The Prodigal Daughter Creative Essay Scholarship Essay Help

There is a saying that posits that we never know the value of what we have until we lose it. People abandon their families and friends to pursue material pleasure, which plunge them into major problems. I happened to witness this claim through one of my neighbor’s daughters.

In our village, there lived a husband and his wife who were blessed with four daughters. The husband and wife worked hard to bring up their daughters. They made sure they gave them comfortable life and education. Besides, they brought up their daughters under a religious background. Everyone in the village praised the daughters. Indeed, other parents would refer to these daughters when reprimanding theirs. The husband and wife always prayed that Allah would bless the daughters with caring husbands.

As time went on, Allah answered their prayers. The daughters grew up, and rich and loving husbands married them. Every daughter went her way leaving the parents sad. On the other hand, the parents were happy that their daughters got married to religious and loving husbands.

The daughters could visit their parents from time to time, and by their physical appearance, one could tell that they were happy in their marriages. One of the daughters was blessed with three children. Together with her husband, they worked hard to ensure that their children lived a comfortable life. The daughter secured a job in a local hospital to help her husband in providing for the three children. Her husband was compassionate, and he always encouraged her to devote her energy to serving people in the hospital.

As the daughter continued working in the hospital, life in the family started changing. Prior to her employment, they would eat together as a family and the daughter ensured that the children did not go to sleep before doing their homework. However, after being employed, she started to abdicate her duties, one by one.

She no longer shared a meal with the family. In addition, she could occasionally come home late and claim that she had a lot of work at the hospital. Since her husband loved and trusted her, he believed in all that she said. The husband did not know that his wife was in love with a young workmate.

The wife used to go out with her new love and that was why she arrived home late. This went on for several months, until the husband felt that their family was disintegrating gradually. He decided to speak with his wife to see if she could quit her job and dedicate her time to the family. The wife refused to quit her job claiming that she would be bored to spend all of her time at home doing nothing. However, she agreed that she would try to come home early. She also promised to get some time to spend with the children.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite their agreement, nothing changed and the wife started coming home even later than she used. The husband started doubting her, and he decided to investigate what was happening to his wife. He talked to one of the workers from the hospital who informed him that his wife was in love with a workmate and that they always left the hospital together.

The husband loved his wife and children, and he was not ready to see his family fall apart. Hence, that evening, the wife came home late as usual. She wanted to go to bed direct claiming that she had a highly busy day. However, the husband told her that they had a serous issue to discuss.

He told her that he was aware of her relationship with a workmate. However, the wife denied being in a relationship with a workmate. They quarreled for a while, and when the husband learnt that his wife would not admit the allegations, he decided to rest the issue.

The following day was on a Friday and the family use to go to mosque together. However, on this day, the wife complained of stomachache. They left her in the house and on returning home from prayers, she was already gone. She left her family, parents, and children and eloped with her young lover.

They escaped to another county where no one could find them. The husband informed her family about the incidence and they started looking for her immediately. They searched the entire country starting with the major cities but she was nowhere to be found. They reported the issue to the authority, which also searched for their daughter without any success. Days changed into weeks and weeks into months without hearing from the daughter.

Fortunately, the daughter and her young man did not secure a job in the foreign country and when they were about to exhaust the money they had carried, the daughter decided to call her parents and see if they could support her. The parents told her that they were ready to support her under the condition that she goes back to her family and apologise to the husband. However, she was not ready to go back to her family.

The parents declined to support her forcing the daughter and her man to look for a job. It was hard to get a job since their travel documents indicated that they were in the country for vacation. They exhausted the money that they had, and life became hard for the two.

We will write a custom Essay on The prodigal daughter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After several months, they started to disagree over minor issues. The young man started to blame the daughter for their predicament. One morning, he woke up, and without saying anything, he packed his belongings and left. The daughter tried to plead with him, but he was determined to leave.

After realising that things did not work as she expected the daughter called her family to inform them that she was particularly sorry and willing to come back. She called her parents too, but no one was ready to accept her back. Life became unbearable for her in the foreign country. She could not afford to buy food, leave alone to pay for her accommodation. She had a happy family but she ruined it through her stupidity.

She had no alternative but to come up with a way to cater for her food and accommodation. She opted to join prostitution, as that was the only job that did not require a work permit. Unfortunately, she contracted a fatal disease, which landed her into the hospital. After the doctors found that she was about to die, they contacted her parents who came for her. However, she died on their way back home.


Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism Essay cheap essay help

Introduction: Locke and Burke, Together at Last Even though much time has passed since the XVII century, putting the names of Locke and Burke in one sentence already seems quite provoking, as if two rivals have been seated at the same table.

Despite not being as known by the modern population as his opponent, Burke was also quite influential with his ideas at the time, and these ideas were quite conflicting with the concepts offered by Locke.

Taking a closer look at the ideas which the two philosophers expressed, one can possibly find a golden mean in their arguments.

Foundations of Political Authority: Where Power Rests Every state needs certain regulations to be based upon, and these regulations are to be provided by the people standing at the helm of the state. Without a decent political authority, a state cannot exist, which Locke and Burke both understood well.

Offering their interpretations of what an ideal political authority must be like, they provide the ideas which, of collided, appear to be the exact opposite of each other.

Locke’s equality ideas, revisited

A true Liberalist at heart, Locke focused his idea of state power on the concept of freedom and equality, which tossed the philosopher into extreme liberal ideas. As Mack explains, Locke positioned personal freedom as the primary goal of every citizen, as a specific the law of nature.

Therefore, according to Locke, political authority should emerge only when there is an urge to use its power: “The motivating idea of state of nature theorizing is that we can determine what the purpose and proper extent of political authority is by seeing what sort of problems would beset us in the absence of all political authority” (Mark, 2009, 23).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Burke: the power of the opposition

In a sharp contrast to Locke’s free-spirited and somewhat anarchist moods, Burke displayed the desire to establish strong and down-to-earth set of laws and regulations based on monarchist ideas.

It is quite peculiar that Burke not only exercises the principle of natural right – he takes it to another extreme: “it became an exclusive criterion for the legitimacy of any political power whatsoever” (Parkin, 2011, 9).

However, in Burke’s reality, even the law of nature is supposed to support the idea of monarchy as the only possible political system.

Looking for Utopia: the golden mean

It seems that the ideal solution is the golden mean between Locke and Burke’s ideas. It is not quite reasonable to offer complete freedom to people, for they need to be guided by certain regulations to live in a state.

However, the idea of natural right seems even less appealing – while people have to relate to nature, these are the basic moral standpoints that define their humanity. Hence, Locke’s ideas seem more applicable.

Glorious Revolution in the Eyes of Burke and Locke Unlike wars, which are usually planned in the most cool-blooded manner several months and even years before starting the actual attack on the enemy’s state, revolutions, which are headed against the government of the native country, are usually considered a sign of a rapidly approaching change.

There are many ways to consider revolutions from a historical perspective; and the example of Locke and Burke is a perfect way to show that revolutions cannot be taken for granted. Clashing in an argument, both philosophers offer a legitimate interpretation of the Glorious Revolution and its purpose.

We will write a custom Essay on Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More National tradition instead of abstract commonplaces: Burke

Weirdly enough, Burke, the man who considered order and compliance with rules the basis for the society to ground on, seemed to approve of certain types of revolutions.

While interpreting the French Revolution as “another manifestation of the regicidal, destabilizing forces unleashed during the English Civil War” (Rooney, 2012, 26), Burke seemed to approve of the Glorious Revolution.

However, he explained his opinion on the significance of the latter in his own manner of a logical yet unexpected argumentation, describing the Glorious revolution as a “culmination of historical processes” (Rooney, 2012, 26).

While the French Revolution was destructive for the society, the Glorious Revolution spurred the state development and heralded the return to the ancient laws of England (Rooney, 2012, 26).

Treatises to defend the revolution: Locke’s passion

Unlike one might have expected, Locke shared Burke’s vision of the Glorious Revolution as the force which is bound to change the society for the better. However, Locke believed in the success of the Glorious Revolution for different reasons than his opponent, which defined the key difference between the two.

While Burke believed that the Glorious Revolution will help England return back to its traditions, unlike the French Revolution, which made the French society even less integrated, Locke supposed that the Glorious Revolution because he “saw the Glorious Revolution as an opportunity to change the political situation” (Suckow, 2007, 8). Therein lies the difference between the two philosophers.

In the midst of a bloodbath: Glorious Revolution, unveiled

While the effects which the Glorious Revolution has had on England and its political situation, it is necessary to admit that it was, first of all, a huge bloodbath.

Hence, no matter what their political ideas could be, people felt that they have achieved something with a huge effort. Therefore, it seems that the Glorious Revolution was more of a revelation for the people of their power to choose and to change.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the Elephant Meets the Unicorn: Liberals vs. Conservatives As it follows from the example of two great philosophers mentioned above, there is no way to choose the right ideology – both Liberalism and Conservatism seem quite legitimate when their basic ideas are applied to a specific situation in a specific context.

Therefore, it is highly unlikely that one of the given theories can be proven completely wrong; it is the time context and the political situation which predetermines the reasonability to resort to either Liberal or Conservative ideas.

However, if comparing and contrasting some of the basic Liberal and Conservative ideas, one can possibly decide which of the theories works for a certain person in a specific timeslot.

Le sage Locke has its say: liberals attack

The concept offered by Locke, or “le Sage”, as his followers called him, seem quite in tune with the general idea of people’s rights and freedoms. Indeed, according to the key postulates of Liberals, the main idea behind their political theory lies in offering people their freedoms and leaving them to choose the path which they are going to take. As Kelly puts it,

It derives from a recognition of the equal moral worth and standing of all individuals, but it also claims that this view places limits on the scope of moral claims given the fact of reasonable pluralism of moral views in modern democratic societies. (Kelly, 2005, 3)

Hence, liberalism allows for the freedom of choice, yet this freedom is restricted by the moral standards governing in a certain state.

The father of Anglo-conservatism rises

However, the theory of Conservatism seems rather legitimate as well. As Aughey, Jones, Terence and Riches explain, “the nature of conservatism at any one time in any one place is the distinctive (perhaps incoherent) discourse of its philosophical, dogmatic and policy expressions” (Aughey, Jones, Terence


Gender and power Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Dobash, Margo and Daly have given a comprehensive insight into the myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence (71). There has been a general belief in the United States and many other countries around the world violence against women is just as prevalent as violence against men.

These scholars set forth to dispel this myth and to give more insight into the issue of violence against women, and how power and gender play off in the current society. The world has experienced massive changes in the social structure. Various countries have seen the position of women in the society in terms of power and related facets.

Women empowerments, gender equality, empowering the girl child are terms that are common, and reflect the shift of power, from an all-powerful man, to a society where both genders are empowered. Power in relation to gender is something that has been there since time in memorial. Gender in this context refers to the state of being a male or a female and their social roles as determined by their mental, physical, and behavioral character.

For a long time, power was based on the physical strength of an individual, and for that matter, men were considered more powerful (Connell 21). This has changed a great deal. This paper seeks to define gender and power given the current societal context based on the analysis given by the above mentioned scholars.

Dobash, Margo and Daly hold that women are yet to gain power in the modern day society (79). Power in the past years was associated with men in the society. In various fields, from politics, religion, and culture or family, men would dictate how things would be done, while women were viewed as being weak, and their opinions were less valued. In those past years, women were strictly given no audience in any social gathering.

Their role was restricted to taking care of the domestic chores and most importantly, taking care of the interests of their husbands. All along men have been viewed as having the potential and ability to be dominant in all aspects of life while a woman’s role was to respond to men’s decision (Morris and Tahira 29).

This has for a long time undermined women and lowered their esteem in the society. In many societies around the world, women would never be given any position considered powerful. They have for a long time been sidelined and placed at the receiving end. There was a massive distinction between the two genders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Men were would always have their way in most of the events, and the society felt this was normal. Power and authority was generally believed to be a preserve for men. Dobash, Margo and Daly demonstrate this is their analysis (79).

Connell (56) argues that an analysis into gender and power demonstrates that symmetry of power between the two genders is yet to be achieved.

The scholar brings out the fact that women in the modern days should bring out their best in all they do; and that women have as much power just as men (Connell 56). In the past, women would never be allowed to hold any serious position in the society. This has changed with time. It is coming out clearly from this show, that women are acquiring power, and that they are becoming conscious of their capabilities.

Women today can openly hold social gatherings to discuss their issues. In addition, in politics, women are taking part and the position of women and power has completely taken another course in the society. Women like Hillary Clinton and Michelle Obama of the United States have been mentioned frequently in this show as women who have demonstrated that power is not a preserve for men. The show has used Condoleezza Rice as women who have inspired others to gain power irrespective of their gender.

Women have realized that there is an inner power in them that can make them achieve the best of the resultsThis has given them the desire to know more, learn, and earn respect in the society. It has also raised the women esteem in the society, as they now feel free to meet and share about how their husbands are treating them and the progress of their family as a whole (Morris and Tahira 113).

For this reason, women have derived so many ideas from her and have now become more confident that they can do even much more. The place of women is now not just in the kitchen. Their eyes are now open and many are now determined to advance their career and to have power just as much as men.

Kimmel and Holler (221) women have potential that when natured, can deliver good results in the society. The notion that women are weak is not true. Yes, they may not be as masculine as men are, but this should not make them be viewed as weaker parties in various respects within the society. Women can make key decisions, they can take care of families, they can make good political leaders, and this demonstrates that power is not a preserve of any of the genders.

We will write a custom Report on Gender and power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Connell, Raewyn. Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007. Print.

Dobash, Emerson, Margo Wilson and Daly Martin. “The Myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence,” In Gender Relations in Global Perspective: Essential Readings, ed. Nancy Cook, 173-184. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc, 2007. Internet Source. Web.

Kimmel, Michael and Holler Joseph. Separate and unequal: The Gendered world of work In the Gendered Society, 213-240. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2008. Internet Source.

Morris, Marika, and Tahira Gonsalves. Women and poverty. Toronto: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, 2005. Print.


Human Resource Management Essay writing essay help

The Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the section of an organization associated with a set of unique, best practices that aim to recruit, develop, reward and manage people in ways that create high performance systems (Bratton, and Gold 2012). Others view HRM as a simple repackaging of good personnel management practices (Som 2008).

The two definitions show that development in human resource depends on the changes in the markets, social movements, and public policies that are the products of economic and political changes within the society (Nienhueser 2011).

HRM started during the industrial revolution in England (Bratton and Gold 2012). According to Nienhüser and Warhurst (2012), HRM serves to ensure that the organization can achieve success through the proper utilization of employees. More specifically, it aims at increasing organizational effectiveness and capability by use of the available resources.

The human resource is concerned with the rights and needs of people through social responsibility (Nienhüser and Warhurst 2012). The social responsibilities are the responsibilities that the organization has to the society, consumers, suppliers and employees (Nienhüser and Warhurst 2012). The human resource goals include strategic integration, high commitment, high quality and flexibility (Armstrong 2009, p. 32).

The HRM has a number of theories. This includes the strategic HRM theory which is the principal HRM theory (Huselid, 1995). This theory interlinks the employee power and resources to the targeted strategic organizational goals. The theory’s implicit assumption is that a good fit between human resource and the internal and external context can be linked to high performance (Huselid, 1995).

However, organizational performance and achievement of goals is attributed to significant factors that are employee related. These are skills, dedication, commitment and productivity. The second theory is knowledge management theory (Huselid, 1995). This theory lists that the organizational outcomes is based on the knowledge of its employees. It adopts a systematic approach that motivates information sharing amongst the employees in order to achieve greater productivity.

Another HRM theory is the organizational culture development theory (Huselid, 1995). It takes into account the employees behavioral responses. In general, organizational culture refers to the values and practices upon which an organization is based. Additionally, it plays a major role in determining employees effectiveness and efficiency (Armstrong 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The HRM is characterized by its ability to respond accurately and effectively to the organization’s environment. It also complements other organizational system and delivers added value through the strategic development of the organizations. The HRM covers a vast environment of activities with a range of variation across occupations, organizational levels, business units, firms, industries, and societies (Som 2008).

There are two versions of HRM: the hard and soft versions of human resource. Hard HRM is a practical approach where people are viewed as passive resources purposed to be used, deployed as well as dispose where necessary. On the other hand, soft HRM is based on humanism. Thus, it is devoted to human interest that views people as responsible and progressive being (Nienhueser 2011).

There are the four main roles of human resource professional. They include managing strategic human resources, managing employee contribution, managing transformation and change, and lastly, is managing human infrastructure to support line managers (Kelly and Kelly 1991).

Managers need to understand how ethical dimensions of human resource policy and practice fit into the present and future picture. Lastly, they should be able to make a powerful business case for any proposals regarding the development of human resource strategy (Armstrong 2009, p. 104-135).

There are factors that influence the level of individual performance in an organization. These factors are motivation, ability, and opportunity to participate in the organization activities. The impacts of motivation on performance depend on the capability of the employee. On the other hand, the capacity to perform depends on the employee. The effects of motivation on performance are additive but interactive (Balnave, Brown, Maconachie and Stone 2007; Huselid 1995).

The three factors need to be observed by the concerned organization for it to make progress. As mentioned earlier, people are the most important resources in an organization. Thus, there are ways that have been developed to ensure that an organization obtains and keeps the people it requires. This is vital since it ensures continuity of good personnel in the organization thus facilitating succession. This important function is usually performed by the department of HRM (Thompson and McHugh 2009).

The human resource uses different strategies to ensure that it has the best personnel/staff in their organization. The first one is human resource planning. Here, the business assesses the present and future human resource needs of the organization. The second strategy is creating an employer brand.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is done by developing the existing workforce in the organization. This is whereby the organization plans on increasing the flexibility of the available human resource. The other strategy is talent management, recruitment and selection, and absent management strategies. Here, the organization decides on whether it needs employees from within the organization or outside, recruits, selects, orients and then trains (Armstrong, 2009).

Overall, HRM deals mainly with workforce management and regulation within an organization aimed at enhancing its performance. This is well explained using the various principal theories, versions, roles and strategies of HRM.

Reference List Armstrong, M 2009, Armstrong’s handbook of performance management: An evidence-based guide to delivering high performance, Kogan Page, London.

Balnave, N, Brown, J, Maconachie, G and Stone, R 2007, Employment Relations in Australia, Wiley


Industrial Relations Theories Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Industrial relations refer to the ways in which employees and employers relate within an organization. The relations include interactions covering human resource management, employee relations, and union relations. The relations arise from interactions between individual workers, between workers and their employers, and the interactions that employers and employees have with bodies formed to protect their various interests (Hall, 13).

The relationships are articulated in various ways involving the workers. Industrial relations have been regarded as a study of the rules governing employment, and they give directions on how the rules are changed, interpreted, and administered. There are different theories that explain the different inclinations of the industrial relations (Jackson 12).

Theories of the workplace relations Unitary theory

It views the organization as having one source of legitimate authority, having a unified authority, and a loyalty structure. The relations are placed on common values, interests, and objectives. All organizational participants are viewed as a team who share a common destiny. In unitary theory, conflict is seen as evil and destructive.

Therefore, it should be avoided at all costs. Conflict is believed to be caused by mismanagement and poor communications. Trade unions are outlawed and viewed as an illegitimate source of authority. They are seen as an intrusion competing for employees’ loyalty. In this theory, organizations exist in perfect harmony and all conflict is unnecessary (Jackson 16).

Conflict / Pluralist Theory

The theory recognizes that employees and managers have different objectives, which create a conflict of interest in the workplace. The theory argues that conflict is inevitable, rational, functional, and a normal situation at the workplace, which is then resolved through compromise, agreement and collective bargain.

Trade unions are viewed as legitimate and are not causes of conflict, but emphasizes on competition and collaboration in the workplace. This theory is the most efficient means of institutionalizing employment rules as it creates a balance in employee and management power (Jackson 18; Hall, 39).

Marxist Theory

The theory reflects a wider class of conflict between capital and labor. It shows that workplace relations are a reflection of the incidence of societal inequalities and the inevitable expressions about them in the workplace. Conflict is inevitable, and capital seeks to reduce costs while employees seek fairer price for labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conflict will only cease by revolutionary changes in the distribution of property and wealth. According to the theory, trade unions should raise revolutionary consciousness of workers and union leaders who accommodate managers betray the workers. Bargaining power gives little solutions and gives leaves important managerial powers intact (Jackson, 20).

Systems theory

This is a general theory of industrial relations. It states that industrial relations is a sub-system of a wider society that has four elements. These elements include the following:

a) Actors: they include the employers, employees, their representatives, and government agencies

b) Environmental contexts: this includes technologies, markets, budgets and distribution of power.

c) Procedural and substantive rules governing the actors.

d) Binding ideologies and common beliefs that encourage the actors to compromise.

The systems approach holds that behavior is as a result of the structure and processes of the system (Jackson 22).

We will write a custom Essay on Industrial Relations Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social action theory

The theory views the relation from the individual point of view and motivation. Each member of the organization has his/her own goals and views conflict as normal and a part of an organization’s life. Social actions arise out of the expectations, norms, attitudes, values, experiences, situations and goals of an individual.

The social action approach is important in weakening the fatalism of the structural determinations and stresses. In this case, the individual retains some power and freedom.

Industrial relations have been shaped and benefited largely from the theories by the major theorists. The industrial relations all over the world have been improved for the common good of all the stakeholders in the organizations (Hall, 17). They are also important for the achievement of organizational and individual goals.

A sound industrial relations systems represent harmonious relations more cooperative than conflicting. They also create better environments for economic growth. They require policies that govern them (Jackson 25).

Collective Bargain

This is the process through which the employees come together with the aim of championing for their rights. This is achieved through a system of shared responsibility and decision making between the labor force and the management. Collective bargaining involves the Union as the workers’ representatives, and management as the employers’ representatives. Collective bargaining has four elements that make it a complete, which include the following:

a) Legality: the contract being negotiated must be a legal agreement.

b) Economic perspective: the contents of the bargain must specify the terms and conditions of employment regarding salary, wage increment, and other benefits.

c) Must be between two parties: the agreement is between labor and management.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrial Relations Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More d) It is a system involving shared responsibility and decision making.

Collective bargaining ensures the improvement of workers’ standards of living through fair remuneration and good working conditions, guarantees security of tenure, and employee promotion on the basis of merit.

It allows for participation of the labor force in running an enterprise through the decision making and control management. It also allows for ease and fair dispute management and other employment issues settlement.

Historical background

Trade unions were initially established in the United States in the 1700s. They were meant to safeguard the welfare of the workers. Many other unions were formed in other countries in the world thereafter.

In the past, many employees came together to form unions. They were brought together by their areas of expertise. Thus two categories of labor unions emerged. These included: Crafts union and industrial unions.

Crafts union was formed by workers specialized in a certain trade while the industrial unions were formed by workers in the various industries. Some of the major unions at the time included the National Labor Union organized in 1866 and the Nobel Order of the Knight of Labor in 1869.

In the 19th century, courts were antagonistic to unions as they were seen as restraining trade by violating the laissez-faire capitalism core principle that states should not support interferences in business. The conflict that existed for there to be antagonism was between freedom of association, which gave people a right to form associations, and freedom of voluntary exchange in markets, which objected any form of market contracting opposing unions.

There was a change when the Wagners Act passed in 1935. Some of the elements of this Act included the establishment of clear rights of workers to form unions, protection in organizing activities for preventing employers from unfair practices and unfair bargains. The Act led to the establishment of a National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).

This changed the attitude of the federal governments about the legitimacy of the collective organizations by workers. During the 1950s, there was a dramatic expansion of unions.

With the rules in place, unionization reached its peak in 1953 with regard to the private sector. In the 1970s, there was the uneasy truce between unions and employers, which showed new competitive pressures. The only group served by the unions is employees and they have not accomplished their aspirations as the employer is set against giving workers a voice and power in the various organizations (Jackson 13).

Unions have been of better help, and workers under unionized institutions wish to retain their unions. In addition, those who are not unionized would wish to register in unions given a chance. There are numerous benefits that came through the unions.

The Union membership has been on the downward trend since the last two decades of the 20th century. This can be attributed to the fact that the unions have accomplished their missions and made working condition better. In addition, there has been a fall in the number of blue-collar jobs.

This can also be attributed to increase in the labor laws that aim at enhancing the workers’ plight. There are other factors that have led to this trend. The number of unionized workers is still high all the same (Hall, 49).

Stages of Union development

Labor unions are usually organized on several different levels. Local Unions are formed to champion for the welfare of employees in a given region. This may include a city, state, or regional block. The national union is known to be the umbrella union of all other small unions within a country.

There is also the international level. However, it is not all the unions that have this element. It is made up several national unions whose bases are the local unions just like the national unions. The top level labor union organization is the federation, which is made up of many national and international labor unions.

The federation level is an umbrella union that synchronizes and facilitates the functioning of other small unions. It also champions for political representation of the unionized workers (Hall, 19).

Roles of the Unions

Labor unions have power that emanates from the collective power of its members. Therefore, they articulate issues that are facing their members and are mandated to perform certain responsibilities (Khan, 79). Their roles range from national development, environmental issues. Unions play a big part in national development as they are the catalyst of social change and justice. They are responsible for harmonious industrial relations and contribute greatly to human resource development (Hall, 22).

Catalyst of social change and justice: Well organized union yields tremendous power. When the powers are properly used, they convert into agents of social change and justice. They have successfully uplifted the economic status of workers consequently changing the social positions of the masses.

Harmonious Industrial relations: with the influence they have, they are in a position to dictate the nature industrial relations. Without the strong influence of these unions, it is at times hard to harmonize the relations between employers, employees, and the government agencies (Khan, 80).

Existence of harmonious industrial relations is manifested by lack of strikes, disputes, and lockouts. Harmonious industrial relations, attracts political stability, incentives in business, and natural resources are made available attracting investors to do business where these unions exists.

Development of human resources: In developing human resource, unions have been very instrumental in effecting changes and improvements in developing nations that are in the transition period from agriculture to industrial economies. It accelerates the change in attitudes of the labor force (Khan, 91).

Consequently, this has effects on the workforce quality and the quality of its work. New attitudes include safety awareness, time keeping, teamwork and open mindedness. The union also facilitates and accelerates the pace of adapting for workers from their initial orientations to the current orientation, creating a productive, and competitive workforce. They play a big role in training, education and skill building to empower the workforce (Hall, 23).

Poverty alleviation: Khan noted that the struggle against poverty is one of the missions that unions focuses to eradicate all over the world (79). In addition, they have always involved the strategies of poverty alleviation. Unions make representations to governments and international agencies.

They campaign for policies that can assist in poverty eradication. They organize workers and assist them in creating smooth employee employer relations through providing channels for employees to voice their grievances enforcing mutual agreements (Khan, 81). These platforms ensure that workers get fair terms and conditions of work, as well as fair remunerations for their labor services.

The alternative poverty alleviation policies include organizing unemployed youths into the informal sector of the economy, funding women, and establishing groups and associations for the peasant farmers and other small scale workers in the society (Khan, 82).

Role for Public Health and Sustainable Development: Interest in the overall state of the environment has been manifested by both employers and employees. They have ways in which to treat those infected with HIV/AIDs and other diseases for the common good of everyone at work and for productivity purposes of the workforce.

Arguments in favor and against unions Arguments in favor of unions

a) Public workers get a good pay such that strikes are less, and there is continuity of work.

b) They protect workers from various company abuses, creating for them favorable working conditions.

c) The unions establish long-standing employment relationships. The relationship is among the employers and employees. The relationship has positive implication for both parties.

d) Unions provide a platform for workers to advocate for benefit remuneration, benefits, and acceptable working environments (Hall, 52).

Arguments against Unions

a) They can escalate prices for consumers. In this case, employers may be compelled to increase remunerations in which case the burden is to be shouldered by clients.

b) Unions constrain skilled employees from being recruited. In this case, the unions tend to hold workers in their positions in the name of securing their jobs, even those that are not fit for the jobs.

Non fit employees are often protected from layoffs and being fired. Thus, new positions are hard to open up in the labor market.

Conclusion With the many changes that have occurred over the years in the society, unions need to change their structure in order to accommodate the dynamic changes that are occurring in the world today. Historically, the unions were viewed as bodies for workers’ welfare and rights.

They have now become major instruments of national development. As years pass by, the roles of unions will continue to evolve, change, and increase to accommodate the changes in the world. Unions have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of their mother nations and their citizens.

Works Cited Hall, Richard. Industrial Relations: A Current Review. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006. Print.

Jackson, Michael P. Industrial Relations. London: Croom Helm, 1982. Print.

Khan, Muhammad Tariq. “Role Of Labor Unions Beyond Collective Bargaining”. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, 1.1 (2010): 78-90. Print.


Risk Management and Insurance Case Study essay help: essay help

Introduction Risk management refers to the concept of identifying, assessing, evaluating, prioritizing, of possible risks that a firm or an individual faces in a bid to minimize, control, or monitor impact of identified risks through applications of resources. One of the ways of controlling or minimizing impact of risks is the risk transfer (Dorfman, 2007).

Risk transfer, also known as insurance, involves engagement of a third party through a contract to pay a given sum of money in the event that such a suspected loss occurs. Insurance contracts involve premium and principles of insurance.

One of the principles is subrogation and indemnity requiring insurer to pay insured sum assured in the event that a loss is caused by insured risks.

The following scenarios confirm how the principle of indemnity and contribution affects insurance practices.


You have purchased a homeowner’s insurance policy for your home that you live in with your spouse and 2 children of 19 and 17. You live in a single family residence built in 1996 that is 1 story with 3 bedrooms and 2 ½ bathrooms. The coverages for your policy are as follows:

Coverage A: $190,000

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Coverage B: $19,000

Coverage C: $75,000

AOP Deductible: $1,000

Coverage D: $38,000

Coverage E: $300,000

Coverage F: $5,000

Hurricane Deductible: 2%

We will write a custom Case Study on Risk Management and Insurance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More You also purchase for your insurance an auto policy covering all 4 drivers in your household and the 3 vehicles you own. The coverage in your auto policy is as follows:

Personal Injury Protection: $10,000 ded: $0

Liability: Bodily Injury $50,000 / $100,000

Liability: Property Damage $50,000

Uninsured Motorist: $50,000 / $100,000

Medical Payments: $5,000

Collision Deductible: $500

Comprehensive Deductible: $500

Both policies were purchased on March 1st, 2012 and are for 1 year. During the year your household had the following claims. Please indicate how much the insurance company is required to pay for the claims and under which coverage are they paying:

April 12th,2012: a water pipe burst in your kitchen while the dinner was being cooked and it produced $69,000 to your home and $5,500 to some small appliances and kitchen items.Water pipe is part of the constructed house hence any losses associated with physical damages caused to any part of the property is compensated on the basis of coverage A (Dorfman, 2007). Therefore, the amount of $74,500 will be compensated from the $190,000 Coverage A taken by the policy holder.

May 21st, 2012: you son driving back from school while raining loses control of the vehicle and hits a traffic signal knocking it down. The city sues you to repair the damage and is awarded by the court a judgment for $83,525. Your son did not suffer any injuries but the vehicle required $8,600 in repairs. The insurance will pay a sum of $50,000, which was the principal sum insured for property damages under the auto policy. The owner will have to meet the cost of the remainder, which is $89,525 – $50,000 = 39,525. This is because the insurance firm only promised to indemnify the policy holder up to $50,000 in case of any property damages under the auto policy. However, the owner will not have to pay the remainder as the insurance policy will under Coverage E (Vaughan


Charter and public schools in the United States of America Research Paper college admission essay help

Introduction Charter and public schools in the United States of America are facing a myriad of challenges stemming from external and internal pressure. Externally, both public and charter schools are required to perform well during examinations. Anderson and Holder (2012) carried out a longitudinal study to investigate the ten years annual reports of the two local charter schools in the United States of America.

The study utilized information from various sources, such as document analyses, site visits along with various and numerous interviews. The findings of this study revealed that the two schools under study received a lot of feedback regarding its administration, curriculum and evaluation.

CER (Center for education reform) describes a charter school as an innovative public school that is accountable to pupils/students outcomes as well as developed into offer programs that are modified to meet the desires or needs of the community they serve. In the year 1992, a first charter school was opened in the city of Saint Paul within the state of Minnesota.

Presently, there are at least 4,100 charter schools in the United States of America, which accommodate more than 1.2 million students (Bailey, 2009).

The District of Columbia and 42 states in the U.S. have laws, which are associated with the charter school. In every charter school, there is a board of governors that are responsible for making critical decision in regards to the school. Besides, there are also sponsors in charter schools who play an integral role in monitoring as well as approving application to ensure that there is success in this school.

Statement of the Problem The core reason why charter schools were initiated was to increase the academic option in the public school system. Peebles (2004) defines curriculum as the entire issues that take place within the school. They include interpersonal link, guidance, extracurricular activities as well as academic work.

Peebles further points out that curriculum entails cultural dissonance, academic expectation of the parents, teachers’ support as well as experience in addition to instructional leadership. Peebles carried out a case study to examine four issues associated with curriculum in the Marblehead charter school.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issues explored included cultural dissonance, academic expectation, teacher training and experience as well as instructional leadership. Peebles also asserts that, in order for the charter schools to develop, they must move via various critical stages. These stages encompass pre-operational phase, operational phase as well as institutional operational stage.

As pointed out by Anderson and Holder (2012), operational and pre-operational activities have the capacity to impede the opening of charter schools and as such, great focus should be directed to them in the course of the beginning phases of the charter schools development. The director of Marblehead charter school placed more focus on the survival of the school, such as curriculum development, development as well as staff and instruction supervision.

Background of the Problem The desire to perform well is putting a lot of pressure on both, charter and public schools to constantly review their curriculum in an effort to compete effectively.

Skilton-Sylvester(2011) opine that present day principles and managers of public and charter schools are required to constantly monitor and evaluate efficacy of their curriculum, review and implement new strategies and tactics in order to improve the performance of students in schools.

Autonomy as well as teachers leadership are critical tenets in the development of a school’s curriculum. Several studies have demonstrated that inexperienced teachers do not contribute enough to the development of a school curriculum.

Purpose of the Study Charter and public schools in the United States of America have to combat a number of challenges because of external and internal pressure.

Externally, both public and charter schools need to show good results during examinations. Internally, some schools have inexperienced teachers and poor curriculum that does not enhance performance of students. Developing a comprehensive and effective curriculum in both charter and public schools will provide a platform for these schools to perform well in examinations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Charter and public schools in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As noted by Peebles (2004), an inexperienced and poor teacher has the potential to unconstructively affect the outcome of students even after the students have left the class. In the process of defining a curriculum, it is critical that teachers possess a detailed apprehension of approaches for assessing the outcome of students, techniques for assessing curricula as well as instructional delivery and the content of the curriculum.

Besides, when developing a curriculum, teachers should be given sufficient time to plan, to create, to adopt and to assess the curriculum. Numerous studies have revealed that one of the reasons why students migrate from one school to another is attributed mainly to students’ poor academic performance. Most parents who are not contented with grades of their children received during the process of studying at school are more than wiling to transfer their children to another school.

The significance of the Problem Students have different abilities in a given or particular classroom. We can hardly have a one-size lesson package which can fit all students in the class. Learning procedures and abilities differ across the classroom. As a result, there is a need for a lesson tailored to fit a specific group of students with a common liability or problem.

The lesson must address these needs for effectiveness and benefits of the students. At the same time, the needs of students are divers. This means that teachers should tailor their teaching profession in a specific way in order to meet specific needs of the students. The teacher in this case faces a challenging task of ensuring that he or she has the needed and required skills for some particular needs. Differentiated instruction is an area in the teaching profession which is harnessed for providing specific needs to students.

Given that students have specific needs that must be catered for by differentiated instructions, there is the need for developing an area for students’ professional development for the differentiated instruction. In this paper, differentiated instruction for students with difficulties in learning the English language in a mathematics class will be addressed and looked at.

Mathematics Learning in English Language Mathematics is a core subject in all disciplines. The subject is a must-learn for students in various disciplines. Mathematics is majorly taught in English. This is because of the ease with which the language is used in relation to mathematical expressions. The United States of America, the United Kingdom, and some countries in Africa use English in mathematics classes.

At the same time, the United Kingdom and the United States of America have non-English speaking population who are schooling in the same. As a result, mathematical textbooks used in this setting are written in the English language. The same text books are used in African countries in the mathematical curriculum.

Teachers in training colleges are taught in English and as a result, they infer the same to students in English. At the same time, there is no discrimination in education settings. Consequently, students are huddled together in the same learning environment irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds (Bender, 2002).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Charter and public schools in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Students who have English as their second language find it hard to cope with in a mathematics class as they are faced with two tasks that ought to be accomplished simultaneously. The first task entails learning the English language, whereas the second task involves learning mathematics itself.

Due to this, the students who have the English language as their second language struggle to grasp concepts in mathematics class. This happens due to the fact that when the lessons are delivered, teachers do not discriminate students but deliver the lesson with an assumption that they are grasping the concept irrespective of the language deficiency.

Given that teachers cannot speak and learn the first language for every student in class, there is a need for them to offer differentiated instruction to students in this area. Differentiated instruction is vital to students with learning disabilities as teachers are trained to give instructions with a generalized idea on the same (American Institutes for Research, 2010).

Differentiating Mathematical Instruction for English Language Learners Mathematics classes have normally diverse students. The common diversity is seen in terms of ethnic backgrounds. In a mathematics class, about 30% of the students are normally the English language learners. As a result, they differ in the learning abilities, facilities, and styles.

The English language learners find it hard to cope with the material in this class. The purpose of differentiation in a mathematics class is to teach the victimized students with the aid of myriads of techniques and strategies that address their deficiencies. This implies that the main focus is on the teacher.

The teacher is supposed to come up with strategies in order to implement the differentiation instruction. In this case, the teacher is supposed to be equipped with professional techniques needed to address this issues (Tomlinson, 1999). In this project, the professionalism involved in differentiation mathematical instructions for the English language learners are going to be discussed and highlighted.

The Objectives The purpose of differentiating the mathematical instructions for the English language learners is to make the lesson of mathematics comprehensible for all students in the class. Through this concept, the students are supposed to achieve the needed mathematical concept despite their language barriers.

As a result, the teacher is supposed to ensure that the students express the numbers or concept used to solve a certain mathematical expression in writing or orally. This involves ensuring that the lesson is not given as it is written in the books but rather is made for the students (Glencoe, 2005).

Assessment Methods Before implementing as well as also during and after implementing the strategies involved in the learning process, the teacher is supposed to make an assessment of the class and students in order to identify the needs of the students. There are several methods that can be used.

The first method is examination of the records. In this case, the teacher is supposed to carefully examine or review the test score of the students in previous mathematical tests. He or she is also supposed to check the daily assignments and the wording used in the students’ books.

Assessment should be done at the beginning of the term or the period the teacher has taken over. Assessments can also be done through a one-on-one talk with the student in case the class is small. In addition, assessment can also be done through testing a learning style inventory that can work best to the students. This is possible through ascertaining the topic that best suits the students (American Institutes for Research, 2010). For this case, the students should be given topics, such as algebra and statistics.

Assessment should also be assessed for their progress. This should be done through the skills levels, learning style and thinking skills among many other issues. At the end of every period, the teacher should give the students some projects and evaluate the same to see the extent to which they have grasped the concept (Baker, Gersten,


Assessment of the firm’s performance management system Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

In today’s fast paced, complex and dynamic business environment, organizations have turned their focus on how to deliver with much flexibility and quickly new high quality products and services in response to the ever changing and greater demands from clients. As such, the need to create new high-performance work systems to deliver on these premises has heightened fundamental transformations in the working structures.

With this, a renewed emphasis that views people as a source of competitive advantage rather than a cost to be minimized has emerged. Indeed, the old era where employees were viewed as replaceable elements in an organization has already proved to be very ineffective in the current dynamic and complex context.

Human resource management systems must continuously seek to create a high performance workplace system that rightly embraces a team-based structure and focuses more on increasing employees influence and contribution on business direction as well as organizational functioning.

This is especially so in the work environment, the processes involved and work tools to be used to manage the workforce. An effective performance management system is one of the tools that can turn a dull and an unproductive workforce to a highly innovative and productive workforce for any company.

It is upon this background that the performance evaluation system by Maple Leaf Shoes is to say without prejudice, a casually taken affair and which if it were to be taken more keenly could yield significant benefits to the company. To start with, the system is baseless with no guiding principles and connection to the overall firm strategy and goals.

In addition, no guiding performance targets have been developed to guide assessment of actual performance against desired outcome. As it stands, the firm’s performance management system is a blind tool incapable of yielding any change and value for the organization. The current system used by the organization consists only of a template of questions with no ownership. Neither the management nor the employees can claim involvement and therefore attachment to the developed system.

All these issues just indicate the presence of an important step being overlooked in developing the system—which is failure to carry out performance planning. Failure to plan as is universally known is a plan to fail. Without clearly defined goals to point out the exactly desired results to be accomplished as well as the linkages all these would have to the organizational success factors makes it a blunt tool.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second crucial weakness of the current system is that it lacks effective feedback mechanism. Owing to the fact that appraisal is done annually at a predetermined interval but overlooks performance goal setting, makes it a baseless system incapable of yielding any meaningful feedback. It does not define what every employee contribution should be and what is the level or acceptable achievements. Employees cannot be motivated to work without targets and as such this forms a key weakness of the system.

Recommendations for improvement Maple Leaf Shoes requires a performance management system that can work for it. To start with, the organization needs to clearly define its overall strategy and goals upon which the basis for a performance management system can be established. Upon having a basis, the organization needs to determine for each employee or group of employees what needs to be done or achieved in order to satisfy the organizational strategy and goals.

This is off course after carrying out an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the organizations human resources and the needs and resource requirements. Thirdly, the organization needs to set up a feedback mechanism upon which actual performance can be gauged against set performance at pre-determined intervals before the main evaluation and review is done at the end of the performance appraisal period.


Influence of Japanese culture in Hawaii Research Paper essay help online

The sugar sector in Hawaii had a boom in the 1870s but this was not the case with Japan because the change that led to the modern economy in Japan was not an easy process. These resulted to massive unemployment in Japan and cases of civil disorders and bankruptcies were high. The situation in Japan led to emigrants settling in Hawaii.

Majority of the emigrants were single men who were farmers. Japanese first settled in Hawaii in 1868 as casual labourers in sugar plantations. The first hospitality they received was bad and their settlement at Hawaii was therefore regarded as failure (Takagi 1987). In 1989, an agreement was arrived at demanding all Japanese immigrants to leave Hawaii but about 40 Japanese still remained there.

The problem of poor hospitality and poor terms of service were resolved in 1885 and more Japanese were therefore willing to migrate to Hawaii. The number of the immigrants in Hawaii by 1902 had reached 30,000. When Hawaii became a territory of the United States of America, contract labour was banned and many Japanese based in Hawaii migrated to U.S because of the increased wages.

An executive order and a gentlemen’s agreement placed restriction on migration of Japanese to Hawaii in 1907 and 1908 respectively. In 1909 and 1920, there were several strikes geared towards increment of wages but they were not successful. However, they agreed to work for the common good. At least 200,000 Japanese had settled in Hawaii by 1924 to work in sugar plantations when the United States banned further migration (Takagi 1987).

How Japanese culture affected the western culture From the census, it is clear that the culture and the cuisine Hawaii, which are known today, were created by the history of the migration of Japanese to Hawaii when they settled there to work in plantations. There are several proofs in Sushi where there is continuous evolution of the influence of Japanese.

The Japanese who settled in Hawaii continued to make dishes using ingredients and authentic flavours. The dishes are the favourites for tourist as well as natives in Sushi, which have become popular as they are simple, have variety and are delicious. The dishes are liked by Vegans, those who eat meat and also vegetarians (Pratt 2005).

Today, there is a Japanese cultural centre based at Hawaii, which has the objective of bridging the history and culture of the Japanese-American experience that is evolving in Hawaii. This organization is non-profit making and has historical and community gallery, Kenshikan martial arts and gift shops.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The centre has many programs for the exhibitions and festivals that are held every year. These activities are meant to honour the heritage of the Japanese and embrace diversity from other cultures in order to share a common future (Pratt 2005).

The vision of the centre is to have a society that connects with all people through educating of diverse heritage and understanding of oneself. This is a vibrant resource that strengthens the community of Hawaii though linking knowledge from the past to the current and future generation (Takagi 1987).

The centre has blended cultural background for the Japanese-American experience in Hawaii that has continuously evolved through community service and relevant programs as well as creating partnership (Daniel 2003). These programs promote understanding and enable the community to celebrate its heritage, identity of the land as well as its culture.

There are values embedded in Japanese-American traditions and Aloha’s spirit. Looking into the history, the idea and planning of Japanese cultural centre of Hawaii originated from the migration of Japanese to Hawaii.

This was initiated by the first and second generations that were determined to the task of national heroism, survival as well as restoring their cultural pride in the community (Daniel 2003). 125 years ago, there were celebrations by Imin that led to major Japanese set-ups getting devoted in the community to implement the concept of the cultural centre in Hawaii (Daniel 2003).

The project of the cultural centre was initiated in 1986 by the Chamber of commerce. It was aimed to consolidate related organizations in Hawaii to join effort in preserving the legacy of the immigrants from Japan in order to honour their contributions for the young generation to successfully integrate in the American culture (Bentley-Ziegler-Streets 2008).

The aim of the project was to create identity for the Japanese immigrants and trace roots for future generations. The centre also promoted relations by creating harmony and understanding among the future generations of the Japanese immigrants and the Americans in Hawaii (Takagi 1987).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Influence of Japanese culture in Hawaii specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The creation of the cultural centre was the effort of many communities where ad Hoc committees were created to implement the courses for the action plans from various related organizations from Japan. Other organizations involved in fundraising also came up from other communities in Hawaii.

The works of various committees were set up to establish historical research programs, planning and steering, property management and membership. These committees followed a prepared schedule because the task ahead in forming the cultural centre was tremendous (Bentley-Ziegler-Streets 2008).

In 1987, the new idea of forming the cultural centre took its first step and was incorporated in the laws of the state in Hawaii. The centre was expected to be independent and play an important task in perpetuating cultural values inherited from the forefathers into the current and future generations (Daniel 2003).

The Modern Cuisine is a blend from Japan who settled in the island. Some animals and breed plants are grown locally to supplement the Cuisine. Most of the dishes in Hawaiian restaurants contain Asian staple such as macaroni salad, fried eggs and Japanese style Tonkatsu. Hawaii locally grows a lot of fruits such as pineapple papaya as well as bananas, which are served with most dishes (Daniel 2003).

In the 1890s, the Japanese in Hawaii started setting up their schools with fear that their children would become Americanized. By 1920, only 20% of the Japanese children attended American schools while the rest attended Japanese schools (Bentley-Ziegler-Streets 2008). However, the school system has now gone through integration because the current Japanese schools are only used for supplementary education especially on weekends.

This is part of the compulsory education in the United States of America (Columbus 1987). Today, Japanese language is spoken and learned by many residents across ethnicities. Most private schools ensure that pupils start learning Japanese language in grade two. Tourists are given concern by having most public facilities bear texts written in Japanese language.

These also include some local newspapers written in the language. Some newspapers and magazines in Hawaii are also produced in Japanese language. However, there is little interest for this by the local Japanese who were born in Hawaii and therefore production of the newspapers and magazines in Japanese language is in the process of dying out (Columbus 1987).

References Bentley-Ziegler-Streets. “The Traditions


Introduction to marketing Research Paper online essay help

Positioning Positioning presents one of the most important aspects within the service sector. This is since it contributes towards exposing intangible services on appropriate point of reference. Positioning can be referred to as a method of differentiation used in the process of identifying, developing and communicating organization’s products and services. Positioning tend to expose perceived superior and distinctive qualities of intended products and services to target consumers.

The concept provides good grounds on which services can be differentiated. Normally, service companies create some positioning of their goods and services in such a way that they are able to influence purchase decisions amongst consumers. There is possibility of positioning to be incorporated as part of marketing strategy.

Such planned positioning enables clear distinction between services from different companies within same competitive market. Generally, consumers within the same market, have different needs hence attracted to distinctive offers within the market. Efficient services should satisfy selected distinctive characteristics based on certain criteria such as; importance, distinctiveness, communicability, superiority, affordability as well as profitability (Kotler and Keller, 2007).

Certain characteristics should be evaluated for effective positioning. Such include; intangibility, degree of variability in the nature of service provided as well as inseparability which justifies connection between customer and available services (Fill, 2005).

Segmentation profile of the target market showing customers of the selected local service organization and various influences on consumer buying behaviour

Accor Hotel Marketing

Accor Hotel Group comprises of group of hotels spread all over various regions of the world and using one brand name. In marketing their services, Accor Hotel involves deep scrutiny of all their services for the purposes of promoting their business. Such process entails formulation of valid marketing mix including application of 4P’s.

Market Segmentation for Accor Hotel

Accor comprises of group of small hotels with each hotel operating based on centralized revenue management system. The hotel operates within the international market managing, owning and franchising nearly over four thousand hotels most of them being Small microenterprises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Accor Group of hotels segments the market based on the needs which require satisfaction. The changing needs and requirements within the market segments are identified through concrete and effective marketing strategies and decisions. The hotel market segments are divided based on main components such as geographic, psychographic and socio-economic.

Accor hotel group segmentation based on geographic bases comprises of hotel companies found within different regions of the world such as; Ibis, Formulae 1, Etap hotel names used within Europe and other regions. While in the United States the names used include Motel 6 and Red Roof Inns. While psychographic bases incorporates hotel’s life cycle, various buying patterns, motives of customers and attitude regarding intended services.

Such services comprise of economy to upscale luxury class hotels within business and leisure sectors. Additionally, Accor’s social-economic bases comprises of women segment, weak-end segment as well as instant market segment. Despite, feeding many segments, the life-style segment proves to be the most lucrative in terms of services demanded (Rajan, 2006).

Marketing Mix for Hotel Industry

Marketing mix comprises of various offers from the market in which the hotel operates. The mix involves application of the 4P’s (Promotion, place, price and people) in the process of identifying potential market segments for the intended services. Appropriate implementation of marketing mix determines the level of acceptability of the products and services and at the same time assists in the process of stirring demand for hotel’s services.

Various decision making areas requires attention since they determine to a larger extent positioning of hotel’s services. Such areas comprises of distinctive peripheral services, involvement of creative promotional services, application of affordable pricing strategies capable of assisting Accor Hotel command significant market share. Working with trustworthy and diligent personnel is recommended for the purposes of maintain considerable competitive advantage within the market.

Product mix for Accor hotel services comprises of services rendered within catering sector, management on various small hotel branches such as restaurant and cafeterias spread all over the regions as previously mentioned. This also includes management and provision of executive rooming services and efficient management of convention halls.

However, boarding services within hotel industry are considered important component of the product mix. There is well developed and established information technology which Accor utilizes to attract customers such as online technology (Ramboll management, 2002, pp.2-3). Besides, there should be adequate services in terms of sufficient ventilation, entertainment, lighting system and water supply within the hotel’s premises.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Introduction to marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important that organizations should integrate distinctive service operations allowing for efficiency in coordination between customers and individual hotels. Efficient positioning is considered capable of revealing needs of intended market segment and various methods on how to satisfy such needs.

At the same time payment systems should be modified with the changing technology. Such changes reinforces positioning of services based on efficient internet payment systems, such improvement would enable more online bookings hence decreasing transaction costs.

Improvement done in the whole chain of pricing enables easier adjustments; this is especially whenever any individual hotel alters prices within revenue management system. Such movements allows for individual reaction of the hotel towards fulfilment of local customer needs (Ramboll management, 2002, pp.2-3).

Promotion mix for such hotel involves various awareness campaigns through various means such as social media. Potential customers become aware of such facilities based on the nature of advertisement used in describing the quality of services and products offered. Such distinctive qualities are promoted through business advertisement, extensive publicity, and sales promotion, personal selling amongst other potential promotion tools.

Consumer buying behaviours are usually determined by nature of services based on the marketing mix. Most of the hotels utilize print media with the most current one being use of computerized technology. Hotels have found it easier to reach customers through social sites such as face book and e-mails.

Application of CRS system within hotels enables e-booking which ultimately contributes towards an increase in the number of bookings within particular segments. At the same time development of third-party websites assists hotels in the process of making reservation for their consumers or travel agents. Such wide range of technological installations, assist in the process of optimizing available hotel capacity within the world scale. This provides opportunities for individual hotels in terms of international bookings (Rajan, 2006).

The nature of publicity will determine to a larger extent, consumer response towards hotel services. Such business ventures require publicity of a number of events taking place within the hotel. Provisions for menus, entertainment events, conferences and exhibitions should be publicized through media. Pictures of dignitaries staying within the hotel premises contribute towards consumer attraction. At the same time, the kind of pricing mechanism used of which tactical pricing is found appropriate in the promotion of hotel businesses.

Explanation on positioning strategies used by the selected local service organization

Unlike other major competitors within the market, Accor focuses on building its current credentials and reputation based on high quality service provision amongst high-end consumers. Most hotels focus on diversifying their services especially within saturated markets such as United Kingdom.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Introduction to marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Establishing a chain of hotel services within densely populated areas would ensure that the business attracts higher demand. However, as indicated, management of Accor engages in segmentation, notably through the introduction technologically proven essential service lines.

Accor hotels utilize choice of location as one of the most essential positioning strategy. This is applicable in their owned restaurants, guest houses and small tourist attractions centres. At the same time, their distribution system utilizes modern computerized technology for purposes of increasing user of information. This ensures that the distribution and advertisement of service materials reach large population of media users.

The hotel also uses their travel agents as middlemen who happen to buying hotel rooms in bulk and ultimately sell to intended retailers. Such tour operators found within the hotel industry are referred to as producers of services. Such dimensions of business deals enables travel agents to purchase sufficient services at the request of specified clients hence providing convenient network of sales outlets capable of catering for the needs of intended market segment.

Positioning Map

Positioning map is used within hotel industry for the purposes of identifying various positioning of competitors’ services with respect to identified distinctive characteristics. In this case, the analysis is done by drawing positioning map for particular market segment. However, customers from different market segments may have different opinion and perception on the nature of services provided and intended benefits. (Kaplan and Norton, 1996b).

References Fill, C 2005, Marketing Communications – Engagement, strategies and practice, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh Gate

Kaplan R


Reading Disability Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

A reading disability is a type of learning disability caused by neurological factors that affect the ability of a child to read normally (Safford, 2006). Reading disabilities impair the ability of a person to read according to the expected level.

A reading disability is also referred to as dyslexia and can affect any child including those with normal levels of intelligence. Children with reading disabilities are faced with a lot of challenges when it comes to learning (Safford, 2006).

Children with reading disabilities have persistent difficulties when it comes to using their decoding strategies and therefore completely rely on their whole memory for reading. This affects their fluency in reading and consequently their understanding of text becomes very difficult.

Children with reading disabilities read slowly due to their difficulties with spelling and phonological processing. The visual and verbal response of children with reading disability is also very poor and in the process affects their manipulation of sounds (Hatcher, 1999).

The reading accuracy and comprehension of children is normally impaired by the reading disability and therefore affecting their academic life. Students with reading disabilities should be given extra time to complete assignments and examinations.

Reading disabilities can be partially inherited or can be caused by physical damage to the brain (Hatcher, 1999). According to research findings, reading disabilities can be caused by gene mutations that lead to writing and reading deficits.

Children with visual problems tend to experience reading disorders in many occasions compared to those without visual problems (Hatcher, 1999). The nervous system of a person is very important in coordinating the brain and visual processes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In case any of the brain and visual processes is interfered with, children are bound to have difficulties with their reading abilities. Children with language deficits may also experience difficulties when reading (Konza, 2006).

Neurological difficulties and the impairment of sensory nerves are among the physiological factors that cause reading impairments (Konza, 2006). The reading success of parents is a fundamental hereditary factor that can cause reading disabilities.

The intellectual environment created by parents plays a significant role in determining whether their children experience reading disabilities or not (Konza, 2006). Phonological processing and word recognition are in most cases influenced by genetics.

Racial identification and other socioeconomic factors can influence the reading abilities of a child. The learning strategies used by learning institutions can also affect the ability of children to read and comprehend information (Torgesen, 2002). Regular practice is needed for students to sharpen and perfect their reading skills.

Children with reading disabilities have certain characteristics that distinguish them from normal children (Torgesen, 2002). Identification of single words is the first difficulty that children with reading difficulties experience. Children with reading disabilities also find it difficult to understand rhymes and other sounds in words.

This group of students also experience difficulties with spelling and comprehension of reading materials (Torgesen, 2002). Children with reading disabilities are always unable to read at a faster rate whether silently or orally. Children with reading disabilities may omit or substitute words when reading.

The spoken language of children with reading disabilities is normally delayed and their written expression is also very poor. Reading disabilities makes children to be mixed up when it comes to directions and opposites. Decoding syllables is among the major challenges of children with reading disabilities (Konza, 2006).

We will write a custom Essay on Reading Disability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reversal of words is a common characteristic of children with reading disabilities. Associating syllables with specific sounds is another problem for children with reading disabilities. The functioning of brain hemispheres affects the reading speed of children.

It is important to evaluate the reading abilities of children on a regular basis in order to diagnose any kind of reading disabilities as early as possible (Malmquist, 1958). It is important to consider the fact that reading disabilities are not related to low intelligence.

The languages spoken at school and the child’s home are among the things considered when evaluating a child’s reading abilities. Cultural factors and educational opportunities also influence the reading abilities of children. It is possible for a child to compensate for a reading disorder through early intervention (Malmquist, 1958).

The severity of a reading disability and the kind of help they receive determine whether the case can be improved or not. The self-esteem of children with reading disabilities is normally very low and the situation can become worse if teachers and the immediate family do not offer their support towards improving the child’s condition.

It is possible to overcome a reading disorder if the condition is detected before the child reaches grade three (Konza, 2006). Children with reading disabilities may lack interest in learning activities which leads to poor academic performance. One of the best interventions for children with reading disabilities is to improve their word recognition skills (Konza, 2006).

It is important for students with reading disabilities to learn how to recognize real words as the first step towards improving their reading abilities (Hatcher, 1999). Teachers should help this group of students to improve their word recognition skills to supplement their sound recognition skills.

Phonemic awareness, word attack skills, phonics and decoding are some of the areas that this type of intervention aims at improving (Hatcher, 1999). Teachers and other professionals use direct instructions as the best method of teaching children with reading disabilities word recognition skills.

Direct instructions involve repetition practices that ensure that the children completely perfect their word recognition skills. Regular practice is the key to improving word recognition skills for children with reading disabilities (Safford, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Reading Disability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The instructional components of improving word recognition skills include sequencing, segmentation and advanced organizers. The sequencing component involves breaking down reading tasks. This helps in matching students with the level of their reading disability.

The teachers arrange for short sessions where students are able to read, review and underline new words in a passage. The second instructional component under this intervention is segmentation where the various skills being taught to students are broken down into segments for quick understanding of the reading tasks.

Advanced organizers enable students to get familiar with the learning instructions in advance before the actual lessons (Safford, 2006). It is essential to improve the comprehension skills of students as they learn how to recognize words.

The reading program of children with reading disabilities should be constantly evaluated to ensure the programs deliver the expected results.

Children with reading disabilities encounter a lot of challenges and should therefore be given some special attention when it comes to school assignments and examinations (Safford, 2006). It is important to accommodate this group of students for them to feel loved and appreciated.

Students with reading disabilities can not compete at the same level with normal students. Their reading speed is slow and this should be compensated by allowing them some extra time to complete their assignments and examinations (Konza, 2006).

The level of reading disability should be used to determine the amount of extra time that children with reading disabilities should be added. It would be very unfair and inhuman to expect children with reading disabilities to compete at the same level with normal children.

According to research findings, children with visual problems have high chances of encountering problems in their reading. The extra time enables children with reading disabilities to understand questions at their speed and be able to answerer them according to their level (Konza, 2006).

Children with reading disabilities end up not completing their assignments and examinations in a case where they are not given some extra time. Their reading and writing speed is very slow and therefore can not allow them to finish their assignments and examinations within the normal time (Konza, 2006).

In conclusion, reading disabilities are a reality and parents in collaboration with teachers should look for ways of ensuring that children with this kind of disability are given enough support (Torgesen, 2002). Genetic and physiological factors are among the major causes of reading disabilities among children.

It is important for parents and teachers to detect any kind of reading disabilities as early as possible so that proper measures can be taken to prevent the situation from getting worse. Helping students with reading disabilities to perfect their word recognition skills is among the basic interventions for children with reading disabilities (Torgesen, 2002).

Children with reading disabilities should be given extra time in order to complete assignments and examinations because they can not compete at the same level with normal children (Hatcher, 1999). Accommodating children with reading disabilities helps in improving their self-esteem and academic performance.

References Hatcher, P. (1999). Phonemes, rhymes, and intelligence as predictors of children’s responsiveness to remedial reading instruction: Evidence from a longitudinal intervention study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72(2), 130-153.

Konza, D. (2006). Teaching students with reading difficulties. New York, NY: Cengage Learning Australia.

Malmquist, E. (1958). Factors related to reading disabilities in the first grade of elementary school. New York, NY: Almqvsit


Conflicting Policies toward Minorities Essay essay help online

At the end of the nineteenth century, the American government pursued different policies toward various minority groups, even though the representatives of these groups were considered to be distinct from the Anglo-Saxon population.

Some of them were forced to assimilate into the mainstream culture, while others were excluded or segregated from the community. To a great extent, these conflicting policies can be explained by the fact that at that time, racial ideology played an important role and profoundly influenced the views of many individuals.

Some minorities, especially African-Americans were denied the right to integrate into the society only because they had a different color of the skin.

In contrast, white people had more opportunity to participate in social activities because they were not considered to be different from a racial point of view. On the whole, the former history of slavery and racism also affected the attitudes of the officials and public.

In order to illustrate these arguments, one should first look at the policies of the state toward African-Americans. In particular, one can speak about the legal doctrine Separate but equal that emerged in the late nineteenth century.

According to it, black people allegedly had the civic rights guaranteed by the Constitution. However, they were not able to attend many educational institutions or occupy positions in the government.

Thus, they were excluded from the mainstream culture only because it was unacceptable to many individuals that black people could have the same opportunities in American society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To a great extent, these attitudes of the state can be explained by the long history of slavery and unwillingness of people to see former slaves as full-right citizens. The effects of this doctrine are palpable even nowadays, when many black people are economically-disadvantaged.

In their turn, the immigrants, who came from India and China, were frequently prevented from integrating into the society. For instance, in many cases, it was extremely difficult for them to find employment.

This is one of the reasons why they settled in separate communities. Nevertheless, they soon acquired the label of whiteness. This is one of the reasons why they successfully integrated into the mainstream culture.

Finally, one can speak about Native Americans because the state had a very peculiar attitude toward them. Unlike African-Americans, this minority group was not associated with slavery and inferior position within a society.

However, they were also deemed to be distinct from the majority of American population. They could interact with the mainstream America in different ways. For instance, they could either completely assimilate into the society without retaining their cultural distinctions.

The second option available to them was to live in segregation. However, they were viewed as an inferior race by the state. Thus, one can say that one can say that the rhetoric of race profoundly affected the life of many minority groups.

On the whole, these examples indicate that that at the end of the nineteenth century, minority groups faced different challenges. Some of them were deprived of the opportunity to integrate into the community. Other people were enabled to become a part of the mainstream culture, but in some cases, they had to abandon their cultural heritage.

We will write a custom Essay on Conflicting Policies toward Minorities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, the legacies of slavery and racial view of the world had a strong influence on the state. This is one of the main issues that one can identify.


Campus Crimes Types and Causes Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Types of crimes and their causes

Colleges’ responsibilities


Works Cited

Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the number of crimes associated with college students. By comparing the current crime rates in all our college campuses, experts have indicated that campus crime rates have risen exponentially over the last century (Flowers 23).

Psychologists have blamed this unprecedented increase on stress, romantic obsession, relationship anguish, and drug abuse. Notably, relationship anguish, romantic obsession, and drug abuse have been cited as the leading causes of campus crimes in the U.S.

Currently, law enforcers, researchers and college administrators are struggling to find ways of controlling violence, crimes, and unusual behaviors within our colleges. On the other hand, students, staff, faculty, and external communities are being called upon to advocate for nonviolent behaviors and acts (Wessler


The Methods to Improve Communication in the Supply Chain Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

To guarantee the adequate and even higher profits for all the members of the supply chain, it is necessary to reduce the possible negative consequences of the ineffective communication within the definite supply chain. Moreover, the reduction of the overall costs also depends on the effective changes in approaches to producing, delivering, and storing goods and products.

The problem is in the fact that if the parties of the supply chain are competitors, they are inclined to concentrate only on appropriating value from the chain (Shah 228). In this situation, the necessity to create the definite value for the chain is not discussed as the priority for the members of the supply chain because of not seeing the potential benefits for them.

As a result, the party which is stronger and has the greater potential for the development and success within the chain and market intends to use the possibilities of the weaker party in order to increase its own profits.

The absence of the balance within the supply chain can lead to the significant increase of the overall costs because of the absence of the effective communication between the parties. To improve the work of the supply chain, it is necessary to focus on the methods for developing the communication between the parties and on the ways to reduce overall costs. It is possible to state that these goals are correlated because they are oriented to the development of the supply chain’s economic potential, involving all the parties.

The supply chain can develop more effectively if there is the focus on the reliability and speed of interactions between the chain’s members. Moreover, it is important to create the sustainable environment for the parties of the supply chain in relation to the improvement of the information flow and communication between these parties (Wisner 26).

There are a lot of technologies which are developed to improve the information flow and exchange of the data. The usage of the certain software and programs to realize the exchange of the information is important to make the communication between the parties more effective and immediate (Wisner 27-29).

The next step is the focus on the direct connection with the consumer. When a lot of members of the supply chain have no direct connections with consumers there are few possibilities to meet all the parties’ needs and expectations fully. That is why, the needs of the customers should be discussed as important not only by retailers but also by the other members of the supply chain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reduction of the overall costs is possible when all the parties are interested in the results of the realized transactions. If the parties are competitors, it is necessary to insist on the reduction of the excess inventories which can lead to the reduction of the overall costs because of decreasing the extra usage of resources (Wisner 26). It is also important to prevent the exploitation of the weakest parties which can be downstream according to their position in the supply chain in order to satisfy the economic needs of the stronger members.

The complex supply chains cannot work effectively because of a lot of parties involved in the process. The focus on the direct cooperation can also lead to the reduction of the overall costs.

Works Cited Shah, Janat. Supply Chain Management: Text and Cases. India: Pearson Education India, 2009. Print.

Wisner, Joel. Principles of Supply Chain Management: A Balanced Approach. USA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.


History of Management Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of studying history of management


Reference List

Introduction Management is a profession as well as an art that has developed for a long period. Management has a long history that can be traced back to over a hundred years ago. It is important for any manager to understand the history of management to be able to steer an organization forward.

Managers need to understand where management started and how it has developed to reach where it is today. It is said that a country should have a memory; otherwise such a country is better referred to as ‘a nation of mad people’. Applying this to the management profession, it can be said that management that does not have memories is a management for ‘mad people’ (Smith, 2007).

Not many scholars are interested in history. Most students are just interested in knowing how to manage, with only a few being interested in knowing where management came from and how it developed. This creates managers who do not have deep knowledge in management (Daft


NCA Microelectronics Controlling Illegal Usage of Airwaves Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Problem statement Given their entrepreneurial skills, Harvey Nickerson and Lewis Cobb, founders of NCA Microelectronics, identified a market opportunity with regard to controlling illegal usage of airwaves. This opportunity motivated them to design the Interact/R1000 technology, which aimed at monitoring airwave usage.

After conducting a thorough environmental scan, NCA Microelectronics identified government agencies as its target customers. Despite the successful idea conceptualization, NCA Microelectronics faced a challenge in an effort to introduce the new product to the market. The problem came up during the new product development and market introduction phase.

Entrepreneurs should have sufficient funds to develop a new product successfully. The funds are necessary to undertake market research and product development conclusively. During the development of the R1000, NCA and the Department of Communication (DOC) were required to fund the product partly.

Each of the two parties contributed $100,000. Additionally, the Department of Communication in collaboration with governments of other developing countries provided NCA with the necessary technical support to ensure successful completion of the project. The project commenced successfully and the involved parties estimated the project to take 12 months.

NCA management team outsourced the services of an expert marketing firm, Fundy Cable, to introduce the new product in the market. However, during the market introduction phase, the new project experienced a hitch due to a difference that arose between NCA and the Department of Communication.

The subject of contention was with regard to the final features that R1000 would have. According to NCA, it was not possible to incorporate the features that the Department of Communication needed within the forecasted budget. Additionally, incorporation of such features would make the new product expensive.

Considering the price-conscious nature of customers, the new product would not gain sufficient market acceptability. NCA and the Department of Communication came agreed to develop the R900 version instead of the R1000 to prevent the project from failing completely.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem with changing the version is that it would experience a challenge during marketing because a German company had already ventured in designing and developing the R900. Therefore, R900 would face intense competition from the German company whose products had already gained market acceptance.

Despite this scenario, the firm went ahead and produced R900 which were purchased by the Department of Communication. During the spring of 1990, the Department of Communication experienced a financial constraint, which made it difficult to continue purchasing the product.

Considering the fact that the Department of Communication was the principal customer for R900, its inability to purchase the R900 presented a problem to NCA with regard to generating sales.

The problem heightened given the fact that other government agencies did not consider using R900 in monitoring and controlling illegal usage of airwaves.

Situation Analysis Strengths of the business

One of the major sources of NCA Microelectronics strengths arose from its founder’s risk taking characteristics. The two entrepreneurs managed to conduct a comprehensive environmental scan to identify feasible business opportunity.

After comprehensive analysis with regard to viability of the identified business opportunity, the founders of NCA Microelectronics were ready to risk their resources in implementing idea generated by the business. Additionally, the entrepreneurial characteristic of the two entrepreneurs made it possible to identify new market niche.

Therefore, the firm managed to design new products for the identified market niche; for instance, the firm’s plan to venture into the Cable Television industry illustrates this aspect. However, the idea did not succeed because the industry was more cost conscious compared to being technology conscious.

We will write a custom Report on NCA Microelectronics Controlling Illegal Usage of Airwaves specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The firm’s development of the new product, Chameleon, underscores its success in studying the environment and identifying feasible business opportunities. The designers intended to use the new product at solving theft of Pay-TV signals.

Another strength that NCA Microelectronics had developed is associated with its ability to establish a strong bond with its clients. This aspect increased NCA Microelectronics’ ability to source for funds externally.

For example, during the development of the R1000, NCA collaborated with the Department of Communication, which partly funded the project in addition to providing technical support.

Due to its innovativeness, the firm developed new technologies that revolutionized government’s efforts in monitoring and controlling illegal use of airwaves. The fact that the two entrepreneurs were technology experts enhanced the firm’s innovativeness with regard to technological products.

The new product developed would enable the government to monitor airwaves remotely. Initially, airwaves transmission towers were situated on hilltops, which made it expensive and inconvenient for the government to control airwaves. The new technology was remarkably effective according to the Department of Communication.


In its operation, NCA Microelectronics faced a severe budgetary constraint; for instance, it could not undertake the new product development project on its own. The budgetary constraints experienced forced the firm to join forces with potential clients such as the Department of Communication, who partly supplied finance for the project.

Despite the firm’s commitment in revolutionizing the airwaves control through innovation, it experienced a weakness with regard to ensuring that the new products successfully penetrated the target market.

The two entrepreneurs did not have sufficient market expertise hence the products could not penetrate the market easily due to lack of proper market entry strategies. The firm could not formulate an effective marketing strategy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on NCA Microelectronics Controlling Illegal Usage of Airwaves by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to its marketing weakness, NCA considered outsourcing the services of expert marketing firms such as Fundy Cable.

Services of expert marketing firms were outsourced to analyze the prospects of the new product succeeding upon its introduction in the market. However, this move further compounded the firm’s financial challenge.

Alternatives available

From the case, it is evident that the technology industry is characterized by a relatively high market potential. Therefore, NCA Microelectronics should consider ways of exploiting the market opportunities presented. The firm should conduct a comprehensive market research to exploit the potential in the technology industry.

The research should focus on two main market variables, which include the consumer and the competitor. Consumer market research will enable the firm to review its competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.

Findings of the competitor market research will enable the firm establish the competitors weak points and thus capitalize on the identified weaknesses. On the other hand, consumer market research will enable the firm to understand the consumers’ needs and wants.

This aspect will increase the probability of the firm developing a product that is in line with market demand and thus increase the probability of generating high sales. However, the firm will incur a substantial cost in undertaking market research. One of the areas that the firm should focus on during its research is the TV cable industry.

In its quest to increase profitability, the firm should not only focus on one client, but also identify other potential clients to prevent abrupt decline in sales in the event of one customer experiencing budgetary constraint, which would affect their purchasing power.

In addition, the firm should consider manufacturing the new product rather than outsourcing manufacturing services to ensure that the project is implemented successfully. This move will enable the firm to produce new products cost effectively considering the price conscious characteristic of firms in the TV industry.

Consequently, the firm will manage to influence television companies to purchase the new product because it will be priced more optimally. Additionally, NCA will also control the quality of the products. However, the problem of establishing a manufacturing plant is that the firm will incur high financial costs.

Course of action recommended

For the firm to deal with the challenges it is experiencing effectively, the management team should consider the following:

The firm should first consider developing a strong long-term capital base to succeed in its product development. One of the external sources of finance that it should consider is issuing shares to the public.

The firm should also nurture other core competencies and capabilities. One of the core competencies and capabilities that the firm should take into account is marketing.

Implications of the recommended course of actions

By issuing shares to the public, the firm will develop long-term capital, which will improve its effectiveness in undertaking the necessary research and development to undertake product development.

Improving its core competencies and capabilities with regard to marketing will increase the probability of the new product succeeding upon introduction in the market considering the fact that this area was one of the main challenges of product market entry after the establishment of NCA Microelectronics.


Wireless Technology in IKEA Case Study a level english language essay help

Phase I Proposing a New Idea

In the twentieth-fist century, wire technology has winded round the Earth, leaving no space for creative ideas and alternative solutions. However, spatial characteristics are becoming more crucial while planning interior or constructing buildings. Imagine a future in which power transfer is carried out without physical conduct.

Due to the fact that portable devices and mobility gain momentum among contemporary people, particularly among Generation Z, use of household robots, laptops, cell phones that can be charged without being plugged in, can provide people with freedom of operating those devices everywhere (Hadley n. p.). Hence, people do not have to be afraid of leaving the charger at home because their batteries could be recharged by means of power transmittance via radio waves. There is also a possibility of operating such devices even without batteries.

In fact, wireless technology implies transmission of energy from a power source to the object, which needs to be charged. This process is beneficial in case of impossibility to transmit the power via cables. Wireless power transmission differs from wireless communication. As such, the challenges of such technology are also different.

Because wireless technology premises on the principle of radio, the efficiency of transmittance depends on the signal (Hadley n. p.). So, in case the signal is low, the radio waves could fail to reach the destination. In case with wireless power, the focus is made on efficiency because it influences the extent by which the energy is sent to the receivers of the power. At this point, the problem of economic use has become urgent.

Despite the challenges of introducing wireless power technology, this system could still be used with other technological novelties, such as IKEA furniture that encourages innovative and creative ideas. It can solve a number of problems in terms of interior planning and use of small space.

As an example, IKEA introduce new furniture with built-in wireless technology that is controlled by a remote panel. Establishing wireless television boxes is beneficial because it contributes to convenience, mobility, and practicability of the interior space. IKEA UPPLEVA is among the exemplary devices that combine furniture and a new device, as well as embrace many other important functions than watching TV (IKEASWE n. p.). Moreover, the new idea also implies turning on the light without cable connection.

Feasibility Study

While evaluating the feasibility of the proposed technology, the emphasis should be placed to such aspects as electricity, magnetism, magnetic induction, power coupling, resonance, and electromagnetism. At this point, the wireless principle of conveying power embraces the electrical charged received through atmosphere.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this type of transmittance could be dangerous. Therefore, the pulp light should be turned on by means of other devices, such as electromagnetism.

Specifically, due to the fact that magnetism is regarded as the main driving force in nature, causing attraction of materials, installing permanent magnets can lead to the creation of the necessary magnet field, which could provide constant charges of specific objects. The phenomenon of energy coupling is another important feature that occurs when magnetic field of an object is able to create an electric current to supply other devices with energy.

To support the feasibility of the proposed idea, it is necessary to present numerical data supporting the benefits of wireless technology. At the poin t the table below demonstrate the efficiency percentage of wireless devices transmitting energy to the objects, including cell phones, laptops, and MP3 players.

Type of Wireless Technology Sources Operating Frequency (GHz) Conversion Efficiency (%) Circular Patch 2.40 81 Square Patch 8.50 65 Printed dipole 2.40 85 Printed Dual Rhombic 5.60 78 To make the technology more efficient, additional costs should be spent on constructing these antennas to make the signal available to all devices on the established area.

Evaluating Competitive Advantage

The above-presented statistics proves that efficiency is higher than average and, therefore, it can compete with other cable technologies. Besides, it has many advantages in terms of convenience and efficiency. To begin with, the high-tech product will be in high demand among customers for whom practical use of space, mobility, and convenience are prioritized.

Further, the products will also be convenient for those who travel much. For instance, it is possible to create a specialized bag with built-in small table that could be used for laptop, in case a person needs to work while being on business trip.

Steps Needed to Patient Such Idea

First of all, it is necessary to provide a description of the idea that should be original, genuine, and unique. Second, the authors of the patent should provide detailed list of applications of this device and explain why it differs from previously established idea. The name of the inventors, the design title, and intended use of the technology should be presented as well.

We will write a custom Case Study on Wireless Technology in IKEA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phase II Achieving Operational Excellence of a Product Line

The first phase of achieving operational excellence consists in gaining visibility through automation of data collection. Such a process can provide improvements and centralize the controlling process. Introducing a visualization system is beneficial because it highlights the vendor systems, capability of the industry to produce the technology, as well as pricing strategy.

Additionally, supervisory control is another flexible scheme that should be used to work out baseline metrics that could be a starting point for estimating reductions and providing superior visualization of data acquisition.

Identifying Supply Management Solution

Producing wireless technology implies construction of specialized station and antenna transmitting power to various mobile devices, including laptops, cell phones, and TV sets. Therefore, it is highly necessary to establish relationships with the construction company to ensure sufficient covering and radio wave transmission.

In addition, because electricity is received through solar batter, local solar power stations could also be established to supply the devices with power. At this point, the producers should negotiate with solar stations for the feasibility of this project and define the schedule and condition for the construction. Establishing relations with IKEA is another important step that can contribute to the creation of a commercially beneficial product.

Develop an E-Commerce Strategy

The analysis of the product line is possible through establishing the concept of ubiquitous power that is available to all people. The new wireless technology does not only expand human possibilities, but also allows to plan their time more efficiently. Maximizing the use of space and increasing the functionality and usability of the devices will be the premise of the new commerce strategy.

Because the devices are means of telecommunication, it is possible to carry out mass-mails and send message via cell phone to inform the users about the new function. Creation of website is also obligatory because it can provide detailed information on technology.

Case Study

The idea of cell phones and other appliances charging themselves might seem at first a figment of one’s wild imagination. However, according to the recent case study, IKEA offers an innovation that can possibly make the concept of self-charging appliances a part and parcel of everyday reality.

According to the case study conducted on the IKEA innovative suggestion, the self-charging appliance concept stems from the researches on wireless energy transfer. Based on wireless communication technologies, the new means of charging appliances is a revolutionary innovation that deserves a better look at. Combining the given idea with the IKEA furniture will help market some of the recent IKEA products, as well as trigger more customers to the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wireless Technology in IKEA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is essential to keep in mind that the given case study analysis presupposes answering not one, but two questions. To be more exact, it is necessary to figure out in what ways the promising, yet clearly disruptive new technology can promote the new IKEA products. The second issue that needs to be resolved concerns the means to market certain goods with the help of the new yet disruptive technologies if the company is less famous than IKEA. Once choosing the strategy that will help an even smaller business grow more influential will definitely show that the idea described above is worth implementation.

Even though the idea of wireless self-charging devices is still a concept and requires some time to be tested and approved, there can still be no doubt that the wireless self-charging devices production will break new grounds in the realm of technology, reinventing people’s perception of what technologies have to offer nowadays. Therefore, it can be expected that the given technologies can help promote the new IKEA goods more efficiently.

With such an incredible new brand to back the new IKEA products, the company can rest assured that the given technological advances would help make the IKEA brand popular worldwide once again. Even though the suggested wireless transmission of the information is generally considered not as efficient as other means, mostly because of the problems concerning the background noise in the process of signal transmission, it is still clear that the new technologies will help get people’s attention on the IKEA’s recently developed products.

Though combining the aforementioned technology and the whimsical, yet functional IKEA furniture hardly seems possible, it can still be suggested that the specific functions of the wireless battery charging can be combined with the specifics of a certain furniture type. It is worth mentioning that the IKEA furniture design can be described as extremely functional and at the same time minimalistic and contributing to creation of a specific atmosphere.

Therefore, the emphasis with the use of the new technology can be on the aesthetics and the originality of the interior. For instance, introducing a set of minimalistic furniture, which can create a specific atmosphere by masking the obvious elements of high tech, IKEA might mention that cords and wires, which are often mentioned as the most troublesome elements of any device, are no longer a problem, since there is a wireless power transfer.

With specific elements that allow to locate the devices in such a way as to obtain the maximal signal, the new IKEA furniture sets will be promoted as “the furniture for the house of tomorrow.”

As for the application of the given idea to any other company, it can be assumed that the use of wireless charge technologies will be a highly profitable idea. Still, it is necessary to keep in mind that a specific plan must be developed to create and promote the new product. Speaking of the SCM, one must mention that the raw material can be supplied by a trustworthy company that provides only high-quality non-toxic materials.

To cut the costs, it will be necessary to refuse from having the raw materials delivered. To promote the goods, which will combine convenience and functionality, the advertisement campaign must put the emphasis on the latest technologies offered by the company.

Granted that very few other furniture-producing companies incorporate the elements of information technology in the design of their products, it can be assumed that the IKEA will not have to face high competition rates. Though it will be wrong to consider the IKEA the beholder of monopoly on the given idea, it is still clear that the company will be the pioneer in the given market. Hence, competition does not seem to be the issue in the given case.

Hence, the competitive advantage of the idea is rather high. To patent the given idea, it will be required to receive an application for the patent and check whether the given innovations meet all the requirements that are listed in the paper.

If the idea of using the wireless power charge devices as a feature of their furniture and adopting the latter from the use of the appliances, which can be charged with the help of the given innovation has not been used by anyone else, the IKEA Company will be able to patent the given concept and, thus, make it the company’s current trademark.

Works Cited Hadley, Franklin. “Goodbye Wires! MIT team experimentally demonstrates wireless power transfer potentially useful for powering laptops, cell phones without cords”. MIT NEWS. 2007. Web.

IKEASWE. “IKEA UPPLEVA”. Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube. 16 Appl. 2012. Web.


New Technological Advances within the Police Department Essay essay help

Mytown Police Department is one of the beneficiaries of a federal grant. The grant aims at upgrading the equipment and technology used in the organization. According to the parameters used in the grant process, it is obligatory that the organization should use novel equipment in promoting decision making and operations in the organization.

As the Deputy Chief, I am tasked with the responsibility of identifying novel technological advances, which are in agreement with the grant criteria. Moreover, the technologies should enable the organization to develop and grow.

This paper aims at identifying three novel technological advances, which are linked to criminal justice. Moreover, there will be a detailed explanation of the use of these technologies, as well as their benefits. More specifically, there will be a keen focus on how the technologies will enhance and inform strategic and operational decisions.

Technological Advances

Technology possesses a huge transformational power within the criminal justice sector. Evidently, the revolution of technology, which is being noted in every sector, is not an exception in the criminal justice department. The criminal justice system cannot avoid technology. The technology is taking place at a relatively fast pace (Pattavina, 2004).

For instance, police officers put on bullet proof vests routinely. Community groups possess the capability of establishing crime incidences via the utilization of complex computerized crime diagrams. This paper will discuss three technologies; DNA technology, information technology, and drug testing technology.

Detailed Explanation on How the Technologies will be used DNA technology

DNA technology has become increasingly significant in the criminal justice system. It has greatly led to escalated levels of fairness and accuracy within the system. DNA is increasingly being utilized in criminal identification. This is achieved with unbelievable accuracy. This is in cases where there is existence of biological evidence, and DNA is the selected option for clearing suspects and exonerating individuals, who were convicted or accused mistakenly for particular criminal activities (Lazer, 2004).

DNA technology has a major role in post- conviction review (the court’s science) and assisting investigators. The biologic centrality involved in DNA ensures that potential and actual forensic applications are exceptionally relevant and powerful.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For effective use of DNA technology, it is necessary that there is adequate backing, training, and funding. Support should be given to judges, defense lawyers, prosecutors, victim service providers, medical professionals, police, and local, state, and federal forensic labs.

Creating knowledge to these groups of people will ensure that the technology is used maximally in missing persons’ identification, protecting innocent individuals, and solving crimes. There are numerous cases involving missing people and unidentified human remains, which can be solved effectively through the use of DNA technology.

There are several measures which can ensure a convincing and secure environment for DNA. Majority of the specialists who deal with criminal justice need sufficient support and training, in regard to the utilization and acquisition of DNA evidence. Moreover, there is a need for stimulating research and coming up with novel DNA advances and technologies in the area. Hrechak and McHugh (1990) argue that crime laboratories need improvement for effective analysis of samples.

Information Technology

Information technology advances have contributed significantly in crime deterrence and detection, in regard to criminal activities. There is a need for decision makers within the system to learn the various mechanism involved in information technology. These involve the implementation, evaluation, and acquisition of novel information solutions.

This is an extremely vital aspect in a system, where the public funds’ accountability and effectiveness in IT solutions’ implementation cannot be underrated. Therefore, comprehensive awareness creation is essential so as to avoid unrealistic expectations, as far as equipment performance is concerned.

Information technology is directly connected to cybercrime and its impacts on the society. Policing agencies use fake websites and honeypots to track and catch sexual predators. Moreover, information technology is used to improve retailers’ websites, which hinders hacking.

This is usually achieved without interfering with how effectively customers use it. In addition, there is the aspect of design and utilization of technologically advanced products, for instance Clipper Chip, which can enable the government unscramble encrypted files. It is worth emphasizing that there is need for the balance between privacy and information accessibility.

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Urinalysis is the key testing methodology in the entire system. Drug testing is carried out in the entire criminal justice system stages. These stages include parole, probation, incarceration, arrest, and pretrial phase. Drug testing is carried out for a number of reasons (Cole, Smith


Theories of Situational and Participative Leadership Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Participative Leadership Theory

The situational leadership theory

Application of Situational Leadership Theory



Introduction From the early twentieth century, there has been a surge of interest in leadership theory. The leadership models, which were been in existence before, paid attention to the character traits that distinguished leaders from followers. On the contrary, subsequent schools of leadership have focused on the other points, such as the level of participation, skills and situational factors. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the participatory and situational theories of leadership.

Participative Leadership Theory This leadership model is grounded on the concept that when the thoughts of different people are combined, the decision arrived is better than a single individual’s opinion.

The leader welcomes the participation of the persons responsible for performing various assignments, given that such an approach is more collaborative and less competitive, and as a result, an organization achieves more commitment from participants. Participants may include managers, patrons, juniors and seniors.

Participatory leadership is all about discussions, independent decision making, sharing of power and coming up with decisions jointly, and empowerment. A participative leader makes all the employees involved in the affairs of an organization or corporation unite their efforts to achieve the set goals (Komives, Wagner


Southwest Airlines Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Grand strategy Analysis


Works Cited

Introduction The success of firms and companies depends on long term objectives rather than the short term ones. Therefore, firms plan with an aim of developing presently as well as in the future. A projection into the future enables the firms to determine their expenditures and income. The United States of America is focused on making long term goals and objectives. The emphasis on the long term objective has constributed to the development of their economy.

As a result, the country has remained economically stable by maintaining economic solvency. The Southwest airlines is one of the main corporations of the USA contributing to the development of the country’s economy. It facilitates local and international trade in the country. Consequently, they apply grand strategies in regards to their long term objectives to realize prosperity. This paper aims at analyzing the grand strategies used by the airlines and determine their efficiency (Banfe, 1992).

Grand strategy Analysis The Southwest Airlines has adopted various grand strategies aiming at fulfilling their long term objectives. Firstly, the Southwest airlines makes partnerships with other airlines. The partnerships allow the Southwest Airlines to expand their market. In addition, partnerships enable them to work more efficiently than when they operate individually (Brown, 2010). For example, the Southwest Airlines partnered with ATA Airlines, which helped them open flights to Hawaii.

However, the ATA Airlines experienced bankruptcy in 2008. As a result, the partnership was abolished and terminated. Also, the Southwest Airlines partnered with Volaris from Mexico in 2008. The partnership enabled them to make low cost flights to Mexico. However, the partnership was terminated in February, 2013. The grand strategy selection shows that the Southwest Airlines enhances market development through partnering and collaboration.

The selection shows that the Southwest Airlines uses the ability and strengths of their partners to market their products. However, the matrix selection shows that the Airlines should make stable and lasting partnerships. It suggests that temporary partnerships impair implementation of long term objectives and goals. Therefore, the Airlines should evaluate companies and access their future solvency before making partnership.

Secondly, the Southwest Airlines has adopted a strategy that ensures employees’ commitment. It aims at recruiting competent staff. This strategy ensures that the quality of the services is high and satisfactory (Luecke


Industrial Engineer Problems Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

A learning curve demonstrates the realistic correlation between the used time for the production of units and the real number of units which can be produced during this time. Learning curves are also necessary to plan the effective corporate strategy in relation to the adequate prices set, capitals and investments used, and costs determined.

Three assumptions are necessary to develop the learning curve. These assumptions are the time which is necessary to produce the definite unit or complete the task. This amount of time should decrease as a result of progressing in completing the task. Thus, the next condition is the obvious decreeing rate of time in production. It is also important to note that this reduction in time can be predicted according to the definite formula used to develop the most appropriate strategy.

The main formula to determine the necessary effort per unit (y) is based on the constant, which is the effort to product the first unit (a), the definite unit discussed (x), and on the slope constant for the unit discussed which determines the decreasing rate.

Thus, the number of labor hours necessary to produce the 50th unit in relation to the learning curve of 90% and standard time for a job of 90 minutes is approximately 49.7 minutes. According to the principle of the decreasing rate the 100th unit can be produced during the time which is approximately 44.78 minutes.

To develop the plan in relation to the manpower loading for the production of 3000 units during the first four weeks, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that all the workers are experienced, all the equipment is available, and workers can work during 7 hours and 5 days.

Thus, the working week for one worker is 35 hours. The 90% learning curve is used to complete the task. It is important to remember that to produce the 50th unit, it is necessary to orient to the time of approximately 50 minutes. Moreover, to produce the 100th unit, it is necessary to pay attention to the 45-minute work.

In order to produce the 3000th unit, it is necessary to have 27 minutes. This time can be discussed as the final possible measure. From this point, during the first week, a person who works 35 hours a week can provide the maximum of 23 units.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the next two weeks, the maximum can be 42 units, if the staff is experienced and all the equipment is available for the work. That is why, the most appropriate plan should be developed with references to the number of employers used to produce units because an experienced worker can produce 46 units to the end of the final week of the work. From this point, the effective plan should be oriented to the definite number of workers involved in the process.

The discussed numbers are the maximum, it is necessary to pay attention to the daily schedule of the workers. Thus, it is possible to state that during the first two weeks the workers should perform intensively, and 40-45 workers should produce units according to the plan. During the next two weeks, the number of the workers involved in the process of production can be decreased without decreasing the rate of the production.


Modern Algeria Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


History of Algeria

Political System


Culture and Tourism


Works Cited


Introduction Algeria is a country located in the northwestern part of Africa. It borders Mediterranean Sea to the north. Algeria is officially referred to as the democratic republic of Algeria. It is also the second largest country in Africa. The country is covered by 90% desert. Most of its population lives in the northern region.

The capital city of Algeria is Algiers, which is also the largest city in the country. The name Algeria means “the desert” in the Arabic language. Most of the population is of Arabs and Berbers ancestry. The Arabs who also introduced the Arabic language introduced the Islamic religion.

Today Arabic and Berber languages are official in Algeria. Islamic religion is also the largest comprising of 99% of the population. French is used as a language of instruction in schools and in media although it is not an official language. The population of Algeria in 2010 was 34.9 million.

The main people in Algeria are the Arab Berbers. This paper will cover Algeria as a country from a variety of perspectives. The paper will discuss the geography, history, political systems, economics, and culture of Algeria.

Geography Algeria is a country that is located in the northwest part of Africa. It lies at 28o north of Equator and 3o east of the Prime Meridian. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Tunisia, and Libya to the east, Niger, Mali, and Mauritania to the south, and Morocco to the west (Africa: Algeria Para. 1).

Algeria is the second largest country in size after Sudan in Africa. It has an area of 2,381,741 square kilometers (919,595 sq miles). It has a coastline of 998 kilometers (620 miles). Its highest point is at Mount Tahat, which has a height of 3,003 meters (9,852 feet) while its lowest point is at Chott Melrhir, which is 40 meters (131 feet) below the sea level.

More than 90% of Algeria’s total area is part of the Sahara desert. It comprises of bare rocks and gravel. About a quarter of this area comprises of sand dunes referred as ergs, for example, Grand Erg oriental and Grand Erg occidental are the largest sand dunes in Algeria.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Algeria has one main river called Chelif River. This river rises from Tell Atlas Mountains and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It should also be noted that the southern part of Tell bears no permanent stream that flows. There are also some basins in the south of Tell, which collect water especially during the rainy seasons.

The rainfall is fair on the coast especially on the Tell Atlas coast. This may range between 400 and 670mm in a year. There is also precipitation that increases from the western side towards the north. This may go high and even reach 1000mm annually.

The basins form a large lake in this highlands region. The Saharan Atlas also receives more rains than other regions of Algeria. The Tell region and the coastal plains also receive mild rains during winter. Temperatures may rise up to 50 degrees Celsius.

Orologically, there are various mountains in Algeria for example the Ahaggar Mountains, which are also known as the Hoggar Mountains. These mountains found at the centre of Sahara desert are arid. They are located at the southern part of Algeria. The highest part of these mountains is Mount Tahat at 3,003 meters (9,852 feet).

There is also the Er Rif mountain range, which is located to the western frontier of Algeria. This mountain forms a cliff, which is very stiff and is about 2438 meters (800feet). In terms of climatic features, Algeria is located within the Sahara desert. Therefore, daily temperatures are extreme. There are extreme winds, and the place is very arid.

The country receives an annual rainfall of less than 130mm i.e. (5in). There is a Mediterranean climate in the northern part of Algeria especially on the Tell Atlas and the Coastal plain. This climate is characterized by warm and dry summers and mild rainy winters.

The Tell Atlas and the coastal plains make the most humid region of the country. The Sirocco winds, which are hot and dry, blow in summer from the Sahara towards the north. The southern part of Algeria is very dry. In terms of flora, Algeria’s northern part has been the grazing field to the herders over the years.

We will write a custom Essay on Modern Algeria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has resulted to overgrazing and deforestation. In the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas, there are only few remaining forests. In this region, trees such as Atlas cedar, Oaks and pine are common. On the other hand, the lower parts of the slopes are occupied with scrubby type of vegetation, for example, the juniper plants.

On the high plateau, the area is barren. There is steppe vegetation that comprises of brushwood and esparto grass. Since this is part of the Sahara desert, plants are very scattered, mainly comprised of the acacia, jubebe trees, and drought-resistant grasses. The cedar and conifers are also common in Algeria.

On the mountains, there are evergreen forests, which comprise of junipers, oak trees, and Aleppo pine. There are also deciduous trees on these forests. Towards the warmer areas, there are forests of agave , palm, and eucalyptus trees. On the coast, there are palm trees and grape vines.

In the wider Sahara, there are acacia trees and olives especially the wild ones. The fauna in Algeria is also limited due to the sparse vegetation. This vegetation can only support a small number of animals. The animals in Algeria include jerboa, fennec fox, ibex, boars, jackal, hare, antelope, monitor lizards, and servals.

The dama gazelle and the oryx have vanished from Algeria although they were common before 1990s. The vegetation of Algeria varies from coastal, desert vegetation, which is grassy, and mountainous. People live in close relationship with some wild animals, for example, the jackals, gazelles, and boars.

Wildlife there comprises of leopards, cheetah, and panthers. The variety of species of birds has attracted many tourists who like watching birds. There are also many monitor lizards and snakes. There are also dangerous scorpions and poisonous insects in the desert.

Some animals that existed some years ago have become extinct. These include bears and Barbery lions. The animal that is most reared is the camel due to its use as a pack animal that are very reliable for transport across the desert.

History of Algeria The first Algerian kingdom was founded by chief Masinissa who was a Berber. He reigned between 202 and 148 BC. He was allied to Ancient Rome. This kingdom was called Numidia. However, Masinissa’s grandson was conquered by the Romans in 106 BC.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern Algeria by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Romans made the kingdom prosper to the level of becoming the source of olive oil and grains for Rome. During this time, the Romans used the military patrols in surrounding roads to garrison the towns. This was aimed at protecting the towns from the nomads.

The towns included Tipasa and Timagad, which also developed into small cities. During the decline of the Roman kingdom in the 3rd century, Rome withdrew its legions that were taken on warfronts elsewhere. The Donatis Christian movement that was previously persecuted by these Romans experienced independence.

The natives also denounced the Donatism sect. For example, Saint Augustine denounced it on his writings. Later on during the 5th century Vandals, a tribe from Germany conquered this region and established its own kingdom.

Emperor Justinian of Byzantine used his army to overthrow the Vandals even before the end of that century. The vandals’ invasion of Algeria had left a mark during the whole of the 5th century (Collins 124). He restored the lost glory of Roman Empire.

During the 17th century, Arabs who overthrew the leadership of Justinian and planted an Islamic leadership invaded North Africa. However, resistance from the Kusaylas, the Barber leaders, and from the Kahina, the alleged Judaism prophesier, faced the Arab invasion.

Nevertheless, Algeria later became Umayyad Caliphate province when the resistant Berbers surrendered to Arabic leadership. Algeria became an Islamic country with the Arabs preferring urban lifestyle. It is also worthwhile to note that the Kabyles Berbers were given an upper hand by the colonial government in a bid to divide and rule (Alec and McKinney 104).

However, the caliphate was seized from the hand of Umayyads by the Abbasids during the 8th century. During this seizure, the Berbers who belonged to Kharijte Islamic sect established their own kingdom. This kingdom was also Islamic with Rustamids as the leading one in Tahert in Algeria.

The Tahert developed during the 8th century to the 9th century. However, it was overthrown by Fatimids people that belonged to Shia Islam. The Berber kingdoms of Almoravids and Almohads led to an autonomous centralized authority in the whole of Northwest Africa during 11th and 13th centuries.

This made the city an Islamic city with Islamic learning centers and schools. Mosques were also a notable part of architecture. Handicrafts were also common. The Bejaila, Algiers, and Annaba ports prospered in trade with Europe. These ports supplied Barbary horses, fine leather, fabric, and wax to the Europeans.

They also captured Christians and sold them as slaves (Hitchens 12). During the Ottoman rule, the Zayyanid took over leadership. When Almohad kingdom collapsed in 1269, the Zayyanid ruled for 300 years. Its capital was at Tlamchen. These people competed with the Muslim and Christians for the control of the seaports.

This led to hiring of pirates who were known as corsairs to seize trade ships and their crew to demand for ransom. During the 16th century, Christian Spaniards captured and took over these ports. They also blockaded Algiers from all external trade and made it pay tribute.

Due to this impact of the Christians, the Muslim requested the sultan of Ottoman to come to their aid. The sultan of Ottoman was the overall caliph. During this time, corsair brothers, referred to as Barberossas, prevailed on the caliph to send them on this mission to North Africa accompanied by a fleet of fighters.

When the sultan sent them, they took over North Africa, overthrew the Spaniards, and took over their possessions. Khayr ad-Din was made the representative of sultan in Algeria. He acquired the beylerbey title. Since Algiers was far from the Constantinople, it was made autonomous.

The corsairs were very effective, as they made Algiers become very powerful. Hence, their pirates became very dominant and controlled the port to the point of forcing European traders to pay tributes for protection of their ships. This money plus the money paid for ransom made them very rich.

The Ottoman janissary garrisons were in charge of internal security. However, the Ottoman Empire declined during late 18th century. This opened an opportunity for Europeans to improve on ship construction and firepower to the point of challenging Corsair’s leadership. At the same time, they entered the international agreements outlawing piracy.

This was followed by a naval squad that was sent to conquer the city by the United States in 1815. In 1816, an Anglo-Dutch war fleet almost destabilized Algiers. Finally, French army took over the city in 1830. By 1834, the French had taken over Algiers and its surroundings. It had already begun the occupation of most of its coast and main lands.

These territories fell under direct leadership of the French governor-general. Since the leadership of the French was incomparable to that of the Ottoman, native tribes began waging resistance. These tribes were led by Abd al-Qadir, a military leader and head of Sufi Muslim goodwill referred to as Qadiriyya.

He trained his militants to use hit-and-run strategies. These tactics were very effective in fighting the French. Al-Qadir remained a hero until 1847 when he was subdued. However, the Barbers continued with the resistance though 1871 when the Kabyle Berbers waged the fieriest resistance that made them weaker.

In 1872, the French forces won and confiscated the Berbers land. It is at this point that France colonized Algeria and allowed its citizens to settle there. French settlers bought land from barbers at very low prices. Others just confiscated it. The settlers developed industries, schools, banks, and agriculture to make Algeria look like their home.

The agricultural products supported their home country with food. Production of citrus fruits and wine for export to France became prosperous just like it was when Algeria supplied grains to Rome. The move to confiscate land and to apply modern techniques of farming added to the available land (Horne and Alistair 32).

French rule made the Muslim disadvantaged to the point of becoming its slaves. Muslims who were the majority were faced with restrictions. For example, they could not be in possession of firearms, hold public meetings, leave home without official permission from the French, and they were to work for them.

However, some Muslims renounced Islamic religion. They were allowed to become French citizens. In fact, by late 19th century, most of those that had renounced Islam were allowed to go and work in France. The French government provided schools in Algeria.

Since the population of the Muslim was growing very steadily, some of them went to school. It is from these educated minorities that the first nationalist emerged. After World War I, some Muslims who wanted equality with the French began the journey of nationalism in Algeria.

The most notable nationalists in France in the 1920s were Shaykh Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis and Ahmed Messali Hadj. Their agitation made the French government come up with a plan of provision of equality right to Muslims. However, their National Assembly frustrated this plan. This made the nationalist more furious.

Messali and Abbbas united and formed an anti French Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty party. This was during the Second World War. When the war ended, the Algerian Organic Statute put in place the first bicameral parliament that comprised of two colleges made up of one wing of the indigenous Algerians and the other wing of the settlers.

However, the powers of this parliament favored the settlers. This parliament was unsatisfactory to both the settlers and the Algerians. This formed the basis of many young Algerians opting for armed revolution to oust the French colonization. The war of independence began with the formation of Revolutionary Committee for Unity and Action in 1954.

It is from this Committee that the National Liberation Front (FLN) was formed. The National Liberation Front then launched its independence bid on 31 October and 1 November. They organized various attacks on military and police posts, government buildings, and centers of government communication.

This was followed by intensive guerrilla warfare to the point of forcing the French to request for 400,000 troops for reinforcement. The National liberation Front used both Abd al-Qadirl’s led guerrilla strategy and intentional terrorism attacks.

They immobilized the French army and the continuous kidnapping and killings of French. Muslims who were not supporting them terrorized Algeria. To counter the situation, the French retaliated by burning of villages and even the urban dwelling that they suspected of supporting the guerrillas.

They also subjected captives from these areas to massacres, forced evictions, and bombings. In 1956, this war hit Algerian cities. For example, schools and shops were terrorized, a cause that drew international attention. The French ruthlessly halted this war in cities and used aircrafts to bomb FLN centers.

They also erected an electric fence on the borders of Morocco and Tunisia to cut off contact between FLN soldiers outside Algeria. Unable to find an amicable solution to this war, the war raised international criticism. Both the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization criticized the French of fighting an unpopular war.

It went on until May 1958 when both the French army and settlers joined their forces to oust the French government due to its vacillation. They formed a committee to check on the safety of all the public and to demand that Charles de Gaulle reoccupy the office.

The committee was for the idea that only this wartime general that fighting for a Free French Algeria that could settle this war. When he was installed in power, he allowed the Algerians to have some self-determinism in 1959. This made the settlers angry. They unsuccessfully revolted against him in 1960.

This was followed by another attempt of overthrowing the government by a group of French armies. A minority army group referred to as Secret Army Organization championed these attempts although majority of the army remained loyal to the government.

Victory became evident in March 1962 when the government and FLN called for a cease-fire. This was announced at Evian in France. In July, a referendum was held with the Algerians voting for independence. This made the settlers to start returning to their homeland. It is estimated that about 500,000 people died with many others maiming as property was destroyed.

After the Evithian agreement, Algeria became independent. However, it had to rely on France for special aid. This cooperation was to help Algeria come out of the devastation because of eight years of war. This agreement also allowed the French government to continue exploiting gas and oil in Algeria.

It also allowed the settlers to remain in Algeria for three years after which they would decide whether to acquire Algerian citizenship or to leave the country. These Europeans left immediately after independence (De Azevedo and Cagiano 25).When most settlers left; Algeria suffered a crisis of lack of skilled laborers.

However, there were internal wrangles within the leadership of FLN, which had declared it the only legal political party. It had also declared Algeria as a socialist nation. In September 1962, Ahmend Ben Bella was elected the first prime minister of Algeria after the chief of Defense forces of the National Liberation supported him.

Ben Bella was one of the founders of FLN. In 1963, the voters approved the first independent constitution, which mandated a presidential government. On the same year, Ben Bella was elected as the first president of Algeria under the independent constitution. The presidential powers were only to be checked by the National assembly.

Due to this loophole in checking the powers of the president, Ben Bella became autocratic and concerned himself with international affairs. This made people detest him. In 1965, his minister for defense Mr. Boumeduenne made the president to be arrested.

He declared himself president in what was seen as a bloodless coup. Boumedianne made the national army dominant and reduced the importance of FLN. He also focused on developing the vast resources in Algeria. Boumedianne remained the president, minister for defense, and the prime minister of Algeria.

He also used the supreme authority of a 26-people council of revolution that mainly drew its membership from the army and his civilian friends. He was undemocratic and autocratic in his leadership. In 1971, he nationalized the oil fields that were formally controlled by the French.

He also made the lands that the settlers had left government property. He also worked hard to develop the hydrocarbon industry. It is also in 1970s that president Boumedienne distributed settlers land to cooperatives made up by peasants in his attempt to exaggerate productivity of the nation.

This president also promoted the Arabic language. He made it used in schools. He also promoted the Arabic culture. However, most of the Berbers resisted this attempt and railed themselves against it. In 1976, Boumedienne was elected as a legal president using the new constitution and the national charter.

However, he later died in1978. Following the death of Boumeddienne, Chadli Benjadid, a colonel in the army, was selected to take over the presidency. He was later confirmed as the president after an official election in the same year. Colonel Chadli pardoned and released Ben Bella the former president in 1980.

Chadli was re-elected in 1984 when he run for the presidency unopposed. He relaxed strict rule policies and liberalized Algerians economy and agriculture. In the 1980s, the prices of oil declined. This had adverse effects on Algeria. This made the government faced a series of demonstrations from the protesting youths.

It used the forces to suppress these rioters. It also initiated changes that won over the public confidence in the president who was the elected to the presidency for his third term. He also allowed for constitutional changes that allowed for multiparty democracy in 1989.

This legalized the political parties for example Islamic Salvation Front party FIS. However, this marked the beginning of the conflict between the military that supported FLN and the Muslim who supported FIS parties. Islamists became persistent winning civic elections in 1991.

When it was evident that they would win the parliamentary elections in 1992, the government counseled them. Benjedid was forced by the army to resign. The Army and civilian officials took over the High Council of State led by Mohammend Boundiaff as president.

This was followed with the ban of FIS. However, Mohammend was assassinated in 1992. This made the government to clash with Islamist militias in Algeria. In 1994, Liamine Zeroul, the then defense minister, was named the president by the council.

He was elected the president in 1995 during the first multi-party elections in Algeria. He was formerly a soldier and a diplomat. This made Algerians’ international creditors reschedule the country’s debt. He championed constitutional changes that banned political parties based on religion, region, gender, language, or race.

In 1999, following the step down and resignation of other presidential contestants, Abdelaziz Bouteflika who was the former minister of foreign affairs won the presidency. He later called for national reconciliation and offered amnesty to Muslim militants. This made most of them stop the infighting.

However, the al-Qaeda-led group refused to submit. In 2004, when he was re-elected, Bouteflika brought stability in Algeria. He has created union with the European nations and the United States besides giving amnesty to Muslim leaders who had earlier rebelled.

In 2007, Algeria conducted another multiparty election. Surprisingly, there was no violence before, during, and after the election. Bouteflika was re-elected as the president in a coalition government.

This government comprised of FLN, National Democratic Rally, and moderate Islamist movement for a Peaceful Society.

Political System Algerian government is a multi party democracy led by the president. The government comprises of the executive, the legislature, which is bicameral, and the judiciary. The executive is made up of the president who is also the head of state, a prime minister who is appointed by the president and who is the head of government, and the council of ministers appointed by the prime minister.

The president is the head of state who can declare war or peace. He is also the country’s representative in foreign matters. The prime minister is the head of the government in Algeria. He has the power to head the cabinet. He is the leader of the government business. The prime minister also appoints the council of ministers.

These ministers are in charge of the management of various government ministries. They represent the government in those ministries. The legislature is bicameral comprising of the upper house with 144 members and the national people Assembly or the lower house with 389 members.

Out of the 389 members, the head of state directly appoints 1/3 while the rest come from municipal councils appointments. The members of the National people’s assembly serve for four-year term of office while the members of the upper house serve for six-year term. The upper house is in charge of legislation.

The officials here make, amend, or abolish laws. They are also a representation of the public interest in the government. The lower house plays an oversight role and checks on the excesses of the upper house. It also has the power to monitor and impeach the president.

This house also approves the national finance and expenditure. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Algeria. The Supreme Court also acts as the high court of appeal that has the power to hear cases from all jurisdictions of the country. It can also arbitrate over political matters and cases of appeal.

There are three courts of appeals, which are located in Algiers, Constantine, and Oran. Other special criminal courts also play a key role. For example, they arbitrate cases of political and economic violations on the state and individuals.

Algeria has also established many commercial courts that have powers to hear business disputes from across the country, and courts of justice and peace, which are responsible for developing and enhancing national cohesion. Political representation in Algeria starts with the president who is elected by the majority.

Presidential elections take place after every five years. Initially, a legally elected president could only hold two terms of office if he or she is re-erected for the second term. However, this was changed through constitutional amendments by the parliament in 2008.

The second level of political representation is at the legislature level. The president nominates a third of the members of the lower house mainly from his party. The upper house is also a political representation function as the members are directly elected by the people for a six-year term.

The municipal councils also select the remaining two thirds of the members of the lower house, which is also highly influence by their political parties. The elected member of councils becomes the head of Wilayat and the communes. This is an authoritarian governmental regime with little or no freedom of the press.

There exists a universal suffrage of all registered voters above 18 years. The most dominant party in Algeria is the National Liberation Front (FLN), the party that led to the country’s independence. In 1992, when multi-party democracy was allowed, Islamic Salvation Front (ISF) was formed and nearly won the 1992 elections.

However, it was banned in 1996 because it was religious based. During the 2002 elections, several other parties came up. These included the National People’s Assembly, National Democratic Rally (NDR), which was pro-government and business and which was linked with president Bouteflika, the Reform Movement, and Islamist Movement for Peaceful Society.

Other political parties are not as vocal as the above-mentioned ones. These include Algerian National Front, Workers party, the Rally for Culture and Democracy, Renaissance Movement, and the Socialist Forces Front.

The National Liberation Front (FLN) has formed the government over the years although it has entered national coalition with other loyal parties due to its inability to win with a majority. The Islamist Salvation Front (ISF) remains the only illegal political party in Algeria.

The national symbols depict the identity of the nation to represent legacy of Algeria. The main national symbol in Algeria is the flag. This flag was derived from the designs of Abdel kadir. These designs were inspired by Turkey’s flag. This flag was officially adopted on third of July 1962 by the new government of Algeria.

The Algerian flag is rectangular and comprises of green and white colored rectangles. The flag has a crescent shape at the centre, which is a religious symbol that depicts that Algeria is an Islamic country. There is also a red star at the heart of the crescent. Every color on the flag signifies something.

The white color represents peace, the green color represents Islamic religion while the symbols that are red colored are a representative of the blood that was shed by freedom fighters in the time of the struggle for independence in Algeria where many people died and others were maimed.

The other national symbol is the national Emblem. This looks almost similar to that of many other countries. The national emblem was officially adopted in Algeria in 1976. The language changed to Arabic from the initial French. This emblem has the Algerian ancient symbol of Fatma inside in the form of an inscription.

This Fatima represents the sun that portrays the coming of another era. There are also some other symbols that represent agriculture and industrialization in Algeria.

There is also a mountain on it that signifies the Atlas Mountains. The third national symbol in Algeria is the National Anthem of Algeria.

Economics The Algerian currency is called the Algerian Dinar abbreviated as (DZD). In 2011, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Algeria was 263.661 billion dollars. The per capita of Algeria was 7,333 dollars.

The backbone of this economy is the prevalence of fossil fuel. This accounts for 60% of its budget, which is 30% of the country’s GDP. This also accounts for 95% earnings from export hence the country’s main export commodity. The human development index in 2010 was 0.698.

Unemployment rate is also high at about 20.1% with agriculture accounting for 14% of the country’s employment. Algeria is an importer of foodstuff and warfare equipments. Among the agricultural products that it exports are barley, oats, vegetables, and citrus.

In 2011, Algeria exports were worth 73.39 billion dollars while the imports were worth 46.45 billion dollars. Inflation rates in Algeria are 4%, the lowest rate in this region.

In 2001, Algeria signed a pact to purchase warfare equipments worth 7.5 billion dollars in exchange for their historical debt of 4.7 billion dollars. In 2006, Algeria paid its debt worth eight billion dollars to Paris Club even before the maturation date.

Culture and Tourism Arabic and the Berber languages are the known native languages in Algeria. These languages are used by 99% Algerians. These languages are also official. French is also used widely especially in education and media.

However, it is not official. The most common Berber language is the Kabyle, which is the most spoken. The Berber language is spoken by 27% with colloquial Arabic being spoken by 72% of the population. The predominant religion is the Sunni Islam, which account for 99% of Algerian population.

Other religions include Christians and Jews. The culture of Algerians is greatly influenced by the Islamic religion. This culture is also distributed to denote Kabyle, French, and Arabic influence. Algeria has some of the most famous novelist in African literature including Albert Camus and Mohammed Dib.

Paintings have also denoted Mohamend Khadda especially in the 21st century. Painters like Pablo Picasso who painted the works ‘Women of Algiers’ are great sources of the Algerian culture. Painters have also preserved the values of the Algerian people.

Music also forms a great part of the Algerian culture. For example, the Chaabi music, which dates back to 1920s, comprises of poems and rhythms from various dialects in Arabic language. The Malouf Constantinois style has been preserved through music by Mohamed Fergani.

There is also the Algerian classical style of music from the Andalusian people, which has also been preserved. There is also the folk music, for example, Bedouin, which has poems on pastoralist, Kabyle folk songs comprising of poetry, and tales. These songs majorly revolve around love, exile, and even politics.

The Turkish culture is also depicted though Turkish food, drinks, and even music. This is mainly by Turkish remnants that had migrated to Algeria during the rule of the Ottoman (Ruedy 22). They are today referred as Kouloughlis. These were children of Algerians native women and Turkish descendants.

The major food is cuisine, which includes cereals at all times because cereals are abundant. It is prepared using fish, meat, and vegetables. Other main dishes include chorba, Berkoukes, and Mthewen. Cakes are also common in Algeria.

Tourist sites includes kabylie mountains, Algiers beaches, Timgad ruins left by Romans, the Sahara, Biskra El-Kantara, Mt. Tahat, which is the highest point in Algeria 3003m, and Gantret El’Hwa in Constantine. Cinema is also part of the Algerian culture.

This can be stemmed back to 1962 when movies began to be produced in Algeria. Films, for example, the Opium and the stick produced by Ahmed Rachedi and The battle of Algiers produced in 1966 are also common in this culture. Algerian films such as Chronicle of the Year’s Fire have won international awards.

Comedies are also establishing in Algeria. There are museums, for example, the Gsell museum in Algiers. Education is compulsory in Algeria especially for the children who are between ages of six to 15 years. It is therefore compulsory for the parents to ensure that their children in this age are taken to school.

This is an official move by the government to promote literacy. Statistics shows that about 5% of all the adults are illiterate. This means that the literacy levels in Algeria are not very low.

Conclusion In conclusion, Algeria is an ancient country, which is officially referred to as People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. The country was formerly known as Democratic and popular Algerian Republic. The earliest inhabitants of Algeria were Aterians and the Capsians.

Before its independence in 1962, the country was ruled by a series of dynasties for example the Numidians, Romans, Carthaginians, Vendals, Umayyads, Byzantines, Fatimids, Almohads, and the Turkish. Algeria is an Arabic country with its capital in Algiers.

This country is a partial presidential democracy with 48 provinces, which are subdivided into 1541 communes. The population of Algeria is about 37 million and is ranked 34th in world most populous nation list. The total area of Algeria is 2.381,741 km. It is the second largest country in Africa and the tenth largest country in the world.

The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president appoints the prime minister who then heads the government. The government has three major branches.

These are judiciary, executive, and the legislature. The major source of economic power of Algeria is the fossils oil, which is also the major export for the country as revealed in the paper.

Works Cited Africa: Algeria. The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2010. Web.

Alec, Hargreaves, and Mark McKinney. Post-Colonial Cultures in France. London: Psychology Press, 1997. Print.

Collins, Roger. Vandal Africa, 429–533. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.

De Azevedo, Raimond Cagiano. Migration and Development Co-Operation. Europe: Council of Europe, 1994. Print.

Hitchens, Christopher. Jefferson versus the Muslim Pirates, 2011. Web.

Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962. New York, NY: New York Review Books Classics, 2006. Print.

Ruedy, John. Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. India: Indiana University Press. Print.

Appendices Algerian Flag

Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)

Geography of Algeria

Area 2,381,741 sq km 919,595 sq mi Coastline 998 km 620 mi Highest point Mount Tahat 3,003 m/9,852 ft Lowest point Chott Melrhir 40 m/131 ft below sea level Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)

The economy of Algeria

Gross domestic product (GDP in U.S.$) $115 billion (2006) GDP per capita (U.S.$) $3,440 (2006) Monetary unit 1 Algerian dinar (AD) , consisting of 100 centimes Number of workers 13,887,214 (2006) Unemployment rate 20.1 percent (2004) Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)

Map of Algeria

Source: (Africa: Algeria 1)


“Gender, Race, and the Regulation of Native Identity in Canada and the United States: An Overview” by Bonita Lawrence Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help

The article “Gender, Race, and the Regulation of Native Identity in Canada and the United States: An Overview” by Bonita Lawrence talks about the Native people, the way the laws and relationships between the modern world and long standing traditions have changed and shaped the present treatment of a whole population.

It is evident that previously Native people had a much different life and the population of Canada and the United States has drastically changed the lives and freedoms of Natives. Presently, things have changed for the better but there is still much discrimination that is seen everywhere.

There is no doubt that the Native population of Canada and the United States was greatly segregated and deprived of their land and freedoms, at the time of colonization. The white man has taken possession of land as if it was empty of people who lived there for generations. The Natives of North America had established traditions and cultures, which were not considered and abused during the populating of the Americas.

The Indian Act was put in place to regulate and control the Native people and greatly limit their freedom, movement rights, ability to participate in the country’s matters and use the land that was rightfully belonging to Natives (Lawrence 5). It is clear that the Act itself and the actions of people who came to the North America are much discriminator.

The oppression that Native people faced was accompanied with much violence and unequal treatment. Even the word “Indian” itself is politically incorrect and shows how little attention and care people have paid to those they have deprived of rights, equality and deserved ability to enjoy a life free of stereotypical behavior. The land was divided and Native people were placed into Reservations, which were strictly regulated by the government and the necessary laws.

The Indian Act violates the rights of Native people, it limits their movement, deprives them of the rights of possession towards land and the available resources, as well as their reputation and acknowledgement. Gender is another major issue that is present in the Indian Act. A woman of Native descent would lose her Native status after marring a white man. This is ridiculous, as it is unreasonable and is not admissible.

This sort of thing does not happen to people of other races and origins and so, the discrimination is clearly evident here (Lawrence 8). Another article titled “Housing America’s Native People” by Wendy Helgemo, talks about the legal provision of housing that the government has put in place towards the Native people. A large number of Native population was homeless due to the hardships they had to experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has become a significant problem and the government was forced to change several things. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was created to administer changes and provide Native population with housing (Helgemo 10). The policies that are being enacted in the present days are the proof of how much segregation Native population had to face. The change in laws and the life of a whole population have changed the conditions that go back very far in history.

For thousands of years Native people have enjoyed their freedoms unmarred by the forced ruling of others and the “civilized countries”. Staring in the 18th century, the colonizers would use gifts and promises of prosperity to the Natives, in order for them to change into their culture and forget their own.

This was a trick to assimilate the whole population and enforce own rules and government. The Europeans dominated in power and technology and thus, were able to enforce their influence and will. The seeming peaceful relationship that was prevalent at the first stages of the interaction was very temporary.

There were a number of treaties that were based on peace and mutual cooperation and communication. But, it seemed that there was no obligation for Europeans to honor those Treaties and many were ignored and broken. There are many examples of how colonizers used trickery and deviant ways to fool the Native people.

The trading and influence of alcohol was one of the major changes that Natives have experienced in their relationship with the “white man” (Trigger 205). It is outrageous that such a great number of educated people from Europe were able to behave in such a way towards others. The disrespect that was so great that often there would be violent conflict, as Natives had no other avenue to fight back.

Overall, this sort of behavior from colonizers is nothing new. This has been happening all over the world with all the Native people. The colonizers think it is their right to use their technology and knowledge, to discriminate against those of different cultures and way of life. The fact that Native people have different traditions and beliefs that the colonizers cannot understand, does not give people the right to take over and deprive of respect and natural rights, which have existed long before any colonizing took place.

Works Cited Helgemo, Wendy L. Housing America’s Native People. Washington, United States: Poverty


Ramadan in Islam religion Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fasting: An Overview

Significance of Ramadan



Introduction In Islamic religion, a lunar calendar is used instead of a solar calendar. In this calendar, each month starts with the appearance of the new moon (“Celebrating Ramadan”, n.d). Therefore, because of the fact that the lunar calendar is found to be shorter by eleven days as compared to the solar one, the “Islamic months ‘move’ each year” (Stacey, 2008, p.1).

For instance, it is reported that in the year 2008, the month of Ramadan was found to coincide directly “with the month of September” (Stacey, 2008, p.1). In the course of a Muslim’s life, the month of Ramadan can take place in the period of winter when the days are much shorter as well as during summer, being the toughest time for Muslims since days are much longer in summer, so it takes more efforts for a Muslim to withstand the fast.

In this regards, there exist some differences between the Muslims who dwell in different hemispheres of the globe (Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). Similar to any form of celebration existing in any culture and religion, the celebration of Ramadan is associated with joy.

However, it is celebrated in a way that is quite different from the one followed by the non-Muslims. Ramadan is not the time of merry-making and socializing but, it is rather the time to worship through fasting, since fasting during the Islamic month of Ramadan is among the Islam pillars.

Fasting: An Overview Fasting during the month of Ramadan starts at dawn and goes on till sunset. The Muslims wake up before dawn and they take the pre-dawn meal or what is referred to as Sahur, and drink enough quantities of the liquid as a preparation for fasting. In the course of the day, there is no eating or drinking. The Muslims also abide by an Islamic moral code because if one fails to do that, it means not following or violation of some requirements of the proper fast

Fasting during Ramadan is a worship activity which all the Muslims who have reached puberty carry out. However, not all adults take part in fasting during this month. For instance, the women who at the time of Ramadan have their menstrual cycle, or those who have recently gave birth to a child may not follow the fast until the time the period is over or a woman is totally recovered and gets stronger. Moreover, the people who may feel sick or travelling may decide to fast some time later.

The Muslims engage in fasting for the main reason that this is a command from the Most High God. At the same time, they may as well enjoy some other gains that fasting can include, such as exercising control over one’s hunger, thirst, or restrain one’s sexual desires, “training to be a good moral person and testing sincerity to the creator” (Ali, 2007, p.2). In the course of fasting though, the Muslims may engage in carrying out their businesses the same way they conducted them during the whole year round.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Breaking of the fast is carried out in the evening after the sun has set by drinking water and eating some food. Any accepted in the religion drink or food or meal can be utilized in breaking the fast. After breaking the fast, this is followed by a sunset prayer or “the Maghrib salah” (Ali, 2007, p.2). This prayer is followed by a full meal and then a brief rest. After resting, the people then move to the mosque to give the “Isha salah (night prayer) and afterwards Muslims conduct a special night prayer, which called taraweeh” (Ali, 2007, p.2).

Significance of Ramadan The Muslims show love as well as gratitude for God by worshipping and being obedient to Him (Perry, 2005). They worship in line with God’s guidance taught in the Quran and they also worship through the true traditions presented by the prophet Muhammad (Segle, 2004).

Ramadan is an exceptional month during the period of which people engage in fasting, reading the Quran and trying to fully comprehend it. They also engage themselves in special prayers. During the night time, the mosques are filled with people who convene to break their fast and to engage in praying. They recite the Quran all through the night, pray together and praise their only true God (“Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days”, 2013).

In the course of the Islamic month of Ramadan, all the Muslim people who are above eighteen and physically healthy are supposed to engage in fasting. They all know that, they are not supposed to take any food, drink, smoke, or have any sexual contact with their spouses from morning to evening.

However, these are just physical aspects of following the fats. Spiritual aspects observed also exist, such as avoiding engaging in gossips, telling lies, insulting as well as engaging in all behaviors that are in conflict with the appropriate ones (“Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days”, 2013).

The people try to evade looking at and listen to all indecent and sinful things as a means through which actions and thoughts are made clean. Fasting is as well considered as “a way of experiencing hunger and developing sympathy for the less fortunate and learning thankfulness and appreciation for all of God’s bounties” (Stacey, 2008, pp.1-2).

The Islamic month of Ramadan is considered to be a month during which the Muslims make an effort to either “establish or re-establish a relationship with the Quran” (Stacey, 2008, p.2). It is pointed out that even if this may be viewed as strange for followers of other religions, God’s words are “a guiding light and a mercy” (Stacey, 2008, p.2). People read the Quran with the basic reason that it helps in changing their lives in one way or another.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ramadan in Islam religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Quran and the month of Ramadan are intricately intertwined. Possessing the book of Quran, reciting it, reading it, remembering its readings and thinking over their meanings uplift a person spiritually, comforts him or her, and also serves as a source of his or her strength (Asad, 2003).

Reciting the Quran during the whole night is especially of great benefit since the disruptions that occur during the day have gone away and God’s closeness is profound in the calmness of night. In the evening, there is a performance of special prayers during which people recite some sections of the Quran. These special prayers are referred to as Taraweeh. During Ramadan, 1/30 of the Quran is being read every evening so that “by the end of the month, the entire Quran has been completed” (Stacey, 2008, p.2).

Among the last odd-numbered nights of the Islamic month of Ramadan, there is Laylat ul-Qadr. It is also referred to as the “Night of Destiny” or “Night of Power” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). This night is said to be the holiest one during the holiest month of the year. This night is believed to be the one when God initially started to reveal the Quran to Muhammad.

God did this through Angel Gabriel. This is the season for particularly passionate and dedicated prayer on such nights; what is more, there are several rewards that such prayer brings. The Quran teaches the Muslims that engaging in praying all through this single night is far more important than a constant praying for several months. No person can tell exactly which night this is because this is considered to be one of the God’s mysteries (Foucault, 1994).

Moreover, the month of Ramadan is regarded as a month of doing good things and engaging in various charitable activities. The Muslims strive to show generosity to their neighbors and friends. They also try to carry good deeds only and avoid being sinful at all costs. The simplest charity activity may involve smiling, among other lavish activities.

Charity that is offered in a quiet manner is found to be good for the giver as well as for the one who gives it. Muhammad gave whatever he had to other people with a good heart at all times; he never owned more than what was sufficient for him to meet the immediate needs that he had. Whatever the excess he had, he gave everything out in a generous way to the people around; of course, during the month of Ramadan, he was even more generous in giving food or providing support for the people.

One may think that these are virtues as well as qualities a Muslim person dedicated to serving God, must always display despite the month of the year. The Muslims need portray these virtues all the time all year round. But, on the other hand, all the human beings have their own weaknesses and happen to engage in committing sins and mistakes against other people and Allah. The nature of life makes people tend to forget and fail to remember the purpose in their life.

The purpose of a Muslim in his or her life is to engage in worshipping God and as Stacey (2008) points out, “God in his infinite wisdom and mercy has given us Ramadan” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). The month of Ramadan, if utilized in a wise manner, can help in recharging a person’s spirit.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ramadan in Islam religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the month dominated by a show of forgiveness as well as kindness when God makes it easier for the human beings to get over their weaknesses and lack of perfections, when He rewards them in plenty. God is a Creator of the whole mankind and he understands very well that we have a lot of imperfections.

When human beings start seeking God, He meets them; when they hold out their hands, He reaches them and forgives their sins and deeds. Muslims have the whole month of Ramadan for their salvation. Muslims stand “shoulder to shoulder and bow down before God as they submit” (Stacey, 2008, p.3).

There is spreading of Ramadan all over the world while the Muslim people jointly commence and end their fast, “one body, one people, and one nation” (Stacey, 2008, p.3). The month of Ramadan comes softly and the deeds it brings goes up gently to God. It is pointed out that “far from being a trial of deprivation, the month of Ramadan is a joy and a gift beyond compare” (Stacey, 2008, p.3).

Before the month of Ramadan comes to its end, the Muslims start mourning the fact that Ramadan has almost passed and the month has expired, because this is the month they consider as the one which is blessed; they make attempts to prolong the time by staying with the Quran and giving praise to God whenever it is possible (Stacey, 2008).

The end of the month of Ramadan is marked by Eid al-Fitr festival or what is referred to as “Feast of Fast-Breaking” (Poonawala, n.d, p.3). It starts with the appearing of the new moon which comes on the “first day Shawwal, the tenth month in the Islamic calendar, and generally lasts for three days” (Poonawala, n.d, p.3).

The Muslim people participate in the communal prayers and they can do this either in an open space or in the mosque; all the people are obliged to engage in giving charity to the poor people.

This celebration also bears a significant social dimension. The urban centers take up celebratory mood, and people dress themselves in the best way possible. The friends and relatives walk together in the streets, meet in the mosques or visit each other, engage in exchanging presents and gifts, and also embrace and congratulate one another (Poonawala, n.d).

However, there is one question left that a reader may get interested in, namely, can fasting be harmful to the human health, bearing in mind that it may 15 hours for a person to stay without any food or any kind of drinking? (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). This question is answered where it is pointed out that, basing on the studies that have been conducted in the past, it has been found out that “fasting is practically the most powerful of all remedial measures” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).

It makes it possible for a person’s body to get rid of the poisonous substances that may have been accumulated during the year; it helps to purify one’s blood and undertake a kind of renovation of the whole body system of a human being (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013). As it has been mentioned, fasting, on the one hand, purifies and cleanses the body, on the other hand, however, it adds to the real essential body strength by getting rid of the toxic substances that may make the body nerves and cells weak (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013).

It is also pointed out that skipping a few meals is not similar to starvation. Studies have shown that the energy that is derived from food is not instantly available, in other words “some of this is stored in and upon the body as and when needed at a later time” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).

It is also important to underline the fact that during Ramadan some people may lose weight while others do not. It has been recommended that during Ramadan, the meals taken need to be light, however, a larger number of people cannot “resist sampling special sweets and food associated with Ramadan” (“Ramadan: A guide”, 2013, p.2).

Conclusion As it has been looked in the discussion, the month of Ramadan in the Islamic culture is very important to the Muslims.This is a time every adult Muslim engages in fasting and seeks to have a close relationship with God. During Ramadan, the Muslims engage in celebration and their form of celebrating is found to be very different from the normal celebration in many other cultures. They find joy in this celebration but this joy is not associated with making merry.

They also engage in holding special prayers and reading the Quran. During the night time, the mosques are filled with people who come together to jointly break their fast and to engage in praying. The month of Ramadan is regarded as a month during which the Muslims make an effort to renew their relationship.

During the month, the Muslims hold a strong belief that the word of God is ‘directing light and a mercy’. People read the Quran with the basic reason that it helps in changing their lives, in one way or the other. The Quran and Ramadan are intricately intertwined. In addition, the month of Ramadan is regarded as a month of doing good things and engaging in charitable activities.

The Muslims make an effort to engage in giving in a liberal manner and increase the level of the good actions they engage in doing. It has also been found out, basing on research, fasting is not harmful to the human health. It is not a form of starvation and it is interesting to find out that it is an important way of eliminating toxins from the body.

References Ali, A. M. (2007).Ramadan and fasting. Web.

Asad, M. (2003).The Message of the Qu’ran. Bitton, England: Book Foundation.

Celebrating Ramadan. Web.

Foucault, M. (1994). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York, N.Y: Vintage Books.

Islam FAQ: Muslim Holy days, (2013). Web.

Perry, M. (2005). Between Muslim and Christian Worlds: Moriscas and Identity in Early Modern Spain. Muslim World 95(1), 177-97.

Poonawala, I. Ramadan. Web.

Ramadan: A guide, (2013). Web.

Segle, Z. (2004). Re-imagining Ramadan: The Significance of Festival Discourse in Pérez de Hita’s Guerras civiles de Granada. Web.

Stacey, A. (2008). Why Muslims love the month of Ramadan. Web.


Training Evaluation: New Techniques and Strategies Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract


Review of the Literature

Implications of the Literature



Abstract The ineffectiveness of goal-based and systematized evaluation methods has led to development of new training evaluation methods. This paper reviews some of the present approaches used in training evaluation.

It then provides two training evaluation methods developed in Europe and notes features that make the two methods superior. Additionally, it notes the incorporation of technology in training evaluation. Finally, it provides a brief conclusion of the main points.

Introduction Training evaluation is a fundamental component of instructional design models that many organizations use. Evaluation instruments and methods assist organizations to determine the usefulness of instructional interventions.

However, regardless of the significance of instructional training programs, there is indication that many training plans are not consistent and ineffective. Possible reasons for the inconsistency and inefficiency include insufficient time and budget allocations, inadequate expertise and poor training schemes and tools.

Additionally, the complex nature of evaluation methods could be the cause of inefficiency and inconsistency of training evaluations that companies perform.

Training evaluations involve numerous and complex factors. Training evaluations relate to factors connected to continuous and dynamic contacts of various aspects and features of companies’ and training goals, training situations, evaluation technologies and trainees (Blanchard