beings. However, the immorality of sin cannot be traced to God as a source. Suarez classified moral sins into two categories: a sinful act that has a rational good will, but has defects in due perfection with regards to a free action and evil of punishment as lacking due good inflicted as a result of sin. He also implied that some of the sins human suffer are not in any way related to their faith. In faith, all the sins that befall humans are as a result of sin (Kremer, 34).
This is especially the original sin as God’s initial intention when he created man was to keep him free from sin, suffering, and death. Natural sin is traced from the imperfect power that cause them resulting in imperfect effects. These evils are indirectly traceable to God who is the origin. Therefore, evil is not intended by God, but He permits it. On the other hand, other causes of sins can be willed by God as He cannot just be the cause of evil, but also the cause of other kinds of evil (Kremer, 65).
For something to occur, there should be a first cause that is received by a secondary cause resulting in the final completion of the secondary cause by producing certain effects. The occurrence is a manner of principles because the action of the secondary power result in a complete power. Suarez, in his conclusion, stated that God concurs with human actions since He freely offers occurrences.
He emphasized that, for human beings not to sin, they must have the ability to be self determiners with God’s concurrence, which is not the case. In addition, he agreed with the Catholic doctrine that God is the provider of the world. Therefore, every action affected in the world is either knowingly intended by God or knowingly permitted by God (Kremer, 79).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many writers deny the the perfectness of God in moral goodness, but Christian writers have not denied good as omnipotent. An early religion that was rival to Christianity believed that God did not have the power that could stop bad from occurring.
In fact, they considered both good and bad powers equally strong. Many theologians in the past have talked vaguely concerning the weakness of God in relation to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Nonetheless, it is not clear if they thought God could not prevent Christ’s crucifixion (Kremer, 81).
Some Christian theologians have claimed that God allows evil to occur for the purpose of good. The followers of Christian traditions are worried about moral sin than natural evil. In the Christian history, natural evil was seen to be inevitable. In this case, humans were seen as immoral and embodied as many things could harm them. Augustine pointed out that natural suffering could be intended for the good purpose if the choices were made for the good purposes (Kremer, 92).
God’s and Human’s responsibility God did not ignore human responsibility for having the sovereign responsibility over his creation. Christ freed sinners from captivity even though believers still battle with the devil and the struggle against own sinful desires. Human beings do not have the power to overcome the sinful desires without the help of the holy spirit. It is a mystery that sin continues in the lives of humans after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, and can only be taken out by daily repentance.
Christian considers moral evil in relation to human freedom and responsibility that involves right or wrong. Some philosophers argue that God should have created human beings who do not sin. In the same breath, He would have created people who are genuinely free and guaranteed to act rightly. This argument has caused contradiction that God made humans as genuinely independent in relation to Him (Cheetham 72).
Another contradicting argument is that God gave human freedom in relation to Him. Hick explained that this is not a genuine freedom: that a person is shaped by God and the same applies to the nature of his or her actions. Hick also argued that humans have no ability to explain a free act.
Therefore, the mystery of human freedom would always relate in understanding the origin of evil. Suffering as a result of sin draws a connection between freedom and moral evil (Cheetham 91). In this case, the moral incompetence of humans causes them a great deal of suffering.
We will write a custom Essay on God is responsible for the continuation of evil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some pain and suffering that man undergoes through as a result of sin. In some cases, the suffering is not necessarily as a result of sin or rather due to the structure of the earth. In such cases, the theodicy follows a negative path hence does not support the argument that human suffering is for the divine good purpose. God had an intention to create a perfect world for a perfect and a completely created human being.
The world is full of hardship that Hick considered not to have been made by a perfectly benevolent and powerful God. According to Christians, the world was intended to be a comfortable place for the inhabitants without pain and suffering. However, it is seen as a “soul making” place of suffering to enable human become heirs of internal life (Cheetham 93).
The nature of sin, as advocated for by Hick, makes it necessary for human beings have a reason for committing sin. This seems to conflict with the nature of sin because it makes it hard to explain. For instance, when a person makes a wrong deed, the individual usually has a choice not to do so.
The fact that a person might go ahead and do it means that there is some motivation involved. Whatever action one takes, it always serves to satisfy a certain desire. Those opposing the claims of the soul-making project make the nature of sin seem inexplicable and irrational. In response to this, Hick questioned why God created creatures acting in an unreasonable and inexplicable way. If one tries to answer this question, one can end up attributing the origin of sin to God (Cheetham 97).
Conclusion Some Christian atheists considered the death of Jesus as one of the worst thing that had ever happened out of the bad. The initial intention of God for sending his beloved son to the earth was to save the human race. The question is about why did the blood of Jesus fail to restore the relationship between man and God back to where it was before man sinned.
This could have meant that the salvation through the blood of Jesus was perfect. Some of these questions may not be understood by man. In a way, I agree that the continuation of sin is God’s will as He has power over every creation. Thus, only God can stop the occurrence of sin. God is good and powerful. Thus, whether He allows sin to continue or not, His intentions are always good as it was in the beginning of creation.
Works Cited Cheetham, David. John Hick: A Critical Introduction and Reflection. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Print.
Kremer, Elmar J. The Problem of Evil in Early Modern Philosophy. Toronto [u.a.: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2001. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on God is responsible for the continuation of evil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Company profile Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and industry is known to provide services aimed at economic development. This is done through promotion of new ventures such as Luzerne county area which harbors Pepperjam.com. The organization forms members of community’s economic development service capable of serving community with business opportunities based on partnerships.
The company assists in improving community’s quality of life through strategic planning, programs as well as investments. Greater-Wilkes-Barre works on range of projects starting from business and job creation programs. They also indulge in downtown revitalization, entrepreneurial as well as employee empowerment programs (Camardella 103-107).
Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business believes that the key to success is based on balancing stakeholders’ interests through empowerment of community and employees. The company is focused on delivery of quality services capable of sustaining community in the long-run.
This also encourages as well as acts as reminder to employees on their roles of providing satisfactory services to stakeholders. Such focus has since made Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber to become world leader in supply and delivery of business oriented services. The basis is not only in satisfying customers but in meeting their expectations by providing professional services.
Benefits of the internship The company is involved in Social entrepreneurship which caters for business activities characterized by numerous charitable activities. This kind of business is tied to primarily social objectives and not profits. In the event that the business makes surplus profits, the excess in reinvested in the business or better still in the community as opposed to profits benefiting the shareholders.
The company indulges in addressing poor people’s needs based on access to better services. This is done through appropriate information and communication channels. Such social enterprises are anchored on key assumption that effective management of information and communication technology leads towards enriched society.
Frameworks and models that support integration of economic development programs best analyzes business model which allows the poor to receive affordable services from various sectors such as healthcare and education offered within their localities. However, the rich members of the society are on the other and charged highly for these services (Camardella 103-107).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All the company’s plan focuses on the targeted customers, services offered and appropriate means of delivery. The vision of Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber is provision of social services capable of providing quality and affordable services to intended population. Their mission is based on timely delivery and profound economic development through business initiation and offering care services with best efficiency and reliability possible.
In addition their strategy is focused on targeting low income earners within the City’s vicinity and at the same time including developing countries. Such services are at times delivered through internet websites and mobile phones, those in remote places are assisted through appropriate channels as prescribed by the company’s board (Magretta 86-92).
Importance of the Internship Within the first days after commencement of internship, there was meeting with the Vice president of the company and other management team members. There was orientation on the kind of work done within the company. This included familiarizing with main points of company’s services provided to customers on a daily basis. The organization deals with large population segment. The process involved a lot of desk work including data entry.
Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce is involved in variety community programs which demands prior preparation. This requires thorough checking since there are possibilities of confusion caused by large group of customers invited for specific meetings. Such meetings include those of Women Businesses which deals with detailed management of schedules since most venues are within learning institutions.
There’s constant upgrading done within the systems for the purposes of updating current available customers the company is dealing with. To avoid cases on ghost members, the organization uses electronic systems during process on membership renewal. Analysis of results requires application of statistical programs.
The work involved updating some files of memberships as well as adding new files within database. Moreover, organization requires reorganized communications file within system databases. This is accompanied by drawing up-dates from articles and newspaper concerning chamber operations. Such information is considered important when it comes to making decisions from public point of view. All information follows organization protocol and structure since it has to reach the top management organ.
After dealing with membership up-grade, customers are constantly up-dated on company’s service provisions. Most of the work involves internet searching which assists in reinforcing proficiency in computer networking processes. Out of various searches fact sheets were obtained on annual basis concerning company operations. The fact sheets indicate trends within the labor market such as employment and employment rates per annum.
We will write a custom Report on Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rates on resource consumption per country per annum are calculated for accountability purposes. Included are rate of taxes levied on consumer basic needs as well as salaries. Fast Facts 2012 of Greater Wilkes-Barre, PA and it’s publication of the Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of business and industry are availed in the company’s website. Moreover, a reorganized communications file is done by data entry employees. Organization of the database also involves bio-data of various company top officials who are mainly used as referrals.
Part of the work involved sending letters to chamber customers and at the same time doing necessary up-grade. Moreover, there is making of invitation letters to Annual Dinner and sending specified loyal customers of Chamber. Besides sending letters, the company up-dates are sent to customers including successive events.
During event organization, guests are given thorough check and at the same time their names printed on labels for identification purposes. Such process is in line with criminology cause which basically involves dealing with criminal minds and those trying to breach rules of law.
Updating membership files assists in identifying unwanted and wanted customers from chamber’s database. Such process should be monitored closely based on reorganized communications file basically done within the databases. As discussed earlier meetings such as Chamber Women in business lunch takes place often.
This grants opportunity on familiarizing with gender issues which is of profound help when dealing with criminal cases. Free interaction involved during these meetings enables an individual to benefit much from expansive knowledge brought by individuals from different regional backgrounds. Such up-dates form crucial part of communication channels (Daley 201-214).
Evaluation Processes The programs undertaken by the Chamber involves investing resources in form of time, information technology for data collection and analysis, funding, work force and partnership as well as operation premises. There is always an expectation producing results in form of data and information.
This presents vital tool used for critical decision making within various institutions. Such information further influences changes in operational procedures within business institutions. The data generated from company’s database is used in supporting development of initiatives within required areas of operation (Chan and Lynn 57-87).
Evaluation Design Description This section intends to describe the flow of activities during evaluation process and determination of relationship existing between relevant entities. This model enables the program to focus on SMART objectives. This implies the objectives must be Specific (S), Measurable (M), Attainable (A), Realistic (R) and Time-bound (T). The model appears in form of tabulated information as follows.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Table 1: Activity Structure for the internship
Inputs Tasks Outputs (measures resulting from various tasks) Effects Evaluation For Example Funds, Work-force, Equipment and Information Technology Resources For example Data Collection, Analysis, Interpretation and Presentation Information from the respondents to questionnaires and interviews Detailed Analysis of data after collection The standard implications, which assist in conclusion, recommendation and critical decisions Organization Chart Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and industry operates in a three tier framework as indicate in the chart below. The first tier reveals organization at international level which included customer orders, Customer support and care, as well as Personnel management. These positions are managed according to categories based on international markets. Such level of categorization assists the organization in commanding larger economies of scale.
Second tier has regional management offices dealing with customer orders and site customer care and support. Third tiers incorporate site specific customers dealing with specified line of business operations. Site managers are endowed with responsibility of providing prompt solutions to remote customers. In case of mismanagement and making decisions, responsibility is given to personnel managers at each tier.
Figure 1: Account Management Chart for Chamber
Works Cited Camardella, Mathew. “Effective Management of the Performance Appraisal Process”. Employment Relations Today, 30(2003): 103-107.
Adolf Hitler Biography Essay college essay help online
The birthplace of Hitler was Braunau. This was an insignificant town found in Austria. He was born to Alois Hitler, his father and Klara Hitler, his mother who was a third wife to Alois Hitler. Adolf Hitler was a very bright student. He did very well at primary school and seemed to have secured a strong foundation for a bright academic future as he grew.
At school, he had fame and pupils envied the qualities of leadership that they saw in him. Adolf was also religious to the extent that he thought and considered the possibility of him becoming a monk (Toland, 16).
In the secondary school, academic competition was tough for him. When he discovered that he could not excel in classwork, he stopped trying. Adolf Hitler became stubborn. He never listened to the counsel of his seniors who encouraged him to continue with education. His father, Alois was disturbed and disappointed by his son. He had thought that Hitler would emulate him and become a member of the Austrian military once he finished school (Nicholls, 23).
Everything about Hitler started changing. His fame with other students started to fade away as they started dismissing him as one of their leaders. He became bossy because he gave orders and spent most time with small pupils. He was into games that involved fighting, bullying, and harassing.
He only liked Leopold Potsch among other teachers. Potsch was Hitler’s history master. His teacher liked many people who lived in Upper Austria because he was a German nationalist. The teacher taught his students about the wars won by German in early 1870s. The chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck, was one of Adolf Hitler’s early historical heroes. The other main interest he had in school was art. His father was shocked when Hitler told him that he wanted to pursue a course in art (Waters, 135).
At the age of fifteen, he was incompetent in academics, and his performance in exams was pathetic. He did not like the idea when he was told to repeat. He successfully persuaded his mother to drop out of school without a secondary education certificate. He had no vision because instead of feeling bad, he celebrated by drinking. Nonetheless, this experience was not satisfying, and he swore to refrain from drinking (Waters, 136).
On receiving the inheritance from his father’s will, he relocated to Vienna. He had dreams of studying art, but the dreams were shuttered down when the Vienna Academy of Art rejected his application for not having a school leaving certificate. He regretted the fact that he was unfocused (Jones, 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adolf Hitler was unwilling to serve Austria. He instead volunteered for the German Army during the outbreak of the First World War. He regarded the German Army as the most superior to other European countries. Adolf Hitler could offer himself in dire situations and lead from the front. This character of Adolf captivated his seniors in the military ranks. During the First World War, he won five medals. However, despite the fact that he was decorated in the war, he only reached the rank of corporal (Weber, 323).
The war ended, and Hitler was posted in Munich, the capital of Bavaria. He opposed the leader of the Independent Socialist Party when he declared Bavaria a Socialist Republic. The German soldiers entered Munich and overthrew the BSR. Hitler was promoted to become a political officer after convincing the soldiers that he was against the party. He made political speeches and taught soldiers on matters concerning politics. This was a great start for Adolf Hitler to venture into politics (Weber, 325).
After a long involvement in politics, Hitler realized that he had skills as an orator, and this gave him confidence to challenge Anton Drexler, a leader of the Nazi Party. He swiftly managed to become the new leader. Hitler was capable of instigating hatred and anger amongst his followers.
In this case, he was could influence them to engage in violence. He was imprisoned for beating a rival politician. Hitler was selfish and greedy. This is portrayed when he promised to occupy Russian land if he won. In his mission to overthrow the government, he took three top commandants into a separate room and forcefully made them to collaborate with him. This happened because he was to be the next new leader of Germany. He used force to get what he wanted without caring for others (Weber, 325).
He was arrested for another year, and upon his release, he pretended not to be committed to politics. He took most of his time travelling and touring different places in Germany. His party Nazi gradually grew through the efforts he put into a campaign for power. He looked determined to take over the leadership of Germany. Hitler avoided being asked to explain how he would improve the German economy (Nicholls, 80).
After being elected as the chancellor of Germany, Hitler developed a dictatorial character. He also ordered all media that supported the other parties to be closed during the general elections in 1933. In spite of all those means to shutter the other parties, his party still did not win (Nicholls, 80).
When Hitler took control of power in Germany, he used a divide and rule method due to the fear of being overthrown. He knew he was a dictator. He did so much for German, but this did not outdo the damage he had caused. He was a racist and did not mince his words of hatred towards other races. For instance, in Mein Kampf, he made it clear that he hated the Jewish race. Being an opportunist, Hitler tried to fight the nations that surrounded it.
We will write a custom Essay on Adolf Hitler Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He expanded the size of Germany and tried to take control of Europe. There is a time when he felt ill, but this could not stop his army. He was so inhuman that he used to laugh whenever he was told about the deaths of his soldiers at war. His reign came to an end when the U.S., the Soviet Union, and Britain combined forces to fight back leading to his overthrow. When he heard that the Soviet troops had entered Germany, he decided to commit suicide to prevent them from humiliating him (Nicholls, 82).
Adolf Hitler could have overcome this humiliation if he had good qualities of leadership. A good leader should know how to communicate. Despite the fact that Hitler was a good orator, he was not a good listener. He never listened to any advice especially when his army was at war. Even when things were hard for them, he commanded them to fight to the death. This shows that he never recognized the value of others. Being an opportunist, he used them as a bridge to his success (Iorg, 28).
A good leader should also be truthful and honest. Adolf lied to his mother that he had joined an art school. At one time while at war, Hitler was shot and ran into hiding. However, he lied that he had rushed a shot boy to the hospital. If he had a focused mind, Adolf would not have dropped from school.
This made him appear as an incompetent leader. Hitler escaped from responsibilities. For example, he avoided explaining how he would raise the economy of Germany. A good leader should have a vision. With a positive attitude towards his nation, he would have realized the harm he had caused the people he led (Iorg, 30).
If Hitler was a respectable leader, he would not have had an affair with his niece. Being a family man would have helped him from possessing bad characters such as dictatorship and being disrespectful. By being approachable, accessible and accountable to all, he would not have hate given speech against the Jews.
The Jews were of great importance to Germany. An intelligent leader always makes wise decisions and thinks deeply before judging or acting. Adolf killed one of his allies after being fed with false propaganda by other “supportive friends” who were against the victim. He should have used tactics to know whether they were lying. Adolf Hitler failed because he did not possess the qualities of a good leader (Iorg, 32). A leader of the people by the people and with the people should have strong and good characteristics.
Works Cited Iorg, Jeff. The Character of Leadership: Nine Qualities That Define Great Leaders. Nashville, Tenn: B
The Ethnic Issues of the Hispanic American People Essay college essay help: college essay help
The article ‘Hispanic Americans’ covers the ethnic issues of the Hispanic American people. In the article, it is evident that the population of people from the Hispanic American origin has risen over the years, and currently, they contribute to approximately fourteen percent of the entire population of the United States. There are several sub-groups of people from the Hispanic American origin, and for that reason, the author concentrated on attributes of three principal groups, which include Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans.
Over the years, the United States census has used different names to describe people from Hispanic American origin. However, for the last two decades, the term Hispanic has been used to refer to the ethnic community. Recently, the term Latino has been applied in reference to various groups within the group of the Hispanic Americans. Some studies have revealed that the Hispanic Americans appreciate identifying themselves by their original community.
The article clearly reveals the wider ethnic group of Hispanic Americans by indicating the various groups that make up the community. It also highlights the manner in which the group migrated to American, and their racial status in the American society. At the same time, the article points out how Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans developed as minority groups in the United States.
Based on the article, it is possible to access information concerning demographic trends of the Hispanic Americans in the United States between 1990 and 2000. The information provided specify regions where the Latinos inhabit in the United States. At the same time, an analysis of the status of the Latinos within the entire class system of society is reflected.
The analysis involved a study of the Latino socioeconomic status in the regions where they mostly occupy using income, wealth, and poverty as the main parameters. To create a clear picture, the author chose to compare their status with that of other ethnic groups such as the whites and African Americans. In the analysis, the article points out factors that contribute to the socioeconomic status of the Latinos in the American society.
The author posits that some of the factors that contribute to the level of socioeconomic status of the Hispanic Americans in the society include discrimination, and education. In addition, it is clear that the Cubans occupy a better socioeconomic position compared to the other Hispanic ethnic groups. From the time of their migration, the Cubans, unlike other Latino groups, came with a class background that was markedly different from the rest of the sub-groups.
They were also equipped with occupational skills that enabled them to adapt easily to the society’s mainstream economy. Unlike the Puerto Ricans and the Mexicans, the Cubans immigrated into the United States when they were already occupationally successful and well educated. Their educations levels and occupational skills were instrumental in helping them gain a rapid upward mobility in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article also illuminates on the position occupied by the Latinos in the corporate world and the political sphere. Additionally, it undertakes to reveal the prejudice and discrimination associated with the minority group in the United States. However, the level of prejudice and racial discrimination is less than the one experienced by African Americans.
From the article, it is clear that the Latinos faced the problem mainly because of their ‘in-between’ minority status. Unlike the African Americans, the Latinos within the United States have maintained their ethnic traits, particularly the Spanish language. Lastly, one notable factor that has contributed to retention of their original ethnic traits is the proximity to their country of origin.
Allegory of the Cave Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Plato’s cave represents human knowledge “showing the intellectual journey to truth as a gradual and arduous process”.He likens people with prisoners in a cave whose only perception of realism is a play of shadows spread on a wall that faces them. Everyone has a role to play in bringing change to his/her life.
One has to make a decision of leaving the thoughts that prevent them from perceiving the world from a broad perspective. Only then can they get an understanding of the real world. Plato sums this in four stages. The first stage includes forming an attitude that is based on the reality’s outward appearance constituted by sights and sounds of experience though it takes a while before the human mind distinguishes reality.
The second stage is the ability to recognize the distinction between a deceptive entity of knowledge and the real ones. In this case, the shadows of the carving walls and the true carvings. The use of puppeteers by Plato inside the cave and things outside indicate that empirical discoveries never penetrate the ideal realm of truth thus calling for the need to move outside the cave. The third stage is where people get outside the cave into the sun that tends to cause their blindness.
This sun indicates the light of truth thus causing reality to be foreign to the familiar. This makes it hard to understand the nature of reality that happens to be ideal and not material as Plato later realized. Accordingly, practice and learning are key ingredients for realization of the true form of reality. The fourth stage is where one acknowledges the intellectual light source. Plato realized that the Good does elucidate concepts that help us to understand truth.
The prisoner knew that holding his head high and standing on his dignity would signify victory as far as addressing the masses was concerned. Plato maintains this concept by saying that it is only those that can pull off enlightenment that ought to be leaders of the rest. The prisoner is a leader because he has achieved enlightenment over time and he is well able to lead the rest. He did not resist enlightenment as others did but rather embraced it with open arms.
The allegory of the cave can be compared with Breyten’s ‘You Screws’ which holds that people will always drag you to the pit immediately they realize that the light has finally shone upon you. Breyten having been a prisoner for while who never let his form of imprisonment deter him from advancing in knowledge, is addressing the screws who turned up in large numbers to listen to him as a way of gaining knowledge.
He says that he does not regret much of having been shattered from the world but “I normally resent all attempts at dragging me back particularly when they come from the sentimentally deprived or the vicarious heart-eaters and self shitters who wallow in victimization and heroism by proxy”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ordinary folks that have not been enlightened will always misunderstand them that have the intellectual insight. The individual in the Plato at last understands his environment and tenaciously overcomes the challenges experienced in the cave, in this case being its mental incapacitation, through a long and tortuous intellectual journey.
In conclusion, everyone needs to change their thoughts and attitudes to be able to live a worthy life. There is nothing for the free or the slaves since all have opportunities even if they are bloated. Mental imprisonment is definitely the worst situation in life as far as enlightenment is concerned.
References Breyten, Breytenbach. “You Screws.” Harper’s Magazine, Feb. 2007.
Plato, Allan. ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato. New York: Basic Books, 1968.
Ralkowski, Mark. Heidegger’s Platonism. London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009.
Footnotes Alan Plato, ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato, ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1968), 134.
Mark Ralkowski, Heidegger’s Platonism, (London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009), 102.
Mark Ralkowski, Heidegger’s Platonism, (London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009), 113.
Breytenbach Breyten, “You Screws,” Harper’s Magazine February, 2007, 15.
Naming Middle East: Outline Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Preservation of the Middle East Identity
Relationship with the Rest of Asia
Effect of Name Change on the Economy
Introduction Geographically, Middle East is in West Asia. People have traditionally used the term ‘West Asia’ to differentiate the region with the Eastern part of Asia. However, ethnically, the Middle East is different from other parts of Asia because of its high Arab population.
From this notable difference, the Middle East has defined its identity from the rest of the Asian continent. Nonetheless, there are calls to rename Middle East as West Asia because of its significance in the Asian continent, and its geographic position in the same region (Telhami, 2002).
This paper opposes this view by proposing three reasons for the preservation of the Middle East name. First, the extension of Middle East into Asia and Africa shows that Middle East is not exclusively part of the Asian peninsular. Secondly, this paper suggests that Middle East has its unique identity, which differentiates the region from other parts of Asia, like China or India. Therefore, if Middle East is renamed West Asia, the region may lose its identity.
Lastly, this paper acknowledges that the social and economic relation between Middle East and the rest of Asia is strong, but this relationship is insufficient to warrant the renaming of Middle East as West Asia. Comprehensively, there are significant geographic, social, political, and economic differences between Middle East and the rest of Asia, which suggest the preservation of the Middle East name.
Geographic Limitation Traditionally, the Middle East comprises of many countries that stretch across several parts of North Africa and West Asia. Therefore, besides the common Middle East countries such as Jordan, Kuwait, and Lebanon (located in West Asia), there are other traditional Middle East countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, which are located in Northern Africa.
Therefore, the distributions of Middle East countries stretch across two continents. It would therefore be incorrect to rename Middle East as West Asia because North Africa is also part of the Middle East. Moreover, Africa is an independent continent that has its geographic boundaries, which is independent of Asia. The conception of the ‘West Asia’ name is therefore narrow because it fails to capture the full scope of the Middle East region.
Preservation of the Middle East Identity Middle East has a special identity that differentiates the region from other parts of the world. Its identity not only cuts across its social and political spheres, but also its geographic and economic makeup. For example, Middle Eastern people dress differently from other countries around the world (not only in Asia).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, women wear the Niqab as a respectable formal wear in the region (Omair, 2009, p. 412). Other parts of Asia (such as India) adopt a different style of clothing. Middle East architecture is also different from other parts of Asia. For example, Middle East architecture greatly differs from Chinese architecture.
These differences show the varied identities of Middle Eastern people and the rest of the Asian continent. These differences are deeper while analyzing religion, lifestyle, and politics. Therefore, after considering the significant differences between these two regions, it is crucial to preserve the Middle East identity. It is also incorrect to change the name of Middle East to west Asia.
Relationship with the Rest of Asia Molavi (2011) says that the trade between the Arab world (GCC countries) and the rest of Asia supersedes the level of trade in the Middle East region. Molavi (2011) estimates the trade between Asia and the rest of the Middle East to peak during 2017 (observers estimate that Asia will be Middle East’s biggest trading partner).
To this extent, some people have voiced their suggestions to rename Middle East as West Asia. However, the strong trade relation between Middle East and the rest of Asia does not provide sufficient grounds to warrant a name change. Comparatively, many other regions around the world have strong trade relations, but they do not consider a name change because of their strong trade ties.
For example, there is an increased volume of trade between China and America. In fact, billions of dollars in trade revolve between the two countries alone (Morris, 2001). The strong trade relation between China and America has however not warranted a name change from either of the two trading partners. Therefore, it is incorrect to claim a name change for Middle East, just because it shares a cordial trade relationship with the rest of Asia.
Effect of Name Change on the Economy From the growth of globalization, regional economic dynamics spread fast among different countries. Therefore, if Middle East changes its name to West Asia, it may suffer the same economic fortunes as the rest of the continent. For example, developed countries allocate aid to regions and continents around the globe. A name change would therefore mean that Middle East has to share the same aid as Asia. This would undermine its economic prospects.
Conclusion The effect of a name change on the Middle East would be profound. Traditionally, the world has understood Middle East as a region with unique economic, social, and political dynamics. This paper identifies that these unique attributes of the region may disappear with a name change.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Naming Middle East: Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Middle East is slowly making a name for itself as a global economic powerhouse. This trend has seen Middle East develop close ties with the rest of Asia. However, if the region loses its identity, it may lose its economic dominance in regional trade. Lastly, it makes no sense renaming Middle East as West Asia, while a large portion of the region is not even in Asia. Comprehensively, these dynamics show that Middle East should preserve its identity.
References Molavi, A. (2011). ‘Middle East’ Is Pulled Towards Asia By Economics And Affinity. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/middle-east-is-pulled-towards-asia-by-economics-and-affinity-1.404925
Morris, D. (2001). China: The Bitter Roots Of Foreign Trade Through The Eyes Of Asian Culture. Journal of Global Competitiveness, 11(2), 25 – 38.
Omair, K. (2009). Arab women managers and identity formation through clothing. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(6), 412 – 431.
Telhami, S. (2002). Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East. New York: Cornell University Press.
Role of Each Mode of Transport Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
According to Anderson (1999), transport is the movement of people, goods, and services from one location to another. Effective transport systems play a critical role in achieving the economic and social needs of a given society. Air, land, and water are the most common modes of transportation in the United States of America and many other nations in the world. Air transport is usually facilitated by aircrafts. Land transport on the other hand is facilitated by rail and road.
Water transport occurs on seas, lakes, rivers/canals and so on. Transport in general plays a significant role in developing and sustaining economic, demographic, and political factors of a given community and the world at large (Frankel, 2011). Effective modes of transport facilitate the expansion of town and cities by enhancing the movement of people as well as goods and services. Transport mechanisms also assist in the spread of individuals resulting in growth and development.
In the United States of America, roads are the most common modes of transportation accounting for approximately 68% of the national demographics (Frankel, 2011). Interstate highway systems have been built to facilitate the movement of people within a given locality or from one state to another.
In most parts of the country, people own personal vehicles. However, in urban centers where there is massive traffic congestion, transport is facilitated by mass transit and railways transport. Unlike in the 1940s, railway transport system in the USA mainly consists of freight train shipment (Frankel, 2011).
The use of passage trains has greatly reduced as a result of changes in economic needs as well as the introduction o faster and more reliable transportation systems such as bus shuttles, personal vehicles and airplanes. However, railway transport in USA accounts for 32% of the national demographics (Frankel, 2011).
As of 2004, the USA has been ranked 17th in the world as the nation with the busiest airports. Over the years, there has been a significant increase in air transport in USA especially between states. Water transport in the United States is regarded as the cheapest mode of transport. However, due to lack of efficient water ways, it is the least common mode of transport.
Development of Transport Modes In the USA, rail transport developed as a result of the presence of a wide spread railroad network that covered most parts of the USA. Transforming from early passenger cars that were common during the 19th century to high speed commuter trains, the efficiency of rail transport highly increased due to technological advancements (Garrison
Critical Evaluation of Synchrony and Diachrony Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
The article covers language aspects that reveal how multilingual experts have progressively become acquainted with the intricate interdependency between synchrony and diachrony. It revisits the ideas of De Saussure and those of his critics. The writer attempts to expose divergent view of the experts with the aim of unveiling the meaning of synchrony and diachrony.
The writer portrays De Saussure’s critics as ignorant on the topic. He/she reveals Jakobsons’ argument that langue cannot be identical with statistics and that langue is immutable. The writer also reports the opinion of Theses and Jakobsons that langue cannot be changed unconsciously. The article, however, fails to provide evidence to support these ideas. This helps the writer to achieve his/her objective.
The article also covers Trnka’s argument that the distinction between synchrony and diachronic is insignificant. It provides facts that disapprove Trnka’s idea. The author asserts that it is almost impossible to trace and identify anyone else from the school of Prague.
Another critical school of thought is of the view that diachrony has a system and a structure. Theses says that De Saussure was wrong to claim that there is insurmountable barrier between langue and parole. This, according to Theses, is because there are mixed elements in the langue.
On the other hand, the article reveals the strong elements in De Saussure’s argument. It cites page 108 of De Saussure’s work that says langue is a heritage of the preceding time. He says that time guarantees the continuity of the langue. It is evident that De Saussure suggested that several conditions influence langue balance.
Moreover, he records that the effects of transformation are counter-balanced by analogy. In addition, acco0rding to the article, De Saussure says that there are phenomena phonetically connected with distinctive conditions. The writer therefore succeeds in dismissing the opinion of the critics.
Additionally, it records that De Saussure said langue change might occur subject to certain conditions. He does not refer to accidental or blind changes, as reported by critics. The article provides that De Saussure believes synchrony and diachrony are independent of each other, due to a different point of view.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regarding consciousness of change, it is apparent that De Saussure stressed that literary language does not develop naturally. This points out at Jakobson’s lack of information.
The idea of state of langue according to De Saussure is that synchrony and diachrony has a state of langue and a phase of evolution. However, minimum changes may occur after some duration. The writer records some human weaknesses of De Saussure. For example, he records De Saussure’s admission that he did not know the causes of change in langue. The admission makes the article real and trustable. It depicts practical human weakness.
Evidently, the critics have no evidence to back their arguments up. This makes the article appropriate for supporting the ideas of de Saussure. The article is even more helpful because it provides the accurate position of De Saussure making comparison of the varied ideas easy.
Despite the writer’s success in supporting De Saussure, his/her article has weaknesses. First, the article says that De Saussure’s critics are completely ignorant. In deed, since, he/she agrees that further researcher is necessary, dismissing unconfirmed ideas is wrong. Next, the writer concludes by supporting De Saussure. The conclusion may make critics say that he /she is partisan.
Nevertheless, after reading the article, it is comprehensible that misconception is the leading cause of criticism of De Saussure’s work. The writer successfully portrays the critics as unable to identify traces and elements of the past that are found in language. He/she communicates that language is always developing, unraveled, fickle, and unbalanced in detail at the edges. In addition, the writer rightly advocates for further research to solve the differences in opinion.
Functions of Management Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fayol’s Four Functions of Management
Introduction Management is the process in which a person or a group of people run or control things or people. Management is accomplished using the set guidelines and the limited resources that are availed to achieve the established goals and objectives. Management can be applied in organizations, homes, or other social settings. Management in an organization focuses on human resource, capital, and other resources towards the attainment of a set goal (Wren, Bedeian and Breeze, 2002, p. 907).
There are different levels of management including the top level management, middle level management, and first level or low level management. There have been various people from ancient times who have attempted to study management. Their focus has been on how the aspect of management should be employed, its functions, the impacts on the overall performance of an organization, and how it can be improved for better results and effectiveness (Pryor and Taneja, 2010, p. 590).
One of the first scholars to study management and advance its functions and principles was the Frenchman Henri Fayol. Fayol was born in 1841, and he was a director at a coal mine in France. He initially identified five functions of management. He described functions of management as those things that proper management helps to attain (McLean, 2011, p. 32).
The five initial functions were planning, controlling, leading, organizing, and staffing. However, authors of management books have combined them into four functions, which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Pryor and Taneja, 2010, p. 589).
In this essay, the focus is on the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, and how it employs the functions of management and the impact to the organization. The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was founded in 1911 under an Act of parliament. The bank started its business in 1912.
Its main functions are to carry out general banking services and savings for the Australian people. Currently, the bank has over 800,000 shareholders and has employed about 52,000 employees. It was owned by the Australian government until 1991 when it was listed publicly. This paper looks at each function of management, and how they have been used in the bank and the implications.
Fayol’s Four Functions of Management Planning is the act of setting goals and objectives and coming up with ways of achieving them given the limited resources of time, human resource, and capital among others in order to meet the goals effectively. It is a futuristic act done to try and foresee how a combination of different activities instigates certain results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the process that determines who does what, what resources to employ, and when to do what (Norman and Media, 2012). Planning at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is done at the beginning of every financial year. This plan is a long term plan that sets to meet objectives of profit maximization, increase of customer base, market share, and capital base.
However, there are other short term plans that are set quarterly in order to meet the long term goals. The planning is also done at the branch level in each of the over 1000 branches of the bank (Cassidy, 2006, p. 69). All these plans are set to support the main plan of the bank. What differs is the approach and strategies that each branch employs. Different managers at different managerial levels also plan based on the people they manage. This is in regard to how they can meet the goals and objectives (McNamara, 2009, p. 65).
The unique thing about planning at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is that this function of management involves the people that are being managed. Some of the strategies that the bank sets out in the planning stage are training of staff and other personnel. The training equips the staff to carry out tasks effectively as they try to meet goals. Another strategy used by the bank is the establishment of a follow up system. In this case, when they meet the quarterly target, they are able to plan the next target.
Organization comes after planning. It is the process by which available resources are combined and synchronized in order to meet goals and objectives. The resources combined include human resources, finance, raw materials and physical resources. Planning includes determining the proportions of each resource to be used in meeting goals. With the organization function, roles and responsibilities are clearly defined (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 126).
At the Commonwealth Bank, organization entails identifying the activities that have to be performed with regard to certain goals such as ensuring sales are made, quality control, accounts preparation, and accounts opening among others. All these activities are then grouped into different units. The bank also combines related activities into departments. This is to ensure easy flow of information between these related units and coordination.
The bank also assigns an authority to each department so that there is a hierarchy. The top level management deals with policy formulation. They include the chief executive officer and managing director Ian Narev, the different group executives of financial services, corporate affairs, and human resource among others.
The middle level deals with the supervision of their respective departments includes branch managers while the lower level management deals with the supervision of foremen. Finally, the bank ensures a clear outline between any level of authority and the responsibility that comes with it. The management also conducts weekly meetings at different levels as part of organizing (Cassidy, 2006, p. 71).
We will write a custom Essay on Functions of Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third function is leading, which some authors also refer to as commanding. Leadership/commanding is the process of providing guidance to the people in an organization. It involves motivating members of staff, inspiring them, and providing guidance for them. It involves influencing and providing direction for the behaviour of personnel towards achievement of goals and objectives (Mirescu and Dragomir. 2008, p. 3030).
Leadership also involves providing future visions for a group of people. Management should have goals that are clear, commitment, and relevant skills in order to implement the leadership function effectively. Effective communication is also a quality of good leadership (Breeze, 1995, p. 40). At the Commonwealth Bank leadership is key in its operations. The members of the executive council are the first group of leaders. Others include the branch managers and group leaders of the sales teams (Cassidy, 2006, p. 68).
Leadership qualities are enhanced through regular leadership workshops. The bank’s leadership emphasizes on the need to solve conflicts as soon as they arise. The bank also comes up with different incentives for different employees as it recognizes people respond differently to different motivators. Where the conduct of an employee is in question, the employee is informed of the consequences on performance. Leadership at the bank emphasizes on teamwork (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 132).
The last of Fayol’s functions is controlling. Controlling involves ensuring all efforts of the organization and resources are directed solely at the set goals and objectives. It entails measuring actual performs to the set standards at the planning stage. At this stage, the management identifies errors or setbacks and takes appropriate action (Norman and Media, 2012). The Commonwealth Bank targets are set on a daily basis and compared all through the day.
At the end of each working day, tracking sheets are taken, and weekly statistics are evaluated. In case of any problems or delays in meeting the objectives, plans such as coaching and some role play for employees who are not performing as expected are implemented. In the case where improvement is still not seen, then a three month performance improvement plan is enforced. This is meant to improve performance of employees (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 148). This exhibits a wholesome evaluation process by the bank.
Conclusion The Commonwealth Bank applies the traditional Fayol’s functions of management. In this way, the bank enjoys the benefits of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Through planning, the bank reduces uncertainties and risks that come with the banking industry. Planning also boosts employee morale. The bank is one of the most established banks in Australia. It has low employee turnover as the employees continue to increase each year due to good leadership and management.
Fayol’s functions of management are an important aspect of management today. His functions and principles are relevant due to their effectiveness and the results they provide. Over the years, other authors, theorists and scholars have adapted and enhanced these principles. The principles provide a detailed system of running an organization successfully.
Bibliography Breeze, John D. 1995. “Henri Fayol’s centre for administrative studies.” Journal of Management History 1 (3): 37-62.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Functions of Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cassidy, Carlene, and Robert Kreitner. 2009. Supervision: setting people up for success. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Cassidy, Julie. 2006. Concise corporations law. Annandale, N.S.W.: Federation Press.
McLean, Jacqueline. 2011. “Fayol – standing the test of time.” Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 74: 32-33.
McNamara, Daniel E. 2009. “From Fayol’s Mechanistic To Today’s Organic Functions Of Management.” American Journal of Business Education 2 (1): 63-78.
Mirescu, Cristina and Gheorghe Dragomir. 2008. “Particularities of the Managerial Functions in the Small and Middle Enterprises.” Annals of the University of Craiova, Economic Sciences Series 6 (36): 3029-3035.
Norman, Leyla and Demand Media. 2012. What Are the Four Basic Functions That Make Up the Management Process? https://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-basic-functions-make-up-management-process-23852.html
Pryor, Mildred Golden and Sonia Taneja. 2010. “Henri Fayol, practitioner and theoretician – revered and reviled”. Journal of Management History 16 (4): 489 – 503.
Wren, Daniel A., Arthur G. Bedeian and John D. Breeze. 2002. “The foundations of Henri Fayol’s administrative theory.” Management Decision 40 (9): 906-918.
Venture Capital in JTB Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Executive Summary
The Advisory Team
Exit Analysis and Deal history
Executive Summary Venture Capital is a type of financial capital given to early stages of growth for start-up companies. It is always a high-risk fund with a high-risk potential. The fund owns equity in the company with a business model. The stages of the fund are normally six. Seed money is the first stage and entails low-level financing required for proving new ideas. Crowd funding was developed as an alternative to seed money.
Start-up funding is another stage of funding and goes to marketing and product development needed by early stage firms. Growth funds are for early sales and manufacturing. In the next stage, funds are given to companies that are already making sales but have not experienced the returns on profits. This is the working capital. The last stage is the exit venture. This fund goes to the firm that wants to go public.
Jade’s Toy Box (JTB) is the company of interest in this investment. This is a New York City based company.It specializes in the manufacture and sell of educational theme based children toys and books that are Eco-friendly.
They design their products to assure parents of the safety of their children. JTB aims to offer parents with the tools and resources they need to spark a lifetime love of learning in their children. In an effort to align the company goals with the market dynamics, the company relies heavily on the experience and ability of the faces behind it.
Angela Ledoux for instance worked as a picture editor for TIME, a kid’s magazine before starting this company. Her knowledge ranges from having a master degree in art along other children related careers. Robby Ledoux has however, learned child entertainment, worked for the creative talented idea company, and is involved in picture animation apart from being a music composer.
Market opportunity Jade’s ToyBox is based in New York City. However, it has spread its wings and now works in major cities. The cities include Boston, and Chicago. The company has expanded its marketing capacity by introducing free shipping to customer destinations irrespective of where the customer lives.
JTB uses the US postal services to ship its products. This idea has helped the company to increase its customer base broadly. With increased technology, the company engages in online marketing and sales. Clients from across the world can get access to a range of products available. The company understands that some parents are very busy. Following on the same, working mums can give their needs and the firm delivers the right products to them. Toys of high quality for parents in class are availed to them at the right prices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The response from the customers over a long period has been overwhelming. This has been the key behind JTB’s expansion. Customers whose responses have been received are positive with all of them indicating satisfaction. Working mums now agree that JTB is the link they were missing. The management has really perfected delivery of goods. Customer satisfaction tops the priority list among the company’s employees. Whereas the delivery is fast, customers do have sixty days to respond and return the goods that do not satisfy them.
This system builds a customer base that is very important to an investor. The strategy put forward by the management and outlined above serve to proof to an investor that such a company is worth putting money. There is an increase in competition over products in the manufacturing industry.
The competition also comes from the media industry. Televisions now come with programs that compete for the interest of the children. The performance of the toy industry as whole in the United States has increased. Major improvement has been in the export department. Competition is likely to grow as we head into the future.
Marketing Strategy With the increase in competition, JTB has revolutionized its sales strategy. The policy on marketing is now customer centered. The company targets children. Six gift boxes are designed for children. However, it creates boxes specific to the desires of the children. Parents are allowed to ask for specific designs for their children and they are delivered.
The boxes in this category have dolls, books and other products that represent different cultural heritage. In this case, customers create the gift boxes with individual items for their children. For instance, the company offers this package at $ 120 for five boxes.
All the company products are available online. This gives the customer ample time to sample the goods from anywhere, whether in the office, at home or even when traveling. This saves customers the burden of traveling to shops and stores to go and window shop. Working mums do not have this time. Customers make payments from anywhere, as delivery is free of charge. Delivery is within seventy-two hours.
This has been positive to the company as it has a strong customer base. Such is a type of company worth investing in their equities. The customer base assures potential investors of the continuity of the business.
We will write a custom Essay on Venture Capital in JTB specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The products Jade’s ToyBox Company offers a variety of products, which target the children. Jade’s concept box has funny, educational, and Eco-friendly books. Green Bambino is one such product. It has a starter library for parents and the baby with wood ABC blocks that can be replenished, rubber duck, letterpress baby update, and a fair trade Yoyo animal. The boxes also have games for teaching important themes and concepts.
The areas that are covered include art, health, music, and sustainable architecture among others. The products are safe to the children and devoid of phthalates, lead, and BPA, which are harmful to children. Other services offered include the green safe children parties. These parties are outdoor services. This diversification of products suits all the people of different religions, economic status, and social backgrounds.
The Advisory Team Jade’s ToyBox Company has the advisory team led by Angelique Ledoux. Her experience, expert knowledge, and style of management leave no loopholes in the company’s delivery of services. With two master degrees in art and bachelors’ degree in the same field, Angelique understands what the children need. She leads the homework assignment for the other staff members in coming up with the eco-friendly products.
Having edited a kid’s magazine before, her ability is relevant in the designs. Robby Ledoux is another member of the advisory board. He has a lot of knowledge in child entertainment, he worked for a company that specializes in creative children products, and he is a music composer. A company with this type of leadership steers the business in the right direction and is ideal for an investor.
Exit Analysis and Deal history Jade’s ToyBox is a private company with a broad capital base. With such a wide market that covers major cities in the US, its financial stability is assured. The company plans to increase its export capacity to cover North America, United Kingdom, Asia, and Africa. This will widen its customer base and add to the sustainability of the business.
The second Hypothesis: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy Research Paper essay help online free
Source of data – United States Census Bureau 2012
The economy of the United States grew over the last ten decades due to the impact of the immigrants in the labor industry. As a group providing cheap labor and specialized skills, immigrants’ contribution to the economy of the United States has doubled in the last ten years.
In fact, as indicated in the above graph, the number of immigrants within the civil labor force reached 23.1 million. Reflectively, this number represents 16.4 percent of the total labor force as of the year 2010. Despite constituting 13% of the total population, immigrants’ contribution in the growth of the United States economy has been seen in the agricultural, construction, housing, health care, real estate, education services, and mining and food services industries. Reflectively, these industries are the backbone of the American economy.
As a matter of fact, at present, the immigrants in agricultural and mining industries have surpassed the 30% mark as provider of labor in these labor intensive spheres of production. Besides, the census results indicate that immigrants have become a driving force in the labor market for high-skilled workers in the field of information technology. Within this technical field, immigrants constitute 23% of the civilians employed.
Moreover, immigrants also supply labor in large proportions in industries that require mass low-skilled employees. From 1970 to 2010, it is apparent that the contribution of the immigrants in the labor force, thus the economy of the United States has grown steadily. As the values indicated in the graph show a steady rise in the percentage of immigrant workers in the United States economy from 4.9% in 1970 to 16.4% in 2010. Despite being only 12.9 percent of the total population, they represent 16% of the total labor force.
Thus, as indicated in the above statistic graph, the presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy since immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market. Specifically, their contribution is noted in the agricultural, mining, IT, construction, and manufacturing industries which require special skills that these immigrants posses.
Relationship between median income and foreign birth The graph below shows the relationship between median income and foreign birth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Explanation The graph above shows a cluster diagram of median income and foreign birth. A straight line can be drawn from the cluster diagrams. The straight line (upward sloping) in the diagram implies a positive relationship between median income and the rate of increase of foreign birth that is, an increase in foreign birth leads to an increase in median income. Further, from the graph we can deduce that immigration has significantly increased the presence of foreign born workers in the United States as shown by the increase from 0.0% to 45.0%.
Various studies have been carried out to show the effect of immigrants on the U.S economy. Most of the studies focus on the effects of immigrants on employment, wage rate, total productivity and overall impact on the US economy. These studies give varying results. Some indicate that immigrants cause a negative impact while others shows that immigration has a positive impact on the US economy.
For instance, some stories indicate that immigrants compete for job opportunities with the native. Various economists who have analyzed the labor market in the US reveal that immigrants have no large effects on the US employment and wages of the US natives.
A recent study conducted by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco revealed that “immigrants expand the economy’s productive capacity by stimulating investment and promoting specialization thus producing efficiency gains and boosts income per worker” (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 1).
In addition, the study showed that there is no significant effect of immigration on net job growth for US born to work in the long run and the short run. The study further revealed the economy has taken in the immigrants and the foreign born by growing job opportunities rather than putting out of place employees in the US. Further, presence of immigrants increases availability of cheap labor in the country.
This encourages business to expand their capital expenditure. The net effect is an increase in output per worker. This effect of increase productivity and thus increase in income is felt in the long run because the firms have ample time to adjust their scale of production (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 1)
It is evident that increase in immigrant and foreign born results to increase in productivity in the economy. Increased productivity implies an increase in household median income. It also implies increased gross domestic product of the country and increased per capita income. This relates to the second hypothesis of the study which states that the presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy. Immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The second Hypothesis: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 2010, The Effect of Immigrants on U.S. Employment and Productivity. Web.
United States Census Bureau 2012, Graphs. Web.
The Unknown Citizen Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The foremost reason why I think W.H. Auden’s poem The Unknown Citizen represents a particularly high literary value is that themes and motifs, explored in it, reflect the discursive realities of a modern living. At their turn, these realities are being concerned with the process of people growing increasingly disfranchised from their sense of self-identity.
This, however, causes them to experience the emotionally disturbing sensation of an existentialist ‘anonymousness’. In my paper, I will aim to explore the validity of this suggestion at length.
When readers get to be exposed to The Unknown Citizen for the first time, many of them end up experiencing the sensation of a cognitive dissonance. This is because, even though the name of this poem implies the lack of a factual information about the citizen in question, the poem’s actual body contains a detailed description of what kind of a man the concerned individual was:
“He worked in a factory and never got fired,
But satisfied his employers, Fudge Motors Inc…
And had everything necessary to the Modern Man,
A phonograph, a radio, a car and a frigidaire…
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was married and added five children to the population” (Auden par. 1).
Nevertheless, after having read the poem, they begin to realize the actual rationale that prompted Auden to name his poetic masterpiece, in the way he did. Apparently, the author wanted to advance the idea that our possession of the statistical data about a particular deceased individual, does not provide us with an insight as to what were the qualitative aspects of his or her stance in life.
This is the reason why, even after having found out about the ‘unknown citizen’ just about everything they could, readers usually do not get closer to understanding what accounted for his actual individuality:
“Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd: Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard” (par. 1).
Hence, the philosophical implication of Auden’s poem – despite the fact that in today’s world people can well enjoy a number of life-comforts (due to their ability to afford buying technological gadgets), they nevertheless remain ‘anonymous, in the existentialist sense of this word. This simply could not be otherwise, because nowadays, it is specifically people’s willingness to suppress their individuality, while leading thoroughly conventional lifestyles, which defines their chances of securing well-paid jobs and attaining a social prominence.
However, the same willingness, on these people’s part, makes them less likely to leave a mark in history, while increasing their likelihood to be turned into a nameless ‘cannon meat’, during the time of war – just as it happened to Auden’s ‘unknown citizen’. Therefore, there can be few doubts, as to the thoroughly humanistic sounding of The Unknown Citizen. This is because this poem subtly promotes the idea that the cost of one’s eagerness to lead a conventional lifestyle is his or her ahistoricity (anonymousness).
This is exactly the reason why, I believe this particular Auden’s novel should be recommended for reading – it resonates perfectly well with the discourse of post-modernity, which defines the specifics of a contemporary living in the West. Moreover, it also contains insights as to why, despite their conventional happiness, many of our contemporaries nevertheless continue to experience a number of deep-seated anxieties, in regards to what they really are, as individuals.
We will write a custom Essay on The Unknown Citizen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I believe that the provided line of argumentation, as to what I consider contributing to Auden poem’s actual value, is being fully consistent with the initial thesis.
Works Cited Auden, Wystan Hugh. The Unknown Citizen. 13 Dec. 2012. Web.
Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The Agriculture discipline is very diverse because it incorporates crop and animal farming. Agriculture was the center of early civilization because the human race depended on agricultural products for survival (Eaton, 1998). Modern agriculture is very different from ancient agriculture due to the mergence of new technologies.
The need for sustainable agriculture has made many farmers to shift from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Agricultural experts have come up with new technologies such as irrigation and selective breeding that have contributed a lot in increasing agricultural yields. Research and development in the field of agriculture plays a very critical role in coming up with new pesticides, fertilizers, high yielding crop varieties and most importantly modern management techniques (Andrews, 1994).
Biotechnology and genetic engineering are important aspects of the agriculture discipline that have taken it to a higher level. The incorporation of science in agriculture makes it to be a very wide discipline with many branches such as agricultural engineering, animal husbandry, agronomy, crop biotechnology and industrial agriculture (Clark, 2012).
Genetics is a biological discipline that deals with the study of heredity and the analysis of variations in organisms caused by heredity (Clark, 2012). The concept of genetics is very useful in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Genetics and heredity are much related because they are all concerned with generational passage of hereditary traits (Gelehrter, 1998).
Genetics is a field of biological study that has led to many scientific breakthroughs that have been useful in coming up with a variety of cures for various diseases. The genetics discipline has been evolving over time especially with the emergence of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is a branch of genetics that deals with a direct intervention in genetic processes in order to alter genetic materials (Clark, 2012).
Genetic engineering has been very useful in developing new treatments for certain diseases. The Human Genome Project has redefined the genetics discipline by introducing the study of the functioning of different genes in human cells (Khoury, 2000). The genetics discipline has a lot of application in environmental studies, clinical medicine and public health (Khoury, 2000).
The central dogma of the genetics discipline is based on Crick’s theory that came into place in 1963 (Khoury, 2000). Crick discovered the DNA double helix that formed the foundation of genetic science. According to Crick, the DNA double helix is a molecular structure that acts as an agent of inheritance in both plants and animals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The central dogma of genetics assumes that the genome of an organism accounts for all of its inherited traits (McKusick, 1997). This theory by Crick failed after it was tested in the Human Genome Project. The scientific rationale of the Human Genome Project proved that Crick’s theory was wrong because there are very few human genes responsible for inherited traits.
The collapse of Crick’s theory was a setback to the genetics discipline because the foundations of genetic engineering are based on the central dogma premise. Biomedical research depends on the central dogma that has been around for over forty years (Tropp, 2011). The central dogma emphasizes that DNA is the exclusive agent of inheritance.
The DNA gene is composed of four distinct nucleotides strung together in a linear sequence (Tropp, 2012). According to Cricks’ theory, the genes in DNA segments give rise to inherited traits by undergoing a series of molecular processes. An inherited trait is a product of molecular processes in a single DNA gene. According to the central dogma in genetics, the totality of inheritance in living things is controlled by the DNA genes (Andrews, 1994).
The synthesis of proteins that are the main catalyst in the production of inherited traits is governed by genes (Eaton, 2012). According to Crick’s theory, the structural similarity between genes and proteins makes protein synthesis to be possible under the control of DNA genes. The DNA in a particular gene consists of subunits of molecules with a linear arrangement.
The sequence hypothesis compares the nucleotides in a gene and the sequence of amino acids in a protein. The formation of proteins takes place when the DNA nucleotides are transcribed to RNA molecules that are responsible for trait formation in living things (Vogel, 1997). A gene code from the DNA nucleotide is incorporated in protein formation to influence the inherited traits.
The RNA plays the role of a messenger because it facilitates the delivery of gene codes to the site of protein formation. The sequential order of amino acids is determined by the gene code during the process of protein formation (Vogel, 1997). According to the central dogma in genetics, each particular gene in a living thing has a correspondent protein.
The inherited traits of a person are represented by their genome (Rothstein, 1997). The genetic code in DNA is universal and can influence the formation of a particular trait in any kind of species. Every living thing has a DNA with four nucleotides that facilitate the formation of a specific protein. Any sequential information that goes into protein can not in any way come out (Task Force on Genetic Testing, 1998).
We will write a custom Essay on Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the second doctrine of Crick’s theory that explains the source and the destination of genetic information. The DNA nucleotide sequence is the source and the protein amino acid sequences the final destination according to Crick’s theory. The central dogma gives the gene total power and influence on protein identify and the resultant inherited trait created by the protein (Clark, 2012).
The central dogma in the agriculture discipline is from Ralph’s theory (Clark, 2012). This theory led to the introduction of genetic engineering in agriculture. According to Ralph’s theory, the formation of takes place in corporate-like sequence.
The formation of inherited traits follows a sequence of directives from the DNA that acts as the top management. The RNA molecules act as middle management molecules that give directives to proteins that act as worker molecules (Tropp, 2012). This version of the central dogma is widely used in agricultural research.
According to Ralph’s theory; a particular gene can be transferred from one species to another without any problem. The central dogma of agriculture is the foundation upon which genetically modified seeds are produced (Tropp, 2012). Researchers incorporate alien genes with superior qualities in the host plant to come up with crops with superior qualities. Researchers manipulate genetic processes by introducing an alien gene in protein formation (Gelehrter, 1998).
The alien gene influences the inherited traits in a particular crop. Ralph’s theory is very essential in the production of transgenic plants. The presence of an alien gene does not in any way interfere with the natural complement of the plant’s DNA (Vogel, 1997). The protein mediated systems and the gene systems must be compatible for the modification process to be successful.
The bacterial gene is very essential in the production of transgenic plants through the genetic engineering process (Clark, 2012). Ralph’s theory often comes under pressure when the experiments to produce transgenic plants and other organisms fail due to the disruption of the host’s protein mediated systems. Ralph’s theory takes several years of testing for the desired results to be achieved (McKusick, 1997). Genetic engineering can lead to the production of harmful proteins due to the unexpected alteration of the plant’s genome.
Ralph’s theory of genetic engineering has experienced numerous failures as a result of the unpredictable disruption of the protein systems of the host pant (Eaton, 1998). DNA miscoding is one of the reasons why there are many experimental failures when it comes to production of transgenic plants. Genetic engineers have come up with modified seeds from corn, cotton and soya beans because the mentioned plants possess some proteins with the ability to repair all kinds of DNA miscoding (Vogel, 1997).
The Human Genome project demonstrated that the genetics central dogma by Crick was not convincing (Clark, 2012). The emergence of new facts that refute the one-to-one matching of genes and proteins is a great challenge to Crick’s theory. Some biologists argue that proteins lead to the formation of molecules like DNA but the central dogma emphasizes the opposite (Khoury, 2000).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The central dogma for genetics has generated a lot of interest in the study of molecular genetics in an attempt to find the secrete of life. The central dogma for the agriculture discipline needs to be re-examined because there is no guarantee that an alien gene can only transfer positive traits to the host plant (Andrews, 1994). Many genetic engineering experiments have failed due to the disruption of the genetic composition of the host plant.
References Andrews, L. (1994). Assessing genetic risks. Implications for health and social policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Clark, D. (2012). Molecular Biology: Understanding the genetic revolution. London: Elsevier.
Eaton, D. (1998). “Genetic susceptibility” in environmental and occupational medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
Gelehrter, T. (1998). Principles of medical genetics. Baltimore, MD: Williams
SWOT Analysis: Al Capone’s Essay essay help
Introduction Al-Capone’s restaurant came into existence in 1927 under the initiative of Gladys Meyers. The restaurant is located along the shores of Fox River and operates in a big and spacious house. In the course of its operation, Al Capone’s mission is to achieve sustainable growth by providing its customers with an untouchable dining experience (Al Capone’s, 2012).
The firm’s operations are guided by one major objective, which entails offering its customers great and diverse wines, spirits, micro-brews, and foods. Al Capone’s focuses at maintaining the real taste of food and alcohol beverages that it offered during the 1920’s. In addition to positioning itself as a unique drinking point, Al Capone’s also focuses at offering its customers unique entertainment.
One of the ways through which the firm attains this goal is by entering into contracts with renowned music bands such as Dixieland stars and saxophonists such as Johnny Waters, Franz Jackson, and Glenn Koch. These elements are some of the main areas that have contributed towards the firm’s survival (Al Capone’s, 2012).
SWOT analysis Strengths
Strong brand – Branding is one of the avenues through which organizations can derive their competitive advantage. According to Healey (2008), branding entails a continuous commitment to deliver product meaning and promise to customers.
The restaurant has managed to maintain the quality of products it offered during the 1920s. As a result, it has developed a strong identity within the society in which it operates. People travel for long miles in order to enjoy the tasty spirits, great food, and lively entertainment within the restaurant (Al-Capone’s, 2012).
Customers who patronize the hotel experience the roaring characteristic of the hotel that persisted during the 1920s and 30s. This element has played a critical role in enhancing a strong attachment with the society. Consequently, the firm has been in a position to nurture a strong level of customer loyalty. According to Healey (2008), customer loyalty is a key ingredient in the survival and success of firms considering the high rate at which the business environment is transforming.
Product diversification- Since its inception, Al Capone’s has been able to diversify its product offering. The firm has achieved this by adopting a multiproduct strategy. The strategy enables firms to become more diversified hence improving their performance. Effective integration of multiproduct strategy is realizable by integrating the concept of focusing. Consequently, firms’ management teams have to focus on the most profitable product to integrate in their product offering (McDaniel, Hair,
“The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Literary work is a reflection of what is happening in the society. Authors normally voice their opinions about issues affecting the society through various themes. These themes are closely linked together through analysis of a character’s actions.
In the contemporary society, introduction of literature research has extensively increased the volume of literature in every topic of interest researchers may be interested in especially in use of expression tools such as metaphors to present a symbolic view that a character display in a play or a book. As a matter of fact, irrespective of the level of knowledge and understanding of research facets, literature versions are inclusive of literature tools such as metaphors.
Literature comparison is about enjoying the phrases, feeling the narrator’s words in action, imagining, and placing oneself in the writer’s shoes. Writings with consistent assumptions and symbolic insinuation add comprehensiveness to sentence structures or phrases with hidden meaning. The play, “The Revenger’s Tragedy” by Brain Gibbons presents a violent and vivid portrait of ambition and unending lust in an Italian community.
Specifically, this play typifies artistic cynicism and satire to present a picture of a revenge quest that culminates into unfounded tragedy for both parties. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly prove that revenge is dehumanizing in the play. Specifically, the paper concentrates on the death of the King and his attitude and treatment of his mother. Across the paper, the analysis draws critical reflection on the events that culminate into revenge and their eventual results.
Gibbons was successful in addressing hypocrisy that was dominant in the early century in the theme of revenge desires. This theme forms the foundations upon which the society of this play was built.
It resonates across generations since its influence is inherent. Revenge desires as a thematic touch on identity crisis, tradition, manipulation, and marriage. The play “The Revenger’s Tragedy” portrays deep decay in political and moral parameters of the society. Irrespective of social class, religious inclination, size of accumulated wealth, epoch inclination, and beauty, death kisses people equality every time it knocks on the door of its victim. The tragedy delves on love, life, and tyranny.
As a matter of fact, the key antagonists and protagonists demise eventually. Interestingly, death is presented as a redeemer of what each character stands for. Specifically, Vindice forms the image of an avenger who links economic disparities and female chastity to plot a dehumanizing plot on the old irresponsible king. Thus, “the smallest advantage fattens wronged men” (Gibbons 1.2.98).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The king is morally bankrupt and very corrupt in dispensing his authority on the subjects. Irrespective of the position of a person, revenge is presented as a poisonous object that sweeps away both the antagonist and the ‘revenger’. Despite having been an ideal person at the beginning of his quest, Vindice incessant activity resorts to the very ideals he protested against in the process of fulfilling “that bald Madam Opportunity” (Gibbons 1.1.55).
Reflectively, Vindice becomes the victim of moral decadence and follows the ill practices concocted by the nobility in the society. In the process of revenge, the dehumanizing acts of aimless killings, habitual lying, and irresponsibility replaces gentlemanly attributes that were associated with him. Revenge is a continuing inspiration to overturn the wrongs that were committed by a third party.
When internalized, though may appear fulfilling, the art of revenge inspires hatred and unreasonable response to stimuli. For instance, in the process of plotting a revenge on the King, Vindice climbs overboard and convinces his parent to resort to prostituting his only sister Castiza to complete the revenge plot.
Reflectively, the journey towards revealing truth makes him adopt a ‘Machiavellian cynicism’ that undermines his quest. He states, “Thou hast no conscience; are we not revenged? Is there one enemy left alive amongst those” (Gibbons 108).
In the end, Vindice loses his outstanding personality and replaces it with self righteousness that is characterized by distributing blames and hanger on innocent third parties. He claims “And therefore I’ll put on that knave for once…for to be hones is not be in the world” (Gibbons 1.1.93). Vindice can be described as an agent of his own downfall. In the end, just like the slain King, Vindice ends up dead while fulfilling the burning desire to avenge.
Across the play, the same fate crowns Hippolito, Ambitioso, Lussurioso, and Supervacuo. Death is a natural thing, and despite the fact that it is a sad affair, it might be less hurting if someone dies a natural death. However, Vindice, Ambitioso and Spurio fail to redeem themselves from the consequences of revenge and ends up in an unending holocaust.
Specifically, the moral weakness of Vindice is seen when his personal indignation on the manners of the court and corrupt system of the judiciary metamorphoses into a radical immorality of a crime he later commit. As a result, Vindice states “the foul practice hath turn’d itself on me” (Gibbons 5.2. 299-300). Death is a tragedy that is unexpected, and it is not pleasant at all. The ground as to why inhabitants do not appreciate death is because it causes emotional damage and pain.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bitterness and resentment of Vindice make his vows that “in the midst of all their joys they shall sigh blood” (Gibbons 5.2.22). In a twist of events, these words culminate into the tragic destiny of Vindice. Thus, revenge is dehumanizing since those plotting it resort opt for the murders as political expedients of convenience and stimulates cosmic disorders in the society.
The play ends in the purges that horrify other characters. Vengeance becomes the only Pyrrhic victory to these characters obsessed with the tasks of fulfilling tasks that are pre-ordained. For instance, Vindice states, “I do repent but heaven hath pleas’d it so…that I must be their scourge and minister” (Gibbons 3.4.173).
This arouses inhuman acts of indiscriminate revenge actions with ill motives. For instance, Middleton’s my inspiration towards revenge was to institute a revulsion arousing dramatic tool. Besides, Vindice idolized revenge and painted it with words like “sweet, delectable, rare, happy, and ravishing” (Gibbons 3.5.1).
This arouses suspicion into the underlying motives which sends Vindice into a medieval vice. Thus, revenge cripples these characters with hatred that culminates into premeditated murder. As a result, revenge “throwne luck upon the forehead of our state (Gibbons 1.2.4). Moreover, the remedy of the court was an alternative resort that was exercised only when disputes happened.
The judicial proceeding was intended to provide solutions to existing disputes. The court was responsible to handle injustice cases that had already happened in the society and reassure the mass of fairness and accountability. However, the King’s revenge motives completely defaced the functions of this court. In his bid for revenge and center power, the King neglected justice in the court.
Revenge games compromises integrity of the parties involved. Reflectively, this happens due to the fact that some of the players are naïve, while others are indifferent. For instance, Vindice is unhappy at his parent’s inability to resist bribery. The mother states, “I blush to think what for your sake I’ll do” (Gibbons 2.1.24). In this aspect, revenge is dehumanizing in its characteristic of making parasites out of people, internalizing corruption, and being the engine that drives greed and unending lust for advancements in the social endeavors.
All the characters in the revenge matrix have selfish and debased ambitions that inspire their urge to maintain the status quo irrespective of any collateral damage in the process. Interestingly, the Duke who should symbolize justice and moral authority asserts that “I’ll try them both upon their love and hate” (Gibbons 2.3.86).
In fact, Vindice’s reaction reveals an unfounded hatred, ignorance and blindness of high magnitude as they climaxed. In an ironic tone, Vindice retorts, “Pray heaven their blood may wash away all treason” (Gibbons 2.3. 98). The other revenging characters destroy Vindice as a survival tactic on realizing that he plans to destroy them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Justice was a notion that concerned duties and rights of people in this society. Justice was an interpersonal concept that sought to resolve conflict among people. Nevertheless, this was not to claim that inferior interests were suppressed. Justice aimed to sustain and build right behaviors while judicial court was responsible to deliver judgment among peoples. However, the rejection of justice by the King resulted in series of revenge plots that swept the morals and ethics of this society.
Works Cited Gibbons, Brian. The Revenger’s Tragedy, New York: Norton, 1967. Print.
Treating Race and Ethnicity in History Essay college essay help online
The fact that American history is strongly associated with racial and ethnic issues in undeniable. Over the centuries, the migrated ethnic groups faced rigid discrimination on the part of dominating population. The indigenous population of America also confronted significant social and cultural pressure on the part of white people coming from Europe.
The point is that differences in races are not premised on biological characteristics, but on social ones. Indeed, social perceptions are strongly linked to cultural beliefs of various ethnic groups. Diverse ideological systems have become the corner stone for various groups to become a united community with common values and belief systems.
There is no unanimous opinion concerning the nature of racial confrontation. Nevertheless, the history testifies to the dominance of white race over the others. Therefore, racism often served as a tool for colonizing, enslaving, and conquering new territories. Similar to racial distinctions, ethnic groups are also divided in accordance to different cultural and racial backgrounds.
In case the population of one ethnic group prevails, the other ones are considered as minorities whose beliefs, culture, and traditions are often under the pressure. Prejudice, bias, and stereotypes have been formed as a result of these confrontations. In this respect, the African people migrating to the United States were not accepted by the dominating society and, therefore, they were deprived of the human rights, including freedom and equality.
Despite the fact that racial discrimination has been exterminated in the course of time, some stereotypes and prejudices have been left. Ethnic stereotypes have been shaped as predominant images that are applied to discriminate the members of various communities. The existence of negative prejudices, however, distorts the overall information about specific community.
Discrimination is another effect of unequal distribution of ethnic groups on one territory. To be more exact, there is always a prevailing group that shapes and influences the attitude of the rest of the population. Inequality stands at the core of relation between racial and ethnic groups due to the unequal treatment of each other. Such a perspective can still be applied nowadays since many stereotypic images exist and have a potent impact on social organization.
The history of U.S. immigration proves that stereotypic images and discrimination have not contributed positively to the development of a socially and culturally healthy environment. Enslavement and pressure imposed on migrated African Americans, as well as overall treatment of immigrants, prove that people are unable to reconcile with biological differences.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethnic minorities tend to undergo racial discrimination due to their differences from the majority of social groups. These differences, nevertheless, have now become more respected by prevailing communities due to the globalization trends and tolerance of cultural diversity. Such a treatment creates a politically correct environment within which people should have enough space for self-expression and development.
In conclusion, all the communities have dominating norms and values, as well as those that are rarely used. Therefore, it is logical some of the cultural norms are not accepted by the majority groups.
Such a situation creates contradictions in terms of treating various ethnic groups whose traditions and customs are not respected in the community. In the course of time, the conditions have changed and closer attention is given to understanding cultural diversity in a globalized world. The tendency is a necessary solution for all the ethnic groups and races to be treated equally.