What is the role of subjectivity and identity in discussing the concept of the modern subject? In his novel Botchan, Soseki Natsume presents the story of a young man which is given in the first-person narrative. This manner helps to readers to concentrate on the visions of the main character whose nickname is ‘Botchan’ without referring to the author’s impact, and in this case, the level of the subjectivity can be maximal.
Moreover, the readers have the opportunity to follow the protagonist’s search for his identity during the whole novel. To understand the peculiarities of the main character’s vision of himself, it is necessary to focus on the first paragraphs of the novel in which Botchan introduces himself with accentuating the definite events of his childhood and with presenting the characteristics of his personality.
Furthermore, in the first two paragraphs, Botchan provides his own characteristics with references to the words of the other people about him which make the picture more complex and allow speaking about the concept of subjectivity as the component of the modern subject in detail.
The characteristics provided by Botchan and the people round him about his personality which are given in the first paragraphs are significant for understanding the protagonist’s vision of himself, the other persons’ view on him and for explaining the young man’s further actions, attitudes, and behaviours.
The period between the 19th and 20th centuries in Japanese culture is characterised by changing the approaches to the language and its usage in literature. This problem was closely associated with the issue of the modern subject as the reflection of developing new tendencies in literature.
During this period, Soseki Natsume “wrote obviously fictional novels that grappled with such weighty themes as the nature of the modern male intellectual subject’s relation to the kazoku kokka state, and to modernity more generally”1. The focus on the problems of an individual and his identity was the author’s reaction to the tendencies in literature and his vision of the problem of modern subject.
From this point, the depiction of the main protagonist of Botchan is significant in relation to the details of the young man’s description and characterisation. Rubin states that Botchan is the “portrait of a simple hero who emerges from a loveless childhood to fight a world dominated by liars and cheats”2. The evidences for the fact that the boy’s childhood was rather unhappy for him are presented in the first paragraphs of the novel to make a special accent on them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first two paragraphs of Botchan are full of words with the negative connotation which are used to characterise a man as a personality. It is important to note that first word ‘loser’ is used by the narrator to tell about his childhood. The next characterisations such as the ‘boaster’ and ‘poor little creeping thing’ are given by the classmates.
From this point, it can seem that Botchan can identify himself as a loser under the impact of the other persons’ considerations. However, the reaction of the classmates to the figure of Botchan can be the result of his own vision of his abilities. Nevertheless, the first words with the help of which Botchan tells about his childhood are not positive and emphasise the definite problems.
Moreover, speaking about his spirit and behaviour, Botchan accentuates, “a great loser have I been ever since a child, having a rash, daring spirit, a spirit I inherited from my ancestors”3. Thus, the young man does not feel responsibility for the behaviour caused by his ‘rash, daring spirit’ because it is inherited.
The reference to the ancestors can be explained as the reference to the boy’s parents who are responsible more for the boy’s actions according to the presenting idea, and this detail is the prediction of the further describing the boy’s relations with his father.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that the word ‘rash’ is used for describing Botchan’s actions several times. Botchan focuses on his ‘rash, daring spirit’, and then the young man describes his actions as also ‘rash’ with accentuating that “some may be curious enough as to ask me why I did such a rash thing”4.
However, the problem is in the fact that Botchan’s subjective vision of himself is rather controversial where the notions ‘loser’ and ‘rash thing’ are difficult to be combined in order to characterise one person. Moreover, the opposition is complicated by the classmates’ vision of the boy as ‘a great boaster’. That is why, the description of the boy’s actions contributes to the readers’ perception of young Botchan as the boy who is inclined to act impulsively in order to express those male qualities which he can lack.
The next image which Botchan wants to acquire can be reflected in the characterisation of a ‘strong boy’. Botchan pays attention to the following situation, “my father, seeing me come home on the back of the janitor, said in an angry tone that no strong boy could be hurt by jumping down from such a low height as from upstairs”5.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Characterisation, Modern Subject, and Subjectivity in Soseki Natsume’s Botchan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The narrator emphasises that the boy’s father said the words ‘in angry tone’ which accentuates his dissatisfaction. ‘No strong boy could be hurt by jumping down’, but Botchan is hurt by the words of his father, and the boy decides to become really ‘strong boy’, and his father “would be proud to see me come out all right next time”6.
Thus, Botchan wants his actions be approved by his father because he does not feel his support. The author presents the aspects of the situation with humour and in a quite informal and playful tone, but those details which are accentuated with the help of word choice allow the readers’ considerations about the peculiarities of Botchan’s identity and the young man’s personal vision of himself.
In spite of the light tone using which the author presents the story about Botchan’s jumping down from the second story of the schoolhouse, it is important for readers to pay attention to the difficulties which are experienced by the main character of the novel in relation to his problematic identifying himself, subjective vision of his personality, and the other persons’ considering his actions.
Botchan does not want to be a ‘poor little creeping thing’ and make accents on doing the rash things and impulsive actions which he tries to justify with references to his family and his ancestors. Thus, the problem of the modern subject in the Japanese literature with the protagonist’s uncertain identity, controversial subjectivity, and self-consciousness can be discussed in relation to the character of Botchan.
Bibliography Natsume, Soseki. Botchan. USA: Tuttle Publishing, 2005.
Orbaugh, Sharalyn. “The Problem of the Modern Subject”. In The Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature, edited by Joshua S. Mostow, 24-35. USA: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Rubin, Jay. “Soseki”. In Modern Japanese Writers, edited by Jay Rubin, 349-384. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2001.
Footnotes 1 Sharalyn Orbaugh, “The Problem of the Modern Subject”, in The Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature, edited by Joshua S. Mostow, (USA: Columbia University Press, 2003), 32.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Characterisation, Modern Subject, and Subjectivity in Soseki Natsume’s Botchan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2 Jay Rubin, “Soseki”, in Modern Japanese Writers, edited by Jay Rubin, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2001), 361.
3 Soseki Natsume, Botchan, (USA: Tuttle Publishing, 2005), 13.
4 Ibid., 13.
5 Ibid., 13.
6 Ibid., 13.
Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines Dissertation college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Original Inhabitants
The Historical Culture of Aborigines
Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines
Effects of the Issues
How the Country’s History was Reported
Introduction Australia is one of the continents with very rich records tracing to the period before 1788. During that time, the area was called the Gwondaland, characterized by the presence of the Aborigines and huge animals called the dinosaurs. The country’s history is significant and could help one understand the present Australia, the struggles it has undergone and its people.
The Aborigines were the natives of the land prior to colonialism that tried to resist the English invasion of their territory, but lost the battle due to the sophisticated weapons that the whites had at that time.
It only through having the basic and deep knowledge of the country’s history that could shade lights on what it is today and its future The history of the country has been told through the preserves of generations and lately documented for its population to appreciate the past and what their forefathers did in making the place a better place for the then and future generations. Therefore, the paper presents an account of the country’s history.
The Original Inhabitants The people who originally lived in Australia, together with those who were living in the neighboring Islands constituted the Aborigines, and formed the rich history of the continent (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 22). After transforming through generations, the Aborigines are estimated at 2.5 percent of the total population of Australia.
The fore fathers of the Aborigines are estimated to have arrived in Australia 125,005 years back (Bartlett 44). Therefore, the original inhabitants of the Gwondaland, the present Australia who were the Aborigines descended from the ancient people whose history was not documented and have not been properly traced.
Those people lived in the continent before 1788 and faced off with the colonialists, thus an attempt to discuss the history of Australia has to touch on the uniqueness of the natives. In this regard, the natives of Australia were distinct from others in the way they lived and related to one another (Bartlett 44).
In essence, different people have different way of life as well as the cultural practices. Therefore, the indigenous Australians, their culture, the various issues affecting these people as well as the outcome of the issues are important while trying to understand the history of the continent. It is equally significant to determine whether these issues are stereotyped or not, then consider how the history of this country was reported (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Historical Culture of Aborigines As a result of the diversity of the communities of the Aborigines, there are historical differences in the cultural practices of the people. Notably, each community had its cultural practice and way of life that they identified with (Baumann 4). However, there were other historical practices, such as dances and traditional songs, which were commonly practiced across many communities.
Culturally, some of the common historical beliefs, which the Indigenous communities shared, were the Baiame, the Bunjil, Rainbow Serpent, and the Dirawong (Baumann 7). The author called these spirits controlled most of the ancestors (Baumann 7).
In relation to the history of Aboriginal credence, the resilience of the ancestors of the land came down from the sky, surfaced from the earth or pounced from streams. These ancestral spirits had supernatural powers, allowing them to transform into animal or human forms throughout the Dreamtime of the earth’s creation (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 2).
Ceremonial songs and dances honor myths of the Dreamtime creation period; they celebrated through music and dances, the activities and journeys of superhuman spirit ancestors. Members in traditional dance rites are painted with the emblems as well as totems of their tribes as well as their performances are purposed to hark back the spiritual influence of the spirit ancestor (Baumann 12).
Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines The history of the country was reported orally through the preserves of generations, thus distorted the content and accuracy of the information. On the historical context of the country, its indigenous people were mostly affected by health issues due to poor living conditions of the people (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 26).
Some of the diseases that the people experienced included the circulatory infections, communicable diseases, renal failure, diabetes, mental illness among others. In addition, the aborigines lived in poverty, suffered cultural tensions as well as insufficient education (Baumann 17).
Effects of the Issues The cultural and historical differences resulted to tension among the various communities, which lived in the content. Historically, the Aborigines suffered health complications that sometimes led to the death of the people (Flood 20).
We will write a custom Dissertation on Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to statistics, diabetes accounted for 18 percent of the total deaths of the indigenous people. On the other hand renal failure accounted for 2.5 percent of the Aborigines who died, thus created a historical disaster of in the continent at that time (Bowern 55). The impact that the effects had on the people was the insufficient preparedness of the people to deal with the diseases, and the failure of the local herbs to curb the effects of the diseases (Hughes 28).
Racial Stereotype To an extent, the historical problems that the people faced in Australia were attributed to racial stereotypes of the different cultures (Crawford
Research Study Presented In a Journal Article for an Educational Research Methods Module Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online
Table of Contents The Focus, Purpose and Rationale for the Study
The Research Methodology Used
Population and Sample
Data Collection Instruments
Data Analysis and Display
The Claims Made by the Researchers
List of References
The Focus, Purpose and Rationale for the Study The study highlights the importance of investigating student-teachers’ involvement in active learning. Learning is a lifelong experience. It may also be attained from professional practice. The study utilizes an investigative approach. This approach is based on the assessment of competencies of the participants.
The basic focus of the study is to assess the methodologies that teachers adopt in their personal learning (Haggera, Burna, Muttona
Blood-collection agency – The CBS case Report best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Promotional objectives for the blood-collection agency
Some specific promotional strategies to achieve these objectives
The relevance to other non-profit organizations
Possible problems facing the blood-collection agency
The blood donation as an ongoing service
The necessary information required as a consumer
Blood donation has been a common practice in different countries across the globes. Different agencies have been established in different countries to deal with the collection and distribution of blood to the health institutions to save lives of other people. In Canada, the Canadian Blood Services (CBS) is an agency that manages the country’s blood system.
The agency is concerned with the collection and distribution of blood and blood products to manage different health problems relation to blood (Smith et al, 2011, p.46). The agency has several collection sites and donor clinics. It carries out the recruitment of blood donors and ensures a continued supply of healthy blood for the needy patients (Smith et al, 2011, p.46).
The agency embarks on extensive promotions to encourage blood donation in the country. However, despite these efforts, the rate of blood donation is still very low in the country with only about 3-4% of the total population donating blood towards the program (Smith et al, 2011, p.46).
The low rates are likely to pose challenges to the health centers that rely on such blood to manage cases like anemia and excessive blood loss following an accident. It is then necessary that other promotional strategies be applied by the CBS and other similar agencies.
Promotional objectives for the blood-collection agency Promotion as a marketing strategy has been a common practice by many business organizations. The organizations understand the need to attract and retain more customers to have a competitive advantage over their competitors.
The promotions are aimed at increasing the inflow rate of the customers to a given organization and ensuring the customers are satisfied and willing to buy the products again (Taffer Dynamics, 2006, p.7). Such promotional strategies are aimed at increasing sales by expanding the customers’ expenditure on the products and services.
However, the need for marketing has received less consideration in among the non-profit organizations (Lake, 2011). The organizations seem to have the traditional perception that marketing is merely aimed at increasing sales.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The promotional strategies of a non-profit organization should aim at obtaining donors and volunteers. It should also be aimed at satisfying the needs of both the donors and the consumers of the organization (Lake, 2011). Thus, one of the promotional objectives of the blood-collection agency is to attract donors and volunteers who would donate blood or provide financial support to the agency.
The blood-collection agency would wish to have its operations be sustained for a long period. The continuous supply of blood is affected by volunteerism of the individuals in a given country (U.S. Department of Health
Lessons from the Great Depression and Postwar Global Economy: A Critical Analysis Essay essay help free
Introduction The catastrophic convulsion of stock-market prices on the New York Stock Exchange in October 1929 and the Great Depression which followed are among the most noteworthy events of the twentieth century.
As noted by Steindl (2007), these two events changed the global economic landscape of the time as developed economies, led by the United States, gravitated towards a grotesque economic slump which resulted in massive job losses, meltdown in global trade, severe contraction in spending, and failure of financial institutions.
Granted the importance of these events, then, it was inevitable for policy analysts to learn important lessons from the Great Depression to avoid a repeat of economic blunders that precipitated the world’s worst depression to date.
Indeed, the widely held perspective, according to Bramble (2009), is that the experience of a generation that was faced with an overwhelmingly greater degree of uncertainty can teach us some important lessons about how to negotiate our own economic uncertainty.
This paper will attempt to critically analyze if the lessons learnt from the Great Depression were decisive in shaping the post-1945 global economy. This objective will be achieved by analyzing three broad domains, namely: consequences of the depression to the global economy; the fall of the gold standard, and; the Bretton Woods system.
The Great Depression Era
The Difference between a Hypothesis and a Research Question Report (Assessment) best essay help
A hypothesis can be said to be a form of research where information in terms of data is gathered by taking a preliminary or hypothetical investigation to come up with a tentative explanation of how the final result will reflect (White, 2002).
A hypothesis can also be said to be the ability of a researcher to attempt to pose questions on a particular topic and also give forth plausible explanations as what constitutes as being the final result in a yet to a proven fact through a rigorously testing method.
Hypothesis explains how a value of one variable is affected or changes in comparison with another variable either positively or negatively. Some researchers say that the prediction of the outcome may be based on a kind of educated guess and at times through a formal theory (Kasi, 2009). These postulations by a researcher try to predict what he or she may consider to be the outcome of an investigation.
A hypothesis indicates the outcome of a research based on certain variables. On the other hand, research questions deal only with a specific ideal. Some researchers say that these variables in business and management may include factors that may directly or indirectly affect the outcome of either production or service.
The major difference between a research question and a hypothesis may be the fact that in a hypothesis, the results are postulated and the questions are usually framed towards getting a similar outcome or something near the postulated outcome and therefore, biased (Hiraoka, 2008).
However, in research questions, there is basically no predictable or estimated outcome that may be said to guide the researcher (Buddenbaum
The Effectiveness of Marriage Conflict Resolution Programs in Reducing Number of Divorce Cases in USA Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Background Marriage is an institution that can be found in any society. Every society has its own definition and arrangement of marriage and as a result, it is likely to find many differences as to what marriage is composed of (Strong, De Vault, and Cohen, 2010).
Nevertheless, in all situations marriage is always founded on the expectations of the couples to have an enriching experience that is composed of stable and assured companionship, increased financial security, sexual gratification, and more importantly, a welcome relief from stressors of single life (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Further, marriage has been embraced by the larger society given its immeasurable contribution to the wellbeing of society largely through providing a stable environment for children to be born, grow up, and become members of the society (Nevid, 2007; Strong, De Vault, and Cohen, 2010).
When individuals get married, hope always is that such marriage should stay permanently and continue into unforeseen future. Although this may be the wish of everyone, it is not always that all marriages go well.
Divorce is what characterizes dysfunctional marriages. In its occurrence, divorce has been described to be unhappy occasion since breaking is accompanied by many costs in terms of financial and emotions.
For instance, couples divorcing are forced to divide their families, properties and even their lives, which in most cases is not easy. Fresh research continues to be generated on the most appropriate ways divorce can be reduced in the society (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Therefore, any attempt to explore and carry more research in this field is laudable especially for future policy-work.
That is why research work on the above-proposed title will be a great and positive step towards generating useful information for future policy-work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem statement Divorce is an issue that is eating modern society and specifically the American society. Research in the area of divorce continues to draw more attention and today more effort has been channeled in researching on the issue. As research in the field continues to draw more interest, there is need also for more research work in the area concerning the various modern programs that are aimed at ensuring divorce rate in the society goes down.
The availability of statistics and profound information on divorce in America makes it possible to design various program-solutions that can be administered to various categories of people who have been identified as the most affected by divorce cases or likelihood. Given that divorce still face stigma in modern society, there are spirited efforts to develop prevention programs that can result into reduction or prevention of divorce.
Such prevention programs have largely been in form of marriage education workshops, where couples meet under a qualified marriage instructor who later provides marriage instructions in key areas such as communication, conflict resolution, and parenting skills. Therefore, an attempt to understand the role, contribution, and effectiveness of the various divorce prevention programs is welcome and timely.
The research will specifically dwell on the conflict resolution programs, whereby through application of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques, there will be an attempt to find and evaluate the success of the programs.
Rationale for the Research It is no longer secret that divorce is causing negative impacts on the society as a whole (Fletcher, 2002). Today, estimates indicate that for the last ten years, divorce rate in the American society has remained stable at 50% for the first marriages, 65% for the second marriages and higher statistics for the rest successive marriages (Fletcher, 2002).
Garner (2008) observes that divorce in modern American society is a serious problem that is “affecting an exponentially increasing number of people.” The author goes a head to note that about 50% of those divorcing manifest lack of civilized relations with each other in their marriage (Garner, 2008).
Further, another 50% of those who divorce were found “continued with the conflict and problems they had in the marriage or possibly worse” (Garner, 2008).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Effectiveness of Marriage Conflict Resolution Programs in Reducing Number of Divorce Cases in USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In another related research, Hetherington found out that “80% of people do not improve their lives by divorcing their spouses” (Garner, 2008). As such divorce was identified as a problem in society that “affects couples who went through divorce, their children, parents, extended family and friends” (Garner, 2008).
For example, statistics shows that 10% of adults who divorce experience serious problems while 10-15% of children also experience serious problems (Garner, 2008). Therefore, in American society today, “millions of people are living with serious problems due of their own or their parents divorcing” (Garner, 2008).
Given these alarming statistics, it is evident that an attempt to carry out detailed research work in the issue of divorce is welcome provided the generated information will unravel some of the issues still untouched.
Therefore the rationale for this research paper will be to gain greater understanding of how divorce prevention programs work and in which way such programs can be enhanced to ensure their effectiveness in reducing cases of divorce in American society
Research hypothesis Hypotheses are educated guesses at what the outcome of the study may be (Hall 2008). In this particular research study, the hypothesis to be statistically investigated is:
Does marital counseling contribute to lower statistics of divorces than divorces without marital counseling?
Research Objectives The motivation in undertaking any research work is usually inscribed in the overall objective of the research. Thus, research objectives constitute all those reasons why the research is necessary and has to be undertaken and what will be the impact or benefit of the research.
Divorce is currently impacting the family and larger society negatively. At the same time, divorce is still largely stigmatized and therefore whenever it takes place, it leaves the victims both financially, socially, psychologically, and physically deprived.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effectiveness of Marriage Conflict Resolution Programs in Reducing Number of Divorce Cases in USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With this in mind, undertaking a research on the divorce prevention programs is necessary and timely for the research will be able to provide important information concerning divorce in American society. Information will be generated through both quantitative and qualitative instruments and information is perceived to meet certain objectives. First, information concerning divorce rate and the current statistics will be generated.
This will be critical to have accurate information concerning divorce rate in America. Second, the research will identify some of the effective divorce prevention programs that have been implemented in society. In doing so, the research will be able to assess their effectiveness and possible recommendations for improvement.
As such, information generated and compiled will be important to various stakeholders in the field of marriage counseling especially at policy level. Divorce prevention programs need to be created on the understanding of existing programs, there effectiveness and the need to re-equip and re-structure them.
Therefore, this research will be appropriate in providing such information. Lastly, given this research will look at divorce conflict prevention programs, a solid body of knowledge will be created and this will serve as a solid ground for future research work in the field.
Definition of terms Counseling: This is a process whereby specialized skills are employed in helping people with emotional, situational, psychological, or practical issues in the daily life (Guindon, 2010).
Couples: These are partners dating, engaged, unmarried living together, or married and living together (Hunt, Hof and DeMaria, 1998).
Divorce: This is a concept that has been defined as the formal dissolution of a valid marriage by judicial decree (Mitchell, 2009).
Divorce prevention: a process that involves raising marriage protective factors and lowering marriage risk factors (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Society: This is a composition of persons who exhibit diverse beliefs and ways of living, who live in a particulate defined locality (Stubbs, 1996).
Chapter summary Divorce in contemporary society is rampant and its impact to the larger society is evident. American society has become one of the major casualties where divorcing is greatly affecting many people. In order to handle the problem more effectively, there is paramount need to understand the factors contributing to divorce.
Thereafter, more effort should be made at identifying some of the divorce prevention programs available, their strengths, and weaknesses. Lastly, when the above has been done, attention should be directed at evaluating the effectiveness of the programs to discover whether they actually help reduce divorce rate in society.
Overall, this section is basically concerned with introducing the idea that appropriate divorce counseling and prevention programs lead to reduction in divorce cases.
Review of Related Literature Divorce process and factors that contribute to divorce
Life events combine with daily stressors to constitute key factors that make marriage break (Gold, 1988). These key stressors and life events have been categorized into two major groups: macro-factors of divorce and micro factors of divorce (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Some of the macro-factors contributing to increased divorce in society include increased economic independence of women, whereby women who finds gainful employment outside their homes may decide to leave their husbands in order to pursue their careers (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Another factor is the changing family functions and structure in the modern world, whereby many of the protective, religious, educational, and recreational functions of the family have been substituted by outside agencies (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Another reason has to do with changing and liberalizing divorce laws, where in America majority of states recognizes some forms of non-fault divorce (Knox and Schacht, 2009). At the same time, in the modern society there are fewer moral and religious sanctions, where marriage is being viewed as a secular entity and not a religious obligation (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
With these understanding among many people, divorce today is accepted more easily will little moral orb religious sanctions. Other macro-factors contributing to divorce include those marrying for the first time are likely to divorce since couples view such marriages as temporal (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Today American society is full of more divorce models thus many people especially youth couples are likely to divorce as a result of influence from the model (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Lastly, macro-factors such as mobility and anonymity and individualistic goals cultural goal of happiness have all contributed to increasing divorce rates in USA (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Macro-factors have to do largely with the individual and immediate family specifically with regard to the type of relationships couples establish. Key factors in this category contributing to divorce include loss of love, where when couples feel that the other partner does not love her or him, divorce may be embrace (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Negative behaviors from both partners may infuriate the other and divorce may be sought.
When there is total absence of conflict resolution skills, couples may find it difficult to cope with the other and hence divorce may be the solution to their persistent conflicts (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Values changes by couples may results into differences that may be a problem to solve and when they become mature, tolerance level collapses and couples may seek divorce (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Other micro-factors identified include aspects such as satiation where couples loose desire for each other; extra-marital relationships; and the increasing societal perception that divorcing is better than being married (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Other related factors include: having little in common; courting for a shorter period; marrying while still young; differences as a result of race, education, age and religion; and lastly, poor communication skills (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Strength of Current Divorce Prevention Programs in USA?
Divorce prevention in the society has become pre-occupation of many counselors and therapists. John H. Harvey and Amy Wenzel, observe that there exists a multitude of divorce prevention programs but in general, there is scarcity of research addressing the effectiveness of majority of these programs (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
In most cases, marriage education workshops have been established and used as mechanisms to bring couples together and provide useful advice information with regard to communication, conflict resolution and parenting skills (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
As a result of these marriage workshops, Stanley (2005) found that the programs had positive outcomes in marital functioning (cited in Knox and Schacht, 2009). Further, it should be noted that majority of prevention programs have originated from skills training approach (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
According to the skills training approach, emphasis is put on teaching couple’s skills that are important in managing differences, disagreements and conflicts that may arise in the family (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). These prevention programs have identified communication as key aspect that when effectively trained can help couples solve and manage their conflicts.
As a result, the key component of these programs has been training couples in effective communication strategies (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). Therefore, some notable prevention programs include prevention and relationship enhancement program (PREP); relationship enhancement (RE); and couples communication (CC) programs (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Relationship Enhancement (RE) is a program that is designed to develop empathy and mutual understanding with aim of enhancing intimacy, manage conflict, and effectively deal with numerous difficulties that emerge among couples (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009). It has been identified that Couples differences may originate from the following sources: differences in beliefs, feelings, needs, and desires.
Therefore, the foundation of the program basing on these differences has been constructed based on a set of ten communication and problem-solving skills where couples are able to identify and address the most issues affecting their relationship (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
The author observes that RE are largely enhanced with the aim of not just changing the dysfunctional behaviors with couple relationship, but also empowering couples in order to prevent future problems or to equip the couples have faster conflict resolution skills in future problems (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
There has been identification of four major skills that RE deals with speaking, listening, role switching and facilitating (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).Effectiveness of these programs has been evaluated by numerous researchers. For example, the RE has been found to be effective in terms of communication skills, disclosure, and empathy for the participants in the program (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
At the same time, Byington and Seattle Pacific University (2009) observes that RE as compared to CC, manifest more superior capabilities whereby RE has been found to increase marital satisfaction as demonstrated from Marital Communication Inventory and a follow-up test of three months (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
Further comparison has been made between RE and waitlist control group where it has been found that there are significant improvements in marital quality as evidenced from the Interpersonal Relationship Scale (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
The second program is the couple communication (CC) which initially was known as the Minnesota Couples Communication Project (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). CC is developed from combination of related theories largely grounded in system theory, communication theory, and family development theory (Miller et al., 1976 cited in Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
In designing and implementing the program, two goals are desired: provide help to couples to develop greater understanding of their interaction patterns and rules of communication (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Second, the program aims at increasing the ability to change the current interactions rules and patterns that are not effective and advising the couples to embrace direct, clear, and open communication about the relationship (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
With regard to couple’s communication (CC) program, meta-analysis research has established that the program has been found to exhibit positive outcomes among the participants (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
For instance, the program had positive results for couples observed communication skills and on the couples self-report of communication skills (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). Nevertheless, it was also established that the effect size of CC declined on subsequent follow-ups (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
The third prevention program is the PREP where marriage couples are trained in skills that intend to avert future distress in their relationships (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). Development of PREP was largely based on knowledge acquired through empirical research (Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Accordingly, PREP is premised on the need to identify those phenomena that have high potential of resulting into marital satisfaction and stability or deterioration (Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Four major goals have been identified that PREP address: teaching good communication skills; clarifying and evaluating expectations for marriage; creating an understanding about choices and commitment to the relationship; and enhancing the couple’s bond through fun, friendship and sensuality (Stanley et al. 1999 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
In an attempt to carry out evaluation of this program, extensive designed studies have been carried out among different population groups. In some of the designed studies that have been carried out, it has been found out that couples who take part in PREP in most cases exhibit increased positive communication and decreased negative communication as compared to control groups (Stanley et al., 2001 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Moreover, it has been found that participating in PREP for longer periods, couples exhibited higher relational satisfaction, fewer sexual difficulties and fewer instances of physical violence as compared to couples in control groups (Markman et al., 1993 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
What are some of the Weaknesses of the Identified Programs?
Related research on PREP has indicated that after about four or five years after participating in PREP, couples manifested no significant differences in the divorce and separation rate of couples who had participated in PREP (Markman et al., 1993 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
At the same time, more research was undertaken in Netherlands whereby statistics indicated that upon completion of the program, there were no recorded reduction in breakups, problem intensity had increased and sexual dissatisfaction were higher as compared to couples who were under control studies (Van-Widenfelf, Hosman, Schaap and Staak, 1996 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Other identified weakness of this program has to do with potential self-selection bias that ultimately leads to fewer couples completing the program thus evaluation may not capture the actual picture on the ground. As a result, testing and evaluating the success of PREP has only involved highly motivated couples in program (Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Relationship Enhancement (RE) programs have also been found to exhibit some weakness. For example, through an assessment that was carried out on the program involving the educated and less educated couples, (Halford, 2011) found out that generalizability of the results was for educated couples (Halford, 2011).
In this way, generalizability of less educated couples is still untested, a situation that renders the program to be somehow ineffective. Another weakness of this program has to do with exclusive reliance on self-report assessment. (Halford, 2011) observes that self-report may not accurately identify some key risk factors.
More so, Sanders et al. (1999) note that self-reports of couple communication in early stage relationships often do not reflect subtle communication deficits that are detectable with observational assessment (Halford, 2011).
Couple’s Communication, just like other programs of marriage counseling has exhibited some weaknesses. In a well-concluded research Butler and Wampler (1999) observes that CC has a smaller effect on couple’s self-report of communication skills (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Further, it has been found out that gains achieved through impacting communication skills among couples tended to decrease and even deteriorate as time went by (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Lastly, although CC proved to be effective and useful to enhancing couple’s relationship satisfaction immediately after taking part in the program, it was noted that, the overall effect reduced to moderate in the subsequent follow-up (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
In this chapter, marriage was identified to be the dream of many people and hope is always that once married couples should stay into indefinite future. In this chapter evidence have shown that couples are faced with many life events and stressors that when inappropriately managed results into conflicts.
Conflicts were found to characterize many marriages where sometimes couples may find it difficult to form meaningful relationship and conflict resolution strategies.
When this happen, then divorce is likely to occur. Nevertheless, numerous programs were identified that have been used to provide conflict resolution strategies to couples that in turn help such couples avoid likeliness of divorcing. Researches from multiple authors have confirmed the effectiveness of these programs but there is need for improvement to realize meaningful results.
Methodology This section aims to provide the structure of the study, which will serve as a guide for the overall flow of the research. Identifying the most appropriate research design, data collection technique, setting and sample of the study, instruments, and data analysis will help in the attainment of the main goal of this research proposal. The methodology section is sub-divided under the following sub-headings:
It is proposed that this particular study will gauge on both constructionist and positivistic approach (Gergen, 1999 cited in Bakhurst, 2011) wherein scientific and rational justification shall be implemented in coordination with subjective construction of insights entailed by constructionism (Audi, 2010). To achieve this objective, the research will select participants in the most appropriate way that avoid bias.
Therefore, research participants to be included in this study will include soldiers in their first marriage, soldiers in their second marriage and divorces from the United States Army Reserve Command. Further, the study will also incorporate a counselor from the Family Advocacy Center at Fort Bragg, NC.
As this study will utilize both constructionist and positivistic paradigms, the focal point will be to derive objectivity and in-depth analysis of the study. In so doing, quantitative and qualitative approaches are applied.
Through a combination of these research designs, data to be retrieved will be gauged using both strength of qualitative and quantitative designs, which include the strength of validity and reliability found in quantitative approach, while the qualitative design offers in-depth analysis of data.
In this manner, it is expected that a more robust and meaningful conclusion can be gauged by the research (Bryman, 1988 cited in Udokwu and University of Missouri, 2009).
Research objectives and research questions are developed in order to set the focus of the study. For this research paper, descriptive research will be adopted implying that the study shall gauge on existing characteristics of the variables under the study within its own natural setting.
The study will initially locate and identify divorce prevention programs that have been designed and implemented in USA. The respondents will be soldiers from the United States Army Reserve Command and a counselor from Family Advocacy Center at Fort Bragg, NC. First, the research will start by contacting the counselor where a survey will be carried out on the existing programs.
Then survey will also incorporate the soldiers who have participated in these programs. The counselor’s opinion and perception will be sought through the interviewed on how counseling programs have been effective in reducing divorce cases. Thus, it will be possible to learn the programs, which have been effectively implemented. Survey of soldiers’ feedback will be necessary for feedback purposes.
Proposed Analysis of the Data
The instrument to be utilized is a self-developed questionnaire, which will be composed of ten items with additional eleven open-ended interview questionnaires. The first set is gauged to inquire the counselor’s opinion and perception on how effective and successful the divorce prevention programs have been achieving goals of divorce reduction. Four likert scales will be used to assess the strength of agreement on each item.
On the other hand, the second set is for the survey of soldiers who have taken part in these programs. The eleven-item questionnaire will supplement information for the answers derived from the interview with counseling therapists. Data will be analyzed using Microsoft Excel, 2010 version.
Various pivot tables in form of frequencies, mean, and mode will be used for cross tabulation. In addition, graphs of comparison will be used and other statistical data will be accomplished using different Function tools within Excel. Data analysis will be in accordance to stated research questions and research hypothesis.
Results expected from the study include the number of soldiers who have participated in marriage and divorce prevention programs; the number of times participated; the duration that was spend in the program; the designation and process of teaching the program. At the same time, rate of divorce, weak marriages and young marriages will be generated from the three categories of marriages: first, second and divorces.
At the same time, results concerning reasons as to why people divorce will be generated from the research. The number of counseling programs, their rate of effectiveness, and their rate of failure will be generated.
Determination and analysis of categories of respondents will largely be demonstrated through use of mean tables, graphs, and pie charts. Percentages will be calculated with regard to responses on any given variable being investigated.
Implications and limitations
It is implied that counseling actually helps keeps marriages health and couples. Counseling will prevent divorces; however, this is not always the case. Even with adoption of some counseling programs, the rate of divorce in the population remains unchanged.
Some of the identified weaknesses of the programs have to do with ineffectiveness in self-assessment reports, lack of representative samples in gauging effectiveness of programs and deterioration of impact over a long period. Therefore, it is required that for effectiveness to be realized need assessment of client has to be thoroughly undertaken before recommending any particular program to the client.
Given that divorce is an issue that is complex and one that no particular individual would find great pleasure in narrating: time and financial resources may be a limit. This is particularly with regard to large number of respondents the research will want to interview.
Another limitation may arise from research instrumentation, whereby the selected samples may not provide the exact information concerning their reasons for divorce especially those perceived to be private and secret.
Lastly, limitation of the research will be exhibited in terms of content, whereby the research will confine itself to conflict resolution programs and how success they are. Thus, information on other programs such as communication and parenting styles may not be investigated.
Ethics of Research
Research ethics imply the cautious administration of research procedures especially when it comes to human subjects. In which case, this study shall be composed of human participants, thus, ethical processes must be observed. First permission will be sought from relevant regulatory board for the research proposal.
After obtaining the necessary approval, finding the right settings for the study and the participants who will be involved in the research will be the next step. Thus, prospective therapists and beneficiary participants will be gauged from the list obtained from the department. To apply fairness, a random selection technique shall be applied. In this manner, anonymity and confidentiality of information are important considerations.
Prior to continuing with the research, it is vitally important that consent be derived from the participants. Apart from this, the objective of the study is also explained to the therapists so as for them to know the honest intention of the research. Likewise, they will be guaranteed access to the results of the study and information on best practices, which can be applied in their context.
The methodology for this study will be mixed methodology such that it will apply both qualitative and quantitative research designs. The main objective of which is to utilize the collaborative strength of the two research designs where the quantitative design is able to provide reliable and objective results whilst the qualitative research applies in-depth analysis of data.
Research instruments to be used will be self-developed questionnaires and Four likert scales. Through these instruments it is believed that appropriate and accurate data will be generated that will further be analyzed through Microsoft Excel, 2010 version and various pivotal tables.
Conclusion Divorce in American society is rife and the problem can be tackled by implementation of appropriate prevention programs. There exists numerous prevention programs as identified and each has its own strengths and weaknesses. However, there is necessity for research on the effectiveness and success of the programs in order to ensure future programs are enhanced when designing is taking place.
This will ensure meaningful results are realized with regard to divorce prevention in the American society. Through undertaking this research, it is believed a body of knowledge will be created that in turn will offer insight in to the success of divorce prevention programs. This will enable key stakeholders to utilize the information in more meaningful and productive way.
Appendices Copies of instruments that will be used Questions from questionnaire What is your name?
What is your age?
Type of your marriage: first marriage second marriage divorcee
Do you find it easy to talk with each other?
Are you open to constructive feedback?
Do you accept your mistakes and learn from them?
Is your marriage free from intimidation and abuse of all kinds?
Are you capable of forgiving yourself and your partner?
Do you take responsibility for your own behaviors and happiness?
Can you communicate them clearly?
Do you think that counseling will save your marriage?
Participant permission form –
Time line – proposal time line is 6 months
1 Stage 1: Area of interest identified 05.08.11 2 Stage 2: Specific topic selected 15.08.11 3 Stage 3: Topic refined to develop dissertation proposal 22.08.11 4 Stage 4: Proposal written and submitted 05.09.11 5 Stage 5: Collection of data and information 31.10.11 6 Stage 6: Analysis and interpretation of collected data/information 20.11.11 7 Stage 7: Writing up 10.12.11 8 Stage 8: Final draft prepared – submission of dissertation 04.01.12 9 Final Deadline – six months from classroom date. 01.02.12 References Audi, R. (2010). Epistemology: A Contemporary introduction to the theory of knowledge. NY: Taylor
The Problem of Drought on Earth Essay college essay help near me
The earth goes through different climates, normally based on temperature and precipitation differences. Most of the organisms found on the earth’s surface have developed mechanisms to adapt to different climates, though some climatic conditions are too harsh for these animals. Drought is one of the worse climatic changes since it does not only interfere with the water cycle, but every living thing found on the earth’s surface.
The worst thing that has happened in the current century is not depletion of energy sources, nor is it an increase in nuclear war but loss in the biodiversity. The other catastrophes can be repaired within a very short period but loss in biodiversity would take millions of years to correct.
The biggest threat to biodiversity is drought; this can either occur due to natural processes or can be influenced by human beings. Management and conservation measures of the South African reserve should be aimed at establishing ways of preventing the current biodiversity as well as investing in others.
When planning on the conservation measure to adapt for the South African reserve, certain issues have to be put into consideration; both biodiversity and the ecosystem must be preserved for future generation. Since the drought is affecting the vegetation for grazers, it is likely that most of them will die or be eaten by the predators (the lions and dogs).
This may not continue for long as all the grazers may be killed and some may die out of starvation leaving no food for the predators. This calls for urgent conservation measures in order to ensure that neither the grazers nor the predators become extinct.
Many organisms are able to thrive in the habitations that they are most adapted to, for example, fish cannot be able to survive outside water because they have special features that enable them to stay in water. The same applies to wildlife which cannot be able to thrive in an area without vegetation. Conservation measures should therefore be aimed at preserving the vegetation so as to provide a habitat for the wildlife
One way of conserving the reserve would be to transfer the lions and dogs and some of the grazers to other reserves with plenty of food in order to conserve the affected reserve and ensure that none of the organisms get extinct. Transferring the predators and some of the grazers would not be enough because even after doing that the carrying capacity of the reserve remains low and thus the remaining grazers will soon die of hunger.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other conservation measures have to be adopted for instance planting of turf grass. Almost every cultural landscape contains turf grass lawn, which dictates the infrastructural aesthetic held by people and enforced by ordinance. The lawn is a landscape that requires regular watering yet does not get wet and require limited use of fertilizer and is always short.
The landscape is in essence designed to separate itself from the two most important components it needs, that is, water and resources. This is the heritage of a cultural endeavour to create a water-loving landscape that cannot put up with water.
Drought may be caused by increased human activities and thus the conservation plan must include measures on how to control such activities. It is true that human influences have led to the accelerating rate of climate change. In most cases, the human activities on land such as pollution and deforestation interfere with the water cycle. These activities do not only affect the aquatic life but also the natural cycle of water.
The aquifer table is depleted leading to increased surface runoff. If man was able to balance his activities with the water cycle, then there could be a strong relationship between land and water where each depend on the other one. Many people have changed their perspective about the environment and are now using measures of conserving it.
As we all know, drought is caused by lack of rainfall and the latter is being influenced by human activities such as deforestation and over-cultivation. To respond to this issue, trees should be planted and the government should issue bans to prevent the exploitation of the ecosystem. With all these measures being put into place, we expect the effects of the drought to decline although this may take quite some time.
Human beings in many parts of the world have become more conscious on the role played by living organisms. For instance, forests and vegetations are believed to regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thereby controlling the rate of global warming.
Measures have been put in place to ensure that certain areas are left as reserves and most governments have gone to the extent of planting forests. This has created an increase in the habitat of most species and the rate of extinction which has increased significantly is expected to go down.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Drought on Earth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the number of reserves is increased in South Africa, animals would be distributed evenly in these reserves and the impacts of the drought would not be as severe as if the number of reserves is limited.
Suicide prevention project geared toward the elderly population Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Suicide is an aspect that is well known by people due to its prevalence. However, there is much to be discovered in regard to the issues that are associated with suicide. Suicide can be defined as the process through which an individual ends his or her life purposely or deliberately. There are various factors that could lead to suicide, for instance stress, depression and in most cases, mental illness.
Suicide is a concept that is viewed differently by various societies depending on their culture and religion. Most western cultures and Christianity for example perceive suicide to be a very negative concept that should always be avoided. Statistics show that in the United States of America, suicide is ranked as the fourth leading cause of deaths.
Although suicide cases are seen in individuals of all ages and family backgrounds, there are some groups of people who are more vulnerable than others (Holmes and Holmes, 2005). This piece of work gives an in depth discussion of the issue of suicide with much emphasis being given to the elderly and how suicide could be prevented in this section of the population.
The Problem Statement The problem of discussion in this project is the issue of suicide among the elderly persons in the world and in the United States of America in particular. Depression is an alarming condition that has affected an estimate of 19million of the American population each year. Adults are the most affected. The conditions worsen among the elderly especially due to the fact that it is not usually easy to detect.
This is because the observed signs and symptoms with the elderly are usually confused or rather assumed for normal aging behavior. Research has showed that depression is a leading cause of suicide especially among the elderly and the fact that it is not easy to diagnose it makes it worse.
Over the past two decade, there has been an increase in the rate of suicide among the elderly. The elderly in the United States, those aged 65 years and above comprise a very small percentage of the whole population, only 13%. Despite this, they account for 20 percent of all the suicide deaths in the nation, which is an alarming number and hence the desire to carry out this project to help curb the problem.
The most notable factor that has been identified to be exacerbating this problem among the elderly in America is detection where the condition is noted at a very late stage. Fear of confronting the issue as a mental illness is also a contributing factor to this problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the elderly people are not usually ready to visit mental health facilities for assistance and hence the stigma in them leads to acute depression which in turn increases the chances of contemplating and committing suicide (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The project that I thought to be effective for this kind of problem is prevention and intervention oriented so as to come up with a long lasting solution to the problem.
Target Population, Stakeholders and Participants The problem of suicide among the elderly has been very disturbing. For this reason, there ought to be strategic intervention and treatment measures established to curb this ordeal that is claiming a lot of lives and leaving others in devastating conditions.
To do this, an exhaustive research ought to be carried out, involving all the individuals deemed to be appropriate in regard to contributing relevant information about the elderly and suicide instances.
To come up with some informative and effective report in regard to the issue of suicide and how it could be prevented among the elderly, some individuals and groups of people ought to be involved.
The target population will be men and women age of 65 years and above. Some of the other stakeholders and participants include the caregivers either at home or in the homes for the elderly, the relatives as well as medical practitioners that that are charged with the responsibility of dealing with emergency health issues such as suicide.
Data Collection and Analysis Methods Data collection is a critical and sensitive aspect that requires some technical skills to allow for success in the process. It entails the practice of preparing and collecting information related to a certain aspect for different purposes for instance to carry out a certain project or to improve an already ongoing process.
Data collection is intended to get relevant information that is used in making decisions and conclusions in regard to a certain topic of study (Sekaran, 2003). Data collection ought to be very objective for there to be informative and relevant data.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Suicide prevention project geared toward the elderly population specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objectivity is however undermined by the human nature of biasness. Sampling is usually a good data collection method but only when used effectively. In order to achieve a high degree objectiveness, the sample should be as representative of the total population as possible
In this study, a field research will be conducted where by information will be retrieved from various sources. This data will be useful in answering of the research question. Field data will be retrieved from a number of sources. Both primary as well as the secondary sources will be collected.
This will include visiting the elderly in their homes as well as in the homes for the elderly and taking notes on the information given by the elders, the caregivers as well as the medical practitioners who provide medical services to the elderly.
This will be very important in getting first hand information. It will also be important in enhancing the profitability of the data collected first hand. Important information will also be retrieved from the official documents from the nation’s health centers. Structured questionnaires will also be useful in collection of the necessary data.
This method of data collection will be very helpful in collecting qualitative data from the selected sample from the population. However, this will be done with a lot care to avoid any negative feedback since the respondents in this case may be tempted to exaggerate the information they give to favor themselves.
Data collection through interview will be conducted through face to face interaction with the respondents. This is where the respondents will be asked questions by the interviewer. In this case, the interviewer will read the questionnaire to the respondent and then record what they respond.
In data analysis, the data collected will be both qualitative and quantitative types of data. This data will be collected through interviews as well as the relevant reports. The main aim of the research in this case will be identification of the suicide prevention measures.
This will be done by analyzing the information retrieved from different individuals. Data from different sources will help in identification of the problems in specific areas. This will help in identification of particular areas which needs immediate reforms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suicide prevention project geared toward the elderly population by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are several methods which will be applied in data analysis. This analysis will include a precise documentation of the field data. The researcher will collect data from various sources. Then this data will be compiled and compared. It is therefore advisable for the researchers to ensure that the data collected is precise.
The data collected from interviews and reports will also be examined at this stage. In this process, certain patterns will be identified as well as connections and similarities. This analysis will also identify any deviation from what is expected. Here, the researcher will therefore be able to identify some critical areas which need urgent changes in regard to preventing suicide among the elderly (Burns, 2000).
Interventions and Treatment to the Problem From the above description of the problem of suicide among the elderly in America, it is evident that the issue is alarming thus necessitating some intervention and treatment measures to curb this ordeal that is claiming a lot of lives and leaving others in devastating conditions.
To come up with effective intervention and treatment measures, it is advisable to look at the root causes of suicidal cases so as to be able to handle them effectively. This will enable for preventive measures to be applied where the condition has not been experienced and proper treatment when the conditions that may facilitate suicide have already occurred.
From the data collected from the different participants using the various data collection methods and review of different literature on the topic, I noted that the identification of whether an individual is actually suicidal is a difficult task not only to a lay person but also to the trained professionals. It is however a greater challenge to those with less training and experience.
The following are some of the circumstances that may contribute to higher risks of an elderly person to commit suicide:
Financial crisis hence inability to live the desired life, depression, alcohol abuse, isolation which could be social, emotional or physical, the feeling of helplessness and hopelessness, loss of stature of the elderly in the family or society due to old age, some losses of either a spouse, a pet or a loved one, having life threatening or terminal disease and loneliness and inability to put up with it.
Other factors that may exacerbate the risk of suicide among the elderly include excessive pain that could be as a result of a disease where the elderly prefer death to unending suffering, loss of independence and immobility where their movement and course of actions are restricted and observed, and lack of employment among others.
Some medications can also cause symptoms of depression which may in turn cause suicide. They include hormones medication, steroids medication, blood pressure medication as well as arthritis medication (Ebersole, Hess and Luggen, 2004).
Among the warning signs that a person could identify in suicidal elderly people include frequent statements about death and suicide, social withdrawals and a tendency to say goodbyes, instances of writing and revising a will, taking some medications without prescriptions, being careless on some issues and failure to follow the orders given by medical personnel, interruption of sleep patterns, having some interests in firearms which was initially absent, giving suicide threats, having increased interests on death related issues and expressing hopelessness and helplessness in their talks and actions (Evans and Radunovich, 2009).
The knowledge of the above mentioned signs, symptoms and warning signs is very helpful in the event of being prepared and taking appropriate measures to prevent the issue of suicide among the elderly people.
According to Goldsmith et al. (2002), some of the intervention and treatment measures that could be taken on the elderly to reduce instances of suicide include as simple as being a helping element to the elderly.
One can offer help to elderly people who are contemplating suicide through various means for instance being alert to identify the common risk factors and warning signs associated with suicide and identifying and consulting health and medical practitioners in the society who may offer assistance when needed.
Another possible way is talking openly to a trusted person about your concerns in respect to a certain behavior exhibited by an elderly person under your care. This last step is usually assumed to be useless but in the real sense, it helps greatly by raising ideas that could help deal with the situation appropriately.
Cognitive therapy is a psychotherapy that is recommended as a treatment for suicide related syndrome. Clozapine medication also prevents suicide among people with schizophrenia (Brown, 2011).
Project Goals, Their Assessment and Action Plan Every project is usually carried out with some aims and objectives. Some of the projects are aimed at coming up with preventive, intervention or consultation measures in regard to a specific topic or problem issue. For the sake of this assignment, the project is aimed at coming up with all possible suicide preventive measures in an effort to saving the population’s lives more especially the elderly people.
The goals will be assessed through looking at the progress of the action plan. After the preventive and treatment measures are identified and analyzed, there is need to take action or else to implement the recommendations.
There are various ways through which the project’s results could be implemented, for instance, through taking a number of elderly people who are identified to be at risk of committing suicide and taking the advocated measures to see the difference that could be experienced under controlled situations and measures.
Challenges and Strategies to Address Them Projects are associated with a lot of challenges in their implementation depending on the situations surrounding the implementation. The project of study is not an exception and there are challenges in the implementation of the identified measures and strategies. However, the challenges have to be addressed in an appropriate manner that fosters success.
Some of the challenges that could be faced include problems in the collection of data where some respondents may not be willing to give adequate and appropriate information. Another challenge is lack of cooperation of the responsible bodies in delivering the changes advocated for, for instance, the elderly and the caregivers.
The challenges could be handled through assuring the respondents that the information they provide will be treated in a confidential manner and teaching all the responsible people on the importance of life and hence that of preventing any suicidal cases.
Impact of the Project on Social Change The project of study is meant to be a positive element which is supposed to help in bringing significant changes in regard to what should be done on the aspect of suicide among people in the United States of America and the elderly in particular. The fact that suicide could be viewed in a social perspective is a justification that this project should contribute positively to social change.
Some of the social aspects associated with suicide include pressures, excessive suffering and fear which are difficult to deal with, depression as well as social and mental disorder. In some instances, suicide attempt can be seen as an act of seeking help and attention, an expression of desperation and thus using suicide as a way to escape as opposed to a desire to die.
This therefore follows that in case a solution could be offered to the elderly and other people who are at a risk of contemplating suicide; there is a very high chance of change of intention, from death to life. This is because no one wishes to die whenever there is a chance of having a good life (National Institute of Mental Health, 2000).
In regard to social change, this project will change the society’s perception in regard to the issue of suicide. It will for example help them to be more prepared to prevent and deal with issues related to suicide among the elderly through the understanding of the warning signs as well as the symptoms associated with the suicidal elderly.
People will also be able to handle the elderly in an appropriate manner having the understanding that they are a vulnerable group that require care, for instance, through provision of company to avoid loneliness, provision of encouragement and motivation of a brighter tomorrow to avoid the feeling of hopelessness and helplessness and provision of the necessities and basic needs to avoid them to wish that they would afford some items, an aspect that could contribute to depression and hence suicidal behavior.
The elderly should also not be left to live alone since this may encourage suicide as they fail to see the meaning of life especially after comparing their earlier lives when they were independent and mobile and when they are elderly and hence incapacitated. This may lead to a feeling of regret and they may also feel rejected and hence contemplate suicide as a way of escaping the reality (Dougherty, 2008).
Conclusion It is evident that suicide is a chief public health problem that claims a significant number of lives, the young and the elderly, each day in the United States of America and the world at large. Unsuccessful suicide attempts are also experienced in a high rate. For this reason, there is dire need for preventive and curative measures in an effort to minimize the instances of suicide as well as attempted suicide.
There are various factors that have been attributed to be the cause of suicide for instance hopelessness, loneliness, stress and depression as well as mental illness among others. Preventive measures should therefore be directed towards solving the root causes of suicide other than the signs and symptoms of suicide since as the saying goes, prevention is better than cure.
Reference List American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Brown. K. (2011). In Suicide Prevention: Seniors In Houston Are A Forgotten Population. Web.
Burns, R.B. (2000). Introduction to Research Methods. London: Sage.
Dougherty, M.A. (2008). Psychological Consultation and Collaboration in School and Community Settings. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Ebersole, P, Hess, A.P and Luggen, S.A (2004).Toward Healthy Aging: Human Needs and Nursing Response.6th ed. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Evans, D.G., and Radunovich, L.H. (2009). Suicide and the Elderly: Warning Signs and How to Help. Web.
Goldsmith, K.S. et al. (2002). Reducing Suicide: A National Imperative. New York: National Academies Press.
Holmes, M.R. and Holmes, T.S. (2005). Suicide: Theory, Practice, and Investigation. New York: SAGE.
National Institute of Mental Health.(2000). Older adults: Depression and suicide facts. Science on Our Minds Series. Web.
Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. 4th Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley
Decision Making Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Decision-making is undoubtedly a fundamental practice the management of corporations. It denotes the progression of choosing and executing options, which are in tandem with an aspiration. It also connotes a string of actions commencing with a broad objective, trickling down to generating, appraising, choosing and executing favourable options.
Decisions made in organizations may have in-depth upshots on the firm and its employees. Such judgements in organizations are distinctive in terms of the risks involved, reservations managers have on them, their importance and contribution to the attainment of the firm’s broader objectives.
Some are tricky and requires insight thought, and may include setting of new policies, reorienting firm’s purposes and objectives, and large-scale ventures with a potential to impact on the economy of the firm. On the other hand, routine decisions also form part of a firm (Martin
Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU Dissertation argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Focus of Research and Research Questions
Methodology and Information Sources
Introduction Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU (1987) has brought the relationship between the two parties to the new stage. In 2005, Turkey was given the status of an official candidate for the EU membership, which made the prospect of accepting the country to the Union rather realistic.
Significant differences that relate to the fields of economy, politics and international affairs, culture, civil law and religion have predetermined strong interest to the initial conditions, peculiarities, possible outcomes, potential threats and benefits of the abovementioned union.
The rapid progress in the parties’ relationship corroborated the possibility of a quick positive outcome of the decades-long negotiation and seemed to reflect their opinion about the future union. At the same time, the last years were marked by a turn in Turkey-EU cooperation.
Turkey’s international policy shift from orientation to the West towards the strengthening sympathy for the Muslim Middle East identified the country’s international ambitions connected with its world recognition in the position of a strong independent state.
Correspondingly, the EU society found itself concerned about the capability of two different cultures to co-exist, integrate, and successfully interact. The rhetoric of the European countries leaders (Nicolas Sarkozy, Angela Merkel) indicated the shift in the EU society’s attitudes.
Today Turkey keeps the status of an official candidate for the EU membership. Both parties do not demonstrate the willingness to revise the prospects of the future cooperation, though not showing strong willingness to force the process. At the same time, it would be quite untimely to assume that both societies’ attitudes towards the potential union are homogeneous and coincide with Turkey’s and the EU’s official position.
This predetermines the significance of investigation of discussed topic for the further evolution of the Turkey-EU relationship and gies birth to a range of research questions in the field of social studies that require scholars’ and policy makers’ particular attention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Focus of Research and Research Questions The focus of this research is the attitude of the Turkish society towards the possible Turkey-EU union. The purpose of study is to detect the tendencies in the Turkish public opinion about the countries membership in the EU, which may clarify to what extent this prospect remains realistic and how the integration will progress in case Turkey is accepted.
In the course of study, the following research questions are expected to be answered:
What attitudes towards Turkey’s membership in the EU exist in the Turkish society?
What arguments do the proponents of each attitude provide to support their point of view?
What factors influence the Turkish public opinion? What information sources have the strongest authority with the Turkish population?
What is the official opinion of the Turkish government? Does it have significant influence on the attitudes of the population?
How do the Turkish people see their own future in case the country enters the European Union?
What parties of the Turkish society are the most interested in the EU entry?
What are the strongest potential threats of the Turkey-EU union? (economical, political, cultural, social, religious aspects)
How do the Turkish people want to see their country in the future? (internal condition, international arena)
How do the Turkish people perceive the attitude of the EU citizens and officials towards Turkey?
What alternatives to the EU membership do the Turkish citizens consider possible for their country?
Methodology and Information Sources The study implies analysis of information sources devoted to the discussed topic. It is planned to get familiarized and compare the opinions of scholars and journalists who have been studying the public opinion of the Turkish population about the EU entry, as well as the opinions of the Turkish policy-makers.
The following sources will be used in the course of the study:
Articles in scholarly journals
Turkish daily newspapers
Interviews with Turkey officials: Egemen Bagis (the Minister of EU affairs in Turkey), Uluc Ozulker (ex-ambassador of Turkey to the EU).
Argument The preliminary study of the given issue has demonstrated that the Turkish population is not homogeneous in evaluation of the outcome of Turkey’s EU membership. The tendency of opposition to the Turkey’s EU membership is expected to have been strengthening.
The Turkish citizens’ strongest concerns are expected to be connected with: 1) the role Turkey will obtain in the European community after joining the EU; 2) the impact of the union on the life of the ordinary Turkish people; 3) social, cultural and religious differences that will play a role of serious obstacles in the Turkey-EU integration.
Hypothesis: despite availability of the attitudinal factors that form resistance towards Turkey’s EU membership, the Turkey population has positive expectations about the potential union.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The literature review provided below is aimed at testing the abovementioned statements.
Literature Review Study of Turkey population’s attitude towards the EU membership requires obtaining a background on the Turkish political process. Much has been said about the impact of Islam on the Turkish society. Arat’s (2005) is devoted to analysis of Turkish Islam as a power that influences the Turkish political process. The author also estimates the power of the Turkish women in politics.
Arat mentions the “serious polarization within society” (5) between the secularist and the Islamist poles. White’s work (2002) helps understand the roots and the process of evolution of Islamic politics in Turkey. Özyürek’s (2006) demonstrates that the secular and Islam issues actively interact and to the great extent oppose each other within the borders of Turkey’s political process.
The author states that the secularist tendencies have been strengthening in Turkey during the last few years. Andreson (2008) discusses the dynamics of the democratic process in the Turkish politics and “the warped dialectic between state and religion in the Turkey”. The democratic trends have been competing to the approach expressed by Erdogan, the AKP leader, ”When the feet try to govern the head, it becomes doomsday”.
Arikan (2008) marks that the principles of democracy and human rights are the basis of the “new European political order” (113). Turkish expectations about the EU membership are to the great extent connected with blossoming of these principles in the social life of the country.
On the other hand, the domination of the mentioned “new order” is perceived by some citizens as the invasion to the unique Turkish cultural space that has been forming for centuries. However, Carkoglu (2003) marks that “general attitudinal bases of resistance to EU membership- religiosity, anti-democratic attitudes and Euro-skepticism – do not form sources of EU refutation” (186).
The author argues that the Turkish elites are now in the state of polarization, and each force is able to find the necessary rhetoric and persuasion mechanism to “conquer” the population’s support through media (187). Paradoxically, the elites that resist to the EU membership are able to keep their electoral support (ibid.).
Carkoglu says that despite the dominating positive attitude towards the EU entry among the Turkish political elites, the legislative changes required by the EU are conducted quite slowly (ibid). Besides, they prefer to not emphasize the EU-related issues during the “electoral rush”.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To form a full understanding of Turkey’s attitude to the EU entry, it is necessary to study the opinion of different parties, such as (at least): officials, political organizations and social movements, media, different social groups. One of the most significant questions in the study of the Turkish public opinion about the EU entry is what parties are the most strongly interested in it.
In the abovementioned (2008), Anderson outlines the following, “In Turkey itself, as in Europe, the major forces working for its entry into the Union are the contemporary incarnations of the party of order: the bourse, the mosque, the barracks and the media. The consensus… is not quite a unanimity. Here and there, surly voices of reaction can be heard…
For the Turkish left, politically marginal but culturally central, the EU represents hope of some release from the twin cults and repressions of Kemal and the Koran; for the Turkish poor, of chances of employment and elements of welfare; for Kurds and Alevis, of some rights for minorities.
How far these hopes are all realistic is another matter”. It is necessary to mark that female participants of the country’s social and political life also demonstrate strong interest towards the issue of the EU entry.
Aybar et al (2007) who studied the ordinary Turkey citizens’ expectations about the EU membership argue that the union has been initially perceived by the Turkish women as a trigger of the women’s emancipation process. However, as Tunkrova argues in (2010), despite the legislative reforms, true democratization requires more time and the effort of the domestic actors (4).
However, some researchers share a pessimistic view on the capability of the Turkish society to accept the tendencies of the European new order. Particularly, Kösebalaban (2001) argues that the Turkish nation’s sympathy for the European values is not able to outweigh the Turkish domestic ideology.
On the “subconscious” level, says Kösebalaban, a union with Europe is perceived by certain parties as an invasion, an encroachment on Turkey’s independence and identity. However, at the moment, while Turkey has not faced the “challenge” of EU integration, this should not be equated with the “conscious level”: the overall attitude of the Turkish nation to the EU membership remains positive.
Conclusion A set of factors has predetermined the polarization of the Turkish society between the sense of the national identity and socio-cultural autonomy, and the sympathy for the so-called “European new order” with its principles of democracy and human rights. At all levels, from the political elites to the ordinary citizens, there are proponents and opponents of the Turkey-EU union.
Despite the required legislative reforms and social changes progress quite slowly, the overall attitude towards Turkey’s EU membership is positive.
It is remarkable that the Turkish people understand that the EU entry will intensify the secularist tendencies in the society and lead to the changes at all levels, from legislation to the everyday life. Despite this fact, the support of the EU membership prospect is strong, which may mean that secularization itself is considered by the Turkey citizens a positive change.
Works Cited Anderson, Perry. “After Kemal”. London Review of Books. 2008. 30 April 2011. .
Arat, Yesim. Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy Islamist Women in Turkish Politics. Albany: State University of New York, 2005.
Arikan, Harun. Turkey and the EU: an Awkward Candidate for EU Membership? Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Aybar, C. Bülent, et al. “Analysis of Attitudes of Turkish Citizens towards the Effects of EU Membership”. Turkish Studies 8.3 (2007): 329-348.
Carkoglu, Ali. “Who Wants Full Membership? Characteristics of Turkish Public Support for EU Membership.” Turkish Studies 4.1 (2003): 171-94.
Kösebalaban, Hasan. “Turkey’s EU Membership: A Clash of Security Cultures.” Middle East Policy 9.2 (2002): 130-46.
Özyürek, Esra. Nostalgia for the Modern: State Secularism and Everyday Politics in Turkey. 2006. Duhram, NC: Duke Uinversity Press, 2006.
Tunkrova, Lucie. “The EU Accession Process and Gender Issues: Central Europe and Turkey.” Report for the Fifth Pan-European Conference on EU Politics, Porto, Portugal, 23-26 June 2010. JHUBC. Web.
White, Jenny. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press, 2002.
What Makes an Effective Advertisement: Take a Bus and Then Tube It! Coursework online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: Here Comes the Advertisement!
Victoria Station: The Journey Begins
Down to the Underworld
Conclusion: Something to Count on
Introduction: Here Comes the Advertisement! There is probably no place where an advertisement could seem out of place. With help if the modern media and the speed of passing the necessary information, advertisements gain the speed of light. However, one of the most reliable and time-tested methods of advertising the goods remains placing adverts in such places as stations.
On their way to another place, people start focusing their attention on all possible media, which makes such elements of advertisement as posters, billboards and all possible ads fall into people’s eyes immediately. It is no secret that a man can retain unconsciously the information concerning the advertisement for a relatively big amount of time.
Therefore, it seems most reasonable to place the advertisement in the station. One cannot call such ads annoying and obtrusive – on the contrary, one always has an opportunity to look away. Thus, placing the advertisement on the station seems the right choice.
Victoria Station: The Journey Begins One of the most winning places in terms of placing the advertisements, Victoria Station will help to promote any kinds of goods. There is no secret that this place is the point where the entire England clashes in attempt to get to the other side of the country. Thus, it is obviously the right choice to place the advertisement on one of the buses that stop at the Victoria Station.
According to what the most recent data claim, the place has its own periods of tides and ebbs – at certain periods of time people crowd the place, and in the next couple of minutes the station is empty as a nutshell. Therefore, the specific time must be set to keep people’s attention on the advertisement and at the same time make it as subtle as possible.
It is obvious that the ad must not be pushy, which means that people must have the opportunity to turn their gaze away from the ad and have time to consider it. Thus, it would be most reasonable to choose the period from midday till 5 p.m. – the time when the visitors are the most active (Steves, England 190)
Down to the Underworld According to Steves, many people come to Victoria Station just to take part in the pleasing turmoil (126). Making a good use of it, one could draw the visitors’ attention to the advertising in the moment when the crowd rushes into the iron-and-glass kingdom of the London tube. Thus, it could be a good idea to place the advertisements so that they could meet the eye of both the passengers and those who came to “have fun”:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Victoria Station is famous and a major Tube stop, few tourists actually take trains from here – most just come to take in the exciting bustle. It’s a fun to just be a “rock in a river” teeming with commuters and services (Steves, Great Britain 126)
Therefore, placing the advertisement in the tube would be most effective if the number of the tourists and the local dwellers is the greatest. With help of a bright and exciting advertisement cast right into the eye of the crowd, one will have all chances for an incredible success.
Conclusion: Something to Count on With help of careful calculations and the well though-out placement of the advertisement, one can count on an instant success. Choosing the right time and the right place for the advertisement, one can draw the maximum of attention and reach the maximal effect. Thus, t is obvious that the idea concerning the use of buses and the tube as the means of advertisement is bound to have tremendous success.
Works Cited Steves, Rick. Rick Steves’ England 2011. New York City, NY: Avalon Traveling, 2010. Print.
Steves, Rick. Rick Steves’ Great Britain2011 with Map. New York City, NY: Avalon Traveling, 2011. Print.
Brand personality Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help
Introduction Background to the study
In their purchasing patterns, consumers do not have comprehensive understanding of the product they are purchasing compared to the firm offering the product (Yang, 2008, p.54). However, they perceive the products according to their own terms. Due to lack of knowledge, they gauge the products attributes on their own opinions. Their perception towards a certain product is based on the benefits they derive from the product.
These benefits may either be functional or emotional. The consumers’ perception towards certain products and services are in most not conscious. Considering the degree of complexity of relationship between the customers and products, brand names becomes necessary in selecting the products to purchase.
In their decision making process, consumers consider products which have characteristics close to their personalities (Kumar, 2009, p. 424). As a result, their selection process is influenced by their perception of the brand. To appeal the customer, companies put effort in developing products in line with their target customers’ personalities.
In an effort to understand brand personality, this report evaluates the link between individual personality and brand personality.
Scope and significance of the report
This is attained by conducting a literature review on individual personality and brand personality. The report will be of significance to firms who intend to differentiate their products in an effort to attain a high competitive edge. In addition, the report will help firms to understand how they can develop their brand personality.
This will be attained by considering the various product and non-product related aspects which lead to development of brand personality. In conducting the analysis, the takes into consideration the automobile industry in an effort to illustrate the concept of brand personality. The various brand personality dimensions are used as the core framework of the analysis.
Literature Review Individual personality and brand personality
There is a close link between an individual’s self concept and personality. Self-concept is composed of four main components which include social self, ideal social-self, ideal self and actual self (Lake, 2009, p. 115). Actual self concept refers to how an individual perceives himself or her.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ideal self entails how an individual desires to perceive him or her. On the other hand, social self concept entails how one believe others perceive him or her while ideal social self entails how one would like others to perceive him.
Individuals develop their self concept from three main sources. These include received messages, social comparison and culture. Self concepts are a component of an individual’s identity and hence they are difficult to change. This is mainly so when an individual gets older. One of the ways through which self concepts can be changes is by a new life experience (Lake, 2009, p.114).
Self concept is a major determinant in a consumer’s purchasing behavior. According to Webb and Gountas (2008, p. 2), self congruity determines the extent to which a consumers’ self-concept is similar to that of a brand. Bakk and Meisel (2008, p.2) are of the opinion that self-concepts determine a consumer’s choice of product or brand.
Therefore, an individual’s consumption pattern can be used to determine his or her sense of self. One of the ways through which this can be attained is by evaluating the products and services they consume. In most cases, the category of products and services consumed communicate an indivividuals characteristic.
Webb and Gountus (p.3) are of the opinion that an individual’s self image explains why he or she consumes certain products. This means that products and brand are an important component of defining one’s self. Heding, Knudtzen and Bjerre (2009, p. 124) opine that an individual consumers certain products because they have a certain symbolic significance.
Brands are considered to possess human characteristics or personalities. In their consumption patterns, consumers select brands that are in line with their personality and needs. As a result, firms ensure that their brands are inline with the consumers’ personality traits and self-concept.
Gelder (2005, p. 41) defines brand personality to include the various human-like attributes associated with a certain brand. Brand personality may either be endowed on a certain product or service by the consumers or the company. According to Franzen and Moriarty (2009, p. 230), there are certain aspects which a company desires consumers to feel about its products and services.
We will write a custom Assessment on Brand personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The core objective of brand personality is to appeal the consumers. Franzen and Moriarty (2009, p. 230) further assert that personification of brands appeals a consumer’s imagination. There are various forms which brand personality may take. Some of these include an animated figure (for example Ronald McDonald), an actual person (for example Marlboro cowboy) or a generalized persona such as the Singapore girl.
According to Gelder (2005, p. 41), brand personality is a creation of a product’s underlying characteristics. Brand personality can be identified by determining the consumer’s perception towards the product.
From a firm’s perspective, brand personality can be evaluated by analyzing various elements such as brand name, product price, distribution and logo. In addition, brand personality is also associated with the consumer’s emotional responses towards the particular brand.
According to Heding, Knudtzen and Bjerre (2009, p. 129), a brand must be durable and consistent for it to be successful in the market. These characteristics can lure consumers to purchase the brand. This is due to the fact that they develop a personal link to the particular brand personality. However, if attributes of the brand, are not inline with its personality, consumers tend to abandon the brand due to lack of credibility.
There are five main dimensions of brand personality which contribute towards development of a relationship with the consumers. These include competence, ruggedness, sincerity, sophistication, and excitement. The brand personality dimensions and the associated personality traits are illustrated in the chart below.
Brand personality dimension Dominant personality trait Excitement Up-to-date, spirited, imaginative Sincerity Cheerful, wholesome, down to earth Competence Successful, intelligent, reliable Sophistication Charming, upper class Ruggedness Outdoorsy, tough These brand personality dimensions enable firms to differentiate its products and services. This arises from the fact that brand personality is perceived to be a part of the of a product’s overall image. In addition, brand personality can be used to position a product in the market. For example, in its marketing strategy, Pepsi intended to position its soft drink brand using the theme ‘young and fun’.
In marketing one of its soft drinks, the Mountain Dew, Pepsico adopted the slogan ‘Be Young. Have Fun’ which depicts excitement (Babin