The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish kingdom that existed between 1299 and 1923.The kingdom was made up of 29 provinces. It ruled over many parts of southern Europe, west Asia and North Africa. The kingdom further extended its territory to include overseas lands that were acquired through declarations of loyalty to the Ottoman Sultan and caliph. The kingdom ended on 24Th, July 1923 and was replaced the present republic of Turkey (History World, n.d).
The ottoman leadership transformed the three major capitals Bursa, Edime and Constantinople into commercial and industrial centers due to the influence of merchants and artisans. Under the regime of Mehmed and Bayezid the Jews who were fleeing from Europe were given refuge and treated equally just like the locals. This gentleness was necessary to avoid the rise of revolts which could dismantle the kingdom.
The success of Ottoman kingdom according to Hovanissian (2004) was owed to a group of professionals that was responsible for monitoring the activities of the treasury. These professionals acted as the financial advisors of the kingdom. The strategic location of Ottoman kingdom barred the Spanish and Portuguese explorers to access the western and eastern routes hence they had to look for alternative routes. This hindered economic development in the region since trade was considered an economic driver.
The influence of ottoman kingdom was enhanced by the authority that exercised on the new trade links to India that were first used by Vasco da Gama. Ottoman kingdom contributed to the growth of Western Europe by establishing commercial centers and allowing European immigrants to cultivate idle tracts of land.
The ottoman kingdom’s system of governance comprised of two administrative units. These units were namely military administration and civil administration units. The Sultan was the premier of the government. The civil administrative unit was in charge of religious leaders. Caliphate is the highest position in Islam was assumed by the sultan. The ottoman Sultan existed as the supreme leader of the kingdom. The Imperial Herem was one of the most crucial elements of the Kingdom’s court (Bernstein, 2009).
The ottoman court was chaired by a Valide Sultan who presided over the court rulings. There also existed a council of women who were referred to as the Sultanate of Harem who were in authority in absence of the Valide Sultan. For one to be appointed as the successor of a sultan he must have been sired by the sons of the preceding Sultan.
Besides, the palace school was established with the objective of enlightening the potential successors. It was also used as a training center for future government officials. The madrasa classes were specifically reserved for Muslims and the most learned persons in the kingdom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bernstein (2009) argues that the madrasa classes were funded by the Vakifs which helped children from poor families were educated on how to use their acquired skills in improving their livelihood. Christians on the other hand had a dedicated boarding school commonly known as Enderun that was free for all Christian communities that resided in the Ottoman kingdom.
The Sultan of Ottoman kingdom ruled with the aid of a council of advisors that was called Divan that included ministers, military officers and religious leaders. The kingdom incorporated educated professionals into government administrative units regardless of their ethnicity or religion which was very fruitful.
The Sultan of the Ottoman had 35 signatures accorded to him and were engraved on his seal and they included his name and the name of his father. Ottoman kingdom was strongly bonded by community groups referred to as Millets. The diverse groups cohabited peacefully. The Sultan ensured the cultures and interests of these groups were safeguarded. The groups were allowed to exercise their culture, language and their respective religious policies (Havanissian, 2004).
The Sultan’s unbiased acceptance of immigrants was very beneficial towards uniting the kingdom. The lifestyle of Ottoman kingdom was a blend of western and eastern elements. Slave trade and slavery was very active in the Ottoman kingdom.
Ottoman kingdom acquired new traditions and cultures by interacting with its adjacent neighbors. This improved trade relations with the Western Europe. These interactions led to the introduction of multicultural practices such as intermarriages. These marriages were responsible for the cultural reforms that followed. The kingdom also adopted some cultures and traditions from its newly acquired territories.
According to Balakian (2003), the dominant Ottoman architecture was blended to feature diverse designs from Persia, Byzia and Islam. During the reign of Tulip, designs were mainly characterized by ornamented elements that were borrowed from European lifestyles. Mosques were the major exhibitors of this cultural interchange. Majority of the inhabitants of Ottoman kingdom were Muslims and that’s why these designs revolved around places of worship.
Other places that continue to exhibit Ottoman culture include Egypt, Eritrea, Algiers, Tunisia and Hungary. Ottoman Classical music was integrated into Ottoman’s system of education and was highly appreciated by scholars. The rhythm and melodies used in this classical music resemble those that are used in western music.
We will write a custom Report on The Ottoman Empire: A Political, Social, and Economic Description and its Relationship to Western Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Music in Ottoman kingdom was divided into two classes, namely classical music and folk music. Ottoman cuisine is the kind of delicacy found at the capital of Ottoman, Constantinople. Most of these cuisines were introduced into Ottoman kingdom by chefs who were brought at the capital from other regions of the empire to try new dishes during Ramadan festivities (Bernstein, 2009).
Ottoman language was greatly distorted by Persians and Arabs. Ottoman Turkish language is a combination of Persian and Arabian languages and is used as the official language .This new language was limited to literate people only and people who lived in commercial centers. Therefore, Western Europe assimilated the practices of Ottoman Empire to enable people to engage in trade and intermarriages and consequently leading to economic, political, and social stability.
References Balakian, P. (2003).The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response. New York: Perennial.
Bernstein, D. (2009). “Weary of Modern Fictions, Turks Glory in Splendor of Ottoman Past” New York Times, December, 5, 2009.
History World. (n.d). History of the Ottoman Empire. Retrieved from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab37
Hovanissian, R.G. (2004).The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. 2 (218), UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Personal Reflection on the Self Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Self Concept
Self Concept Self-Concept, self esteem, self efficacy and self confidence are believed to have great influence on an individual’s way of life. Self-Concept, also known by self-image or self-perspective, refers to the way an individual views himself (Bong
The life and Works of Titian Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction Art has been evolving for many years since time immemorial. One of the reasons as to why it is pretty difficult to date the time artwork began is because the practice is as old as human beings. However art gained its known exponential growth within the last one thousand years. This was the era when the famous Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci brought their paintworks into fame. It was also during this period that the famous painter Titan exposed his remarkable talent through paintings.
The real names of Titian are Tiziano Vecellio. He was ranked the best artist of the (sixteenth) century. He is well known because of his extraordinary use of color in his paintings. Titian used his paintings to influence the society greatly. Thus he contributed to all the major initiatives of art and related works. His paintings could touch on all sectors of life to exhibit the mythology and cultural practices of the prevailing environment.
Titian’s trainers were Giovanni Bellini (1459-1516) and Giorgione (1478-1510) of which Giovanni was influential because he used a tonal approach in his artwork and for his landscape styles that were quite evocative. Thus Titian and Giovanni worked in a similar way to the extent of making the situation hard for the artistic world to fix the boundaries between their works.
The works of Titan are celebrated way beyond the national border of Italy to the entire planet. His timely works include the drawings of landscape and goat and two Satyrs in a landscape which exemplified mythological figures in a fine landscape whose naturally occurring picturesque contrasts sharply with the ordered arrangement that is at equilibrium.
Early years The early years of Titian were marked with major achievements of his life. When he was nine years old he went to Venice with his elder brother to his uncle’s home for a stay. The other reason why Titan went to Venice is because he wanted to partner with Sebastiano Zuccato who was by then a master of mosaics, that is, Sebastiano knew a lot about the art of painting. Titian soon passed to the workshop of the Bellini the place where Giovanni became his true teacher (McKenzie 2003). By then Giovanni was the greatest Venetian painter.
During his school times, Titian’s works exhibited the nature of a young man who coupled up to be a student. Titan also became friends with another young student of Giovanni Bellini. The young man was called Giorgione and his hometown was Castelfranco. The two young men combined their efforts in major paintings during the time they were together. This explains why it is so hard to differentiate between the two artists in their early years. That was during the 16th century (NNDB, 2010).
As it is demystified, Titian’s first work which he was able to do independently was the paintings at Padua. These paintings are famously known as the three miracles of St. Anthony.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other exemplary masterpieces of Titian include the “Miracle Of The Speaking Infant” and the “Miracle Of The Irascible Son” in which the latter has a beautiful background landscape which has captured the eyes of many interested individuals. When Giorgione died Titian was involved in the duty of adding the landscape background to his master’s unfinished work, the famous Sleeping Venus.
Another work which displays the sexual relationship of a young couple which is hidden and there is also a tender and sad mood is in the portrait of the Three Ages of Man. This is also one of the most prolific works of Titan during his young energetic years.
The current work of Titan whose allegory is more hidden and is presented in a landscape of great levels of beauty is the work called Sacred and Profane Love. In this illustration it is explained comparatively to the Neoplatonic theory that the two women, the characters on the left side and those on the right side of the painting are particularly well known characters of that time. The lovely Salome is represented by a beautiful young lady instead of a cruel biblical woman.
In addition to this there are quite a number of paintings which were attributed to Giorgione, Titian’s master. However these works have been conceded to Titian, an action which makes it hard for historians to structure Titian’s early career. That is why until now his career has remained quite unclear with the correct sequencing of his work becoming more and more elusive to modern historians and artists (McKenzie 2003).
It is worth noting that Titian was hired by Federico in 1529 where Titian was paid on a commission basis. Federico had also done this to help Titian purchase land near Trevisco.
The land issue however, never materialized but the Duke compensated Titian with the gift of Benefice of Medole. This made Titian work for Federico for the next ten years (Reiss
Environmental Degradation and Poverty Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Environmental degradation has been on increase, thus raising the concern all over the world on how to compact it. It is defined as the declination of the environmental value in its quality. It is however important to understand the causes of the environmental degradation and the ways to reduce them, which will promote the improvement of the environmental quality.
Human activities are the major cause of this degradation, which are highly associated with poverty and dependence. Poverty is the state of deficiency in affording the basic material needs with ease thus leading to over dependence on the available resources for a short term intervention. This paper therefore is a discussion which illustrates the relationship between poverty and dependence to the environmental degradation (Ali-Akpajiak
Political Immigration as Addressed in City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Synopsis
How the Cubans Came to be
A Paradigm Shift
Implications of City on the Edge
Synopsis City on the Edge: The transformation of Miami authored by Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick sets out to study the trends of urban settlement in Miami, and to review the role played by Cuban immigrants in stimulating economic, social and political change in the region. The two authors study-other than the widely accepted trends in urban settlements- the effects of political immigration, and how these particular immigrants differ from other immigrants.
How the Cubans Came to be Cubans have been present in the United States as a minority group for over a century. The first major immigration occurred in the 1880s because of Cuba’s production of Cigars. The next major wave of immigrants came into America between 1959 and 1962 during Fidel Castro’s communist regime. They were referred to as the ‘Golden exiles’ because they were mostly professionals and educated people who wanted to get away from Castro’s oppressive regime (Portes
Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will Essay college essay help online
Film/Cinema, in the context of movies and documentaries, is a modern visual art form that has had intense impact on our daily life for humanity has profoundly been affected by what it sees and hears via film or the motion picture experience. It utilizes the concept of simple story telling via a mesmerizing technical medium and its ability to influence is rooted in the utilization of images/impressions and imagery. Cinema has a social as well artistic function.
Although the demand for imaginative entertainment is at an all time high, interest in the realities of the world is also on the rise. Documentaries address this interest because they are comprised of real people, world events, places, and social conditions – documenting history, reality. British film maker, John Grierson first coined the term in 1926. Prior to 1926, such films were referred to as “actuality” films and came on the scene at the turn of the 20th century as well.
Like American director, D.W. Griffith’s film The Birth of a Nation/The Clansman (1915), German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will (1934) was considered masterful/innovative and ground-breaking for documentary filmmaking at that time. Triumph garnered her the accolade as one of the greatest female filmmakers of all time but most infamous.
Chronicling the Nazi Party Congress held in Nuremberg (1934), Triumph of the Will (1935) catapulted the documentary as mode of propaganda designed to specifically argue a point and influence public opinion.
“Documentary cinema is intimately tied to historical memory. Not only does it seek to reconstruct historical narrative, but it often functions as an historical document itself. Moreover, the connection between the rhetoric of documentary film and historical truth pushes the documentary into overtly political alignments which influence its audience (1993Rabinowitw).”
Triumph of the Will lionized Germany as a recurring superpower with Hitler at the helm as the authentic leader/savoir. This fundamental thematic message can be found in opening prologue – “20 years after the outbreak of the World War, 16 years after the beginning of German suffering, 19 months after the beginning of the German renaissance, Adolf Hitler flew again to Nuremberg to review the columns of his faithful followers (Triumph).” The opening scene further substantiates the message with an aerial view of Hitler’s plane flying through the majestic clouds and over various parts of Germany.
He finally arrives in Nuremberg greeted by ecstatic supporters. The consequence of war is a people spiritually, mentally, and physically downtrodden and inept. Riefenstahl’s revolutionary use of cinematography (telephoto lenses, aerial photography, moving cameras, etc.) and music (German composer, Richard Wagner) epitomizes this escalating German Renaissance which has freed the German people from such a plight. It explains their fanaticism with Hitler.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout the documentary German militaristic power, political religion, unity, and pride are highlighted. With these four elements as an integral force, one cannot ascertain a distinction between the German people, the state, and the Nazi Party.
Riefenstahl vehemently denied the film served as a propaganda tool for the Nazi Party but rather was an historical film told through an aesthetic lens. Many critics purport differently.
Just as Birth of a Nation reeked of racist negative/stereotypical portrayal of African- Americans and shaped the America’s public’s attitude/image about race, Triumph contributed to heightened negative perceptions of European Jewry and anti-Semitism. Hitler’s conquest for German purity emanates from his speeches as well those of his featured compatriots – Goring, Goebbels, etc.
Could Riefenstahl have been that naïve and blind to Hitler’s maniacal plans that lay ahead? Objectivity has meaning but in reality it is greatly influenced by the filmmaker’s point of view via perceptions, emotions, etc. thereby determining the extent they can be biased or slant their point of view. Suffice to say, Triumph of the Will authenticated that film has the ability to influence as well as alter how people perceive themselves, aspects of their society/culture as well as other peoples and their culture.
Work Cited Rabinowitz, Paula. “Wreckage upon Wreckage: History, Documentary and the Ruins of Memory.” History and Theory, Vol. 32, No. 2. (May, 1993), pp. 119-137. Triumph of the Will (Video). Web.
Experiential Computing Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Dimensions of Experiential Computing
Introduction Information technology has emerged to be a new discipline in the management of organizations because it predicts the outcome of computer applications in contemporary management systems. Computers have now taken over organizations and totally changed managerial practices to make them more digital; thereby prompting an understanding of experiential computing as a new discipline in management because it is currently part of everyday life.
In light of this development, it has become increasingly important that organizations adopt a new approach to information technology with a special emphasis on experiential computing as an emerging discipline in organizational management. In a practical point of view, experiential computing appeals to certain facets of human experience such as time, space, actors, artifacts and the likes (although the experience is virtually experienced in a digital world).
This study will borrow from both a design aspect and from a behavioral point of view to determine how organizations can improve their approach to experiential computing. Ultimately, this study will point out that various organizations ought to focus on their roots and emphasize more on the discipline of management in its artificial sense. This is to be accomplished through breaking organizational limits and exploring new domains of research in experiential computing and inculcating this technique into the organizational culture.
Conceptual Framework Yoo defines experiential computing as “involving digitally mediated embodied experiences in everyday activities through everyday artifacts that have embedded computing capabilities”. Experiential computing is therefore a deviation from the superficial form of computing to represent a deeper relationship between the world, people and technology (all at the same time).
This kind of relationship is embodied together and represents the manner in which everyday life ought to be perceived. The relationship experienced here (whether social or economic) is not abstract but rather experienced through real life undertakings.
Without experiential computing, humans would view the world in a symbolic form; but relating the world with human experience gives a deeper meaning to the relationship because the world is part of life and humans form a perception of it through their interaction with it.
In this manner, technology acts as a mediator of human experience with the world. In the same manner also, technology seeks to underscore the importance of physical human interaction with the world and instead, its mediation between humans and the world develops around the core areas of space, time, actors and artifacts. These facets form the experiential framework of computing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dimensions of Experiential Computing Experiential computing observes that the digital experience takes its first step of development through the human body which exists in space. The human experience cannot be easily separated from the body because it is a living part of human existence. Space is therefore represented by the occupation of the body in the world and it can only be represented as being in the present because it represents our current lived experiences.
Space should therefore not be perceived as a passive manner in which we evaluate our possessions or the way we view our bodies (in relation to the occupation these forms take in the world), but a framework of structured consciousness that enable us experience new things in the world.
In the same manner, we experience time differences through the analysis of our bodies because as human beings, we do not have the ability to be in two places at the same time. In fact, our experiences take a more definite way of analysis; like we are either in the present, going somewhere or have been at a given point in a given time. It is therefore correct to say that the digital experience we have as human beings should not be analyzed as one that’s here to stay because it is temporary and also in the process of being definite.
Time is not characterized by a given set of secretive actions but rather a conglomerate of intentional activities. Time is therefore best analyzed through the comprehension of the difference in our expectations and the experiences we have undergone as human beings (in the past). Through these experiences in this time frame, we experience other social actors in our analysis who bring us to another important facet of experiential computing which is core artifacts.
Experiential experience makes us digitalize artifacts through the development of simple forms of tagging such as RGIS chips or through the use of bar codes and other similar type of networks, within a spectrum of simple and sophisticated applications.
The digitalization process can take the form of a simple mobile device or embedded sensors which memorize data such as of an object (like a cup) which the user can therefore interact with through digital experience. In addition, users can enjoy mixed experiences through the Web 2.0 services which mean that different artifacts can be sourced and mixed in a simple manner to share the experience of different users with different artifacts.
For instance, the digitalization of actors has been greatly facilitated in the recent past through an upsurge of social networking sites like tweeter, myspace and facebook which enable users to share information, pictures and the likes (thereby interacting with different social artifacts).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Experiential Computing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The kind of relationships observed in such kind of social networking sites are not ordinary because they represent an exclusive kind of interaction; like a professional interaction, as can be evidenced through linkedIn. Moreover, users or participants in these kinds of social networking sites can be expanded from the basis of friendly associations to group affiliations.
At present, there are already existing relationships which are not only based on friendships but on locations as well. In the same manner, there have been other similar organizations like the association of people doing the same kind of activity in the same time period (association of time); the association of people on the basis of artifacts, or people who use the same type of tool for trade and the association of people based on a mixture of any of the above two criteria.
For instance, DOPPLR has been singled out to be the leading social networking site that best links users based on the element of similar travel destination in addition to the capability of linking its users or their friends to other existing social networking sites.
Experiential computing has found its foothold on the above basis for digitalization and it practically encompasses most or all facets of human interaction. In fact, most of the users or actors in this digitalized world have all internalized the system because of the acknowledgement that technology is part of our day-to-day lives.
From the above example of social networking sites, most human interactions within the context of business operations can almost entirely be done online. This includes the ordering process, purchasing, payments, and delivery. It is therefore quite difficult for such users to view experiential computing as any different from everyday operations.
In the same manner, considering current trends, the hype related with computers will be absolved within the context of experiential computing. In this manner, computers will be used in devices like music players, cars, office desks but they will not be in the open for everyone to see because this new paradigm (experiential computing) in an organizational context is not to represent the world but to develop a newer and efficient world whereby everyone can take part in it with pleasure.
In this respect, the computing aspects are actually given real life forms, stored, and created in experiential computing through the involvement of conventional tools such as actors, artifacts or even through different locations. In this regard therefore, computing should not be perceived as an external factor to our existence but part of our day-to-day lives.
Conclusion Experience is an important part to the existence of any human being an indeed the success of any organization. In fact, through the experience we hold, we are able to inculcate specific ideals, values and principles within ourselves.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Experiential Computing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this study, we explore how organizations should take note of the fact that digitalization has the potential of transforming daily experiences because of its potential in merging human relationships with the real world. Many of the elements outlined in this study, such as space, artifacts, actors, and activities can all be of high importance especially in the analysis of information technology in organizations because they converge radical human experiences in a digital manner.
Bibliography Goldin, D. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm. Routledge, London, 2006.
Meister, J. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. Walter de Gruyter, London, 2003.
Silberman, M. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2007.
Tedre, M. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective. Matti Tedre, Amsterdam, 2006.
Yoo. Y. Computing in Everyday life. Temple University, Philadelphia, 2009.
Footnotes Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 1.
Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 16.
G. Dina. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm. London, Routledge, 2006, p. 324.
Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 15.
T. Matti. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective.Amsterdam, Matti Tedre, 2006, p. 169.
M. Silberman,. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 2007, p. 217.
M. Jan. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. London, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p. 116.
Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 17.
Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory Research Paper college essay help online
The use of cannabis is often associated with memory challenges in the short term and long term basis. Studies continue to be carried out to determine if chronic cannabis use affects long term memory by examining variety of cognitive functions. This paper reviews related literature on memory dysfunction in cannabis users (Parath, 2009).
The literature reviews includes studies that looked at memory function in cannabis users of chronic intoxication period (Austin, 2010). Specifically, it examines studies in working memory and verbal episodic memory. In addition, they have continued to deduce evidence indicating impaired encoding, storage, manipulation and retrieval systems in long term cannabis users (Allhoff, 2010).
Cannabis is extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa. Usually, Cannabis is taken in the form of dried leaves and female flower heads, or the resin secreted by these. This drug can be eaten, but is more usually smoked in the form of cannabis cigarette, or joint, often mixed with tobacco, or in pipe.
Cannabis is an illicit drug that is commonly consumed in Europe and approximately 10% of adults aged 16-59 years in the UK used it in the year 2000 (Solowij, 1998). Majority of cannabis users attribute short memory problems as the most prevalent and this forms part of the reason many of them seek help to quit or reduce its consumption.
Scientific literature in general avers memory impairment as often cited in relation to cannabis use (Wilson et al., 2002). Cannabis use has risen to become the most widely used drug in the developed world over the years. The memory function in general has been studied in acute administration studies of long term users of cannabis to humans and animals, and in long term studies of cannabis users (Pope et al., 2002).
Cannabinoid System and Memory
Endogenous Cannabinoid system is directly involved in the necessary functions of memory. This is because cannabinoid receptors happen in high density in brain areas critically involved in memory functions. Profoundly, cannabinoid affects synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory, disrupting long term potential in hippocampus (Martin-Santos, 2010).
Cannabinoid receptors are metabotropic receptors which are the most common in the brain and are involved in multiple physiological and behavioural events. They are found on pre-synaptic terminals in locations concerned in cognition, especially learning and memory, critically in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated, basal ganglia and cerebellum (Miller, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Endogenous cannabinoid system guides the flow of information in the brain through retrogrades signalling, modulating inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release critical for synaptic plasticity, depolarisation-induced suppression of inhibition or excitation, long term potentiation, and hence learning, memory and other higher cognitive functions (Kanayama et al., 2004).
Structural Brain Changes Related with Chronic cannabis use
There is lack of concrete lack evidence in most undertaken indicating that structural brain alterations in cannabis users. There are no global or regional alterations in brain tissue volume or composition in some recent studies (Ries, 2009). Other studies have discovered grey and white matter density alterations globally or in para-hippocampal areas.
Utilizing more sensitive measures and assessing cannabis consumers with greater exposure to cannabis than previous research, critical reduction of hippocampus and amygdale volumes in long term cannabis users have recently been reported (Lyketsos et al., 1999).
Hippocampus volume reduction was related to dose, correlating with current daily dose, and cumulatively. Only excessive daily doses over long period of time, will lead to structural changes.
Another critical factor may be the age of onset of cannabis use. This has a devastating impact to the brain, specifically cannabis consumers’ start at the early stages of neurodevelopment (Allhoff, 2010). Evidence adduced recently of reduced neuronal and axonal integrity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex represented by magnetic resonance spectroscopic markers of metabolism (Solowij, 2009).
Changes related to dose were found in anterior cingulate and globus pallidum, but not in hippocampus. Solid evidence for dose related cumulative neuronal damage, neuronal and synaptic density. Since functional dysfunction is likely to precede major structural changes in the brain, or to show concomitant to more minor neural alterations. This presents good reason to think that long term effects of use of cannabis on memory function (Wilson et al., 2002).
A Review of Related Literature: Effects of Cannabis Use on Cognitive ability in the long term
Cannabis has the ability to exert prominent effects on the central nervous system. In the central nervous system, cannabis acts on an endogenous cannabinoid system that is concerned with regulation of mood, memory, emotion, attention, and other cognitive functions (Hall, 2009).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cannabinoid receptors play a significant role in memory storage and retrieval processes. Discoveries from human and animal research reveal that prolonged use of cannabis changes the functioning of the cannabinoid system of the brain. However, this does not lead to serious impairment (Solowij, 2002).
Observation for structural brain impairment for in humans following long term cannabis use has not been sustained generally. Some current research has discovered no global or regional alterations in brain tissue volumes. Other studies have however, shown grey and white matter density changes world wide undertaken to date lack evidence of changes in structural brain in cannabis users or in para-hippocampal areas (Wilson et al., 2002).
A recent study that used unique techniques of measurement to indicate that frequent but relatively short term use of cannabis creates neither structural brain abnormalities nor global or regional alterations in the brain tissue volume or composition that are assessable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Pope et al., 2002).
Several studies have indicated altered brain function and metabolism in humans due to acute and chronic use of cannabis using cerebral blood flow, positron emission tomography, and electroencephalographic methods. In sum, use of cannabis has deleterious effects on memory and attention (Solowij, 2009). Individuals who use cannabis show clear signs of cognitive impairments relative to controls.
More of concern about cannabis is that its use may cause neurological damage resulting in persistent cognitive deficits, but the evidence is currently inconclusive. The evidence, however, does suggest that early use of cannabis may cause long-term cognitive problems (Solowij, 1998).
Chronic Use of Cannabis and cognitive Dysfunction
Cognitive dysfunctions or impairments, specifically deficits in short term memory, are reported by many cannabis addicts who seek help to stop using cannabis, and are often advanced as one of the main reasons for needing to stop using cannabis (Allhoff, 2010).
However, evidence provided from controlled studies shows that long term heavy use of cannabis does not appear to produce severe debilitating dysfunction of cognitive function like that produced by chronic heavy alcohol use (Ries, 2009). Nonetheless, there is evidence that long term or heavy cannabis users exhibit more subtle types of cognitive impairment that are detected in well controlled studies using sensitive measures (Lyketsos et al., 1999).
Earlier studies of the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use have elicited major concern that cannabis users may have had poorer cognitive functioning than controls before they commenced to administer cannabis (Sadider, 2010). However, studies from the recent past have looked at this problem by matching users and non-users on estimated premorbid intellectual functioning or on test performance prior to the onset of cannabis use.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These studies have revealed cognitive impairments associated with frequent and long term use of cannabis (Solowij, 1998). Frequent cannabis consumers were showed impairment in tests assessing verbal expression, mathematics, and memory. Heavy users of cannabis were more susceptible to interference, made more perseverance errors, had poorer recall, and indicated deficient learning compared to light users (Wilson et al., 2002).
Solowij et al., (2002) discovered few dysfunctions when they compared neuropsychological performance of dependent, heavy cannabis users with an average 10 years of regular use to anon-user control group. Chronic cannabis users with a regular use averaging 24 years were discovered with impaired attention and had retarded memory in general with dysfunctional verbal learning.
Both groups of users indicated impaired temporal judgment. Solowij (1998) in a series of earlier studies applied more sensitive measures of brain function to demonstrate attention impairments in short term users. Solowij et al., (2002) deduced that long term use of cannabis escalated memory impairment.
Specific deficits in verbal learning, memory and attention continue to be the most consistently replicated impairments to cannabis users. These impairments are associated to the period, frequency, and cumulative dose impacts (Pope et al., 2002).
Differential effects of the various parameters of cannabis use such as, frequency, duration and dose, have not been investigated consistently. As a result, studies are still ongoing to determine whether memory impairments should be related or associated to acute, drug dose, and others occurring the brain memory due to long term cannabis exposure (Solowij et al., 2002).
Studies continue to be conducted to investigate the propensity for recovery of cognitive functioning following cessation of cannabis use. Solowij (1998) discovered partial recovery following median 2 years abstinence in a small group of ex-users performing a selective attention task. However, sensitive brain event related potential measures continued to indicate impaired information processing that was correlated with the number of years of cannabis use.
Solowij et al., (2002) showed persistent dose associated decrements in neuro-cognitive performance after 28 days abstinence in heavy young users of mean age 20, 5 years use. According to pope et al., (2002), verbal and memory deficits persisted in those who had started using cannabis prior to the age of 17 years but not in those who commenced later in life.
The sampled population was between the ages of 30 and 55 years at the time of research. This observation agrees with other observations of adverse effects in that beginning regular cannabis use before versus after the age of 17 years (Wilson, et al., 2000). There is still need for further studies to elucidate the effect of cannabis use in developing brain.
Solowij (2009) reported that hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum are main sections of endogenous cannabinoid activity and heavily implicated in the cognitive impairments associated with chronic cannabis use. Lyketsos et al., (1999) were able to report the only large scale prospective epidemiological study of the effect of cannabis use on cognitive functioning.
They made assessments on cognitive reduction on the Mini Mental State Examination in 1318 adults over 11.5 years. They deduced no relationship between cannabis use and decline in Mini Mental state Examination score, and this persisted when adjustments were made for sex, age, education, minority status, and use of alcohol and tobacco. This study concurs with other evidence that cannabis does not produce gross cognitive impairment (Pope et al., 2002).
Memory in Chronic Cannabis Users
A cute administration of cannabis can disrupt the working memory. Animal literature exists that reports impaired working memory following acute and chronic use of cannabinoid, including an impaired delayed matching to sample tasks that resembles lesions or removal of the hippocampus (Azzam, 2010). A growing number of recent literatures have continued to study working memory and related functions in chronic cannabis users.
Kanayama et al., (2004) examined spatial working memory in long term heavy cannabis users by using functional magnetic resonance imaging using relatively simple tasks. In this study non users made non significant more errors on the task, although few errors in both groups reflected the simplicity of the task and it has been suggested that performance deficits in chronic cannabis users are more likely to be elicited in complex tasks (Kanayama et al., 2004).
In addition, Kanayama et al (2004) studies revealed that cannabis users exhibited widespread brain activation with enhanced activation of areas utilized in spatial working memory tasks. They interpreted their findings in terms of cannabis users experiencing subtle neuro-physiological deficits for which they compensate by working harder and calling upon additional brain regions to meet task requirements (Mack, 2010).
In a study of abstinent adolescents aged 13-18, cannabis and tobacco smokers compared to tobacco only smokers (Hall, 2009). The group identified functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of changed neuro-circuitry during the performance of an n-back auditory working memory task in the cannabis group, but only during nicotine withdrawal.
Representative samples were tested twice, once during an ad libitum cigarette smoking condition, and again after 24 hrs abstentions from tobacco and cannabis users were in abstinence from cannabis for at least two weeks prior to testing. Cannabis users who abstained from tobacco revealed enhanced task biased activation, for instance, posterior cortical regions and others (Solowij, 1998).
A study using real world functions approach examined mood and cognitive performance in a sample of workers with and without recent cannabis use, before and after work at the start and end of the working week. There were scanty details regarding cannabis levels in the sample. A verbal reasoning task was used to measure working memory.
Other memory tasks encompassed immediate and delayed free recall and recognition of 20 words presented on a computer screen and a semantic processing task measuring speed of knowledge retrieval from general memory (Pope et al 2002). Poorer performance in verbal reasoning was apparent in cannabis users at the start of the working week and correlated and frequency of cannabis use.
Lacklustre performance in verbal reasoning in delayed recall was found in cannabis users pre-work at the end of the working week and was correlated with duration of cannabis use. Cannabis users also indicated slower response organization and lower alertness than non-users, and slower psychomotor speed toward the end of the week, reflecting a lack of improvement in the speed over the working week in contrast to controls, rather than a progressive slowing by cannabis users (Solowij et al., 2002).
Episodic Verbal Memory
Verbal learning and memory have been the most impaired cognitive functions in the studies of acute cannabis use as well as in chronic cannabis users. Cannabis users experience impairments in cognition in terms of the period of cannabis use and the frequency of cannabis consumption, and lastly, the impact of cumulative dosage.
Studies of acute cannabis use suggest that poorer performance can be seen in immediate and delayed recall of words. Recent studies have replicated dysfunction in learning, recall, and delayed recall, with some evidence of rot. The studies deduced 17 hour abstinent long term chronic cannabis users recalled fewer words than shorter term chronic users and non user controls over learning trials (Roffman, 2009).
Conclusion Satisfactory evidence has gathered from recent research of cannabis users in the unintoxicated state to conclude heavy cannabis use in the long term is associated with impaired memory function. This implies that impaired memory function goes beyond the period of acute use and is related to a variety of cannabis use parameters.
Studies deduce memory impairments to increase proportionate to frequency, dosage, and cumulative dosage of cannabis administration. However, the exact that lead to memory deficits remain to be determined. A collection of research of cannabis users abstinent for reasonably long durations suggest that dysfunctional memory may persist for some time after acute use (Solowij, 2009).
The overall evidence from the various reviews suggests that the use of cannabis does in a way affect negatively upon the function of memory. Greater deficits in memory may be apparent in tasks that are more complex and among chronic cannabis users. The kind of memory deficits in chronic cannabis users is not different to that observed under acute influence (Roffman, 2009).
Heavy cannabis consumers in the unintoxicated state also indicate impaired immediate, but further delayed free call of verbal information, poor retrieval of information from memory, and difficulties manipulating the contents of the working memory. Memory recognition is inconsistently reported and dysfunctional (Sadider, 2010).
Strategies of organizational nature within memory have not received sufficient research. Limited evidence is available for strategy use in spatial working memory. Several studies found similar dysfunctions in cannabis users in learning, on measures of immediate and delayed recall and to research where other verbal learning tests have been administered to cannabis users (Roffman, 2009).
In sum, there exist a wide range of individual differences in the propensity to create memory impairment associated with long term chronic cannabis use. The effect of multiple interpersonal factors on resilience to and susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction deserves greater attention. Such factors may involve personality and differing genotypes. A perspective to substance use in general may also confer enhanced vulnerability to cannabis related cognitive memory and needs further attention in prospective studies (Allhoff, 2010).
Generally, findings of changed brain activation from imaging studies of cannabis users suggest compensatory procedures activated to ameliorate cognitive deficits. A number of recent advances in techniques are beginning to interrogate pertinent questions; however, the field is still open for continued research. The specific nature of memory deficits in cannabis users has not been comprehensively elucidated. Evidence exists for dysfunctional encoding, storage and retrieval (Roffman, 2009).
Reference List Allhoff, F., Jacquette, D.,
Prohibition: War on drugs Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
When and why alcohol prohibition was passed in the United States Prohibition of alcohol in the United States took place between 1920 and 1933. The reasons for this move were to minimize crime and exploitation, provide remedies to social issues, reduce revenue burden enhanced by prisons and shanties, and make health and hygienic standards in America better (Thornton 1). In short, it was thought that less drinking would lead to better lives.
Some scholars have referred to the ban as a prohibition experiment, rather than a law enforcement action. This is because compared to all other reforms, it is the only one that was intentionally and decisively repealed (Burham 1). Whereas this perspective regards prohibition as a total failure, others regard it as a success. Nevertheless, the lessons learned from prohibition are relevant and applicable to the contemporary world debate over the war on drug and substance abuse, abortion, gambling, and other issues.
Alcohol prohibition was a failure According to Thornton (1), alcoholism declined shortly after Prohibition began. On the other hand, the Schaffer Drug Library (1) states that most indicators show alcohol consumption declined just before national prohibition began. However, by 1926, it had increased over its previous rates, leading to a rise in both crime and corruption that really strained the courts and prison systems.
There were also various newer problems; for instance, a drinking epidemic among children. The Introduction of Prohibition also triggered many drinkers into the use of other dangerous drugs such as opium, marijuana, and cocaine. This could not have taken place in the absence of the alcoholic prohibition.
In the workplace, Prohibition did not have positive effect on levels of productivity and absenteeism. American Labor Leader Andrew Furuseth spoke before Congress in 1926 and noted that just after prohibition began, there was a large change in the working population, but he also added:
“Two years afterwards I came through the same identical place, staying in Portland for about three days, and went to the very same place for the purpose of looking at the situation, and the condition was worse than it had been prior to the passage of the law” (Schaffer 1).
Prohibition did not only lead to a large loss in business revenue, it also affected the government spending. Primarily, tax revenues declined as alcohol traders closed shop or switched to underground market where the taxman could not reach them, while at the same time, production and distribution of alcohol business declined resulting to lower taxes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, as noted above, productivity and absenteeism at workplaces led to reduced income thus lower taxes to the government. In relation to government’s spending, large sums of money were spent on policy implementation and enforcement. In the perspective of its supporters, Prohibition related advantages were dependent on reduced quantity of alcohol consumption. Shortly after the ban, there were indicators that the quantity of consumption had indeed been lowered.
The iron law of Prohibition The Eighteenth Amendment was the culmination of a long campaign by church and women’s organizations; they wanted an iron law that would keep people away from alcohol and its immoral behaviors.
Four conditions that indicate a reduction of alcohol intake: first, there must be a decrease in alcohol usage after Prohibition began. Although it was discovered that the amount of alcohol bought had declined some years before the ban, Prohibition did not exactly eliminate alcohol consumption as speakeasies became an underground sensation and gangsters ran liquor everywhere.
Secondly, although the drinking of alcohol had initially dropped, this did not hold in subsequent years as consumption eventually soared beyond its previous numbers. The annual degree of consumption had been reducing from 1910; however, it reduced greatly during the 1921 recession and shot up again after the ban in 1922. Even investment in enforcement resources showed little results such that, despite the 1933 repeal of Prohibition, alcoholic consumption levels exceeded the pre-prohibition period.
Thirdly, increase in enforcement resources were directly proportional (rather than inversely proportional, as they should have been) to alcoholic consumption. Therefore, this did not discourage consumption either.
The fourth condition is the most imperative in that, a decrease in alcohol consumption does not actually equate to a success of Prohibition. In this vein, the overall social implications of Prohibition must be analyzed.
Prohibition did not only have degenerating effects on alcoholic consumption, but also on its production and distribution, leading to unprecedented repercussions in the whole system. The most notable of those repercussions is “the iron law of Prohibition” which states that the more harsh the enforcement law, the more potent the prohibited product becomes.
We will write a custom Essay on Prohibition: War on drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statistics reveal that prior to Prohibition, most Americans spent equally on beer and spirits; however, during Prohibition, beer became a liability because of its expense and bulkiness leading to increased consumption of both homemade and near beer.
Hence, the alcohol dealers turned their attention to cheaper and stronger liquors (whiskey) instead of beer in order to meet the needs of the consumers. The usual beer, wine, or whiskey was more highly alcoholic by volume during Prohibition than was during either pre-Prohibition or post-Prohibition (Thornton 4).
The production standards were compromised during Prohibition, resulting in largely non-uniform quality. Moonshine production by amateurs during Prohibition resulted to products that were detrimental to human health and contained dangerous ingredients. It was also reported that during Prohibition, the death rates due to consumption of toxic illicit liquor rose (Thornton 6).
Primarily, prohibitionists looked at alcohol related deaths as those occurring from cirrhosis of the liver. However, they did not count deaths stemming from other elements of prohibition drinking such as blood poisoning, fighting, car crashes, and other seemingly unrelated issues. These resulted in public relations constraints since the deaths were not necessarily accidental, though they were considered accidental.
In the 20’s there were no restrictions on the portrayal of drinking and smoking in film. Among the youth, the product became attractive due to its associated glamour. Young people gained interest in these vices by watching their parents and seeing glamorous stars drinking in the movies.
Apart from selling to the youth, the sellers successfully built up their businesses during Prohibition by selling to people who would not otherwise drink. Moreover, most old-fashioned Americans and new immigrants were unwilling to be left out making the whole period a moment when people drank more dedicatedly than at any other time.
One large deficit to Prohibition was that it changed the distribution pattern of alcohol. It eliminated the government-overseen bars and restaurants, replacing them with many covert speakeasies. In this, Prohibition increased the availability of alcohol such that, there were many places where people could buy alcohol from during this period than there were during pre-Prohibition.
Prohibition led to the elimination of alcohol production, location, and distribution regulations. Before Prohibition, the government had rules that could help deter selling alcohol; for example, near churches and schools on weekends and holidays.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Prohibition: War on drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, during Prohibition, the regulations and oversight were eliminated while speakeasies opened up and dominated various areas that were initially dry. Following Prohibition, more Americans turned to increased intake of other forms of ‘legally’ distributed alcohol such as sacramental alcohol and patent medicines.
This happened despite existence of new regulations. Although the prohibitionists’ intention was to help people change from using alcohol to using dairy products, what was witnessed was an increase in spending on both alcohol and its substitutes. Apart from alcoholic medicine, those who could not consume alcohol switched to the use of other more addictive and dangerous drugs such as marijuana, hashish, and tobacco, to mention but a few.
The harmful consequences of the iron law of Prohibition proved more hindrance than benefit, thereby resulting to greater consumption. By these standards, it was only a mirage that alcoholic consumption decreased.
Prohibition was not a healthy initiative Both American health and hygiene did not improve during Prohibition. This is indicated by the continued stream of deaths due to cirrhosis arising from increased intake of alcohol and other dangerous alcoholic beverages during the prohibition (Thornton 8). Those deaths, however, should not stand alone as indicators, since alcohol consumption went underground.
As noted earlier, there are other important indicators of drinking as well as cirrhosis. Contrary to the expectations of the prohibitionists that drunkards should be forgotten to let the young benefit from Prohibition, the health of young people was only at its best before Prohibition. For instance, during Prohibition, most young people’s lives were swept away due to increased alcohol intake.
Whereas it is medically proven that moderate alcoholic consumption is not harmful to one’s health but rather improves it, excess drinking on the other hand has devastating consequences on one’s health (Thornton 8). What took place during Prohibition was excessive alcoholism that had no positive impact on the American people.
Therefore, if the prohibitionists were concerned about the health of the public, they could have championed for moderate alcohol intake that has more health benefits, rather than banning alcohol as a whole. As we know now, to change the behavior of the people, one must change the sensibility of the culture.
Prohibition increased crime rate The proponents of prohibition expected it to be a solution to all social evils (Thornton 10). Early reformers were right to assert that alcoholism led to poverty, broken homes, tax burden, and suffering. In this vein, America had registered a decline in crime rate towards the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century (Thornton 10). That trend was disrupted by launching the prohibition on alcohol. Increased cases of homicide were noted during this time.
Records show that during this period, more funds were spent on police and many people were arrested for flouting prohibition regulations. Furthermore, although drunkenness and disorderly arrests increased, the rate of drinking did not decline. This meant that instead of helping to decongest prisons prohibition and its enforcement seemed to fill prisons. This in turn increased spending on police and prisons. Along with expected crimes, there were also increased cases of burglary, robbery, and murder during the prohibition period.
Prohibition raised corruption levels Thornton points out that there was increased bribery among politicians and the police, as they dealt with the cottage industry of moonshine, speakeasies, and organized crime bosses and their families. There was also corruption inside the bureau of Prohibition itself, leading to an influx of cases in the courts regarding corruption and lessening the efficiency of the judicial system.
Prohibition was a success To begin with, contrary to the views of many, the enforcement law was not all-embracing (Moore 6). The amendment banned the commercial production and distribution of alcoholic products; however, it did not ban both use and production of alcoholic beverages for personal consumption.
In addition, the enforcement was to be effected after one year in order to give people sufficient time to amass supplies. Secondly, Prohibition led to a decline in alcohol intake, reduction in deaths due to cirrhosis, and a reduction in admission to state hospitals for drinking psychosis.
In addition, alcoholic consumption declined leading to a drop in arrests that resulted from drunkenness and disorder (Moore 7). Thirdly, Prohibition did not contribute to organized crime because this existed before and after it. Moreover, other forms of crime did not rise dramatically during Prohibition (Moore 8). Fourth, after the repeal, there was increased alcohol intake. However, in the recent past, both thousands of motor vehicle deaths and homicides have been attributed to the use of alcohol (Moore, 10).
The modern war on drugs Modern prohibition on drugs began in the nineteenth century due to a rise in production of both potent and habituating drugs from the medicinal industry (DuPont and Voth 3). Initially, drugs like cocaine were used for medical purposes, but later on, their use by public increased to unprecedented levels, resulting to distasteful consequences.
However, this period of carefree sale and consumption of illicit drugs ceased after the first two decades of the 20th century (DuPont and Voth 4), with several acts requiring not only labeling but also prohibition of some drugs. This led to sparing sale of habituating drugs mainly for medical rather than addictive reasons.
This move by the social contract to regulate drugs of abuse also led to great reduction of drug abuse epidemic. Moreover, the United States drug control laws were internationally recognized and their enforcement led to a decline in use of habituating drugs between 1920 and 1965 (DuPont and Voth 7).
The non-use of both dangerous and alcoholic drugs continued until the culture of the ascendant youth who incorporated drugs as part of their life style. However, the use of hard drugs such as marijuana, cocaine and the hallucinogens resumed with increased calls for their legalization under allegations that they were better in comparison to alcohol and tobacco. This led to negative effects, a situation that continued until recent calls for legalization.
Lessons in relation to the current war on drug abuse Prohibition, which failed to reduce alcoholism in America, can be likened to the modern war against drug abuse. However, repeal of Prohibition led to a dramatic decline in many types of crime and corruption (Thornton 15). The result of this was that, not only were jobs created, but also new voluntary actions came in to help alcoholics.
In addition, the lessons on prohibition should be used to suppress the desire to prohibit. Current prohibition of alcohol and other drugs may lead to a rise in crime rate, corruption and increased use of other dangerous substances that may be a threat to people’s health. It may also lead to increased government regulation on its citizen’s lives (Thornton 15).
Conclusion Prohibition was supposed to lead to reduced crimes, reduced alcohol consumption, cut in taxes and generally a boost in the moral and economic aspect. However, although some theorists claimed that alcohol consumption declined following prohibition, others claimed that the consumption was lower before prohibition, and further claiming that the actual result of prohibition was an increase in other social vices.
For instance, prohibition led to increased crime, corruption, and use of hard drugs. From another perspective, alcohol consumption per se did not decline, as people turned to underground market for cheap and illicit alcohol. Modern war on drugs has however had some impact mainly due to regulations that have set up to regulate sale of addictive drugs. In this case, due to the failure of prohibition, legalization has been incorporated in regulation to provide a viable solution to the problem of substance abuse and related vices.
Recommendations America government has done a lot with regard to war against alcoholism drug use. This ranges from funding social initiatives that provide awareness on drugs to prohibition by establishment of laws through the office of National Drug Control. These efforts have not yet led to a drastic drop in the use of drugs as fighting drug use in most cases seems to attract violent war from dealers.
Neither prohibition nor legalization can end drug use as it will only aggravate drug usage, crime, death and other drug – use related consequences. The government reserves the right to protect its citizens from the adverse effects of drugs and alcoholism use. However, in regulating this, force should not be used as in prohibition.
In an attempt to regulate, two approaches are recommended. First, the government should devise policies that focused on drug harm reduction and in this way concentrate on dealers rather than users. This will allow production of drugs with reduced potency and toxic composition. Secondly, a policy permitting only doctors to prescribe drugs to addicts can be put in place.
Works Cited Burham, John C. “New Perspectives on the Prohibition Experiment of the1920s.” Journal of Social History. 1968. Web.
DuPont, Robert and Voth, Eric. “Drug legalization, Harm reduction, and Drug policy.” Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995. Web.
Moore, Mark. “Institute for Behavior and Health: Actually Prohibition was a success.” The New York Times. 2009. Web.
Schaffer Library of Drug Policy “Did Alcohol Prohibition Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Crime?” Staff Writer. Web.
Thornton, Mark. “Policy Analysis: Alcohol prohibition was a failure.” Policy Analysis, No. 157. 1991. Web.
Memory Scanning Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract The key purpose of this study was to measure reaction time and accuracy of responses to a certain stimulus (digit) during a memory-scanning task. This research originates from a series of experiments, conducted by Saul Sternberg, who examined the relation between the reaction time and the size of the set. This research aims to test a hypothesis which postulates the reaction time is directly proportionate to the size of the set.
Introduction Mental chronometry has long been of great interests to psychologists and neuroscientists; in particular, they study those factors that determine the response time (RT). Such studies are usually based on the so-called stage theory according to which perception and reaction to a stimulus or irritant consists of multiple-processes or mental operations, and RT depends on the number of these operations (Donders, as cited in Sternberg, 1969, p 61).
Overall, RT may also be determined by the type of stimulus, its intensity, duration, or the type of reaction, needed (Rosenbaum, 2009). Furthermore, one should not forget about individual characteristics of a person such as his age and the state of his health. In this paper, I would like to describe an experiment that has recently neen conducted. Its key objective was to measure the reaction time, needed for a memory-scanning task.
This experiment is similar to that one conducted by Saul Sternberg in 1968. He hypothesized that the reaction time, required for a memory scanning exercise is influenced by the type and number of mental operations, performed by the respondent (Sternberg, 1969, p 454). The essence of this experiment lies in the following: respondents are required to memorize a set of digits (the number of items in the set ranges from two to five); afterward the subjects are provided with a stimulus also in the form of a digit, from 0 to 9.
The responds need to determine whether the probe was present in the previous set of digits or not (Sternberg, 1968). By conducting such experiments, Saul Sternberg ascertained that reaction time was directly-proportionate to the number of items within the set of digits; in other words, if the experimenter increases the digit set, the response time will also increase, and vice versa.
He also postulated that the subject usually conducted exhaustive serial search, rather than self-terminating search, which means that he/she checked all items in the digit set, even despite the fact that the stimulus had already been identified (Sternberg, 1968). This is the key hypothesis, which needs to be tested in the course of this research.
On the whole, his experiments support the stage theory, which relies on the idea that reaction time is a sum of mental processes and that it is possible to decompose the reaction time into several parts (Sternberg, 1969, p 421). Sternberg relies on the idea that the reaction time is determined by the total amount of mental operations, such as recognition of the stimulus and organization of the response (Sternberg, 1969). In his study, he excludes such factors as the type of stimulus or its intensity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology The subjects for this experiment were seven students from an experimental psychology class. They were briefed on the purpose of the study and the experiment. Afterward, each of them was directed into an individual cubicle so that their attention was not distracted to any other stimuli such as light or noise. In the course of this research, the following tools were used: Windows XP desktop computers, placed in each room, and such program as SuperLab Pro which is quite suitable for such experiments.
The participants were asked to follow instructions that flashed on the screen. At first, they needed to memorize a number, (the number of digits ranged from one to six). Afterword, they were digit a digit.
They were asked whether this digit was present in the previous number or not. If they answer was positive, the participants needed to press slash (/) located at the right side of the keyboard, and if the answer was negative they needed to push Z, located at the left side. The task of the subjects was to respond as quickly and as accurately as possible. Finally, the participants were completely debriefed about the experiment. These are the key steps, taken in the course of this study.
It should be noted that in this experiment, the participants were allowed a limited amount of time in order to memorize the digit set; namely, they had only sixty seconds. The thing is that this mental scanning exercise is designed specifically for a short-term memory, which lasts for several seconds.
Furthermore, short-term memory can only hold 7±2 symbols, as it was ascertained by George Miller (1956, p 344). Although this article is not directly related to Sternberg’s experiment, it is crucial for our understanding of short-term memory and its functioning. It shows that the individual capacity of a short-term memory varies, and subsequently this individual characteristic impacts the reaction time.
In this research, it is possible to single out two independent variables: 1) the size of the initial set and 2) presence or absence of the stimulus (digit) in the initial set. In turn, the dependent variables are the reaction time and accuracy of responses. This study aims to measure the relations between these variables.
It should also be noted that the focus of this study is on digit recognition, not letters or any other symbol. The thing is that digit recognition and letter recognition are separate processes, and different parts of human brain are responsible for them (Polk
The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
History of the white house
How the white house acts as a cultural symbol
Introduction Cultural symbols are often images that embody specific ideas amongst the populace thus denoting the culture of that group. These may range from national flags, buildings, monuments and the like. Usually, cultural symbols have an emotional appeal because they have the capacity to motivate and appeal to a wide range of people.
The United States has a diverse population and there is a need to bring together these variant groups through a cultural symbol synonymous to the entire nation. The white house has been instrumental in achievement of this objective from the early nineteenth century.
History of the white house President George Washington is credited with the idea of the white house. In 1790 this leader announced that there would be a residential area for all subsequent US presidents and their families and that this would be in Pennsylvania Avenue. He was responsible for selection of the architect who would build this historical building.
Ten years later, the building was completed and the first president moved in. There were several changes that the building underwent especially after the 1929 and the 1814 fires that took place. Some parts of the building have been altered but the main section remained as it was originally (Whitcomb, 33).
How the white house acts as a cultural symbol The white house is quite easy to recognize in Washington DC. It architectural design is rather simple when compared to other national buildings. However, it is this simplicity that has endeared it to a number of people. The founding fathers had intended for it to be that simple because they probably felt that this would be a representation of the principles and ideals that they had in mind for the United States.
When one sees an image of the white house, the first thought that is likely to come to one’s head is it is a residential home for the head of state. In other words, citizens often view this building to be synonymous with leadership because this is where the nation’s leader resides.
In essence, this can be translated to mean liberty and democracy in that the country has a leader who was elected democratically by the people of the United States and the place where he resides therefore captures these values. To many, the white house symbolizes power or the ability to control and influence such a large nation as the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The white house is able to trigger these deep associations because of plenty of reasons and one of them is its history. The white house was first completed in 1800 but its beauty was soon to be interrupted in 1814 when British soldiers came and burned it.
However, it was rebuilt with even better improvements. With time, a number of features kept being added such as the wings, green houses, offices and the like (Johnson, 83). These subsequent changes represented a critical aspect of the American culture; resilience. Even after the white house had been burnt down by the British soldiers, the country was still able to pick itself up again and rebuild.
Many Americans have carried forward that message into their lives because even when life presents certain predicaments, Americans can still pick up the pieces and try again. The continual redesign of the white house also illustrates the creativity inherent in many citizens. Most presidents who resided in the building would customize it so that it could suit their needs. Sometimes this necessitated tearing down certain elements and in certain scenarios it necessitated building others.
Therefore, most changes made to the building represented the character of the leaders that created it. Furthermore, interior decorations made almost always represent the preferences of the residing families. Americans have come to identify with this principle because most of them will utilize their creative talent in order to make situations workable. The white house is therefore able to appeal to citizens emotionally because most of them will reexamine the history of the building and relate it to their own lives (Johnson, 12).
Presidents usually have the prerogative of hosting visitors of the state in whichever way they would like. In the past, this was done very openly in that the public could enter the white house. Most often, the public would be allowed in after the inauguration ceremony. However, that culture changed because of security concerns for the president. Notable presidents who kept the white house open to the public included Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln.
With time, inaugurations came to be marked by the inaugural parade that is often displayed in front of the white house. Instead, most dinners are organized based on the preference of the leader in office. All these different ways of hosting reflect the diversity of American Presidents in the past. Consequently, this is also synonymous to the diversity of the American people; conversely, it also shows their hospitality.
The existence of a committee for the preservation of the white house illustrates how historic this building is. Every time a single president intends on making changes to the building, he must present the draft to the latter committee and wait for feedback from them. This is done in order to protect the historic integrity of the building.
We will write a custom Essay on The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that most first families are aware of the fact that they are only in those premises temporarily although they still have the opportunity to make their mark in the country’s history. The relative ease with which one can recognize the white house today even after two centuries of habitation is a testament of how historical this building really is to the American people.
The white house is also unique to the United States because even though other countries of the world have official residents for their heads of states, none of them have designs like the white house. Indeed when receiving Presidential visitors from other countries of the world, it is the white house which is usually used for these purposes.
Therefore the contrasts between visiting nations and the host country often demonstrate how representative the white house is to the nation. Usually, visiting heads of state will be expected to land at the South lawn in the white house and their receptions will be carried out in a grand way through minor ceremonies (Whitcomb, 33).
It is quite interesting how many external developments in the country have been incorporated into the white house. In 1890, the white lawns were made up of green buildings where plants were grown through the use of glass buildings. This represented the growth and development of green houses around the country.
Therefore because of this, one can say that the White house epitomizes technology and development in the country because new inventions will often be tried out in this building. For example, in the carter administration, computers were just getting introduced into the world of work. This was the reason why President Carter felt it necessary to bring them to the white house.
He also did this alongside the laser printer. He also wanted to be proactive when it came to green energy and added solar heating panels in the white house. The subsequent president Ronald Reagan continued to improve computer technology within the white house and he therefore encouraged other people who were interested in making similar changes in their lives to do the same. The white house normally contains state of the art machinery and technology and therefore can be seen by many as an instrument of development (Seale, 11).
The white house also contains a press briefing room. Usually, when there is an important state development or some information that the President or his staff wish to give to the public then they will normally employ the press briefing room. With time, the white house has therefore become a source of news and information on public policy.
Many presidents have often stated their opinions on crucial issues such as public education and terrorism using this very room. In fact, it has been synonymous with policy dispensers. White house representatives are often politically oriented as most of them must be highly aware of the issues going on in the country and the presidential stand on them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It should be noted that although the white house is unique in its own right, its design was inspired by several Irish based buildings including the Leinster house in Ireland’s capital. The latter building used to host members of the Irish parliament. Other inspirations for the building include the Rastignac country house found in France.
Although it is debatable to what extent the white house borrowed from either buildings, it is essential to acknowledge that the work was not completely unique to the US and that there were foreign elements in it. This indicates that the United States, much like the white house, depends on other nations in order to survive. The country cannot deal with its challenges without networking with other partners in just the same way that it did when building the white house.
It should be noted that the actual construction was done by a number of immigrants with some coming from Scotland and others emanating from other parts of Europe (Seale, 40). The white house therefore needed input from different types of people without discriminating upon them. The same applies to the country which often requires input from a number of people so that the idea can be workable.
The white house can be seen as a representation of the independence of the United States. The country would not have been able to construct premises for its head of state if it was not independent. In deed the reason why British soldiers came and burnt the building in 1814 was because they opposed that independence and wanted to make a point about it.
Citizens of the country often reflect upon this history and think of the astounding progress that the nation has made through self governance. The residential home of these leaders who have taken the country through such a journey is therefore precious to the eyes of the Americans.
One may wonder why the white house has not changed much over the years especially since heads of state tend to be highly opinionated. However, for something to have sentimental value or to act as a cultural symbol, then it must remain the same or as close to the original as it possibly can be. The white house today still has very close resemblance to the white house of 1800 because most of it was preserved for posterity’s sake.
Conclusion The white house is in the same league as many cultural symbols of America. It is often identified with leadership, liberty, independence and freedom. Others think of it in terms of power while others appreciate the creativity incorporated by most heads of state in incorporating some of their preferences in the interior design. The white house also represents the resilience of the American people and their diversity as seen through the design’s influences.
Works Cited Whitcomb, John. Real life at the white house: 200 years of daily life at America’s most famous residence. NY: Routledge, 2000
Johnson, Micheal. A chateau fit for a president. International herald Tribune, September 2006
Seale, William. The White house, the history of an American idea. American institute of Architects press, 1992
Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In every culture and era, death has been taken as an important period of human existence. This is characterized by the rituals, beliefs and items used during burial. The ancient Greeks and the ancient Egyptians also had their beliefs associated with death.
This is evidenced by the rituals and the items used during the funeral practices as pointed out in the excavations. Consequently, this paper intends to highlight the importance of the krater as a monumental marker in ancient Greece and the mummy mask as another item used in the burial rituals of ancient Egypt. It will also highlight the rituals and beliefs associated with the two items.
Hornung (7) indicates that the ancient Egyptians’ belief in immortality was the basic reflection of their richness of rituals. The goods and rituals, according to Hornung were necessary items that would prove useful in the afterlife of the dead person.
Similarly, the ancient Greek culture had an equally strong emphasis on the phenomenon of death. The rituals and beliefs associated with it led to the development of several practices that would clearly reflect the meaning of death in the culture. On the other hand, the burial rituals of the ancient Greeks in the period of 750BCE and 700BCE were affected by the age of geometry.
Most of the decorations on the items used during burial were designed to acquire some geometric form. The krater, for instance is one of the items used during burials. It was the monumental marker of graves during the 750BCE-700BCE.This vase was clearly decorated using geometric figures that depicted a ritual referred to as prothesis. The general presentation highlights a series of vertical and horizontal arrangements of geometric figures that, under close scrutiny, reflect a scene (Boardman 26).
The paintings on the krater depict a dead person laid on a bier. This farewell ceremony depicted on the vase shows the emphasis laid on burial by the ancient Greeks. For instance, they emphasized more on the deceased person’s life on earth and his relations. This is pictured in the paintings on the vase. Standing at the head of the bier is the priestess who is usually present to perform certain rituals that would assist the deceased to navigate in the two worlds.
At the foot of the bier is a woman seated on a chair with her feet rested on a three legged stool. On her lap she carries a baby. Probably, this is the deceased’s wife and a child. At the foot of the bier are two figures, one slightly larger. These are depictions of the other children of the deceased. Women are seen mourning by pulling their hairs. This was the original sign of morning in ancient Greece (Boardman 27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paintings on the krater also show some gifts and presents offered to the deceased. Under the bier are animals both four legged and two legged. These are sacrificial animals that are offered during the ceremony to ensure that the deceased gets a decent farewell.
The presents of swords or other paraphernalia offered during the ancient Greek burial ceremony is a clear projection of their belief in life after death. They strongly believed that lack of decent burial would lead ghostly haunts (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, para. 3). The ancient Egyptians also offered items to the deceased.
Contrarily, the items were not meant for a decent burial but as Malek (351) argues, for a comfortable life after death, the ancient Egyptians buried their deceased with certain goods that would assist them carry on with life. The most basic goods that accompanied the deceased were everyday utensils like comps, cups, bowls and several other useful trinkets. In addition to this, the deceased would also be given food that would be necessary for his afterlife.
The economic status of the deceased also dictated the amount of items to be available for burial. For instance, wealthy people were buried with jewelry, furniture and anything that would add value to life. This however became a great attraction to tomb robbers. It was this ritual that led to tombs of the early dynastic period to be filled with utensils of daily use and other valuable goods (Murnane 63).
On the other hand, the ancient Egyptian’s item of burial was the mummy mask. This was a mask that covered the head and chest of the deceased. It was worn on the head of the deceased which would originally be wrapped. This mask was made from wet linen that was glued together and a thin layer of plaster applied. Once hardened, it could be painted or gilded (The British Museum, para. 4).
Just like the krater in the Greek culture, the mummy mask also had several decorations that had meanings. The decorations were a clear reflection of the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians concerning the afterlife. First, the Egyptians believed that the dead would live again after burial.
They strongly believed that the spirit, also referred to as Ba, would leave the tomb time after time. The mummy mask would therefore be the only way that the returning spirit would recognize its body which has its face wrapped in bandages. The belief in reunion with Re, the sun god is further evidenced by the presence of a winged scarab beetle. This was a symbol of the sun god and would therefore act as an identifier that would assist the mummy reunify with Re. it also symbolizes the issue of resurrection (The British Museum, para. 3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Behind the mask are other symbolic depictions that highlight the ancient Egyptians’ funerary practices and beliefs. There is a picture of a human headed bird. This is a symbolic representation of what they believed to be the aftermath of life. This was the symbol of Ba, the spirit that would resurrect.
Finally, there is the picture of a hawk whose wings are stretched out wide. This bird is a sign of protection. It represents Horus who protected his father Osiris. This would offer protection for the deceased in the afterlife. Typically, this falls within the beliefs that form the practices of the ancient Egyptians. Their basic belief was to ensure that the deceased enjoyed his afterlife and that he was well protected (Malek 354).
Furthermore, the mummy mask was coated with gold as a clear reflection of the belief that the mummy would be reunited with Re, the sun god. The gold coat would be a form of identification as the sun god Re was made up of a body of gold. The formation of the broad chest and raised relief at the collar provided space through which the funerary text would be placed. The funerary literature marks another ritual symbol used in ancient Egyptian burial ceremony.
Due to their profound belief in life after death, the ancient Egyptians believed that information on how to start life and carry on with it in the next world was necessary. As a result, they buried their mummies with what is referred to as the funerary literature. The information contained in the literature gave the mummy directions on how to navigate through to the next life. This information was kind of a secret that was never availed to other people but the Pharaoh during the 1st intermediate period.
However, the information started finding ways to other high ranking officials during the middle Kingdom before becoming necessary for all burials in the New Kingdom. In the 1st Kingdom, it was referred to as the pyramid text by scholars because it belonged to the Kings; it became the coffin texts in the Middle Kingdom before ending up as the Book of the dead in the new kingdom. The changes in names were also accompanied by changes in the content of the text.
The newer versions carried over the original spells but also had additional spells and slight changes. These books played important roles in the afterlife of the deceased. For instance, the pyramid text ensured that the pharaoh attained a royal resurrection and that there were no malignant influences in his afterlife (Murnane 45).
A distinct contrast in the beliefs of the ancient Greeks and the ancient Egyptians is the destiny of the soul or spirit. The mummy mask contained a distinct wide open eye. This could be a clear reflection of their burial beliefs. It showed the mouth opening ceremony, another ritual involved in the preparation of a mummy in the ancient Egyptians’ burial. As mentioned earlier, the Egyptians believed in life after death.
They, therefore, wanted to ensure that the dead person would be able to perform his day to day activities in his life after death. The re-animation ceremony involved the mouth opening ceremony. This was a ritual conducted by a priest by touching the dead person’s mouth using a blade made of copper or stone also referred to as an adze. This practice was accompanied by utterance of certain words meant to cast a spell on the mummy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The meaning of this ritual was to ensure that the dead person would be able to speak and breathe in his life after death. Apart from enabling the mummy to speak and breath, the priest also uttered some spells that would re-animate the dead person’s legs, arms and other body parts that are necessary for a normal performance in his life after death (Forman
Psychology in Nursing and Elections Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Maslow’s Theory
Psychology and Elections
Maslow’s Theory Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs show the order of the fulfillment of the human needs under ideal circumstances. According to Simons and Irwin (1987), “if the environment is right, people will grow straight and beautiful; actualizing the potentials they have inherited and if the environment is not right, they will not grow straight and beautiful.” This means that the environment affects the satisfaction of our needs. Maslow’s theory applies to the educational and career development in the nursing.
The physiological needs are necessary to sustain life and they include air, water, nourishment and sleep. These needs are the minimum needs required to sustain life without which there is no life in this world. In education, for one to learn more effectively these needs must be satisfied as they are the integral components of the health, while in the nursing profession, the physiological needs are the basic needs necessary in the recovery of the patients hence the nurse ensure that these needs are not limited to the patient.
The safety needs in the education and nursing are the health security of patients, the safety of the nursing profession and the job security. The social needs of love and affection are very important in effective interaction with students, lecturers, patients and workmates thus forming health relationships in the society.
After the social needs are satisfied, one focuses on satisfying self-esteem through achievements in the education and nursing profession, hence, making one earn respect and recognition. Self-actualization is the summit of human needs such as wisdom, justice and truth. These needs enable one to achieve excellence in educational performances and become a passionate expert in the nursing career.
Psychology and Elections Politics and psychology are related because for a politician to win an election there must be a psychological correlation between the voters and the politician.
Politics is about convincing and satisfying the voters’ psychological interests, and if their psycho logical interests are satisfied, then a certain politician will win an election. “An election campaign that fails is one that could not understand the political psychology of the voter” (Comstock