Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction of the National Curriculum
The National Curriculum for England and Democratic Ideals
Introduction The educational system of a society is fundamental to the development and ultimate advancement of the community. Educators and governments all over the world have acknowledged that the educational structure and practices adopted can have a significant effect on the education of the population.
This can lead to significant impact on economic and social outcomes for their citizens. Therefore, all governments are constantly seeking to come up with the most effective system. An effective educational system which yields high results is therefore seen as being essential for a nation’s well being.
In a bid to provide effective education, most countries have developed unique educational systems which are as a result of the various cultural backgrounds or even political orientations of the particular nations.
The United Kingdom is one of the nations which have set out to come up with an effective education system for its population.
The year 1989 saw the introduction of a National Curriculum of subjects which were to be followed by all maintained schools in England and Wales. For the first time, compulsory subjects under what became known as “the core” were dictated by the central government.
The government also had a greater say in the educational affairs and British schools became subject to multiple state regulations and were obliged to follow the state regulated curriculum. The National Curriculum requirements cover a broad range of subjects and following of the curriculum is mandatory.
This brings about the question as to whether the National Curriculum for England and Wales is aligned to the democratic ideals that England subscribes to. This paper shall argue that the National Curriculum for England and Wales is contrary to the ideals of a democratic learning society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction of the National Curriculum There are numerous definitions of curriculum and each definition depends on particular context that one is looking at. In this context, curriculum is best defined as “A program of activities designed so that pupils will attain, as far as possible certain educational ends and objectives” (Taylor
Management Issues: How to Motivate Employees? Essay online essay help
From various studies, motivation is always a key to excellent performance in any organization. However, difficulties arise when it comes to how to encourage the labor force of the firm. For instance, some people use money as the main factor for motivating their employees (Robbins and Agnatius 45).
It is obvious that everything in the current world is controlled by money. In case the reward is right, good human associations will offer an extra zest to a company, thereby inspiring the employees to work even harder. This implies that inadequate financial remuneration cannot be compensated by high-quality human relations.
The person who has motivated me and continues to inspire me is my employer. I am always assured of my job security, support at any time, and guidance in areas where I have no idea on what to do.
For instance, he realizes that in order to create a good working environment that will lead to high and excellent performance, motivation must be given the first priority. It is important, while motivating employees, to show some care because some working environments are full of challenges, and thus without support, any worker may just give up.
Therefore, the manager always effectively communicates the relevant information that I need in order successfully to carry out any given task. This is because in most cases, workers always desire to be associated with or feel belonging to groups as well as individuals who are aware of what is going on at workplace. They need the necessary information to complete their tasks as well as make decisions concerning their work.
That is what my employer does, and this keeps motivating me to work well enjoying my tasks. Thus, it leads to the excellent performance of the company. This is always achieved through creating meetings in regard to workers’ management to update the employees regarding the organization information that may affect the work carried out.
Furthermore, the manager ensures me that he stops by the workers that are affected by a transformation to provide more support. In addition, before any change takes place, there is always enough and clear information provided to the staff for clarity purposes. This motivates workers including me because it makes us feel appreciated and important in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the organizational manager implements his motivational strategy through the provision of financial rewards depending on my performance. Although productivity is linked to workshop floor erroneously, as indicated in many firms, the sale of the total output of the company is the determinant of the profits of the organization.
This, therefore, implies that in case employees are not offered the right resources at the right place and time, their productivity will suffer not because of their mistakes. Thus, managers take a significant part in the productivity of employees and team. Managers exist to ensure the productivity of the company; in case personally, the manager fail to perform his/her task, he/she may be viewed as nonproductive.
The reason for this is that the employee in question is not directly linked to productivity of the firm but has other duties that involve integrating teams in the process of production.
Therefore, a manager can increase productivity indirectly by aiding to produce more. In such a case, financial motivation plays a significant role. Due to my manager successfully performing his duties, I get motivated because I know the more I work, and the higher the productivity, the more I get compensated financially, emotionally, and socially.
Works Cited Robbins, Stephen and Timothy Agnatius. Essentials of organizational behavior. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.
Millipore Cooperation Company Performance Report essay help: essay help
Millipore Cooperation Company is a company that makes implants, such as shoulder and knee replacements and orthodental implants. It actually uses decoagulants which are solutions that prevent blood coagulation. This is principally used in university labs, hospitals during the surgeries, etc. The company makes separation devices which are basically used for all sorts of filtration.
Such cases include separating blood from plasma, simple filtrations for water systems and also microelectronic diffusion where the filters are used to purify hydrochloric acid necessary in manufacturing of fibers. Digression Analysis Technique, for instance, involves making glasses which are then packed into boxes, and delivered to the warehouses and stores where customers can buy them.
In industrial engineering, the main task is to set standards for the production of products. In case of the above-mentioned example, the boxes are of different sizes with different dimensions and weights. A formula can be worked out based on the parameters of dimension, time and weight.
With 150 percent inefficiency in production, the formula to be used to reduce such number is necessary to get the key variables of weight, time and sizes. Using data simulation for the last 6 months, the efficiency level may reduce to about 112 percent if the production level is limited by the number of hours per day. In our case, this number is 8 hours in which one is expected to pack a given number of boxes dependent on their size.
Then the rate will increase with more production of the glass. It also deals in receiving goods, packaging, labeling finished goods, warehousing, inspection, and manufacturing, supply of productions, production and finished goods.
In pharmaceutical industry, everything should excellently be performed, and certain procedures are to be followed as well as good quality systems and manufacturing practices where everything is determined to ensure accuracy are in place.
Labeling is very important as it helps in determining the expiry date of products. There are certain processes which are to be followed. They include IQ which stands for inflammation qualification, PQ which means performance qualification and OQ which is operational qualification.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Performance qualification is habitually performed for the product to be prepared three times. Any procedure or equipment has to undergo this process before any drug is produced. After performance qualification has been carried out, stipulating study is done.
It is carried out by keeping the equipment under certain temperature of about 60-80 C. It is done for a minimum of 6 months which can support the expiry date for two years. After the completion of the years, one can extend it for another year.
Testing and documentation are to be done in everything, and every operator is to carry out operations 2 to 3 times separately, especially these measures are crucial to ensure individual confidence and proper training. Employees are also cross trained for flexibility.
For operation to be properly carried out, there should be enough people since signing should be done by more than one person as it includes performer, checker and verifier. There are extra people trained so as to ensure consistency of the operation incase there is anyone missing.
A project which involves filtration where there is some kind of filters used is to be done. If one membrane has small pores and another one has larger ones, the substrate occurs at the base. Thus, blood sugar can be tested by putting some chemicals on the filter and pouring the blood on it.
Environmental Studies: Asbestos Management Report essay help
Introduction Site History
Port Kembla is a blend of urban and coastal settings with extensive industrial land use forming a central hub with several historical buildings and heritage sites (Wollongong City Council 2008).
Because of the historical changes in the road patterns, limited and declining job opportunities, and competition from the neighboring Warrawong, Port Kembla had experienced a significant decline as a commercial and industrial center until the government decided to reinvigorate the Port.
The Port, created in 1883 had its growth initiated by a rail connection to the state rail network to enhance the transportation of coal from the area. In 1898, Port Kembla Habour act was passed aimed at creating the outer Habour. Construction work which resumed in 1900 covering 500 acres of Habour with the inner Habour dredging, which commenced1950 and commissioned in 1960 (Wollongong City Council 2008).
The Port is situated in the Illawarra region. In the construction process, different materials were used with different health and environmental implications. In the historical context, the land was reclaimed with a significant presence of land pollutants in the soil transported by ship to Port Kembla aimed for use in the outer Habour construction work.
Asbestos was one such material used extensively for construction work in different construction products in the 1980s (Lowry 2002). Studies initiated because of the implementation of the Contaminated Sites Act 2003 (CS Act) demonstrated a significant health impact on the people from asbestos poisoning.
To address the resulting environmental and health implications, the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), Lend Lease, Port Minister and Kembla Port Corporation assured Kembla residents that the movement of soil to Port Kembla could be safe (Langford
Kuwait’ and France’ Sculpture Comparison Proposal essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Objectives
Objectives The main idea of this project is to consider the sculpture in Kuwait and France with the purpose to compare and contrast them referring to the cultural and religious significance of the items. Moreover, the main objective of this research is to consider the historical development of sculpture in France and the availability of the art schools in the country in comparison with relatively young development of sculpture art in Kuwait.
This information will help to reconsider the attitude of architects in Kuwait to sculpture and will assist in developing a program for improving the sculpture art in Kuwait.
Synopsis The research is going to be directed at the development of sculpture in Kuwait and France from time perspective. Therefore, the historical development of the cultural sphere is going to be considered.
Furthermore, the places for studying art in the countries are going to be considered as the main aspects which promote the development of sculpture in Kuwait and France. The financing of the spheres should be mentioned. The main public sculptures are to be considered from the point of view of aesthetic look and architectural characteristics.
Background The literature review of some of the credible sources has already been conducted. Moreover, I have considered the Internet blogs and similar sources where people expressed their opinion in relation to sculpture in France and in Kuwait.
I have also considered the pieces of sculpture in Kuwait and France that helped me understand the weaknesses of sculpture in Kuwait and the strength of sculpture in France. This information will help me direct my research in the necessary flow.
Significance The research under consideration is important in many reasons. Firs of all, I will have an opportunity to consider the weaknesses of sculpture in Kuwait. Additionally, I will gain the experience of France in the development of sculpture as the art and I will be able to use this experience for further research directed at creating the program for improving the sculpture development in Kuwait.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology Comparison and contrast of the techniques used in Kuwait and France from the literature sources and consideration of the pieces of sculptures presented in Kuwait and France are going to be incorporated as the literature review methods.
Having created a blog with presenting the pieces of French and Kuwait sculpture examples, the questionnaire is going to be created with the questions devoted to personal impression from the sculptures. The respondents will be given an opportunity to share their opinion about the professional performance of the sculptures and their vision of the changes which are to be made.
The main responsibility of the researcher will be to gather the information and to analyse it from the perspective of the necessary attempts which are to be made to complete the offered changes.
Resources The Internet should be used as the main resource for the completion of this research. Moreover, the literature sources are to be considered. I insist on reading the books by O’Shea and Spilling (2009) and DiPiazza (2006) for understanding the general condition of sculpture in Kuwait.
The books by Levey (1995) and Eaton (2009) should be considered with the purpose to understand how sculpture developed in France, which stages were completed and at what stage the modern sculpture in Kuwait remains if to compare it with that of France. It is essential to compare and contrast the development of the French sculpture as it has a long history.
Much may be said about the development of sculpture in this country, therefore, the artists from Kuwait may use the data about the history of French sculpture as the stages for personal development (Millard 1975). Before creating the questionnaire it is essential to consider such blogs as ‘Public Sculpture in Kuwait’ (2009) and ‘FRENCH SCULPTURE’ (1997) for better understanding modern trends in sculpture in these two countries.
Work plan Further selection of the sources should be continued. Moreover, two pieces of sculptures should be selected for presenting in blogs. The links to the created blogs may be shared through the social network and other possible blogs which may help increase the attendance of the online questionnaire (their duration should be about 3 months).
We will write a custom Proposal on Kuwait’ and France’ Sculpture Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Then, the data should be analyzed and the necessary conclusions are to be drawn about the nature of the changes which must be made in Kuwait. I am going to attend several museums where the sculptures of some architects are presented. I will search for the works of the masters who lived and worked in Kuwait.
I will also consider the Internet exhibitions of the French sculptors to have a better vision of the technologies used in that country. The analysis of the schools of art in France and Kuwait should be completed with the purpose to consider the potential of these two counties. The analysis should be noted and the data is to be presented in the form of tables and discussions.
Reference List DiPiazza, FD 2006, Kuwait in Pictures, Twenty-First Century Books, New York.
Eaton, DC 2009, A Handbook of Modern French Sculpture, Lightning Source Incorporated, New York.
‘FRENCH SCULPTURE’ 1997, Discover France. Web.
Levey, SM 1995, Painting and Sculpture in France 1700-1789, Yale University Press, Yale.
Millard, CW 1975, ‘Sculpture and Theory in Nineteenth Century France’, Journal of Aesthetics
Equity Investment: Decision Making – Business Valuation Synthesis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction The acquisition of capital is a challenge faced by businesses. However, business enterprises can obtain startup funds from venture capital firms. Venture capital focuses mainly on high-risk startup businesses. Often, entrepreneurs seek venture capital once their businesses are operational and need expansion.
Venture capitalists, however, prefer to finance high-risk businesses that promise high financial returns (Bart
Aqualisa Company Target Market Case Study college essay help near me
What target market(s) would you recommend for Aqualisa and why?
The most convenient markets that the company could target include direct consumers, the Do-It Yourselfers and the plumbers. Direct consumers comprise of an enormous potential market that is currently controlled by Triton Company, despite the fact that Aqualisa’s products are more superior and modernized.
This target market requires information on the products through vigorous advertisement. Tapping this market would mean controlling the largest target market, and could result to a big rise in sales. It had worked with Triton before, though their products were not as consumer friendly as those of Aqualisa.
The Do-It-Yourselfers prefer showers that are cheap and easy to install. Quartz brands do not require technical skills to install, although their prices are relatively high. However, with Gainsborough line, which is an inferior product in this market; Quartz, which is a premium product, could still be acceptable due to its distinctive features and efficiency.
The plumbers are a conservative market as they do not readily change brands. However, their ability to influence the market is high. Independent plumbers account for 54% of all installations of showers in the U.K. (Moon 2006).
Moreover, most consumers tend to seek a plumber’s advice when selecting a shower or even leave it to the plumber’s choice. Winning the plumbers’ market could serve Aqualisa well in the long-run because plumbers tend to be loyal to brands due to their conservative nature.
Briefly describe the most appropriate target market profiles you would prioritize
Direct consumers are mainly the end users of the product. On one side, they understand their needs and, therefore, are likely to be in favor of brands which best meet their needs. Direct consumers will always influence the kind of products that are in the market. In U.K., most direct consumers depend on plumbers’ advice to know the brands to install.
The greatest potential is in replacement of showers, which accounts for 44% of all installations. New buyers are fewer, comprising only 25% of the installations (Moon 2006). The easiest ways to tap into this market would be through major product campaigns and advertisements, and through the plumbers who are their main advisers
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The do-it-yourselfers comprise of a market that Aqualisa could easily control. The ease of installation of the Quartz showers could work positively for Aqualisa since no exceptional skills are required, and independent plumbers are very few; about 10,000 in the entire U.K (Moon 2006).
Hiring a plumber is extremely expensive since plumbers are usually paid on an hourly basis. Many consumers would willingly pay for the premium involved with knowledge that they will skip the cost of the plumber’s services.
How would you position the Aqualisa Quartz shower?
Quartz shower comes out as more efficient and advanced as compared to other brands. It is easy to install and addresses the problems of fluctuating water temperature and low pressure positively. Aqualisa Quartz combines innovation with simplicity, and this works for the product.
Although the shower has not gained the desired acceptance in the market due to late entry and high cost as compared to the competitors’ products, Aqualisa could still take advantage of the high effectiveness of its products. This would increase its market share.
Briefly describe the positioning statement and strategy you would recommend for Aqualisa Quartz to create a unique point-of difference?
The best strategy for winning consumer acceptance is concentrating on the efficiency of the Quartz shower. The unique features that maintain water temperature and pressure to consumer friendly levels should be strong points in a campaign to popularize the product. Since plumbers are generally expensive, it could work positively for Aqualisa if ease of installation is demonstrated to potential customers.
Reference List Moon, Y 2006, Aqualisa Quartz: Simply a better shower, Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA.
Research Methodology Concept Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction to Background of Research Methodology Research Methodology is a structure or plan for the study that directs the entire process of data collection and analysis of data. Research can be defined as a scientific mode of solving problems through adopting logical steps.
Research methodology is valuable in explaining the process and product of scientific inquiry. Research methodology uses scientific tools to describe and analyze methods, shed light on their limitations and clarifies their presuppositions and consequences.
Research Design This is an exploratory research. Data collection will involve the use of questionnaires. Questionnaires will contain both close ended and Likert scale questions. Data obtained through the questionnaires will be qualitative. Qualitative methods offer an enhanced perception of the research problem through analyzing the first person experience, thus require only a small sample size to generate an accurate result.
Another merit of qualitative design is that it uses more flexible tools and an iterative technique of obtaining and classifying answers to questions. On the other hand, qualitative analysis has several shortcomings. First, it may be difficult to compare responses, due to its nature of flexibility and use of open-ended questions. Second, qualitative analysis may be subject to bias, since the researcher uses his own judgments to categorize data.
In this study, we decided to use qualitative research design because the study seeks to explore the underlying structure of employees’ justice perceptions in the context of their organizations’ performance appraisal practices. However, quantitative methods will obtain use together with qualitative methods in analyzing collected data.
Sampling The population for this study will be from different levels of employees at ADNOC Company and Ministry of Education. These two Companies provide two various services, one is oil production and the other is an educational service in UAE. The study will require a sample of 200employees from both Companies in order to participate in this study.
Random sampling will obtain use in selecting 100employees from each of these companies. This study will rely on these two companies so as to ensure that employees from different diversities and with diverse experiences obtain selection for reliability of collected data.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Method Type This study will use quantitative research methods in analyzing qualitative data. Quantitative research can be defined as conversion of empirical statements to numeric form for easier analysis (Cohen, 1980). Similarly, Creswell (1994) defines quantitative research as a form of research that seeks to explain trends through gathering numerical data which should be analyzed using statistical methods.
Quantitative methods have several advantages. First, they can analyze vast amounts of data by converting them into numeric form. Also, quantitative methods are more reliable than qualitative methods as they employ scientific methods which are not prone to bias.
This study will use quantitative methods of research in order to ease analysis of empirical statements. This is because this study will collect data from a broad sample. In particular, the study will use SPSS statistical tool for analysis.
Questionnaire Design This is both a qualitative and a quantitative research. Data collection will involve the use of questionnaires. Questionnaires will contain two parts. The first part, labeled Part A will seek to establish personal information about the employees and will obtain confidential treatment in order to protect the identity of respondents.
The second part, labeled Part B will contain graphic rating scale questions with 5 options using Likert scale (1. Completely Disagree 2. Disagree 3. Fairly Agree 4. Agree 5. Completely Agree). Each variable will obtain representation by a single item.
Instrument to Present Data
Instruments refer to tools used in data collection. These instruments must be chosen carefully, since they can reduce work and time when structured well. The proposed study will make use of questionnaires to collect data from respondents. The study will also use SPSS to analyze results. Proper tabulation will be necessary for effective application of the SPSS tool.
The purpose of the pilot test will be to test the credibility of the survey. We will choose 20 respondents comprising 10 from each company to participate in the pilot survey. This test is essential as it will enable the researcher to realize some obstacles that employees may face while answering the survey questions. In case of any problems and errors, questions should be corrected until the survey becomes suitable.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Research Methodology Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other, if these questions do not need rectification, they should be employed for the main sample of 200, and pilot test sample should be integrated in the main sample. Besides, the pilot test will help the researcher to estimate the amount of time that the main sample might require to complete the survey.
Research Steps and Procedures Studying the organization where we want to apply this research strategy.
Setting up objectives of the research.
Constructing a questionnaire that relates to the purpose of the study.
Conducting the study across various echelons of employees at two organizations including the ADNOC and Ministry of Education.
Coordinating with the companies’ public relation department in order to assess respondents and get questionnaires and get completed.
Collected data will obtain tabulation according to requirements of SPSS in order to aid analysis.
Feeding collected data into SPSS which we shall use in analyzing data. Also, the collected data obtain categorization and display through charts and bar graphs.
Creating a report on findings of the study.
Analyzing and interpreting collected data.
Establishing a conclusion of the study from obtained results.
Comparing conclusions obtained from the study with a few other studies in order to find out any consistencies and differences.
Making some suggestions and recommendations derived from the study.
Participants will obtain questionnaires. Respondents will provide answers to both closed and Likert scale questions. The sample will undergo the interview process at different days of the week and different times, in order to obtain impartial data. The timings will obtain announcement after the pre-test takes place.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
Data for analysis will derive from responses in the questionnaires. Data analysis will integrate both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data analysis. The first step in qualitative analysis of data will be data reduction.
This is the process of choosing, focusing, abridging, conceptualizing, and converting the data obtained from fieldwork. Subsequent to examination, data will obtain coding for easier retrieval based on how each data set helps meet the research objectives. Coding will involve demarcation of different segments in the data collected.
At the same time, quantitative methods will obtain use in analyzing descriptive statistics obtained from the Likert scales. SPSS will obtain use in analyzing results.
References Cohen, L. (1980). Research methods in education. London, England : Groom Helm Ltd.
Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London, England: Sage Publications.
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Los Angeles, California: University of California.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Research Methodology Concept by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Appendix. Questionnaire This questionnaire is designed to seek your feedback on the justice perceptions in the context of your organizations’ performance appraisal. The study is part of the project work done in partial fulfillment of students’ course work for human resources at ADU.
All your responses will remain confidential. It will take 20 minutes to fill out this questionnaire, but each response will add value to this project. Hence, please take your time to complete this questionnaire.
Part A: Personal Information
Gender Male Female Age 20-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 Over 61 Education Undergraduate Graduate Post graduate Other Rank Employee Senior employee Manager Director General manager and above Organization Trading Merchandise Service Manufacturing Other Duration you have worked for this organization Less than a year 1-3 years 4-6 years 7-10 years More than 10 years Part B: Other Questions
Question 1. Completely Disagree 2. Disagree 3. Fairly Agree 4. Agree 5. Completely Agree Procedural justice 1. Does the person entrusted with the task of performance evaluations in your Company boast the right qualifications? 2. You’re your organization require that standards be set before the start of a reporting period? 3. Does your assessor understand the requirements and constraints of your work? Distributive justice 1. Does your performance appraisal reflect how much work you do? 2. Is there a process for you to appeal for appraisal at any time? 3. Do your performance appraisals reflect on your efforts and responsibilities at work? Interpersonal justice 1. Does your company ensure that your performance standards obtain change if what you do at work changes? 2. Does your performance appraisal reflect how much work you do? 3. Do you think your rating is a result of your rater applying standards consistently without pressure, corruption, or prejudice? Informational justice 1. Does your rater explain to you the standards that he or she uses to evaluate your work and how you can improve on performance? 2. Does your rater frequently give you feedback relevant to the things you do at work? 3. Does your rater give you the rating you earn even when it might upset you? Employee satisfaction 1. Does your rater frequently let you know how you are doing? 2. Does your rater review with you the progress towards your goals? 3. Does your performance appraisal reflect how well you do your work? Self worth 1. 1To what extent do you agree that your rater treats you with dignity? 2. Is your rater always sensitive to your feelings? 3. Does your rater treat you with kindness? Citizenship 1. Do you feel more affiliated to the organization after ratings? 2. Does your rater take time to explain decisions that concern you? 3. Does the organization involve you in making decisions about the rating process? Leadership 1. Does your rater help you to understand the process used to evaluate your performance? 2. Does your rater give you a chance to question how you should meet your work objectives? 3. Does your company have procedures that allow you to help set the standards used to evaluate your performance? Extraversion 1. Does your rater show concern for your rights? 2. Does your rater make hurtful statements about you? 3. Does your rater invade your privacy? Agreeableness 1. Is there a room for changing your performance appraisal if you can show that it is incorrect or unfair? 2. Does your company have procedures that allow you to help set the standards used to evaluate your performance? 3. Does your rater give you real examples to justify his or her appraisal of your work?
Information Systems for Brotherhood of St Laurence and Somerville Retail Services Research Paper essay help free
Abstract Information System (IS) is an essential component in the running and management of organizations in the modern world. The main issue discussed on this paper is how organizations incorporate IT into their IS plans to improve their productivity. The literature that was covered in this paper state that IT has become an essential component in the management of information within organizations.
However, for IT to achieve the management goals of an organization, it needs to be implemented in an effective and efficient manner. To determine this, this paper focused on the role played by IS in two organizations; The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence and Somerville Retail Services.
Despite the difference that these two organizations have in the nature of their operations, the implementation of IS plans, the manner in which they have integrated IT, and the means through which they manage IT and manage IT staff within their organization is relatively similar. It was thus concluded that IS and IT are essential in sustaining the operations of modern organizations.
Introduction Information Systems (IS) have become a critical aspect in the running and management of organizations in the modern era. Consequently, the incorporation of Information Technology (IT) to support IS plans has been increasing with the advancement in the field of Information Communication and Technology (ICT).
The literature covered in this paper show that that many organization in the world have adopted and implemented various policies and strategies in the field of IT to enhance their operations. T
he storage, retrieval and transmission of information within an organization in an effective and efficient manner has always ensured that the internal and external operations of a firm are efficient hence enabling them to achieve their short term and long term goals and objectives.
Organization Background The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence (http://www.bsl.org.au/)
Located in Melbourne, Australia, The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence commenced its operations during the era of the great depression. It is during these trying times that the level of poverty, inequality and social injustice increased in Australia and the entire world in general. Based on the Christian ideologies of Father Gerald Tucker, the Brotherhood of St. Lawrence vision is to eradicate poverty and to end social injustices in Australia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence is involved research and development activities all over Australia. The firm is also involved in the delivery of services and advocacy to the people of Australia. In the course of its operation, The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence focuses on the unmet needs of the society through innovate and efficient techniques from the results gathered from its studies.
This move ensures that the policies, programs and practices are developed and implemented within Australia that result in the respect of the rights and dignity of all individuals and inequality is eliminated.
This will ultimately lead to the growth and development of a sustainable society in Australia during the current and future generations. To collect relevant information for this study, Louse Segafredo, who is the Senior Manager, Knowledge Management and ICT at BSL was interviewed.
Somerville Retail Services (http://srsaust.com.au/)
From humble beginnings in 1998, Somerville Retail Services has become the leading manufacturer and distributor of case meat in South East Australia. The company has built a strong brand name as a result of the consistency that it has in its production processes and delivery of its goods and services.
With the use of up to date technologies, Somerville Retail Service has the fastest turnaround time, delivering the finished product within less than 48 hours after it was ordered. To ensure that the service that the firm offers are consistent, effective and efficient, Somerville Retail Service benchmarks its services.
The firm has also adopted new technologies and has maintained a dedicated workforce over time to meet up to the demands and pressures from its clients. This move ensures that the firm has a large market share standing at a competitive edge over its rivals within South East Australia and the entire globe at large. Somerville Retail Services has a series of quality assurance services.
This has guaranteed that the firm does not compromise on the quality of its brands and the service that it offers to its clients within Australia and the rest of the world. To maintain this, the firm produces over 165 beef and pork products that are released to the market every day. To collect data for this study, William Lee, the IT manager was interviewed.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Information Systems for Brotherhood of St Laurence and Somerville Retail Services specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information Systems Planning Literature Analysis
Information is an essential component to the success of an organization. It is with regards to this fact that many organizations have come up with systems and methods that ease the process of transmission, storage, and retrieval of information (Bechor, 2009).
As Pollack (2010) asserted, information is essential in the process of supporting processes and operations within an organization, implementing management practices and in the decision making process. It is as a result of this that since the second half of the 20th century organizations all around the world started to value information.
Organizations are usually made up of a number of individuals. These individuals possess different skills and expertise. Consequently, organizations usually have different departments. Despite all these differences, the operations of an organization are usually geared towards achieving its vision, mission, goals, and objectives.
Managers have always suggested that effective communication is the means through which the management of an organization can synchronize these differences to achieve the overall goals of an organization (Galliers, 1993). As a result, managers have always laid a lot of emphasis on effective information system planning and management (Allen, 2005).
Since the second half of the 20th century, managers have realised the importance of information in maintaining a desirable relationship among employees and in supporting their interactions (Piccoli, 2008). At the same time, managers also realised the essence of information in data management.
On these grounds, it became essential for the management of the organization to ensure that information is managed in an effective and efficient manner.
It is with regards to this that most organizations have incorporated the process of information system management with information communication and technology (Pearlson and Saunders, 2010). With the rapid growth and advancement in the field of ICT, several information management systems have been developed and advanced by scholars and managers alike (Callon, 1996).
However, these information systems do not entirely rely on ICT for their functionality. As Brown (2004) asserted, ICT is just but a component of Information Systems in modern organizations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Information Systems for Brotherhood of St Laurence and Somerville Retail Services by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With regards to these words, Information Systems highly rely on the management practices of an organization, the type of employees that it has, its nature of operations, the goals and objectives that it wants to achieve and most importantly, the level at which an organization has incorporated IT in its operations (McLeod, 2007).
The improvement in production efficiency coupled with the availability of capital has increased the number of players in almost every field of the economy. This has provided customers with a variety of substitutes to choose from in order to satisfy their needs, tastes and preferences.
Therefore, for a firm to overcome this stiff competition and meet the needs of its customers, it needs to come up with strategic plans that will ensure that it stands at a competitive edge over its rivals. Developing a strategic Information System plan is one of the effective means through which a firm can achieve competitive advantage (Sprague, 2000).
An effective Information Systems plan acts as a leverage that aligns the technological resources of an organization with its strategies, goals and objectives (McLeod, 2007). This ensures that a firm operates in an effective and efficient manner hence being sustainable both in the short run and in the long run.
The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence Response
The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence (BSL) has different means through which it develops its IS plans. To ensure that BLS IS plans are in line with the business strategies of the organization, the firm has a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) that comprises of representatives from all the departments of the organization.
This group meets once a month to develop strategies and ensure that the IS plan that it developed conforms to the needs of the organization. The current IS plan is in line with the 2010-2013 ICT plan of the organization that aims at upgrading the overall process of the organization such as modernization of the help desk and improving telecommunication and up to date softwares within the organization.
However, the information system plan is under a close scrutiny of the management with its success being measured with the help of financial milestones and reports from the TAG.
Somerville Retail Services
With the directions and supervision from the IT department, the management of Somerville Retail Services (SRS) usually identifies the information systems needs of the organization. Once these needs have been identified, the management usually estimates the cost that might be involved in implementing this strategy.
However, the budget of this process highly relies on the Return on Investment (ROI) that the firm has from the previous financial year. Most IS plans that the organization has developed usually run for 6 months to 1 year. These plans are usually mapped out from IT projects to determine their budgets and timelines.
The management of the organization usually monitors the operation of the IS plan to ensure that its implementation is in accordance to the needs of the company. The success of the plan is usually determined by the reviews that are received from the involved parties and benefits that accrue from its implementation.
From the analysis of the literature review and the practices of BSL and SRS, it is evident that IS plans are usually developed to meet specific needs of an organization. Generally, organizations develop IS plans to improve the effectiveness and efficiencies of their operations. This too was the case of BSL and SRS. Consequently, the IS plans of both organizations is in line with their overall IT strategies.
However, SRS did not have a specific team to monitor and control the implementation of the IS plan like BSL. This might have adverse effects on the success of the IS strategy within the organization. Despite this, both organizations seem to understand the essence of having an effective IS plan in sustaining and improving its operations.
IT organizations Structures This topic focuses on the importance of IT in maintaining IS plans of organizations. This includes the adoption of computerised systems to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of operations within a firm. This section thus focused on the relationship that IS plans have with the overall IT plans of an organization and the importance of outsourcing IT services of an organization.
Organizations are currently under increased pressure to improve their performance to gain competitive advantage along with continually review of their operations with the aim of addressing threats emanating from changes in the external environment and harnessing the opportunities (Mani et al, 2010).
The incorporation of Information Technology (IT) in the operations of organizations has been one of the effective solutions that modern managers advocate for. The incorporation of IT in the running and management of firms has saved a lot of companies and organizations from running into bankruptcy (Berger, 2006).
For example, in the early 1990s, Continental Airline was facing a drastic financial crisis that almost led to its bankruptcy (Wejman, 2010). The company however incorporated the use of IT, a move that improved the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations leading them out of bankruptcy.
The incorporation of IT can only be successful if it is embraced and supported by the managers and senior staff of a company (Wejman, 2010). IT is thus effective as it ensures that running of operations within a company is smooth, communication among the staff and between the company and customers all over the world is efficient. This will make the operations within the organization to become much faster and easier.
According to Berger (2006), companies should therefore seek for outsourcing services that will concentrate fully on their field of core competence (p. 51). In this way, such companies will save a lot of time and money.
It is always advisable for companies to adopt IT systems that are flexible in nature to ensure that they are able to keep up with the changes in technology within the industries in which they operate in and with the customer tastes, preferences, and requirements that are always dynamic in the business world. Therefore, the IT system of a company has to be flexible to meet their present and future needs (Yeaple, 2006).
However, outsourcing of IT services due to lack of competent personnel to manage the systems or as a cost reduction factor has resulted into the increasing threat of homogeneous organizations that have equivalent core competencies which results into loss of business core competencies through exploitation of best practices in IT competitive advantage (Gibb and Buchanan, 2006).
IT has provided opportunities for equivalence of service level that result in loss of brand identity and brand community and decreased market share. Development in the IT sector and Information System (IS) sector has resulted in leveraged technologies and threats of organizational quality improvement systems and adoption of equivalent quality improvement tools.
IT has also been associated with security risks that are characterized by communication networks for instance non-encrypted networks, technical threats like unauthorized system access, lack of data security. There has been increasing threats that IT cannot be implemented across continents because of threat of data access by unintended users, threats of virus and lack of device interoperability.
Therefore, the incorporation of IT within organizations has been characterized loss of organizational independence that predisposes inability to manage operating costs (Bell, 2006).
The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence
Originally, BSL had a decentralized ICT plan. In this plan, the entire server infrastructure was managed and controlled within the internal environment. In this system, each department was virtually responsible for maintaining the IT systems within their departments.
On logical grounds, this was considered as an advantage since individual members of each department could upload, download, store, and retrieve data that pertain to their operations directly. This therefore ensured that each department was in full control of the information that affects their respective departments.
Additionally, since members from each department were involved in the process of storage and retrieval of information, no extra employees were required to run and manage the IT system. More so, the extra space that might have been required to store centralized data was saved.
However, this system proved not to be viable for BSL. Despite its advantages, there were always difficulties in the retrieval of information. This was mainly because there was no specific system or procedure of storing information. Therefore, each individual staff member would have his/her own system of storing and retrieving data within the system.
Additionally, space within the system was not utilized effectively mainly due to storage of the same information under different names by different employees. Thus, the system used to break down frequently due to these inconsistencies and malfunctions. It is only during the time when the system was down that repair and maintenance of the system was conducted.
Due to these problems, BSL adopted a centralized system of IT management 8 months ago. In this plan, BSL outsourced this role to an external organization that would control and manage the server infrastructure of the organization. With this new plan, the system is constantly updated and managed by the organization.
This therefore ensures that it runs effectively and efficiently unlike in the previous plan where the system was only repaired or upgraded when it broke down. Additionally, space within the system is utilized effectively as the chances of duplication are minimal. The system is also reliable since there is a specific manner in which data is stored and retrieved within the system.
To enhance on its operations, BSL has outsourced some of its IS functions. These include:
Help desk services
Infrastructure management and maintenance
WAN delivery and maintenance
The main reason for outsourcing these services was to improve the overall efficiency in the operations of the firm. Due to the technical nature of these services, BSL saw that it was rather wise to outsource them and let its internal staff to concentrate on issues that directly relate to achieving its set goals and objectives. Thus, since the organization commenced its outsourcing services, the IS system has been managed in a consistent manner.
Due to regular upgrades and servicing, the system has not broken down. It is with regards to these factors that BSL believes that it will continue to outsourcing these services to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations.
Somerville Retail Services
SRS also values the importance of IT infrastructure in its operations. It is on these grounds that the organizations strive as much as possible to ensure that the operation of all its IT components are as per the expected standards of the company.
To ensure that this is achieved, the organization usually assesses the operations of its IT architecture annually. The company views annual assessment as cost effective due to the nature of high costs that is involved in this process. However, the annual assessment and maintenance cost is always included in the financial budget of the organization.
To ensure that the IT system operates in an effective and efficient manner, SRS usually ensures that its operations is aligned with its IS plan. The IS plan usually depicts means that will allow the synchronization of individuals, departments, components and systems within the organization to achieve the set goals and objectives.
In the process, the IT system plays a critical role in the running and maintenance of the IS plan in SRS. The IT systems ensure that information within individuals and departments is conveyed in the most effective manner. Additionally, the system also supports the communication between the organization and its customers.
Therefore, the organization usually proposes amendments to the IT systems to meet its current and future operational needs and requirements. On these grounds therefore, SRS usually estimates the amount of IT hardware that it might require to manage the cumulative data that it has. However, this decision is also determined by the cost of maintaining the proposed system.
Thus, the system that the organization adopts and implements is expected to cater for the current and long term needs of the organization (a period of 3-5 years). This ensures that there is consistency and continuity in the management and maintenance of the IT system as well as the IS system.
With such a sophisticated and essential system, it is always essential to ensure that its operations are as per the expected standards of the firm. Thus, to determine the effectiveness of this system, SRS usually takes into consideration the feedback that has been received from end users.
This mainly includes staff from various departments. The organization also evaluates the effectiveness of its IT system by evaluating its everyday performance on issues such as backup and restore exercises, data processing, and overall network management.
In the modern world, information technology has played a critical role in the running and management of organizations. In essence, IT has become an essential component in the management of information systems within organizations. It is with regards to this fact that most organizations in the world have adopted and incorporated the use of IT and ICT in their day-to-day operations.
IT has always been accredited with increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of operations of an organization through sustainable use of available resources. Therefore, IT ensures that data, manpower, machinery, plants, and equipments are used in a sustainable manner to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization.
BSL and SRS both value the importance of IT in the running of their operations. Both firms have various IT systems that enhance their internal and external operations. To ensure that IT is effectively used, these organizations have aligned the IT plans with their IS plans. In SRS, for instance, IT systems are just but a component that it used to enhance the operation of the IS plan.
In BSL on the other hand, the IT system is used to store and retrieve data and facilitate communication among employees. Thus, to ensure that the IT system is properly maintained, both organizations carry out regular maintenance checks. SRS conducts these checks on an annual basis.
However, these checks are conducted much more often in BSL due to the fact that the organization has outsourced its IT services to an external body. With this centralized system in place, the system is checked and upgraded on a regular basis increasing its performance and ensuring that the system is at par with the latest technologies.
With such measures in place, an organization is guaranteed that its operations are effective and efficient. As a result, such an organization stands high chances of having a competitive edge over its rivals hence guaranteeing its profitability and sustainability in the short run and in the long run.
Managing the IT Human Resource This topic focuses on the importance of human resource in the management of IT and infrastructure within an organization. There are several factors that organizations need to consider to ensure that they select and maintain a strong workforce to achieve goals and objectives.
Hence, this section will focus on the role of the IS and HR departments in recruiting new employees and training them. This section will also focus on the measures that facilitate the achievement of a conducive working environment to reduce employee turnover.
For an organization to operate in an effective and efficient manner, it needs to have qualified employees who are capable of performing work as per their job descriptions to meet the needs and desires of the organization.
To achieve this, an organization needs to have a rigorous training exercise that ensures that the selected employees have the desired skills, knowledge, and expertise to conduct their roles effectively and efficiently (Kujnish, 2006).
The first process that the Human Resource Department of most organizations conduct while recruiting employees is to short list candidates who have applied to the various posts that have been advertised. In most cases, the firm selects candidates from two broad bases. A firm can select candidates from its internal workforce (Zoltners, 2006).
Here, the firm identifies a number of employees who are capable of taking the job opening that is available and sustaining its needs and requirements. To achieve this, the HR department can select an individual from any departments to fill in the vacant position. In other instances, the HR department can decide to select an employee from the department where the vacancy is available.
In most cases, the individual who is selected to hold the vacant position is usually from a lower or the same level of employment. Thus, this form of selection is normally viewed as a promotional exercise and plays a critical role in the motivation of employees.
Alternatively, a firm can select candidates from external sources (Zoltners, 2006). Here, the company seeks to award the vacant position to an individual who is not part of their workforce. Here, the firm normally advertises through various forms of media. Occasionally, the firm links up with renowned educational institutions from which it selects the best students to fill in the vacant position.
The selection process usually commences after the candidates have been identified and shortlisted. The selection process should be rigorous to ensure that the skills of the candidate who is selected for the job conform to the skills that are required for the job at hand (Roberts, 2008).
Therefore, most organizations usually check the educational background of the candidates, their work experience, personality, goals and objectives to determine whether they are suitable for the job at hand. The candidates’ attitudes and personalities a critical role in the selection process.
Despite the importance of the selection, recruitment and training exercises, the management also plays a critical role in ensuring that employees perform their roles and duties as per the expected standards of the firm (Bernardin, 2008). It is the role of the management therefore to monitor the performance of his/her employees as well as the achievement of their set targets.
However, since employees usually have diversified skills, expertise and needs, the respective managers are expected to develop strategies that will enhance their relationship that they have with their employees. In most cases, it has been advocated that the managers should be the mentors, facilitators, and role models within and outside the firm.
The managers should understand and try to meet the needs of their employees regardless of whether they are professional or personal. Furthermore, it is the role of the sales managers to determine the factors the motivating and de-motivating to their employees hence affecting their performance. Employees should always be regarded as assets of an organization (Robbins, 1999).
The Brotherhood of St. Lawrence
As it has been stated earlier, BSL values the critical role that IT plays to support its operations. It is with regards to this fact that the organization always strives to have the best individuals to uphold and maintain the operations of the IT department. Thus, like many other organizations out there, BSL usually conducts a rigorous recruitment exercise to ensure that it has the right candidates for its job openings.
This has always been a traditional practice within the organization. Thus, different vacancies opening requires different individuals to fill up the positions. Therefore, the manner in which the management will select the individual(s) to fill this position varies depending on the job requirements of the vacant position.
Thus, while recruiting staff in the IT department, BSL considers a number of factors. First, the organization considers whether the position that is available is a short-term post or a long-term post. This is a critical step as it lays the basis on which the recruitment exercise will be carried out. In most cases, it will be unwise to undertake a vigorous recruitment exercise for a short-term work.
Thus, this process saves the organization both time and money. There are also those instances in which the firm does not have the time or capacity to advertise and shortlist candidates. It is during these times that the organization uses recruitment agencies such as Hudson to save on time.
BSL has had a long reputation with such agencies. Most of the candidates that it has received from them have been highly qualified and competent in their work. However, this option is implemented only when BSL does not have the time for the process and the vacant position is fixed. However, before BSL agrees to use this method, it needs to consider its cost implication.
Using a hiring agency to recruit employees is always an expensive exercise. Therefore, the firm needs to consider the impacts of this move on its budget. However, in normal circumstances, the firm advocates the use of its traditional hiring methods where the process is conducted systematically to ensure that the right individuals are selected with regards to the position that is available.
The IS department of BSL comprises of a number of employees. Each individual has a specific role that he/she needs to play to ensure that the operations of the department meet the set goals and objectives. The department is headed by a manager. The IS manager heads the department. However, he/she spends some of his/her time heading another department or portfolio.
The department however has a full time help desk manager. The role of this individual is to ensure that the help desk is run effectively and efficiently. The help desk manager heads two IS support officers and a project/business administration officer. Therefore, the entire department has four different job descriptions under one level of hierarchy.
Despite the fact that BSL does not have a career progression program for its IS employees or minimum employee qualifications, the department has always experienced low turnover rates. However, to prevent the eruption of employee turnover in the future, the IS manager seeks to introduce minimum qualification measures and progression programs for the employees under his umbrella.
Somerville Retail Services
SRS also takes seriously the process of recruiting an employee into the IS department. In most cases, the department itself conducts the recruitment process. However, there are those occasions in which the IS department might require assistance from the HR department to ensure that the recruitment process is conducted in an effective and efficient manner.
This highly reduces turnover rates within the department. In the course of the recruitment process, SRS usually wants to select the right candidate for the job. Thus, the IS department usually goes an extra step in the recruitment process to ensure that this is achieved. There are a number of qualities that the IS manager and the recruitment committee look at during the recruitment process.
The personality of a candidate is important. The department needs to ensure that the selected candidate can take initiative, is attentive to details, advocates for teamwork and has the capability of making decisions on his own. Thus, the department needs to be assured that the candidate can solve issues on demand.
Thus, in the course of the recruitment process, a candidate needs to expressly show that he/she can take initiative, is willing to put his skills and expertise in the work of the department, is ready to learn and most importantly, he/she is capable of meeting tight deadlines under minimal supervision.
Other than that, the candidate also needs to prove that he/she has basic administration skills as well as desirable troubleshooting skills. These qualifications however need to be supported by the ability of the candidate to be able to solve problems in an IT related or non-IT related field.
Here, the candidate needs to expressly come up with a step by step procedure on how he/she can solve a problem within the department, measures that he/she will take to inform other members of staff including the IS manager about the situation and how it is being solved. Most importantly, the desirable candidate should be able to make independent decisions without seeking help from other members of staff.
However, this decision needs to be sound and aim at improving the operations of the organization. The candidate who might possess these qualities thus stands a high chance of being hired into the IS department in SRS.
The IS department in SRS has three different job descriptions. There is the manager, the administration representatives and the helpdesk representatives. Despite this diversification, there are no minimum qualifications of employees in this department. The members of staff however need to show their willingness to work and learn while conducting their daily services within the department.
Those employees who show that they have the initiative to work and learn stand high chances of progressing within the department especially when they are involved in IT. However, for such individuals to progress, they need to be trained in various IT roles such as application management or network management.
It has always been argued that an organization is as good as its employees are (Zoltners, 2006). It is with regards to this that both BSL and SRS have gone to extra lengths to ensure that all its employees including the staff of the IS department are highly qualified to meet the demands and requirements of their respective jobs.
SRS and BSL have rigorous recruitment exercises to ensure that they have the right candidates for the vacant posts that are present in their respective organization. They both seek to have qualified personnel who are willing to take up the challenges and demands that are might arise in the course of their work.
However, while SRS sought support and direction from the HR department during the recruitment process, the IS department of BSL conducted its recruitment exercises independently. SRS believes that it is necessary to include the HR department in order to reduce employee turnover rates.
The only time that BSL sought external help is when the IS department did not have the time to conduct the recruitment process. In such situation, the organization sought the assistance of recruitment agencies such as Hudson. This is a common practice in most organizations in the world where they use agencies and education institutions to tap and develop talent within their organizations.
Finally, it has always been considered essential to motivate employees. This can be achieved either by monetary or non-monetary measures. Promotions and career developments are some of the non-monetary measures that can be used in this process. To achieve this, SRS has a progression program in which employees can grow and develop within the department.
Currently, BSL does not have such a program. However, due to its importance, the organization aims at introducing it. This will ensure that the management of IT personnel within the organization is effective and efficient hence enabling the organization to achieve its short term and long-term goals and objectives.
Conclusion In the modern world, an organization needs to have a reliable, effective and sound information system that will sustain its internal and external operations. To achieve this, IT has always been incorporated in the running and management of firms.
Due to its simplicity and effectiveness, IT has become an essential component of IS within an organization. These two factors usually improve the overall performance of an organization enabling it to stand at a competitive edge of its rivals and guaranteeing its sustainability in the short run and in the long run.
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Race in Media Analytical Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Are Non-white Voices Increasingly Being Heard?
What Happens in Society When Voices Go Unheard?
Avenues Non-Whites have followed to be heard in the U.S.?
Introduction White privilege is the importance attached to the being white. It is about the concrete benefits of access to resources and social rewards and the power to shape the norms and values of society that whites receive, unconsciously or consciously, by virtue of their skin color in a racist society (Adams, Bell
Work’s Satisfaction and Psychology Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Work is one of the main activities of human life. It is essential to consider the work as something interesting and satisfactory as people spend most of their time at work. I know a lot of different people who work just to earn money and this work dose not bring much satisfaction to them. This is wrong as people do not get satisfaction from money they earn (Lewis, 2011).
After work such people are dissatisfied, they do not feel enjoyment from their work. When people work effectively, when they get satisfaction from what they do and when they get good money for their work, people are pleased. Still there are people who work just for personal satisfaction, they get symbolic money for their work and feel great.
These people are the happiest ones, they do not need much from this life, they are not tied with the material things, they do not need too much from this life, they get satisfaction from what they do (Stride, Wall,
The Ethics of Leadership Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction The concept of lies and the truth is a major aspect of ethics and leadership. Ciulla (2003) says that leaders should always be able to distinguish between lies and truth although ethical dilemmas may pose a challenge. The case study illustrates a situation where one person lies to protect the happiness of others. To this end, the manner in which people lie should have a deep analysis.
In the case study titled ‘Is a lie always a lie?’, the author proposes that not all instances of telling lies are always misleading. To achieve the greatest happiness and good, Ciulla (2003) asserts that an individual (leader) should be quick to judge the rationale behind some lies given that it may result to achievement of a greater good.
Lies in this case study are aimed at increasing the benefits of human beings and the organizations. Nevertheless, according to ethical considerations, lies are not morally upright and should not be applicable to any circumstance of human living.
Borrowing from the perspectives of renowned thinkers, I will use this paper to explain the case study and answer the question that it poses. The critical thinkers who constitute a huge part of the paper include Immanuel Kant, Bernard Williams, Hannah Arendt and Confucius. The paper will explain how the thinkers would handle the situation in the context of a business.
Main Explanations by Different Critical Thinkers on the Case Study Immanuel Kant
Kantian ethics articulate that specific actions may not be the best solution for an ethical dilemma notwithstanding the fact that they may result to heightened happiness than alternative solutions.
In deciding on what to action to embark on, it is important to look at various standpoints that other people would hold when faced with the same situation.
If the action would receive disapproval from other people, Kantian ethics dictate that a leader should not make such a decision besides it is important to ponder on whether the course of action respects the fundamentals of human life and is not deriving happiness for the leader only.
According to Kantian ethics, the decision should not be disrespectful to human life and that all decisions are equal, and the leader should choose the decision that does not cause such inconsistencies.
Ethics according to Bernard revolve around the rejection of moral standpoints that Kantian ethics and utilitarianism explored.
He articulates that the moral theories and views capture an idealistic society that is not possible in human society.
To be precise, he asserts that human life is undeniably untidy to have a systematic way of explaining and predicting behavior.
His leadership model revolves around the ability of an individual to explain factors underpinning moral psychology and to self-awareness, which results from personal identity.
Being a social theorist and a political scholar, her ethics revolves around political institutions.
She makes a distinction between various factors that involve the wide concept of freedom.
Particularly, she posits that freedom is not the nature of human beings but social organization results to the same.
Human beings construct both the truth and lie and may sometimes imply the truth in different contexts since argues that political space was only a construction of the human society to allow human beings to experience freedom.
The Chinese thinker allows no room for a lie in the social organization of human beings.
In particular, he explores the concept of virtue and asserts that a man of virtue will rarely be in able to sacrifice it for other things – even life.
To that end, he says that a lie is always as such given that an individual will always protect his/her virtue despite the likelihood to lie.
Virtue is therefore, the absolute guide to human action without which, a single society would not be possible.
Main Explanations by Different Critical Thinkers on the Case Study The above thinkers would ultimately have different perspectives on the case that asks, ‘Is a lie always a lie? Kantian concept of ethics does not necessarily prohibit an individual from acting in a specific way. The rationale is that Kantian ethical model dictates that if other people would lie when faced with the same situation, it would be a good course of action.
Besides, if the lies were in the name of protecting human life and human dignity, there would be no such thing as a lie. To that end, a lie is not always a lie drawing from Kantian ethics. Kantian arguments draw inspiration from the thought that human beings face decisions and choices that make them prone to lying and making decisions that are in line with their convictions.
Human nature entails making hard choices some of which are to satisfy their self-interests. Although human beings are prone to such instances, Kant argues that human beings can always be in a position to distinguish the right decisions from the wrong ones. Hence, Kant asserts that judgment of acting in a particular way is important especially when the decision does not affect human dignity in any way.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, Bernard Williams would also hold the position that a lie is not necessarily a lie. The rationale is that human beings have different perspectives that cannot invite similar judgment. The reason for one person to act in a particular way is not necessarily the rationale for other people to act in the alternative or similar way.
The ethical standpoints held by Williams always point out that an individual is not always able to act in an acceptable way. To him, acting appropriately is the essence of human nature. In other words, he argues that a lie will ultimately result to cognitive dissonance implying that an individual can know when to lie and when not to tell lies.
If human beings can differentiate between lies and the truth, Williams says that a lie is relative and can lead to different decisions at all times. Hence, people tell lies in many instances to reap the greatest benefits that the truth cannot promise to match. Simply, he says that an individual will never tell the truth when lies can result to higher benefits.
For Arendt, a lie is a construction of the society and, it is not a part of human nature. As such, while some situations may not necessarily deem an action as a lie others may have a different perspective of the same action. Being a political and social philosopher, Arendt articulates that an individual gets a lot of influence from the socialization process.
The socialization process imparts social beliefs, values and attitudes to new members of the society. While some societies value the importance of telling the truth, others socialize their members differently. A lie therefore according to Arendt is that which contravenes the societal system and does not result to achievement of social objectives.
As such, a lie is not always a lie since the social processes are completely different. Besides, human beings are political creatures who will always want to have an advantage over the rest. Hence, every person will lie to create the advantage.
Confucius has no specific definition for a lie. This implies that virtues (jen), according to the thinker may not indicate that a lie is always a lie. However, if a decision to lie causes an individual to experience cognitive dissonance, it becomes a lie. According to the Confucian virtues, virtuous people value their basis of actions and sacrifice even their lives for the same.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Ethics of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Virtues will assist people to make the right choices in life and ensure that every person gets justice in all aspects of life. It is important to notice that virtues according to Confucius are explicit and allow people to make even the seemingly hard decisions.
As such, a lie will not be a lie if making the decisions that bring about the highest benefits for all people is the best. To him, virtue brings about happiness for all and does not aim to injure the rest of the society.
Essentially, Kantian ethics seem to explain the question in a subtle way. Kant simple view of lies was that a lie is a lie only if others would not lie given the same situation. Besides, if the lies uphold the sanctity and respect of human life, it is an appropriate action. To that end, the contexts in which people lie should be able to enhance human dignity and be rational. It is important to notice that the extents to which people lie are relative according to Kantian ethics.
Introduction Ethics and leadership are intertwined concepts that clearly dictate ways that an individual can make decisions that result to the greatest good for all stakeholders. The case presented by Ciulla (2003) on’ Corneas in Congo’ requires impeccable ability to make rational decision that yields more pleasure than pain.
In particular, the case explicates that the head of a small aid agency in Congo is currently experiencing a quandary on whether or not to import corneas from China. An aid agency had been in Congo to help refugees who are currently escaping wars and skirmishes in the region. It made a camp where children and displaced people can have shelter and health care.
Unfortunately, an increase in a parasite that causes infection of the corneas leading to loss of sight among the refugees has plagued the refugee camp. Indeed, the aid agency articulates that almost ten people have gone blind. The organization seeks to provide the victims with corneas transplants that could restore the sight of at least ten people by working with other partners.
Owing to the rising needs of corneas transplants, the leading organization in providing the corneas asserts that the number available is limited to restore the sight of all the ten people successfully. A Chinese firm emerges and promises to deliver twenty corneas given that the aid agency would provide it with medical supplies and a truck. The ethical question that emerges is the acquisition of the corneas.
The aid agency learns that the Chinese firm accesses the corneas and other body parts in a corrupt way. Despite the ethical dilemma, numerous people across the world are ready and willing to buy the corneas. Should the leader of the agency continue with the plans to acquire corneas from China?
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ethics of Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Using the main ideas of ethical thinkers who include Mill, Rawls, Nietzsche and Tzu, this paper seeks to analyze that the leader of the aid agency could respond to the situation by making a decision that upholds ethics and enhances greatest happiness for all.
Main Ideas Presented By Various Critical Thinkers John Stuart Mills
The critical thinker presents various ideas on ethics in leadership.
Utilitarianism is a major angle of leadership and ethics and it asserts that ethics ought to revolve around increasing the happiness of human beings and the society.
Besides, Mills articulated that utilitarianism enhances ethical decisions that minimize the pain of all individuals and ensure that communities have an improved life.
The critical thinker also explains that utilitarianism draws its basis from experience because leaders encounter many situations that require ethical decisions; they get the ability to act in an ethical way.
Being a contemporary philosopher, Rawls perceives ethics from different standpoints that his ethical theory emphasizes the importance of the leaders to uphold justice.
Borrowing from the concept of justice, Rawls pinpoints that human beings are able to uphold the concept of justice in all their judgments and decisions leading to a just and an ethical society.
Drawing from a hypothetical illustration, Rawls establishes the concept of original position, liberty principle and difference principle.
This way, Rawlsian ethics revolve around the importance of upholding justice for all people notwithstanding their socio-economic class.
The critical thinker borrows immensely from Shakespeare’s existentialism in the development of his ethics.
He disputes the assertions of other thinkers that human beings are able to judge right from wrong and good from evil.
He argues that the key concepts that underpin ethics in the contemporary world include immorality, master morality in addition to making decisions that go beyond what people regard as good and evil.
Additionally, he says that will power and slave morality are the main concepts that can assist leaders in making ethical decisions.
Tzu asserts that human beings ought to act morally and ethically to achieve success in their lives.
Particularly, Tzu wrote the book ‘Art of War’ and explicates that ethics are dependent on realism rather than idealism.
First, he says that conflicts from poor leadership decisions are intrinsically costly since he articulates that the person who indulges in war and defeats many men is unethical than a man who wins the war without fighting in the battle.
To him, success is not a matter of winning a contest among competitors but is dependent on avoidance of direct conflicts.
Main Articulations by Different Critical Thinkers on the Case Study John Stuart Mills would resolve the cornea case in Congo by arguing from the standpoint of increasing pleasure and minimizing pain of the stakeholders. His articulations are that the head of the aid agency in Congo should make a decision that maximizes on the overall pleasure of all people and minimizes pain.
To that end, it is critical to ensure that the refugees are able to access corneas gained in an ethical way rather than accessing them from China where the corneas of criminals on death row are accessed without their consent. As such, Mills ethics dictate that the aid agency refuses the offer of the Chinese aid firm.
Rawls would not all allow the aid worker to access corneas from China. The rationale is that the aid agency would defy the basic principle of justice because the acquisition of corneas was unjust. The criminals convicted in China have no control of their body organs since the wardens access them when they die.
According to Rawls, not all people will access justice. Nevertheless, those who will access justice are more than those who do not. The patients in Congo therefore are few considering those whom the Chinese firm has denied justice. Indeed, they have already taken organs from more than twenty death row convicts.
Nevertheless, the convicted criminals are already dead making it a less ethical issue since they would have been convicted anyway.
For Nietzsche, the decision revolves around distinguishing between what is evil and good. Human beings are not always able to make the distinction. Hence, the aid agency should make a decision that brings about the greatest happiness.
The ability of human beings to make a distinction suffers constraints and as such, it is imperative to ensure that people in Congo receives the corneas as way of increasing happiness instead of focusing on the criminals who already have no other choice but to let the law take its cause.
Finally, Tzu’s ethics far outweighs the ability to make decisions based on the anticipated outcomes. He articulates that leaders should be in the forefront of reducing conflicts emanating from specific decisions. The decision for the aid agency should be in a position to reduce the conflict that may result.
The conflict of interests should not deny the Congolese refugees from accessing sight by ensuring that the ethical considerations should bring. This way, the refugees will receive the corneas without raising any ethical considerations that may be apparent with the aid agencies.
The ethical thinker who best resolves the ethical dilemma is John Rawls. Rawlsian ethics dictate that all the principles of justice are important in making such a decision. At the outset, it is important to recognize that justice implies that all human beings are able to not only access that which they think is just but also in a moderate way.
Liberty principle asserts that a leader should not focus on making a decision that brings about justice and happiness for all. This is in lieu of the fact that justice is not equal for all. As such, the aid worker should enhance justice by refusing to take the corneas from the Chinese firm. Although some people would suffer from blindness owing to the apparent shortage, Rawlsian ethics do not promise justice for all.
Reference Ciulla, J. (2003). The Ethics of Leadership. New York: Thompson-Wadsworth Publishers.
Livingstone’s Pygmalion in Management Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Livingstone’s article talks about how managers can influence their employees positively at the workplace. The article talks about the impact of managerial expectations on a firm’s performance. Livingstone emphasizes that a manager’s expectations has a direct contribution to the production levels a firm achieves.
A manager needs to raise the morale of his workers. This makes them self driven to achieve positive expectations that are vested in them. Managers need to encourage competitiveness in their workers. This gives them the passion and motivation necessary to achieve high performance and results.
Effective managers understand their employees. This understanding enables such managers to motivate their employees to surpass the set expectations. Managers need to pass on their expectations in ways that improve workers’ attitudes towards work.
Workers perform better when they are aware that their manager has confidence in their ability to attain positive results. A manager who strives to excel in his workstation is likely to be emulated by his subordinates and this leads to positive outcomes. Managers need to communicate positive messages and signals which encourage their workers to achieve desirable results.
Verbal and non verbal actions of managers communicate different messages to their subordinates which lead to positive or negative output. Apathetic treatment by a manager diminishes workers’ drive to perform which leads to negative results. Indifference by a manager shows that he or she has low expectations in the ability of workers to perform.
Managers should not communicate negative messages to their workers as this makes them to be lax in their duties. However, a manager’s expectations must be realistic and achievable to make workers believe they can be fulfilled. Setting realistic expectations ensures that workers do not burn out while striving to meet the high expectations of their superiors.
Livingstone’s article shows the level of influence managers have on their subordinates within any working environment. Managers need to have positive expectations in individuals working under them to make them confident and self assured of their input. Credible and effective managers should set goals that are realistic and attainable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can bring about a transformation in workers’ productivity within their respective work stations. A manager’s success comes from his expertise and understanding of the industry in which his firm is active. Managers need to have the necessary knowledge and skills to make the firms they steer remain competitive in their chosen industries.
Livingstone reveals that managers should make strong decisions that push their organizations towards positive development and growth. It is important for managers to be sensitive to the needs of their employees so that they can boost their self esteem. Employees with a strong self esteem display high levels of efficacy in their workstations and this leads to attainment of positive output.
Managers should treat their subordinates well to ensure that they meet expectations that have been set. Managers should nurture talented employees to help them focus on how their input can be utilized better to achieve positive results. Managers that have a strong belief in their abilities are able to direct their workers to perform beyond the set expectations.
Livingstone’s arguments testify how managers need to inspire those who work under them attain positive outcomes in their work assignments. Workers internalize positive or negative messages from their managers during their interactions at the workplace. Effective managers need to have a strong record of achievement. This makes subordinates to view their superiors as credible and effective.
Managers need to participate directly in the activities of their firms. This can make them understand the problems and opportunities that exist within industries where their firms are involved. Training and mentoring of talented employees by managers gives them the confidence needed to achieve their individual expectations.
Livingstone’s arguments provide a basis for implementation of effective human capital management practices by business organizations. The article reinforces the view that management should treat human capital more important than just a factor of production. The conviction managers have in their own human capital provides a strong foundation through which high expectations in the workforce are achieved.
Managers need to sustain positive drive and motivation of their subordinates for them to achieve positive results. The article emphasizes on the need to have motivated and self assured employees in an organization. Employees are motivated to perform better if they are likely to obtain positive rewards.
We will write a custom Essay on Livingstone’s Pygmalion in Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizations need established systems that reward workers who achieve impressive results within their workstations. Managers need to evaluate the performance of their subordinates and reward those that excel in their assignments with opportunities for personal and professional growth. Livingstone’s views regarding young employees have credence because they are easily influenced by the actions of their superiors.
Positive transfer of expectations by managers to young employees gives them a feeling of being valued by the organization. This drives them to perform exceptionally in their work stations. Livingstone shows the power managers have over their subordinates’ success and how this can be tapped to benefit the organization.
Economic Theory: Exploring the Marginal Concept Expository Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Circumstances Encouraging Businesses to Open Up Coal Minds and Exploiting These Resources
The coal industry in Europe has recently been closed because the revenues received from coal mining did not justify the costs needed to sustain the production. Specific problems are connected with impossibility to meet environmental standards, as well as development of green economy (Kanter n. p.).
The business engaged with coal mining should be more concerned with these issues to attract investments and introduce new conditions for launching the production (Kanter n. p.). Cost effectiveness of the coal production also influences the pricing policy. In case the prices increase, there is a possibility that consumer demand will decrease (Webster 73).
Environmental factor is an important condition that influences marginal costs and, therefore, the businesses that are planning to open up coal mining should take this factor into consideration (Miller and Spoolman 617; Hirschey 29). Negligence of such aspects as environmental pollution can influence the marginal costs that could exceed the potential benefits received from the production.
With regard to the above-presented deliberations, the three economic principles are closely involved into the production process (Webster 73). In particular, the coal production can be renewed in case the production methods are changed and the target consumers are strictly identified.
Relevance of Marginal Concept to the Destruction of the Rain Forest
Certainly, deforestation has a negative impact on the earth ecosystem due to the decrease in oxygen production, which is essential for sustaining normal existence of flora and fauna on the planet (Ghosg and Choudhury 17). However, there are other factors predetermining deforestation, such as oil production, for which the demand has recently been increased.
The marginal concept implies that availability of reserves can be enormous in case new areas are found for production. Though the reserves are available for extracting, numerous industries resort to deforestation to increase productivity and remain cost-effective (Ghosg and Choudhury 17)
However, the manufactures should take greater responsibility for crude oil production because reserves are not limitless (Rima 226). When all areas are cultivated, no land will be left and, as a result, the productivity can be enhanced by means of introducing new technology.
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Product forest certification is among the most innovative strategies to avoid ecological problems. According to Viana et al., “sustainable forestry aims to provide a continuous yield of high-quality forest products while preserving the essential biological and ecological integrity” (238). Thus, changing shift to green economy system can reconsider the crude oil production.
For instance, to ensure environmental safety, the marginal concept should contribute to exploring new ways of production, transportation, and distribution among the population (Steele n. p.). Full transformation of the oil industry is impossible because it will follow to much more serious consequences, including increase in unemployment rates, destruction of economies, and failure of international relations (Fee 19).
Numerous economies have significantly benefited from the crude oil production because they used it for exporting. In fact, further production requires appropriate technologies for refining it into gasoline. However, the refiners have been hampered by the impossibility to proceed with further production because of the environmental hazards (Hrishey 496).
Therefore, most managerial decisions consider changes that are much broader in concext. In order to sustain environmentally safe production, the production should adhere to the marginal concept to build long-term strategies.
Works Cited Fee, Daniel. Technology for Developing Marginal Offshore Oilfield. US: Taylor
International Marketing: Market Entry Plan Report (Assessment) essay help
Introduction As domestic markets mature and competitive activity intensifies, foreign business expansion is becoming an increasingly important component of most business enterprises across the world (Miller, 1998).
Future growth in international market activity is apparently expected to accelerate because of unprecedented opportunities that are presented by emerging markets. As observed by Miller (1998), emerging economies usually experience four distinct phases of demand development as shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Phases of Demand Developments in Emerging Economies – adapted from Miller (1998)
One of the principal benefits of developing overseas markets is the opportunity to achieve increased sales. Managers around the globe are recognizing the increasing necessity for their companies to develop the skills, aptitudes and knowledge to compete effectively in international markets.
The emergence of a more open world economy, the globalization of consumer tastes and the unabated expansion of Internet access globally, all increase the interdependency and interconnections of national economies across the globe (Rugman
Employment Relations in Modern Australian Workplaces Argumentative Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Demerits of state intervention
Introduction Organisational managers and employees are two factions that come into direct confrontation with respect to employment relations in most cases. The state is also involved in matters pertaining employment relations. Nevertheless, the state is a third party and thus its involvement is not acknowledged.
In employment relations, the state may take different forms, which may include varied agencies playing different roles in industrial relations. According to Howe and Landau (2007), state is relatively an ‘open system’. No single party represents the state; in essence, the state is characterised by organs like the police, the judicially, and various employment institutions.
In spite of the current rate of globalisation and the emergence of intercontinental business, employment relations are still rooted in the state instead of global institutions. The national government enacts laws that govern employee relations, thus influencing organisational operations. Some pundits claim that Australian state should not take part in employment relations, which leaves this role to employers and employees.
However, based on the environment at the workplaces, the state should participate in promoting employee relations in the country. This paper will discuss how state’s intervention in the working environment may help in enhancing employment relations in the modern Australian workplace.
State intervention State intervention in employee relations in Australia facilitates in safeguarding the interests of employees, especially those with limited skills. Technological advancements are giving way to the emergence of new roles in organisations and changes in operations. Most of the unskilled employees are not capable of coping with these changes. Hence, they are vulnerable to losing their jobs as organisations perceive them as unproductive.
Employers are fond of dismissing unproductive employees at their will. In spite of existing negotiations between employers and employees, it is hard for unskilled employees to retain their positions when changes occur in organisations. However, through state’s intervention, the Australian government is capable of establishing stable employee relations in the country. In 2009, the state came up with Fair Work Act.
The Act facilitates in enhancing employee relations by ensuring that employers furnish their new employees with working information immediately after recruitment (Howe
Strategic Management Options Evaluation Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Exelon Strategic Plan Options
Going Green Strategy
Exelon Strategic Plan Options Organizations that desire to operate competitively in the future have to do things differently. They have to plan in advance and device strategies to guarantee a competitive edge that will keep them in business. It is for the said purpose that most organizations engage in strategic planning.
A strategic plan by itself does not achieve long-term goals, but it facilitates the realization of the goals given it acts as a synergistic map for all stakeholders in the organization. In other words, the management works within a stipulated framework. This report considers the strategic options at the disposal of Exelon.
Despite having an integral growth strategy, Exelon’s operations depend on sustainable renewable energy sources. Power generation companies are known as the largest pollutant due to the massive emissions and surface disposal.
Therefore, in as much as the company considers growth strategies, going green are a strategic option to consider going into the future.
Exelon’s Vision Like all progressive companies, Exelon has a well-defined vision. The company’s vision is to be the best group of electric generation and gas delivery companies in US- while offering the best value to customers, employees, investors and the community it operates in (Exelon, 2010).
Values The achievement of strategic objectives thus the realization of the vision requires that organizational operations are anchored on given values. At Exelon, the key values include Safety, integrity, and diversity, continuous improvement and accountability (Exelon, 2010).
The company is committed to ensuring all the customers and employees are working in a clean and safe environment. Secondly, the company upholds dignity and ethics in all its operation. The company ensures operations transcends above ethnicity, gender and religious inclinations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Going Green Strategy Climate change is of concern all over the world. Climate change has become an enormous challenge that organizations have to respond to. Bearing in mind Exelon deals with nuclear energy, which is subject to dangerous emissions, the organization is determined to enhance a safe environment for all.
The organization’s strategic plan identifies the need to lower carbon emissions as a priority. The aim is reducing the amount of carbon emitted by 15 million metric tons of green house gas (GHG) each year (Exelon, 2010).
To achieve this milestone, the organization needs to step up its power generation system to ensure it is reducing overlying on carbon energy and increasing alternative energy sources.
In an attempt to fulfill this plan, the organization has set aside $5 billion to invest in inexpensive clean energy projects.
The projects which are intended to be constructed are, economic renewable (wind energy), increased output nuclear plants, smart grid programs, and retiring 4 inefficient carbon-intensive plants (Exelon 2010).
The implementation of this project will steer economy and community welfare through numerous job opportunity creation. In addition, the projects are also aligned to offer lower energy charges through low cost leadership strategy.
The sustainable environment strategy is in accordance with the requirement of international environmental stability. The environmental sustainability strategies adopted by the organization makes the world a better place.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management Options specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Investing on friendly environmental energy sources not only enhances the organization’s reputation but it also allows it to compete effectively with other world leading firms.
Growth Strategy The second strategy that Exelon has adopted is a growth strategy that aims to revolutionize the company’s entire operations. The growth strategy is aimed at expanding output margins and geographical coverage.
Despite being one of the most reputable organizations in the US, Exelon is planning to increase its geographical expansion in an attempt to reach new market niches (Exelon, 2010).
The other expansion area is diversification through mergers and acquisitions. Two years ago, the organization had planned merging with Public Service Enterprise Group (Exelon, 2010). The success of this merger would ensure the organization becomes the largest utility company.
On the other hand, the operations would generate revenue worth $ 27billion in annual revenues (Exelon, 2010). This expansion would help to employ over 28,000 people and extend its services coverage by over 9 million institutions (Exelon, 2010).
The other area of growth targeted is improvement in operation through utilization of strong information systems. This would help improve on leadership and resource stewardship management (Mcllvaine, 2007). The two will work to reduce the operation costs while creating financial value.
On the other hand, Exelon is making large strides by using clean energy such as wind energy, and efficient projects in operating the operations.
Critical Analysis As the organization strives in meet its immediate and future requirements both environmental leadership strategy and growth strategies best fit the organizational plan.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management Options by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By undertaking environmental sensitive projects, the organization is ensuring that it complies with international environmental requirements such as the Kyoto protocol.
Moreover, the projects will help the Exelon to increase its voltage production which will enable it fulfill its vision of becoming the best electric generation company. This strategy will also help it in meeting its safety core values by ensuring safe internal and external environment.
Similarly, environmental leadership is in line with continuous improvement core value that aims expanding its operation and engaging on new challenges and wide goals.
The growth strategy seems to be all-inclusive. The strategy was formulated to help organization to have a harmonious growth. For instance, the organization’s operations are in line with its goals of ensuring that it develops a world-class nuclear energy generation.
Therefore the organization growth strategy is in accordance with its vision simply because it strives to improve both its operation while maintain keen interest on the environment.
Despite the positive externalities that comes with environmental leadership, the cost constrains has negatively affected the organization’s growth strategy. Installations of machineries to extract environmental friendly energy are very costly and largely hamper the growth strategy.
However, implementations of the two strategies pose challenges that require the management to remain steadfast to remain on track. The conflicting priorities presented by the two strategies make it difficult for the organization to decide on any project.
For instance, any growth project is not invested in unless it is also considered viable after doing an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
Conceptually, environmental leadership is expensive endeavor that requires adherence to premeditated goals as well as organization structure (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001).
On the other hand, rapid growth sometimes makes all operation to be cumbersome in implementing the organization environmental leadership strategy.
Although mergers form a vital ingredient in growth, the differing environmental strategies makes it sometimes complicated to implement the environmental strategy while pursuing partnerships or mergers. However, the strong foundation of Exelon has helped the organization to manage arguably well.
Summary Just like any other organization, Exelon has developed a strategic plan that governs its operation. The main strategic options being pursued are growth and environmental leadership.
The two strategies offer the organization a host of opportunities as well as challenges. Integrating the two conflicting organization strategies requires management to utilize all the resources available diligently. Failure to promote environmental welfare would hinder the organization’s future prospects.
Reference List Exelon (2010). Climate change demands action. We are not waiting. Web.
Mcllvaine, A. R. (2007). Power Play: Human Resource Executive. [online] Web.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2001). Policies to Enhance Sustainable Development. Paris: OECD Press.
“Breaking the Chains of Cocaine: Black Male Addiction and Recovery” Book Critical Essay best essay help
Introduction The book “Breaking the Chains of Cocaine: Black Male Addiction and Recovery” provides well researched insights into the problem of cocaine addiction among African American men, and offer a multiplicity of tenable alternatives that could be used to bring this population of drug addicts into the public health system.
The author notes with deep interest how cocaine has wrecked deep-seated devastation into the lives of so many African American men, thus the need to undertake a significant paradigm shift from current treatment strategies to more effective strategies that take into account the needs and problems of African American men (Johnson 145).
This analysis will oscillate between various perspectives that the book has so well addressed, and which are thought to be important in improving the current treatment strategies for cocaine addiction among African American men.
Trigger Factors for Cocaine Addiction among African American Men The author takes cognizance of the fact that cocaine addiction has become a major problem for African American men, in part due to a national drug policy and law enforcement strategies that treat drug addicts as criminals instead of sick people in need of assistance (Johnson 22).
Poverty has been mentioned as a contributing factor that lures poor black children into drug dealing, while the possibility of prosecution has been mentioned as discouraging the addicts from seeking treatment, thus serving to perpetuate the behavior.
The white-dominated, individualistic assumptions upon which rehabilitative and recovery systems are based have been accused of perpetuating the problem of cocaine addiction among African American men principally because these systems do not take into consideration the unique needs, value systems, cultural nuances, and socio-economic status of these men (Johnson 26-27).
Later entry into treatment has been blamed for worsening the situation of cocaine dependence among African American men since it not only lowers the prospect of successful treatment, but it is also costly financially since in-patient treatment is usually required (Johnson 100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author has discussed at length the environmental influences of cocaine dependence. The role of society in actively cultivating, encouraging and promoting self-actualization, immediate gratification, and un-abashed self-indulgence has been named as a significant trigger factor for cocaine addiction among African American men (Johnson 28).
Advertising campaigns purposely targeting African American communities have been negatively mentioned for their role in perpetuating a perception that alcohol use or smoking will make the partakers more impressive, smart, attractive and popular.
The prevailing drug culture among African American communities has also been mentioned as a significant environmental factor that negatively affects treatment outcomes for cocaine addiction (Johnson 29).
In addition, the erosion of Africentric principles of individual and collective responsibility coupled with lack of good role models in the society have been blamed for enhancing the problem (Johnson 129).
Slavery perceptions, lack of identity, economic insolvency, lack of political control, family dysfunction, stereotypes, and a cultural orientation that encourages black people not to speak up their frustrations have been blamed for triggering cocaine dependence among African American men (Johnson 33-34, 64).
Cycle of Cocaine Dependency The author is comprehensive in discussing the cycle of cocaine dependency using a seven-stage model that includes denial and suppression, rationalization, cover-up, stalling strategies, surrender, exaltation, and brokenness (Johnson 43).
In denial and suppression, the user vigorously downplays all indications of increasing reliance on cocaine, while the presence of addiction is rationalized in the rationalization phase (Johnson 43-44).
We will write a custom Essay on “Breaking the Chains of Cocaine: Black Male Addiction and Recovery” Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the cover-up phase, the user adopts a “cool pose” to ease the worry and pain of inability to contain the sheer magnitude of cocaine dependence, effectively or ineffectively concealing their true selves (Johnson 46-47).
In the stalling strategies phase, cocaine users demonstrate a set of beliefs which may sound perfectively reasonable and rational but in essence, end up losing the capacity to choose goals (Johnson 52-54).
It is in the surrender phase that the cocaine addict becomes so depressed and frustrated for his inability to control the addictiveness, hence end up giving in to it (Johnson 54).
In the exaltation phase, the cocaine addict’s attempts to break away from the behavior is demonically deceived by pride that he can willingly kick out the habit, but he eventually relapses back into cocaine dependency due to neglecting to attribute his abstinence to God.
In the brokenness phase, cocaine use is so pronounced, embittered, and severe that it replaces the addict’s self-dignity and worth with feelings of misery and worthlessness (Johnson 56).
Perspectives Explaining Cocaine Dependency
Overview of Guess Inc. Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Guess is an American apparels company specializing in men, women and children clothing’s, watches, perfumes, and jewelries; Marciano’s four brothers namely Georges, Maurice Marciano, Paul and Armand founded it.
The company is also the owner of Marciano apparels company; Guess has an operating name of GUESS?; the company has been in operation since 1981 (Guess Corporate Website, 2011).
This paper undertakes a company analysis of Guess Apparel Company.
The reason why I choose the company is after considering the success it is having in the fiancé competitive apparels industry; the company has been in operation over three generations and still keeps innovating relevant and fashionable products to keep it competitive despite social-economic changes in the world.
The company’s profile History
Guess was listed in the New York stock exchange in 2010, twenty-eight years after its first branch was established at Los Angeles to deal with men and women clothing.
Currently the chief executive office (C.E.O.) is Paul Marciano and its Chairman or co-chief executive officer is Maurice Marciano; the leaders are responsible of over 8800 employees.
In 2006, the company’s sales amounted to $1.19 billion of which the net profit after tax and interest is $123.2 million (Guess Corporate Website, 2011).
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The success of the company amidst competitive apparel industry can be seen in its management strategic decisions; they have robust marketing team supported by well-managed human capital that has the philosophy of continuous improvement through research and customer behavior analysis.
The company has an identity name as GUESS? Which is well positioned in domestic and international markets; the logo of the company is as follows:
The company has a variety of collections, some of them are:
(Guess Corporate Website, 2011).
Marketing at Guess Cohort
Market segmentation is focusing a brand to a certain population in the market; Guess uses different methods of segmentation they include income, status, niche markets creation and class mechanism. The company also prepares for festivals and times of high market to enable it gain higher incomes during these times.
During festive seasons, sometimes the lower class people and the lower medium uses this product and thus the brand should be advertised to the general population during this time (Guess Corporate Website, 2011).
Guess has a variety of products targeting different market segments, the most basic method of segmenting the market is by the use of age parameter; there are apparels for kids of different ages, school going children, adolescents, teen’s young adults and the mature population.
We will write a custom Report on Overview of Guess Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The apparels include clothes, like jeans, women tops, shoes, watches, accessories and jewelries. Periodically to meet the demand of the market and to remain relevant, the company engages in massive innovation, invention and products developments.
The brand of products are targeted to high class people in the society, upper medical class market and those people who value recognition and being acknowledged. These are peopling who like quality and uniqueness.
They are not much interested with the cost of the products and actually they have a feeling that the higher the cost the better the quality. To be successful selling to this class of people, the company undertakes numerous campaigns and researcher to observe the trend (Mercer, 1996).
In 2010, when the country was celebrating its twenty years of success, the company got a chance to launch its special-edition Guess watch, it has also and diversified it brands to low income earners through its outlet of Marciano.
Other than having products for all people in the population with their ages, the company has created a strong brand name and forms one of the designer apparels; in the field of designer, they aim at offering high quality products that meet niche markets created in the market for its own development and growth (Jones, 2000).
One of the strongest market areas of the company is the sale of men apparels; in this category, the company has shoes, clothes, jeans, watches, and perfumes. Men Jeans have been the marker driver and have made the company remain competitive in local and international markets.
In October 2006, the company aimed at reinforcing the men market when it invented a line of shoes of different sizes to the segment of the market; one year down the line, the company had 15 styles ranging between sandals to dress shoes, the new invention has been seen as one area that is driving the company’s sales.
In spring of 2007, with the same target market, the company decided to venture into designer watch collections and it started stocking GC watch collection, which were highly priced but good enough to cater for the market and create niche markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Overview of Guess Inc. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fast developments that the company is undertaking can be attributed to research and development programs that have led to creativity and innovativeness from the company.
The management understands that creativity can only be attained if the company has a clear understanding of what the people want (Mooij, 2009). What is fashionable for which population is known through research and development; the research is done in countries and continents that the company has establishments.
To be able to blend, culture/tradition, modern life and class a lot of research is required. Research data is gotten right from the field, from internet and feedbacks from customers (Alvin, 2006)
Guess presence is not only in the United States; however it has its branches in different countries; like Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe, when operating in other counties it takes the option of supplying goods from the united states. To remain competitive, the company embarks on brand management.
Guess ensures that its brands are unique and superior to those of its competitors. The company brand management has the role of ensuring that a certain brand remains marketable and competitive in the market, and when it fades, the company has devised another brand that takes the market.
To do this, Guess ensures it undertakes massive customer behaviors trends so that it can come up with products to fit the needs its customers. The marketing teams are also robust to ensure that they aggressively sell these products. A lot of research is undertaken to look for ways that the brand can be improved.
Another way that the brand is maintained is direct/personal selling of Guess products to modelers and people who have influence. These include footballers, modelers and high-ranking people like politicians, some of the public figures who have featured in adverts are Claudia Schiffer, Carres Otis and Eva Harzigova.
When they put on the products, they influence a large population and remind those people of the superiority of the brand (Groucutt, Leadley, Forsyth, 2004)
The men market segment has been diversified further to include branded watches, wallets inner wears, caps, and belts. The products are available in the company’s over 1210 stores distributed over 80 countries; other than in the company’s outlet, its products can be found in more than 19 licensed outlets.
References Alvin J., 2006. What is marketing? New York: Harvard Business Press.
Jones, P., 2000. International advertising: realities and myths. London: Sage.
Groucutt, J., Leadley, P., Forsyth, P.,2004. Marketing: essential principles, new realities. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Guess Corporate Website., 2011.
Mercer, D., 1996. Marketing. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Mooij, K. , 2009. Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. London: Sage.
Marketing of the Home Survival Kit: Needs and Requirements Essay writing essay help
Survey results In the survey, 8 customers took part in the survey. 5 of them were males (62.5 %) and 3 of them were females (37.5 %). The majority of respondents belonged to age category under 18-20 (25 %) and 21-29 (50 %). Fewer respondents belonged to older categories, which identified the interest in smart survival kit of various age categories.
It also explains that younger target audiences are more in need of technological devices in case of emergency. While considering the question of availability of specific items that can be useful for survival, most of the participants focus on such important objects as eye wash solution (85.7 %), scissors (85.7 %), blankets (100 %), knife (85.7 %), AA and AA Batteries (85.7 %), and duct tape (85.7 %).
The survey has also found out that the most of respondents did not have such important things for survival as portable food heater (14.3 %), matches (42.9 %), cordless charger for phones and devices (14.3 %), and antiseptic wipes (28.6 %). It has also been defined that the prioritized items for survival include candles, radio, phone, and presence of other people who can help to survive.
With regard to the above-presented results, the responses to the fourth question are logical because half of the respondents were not ready for the emergencies whereas 5 of the participants considered it important to buy Home Survival Kit.
As per cost consideration, the recipients almost unanimously insisted on price range between $ 50 and $ 150, which is quite adequate assessment. The survey also highlighted people who were ready to pay more for the survival kit, but the questionnaire did not reveal age and gender information about those respondents. The price considerations can be presented in the chart below:
The last question was also considered by most of the respondents. While evaluating the importance of qualities and features that the Home Survival Kit should possess, the majority of participants focus on such components as extensive first aid kit, presence of light and heating, storage for water, and portability.
Other components and conditions, such as packaging, communication supply and extras and accessories have turned out to be less significant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statement of Needs The survey has defined the desired features and wants of the customers. The most significant criteria for consumers involve cost-effectiveness of the Home Survival Kit because the respondents agreed to pay approximately $ 50-150 for the product. However, there were participants that agreed to pay about $ 151-250 for the kit, but the age category has not been defined either.
As per the priorities established in terms of the product features, the majority of the participants are likely to have portable, extensive first kit that would ensure them with light, heating, and water supply. In this respect, the product should be at a low or moderate price, practical, convenient, and portable.
Need Essential or Desirable Rating Functional or Non Functional Moderate Price 6 Non-Functional Extensive Kit 10 Functional Portable, 8 Functional Storage for Water 8 Functional Ensures Light and Heating 8 Functional Requirements Specification Project Overview
The Home Survival Kit, or Smart Kit, is designed in regard to the determination of the most essential features and criteria that are urgent for survival and comfortable existence for a long-term period. The product has bee defined for people under all age categories irrespective of their gender characteristics and age.
The prototype of the product has been launched and tested to define the functionality for the JAG to produce. Such aspects as tools, substances, time-frame, as well as multiple features have been introduced to meet the needs of large audience.
The development of the product design has implied a number of requirements and criteria that should be taken into the deepest consideration to meet consumer requirements. By estimating the current responses to customer questionnaire and correlating results with the present product concept, it is possible to define what changes should be made to increase the consumer demand. The results can be received through a test plan.
Product Concept Product Statement
Smart kit includes a portable and waterproof box with four various compartments. The first section contains water pouches that ensure water supply. The second compartment is designated for medical supply and hygienic purposes, including gloves, bandages, wipes, and painkillers. The third section includes flashlight, matches, candles, and blankets.
Finally, the forth section consists of guides and instructions for using the kit appropriately. Each part of the entire product concept does not differ from other concepts existing on the market. Nevertheless, in total, the product has a great number of features and functions that make the product much more competitive that any other products.
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Increased usability of the product ensures the four compartments which have functional values and which increases consumer demands. Because the compartments include the most essentials items, the consumer requirements will surely be met. Besides, the box for storing the items is also portable and convenient.
Focus on Customer Needs
In order to meet customer needs, the boxes should be portable, comfortable, and waterproof, which ensures their reliability.
It also should also contain water supply, light and heating. Therefore, the presented product concept is justified in terms of portability and presence of the above-mentioned components. In order to meet the requirements, the box should be designed with heating devices as well, which is absent in current prototype.
The product is expected to involve the following stakeholders:
The smart kit is essential for customers who are fond of travelling for long distances in mountainous districts where there is high risk for being injured or traumatized. Therefore, the survival kit should contain all the above-mentioned items, along with wireless chargers for phones, and GPS devices that would allow them to coordinate their itineraries.
In addition, the smart kit will be especially relevant for those travelers who are fond of river trips because the box is waterproof. Although the Smart Kit is more designated for home survival, it can easily be used while travelling.
Customers with Limited Abilities
There are people are not able to ensure their security because of limited physical abilities. They can use such box for everyday use to avoid contingency situations. They can also apply to this product whenever they want to set out for a journey. All the compartments are easy to use and there is an instruction that makes the box even more comfortable and practical.
The products of the specified kind are abundant at the market and, therefore, launching the Smart Kit can enhance the competition due to its increased functionality. Therefore, the involvement of JAG Corporation can increase the good reputation of the product concept and ensure the consumers that the Smart Kit is of high quality and at a moderate price.
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Competitors are important competitors and their marketing strategies should never be underestimated. In this respect, it is important to explore the current market and define what pitfalls and advantages other survival kits contain. Constant research can contribute to development and promotion of the Smart Kit. It will also allow to define the wants and needs of the consumer demand.
In case the product is successful at the market, it is possible to expand its functionality and invest more resource into developing a more sophisticated product that can be distributed among major retailers. Therefore, it is highly important to explore the potential of retail market for wholesalers to define the consumer demand and distribute the product accordingly.
Due to the recent globalization trends, the producers should be aware of environmental and ecological issues and, therefore, it is crucial to market environmentally friendly products. For instance, the boxes should be made of the natural components so as to minimize the negative effect on the environment.
In this respect, specific attention should be given to respectable environmental organization that could approve the product launching and enhance the reputable image of the product concept.
Product Requirements Functional
The Smart Kit should be portable and comfortable. It should also be waterproof.
The product should contain the compartment for first aid.
It should have convenient packaging so that a user can quickly find the necessary item.
The Smart Kit should also have compartments for water supply, light, and heating.
The component of the Smart Kit should not be expensive, but of decent quality;
It should be composed of natural materials;
The medicine should not provoke allergic reactions;
Requirement Test Plan Result Resistance to water Test 1: The Smart Kit was submerged in a vacuum filled with water for 1 hour. All the items were put in compartments. Pass: All the items placed within the Smart Kit remained undamaged. No water was found inside the box. Analysis of security and reliability Test 2: The product is place on the upper part of the construction that is 3 meters high to define how the items in the box will be deformed in case the box will fall down from this construction. Pass: After the box fell down, all the items remain undamaged. Therefore, the Smart Survival Kit will stay unchanged even in case of the earthquake. Checking the device for the usability Test 3: The participant of the experiment should read the instruction and put all the enumerated items out of the box to define how much it will take him to find the items that are most appropriate for a situation. Pass: It took the participant for 5 minutes to put all the necessary items and define which one is the most appropriate for a particular situation. This proves that the instructions are clear and accurate. Conclusion With regard to the survey exploring consumer opinion, assessment of product requirements and result of the test plan, the Smart Survival Kit will be of great success on retail market due to the increased functionality and successful price policy.
Pedagogy in Cultural Communication Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Language is the medium through which people use for communication in a bid create understanding. Different people have different languages they use to communicate with one another. However, cultural differences may hinder effective communication. This paper relies on Hofstede and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions while using three decisive scenarios to explain the various misunderstandings that are caused by cultural variations.
The first case is between Brian who is a teacher and his student. The student does not engage in any meaningful conversation with the teacher, but often responds with a ‘yes’ in the entire conversation. The teacher seems to dominate the communication. In this conversation, the use of ‘yes’ is a form of an indirect speech act, which the teacher seems not to understand. The meaning in the use of ‘yes’ is hidden.
The student agrees with what the teacher is saying. However, the teacher cannot grasp the point that the student wishes to put across. This misunderstanding, according to the Hofstede’s cultural dimension is because of the variations of their cultural backgrounds (Hofstede
The Construction Forestry Mining Energy Union’s Strike Essay college essay help: college essay help
On July 25, the members of the building union at Lend Lease projects in various parts of Australia went on strike. This industrial action was geared towards pushing for a new-fashioned nationwide Enterprise Bargaining Agreement.
The Construction Forestry Mining Energy Union (CFMEU) argued out that the principal reason as to why the employee had gone on strike was a disagreement that had arisen with respect to a dispute in wages, job security and site allowances (Balvane et al 2007, p.2). However, it was reported that negotiations are still under way for a better agreement with Lend Lease.
Nevertheless, CFMEU was to take that the industrial action would be carrying on even for a longer period of time, and the fight with Lend Lease would be hard (Balvane et al 2007, p.4).
Members of the CFMEU opted for this industrial action because they were optimistic as they through that they would be able to secure a decent national Enterprise Bargaining Agreement (EBA). It is thus undeniable that the conflict between the employer and the employees was quite heated (Balvane et al 2007, p.5).
Employment relationship existing between the employer and employees is founded on harmony of interests as well as cooperation between these two parties. Both the employer and the employees work towards realizing shared objectives and goals. However, the achievement of these common goals can be difficult if a conflict exists, as in the case with the CFMEU.
According to the unitarist approach, the CFMEU was collectively opposing the management, which was a sign of irrationality (Dundon
E-Business Trust and Other Issues Analytical Essay college admission essay help
Introduction E-business is the newest trend in the high-tech world of business and in the age of intense of globalization. It is a term that applies to a business using the virtual world of computers and the Internet.
E-business uses several applications in order to be effective like enterprise resource planning (ERP), the Internet or its private version, the Intranet.
First, we define what e-business and e-commerce are. In detailing the history and origin of e-business, Li (2007) said that IBM was the first to mention the word e-business in its advertising program back in the 1990s.
E-business, according to the IBM definition, refers to business processes using the Internet as a tool or as a way to conduct business. E-commerce refers to businesses conducted by firms with the use of electronic tools such as computers and the Internet.
But in comparing e-commerce and e-business, we can say that the latter has a much broader definition in that its scope includes buying and selling, collaborating or cooperating with partners through the internet, or such other electronic processes.
It may also include transactions inside and outside the organization. Most organizations now use tools or computer software that connects the internal departments, or organizations to other organizations. (Li, 2007, p. 9)
The application of Information Technology is another process in e-business. Industries use computer software in their processes and in conducting business. Organizations conduct business through the internet and with the application of a software.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Businesses conducted through the Internet utilizing emails, chat, virtual shopping carts, is ebusiness (Kurtz, 2009, p. 114; Boone and Kurtz, 2009, p. 215). Rosen (2002) include the word ‘integration’ of products over internet.
The question that this essay will answer is: what factors led to the growth of ebusiness? There are underlying facts over this question.
For example, like in any other business application, environmental factors have to be considered, as in the security, privacy, legal and ethical issues. One important factor is trust, and a follow up question is this: is it instrumental to the growth of b2b ebusiness?
The question can be simplified as: can b2b ebusiness grow with trust?
The Rise and Growth of E-business Technological advancement and continuous innovations have motivated organizations and businesses to react to changes in the global competition. Organizations have to reorganize, reevaluate and reprogram outdated functions and activities, and realign them to the present trends for improvement and competition.
Personnel and field people, ordinary employees, including middle-level and top management have to refocus along the line of technological innovations. IT applications provide easy handling of strategic operations and other supervisory and managerial functions of the organization.
Changes in the system demand new ways to integrate functions in the organization. Successful system integration efforts provide competitive edge. Motivations to integrate revolve around technological issues and globalization.
We will write a custom Essay on E-Business Trust and Other Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizations however have limited options, and have to migrate to newer technologies. With enterprise resource planning (ERP), activities with corresponding data/information are made available to almost every function of the organization.
New products have been invented as a result of technological advances and new ways to produce them. The many changes in the system demand new ways to integrate the functions in the organization.
The role of IT has become much more dominant from both strategic and operational perspectives. (Jenson and Johnson, 2000, p. 29)
The popularity of ebusiness started with the emergence of IT applications such as the ERP. Enterprise resource planning started around the 1960s at the onset of technological advances and new systems used by industries in their inventory.
During the 1970s, technological innovations were introduced with automation in the production and inventory, scheduling and planning.
O’Gorman (2004, pp. 22-25) traced the development of materials management techniques from the industrial revolution to present day ERP systems, by examining the role and function of the more significant materials and inventory control techniques.
There were initial attempts at optimizing industrial activities and the need for materials control.
During its early stages, ERP was used for manufacturing and production systems, while providing weak support in “less data-intensive” areas such as supply chain planning, customer management, marketing, and sales (Chen, 2001, as cited in Sammon and Adam, 2004, p. 7).
Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Business Trust and Other Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It then expanded to include “back-office” functions, such as operations, logistics, finance, and human resources, and “nontransaction-based systems (Davenport, 1998, and Chen, 2001, as cited in Sammon and Adam, 2004, p. 7).
The inclusions result from the emergence of Supply Chain Optimization (SCO), or SCM and CRM strategies and systems.
E-business has emerged as the primary tool in conducting business while the traditional one has taken a back step further and is confined to smaller roles of delivering products and services. E-business can be conducted anywhere and whenever; this is the age of the Internet and the Information Revolution.
In e-business, information is easily shared, and even in the remotest areas of the globe business can be conducted, either through a computer with internet connection, or through one’s cell phones that can communicated to a desktop computer.
Wifi laptops can provide easy access to the vast information via the internet. Other means of conducting ebusiness include groupware packages, the EDI, telecommuting, and many others. (Kalakota and Robinson, 1999, p. xvi)
Business-to-business (or b2b) transactions are an effective means to provide fast-paced supply chain. The network produced out of the different systems can be called the “eSociety”. (Graham Peace, 2002, p. 42)
There have been reports of growth in ebusiness particularly in IT spending. Businesses are spending more on website infrastructure (IDC, 2001). This is because of the growth in e-business firms are using in their supply chain to deliver products and services to customers with speed and accuracy.
Most businesses also use this in b2b transactions. Another new innovation is mobile transaction, using cell phones that connect or communicate to computers. Conducting business through the internet has enabled rapid growth in businesses. B2b is a business that needs fast and effective supply chain.
The Impact of E-business Ethical Issues
The common practice of business firms nowadays is the installation and use of websites for businesses to interact with customers and other organizations or businesses.
This has been applicable to almost all businesses, whether large or small and whatever kind of business, product or service. In ebusiness, managers and employees communicate through the Internet, via chat or emails, and others through the use of cellular phones or mobile communication.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an Information Technology tool applied in the different functions in an organization. ERP systems involve processes that begin with planning and installing the project team who embarks on a series of phases. There are various benefits for implementing ERP systems.
Advancement in technology is so fast and competition between organizations continues to be stiff. Organizations are struggling to integrate new systems, introduce different ways to survive, and acquire the latest strategy possible.
Successful system integration efforts have provided a competitive edge for businesses particularly in the supply chain. Through ERP and other integration tools using computer software, supply chain has been made faster and more effective.
The implementation of the ERP systems provided problems for organizations. There are the so-called ethical issues. Some problems were reported as abnormal.
Implementation is problematic for many organizations, despite the software’s potential and relevance for learning and company strategies. The implementing process involves several phases that have to be followed step by step and by a trained team of qualified staff.
The team has to be meticulous and must deviate from the standard settings provided by the supplier. The main business options revolve around the issue of compromise over fitting the system to the organization or vice versa. (Holland and Light, 2003, p. 1987)
One example is the case of Fox Meyer Drug, a multi-billion dollar drug company, who filed a multi-million dollar lawsuit in 1996 against SAP, the company that installed the ERP.
Fox Meyer went into bankruptcy but said that the cause of bankruptcy was the failure of the ERP system to deliver the necessary functions it was supposed to do for Fox Meyer. The case went dragged on for years, and so ethical issues linger on regarding the capability of ERP to provide benefits to its clients.
Another victim is Mobil Europe, and the case is because of wrong implementation of ERP. The company spent millions of dollars only to abandon it afterwards.
There were many other improved and successful companies that experienced problems as a result of their ERP projects that went problematic after a period of time. (Sammon and Adam, 2004, p. 2)
One of the reasons for the failure in using ERP may be because of long use of the software package. The software becomes more unserviceable after a period of time (Oliver and Romm, 2002, p. 47).
Some organizations report success and significant process gains in ERP implementations. However, others argue that ERP implementation is no easy task, while others have found out that implementation of ERP is disastrous for the organization. (Grabski et al, 2003, p. 1991)
Ebusiness is now commonly practiced by organizations, not only by for-profit organizations but by academic institutions. Popular and traditional universities have spent a large sum on ecommerce initiative.
Graduate and undergraduate programs are being offered in educational institutions providing millions of dollars in tuition revenue. (Graham Peace et al., 2002, p. 43)
The main concern is privacy. At the onset, information technology was only used as an aid or tool in business, but now it is the mainframe because of the complexity and interconnectedness of businesses and organizations.
The Internet has connected or wired the world of computers, and there is not such safe website or database. Hackers and programmers with malicious intent will continue to find ways to penetrate. There is no ‘safe’ or ‘trusted’ network in organizations.
The ‘untrusted’ network which refers to the external connection of organizations will continue to expose the privacy of peoples and organizations. (Kelly Rainer and Cegielski, 2011, p. 83)
There are companies which collect information from website guests. Majority of the websites of business firms collect information from their customers.
There are complaints that you cannot really know how much of the personal information one has provided via the internet or other means using IT tools has been passed on to others in exchange for money or something. Sharing of information amongst organizations is not impossible.
Spam emails, which are hacked information, are appearing everywhere through everybody’s private email databases. In the information revolution, sharing of information is the most common occurrence. (Pride and Ferrell, 2009, p. 92)
Technologies such as iPod, iPhones, and other Mac products provide features called ‘recommenders’ or recommendations to consumers.
Consumers can have access to so many items on sale over the internet and recommender systems are installed to make the right choice or pick according to their taste after having provided personal information. This feature is invasion of privacy since personal information is shared to other databases.
Recommenders are intelligent systems which employ prediction techniques to determine what is and is not interesting by learning from the user and sometimes other users. The techniques used are information filtering, social filtering, item-filtering, etc. (Setten et al., 2004, p. 13)
Recommender systems are also used by Amazon.com when customers use their system to find books and other products. In spite of the recommenders’ usage and practicality to both consumer and business, there are negative sides to the sharing of information. (Weng et al, 2006, p. 32)
Trust is defined as “the factor that moderates the use of verifiable attributes to form beliefs about unverifiable attributes” (Konana et al. cited in Graham Peace, 2002, p. 46).
In traditional business, many of the so-called attributes of business can be verified; not in ebusiness.
In traditional exchanges, we conduct business face-to-face, or we meet people and business partners personally, or even through letter and telephone. When people go to a supermarket to buy goods and other personal needs, they can verify what they are buying.
In e-business, communications is being done through emails and Internet chat. The seller and the buyer meet in the virtual world. Trust is very important. B2b business which involves millions and millions of dollars prospers and grows with trust.
For two business firms to agree there has to be a level of trust. Tan and Thoen (1999 cited in Graham Peace, 2002, p. 45) argued that the elements of transaction trust consist of “trust in the other party and trust in the control mechanisms that are in place”.
A security issue is that with the rapid growth technology, it is now easier to steal or hack information. This can be done with just computer storage devices such as flash drives or USB. High-tech devices are available to ordinary individuals and organizations.
Cyber crime is one of the worst ethical and security issues that plagued the internet. This refers to illegal activities of peoples using the internet. There is one company website known as iDefense whose primary objective is to protect governments and top businesses in the United States.
Organized crime has taken over a crime network using the internet. This is a billion-dollar business composed of cyber criminals with the skill of computer hacking or software developing.
This criminal network has been earning hundreds of thousands of dollars, contrary to ordinary criminals who earn only a few hundreds or thousands of dollars.
Criminals of this sort have no base; they have no weapons and can be found anywhere in the world with a computer and an internet connection. (Kelly Rainer and Cegielski, 2011, p. 84)
Another security issue is a scenario known as ‘downstream liability’. This particular occurs between organizations using Information Systems that are attacked by criminals or skillful hackers.
For example, if Organization A’s software has been attacked and used to attacked another, say Organization B’s information system, under the law Organization B has the right to file for damages against Organization A.
Under the law, plaintiff B has to prove that A’s information systems had been used to attack B’s information systems. The rationale behind this law is that any organization has the duty to keep its information systems secure so that they cannot be used by criminals or hackers. (Kelly Rainer and Cegielski, 2011, p. 85)
Privacy issues include the transfer of data and information without the consent or knowledge of persons or the authorities. There are many underlying legal issues in this context, especially when the transfer of information and data involve organizations and nation states.
For example, when the transfer of information and data involves satellites in space which are used in the retrieving information; the question is which country has jurisdiction over such cases.
Governments of countries should meet along these issues and discuss which has jurisdiction over such transfer of information. (Kelly Rainer and Cegielski, 2011, p. 83)
The United States and the European Union have somewhat the same privacy protection laws, although there are some slight differences.
There has been a move from both governments as to privacy approaches; this was called the “Safe Harbor” framework. This provides a regulation on the transfer of information and personal data of European citizens. (Kelly Rainer and Cegielski, 2011, p. 83)
Another legal issue is that government legislation, particularly in the United States, states that almost all types of information must be protected under the law. For example, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act provides that companies conducting business should provide consumers of their organization’s privacy policies.
The law further states that consumers should be provided with a way in which they can be protected in case they do not want their personal information be divulged to others, especially outside of the organization which holds the information.
Medical records and other health information of persons are also protected by a law known as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
Analyzing E-Business with ERP A research was conducted on the success of ebusiness application entitled TAM-based success modeling in ERP. Bueno and Salmeron (2008) argued that the ERP systems were complex tools which provided negative impacts to businesses; the negative impact was more pronounced on b2b application.
The paper focused on the various studies that identified the reasons why ERP was acceptable by different companies and organizations. TAM was application program to test the reliability of the ERP.
The researchers used critical success factors which identified top management support, communication, cooperation, training, and technological complexity.
The Technological Acceptance Model, as explained by Bueno and Salmeron (2008, p. 516) tested the user’s behavior toward the applied IT system, based on the ‘perceived usefulness’ (PU), ‘perceived ease of use’ (PEU), ‘attitude toward use’ (ATU) and ‘behavioral intention of use’.
These factors are further explained.
‘PU’ refers to the perceived belief of the user that he has improved his/her performance due the benefits brought about by the system, while ‘PEU’ refers to the user’s belief that he/she has exerted less effort in using the system.
TAM was considered an improved IT application. But it registered positive effects on the user’s behaviour. The results and findings of the study revealed the applicability of TAM in relation to the user’s acceptance of ERP systems. The factors enumerated all contributed to the success of ERP systems.
Potential users should be actively involved in the introduction of the ERP systems. Training is another important factor for this reduces the ERP’s complexity, while top management support is a key factor in the ERP system’s successful implementation.
Assessment of success in ERP systems can be measured in different dimensions, according to Markus et al (2003, p. 24):
There was success because a new technology had been introduced and running successfully.
There was success because of the benefits incurred economically, financially, and strategically.
There was success because the operations had been running smoothly.
Success was seen by the organization’s customers and stakeholders.
Furthermore, users have to accept the technology. An ERP system is being introduced to an organization; it is revolutionary, it replaces old methods, and old methods involve culture and the usual things people do in the organization.
A system that meets the needs of its users naturally generates system satisfaction. Likewise, a system that does not generate user satisfaction cannot provide positive results and may not be used at all. (Hosapple et al., 2005, p. 325)
Success in IT often depends on people’s point of view. Success in ERP systems often comes up once in a while. The definition and measurement of success are bring to light the perceptions of some organizations regarding the ebusiness application.
The people whose job is to implement ERP systems, like for example, the project managers, consultants, and other middle managers, often refer to the completion of the project plan as success itself.
But others who are in charge of adopting ERP systems and use them to achieve business results, define success as having done a job regardless of the success of the ebusiness as a whole. (Markus et al, 2003, p. 24)
Successes and failures in ebusiness can be attributed to many factors some of these can be considered perceptions or beliefs. However, it is noteworthy that these factors are not for real.
More specifically, failures can be attributed to the implementation and the planning process of the ERP systems. We have provided three models for implementation and they are almost similar in the implementation. Ebusiness is affected in the success or failure of a software system.
Some of the failures in ebusiness applications that led to negative feedback from users were due to what is called process fragmentation, whereby many of the organizational processes were spread across functional boundaries. Members of the organization interact to complete a transaction, but there is no coordination.
No one knows the status of a transaction, and there is duplication. A conflict arises when managers or employees attempt to impose control on certain parts of the transaction.
The ERP system corrects this situation. There are those who consider ERP solutions as “best practice” software that has urged organizations to apply and integrate it in their system.
Conclusions E-business principles were at the crossroads during its infancy. This was because at the onset businesses had to resort to some hanky-panky operandi especially in the different parts of the globe, in the once-apartheid Africa, in Asia and in the Third World countries. The methods involved some kind of bribery.
Ethical standards were in question and so businesses adapted some form of ethical principles. Some of these included the Sullivan Principles or the CERES Principles. (Graham Peace et al., 2002, p. 52)
Managers met many impediments and barriers in guiding their organizations to go along the way of ethical standards. There were those who wanted to abide by the moral standards of the times, but they were hampered by others who were merely looking for profits.
In ebusiness, partners do not see each other personally, thus trust is reduced. The more trust is reduced because of the presence of hackers and viruses and also the negative publicity that ebusiness has gained through the years. However, there are many benefits for all these.
The traditional office requires rents and insurmountable expenses. This has been reduced with the many features the Internet can offer, for example teleconference or telecommuting.
There is wider flexibility on the part of the salespeople in the field who can communicate through their mobile phones or via the Internet using their laptops. In many countries, wifi or wireless internet connection features are available for Internet users.
This phenomenon however has produced isolated workers, according to Graham Peace (2002) and associates who cited a recent survey wherein workers are isolated from other coworkers because of constant telecommuting.
This provides negative impact on the personal lives and careers of the workers. (Graham Peace et al., 2002, p. 47)
Ebusiness has also an impact on the organization. Some of the negative impact include: organizations can have access to the current market; consumers can have access to competitors’ products; and other organizations do not have enough resources in the competition and thus they are left behind.
Ebusiness also allows organizations to compete in the emarketplace, areas that were unavailable before. Entry barriers are reduced and customers have access to many of the organizations’ competitors.
A disadvantage is for small enterprises who cannot afford the Internet-based EDI technologies, and some do not have the technical people to do the technical job. Ebusiness has a great impact on society.
Some areas of the world are on the other side of the internet divide and do not have the capability to participate in the ebusiness.
Despite the skepticism and negative publicity, ebusiness has grown and will continue to thrive because of the positive impact in organizations.
There may be negative impact and other ethical issues, but still the growth is attributed to the continuous usage by many organizations and private users. Trust can be built as organizations continue to use it.
B2b and E-business growth have been hampered by the issues which involve privacy, ethical, legal and security issues.
The barriers to b2b ebusiness success and growth can be summarized in the following:
Privacy – there are countless ways to retrieve information from customers using websites of companies;
Security – cyber crime is being committed anytime and ‘anywhere’; cyber criminals don’t need sophisticated tools but just a computer with an internet connection and a skill to hack computer programs;
Trust – b2b ebusiness can be built with trust in mind between companies and organizations, but trust is difficult to develop and hard to attain.
Legal – Almost all information shared by organizations should be protected under the law.
References Boone, L. and Kurtz, D., 2009, 2006. Contemporary business 2009 update. United States of America; Canada: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Bueno, S. and Salmeron, J., 2008. TAM-based success modeling in ERP. Interacting with Computers, 20, 515-523. Available through: City University London .
Grabski, S., Leech, S., and Lu, B., 2003. Enterprise system implementation risks and controls. In Shanks, G., P. Seddon, and L. Willcocks, Second-wave enterprise resource planning systems: implementing for effectiveness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Graham Peace, A. et al., 2002. Ethical issues in ebusiness: a proposal for creating the ebusiness principles. Business and Society Review 107:1 41-60 [e-journal], Available through: City University London .
Holland, C. P. and Light, B., 2003. A framework for understanding success and failure in enterprise resource planning system implementation. In Shanks, G., P. Seddon, and L. Willcocks, Second-wave enterprise resource planning systems: implementing for effectiveness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Holsapple, C. W., Wang, Y., and Wu, J., 2005. Empirically testing user characteristics and fitness factors in enterprise resource planning success. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (3), 323-342
IDC, 2001. ebusiness trends. [e-journal], Available through: City University London .
Jenson, R. and Johnson, I., 2000. Chapter 3: Enterprise Resource Planning System as a strategic solution. In J. M. Myerson, Enterprise Systems Integration (Second Edition). Florida: CRC Press LLC.
Kalakota, R. and Robinson, M., 1999. E-Business: roadmap for success. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Kelly Rainer, R. and Cegielski, C., 2011. Introduction to information systems: enabling and transforming business. United States of America: Quebecor World Versailles.
Kurtz, D., 2009, 2006. Contemporary marketing 2009. United States of America; Canada: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Li, F., 2007. What is e-business? How the internet transforms organizations. Oxford, UK; Australia: Blackwell Publishing.
Markus, M. L., Axline, S., Petrie, D., and Tanis, C., 2003. Learning from experiences with ERP: problems encountered and success achieved. In Shanks, G., P. Seddon, and L. Willcocks, Second-wave enterprise resource planning systems: implementing for effectiveness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
O’Gorman, B. (2004). The road to ERP: has industry learned or revolved back to the start? In Adam, F. and D. Sammon, The enterprise resource planning decade: lessons learned and issues for the future. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Oliver, D. and Romm, C. T., 2002. Chapter III: ERP systems in universities: rationale advanced for their adoption. In Liaquat, H., J. D. Patrick, and M. A. Rashid, Enterprise resource planning: global opportunities and challenges. London: Idea Group Inc (IGI).
Pride, W. and Ferrell, O. C., 2009. Foundations of marketing, third edition. United States of America: Cengage Learning.
Rosen, A., 2002. The e-commerce question and answer book: a survival guide for business managers (second edition). United States of America: Amacom.
Sammon, D. and Adam, F., 2004. Chapter I: Setting the scene – defining and understanding ERP systems. In Adam, F. and D. Sammon, The enterprise resource planning decade: lessons learned and issues for the future, pp. 2-5. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Setten, M. van et al., 2004. Case-based reasoning as a prediction strategy for hybrid recomender systems. In Favela, J., Menasalvas, E. and Chavez, E. (Eds.), Advances in web intelligence: second international Atlantic web intelligence conference, AWIC 2004. New York: Springer.
Weng, L., Xu, Y., Li, Y., and Nayak, R., 2006. A fair peer selection algorithm for an ecommerce-oriented distributed recommender system. In Li, Y., Looi, M., and Zhong, N. eds., 2006, Advances in Intelligent IT: Active Media Technology 2006. Fairfax, VA: IOS Press, Inc.
Understanding How the Medical and Social Model of Disability Supports People With Disability Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Medical Model of Disability
Advantages of Medical Model of Disability
Problems of Medical Model of Disability
Introduction Disability is a term that is used to described people who are not able to independently live, achieve their livelihood, attain mobility, speak, learn, take care of themselves among other problems. Most of these are developmental problems and others can occur as a result of accidents.
Other disabilities are congenital, that is, a disability one was born with as a result of genetic failure. Some of these disabilities include Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, fetal alcohol syndrome among others.
The word disability was first used in 1970 in the U.S where it was used by the congress as they were setting the law in order to improve the living standards of institutions where the disadvantaged people were living (Neef, 2001).
The word disability is also used in the society to describe a group of people who need specialized services. The disabled in the society are identified by the support groups who are offering the services (Tassoni et al, 2005).
From the medical field disability can be used to describe people who have mental disorder, physical, cognitive or chronic diseases that can occur before birth or during life time.
Disability is also personal and how a person deals with it depends on the support of family members, friends, relatives, and peers. The medical model concentrates on how a disabled person interacts with other people while society model shows how the society interacts with disabled persons.
Disabled people may suffer isolation and discrimination and to prevent this society should be aware of these people and help them with their needs (Scrambler, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Medical Model of Disability Medical model of disability takes disability as a personal thing and it has to be determined by a doctor and a person has to provide medical certificates to prove his disability. Medical model view disability as a deficiency and that being disabled is negative.
It also suggests that disability is a personal thing and that the treatment requires a medical professional. It focuses on the cure and stabilization of a person (Parens, 2006). According to medical model, disability can decrease the quality of life and cause disadvantages to the person.
In the medical model, medical solutions such as surgery and therapies are used to try to cure the condition or normalize a person so as to fit in the society and be able to meet the needs of a person.
In medical model, professionals believe in curing the condition permanently or trying to change its cause in order to normalize the life of a person. They believe in having an in depth understanding of its cause. Medical model of disability is seen as a social degradation of disabled people.
Medical model involves the history, complainant, physical examination, laboratory tests, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. It is a pathology that is trying to treat the symptoms that are causing disability (Hauritz, 1998).
Medical model conducts researches on physical and psychological problems on basis of cause and treatment. It has been observed that in medical model mental illness is examined on behavior of a person and not physical examination this lower the standards of medical model and it is being criticized.
The medical model involves cooperation of the doctor and patient. The patient and the doctor are determined in curing the disability. When the medical model fails the patient feel disappointed and discouraged while on the other hand the doctor feels frustrated because of the failure to achieve the goal.
We will write a custom Assessment on Understanding How the Medical and Social Model of Disability Supports People With Disability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The patient may lose trust on the model and stop complying with treatment. The doctor may lose confidence with his medical practice.
Medical model believes that the society should invest in the medical treatment of people in order to reduce disability and normalize self dependence of disabled people. The profession in medical model is seen as central (Burkhauser
Beating ADHD Naturally Essay (Article) college application essay help
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disease which is characterized by such symptoms as inattentiveness, daydreaming, hyperactivity, impulsiveness, inability to focus on the same thing for a long time, and impatience (NIMH, 2010, unpaged).
The key peculiarity of ADHD is that a patient displays several of these symptoms, and they are observed quite regularly. The diagnosis of this disorder is rather difficulty because these signs may not necessarily be connected with ADHD; they may be related to lack of sleep or emotional stress.
Some medications proved to be effective for the treatment of ADHD. The drugs, which are used by therapists, are usually classified as stimulants. They produce a calming effect on children with this disorder (NIMH, 2010, unpaged).
Among them, one can single out dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, atomoxetine and many others (NIMH, 2010, unpaged). The choice of a specific medication primarily depends on the age of the patient. Some of them may not be applicable certain age groups such as adults.
Moreover, one should remember that this form of medication can lead to such side-effects as sleep problems and decreased appetite (NIMH, 2010, unpaged).
More importantly, when we speak about the effectiveness of these drugs, we should point out that they do not eradicate the cause of the disorder; more likely they mitigate its symptoms. This is the key limitation of this treatment mode.
The researchers as well as practicing therapists support more natural ways of overcoming attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For instance, Dr. David Jockers attaches importance to diet and proper intake of vitamins (2011, unpaged).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such vitamins and nutrients as Vitamin D, Pyridoxine, Folic acid, Zinc are indispensible of effective brain function (Jockers, 2011, unpaged).
Provided that intake of these vitamins is insufficient, the symptoms of ADHD are more likely to become more severe. Thus, one can say that proper diet can be effective for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Reference List Jocker D. (2011) “Beat ADHD naturally”. Natural News. Web.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2010). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Web.
Nationalistic Strategy of Emiratisation Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Characteristics of Emiratisation
Approaches to Emiratisation
Career Guidance and Counseling
Coaching and Mentoring
Introduction Emiratisation is a nationalistic strategy which has been adopted by the government of the United Arab Emirates to employ its citizens in a meaningful and efficient manner in the public and private sector with a chief aim of utilizing country’s human resources optimally in the economic process and to transfer skills and knowledge from foreigners to Emiratis (Wayne et al., 1999).
Under Emiratisation the local and federal governments solve the challenges emanating from the policy by inviting and even compelling the private and public sector businesses to apply a specific Emiratisation ratio by adopting a quota based system (Suliman, 2006).
Interestingly, with a total population of close to 5 million in the United Arab Emirates, 80 percent of this population is foreigners leaving the rest 20 percent to Emiratis. In the labor market the disparity is even bigger with UAE nationals consisting of only 9.3 of the labor market.
The percentage of foreign workers therefore varies across the seven emirates with Dubai having the highest proportion instance where 97.13 percent of total labor forces are foreigners followed by Abu Dhabi (Rees, Mamman
NewCorp Scenarios Legal Brief Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Legal Encounter 1
Legal Encounter 2
Legal Encounter 3
Legal Encounter 1 There are various legal issues surrounding NewCorp’s decision to dismiss Pat without any reasons. In particular, the company is at liberty to terminate any contract based on the behavior of the employees which it deems unacceptable. This implies that a company may dismiss any employee for no reason at all. Nonetheless, Cheeseman (2010) says that the labor laws prohibit some actions that a company may undertake.
The employer should not fire Pat on the grounds of faith. Apparently, Pat says that the manager has been acting in a way that attempts to ‘silence’ him in the boardroom. Besides, the management has been noticeably unfriendly. As such, there are no grounds to fire Pat on prejudicial perceptions about him.
Besides, NewCorp ought to understand that any act of dismissal should not arise in contravention of any pre-existing public policy (Cheeseman, 2010).
Based on that, the company should abide by the labor laws and understand that dismissal of any employee should be in line with laws that protect workers from such unlawful actions. Moreover, the company could undertake the action of dismissing the employee. This is because of the fact that the contract signed indicates that the employer retains the right to hire and fire any employee at will (Werther
Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction Church Dogmatic refers to the works of Carl Barth on various doctrines of God. Theology has received a massive attention from researchers since the inception of formal learning. For a long time, various individuals have been concerned with the ability to understand God. God works in a special way.
It has been in the interest of many scholars to create a clear understanding of the values of God. It is also their concern to help explain how human beings should relate to God.1 Carl Barth was one of the scholars who dedicated his entire live in trying to explain how this relationship works by coming up with doctrines to help clarify the issue.
Theologians in the current society have increasingly found the work of this scholar highly valuable. The work of Pope Pius has had a huge impact on the current practice of many theologians, as his principles were found to be very relevant. Although there were times when his views were nearly forgotten, current scholars have revived them with a huge impact.
The works of this scholar are not only relevant to the Catholics but also to other religions. According to many contemporary scholars, the works of Carl Barth are important to both the Catholics and Protestants2. This is because of the focus of the scholar. The focus of his works is on Jesus Christ. He strongly believes that all religious matters start with Jesus.
He observes that for an individual to understand Christianity, he or she must have an understanding of Jesus. Lack of proper understanding of Jesus would be a clear indicator that the individual lacks knowledge of the Christian religion. The second focus is on ethics. This scholar sums the teachings of Jesus as Ethics. Since Jesus knew that God works in an ethical way, he observed all religious principles. Jesus’ teachings were based on acting ethically.
When he was leaving the earth, he left only one commandment to be followed by all. The commandment was that people should love one another. This was meant to ensure that societies maintain ethics. When people develop love towards others, they maintain high ethical standards. Therefore, all other commandments would be automatically followed. This study seeks to unearth the assertiveness of the church as taught by Carl Barth.
Thesis Statement Barth’s work was based on two fundamental factors, which are ethics and Jesus Christ. The work of this scholar is relevant to both the protestant and Catholic churches. This study is focused on analyzing his work and determining its relevance in the contemporary work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholars in the contemporary world can utilize the views of Barth to bring about unity and understanding in society. Church wrangles are not good for Christians. Church leaders fight in the public implying that they serve their own interests. The views of Barth, particularly on ethics, can help in ending wrangles.
Need for Research Theology is one of the most developed fields of study. It is through the guidance of the spiritual leaders that the peace can be maintained in the society. According to this scholar, religion plays a very important role in society3. Some societies have been associated with certain acts because of the kind of religion they practice.4
Therefore, a sound religious understanding based on the teachings of Jesus can help maintain cohesion in the society. According to the report by this scholar, as the number of theologians increase around the world, evil deeds also increase5. Many people around the world are intolerant to the behavior of others.
The results are deaths and other atrocities committed against the innocent. The churches today are no longer speaking in the same language.
What one church upholds is exactly the doctrine the other church abhors. This has led to huge confusion in our current churches as leaders publicly disagree even on some fundamental principles. For instance, for a long time, Catholic priests have not been marrying. This has been one of the most important fundamental principles of this church. However, some of the catholic leaders have come out to oppose this principle.
This brings about a lot of confusion to church members who trust and believe in their leaders6. The Bible talks about homosexuality, especially the cases of Sodom and Gomorrah. However, some leaders of the church support this behavior right inside the church.
This brings a lot of confusion. There is need for proper guidance in the church. The society should be guided by religious values regarding what should be done and what should be avoided7. All these relate to ethics and the teachings of Jesus. Jesus gave a bar on how followers should behave.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is what we need to emulate. Ethics and the teachings of Jesus have been brought out in the scholarly works of Carl Barth. It was therefore very important to undertake research in order to avoid current confusions and bring harmony in our current society8.
It is important to shed more light on some of the fundamental issues in the church. Some church leaders are taking advantage of the confusion to introduce some habits that are bringing even further confusion.
Discussion Carl Barth’s teachings were based on two main principles that closely guided his research work. This scholar was concerned about bringing a clear understanding of the forces around the world, which made people behave in a certain manner. He evaluated the relevance of people’s behavior in relation to the teachings of Jesus and the Bible’s message9. Carl Barth went against some of the principles of renowned scholars.
In his first volume, he discussed the doctrine of Gog’s word. He tried to give the revelation of God. In God’s word, there was power. The word of God sets out to members of the church to help them in understanding the best practices in life. In the current society, it is very important to follow the word of God.
Failing to follow his word may lead human beings into many sufferings. In his second volume of the doctrines of the word of God, the scholar brings out incantation of God’s word10. He explores the role and nature of the scripture. The scripture is the word of God because men of God wrote it after being inspired by God himself. In fact, Barth says that the authors of all the books in the Bible were writing the message given to them by God.
A clear point is the Book of Revelation. In this book, God himself revealed to John the activities that would take place before the world would end11. The message in this book may be a little more challenging to understand because unlike other books talking about history, this book talks about the future.
It would only be through God himself that God’s servant, John, could understand the future. In Exodus 20, God talks directly to Moses giving him the Ten Commandments. It is a clear demonstration that the Bible is the word of God.
Given this fact, how then should we approach the bible? Some scholars have argued that there are some little contradictions between the old and the New Testament12. Of point to note is the ‘eye for an eye’ law that existed in the Mosaic Law. This was quite contrary to the teachings of Jesus. Jesus teaches his disciples that they should forgive seventy by seven times when wronged by an individual.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How then would the same bible encourage forgiveness while there is a law that demands that the punishment should be meeting evil with an equal evil? However, Barth dispels these contradictions in his work saying that the followers should follow the teachings of Jesus13. This scholar says that when such contradictions arise in any parts of the bible, the guiding light should be ethics. The bible is based on ethics.
Before acting in any given manner, the guiding light should be the ethics. In fact, this scholar argues that the bible has no contradiction at all unless one looks at it from a facial value. The bible records that during different times, there were different situations that demanded different actions.
Barth argues that those different moments called for different actions from people. When God gave the Israelites commandments in the wilderness and other laws, it was supposed to help them to manage the challenges in the wilderness.
This scholar notes that God gave the Israelites the power to kill their enemies. However, the commandments state that we should not kill. The message is clear and therefore it should not be interpreted differently. When he said that we should not kill, he was helping us to appreciate the fact that we should live as protectors of one another in society14.
Procedure of the Study This study focuses on the works of Carl Barth. Carl Birth wrote a number of volumes of books, each with different approach. In this study, the researcher has focused on two main principles that Carl Barth held in his teachings. The study will analytically evaluate the teachings of Carl Barth on Jesus and ethics and determine how they lead to the generation of other principles.
This scholar talks about the word of God, creation, and reconciliation among other principles. However, they all revolve around the two principles of Jesus’ teachings and ethics. This study will therefore relate the two main principles and the doctrines that this scholar bases his teachings on.
Barth’s View of Trinity Barth’s work was considered revolutionary, given the then held beliefs. Barth’s work was a huge shift from what existed before. Many have considered the work of this scholar a little controversial15. It has been very challenging to understand the arguments of this scholar concerning trinity.
By the time Barth started his work, trinity was not a new thing in the theological field. Several scholars had discussed it and many had given their view on the same. The work of Barth shows that he did not change the perception but gave it a new position. He gave trinity a front position in his work dubbed church dogmatic.
His modalism approach has particularly received massive criticism from various fronts. His perception towards the use of the word ‘person’ has been a shift from what had been the norm for a long time. He dismissed tritheism as a heresy and baseless reasoning that could not hold in the current society16.
Barth argued that God is one, and therefore he should be referred to as a mode of being. This way, he argues that people will eliminate any misunderstanding among themselves, Christian scholars, and even the leaders.
Comparing Baths Findings and the Contemporary Thought of Knowledge Bath’s findings have proven to be very relevant in the contemporary world. In the current society, many theological scholars have found relevance in the teachings of Carl Birth. Carl Birth emphasized on two main issues for his readers. The first one was Jesus. This scholar says that Jesus’ teachings should be the basis of learning for the current scholars.
He says that Jesus taught the word of God with an open mind. He holds that when understanding the teachings of Jesus, one should have an open mind. Religion should not be considered a burden17. It is not meant to punish the believers by imposing retrogressive rules on the faithful.
The teachings of Jesus and religion for that matter are meant to help people live in peace. Religion explains how people should relate with one another to ensure peaceful coexistence. For this reason therefore, the current society should be weary of the religion that is oppressive.
Religion that dictates oppressive rules on its followers should be avoided at all costs18. The religion should help people live peacefully and happily. In this regard, religion should not deny people happiness.
The second basis of Carl Barth’s work is on ethics. Ethics is the core of the religion according to the teachings of Barth. Religion and ethics are inseparable. Barth argues that religion teaches one to behave ethically19.
In all the teachings of this scholar, he has emphasized the need for all societal members, especially the leaders, to maintain ethics in all their actions. It is important that a spiritual leader base his teachings on the ethical grounds other than on some of the Mosaic laws that have become archaic20.
Some laws that were given to Moses during their journey to the Promised Land may not apply in the current world. It would therefore be important to ensure that ethics and religion are viewed as one.
Conclusion Carl Birth was one of the greatest theologians in the twentieth century. His work has widely been considered very useful in the contemporary world. This theologian dedicated his life to writing books and other articles on various aspects of religion.
Church dogmatic is a comprehensive work done by this scholar about the church and its relevance to the society. This scholar based his work on two factors. The first factor was Jesus Christ. On this front, he held that everything starts with Jesus. The foundation would start with Jesus and then other factors would come afterwards.
Jesus is the rock upon which Christian religion is based. One may not understand Christianity without understanding Jesus himself. By understanding Jesus, one would be in a position to understand his principles and therefore the principles of Christianity. Ethics, according to this scholar, is not separable from religion. It is important to appreciate the fact that religion is an attempt to shape the habit of people.
The scholar holds that a careful analysis of the teachings of Jesus is based on ethics. He gave a lot of priority on ethical behavior, and never allowed any of his disciples to be swayed otherwise. A society that respects religion and maintains ethics is the one that would easily be prosperous and very peaceful.
It is important that as a Christian, and based on the teachings of Carl Barth, one should strive to understand the teachings of Jesus and relate them to ethics. As discussed above, there should be an effort to ensure that ethics and religion are blended.
It would be baseless to maintain a religious lifestyle without observing religious standards. In the society, the two are inseparable and therefore should be treated as one. This way, one would be in a position to lead a successful Christian life.
Bibliography Baker, Benson. Crucial Moments: The 12 Most Important Events in Black Adventism. Hagerstown: Review and Herald, 2005.
Cranfield, Christe. The Gospel According to St. Mark: An Introduction and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
Dowd, Samuel. Reading Mark: A Literary and Theological Commentary. Macon: Smyth
Genograms Role in Family and Marriage Reflective Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Marriage and Remarriage
Transition to Parenthood
Families with Adolescents
Coping and Resilience
My family consists of two women and one man. It is a single family because parents got divorced when I was fifteen. The family managed to cope with challenges as time went by. My mother had to bring up her two daughters and one son alone since my father was busy working. At the age of twenty-two, I got married and was blessed with a son a year later.
However, my marriage was terminated prematurely when I realized that my husband was playing games with my life. I decided to get divorced and move to a new place. I also got to know that my grandmother was forced to divorce my grandfather as well since he was cheating on her.
My aunt was a victim of domestic violence because she was frequently abused at home, which forced her to move out. My sister suffered from the same problem as my aunt did since she was accused of being obese. My second aunt, however, had a decent life that is admired by everybody in the family. It is not surprising because my grandmother was a benevolent person.
Marriage and Remarriage The life circle of a family is spherical and rhythmic. This implies that we can start explaining the behavior of a family member from any point of view. From my experience, my family genogram can be analyzed starting from the time I turned fifteen. At the age of fifteen, I could remember every aspect of my life. My family genogram can be used to explain my behavior and that of my son.
When married, the genogram suggests that two people come together to form a single unit. Before marriage, each family has a life cycle, which is different for every family and each person consequently. For the two families to form a successful family unit they must appreciate their origins. The genogram offers adequate information regarding the connectedness of the two families.
Moreover, the genorgram helps in identifying the family roles of the couples before marriage. In many occasions, one spouse might compete for space in the family. In case this happens, the spouse would be engaged in constant conflicts, which might interfere with role-playing in the family. Conflicts arise when the family of one married couple disapproves the relationship.
Relatives, such as in-laws, might interfere with the relationship of the married individuals whenever they feel that the relationship goes against their expectations. Previous relationships may also interfere with the marriage of the newly wedded individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From my parents’ marriage, it is eminent that the relationships of their parents interfered with their union. My grandfather left my grandmother because of unknown reasons. The same happened to my father who decided to quit without giving any valid reason. In my life, the same problem affected my marriage.
My first husband decided to quit without giving reasons. When analyzing genograms, it is very important to take note of the age of family members. At every age bracket, family members tend to go through a particular difficulty. However, the norms differ among families and are always changing.
Each culture has its specific norms and standards. In the life of an individual, history plays an important role in understanding his or her behavior. Though people have different histories, understanding a single aspect of history would help in explaining the behavior of an individual.
For children who go through difficulties in their lives, they might hate themselves and decide to engage in behaviors that might be dangerous to their survival. My two aunts and my sister were victims of societal injustices. My aunt engaged in sexual relationships at a tender age of fifteen because the society was against her. The behavior of my parents regarding marriage affected their children in many ways.
My father left my mother to engage in a sexual relationship with a young woman. From my father’s second relationship, a number of uncommon aspects are eminent. My father was over forty years yet he was having an affair with a young woman who mistreated my sister. My father’s girlfriend was almost my sister’s age mate. This could be the reason why she mistreated my sister.
It is true that their relationship could not last for long because the age difference would affect them as far as forming a new family was concerned.
There are some unclear issues regarding my father’s relationship. At age forty, he could be considered a grandfather whereas he married somebody close to his daughter’s age. One wonders why a young woman would agree to engage in a sexual relationship with mature man with children. This is surprising because my father never had huge investments.
We will write a custom Essay on Genograms Role in Family and Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From my father’s experience, it is true that unresolved issues may affect the relationship of an individual. Due to numerous challenges I faced in childhood, my relationship with my first husband could not continue. The unresolved issues in my childhood affected my first relationship. My engagement into married life was more complex because of the previous experiences.
Therefore, I entered into a new relationship with a number of unresolved issues. In other words, remarrying calls for commitment as far as the life cycle is concerned. In the second family, there are issues that must be improved. One of them are memories from the previous relations.
A child from the previous family is another issue to consider. When analyzing a genogram, the two must be taken into consideration. In my second marriage, the major challenge was to find a unified approach to my son and the children of my new partner.
Transition to Parenthood Parents have a big responsibility of ensuring that they bring up their children according to societal rules and regulations. On the other hand, they have a responsibility of ensuring that their relationships with their marriage partners flourish. Genograms are used to identify some of the stressors that affect individuals at the parenthood stage.
It is noted that parents go through a number of challenges in ensuring that children are brought up in line with societal norms. Sibling constellation is used to analyze the strength of parents regarding the upbringing of children. Furthermore, sibling constellation is very important when understanding the circumstances surrounding the birth of a child.
In addition, scholars usually use genograms to comprehend mother-father-child relationships at the adulthood stage. From my family genogram, it can be seen that I am the middle born in the family of three. My birth marked the beginning of the life cycle of the second generation. My son would be affected by my second marriage.
A genogram suggests that the birth of the first child is more important as compared to the second marriage. I entered into the second marriage to safeguard the interests of my son. In particular, I wanted my son to have a father in his life. The father plays an important role in the life of the child. As soon as I married my second husband, my attention shifted to our new relationship.
The presence of children signified the legitimacy of our relationship. In my life, I always appreciated my grandmother because she worked alone hard to raise my mother. In fact, my relationship with her is very strong given the fact that she went through the same situation what I experienced in my first relationship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Genograms Role in Family and Marriage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More My second husband’s conditions affected the whole family since our children depended on him in many things, including emotional support. This shows that evaluation of a life circle is also important as far as examination of life stressors is concerned. Traumatic events have tremendous effects on the life of an individual. When an individual loses something in life, it disrupts his or her life in a certain way.
The life of an individual cannot be normal once interrupted by things such as divorce and sickness. In my life, everything changed when my parents separated. Similarly, my life was affected when my first husband gave up bringing up the child. In this regard, an individual must reorganize his life in order to cope with the challenges.
For instance, I had to develop some mechanisms that would help me counter the challenges. Since I had no option, my life cycle seemed distorted. I even lost a sense of motion since I had to count many losses. This shows that a family genogram helps in tracking the losses in life over a given period.
Serious diseases tend to affect the confidence of the surviving members. After the death of my father, my siblings saw the need of uniting. In my current relationship, my husband’s health condition has affected the family in many ways. Children are demoralized when they realize that their father suffers from cancer. It is a challenge to me to convince them that their father will be well one day.
At times, I feel that our future is indefinite due to his condition. Similarly, the appearence of the child tends to threaten the position of other family members. Before I was born, my elder sister was treated with care and dignity. However, my presence always affected his position in the family.
First, she was treated badly because she was obese. As earlier noted, my father could bring presents to me and my brother but not my sister. My sister was a burden because of my presence. My father could count on me whenever he wanted the company of a girl child.
Families with Adolescents From my family’s genogram, it is noted that my behavior was not consistent with the expectations of my parents. For instance, I engaged in heavy drinking and partying, which was unacceptable to my father. This affected my relationship with my father.
My aunt was bitter because the society never appreciated her body image. As she was approaching adolescence, she engaged in unprotected sex, something that caused a big problem in her life. At the age of twenty-one, she had four children. She was unable to bring up the children leading to government intervention.
Coping and Resilience As earlier noted, my first relationship was not successful. Furthermore, I went through psychological trauma since my first husband could not support our only child. However, I had to develop some strategies to counter the traumatizing event. I had to be resilient because I had to continue with my normal life. I could not surrender since my son depended on me.
Since I was full of optimism, I bounced back to my previous state quite easily. In fact, I emerged stronger since I was hopeful and courageous. One of the strategies I employed was proactive coping. This means that I anticipated for problems in life. Even in my second relationship, the health condition of my husband never diverted my attention. Proactive coping entails anticipating for a problem.
The strategy helped me in coming up with ways through which I could handle challenges. I have always encouraged my children to be optimistic by simply avoiding negative reasoning. Since resilience is a process, my children have learned it with time. Apart from proactive coping, I have learned that associating with relevant groups would give me social support.
Conclusion Genograms are very important in determining the behavior of family members. In my family, I am in a position to explain the actions of various family members by simply analyzing my family genogram. However, I have learned some ways through which I can cope with various traumatizing events. Therefore, my first relationship and the health condition of my second husband have never affected my life.
Creativity and Gifted Students Exploratory Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Creativity refers to the ability of a person to bring something ‘new’ or simply one that did not exist before into being. It can also be defined as finding new applications for ideas or things that previously existed. New in this case is used relatively to refer to new ideas as is in the experience of the person.
The process of creativity can be divided into two main processes, that is, coming up with the original idea and then acting on the original idea to produce it into a reality. A gifted person is one who shows remarkably extraordinary performance in doing something compared to other people of the same age and experience.
Inventories for measuring giftedness The giftedness of a person is considered measurable and can be evaluated by administering the subject customized tests and then analyzing the results. A lot of research, in the past, has been carried out on the topic of giftedness as a result; different people have discovered numerous tests that are used to determine the giftedness of a person.
Gifted children are identified and enrolled into programs for gifted people where they are nurtured into better people. These tests have been applied over time to determine which students are eligible for enrollment into the gifted programs.
Some of the tests used include; The Cognitive Abilities Test that is used to measure a person’s mental ability, the Iowa Test of Basic skills together with the Iowa Test of Education Development both used to measure the subject’s achievement and Children’s Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory are used to measure the subject’s level of motivation.
Tests for creativity of a person should also be used in determining eligibility into gifted programs (Kim, 2009, p.7).
The capacity of creativity of a person is measured by The Group Inventory for finding Creative Talent and the Torrance test of Creative Thinking, which was named after its inventor Dr. E. Paul Torrance, a leading researcher in the field of creativity who developed it in 1966.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Dr. Torrance, creativity can be summarized as a continuous process of realizing problems, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies; identifying the difficulty and its solutions by making guesses, formulating hypotheses, testing, changing and retesting them where necessary and then eventually communicating the result.
Tests for creativity should be used in evaluation of eligible students for gifted programs because they help determine the potential of the subject in creative tendencies (Davis, 1986, p. 63). There are many dimensions of creativity, and it is important that the correct test is chosen to determine each dimension of creativity.
Therefore, different sets of tests to measure creativity should be used in choosing children for gifted programs depending on the focus of the program.
The creative capacity measuring tests contain a wealth of information on them which can help reveal the divergent thinking and the fluency of the subject.
When a person engages in creative tendencies, they are mostly framed by many factors including their background, their culture and discipline and most importantly, his or her own description of creativity, and therefore, administrators of tests that measure a child’s eligibility for enrollment into a gifted program should take this into consideration when doing so (Kim, 2009, p.11).
The tests should rhyme well with the subject’s culture disposition and discipline because the environment of the subjects also not only the talents the person possesses influences their abilities.
It is for the best interests that the creative measurement tests be not the only ways used to identify creativity in individuals and eligibility or be the only instrument on which the decision is made. There should be several tests to pick out legitimately individuals for gifted programs.
We will write a custom Essay on Creativity and Gifted Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the results of tests for evaluating eligibility of children in gifted programs enrollment should not be compared against each other.
Each culture and society has their own definitions of excellence and the kinds of intelligence that it values. These factors should also be taken into consideration when administering creativity tests.
This means that tests for divergent thinking, motivation, inventories in interest, attitude and personality and judgment of products should be administered when deciding which child will be accepted into a gifted program and which one will not.
Most tests of giftedness rely mostly on the verbal prowess or the amount and vastness of information the subject possesses which is why creative tests should be adopted as a good addition to those tests.
Creativity tests provide of the other side of the subject’s abilities that are separate from the vast knowledge and talents hence scrapping off biasness. Also, opinions from other experts in the relevant fields and disciplines should be employed to ensure the success of the process of identifying eligible children for gifted programs.
Creativity tests, for example, the Torrance test of Creative Thinking are very easy to administer, and they do not require much time.
They have a few cautions to observe and considering the extensive research on this field that has been going on, they are highly effective. They are fair in terms of gender, culture and socioeconomic disparities, and they should be adjoined with other tests to determine which students are enrolled in gifted programs.
References Davis, G. A. (1986). Creativity is forever (2nd ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co..
Not sure if you can write a paper on Creativity and Gifted Students by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kim, K. (2009). Can we trust creativity tests? A review of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT)”. Creativity Research Journal. 18(1), 3-14.
Networking in Entrepreneurship Report (Assessment) essay help free
Introduction What the Topic is about
The topic of this paper is about the role of business networks in promoting entrepreneurial success in the creation and sustenance of new business ventures.
Basically, networking refers to the connections an entrepreneur establishes with other individuals and business organizations. Thus, networks are crucial aspects in any business ventures because they enable an entrepreneur to access precious resources including knowledge and financial capital.
Outline of the Content
This paper consists of two sections. The first section entails a review three studies (Semrau
Service Experience Diary Report essay help: essay help
Introduction This report is to provide the management of The City Grill Room Steak house restaurant with effective marketing, and customer satisfaction strategies, in order that they may attract new visitors or customers to their location and encourage repeat purchase by the customers.
To carry this out this report highlights some of the effective marketing strategies they can employ, and some of their services that require greater improvements in order that they may attract and retain new patrols to their steak house.
This report closely examines the Australian restaurant industry, the emerging trends affecting it, the major players in the industry and how their policies or strategies affect City Grill and the industry at large.
The report also looks at the market segments the City Grill serves and how it attempts to serve this target market effectively.
In addition, the report examines how City Grills key service characteristics impacts them, their current promotional and marketing strategies, their pricing strategies, the transportation or logistic strategies affecting them, their service processes; including their service blue print, an examination of their operational side of business, and the overlap and transparency between their operational and service elements.
The report also examines the Grill’s service environment, and how their business service scope can be organized and strategized for effectiveness in their operations, and an examination of the things that can improve or disadvantage their services.
It also talks about issues in the management of employees and customers by looking at how the customer relationship and loyalty can be improved using effective customer relationship and retention strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The report concludes by giving recommendations for improvement, examining the Grills’ overall strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities, in its advice to the management.
Background Information on the City Grill Room Restaurant The City Grill Room is steak restaurant located at 535 Little Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). As O’Brian (2008) asserts, this restaurant specializes in ribs, grill, seafood and steak.
Having been established on the 27th of October it provides a range of beef products, ranging from pork, chops, to sausage dishes and fish like prawns, calamari, and salmon.
Vonnegut (1990) splits the restaurants industry into two broad categories that is, fast food sector and full service sector. Full service restaurants have waiter and waitress services, and the patrol takes an order while seated.
In quick service or limited service restaurant, the patrols orders for food at a cash register, and food is delivered to them by use of a drive-thru or select items from a food bar.
City Grill faces stiff competition from high end restaurants like Tetsuya’s; the best restaurant in Sydney Australia, Bather’s Pavilion, MG Garage, and Salt among others, known to be among the the best in Australia. This competition stiffens in its own backyard, Melbourne; a haven for nearly 200 restaurants.
These restaurants include, the famous Charcoal Grill, The Meat
Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of System in the State of Qatar Qualitative Research Essay essay help online free
Abstract In this dissertation, the focus will be on the analysis of success factors for implementing the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) in the State of Qatar.
For this reason, the study will take form of investigation both primary and secondary sources for obtaining industry views and comparing them with already published information related to critical success factors of ERP.
The proposed study will investigate different critical successful factors of ERP and their existence for both private and governmental organizations operating in Qatar.
The methodology proposed in qualitative in nature and will involve survey questionnaire to obtain views and responses from employees of organizations. The outcome will be rather subjective however, efforts will be made to provide a critical evaluation of factors affecting ERP implementation.
What are the inherent relations among CSFs in ERP implementation?
What is the relation between CSFs and the company’s characteristics?
The CSFs to be evaluated are as follows:
Support from the top management of organization,
The flow of controlled and planned activities achieved through the integrated systems,
The positive response of management and employees to the implementation of new system and the change it brings,
Training and development of the system’s stake holders,
The restructuring of the business processes that are brought about by the implementation of the system and the users’ interaction with the system,
The effectiveness of the software and hardware on which the ERP is implemented.
For the sake of collecting up to date information, a survey will be conducted in Qatar’s organizations, in which the emphasis will be on collecting information about the success of their ERP implementation and other issues related to that organization.
The findings of this study will be required to reflect t he vital role of the success factors in the implementation of the ERP system and its advantages to the respective organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction ERP has revolutionized the business practices of organizations since 1990. It is evident from the study carried out by Glenn Stewart (2000) that more than 55% Fortune 500 organizations in today’s world has implemented ERP systems to provide a better chance of success to their businesses (Stewart, 2000).
ERP has played such an important role in the success of these organizations that it has become an integral part of their organizational resources. ERP systems provide a window of opportunity to the organizations by helping them to improve their business processes and in reducing their production costs (Nah et al., 2001).
During this study, data from Qatar’s business organizations will be collected to analyze the critical success factors and the inter relations of these critical factors in the implementation of the ERP system.
The focus will also be on finding out how these success factors have some relationship with the organizations’ characteristics and their nature of business. Also, it will also be discussed that how the installation of ERP systems in organizations’ business process helps in improving its ability to respond to the changes.
Literature Review Joyjeet Banerjee (2007) defined ERP as a system that helps the management to bring together different business activities into one mechanism.
ERP has revolutionized the business processes, where sales, marketing, finance, production, procurement and human resource systems of organizations are presented at once to the decision makers and they can analyze the business situation without wasting time (Banerjee, 2008).
In one study, the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning system in multinational companies in telecom sectors, was discussed in which, the research team found that the implementation had positively affected the operation of these companies by improving their operational strength and effectiveness.
We will write a custom Essay on Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of System in the State of Qatar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The overall process of implementing ERP systems in these organizations was also defined along with the system’s affects on the performance of each working department within these organizations (Joe et al., 2004).
Eric Chan (2009) discussed the implementation of ERP systems in the construction industry. He stated that the ERP systems have enhanced the knowledge resources of organizations in today’s era and organizations are using this knowledge to achieve a competitive edge over their competitors.
Further, he added that the construction industry has experienced major improvement and success rates after the implementation of different ERP systems on their business practices. ERP has helped organizations to integrate their business process as it improves the organizations’ ability to handle the flow of information from top to bottom (Chan, 2009).
In another study, it was found that the success factors of ERP system implementation across most of the organizations are same which reflects that the success rate is same in developing countries as it is in developed countries.
Although the success rate is high for adopting this system, there are cases in which organizations failed to counter the change that they experienced after adopting the ERP system.
The reason of failure seems to be the lack of support and guidance for adopting these systems and converting the change into a success story or the organizations failed to respond to the time constraints that might have arise due to the adaptation of the system.
This study do find a relationship between the critical success factors of implementing ERP in organizations, with that of country and supply chain members (Ngai et al., 2008).
In his study, Jiang Yingjie (2005) discussed the importance of ERP systems in modern era.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of System in the State of Qatar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He said that these integrated systems have proved to be playing an anchor role in organizations’ success since its introduction and businesses continue on depending on these systems for their enterprise’s management and administration.
He also discussed the possible ways to successfully launch ERP systems and minimize the chances of failure (Yingjie, 2005).
Methodology The proposed methodology for this study is one which is qualitative in nature. Qualitative researches depend on concluding descriptive findings and analysis of a research problem. This research methodology has been used now days by majority of the researchers (Dobney, 2011).
An electronic questionnaire will be mailed to the target respondents which will contain questions divided into two categories. They are:
Question for collecting the data which analyze the success rate of some elements of ERP, such as the time constraints, costs and budgeting for the system and the degree of functionality and effectiveness of the system.
Questions for identifying what respondents think about the CSF and their importance to the implementation of ERP systems.
The expected number of participants will be between 10 private companies and 5 government organizations. The reason for selecting a mix of such companies is to gather views from a wide spectrum of organizations and to provide a comprehensive overview on the critical success factors of ERP implementation.
Respondents in these organizations will be employees of the company working in different departments who have the knowledge and understanding of ERP and its use for their organizations.
Reason for selecting mail based survey is that, it is less time consuming, researcher will not be required to rewrite the responses collected from respondents into the computer, and the answers can be directly analyzed with the help of specialized software.
Another major reason for choosing this methodology is that travelling to Qatar will increase the costs of this study; therefore, mailing will minimize huge expenses.
The questionnaire design will be descriptive for analyzing detailed responses provided by the respondents. Company’s addresses, to which the questionnaire will be sent, will be fetched out from the yellow pages and business directory of Qatar.
Due to the language barriers, the cover letter and questionnaire will be mailed, both in Arabic and English. Questions regarding the organization, its history, its business activities and respondents’ position in the organization will also be included.
The methodology for collecting responses was designed, keeping in view the previous work done by researchers on this topic.
For example, Jiang Yingjie (2005) used the same methodology for conducting a study on critical success factors in ERP implementation in the European country of Finland. Yingjie mailed the questionnaire to the CFOs of 646 companies and through mail and e-mail.
Secondary sources will also be extensively used for fetching important information and literature related to the topic. These may include published journals, conference proceedings, previous researches and dissertations, books and other sources.
In this study, the research team could face the difficulty of finding related data on ERP implementation in Qatar. It will be very difficult to find data on ERP in Qatar with the help of which, it would be easier for the researcher to analyze and compare the results obtained from findings.
To overcome this problem, the findings from the proposed study will be compared with those of previously completed studies conducted in other countries. However, closeness of economic setup and conditions will be kept in mind for comparing the findings.
It is recommended not to draw upon conclusions after studying this paper and more research paper regarding this topic should also be studied to analyze the exact critical success factors for the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning systems to business processes in the State of Qatar.
Despite of the fact that these critical success factors might not be important for adaptation of ERP systems in Qatar, but this study will outline the major problems in implementing the Enterprise Resource Planning systems that must be considered before opting out for this system.
Keeping in view, the ethical guidelines and policies of Qatar, the researcher will acquire the approval for conducting survey in the State. Special attention will be paid to protect the privacy of the information provided from the respondents and the researcher will not leak this information to anyone.
As the focus of this study is to perform individual work; therefore, the researcher will not acquire the services of any third party or outsource any part of this study to get completed.
Also, the researcher will try to avoid plagiarism and will take full responsibility if the instructor or the university found any act of stealing information or data from any source.
The researcher will make all possible efforts to provide due credit to the authors of already published information however, due to human error there could be some instances which could appear in the report.
Finally, it will be the right of researcher that the printed version of this study he provides, should not be exposed or leaked in the public beside its academic purpose, without the prior approval of the researcher and his mentor.
Position as a Political Researcher
As this research focuses on the implementation of ERP systems in the State of Qatar, a thorough understanding of the overall environment for businesses in the country will be built by studying material available over the internet and also implications of business tools in planning will be of benefit for assisting the business community in formulating governmental policies.
Conclusion This study will help us to enhance the knowledge about the critical success factors that have an impact on the adaptation and implementation of ERP systems in Qatar’s organizations and government’s mechanism. It will also provide an overview of the benefits that an effective ERP system might provide to these organizations.
Keeping in view that the success factors of ERP systems’ adaptation and implementation are difficult to interpret and dispersed in different forms across businesses of different natures, a set of 6 generally experienced success factors will be identified and analyzed supported through the study of previous researches and studies.
The review of literature provided by previous studies suggests that two out of six success factors, namely “Support from the Top Management of Organization” and “The effectiveness of the software and hardware on which the ERP is implemented” are the most important ones, so they will be paid especial attention while analyzing the importance and effectiveness of all six factors.
In the end, a list of hypothesis testing will also be provided which will help to analyze whether the research objectives are met or not and whether the study has proved to be helpful in understand the Implementation of ERP systems in the State of Qatar or not.
Timeline Time plays a crucial role in the completion of a research project. Researcher should realize the exact amount of time to logically address the research problem and its analysis, however, this must remain flexible to allow for unforeseen factors. Timescales have to be appropriate, realistic and achievable.
Swetnam, in his book, has written a general guide for any extended project or research is to plan to use only 75% of the supposed time available (Swetnam, 2004), which should be tentatively allocated as follows: –
Literature review 35%
Research methods 10%
Data collection 20%
Conclusions and recommendations 10%
Bibliography and appendices 5%
Activities July 2011 August 2011 September 2011 October 2011 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Literature reviews Data Collection Study
Romantic Era Literature: “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley Critical Essay writing essay help
The Romantic era/ Romanticism The Romantic era of art and literature is a movement which started in Europe at the end of the 18th century, peaking around the time between 1800 and 1840. Its main proponents were keen on showing that emotion was a fundamental origin of all beauty, and in this regard, deep-seated feelings such as awe and apprehension were given new importance.
Because of this link with emotion, the era saw tradition and custom got regarded as noble and also made individuals interested in the artistic and literary fields of the time value spontaneity. The movement’s roots were in German but later spread to the rest of Europe in a bid to give prominence to emotion over enlightenment.
The Romantic era was mainly characterized by the room for free expression, which was permitted to artists of the time.
For all works of literature and art that defined the movement, creators drew inspiration from imagination, and were not required to shape their works around conventional rules set about the production of such material. During this period, originality was highly-rated and any works that borrowed ideas from the creations of other artists were shunned by the adherents of the movement.
More about This Topic What Does the “Frankenstein Complex” Mean? 5 41 How Is the Theme of Horror in Frankenstein Revealed? 5 23 How is the Theme of Nature vs. Nurture in Frankenstein Used? 5 75 What Was Victor Frankenstein’s Curse? 5 32 How Did Young Frankenstein Spend His Childhood Years? 5 27 What is Elizabeth, the Bride of Frankenstein, Like? 5 63 In literature, the Romantic era was characterized by thematic revolution that revolved around criticizing the past. This movement held satire in low esteem terming it undeserving of critical attention. Some of the most renowned authors of the time were Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, whose main works centered around the occult.
Thomas Chatterton was the first poet to have his English works gain appreciation during the movement. Other notable authors of the period were James Macpherson, Walter Scott, Mary Shelley and Horace Walpole.
Mary Shelley and Frankenstein Mary Shelley was born on August 30th 1797 to philosophers William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. Her mother passed away eleven days after her birth, leaving Shelley and her two siblings under the care of her father and Mary Jane Clairnmont, her stepmother.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Godwin, being rooted in political philosophy, made it a point to take all his children through an informal education system that emphasized on his liberal political theories. Aged 17, Mary entered into a relationship with Percy Bysshe Shelley, a keen follower of her father’s ideologies who was also married. The two got married two years later after Percy’s first wife Harriet killed herself.
In the same year, while spending her summer break in Switzerland, Mary came up with an idea for the novel Frankenstein. Percy supported her and together they dedicated most of their time to writing. Together with poet Lord Byron, they spent a lot of evenings discussing the experiments conducted by Erasmus Darwin and his concepts of giving life to a dead body and combining body parts to an alive being.
At the time, the popular myth in the area was that Darwin had actually managed to give motion to dead matter. This in combination with ideas from other ghost stories that the trio read while seating around a fire led Byron to suggest that each of them should write a supernatural tale.
Mary came up with Frankenstein. She had initially planned to have it as a short story but later, with Percy edging her on, she turned the story into a novel, Frankeinstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. The novel was published in 1818.
Cascading Style Sheet Design Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Low-Content CSS Design
Medium-Content CSS Design
High-Content CSS Design
This design also has many
Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) has been significant in styling Web text. However, CSS is now crucial in “positioning and styling content at all levels related to local, global, or in-line” (Eccher, 2011). Effective application of the CSS design can ensure that a single CSS document can control all styles of the entire Web site.
CSS designs styling and structures provide simple ways of adding, deleting, and editing contents (Gasston, 2011). These designs also enable the designer to make changes in a single page which then cascade to the entire site. The designs also have relatively low weight and download size (Meyer, 2011). However, CSS designs experience challenges with many browsers and their different versions (Pouncey and York, 2011).
This creates many bugs, which translate to workarounds and hacks for the designer (Collison, 2006). These chapters’ summaries provide highlights of how Web designers can use CSS designs in order to develop highly professional Web sites.
Low-Content CSS Design This chapter presents a two-column layout that offers the designer an opportunity to put a floating
These rules and designs give the designer flexibility in designing more than a single site with a similar default code. Troubleshooting also involves easy steps that save time and consume little download size. The designer also nests tags for quick recognition when there are additional codes added later.
Addition of the header content may involve mortising more than two images together. The CSS container enables designers to move all elements at once to a suitable position, and the tags can stretch to full width in their positions. The designer applies the shorthand background rule when setting background images, hyperlinks, and menu.
The designer can also add second-level pages in order to maintain consistency and reduce downloads (cache certain images). CSS sites reduce the number of nested tables. This is a simple design that relies on a header and two columns beneath it to mortise images and put the content where necessary.
Medium-Content CSS Design This approach differs from the previous one. It has three columns in the homepage with mortised images in the right part of the page. The designer saves these images as one lighter background image to form a part of the second-level pages.
The designer specifically assigns a second style sheet to these pages and eliminates any problems of interpretation by appending the end. The designer achieves layout flexibility based on the number of contents used in two or three column structures in the second-level pages.
This design has two basic overall columns. These include left and right sides with the menu and additional nested tags for positioning and styling the content. This design is complex than low-content design as it relies on a three-column instead of a two-column design.
The design also uses mortised images on the top half of the homepage to enable users view and click images. The design also relies on the browser. It depends on the screened version for providing the background image. The technique enables the designer to put content freely over the image. The design also has two second-level templates. These templates contain both two and three columns.
In the construction of a second-level page containing three columns, the designer creates a design that has the capability of supplementing pages with few contents in the right column. This is the first second-level template created with the menu items. The three-column design has a lot of information.
High-Content CSS Design This is the hybrid design of both low-content and medium-content CSS designs. It also has several characteristics that make it unique. High-content design has many contents and requires many rules during creation. The homepage output products for high-content design use the technique of wrapping. This technique can serve different sites and conditions as output contents in the same manner.
The menu also assumes horizontal position, and it also has limited space. Thus, users must depend on the search-form in the left column to get most of the contents. The design also provides flexibility in coping and modifying the site elements to function as a different design.
High-content design can work either as a liquid or fixed design. The header also occupies all areas of the design. This implies that the designer can edit, add, or delete items without modification of other areas of the site (Siegel, 1997).
This design also has many tags than both low-content and medium-content designs. From a structural perspective, all three CSS designs need the same number of
tags when constructing their infrastructures. However, the difference is in their placements. The high-content design has a horizontal header container with a three-column format below the header.
References Collison, S. (2006). Beginning CSS Web Development: From Novice to Professional. New York: Apress.
Eccher, C. (2011). Professional Web Design: Techniques and Templates, (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Gasston, P. (2011). The Book of CSS3: A Developer’s Guide to the Future of Web Design. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press.
Meyer, E. (2011). CSS Pocket Reference. San Francisco, CA: O’Reilly Media.
Pouncey, I. and York, R. (2011). Beginning CSS: Cascading Style Sheets for Web Design. London: Wrox.
Siegel, D. (1997). Creating Killer Web Sites. New York, NY : Hayden Books.
Borouge Petrochemical Company Strategic Management Essay college application essay help
Introduction Change is a widespread feature in life of organizations and the capability to handle such changes is the core competence of success in organizations (Senge et al., 2004, p. 4). The main drivers of organizational changes over the last two decades have been globalization, advancement in technology and fluctuation in global economy.
This has led to distraught exploration of mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage through increased radical forms and new management styles (Stacey, 2003, p. 8).
The emergence of strategic management as a distinguished philosophy of management was facilitated by the increase in strategic thinking. Managers and the stakeholders were forced to reassess the structure and operations of the organizations and how to respond to the changing global business environment (Stacey, 2003, p. 8).
The new approach to management was attractive to organizational leaders who were experiencing numerous challenges and were faced by the need to adjust hastily and fundamentally.
Senge et al. (2004, p. 4) describe strategic Management as a striking option to management influenced by market forces necessitating enhanced quality, increases flexibility and unvarying innovations. Strategic management involves scheming, developing and realizing long term declarations that authorizes an organization to achieve a spirited benefit in the industrial scenery (Hubbard
The African Traditional Religions Explicatory Essay essay help free: essay help free
The African Traditional Religions Introduction
The religious beliefs practiced by African people differ from Christianity in many aspects. First of all, they emerged in specific and rather secluded communities and for a very long time they did not come into contact with other cultures or religions (Crafford, 1996, p 2).
Secondly, they are not unified and written down; there are no canonical sources which would lay down the core principles of African traditional religions, their ritualistic procedures, and ethics.
This paper is aimed at discussing the main tenets of African traditional religions. In particular, it is necessary to critique them from the perspective of Biblical teachings. We need to identify those values, beliefs and practices which are consistent with Christian principles.
Moreover, it is vital to pinpoint those aspects of African religions which contradict Biblical teaching. On the basis of this analysis one can work out strategies of evangelizing a follower of an African Traditional Religion.
Beliefs, Values and Practices in harmony with Biblical teachings
Overall, it is possible to single out several typical characteristics of African Traditional Religions, they are as follows:
the belief in mystical powers;
the belief in spirits;
the belief in gods;
the belief in Supreme being (Turaki, 2000, n. p.).
First of all, we need to speak about African conception of God or Supreme Being who is considered to be the origin or the primal cause of life (MBiti, 1989, n. p.). Certainly, unlike Christianity, African traditional religion is not monotheistic, since African people worship lesser divinities and spirit.
Nonetheless, they do acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being who is involved in the creation of the universe. More importantly, we should mention those attributes which are ascribed to God.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is eternal, omnipotent, and good (MBiti, 1989). These beliefs are quite consistent with Judeo-Christian tradition and Biblical narrative.
Apart from that, it is important some values and practices related to African traditional religion. One of them is respectful or even revered attitude to the ancestors (Turaki, 2000). This respectful attitude is not always analogous to worshipping and African people do not always attribute supernatural qualities to their ancestors.
To some degree, this practice is reconcilable with Christian outlook. To prove this point, one can refer to one of the Ten Commandments, “Honor your father and your mother” (English Standard Version, Exodus 20:12).
This maxim is mentioned in the New Testament as well. The most important thing is that according to African Traditional Religion, the main task of a human being is to achieve harmony with one another and nature.
Beliefs, Values and Practices in conflict with Biblical teachings
There are several aspects of African Traditional religions which are inconsistent with Biblical teachings. One of them is the mythological interpretation of time. The thing is that African people regard history as a cycle that is going to continue forever (Mbiti, 1989).
This belief implies that human beings are deprived of power or free will. Another thing which is very important is the destiny of the soul. According to the beliefs of African people, when a person dies, he/she turns into a spirit that can act as an intermediary between God and man (Mbiti, 1989).
Such vision of the soul is contrary to Christian tradition which lays strong emphasis on such notions as paradise and hell.
We will write a custom Essay on The African Traditional Religions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The action of human beings are not rewarded or punished in the afterlife, and this is the main difference of African Traditional Religions from Christianity. One should bear in mind that such perception of the soul can result in moral irresponsibility.
In order to show the perils of such a worldview, Christian missionaries should refer to numerous passages in the New Testament describing the afterlife of a human soul, for instance, the Parable of the rich man and Lazarus (English Standard Version: Luke 16: 19).
However, the most important difference between Biblical teachings and African religions is the worshipping of divinities and spirits. They are a part of cosmology, and can have direct impact on a person’s life. From Christian perspective, such a belief and practice border on idolatry and contradict the first commandment.
Such notion as magic is inherent to African religious practices (Turaki, 2000), and it is not compatible with Abrahamic religions like Christianity. It suggests that a human being can gain supernatural power and become alike to a Supreme Being.
In order to correct these beliefs and practices, Christian pastors and missionaries should use the arguments from the Old and the New Testaments that condemn magic and sorcery and show the dangers of trying master the powers of a Supreme Being.
Evangelizing a follower of an African traditional religion
A person, who tries to evangelize the followers of African traditional religion, must first show that Christianity gives more definitive answers about the moral values of human beings, the interaction with one another and with God. T
he key task is to convince them that Christianity provides clear and concise rules that benefit both individual and community. To prove this point, a pastor can refer to Exodus, name the Ten Commandments and to the Sermon on the Mount.
It is vital to emphasize the point that Christianity views a human being a creature with free and good will who can resist evil and change the course of events if he/she wants to.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The African Traditional Religions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Christianity not only offers consolation to a person, but explains the ways of self-improvement. These are the main arguments that should be made by Christian missionaries.
Moreover, they must be supported by real-life examples that would eloquently demonstrate the application of Biblical teaching to everyday problems encountered by people. Without them, one will find it very difficult to evangelize a follower of an African traditional religion.
African Traditional Religions share with Christianity the belief in God or Supreme Being who is omnipotent, omnipresent, all-knowing, and ,most importantly, good. However, African people do not have monotheistic theology which is the main premise of Abrahamic religions.
Furthermore, they regard spirits and lesser divinities as intermediaries between human beings and God. Their religious practices imply that a person can obtain some supernatural powers and that sorcery and magic. This aspect contradicts the main tenets of Christian tradition.
The Basics of Islam Introduction
Islam is the religion with the second biggest number of followers all over the world succeeded only by Christianity. Its adherents live in the Middle East, northern Africa, south Asia and south East Asia (Anderson, 1985, p 91). Since its founding, Islam has spread from east to west at a rapid rate.
This religion has always been closely connected with Christianity, and very often the relations between Muslims and Christians were tense if not hostile. This paper seeks to discuss the origins of Islam, its development, and major beliefs.
Moreover, it is necessary to analyze the major similarities and differences between these religions. Finally, the main task is to present a feasible strategy for witnessing to Muslims.
Origins and Founder
Prophet Muhammad was born in AD 570 in Mecca (Anderson, 1985, p 93). His father Abdullah passed away before his birth. He was brought up by his mother till the age of six when she too passed away leaving him under the care of his grandfather.
His grandfather did not live long enough to see his grandson’s teenage and passed away soon. Yet, it has to be admitted that scholars do not know much about the early life of Muhammad.
Before prophet hood Prophet Muhammad was commonly known as “the truthful” and “the trustworthy” in Mecca. He felt uncomfortable with the practices of the people of the city and showed no interest in their religious practices, especially idol worshiping (Boa, 1990, p 66).
He began prophesying at the age of 40 in Mecca, at that time he received revelations accompanied by seizures (Boa, 1985, p 68). His revelations were accepted by a relatively few number of people, including his wife, Khadijah and cousin, Ali (Boa, 1985, p 68).
At the early stages, Mohammed and the small group of newly converted Muslims faced several difficulties and even persecutions at the hands of the pagan Arabs and he decided to go to Medina with his companions.
His migration helped him work for spreading Islam in an environment of peace as the people of Medina wholeheartedly welcomed him and promised protection from pagans (Boa, 1985, p 68). Islam gained strength in Medina where many people readily accepted Islam and helped the Muslims gain sufficient man power.
Several wars were fought between the pagans and the Muslims during the years of Prophet’s life after migration to Medina. Initially, Muslims used force only to defend themselves but in later year many conquests took place and many areas were brought under the control of Muslims (Boa, 1985, p 67).
Muhammad lived for 23 years after becoming a prophet. During these years, he established Islam and its social, political, judicial and economic systems all over the land of Arabia. He left behind The Quran and his traditions (Ahadees) for the Muslims to refer to for guidance.
Overall, it is possible to say that Muhammad came into prominence when he explicitly expressed discontent with religious practices of the then Arabic community. However, unlike Jesus, who resisted every form of violence, Mohammad frequently relied on force.
Moreover, unlike Jesus, he managed to acquire a high status in the then society during his lifetime and his revelations met widespread recognition of the contemporaries.
Beliefs and Practices
While discussing the main beliefs and practices of Islam, one should focus on the five pillars on which this religion is based.
The fist pillar is the “Kalmah” and its recital. Kalmah postulates that “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.” (Quran, as cited in Boa, 1985, p 71). Kalmah sets a stress on the monotheism of Islam and the leading status of Mohammad.
The second pillar is the “Salat” or prayer. It is mandatory that a Muslim prays a minimum of five times every day. Apart from Salat, there are voluntary prayers which can be performed by an individual.
The third mandatory practice of Islam is “Saum” or fasting in the month of Ramadan (the 9th month of the Islamic calendar). Fasting has been prescribed for Muslims to help them gain self-restraint and control over their worldly desires.
The fourth pillar is the “Zakat” or obligatory charity. All Muslims who have savings of more than the “Nisab” or prescribed level are obliged to spend 2.5% of their savings in charity (Boa, 1985, p 71). A person has the freedom to spend more than the minimum amount due.
Finally, we need to speak about the fifth element of Islam, the “Hajj” or the pilgrimage to Mecca. Hajj or the pilgrimage is an obligation due only on the individuals who can afford both physically and financially to go to the holy cities of Makah and Medina and perform the pilgrimage.
Those who do not possess the resources to fulfill this obligation are spared.
Articles of Faith in Islam
At this point, it is necessary to discuss the main tenets of Muslim faith. The first article of faith is “Tawheed” or to believe in the oneness of Almighty God. The second obligation of a Muslim is to believe in angels of Allah.
As it has been mentioned before, Quran sets emphasis on monotheism of Islam and its close relations with Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Judaism (Boa, 1985, p 71).
Nonetheless, one should take into account that Muslims regard the concept of Trinity as polytheistic; this is one of the major differences between the two religions.
According to the third article of faith, a Muslim must acknowledge 28 prophets, who are mentioned in the Old Testaments and in the Gospels (Boa, 1985, p 70). More importantly, the fourth tenet of Islamic tenet is the belief in all the prophets sent by Allah to this world.
Muslims believe that all the prophets were sent with the same message from Allah and all of them are equal. The Holy Quran discourages any kind of distinction to be made amongst the messengers or the prophets of Allah (Boa, 1985, 71).
This principle is very important since it enables to draw connections between Islam and Christianity, especially the teachings of Jesus Christ. The fifth article of faith is the belief in the Judgment day.
The last or the Judgment day will be the day when all human being will be brought to answer for their doings during their worldly life. Again this is another similarity between Islam and Christianity.
Finally, we need to mention the sixth article of faith or the belief in “Qadar” or the destiny. Islam teaches that destiny of every individual is written by Allah and no one can change it except Allah Himself.
This sense of fatalism is rather untypical of Christian tradition which is based on the premise that a human being has a free will (74). The denial of any article of faith is tantamount to an act of disbelief.
Allah 1, The God in Islam
The Quran teaches that Allah is eternal, omniscient and omnipotent. Allah (GOD) has existed always and will exist forever. The knowledge of Allah cannot be comprehended by humans as He knows “everything”.
Allah is all powerful. The Quran teaches that Allah is One and only God whom the world should obey. There is nothing comparable to Him as He is above His creations.
According to The Quran, Allah cannot be seen or heard and neither does Allah have a gender as gender is an attribute of man not God. The Quran lays out the principles on which Allah judges’ humans. He is the most just, fair and most merciful.
Muslims worship on Allah as The Quran and sayings of Prophet Muhammad clearly state that only Allah is worthy of worship. Among His countless attributes are the attributes of mercy and wrath.
The Quran mentions in various chapters about the mercy of Allah on all of His creations and at the same time His anger and wrath to which only the most evil and wretched are entitled.
The important difference from Christian tradition is that God is not anthropomorphic and any attempt to understand his motives by means of human reasoning is doomed to failure.
Islam and Christianity
One can single out several similarities between Islam and Christianity. These religions are monotheistic; both of them rely on the idea that God is an all-knowing and omnipotent being, caring about people.
More importantly, Jesus Christ is revered by Muslims and Christians. These religions have many common theological sources, for instance, the Pentateuch, Psalms, and the Gospels (Boa, 1985, p 71).
Nevertheless, the Quran clearly disagrees with the concept of Trinity in Christianity as Islam only teaches to worship one God. The Quran disagrees with Christianity over the divine status of Jesus Christ and clearly states that Jesus was a prophet who was sent to his people with a message from God.
For Muslims, the belief in the divinity of Christ is not mandatory for salvation; in fact, it runs contrary to their articles of faith.
In their turn, Christians may recognize Islam as a Semitic religion; yet, they refuse to accept Muhammad as a prophet of God.
They regard him as a person who learnt from Judaism and Christianity and also saw dreams which he interpreted in his own way and presented to the people of his time as the word of God. This notion is totally rejected by Muslim theologians.
If a Christian tries to evangelize Muslims, he/she should refer to differences in the perception of God. While judging the deeds of human beings Allah simply weighs good and bad deeds of a person. Hence, law can be regarded as an imposed necessity, rather than moral obligation (McCurry, 1994).
Moreover, Christianity pays more attention to a person’s will rather than his/her fate. It attaches importance to moral responsibility and choice and not to fatalism. This can be regarded as its advantage over Islam, and Christian missionaries can make this argument.
Additionally, one may point out that Jesus was the only prophet who was raised from the dead by God and this makes him unique among prophets and suggests his nature is divine.
The main strategy will be to draw similarities between the passages in the New Testament and in the Quran, especially those ones, which indicate at sinless life of Jesus and closeness to God.
Islam and Christianity have similar origins and some of their articles of faith are similar to one another. These religions do not agree on such issue as the divinity of Jesus Christ and his role. Muslims consider him to be a messenger of God while Christians believe him to be a Supreme Being.
Yet, comparative analysis of the New Testament and the Quran suggests that he is really different and maybe even superior to other prophets, especially if we are speaking about his moral integrity and perfection.
Judaism is the first world religion that suggested monotheistic theology according to which there is only one God, who is all-powerful, omniscient, eternal and good. Later it gave rise to other Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Islam.
This paper is to discuss Jewish Messianic expectations; more importantly, it is aimed at showing that Jesus did fulfill messianic prophecies of the Old Testament.
Jewish Messianic Expectations
Judaism has a long-standing Messianic tradition; yet, the messiah or “moshiach” is normally viewed as a military or political leader, who will observe the Ten Commandments, win battles for his country, and make righteous decisions (English Standard Version2, Jeremiah 33:15).
Most importantly, moshiah will be a human being; this person will not have divine or supernatural qualities (Rich, 2006). This idea is entirely alien to Judaism.
There are several indispensible conditions for the arrival of the Messiah, for instance, disrespectful attitude of children to their parents, people’s inability to repent their sins (Rich, 2006).
According Jewish Messianic expectations, this person will accomplish some of these deeds: to spread the knowledge of God throughout the world (Isaiah, 11: 2), to restore the cities of Israelites (Ezekiel 16: 55), and eradicate illness, hunger and war (Isaih, 25: 8).
Overall, the core of Messianic expectations is the belief that moshiah will bring Jewish nation to prominence and make the Law of Moses universal.
Jewish Rejection of Jesus’ Messianic Claims
The New Testament provides several examples of how and why Jesus was rejected by the community. One of the main reasons is that his views and ideas were new or even unprecedented for them.
For instance, John mentions that many people and some of his disciples abandoned him when he proclaimed, “Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day” (English Standard Version, John 6: 54). It is possible to say that they misunderstood his words.
It should be noted that this conversation took place in a synagogue, where no one was allowed to make such statements.
The second and probably most important reason is his criticism of the Sanhedrin priests. First of all, need to speak about the incident which is normally known as the Cleansing of the Temple.
According to Mathew, Jesus cast the money-changers out of the Temple and said, “My house shall be called a house of prayer,’ but you make it a den of robbers” (Matthew 21:12-17). The phrase “my house” emphasizes Jesus’ divine nature, and it could provoke retaliation of high priests.
Moreover, one can refer to the famous Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen which is mentioned in the canonic Gospels.
It tells a man who entrusted with the task of maintaining a vineyard to tenants or husbandmen. When this man sent his son to take the part of the crop, the tenants killed him. According to Luke, the priests perceived this parable as accusation (Luke 20:9-19).
One can also argue that many people misunderstood Jesus and viewed him as a rebel or mutineer against the Law of Moses, although he never spoke anything against the Ten Commandments and pointed out that his intention was to improve or elaborate this set of beliefs and practices (Luke, 16: 31).
The most important thing is that the Sanhedrin priests took him as a threat to their authority and realized that his accusations had been justified.
The Messianic prophecies accomplished by Jesus
Overall, it is possible to provide several examples indicating that Jesus did accomplish at least some of Messianic prophecies. One of the requirements is to spread the knowledge of God to other nations and make them abide by the Law of Moses (Isaiah 2:11-17).
Yet, this theme is also referred to in the Old Testament, where Paul says that for God there is “no distinction between Jew and Greek” and “everyone who believes in him will not be put shame” (Romans 10).
Again, we need to mention that Jesus did seek to undermine the main tenets of the Old Testament; instead he elaborated it and wanted to make it universal. Matthew mentions that he often encouraged the Apostles to “make disciples of all nations” and convert them (Matthew 28:19-20).
Furthermore, according to Isaiah, the messiah “will swallow up death forever; and the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from all faces” (Isaiah 25:8). This is one of the main deeds that the Messiah is expected to accomplish.
It is directly related to the Christian concept of salvation and Jesus’ self-sacrifice for the redemption of people’s sins. Mark says, “the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (English Standard Version: Mark 10: 45).
This argument is further elaborated by Paul, who points out that the followers of Jesus will be given salvation and eternal life (John 3:16).
Thus, if we draw the parallels between Isaiah’s prophecies, especially the belief that the Messiah will convert gentiles to Jewish faith, resurrect people from the dead, and save them from suffering, we can say that Jesus was the Promised Messiah.
Moreover, it is possible some of the expectations set for “moshiah” by Jewish theologians were mostly political but not spiritual, and this is why they rejected Jesus, who did not accept any form of violence or brutal force.
The tensions between Christianity and Judaism can be explained by the fact that Christian and Jews offered different interpretations of Messiah’ role and deeds. The followers of Judaism believe that the Messiah is mostly a political leader, who will bring their fame to their nation.
In contrast, Christians view him as a spiritual guide who will showed people the way in which they should act in order to earn salvation from suffering and eternal life. Jesus was largely misunderstood and even feared by his contemporaries, and this is the main reason why many of them rejected him and later crucified.
Hinduism is believed to be the oldest religions of the world; its founding predates the recorded history of humankind (Himalayan Academy, 2006).
Despite the fact that some people, especially journalists, emphasize several similarities between Christianity and Hinduism; it is of utmost importance to show their fundamental differences in understanding the concepts of sin and salvation as well as in the perception of God as a Supreme Being.
This paper is aimed at showing that Christian beliefs are incompatible with Hinduism and that Christians must do their best to evangelize Hindus.
The main differences between Christianity and Hinduism
Christianity originated out of Judaism and it was based on monotheistic theology; Christian tradition postulates that God is one, omnipotent, omniscient, and good.
The followers of the Hindu religion share this belief in a Supreme Being; however, they also accept the possibility that there are other divinities or gods which should also be worshipped.
In addition to the worshipping of smaller divinities, Hinduism does not reject sorcery and magic which are condemned in the Bible (Himalayan Academy, 2006). The adherents of Christian tradition do not tolerate these beliefs and practices; in fact, they are considered to be idolatry.
It should also be noted that Hindus can visualize their gods in any form, for instance, this Supreme Being can assume a shape of an elephant that symbolizes power and strength (Pancholi, 1998, p 13, 25). Thus, Hinduism does not restrict its followers in assuming and visualizing their gods from being whatever.
This tradition does not seek to impose religious dogmas on people, especially if one speaks about ritualistic practices. This form of liberty is not typical of Christianity and the adherents of this religion believe that ritualistic part is also important.
Nonetheless, the most important differences between these religions are the beliefs about afterlife and sin. Hinduism rejects such concepts as concept as Heaven or Hell according to this tradition the soul of dead person moves to another body (Pancholi, 1998, 36).
Thus, one can speak about never-ending reincarnation of soul. This idea is entirely incompatible with Christian doctrine. The thing is that the notions of paradise and hell and necessary to emphasize the brevity of worldly life and that the deeds of a person can either be rewarded or punished by God.
These notions suggest that a human being should take moral responsibility for his/her actions and be aware of their consequences. The idea of soul reincarnation can a person morally irresponsible since it implies that he/she will always have another chance to amend ones misdeeds.
This is one of the reasons why Christianity and Hinduism can hardly be compatible with one another. Those Christians, taking interest in Hinduism should be aware of these differences and remember about the perils entailed by this philosophy.
Another important thing which distinguishes Hinduism from Christianity is the interpretation of moral life. According to this tradition, a person who wants to obtain salvation (mocksha), has to conduct oneself in a righteous way, achieve economic prosperity and derive enjoyment from life (Pancholli, 1998, p 15).
It is supposed that a person must balance each of these objectives. Certainly, Christianity does not prohibit the enjoyment of earthly life and economic prosperity, but they are taken as the major objectives of a human being. The thing is that they can entirely oust a person’s devotion to God.
Such famous representative of Hinduism as Professor Radhakrishnan argue that “the theists and the atheist” can become Hindus if the accepts the value system of this tradition; moreover, he argues that conduct is the most important thing, but not belief (Radhakrishnan as cited in Pancholi 1998, p 13).
This ideology is unacceptable for Christian tradition since this religion stresses the premise that God always cares about humankind and wants to forgive them their sins or shortcomings.
The premise, according to which conduct is more important than belief, can lead to self-righteousness, narcissism and subsequently pride which is one of the deadly sins. This is the main danger of Hindu outlook.
The methods of evangelizing Hindus
In order to evangelize Hindus, Christian should first argue that their different divinities do not reflect omnipotence and omnipresence of God. He permeates every aspect of human life and cannot be reduced only to power or beauty.
The worshipping of these divinities can eventually result a distorted perception of God and his relations with human beings. Hinduism accepts magic as a part of religion; this practice implies that a person can gain supernatural powers (Himalayan Academy, 2006).
Christian should show that this idea is very perilous and draw Biblical examples showing the dangers of sorcery and magic; one of them is the destiny of ancient Egypt, rooted in idolatry and magic.
Secondly, Christians need to argue that Biblical teachings provide reliable guidelines for people’s behavior, for instance, they may refer to the Ten Commandments or the Sermon on the Mount.
Moreover, the followers of Christian tradition should point out that Hindus’ overemphasis on the significance of conduct as compared to belief, can transform into pride and vanity. On the whole, Christian critique of Hinduism must focus on the dangers of this theological approach and the benefits of Biblical teachings.
Apart from that, Christian people should point out that the concepts of heaven and hell are essential for moral behavior of people; in this way they will be able to highlight the limitations of Hindu philosophy and religion.
However, one should bear in mind that evangelizing is possible only if these arguments are expressed during a thoughtful and respectful discussion between the representatives of two religions; otherwise, Hindus will not accept Biblical teaching.
It has to be admitted that Hinduism has certain similarities with Christianity, for example the belief in goodness and omnipotence of God. Nonetheless, these religions present different theologies and moral codes.
Hinduism urges people to act in a righteous way, but unlike Christianity, it does not give any specific instructions.
Biblical teachings attract a person’s attention to the notion of paradise and hell and show that his/her actions will be either awarded or punished after his/her death. This is probably the main difference between these religions.
From theological point of view Buddhism cannot be regarded as a religion since it does not emphasize the idea of a Supreme Being; more likely it should be considered as a set of beliefs about human nature and a code of conduct that enables to achieve enlightenment.
This paper will discuss the main principles of Buddhism, its origins, schools, and the major concepts. Furthermore, it is vital to work out practical strategies of evangelizing the followers of this moral and philosophical tradition.
The origin of Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama, who lived during the fifth century before Common Era is believed to be the founder of Buddhism (Mc Donnell
The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction There are numerous languages that are used in different parts of the world for communication. Arabic is one of them. It is spoken by many people in the world and mostly by countries in Middle East and the northern parts in the continent of Africa. In total, around 24 countries use this language as their official language.
This language is also used by the Muslims as the language which is used to teach their religious teachings; consequently many Muslims use this language either as the first language or through learning it for religious purposes. Arabic is recognized by the United Nations as one of its official languages.
Languages are important avenues for communication unique to human beings alone. Animals use different means of communication other than the language. Within the communities, there exist two important things which distinguish one community from the other, which are: language and culture.
Any change in culture brings about a change in the corresponding language used in that culture. The kind of language used today is therefore a result of the years of evolution in the culture which have impacted on the language.
This paper shall address the topic of classicism from the Quran in Arabic colloquial conversion and also the impacts of culture on aspects of Arabic language and/or Arabic language use.
Different Forms of Arabic Arabic exists in several forms. They include the Quranic or classical Arabic, formal also known as modern standard Arabic and spoken or colloquial Arabic.
The Quranic form is used mostly for religious purposes. It is the form of Arabic through which the Quran and other religious writing of the Muslims have been written. It is an old form of the language because its use dates back to the time when the first copies of Quran were written around 600’s.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has primarily been used for religious purposes and is learnt only to enable one to read and be able to perform other religious functions and not for everyday conversations or for scholarly writings.
This form of Arabic is therefore only confined to the setting of religious writings in Islam and is rare in other areas of literature.
For official communication and teaching in schools, modern standard Arabic is used. This is also the form that is used to write literary works and taught to foreigners who may want to learn Arabic as a foreign language.
Colloquial Arabic is used in everyday conversations. It varies from one country to another with each Arabic speaking country having a different dialect from other countries.
However, the form of Arabic spoken in Egypt is considered more standard among others from the other countries because it is easily understood by many people.
Classicism from the Quran in Colloquial Arabic conversation Colloquial Arabic, which is the form of Arabic that is used in day to day conversation, although distinct from classicism, has its root in classicism. Classicism forms the basis for the development of colloquial Arabic.
However, colloquial Arabic differs from classicism in that it has borrowed many words which it has incorporated in its vocabulary.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are aspects of classicism that can be traced in colloquial Arabic. Some religious terms like “salat” which means prayer was only found in classic Arabic and restricted to be used for religious purposes.
This however has changed slightly because such and other terms are being used even in colloquial Arabic without one being viewed as if they are breaking the rules of the Arabic language.
There are some grammatical rules that are derived from classicism and used in other forms of Arabic, including the colloquial Arabic. Most of the modern forms of Arabic adhere to the grammatical rules stipulated by the founders of classicism (Freeman, 1994).
Although each Arabic speaking region has a different form of colloquial Arabic, there is one common feature among all these dialects.
Most of them retain some forms of words derived from the classicism or just modify them a bit such that it becomes easy for the people from all regions to understand these words even if they do not understand other words from a given dialect.
Classicism has also played a great role in affecting the pronunciation of words used in colloquial Arabic. The word orders in sentence structures are also as a result of classicism influence on the dialects of Arabic.
Colloquial Arabic relies mostly on classicism in order for it to be effective in usage for conveying intended meaning.
In the area of greetings, classicism can also be noted when one is using colloquial Arabic. There are many forms of formal greetings and ways of saluting people that are used in colloquial Arabic.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Let Us Be Theoretical: The Mystery of Underevolution Among the most widespread questions concerning the classical Arabic language introduced by Quran and its multiple varieties the one that takes the first place is, perhaps, the classicism details adopted from Quran in a number of the Arabic language varieties.
Since the phenomenon is rather well-known and important for the modern Arabic languages, it requires considerable research.
Knowing the impact of the classical Quran language on the modern language dialects, one can draw a scheme of the future language development and even foresee the probable misconceptions that can arise as the representatives of the different dialects encounter.
Therefore, one of the most crucial issues is suggesting a valid theory that explains the peculiarities of the language development and outlines the prospects of its further progress.
Despite the fact that the issue has already become a widespread topic, there is certain lack of theories that can explain the phenomenon of the Arabic dialects all over the world.
However, the existing theory explains the facts that are observed in the most sufficient way, which allows to suggest that the given theory can be used as the basis for the given research.
According to Hammond (2005), the key reason for the dialects to resemble the traditional, classical Quran Arabic is the fact that the language was strongly associated with religion and thus could not be used for “low” purposes; on the contrary, the colloquial Arabic was not supposed to be used when talking about the “elevated” things:
Arabic, on the other hand, was theorized as being God’s language and those who spoke it were considered to be among God’s chosen people.
Not only that, the elevation of the Quranic text to a concept of divine linguistic perfection created an imperative to maintain the use of that formal language. So, colloquial Arabic never evolved into separate written languages in the way of the Romanic languages (323)
However, it is worth keeping in mind that there is another theory concerning the traditional Quran version of the Arabic language and the multiple dialects appearing on its basis. According to Hassan (2004), there are two principal theoretical approaches to the variety of the Arabian dialects.
The first one, created by Mitchell, splits the entire Arabian language into three varieties:
vernacular, which has prestige in born urban and rural regions
Written Standard Arabic, which is also spoken on formal occasions
Mixed Arabic, which is a mixture of written and vernacular Arabic and which functions in formal and informal situations (84).
Speaking of the second theory that Hassan (2004) mentions, one should say that it is based on the model suggested by Ferguson and presupposes the subdivision of the language into the “high” and “low” dialects (84).
With such abundance of theories and opinions, it can be considered that the most reasonable would be to follow the model offered by Hammond (2005).
Since in certain issues this theory has some points of contact with the other ideas concerning the split of the Arabic language, there are certain reasons to suppose that this is one of the most credible theories of all existing.
When the Language Splits in Two: Koran and the Colloquial Speech. Where the Line Is Drawn Koran and the colloquial Arabic speech coexistence can be considered a unique phenomenon. Still, despite the obvious prevalence of the colloquial Arabic speech in the modern society, the influence and authority of the more standard version, worshipped for hundreds of years, is still one of the key issues in the Arabic language.
As Akhtar (2010) marks, “Arabic seems to operate through not one, but two different languages. One is a standard language used uniformly through Arab world, while the other can be any of the thousands of dialects that are spoken natively by Arabs” (140)
Examining the most widely used expressions from Quran, one can draw a scheme of the extent to which the Quran influences the modern Arabic language.
It is necessary to mark that the Quran expressions are and certain linguistic peculiarities of the way in which sentences and words are built in Quran texts not only make the greatest impact on the rest of the Arab languages, but also reprint the most essential features of the culture; perhaps, this is the key reason for the Quran language to have such immense impact on the rest of the Arabic dialects.
For instance, according to what Luxenberg (2007) claims, the Quran words are deprived of the typical feminine endings:
This rule of Syro-Aramaic grammar according to which the status absolutus feminine in the predicative adjective and participle, through the dropping of the t and the retention of the final ā, does not differ formally from the status emphaticus of the corresponding attributive masculine form, now opens our eyes to a phenomenon of classical Arabic grammar that has until now been considered a mystery (219)
Therefore, it must be marked especially that the classical Arabic suggests masculine adjectives endings instead of the feminine. Considering the culture and the traditions of the Arabic countries, this is quite logical. However, this is not the only peculiarity of the Quran language.
Considering the abovementioned theory, one would claim that Quran is supposed to have the strongest impact on the existing Arabic language varieties. Since the linguistic varieties are not likely to develop further on, they are bound to keep the traditions once established in the texts of Quran.
Another peculiar detail concerning the Quran classical Arabic is the fact that the use of participles in the Quran language is rather restricted, and the “location of the even in the past is not indicated by the language structure,” as Kinberg (2001) says (165).
Concerning the Colloquial Arabic language, one can possibly say that this is a “milder” version of the Quran language, with the variations that the official language does not allow on the ground of religious ideas.
Hence, it contains a number of details that make it quite different from the original language, yet prevents fro becoming the multiple variations of the Arabic from becoming sovereign languages.
Glued together with the religion and the sacred text, these dialects have much in common, rooting from the same language. Speaking of the dialects peculiarities, one must mention that these concern mainly the use of adjectives, as Wightwhick (2003) says (68).
The Classicism in Koran and the Colloquial Speech: Part One. Looking for the Differences It must be mentioned that the differences between the stem language – the Koran one – and the dialects are considerable, which predetermines the social stratification in the society.
In addition, the difference between the formal language and its less official variants allow to differentiate between the religious and the secular issues. Following Versteegh’s (2007) train of thoughts,
The importance of the lexical aspect in the distinction between literary and colloquial Arabic is partly due to the sheer number of the lexical items, which naturally far exceed the number of grammatical structures and phonological categories (655).
Therefore, the key aspect that separates the main language and its dialects is the loan words and the words used in the colloquia; speech used to demote the objects that were not mentioned in Quran. Therefore, the existing theory of the impact that Quran has on the language variations proves completely right.
There is no doubt that the sacred book influences the dialects formation and contributes to their stability. This guarantees that the local variations of the Quran language will be used only as a means of oral communication among the lower layers of the society, but not intrude into the sphere of religion and the state affairs.
To demonstrate the key difference between the Quran Arabic and the colloquial one, which makes the former influence the latter, one could quote McAuliffe (2006), who says that “Quran has enriched Arabic poetry more than any other Arabic literary genre” (131).
This is the most refined language, in contrast to the colloquial Arabic dialects.
With help of this little yet essential detail the different kinds of languages are quite unlikely to become another standard of official Arabic someday. It is obvious that the lexical charge of the words used in Quran is far too complicated to integrate into the linguistic varieties of the Arabic language.
However, that does not mean that the impact of the Quran is going to become weaker – on the contrary, guided by the key language, the speakers of the dialects will be reluctant to charge their language with the words from the other languages; creating the colloquial equivalent of the Quran term will be preferable.
It must be kept in mind though that Quran possesses the lexemes that do not have their corresponding colloquial equivalent, which means that the impact of the Quran language on the rest of the Arabic languages is going to become even stronger.
Like the language of the “higher” level, it is dominant over the rest of the Arabic dialects; as Naseem explains,
We can’t take the literal meaning of words in all cases. For example the “Quran” “Salat,” “Zakat” and “Haji” are such words whose literal meanings are different from their technical usages, which are assigned by the Sharah Science (302)
This means that the difference between the initial language, the one that is spoken I Quran, and the number of dialects used by the usual people is quite considerable. Yet it must be admitted that the Quran Arabic has great impact on the Arabic languages despite the peculiarities of the colloquial Arabic.
The Classicism in Koran and the Colloquial Speech: Part Two. The Evident Similarities One of the most peculiar features of the Quran Arabic and its variations is that the linguistic similarities manifest themselves on the very phonetic level, which means that the Quran Arabic is supposed to have huge impact on the dialects. As Versteegh (2007) claims,
Usually, speakers of a colloquial Arabic dialect use the same consonants for literary Arabic as for colloquial Arabic. the emphatics /s, d, t, d/” and the somewhat language-specific pharyngeals l’, h/, as well as plosives, fricatives, lateral and semivowels are pronounced in the same manner in both (spoken) literary and in the colloquial Arabic (657)
This means that, with such sufficient similarities on the most basic level of the language building, there can be no doubt that the Quran Arabic has the greatest impact on the existing dialects. It is obvious that the key aspects of the classical Quran Arabic language serve as the basis for the colloquial Arabian.
However, the similarities between the two language variations can be traced not only on the level of phoneme, but also in the sphere of lexis.
According to the number of derivations from the Quran Arabic into the colloquial language, the sense shifting and the polysemy of certain words, one can possibly say that the spirit of the Quran Arabic is rather distinct in the modern colloquial dialects, despite the time gap between the two.
South (2006) drives a good example of such change of meaning occurring as time passes: “The Arabic name for mosque and university is from the same root: jaamea” (71).
However, such dominance over the dialects often results in rather deplorable consequences. Once translated from one Arabic dialect into another, the message written in Quran Arabic loses all its sense.
As Kinberg (2001) mentioned, “even when author himself takes upon himself to translate his literary production from literary Arabic to colloquial Arabic, the two texts are not completely identical” (68).
It must be kept in mind that the two kinds of the Arabic language, the standard one, and the vernacular Arabic, are unlikely to merge further on. According to the existing evidence, the more time is going to pass, the bigger the gap between the stem language and its varieties is going to be.
As About (1973) explains, the grammar of the modern official Arabic does not differ much from the traditional Quran style. However, “as for colloquial, its ancient dialects and forms have changed, and they have come to differ greatly from one country to another” (572).
Still it must be admitted that, with the grammar rules unchanged in the traditional language and in its variations, it can be considered that the classical Quran language does have its impact on the modern Arabic dialects.
However, it must be also remembered that there is a considerable difference between the colloquial and the standard Arabic.
Conclusion Considering the abovementioned, one can conclude that the classical Quran Arabic language still has its impact on the modern language variations. Despite the seeming difference that usually manifests itself in the vocabulary of the language, there is the specific grammatical structure that keeps the languages together.
Considering the differences and the similarities of the classical Arabic language and the colloquial variations, one can conclude that, despite the obvious split between the languages, there is certain stem that keeps them together and makes them fuse into a single language.
Still it is obvious that the classical form dominates over the other dialects and offers the basis that the rest of the language variations ate based on. With such state of affairs, it is absolutely clear that the classical elements of the modern Arabic language have certain effect on the colloquial dialects to a considerable degree.
As Versteegh (2001) clarified,
Anyone wishing to write in Arabic does so with the Classical norm in mind. The amount of deviation or the distance from the colloquial varies with the degree of education of the author of the text. Thus, some Middle Arabic texts exhibit only an occasional mistake, whereas in other texts the entire structure of the language is almost colloquial (115)
Thus, with the abundance of language variations, they are all influenced by the single stem language. With help of the classical standards of Arabic, the dialects stay within their boundaries and do not form other languages.
It is clear that, once the impact of the classical Arabic fades away, the rest of the dialects will develop in their own specific way.
Reference List Abbound, P. F.
DeHavilland’s Falling Comet Risk Management Case Study college application essay help
Executive Summary DeHavilland is the manufacturer of the pioneer jet-powered aircraft known as the Comet. The innovation failed to assure passengers and crew safety after three of its aircrafts crashed mid air within the first year of its release. The large window shapes, structures of the wing, and structure designs were cited as the cause of the accidents.
Boeing and DC-8 took up the technology and successfully launched jet-powered commercial aircrafts that provided maximum safety to passengers and crew. The two companies had studied DeHavelland, and the manner it handled the risks associated with the Comet. Both Boeing and DC-8 are presently the market leaders in the technology while the Comet is grounded.
DeHavilland failed to initiate risk management strategies which would have helped it to address the problems with its aircrafts strategically and sort them out. The company suffered financial risk because the technological innovation was expensive and it required additional external funding.
The British government and the British Overseas Airways Corporation, abbreviated as BOAC, advanced the additional funding. Huge technical and commercial risks were also suffered as a result of the company’s excessive costs incurred in research and development, and the advantages its consumers had anticipated sharing, as a result.
Introduction Business entities and companies have integrated the management of risk into their operations as a way of mitigating the dangers that they face by virtue of their activities. High risk has the potential of ruining business and rendering the organisation inert, especially if measures are not put in place to manage the surrounding risks.
When an organisation pioneers a new technology, it faces a high risk mainly because there have not been previous incidences that provide an insight on how the risk can be handled effectively. This report details on the aspect of risk management with particular reference to DeHavilland’s pioneer jet-powered Comet airplane which was first released in 1952.
Failure to appropriately manage the risk related with the Comet technology has since rendered the airplanes grounded and, instead, DeHavillands main competitor at the time, mainly Boeing, enjoys market leadership with the same technology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Risk Types Related to the Comet Case Technical risk
Commercial aircrafts mainly manage to grow in their popularity by virtue of their consideration on critical issues such as maintaining high safety standards for passengers and crew. The Comet failed particularly in this area after the technology it employed in the manufacture of the first jet-powered aircraft failed to assure passengers and crew of their safety.
Although the commercial jetliner technology was first introduced by DeHavilland through its Comet aircrafts, it was abound with technical problems that led to a series of fatal accidents within the first year of its introduction into the market.
The allure of pioneering the aircraft market with a unique technology caused DeHavilland to marginalise on safety factors, a decision that in the end resulted in very dangerous quality trade-offs in the Comet (Artto 1997, p. 45). The design of large windows was discovered to be the reason behind the series of accidents that were involving the aircraft.
The windows’ large shapes were causing stress cracks to form in the corners due to rapid pressurization, as well as cabin depressurization. These cracks would result in a catastrophic blow out once the cabins were pressurised and thus, leading to a gyroscopic moment. The comet’s wings also had low fatigue resistance, were prone to damage when rapidly fueling, and also had leaking fuel lines (Hoefer
Medicine Issues: Epidemiology Study Designs Essay essay help: essay help
Choosing the most appropriate study design is a fundamental step in an epidemiological study (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008). According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), epidemiologists use different epidemiological study designs to answer research questions. This paper highlights epidemiological study designs most commonly used during epidemiological research.
Experimental studies According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), investigators often use experimental studies when investigating the role of a given agent in the prevention and cure of diseases.
The main characteristic of experimental study is that it involves the study of prevention and treatment of diseases (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
Strength of Experimental
Experimental studies often yield more accurate results than other study designs.
Weakness of Experimental
Experimental studies are extremely costly and involve thorny ethical issues.
Observational studies This study design involves the observation of the natural experience of the group of people with similar characteristics.
Observational studies examine causes, prevention and possible treatments of specified diseases. In observational studies, investigators take part in passive observation of a given group of people or events. During the study, investigators do not interfere with the group or events (Friss, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strength
Observational study can be used on a wider range of exposure, such as occurrences, prevention measures and treatments of diseases (Friss, 2010).
According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), the main weakness of this study is that researchers do not have absolute control over unsettling influences or inappropriate factors.
Cohort Studies Cohort study can also be referred to as incidence or specific studies. It involves the study of group of people who are free of diseases (Friss, 2010). The selected people are classified into groups according to their level of exposure to a potential cause of disease or outcome (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
Cohort study involves examination of multiple health effects of an exposure (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
According to Friss (2010), Cohort Study is extremely beneficial for studying the national progression of diseases or risk factors for diseases.
In the cohort study, cases such as dropouts or non-response can result in bias.
The most appropriate measure of associations for the three study designs The most appropriate measure of association in an epidemiologic study depends on the plan used to collect the needed information (Till and Grohan, 2012).
We will write a custom Essay on Medicine Issues: Epidemiology Study Designs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the most appropriate measure of association for experimental study is the comparison of disease level between two groups: a group that has experienced the exposure of interest and one that has not. Experiential studies are the most effective way of examining disease level during exposure (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
Secondly, the appropriate measure of association for observational study is rating new cases in population at given point. This measure is appropriate because it is easy to observe natural occurrences within new populations (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
On the other hand, the most appropriate measure of association for cohort is rating of new cases in population at any given period (Mill, 2011). Cohort studies are effective when handling new cases in a population.
This section describes the potential biases that are most likely to be present in the study descriptions and how they affect the measure of association.
The possible bias that can result in this scenario would be a selection bias. Investigators could have been biased when selecting children that are sick against those that are not sick. Selection bias would lead to underestimation of the outcome of the study (Filed, 2010).
The possible bias that can come up from this situation is differential recall bias. Recall bias could result from this study survey because some individuals in the groups might decide to give false information during study survey. Recall bias, in this situation, would lead to overestimation of the results (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
The type of selection bias, known as healthy worker effect, could result from this situation. Investigators, in this scenario, categorize the participants with respect to exposure status after which a follow up is done to record the disease (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008). However, ten years is an unusually long period and can lead to underestimation of measures of association.
Investigators could possibly introduce misclassification bias in this case. For instance, error could have occurred during classification of disease or exposure. The different groups used in the study survey could have also used drugs that are different from the ones prescribed by the doctors (Filed, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Medicine Issues: Epidemiology Study Designs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This bias can lead to overestimation of the measures of associations because the outcome might not reflect the effect of placebo (Till and Grohan, 2012).
Conclusion Conclusively, while carrying out investigations, investigators should choose the best study designs that can help minimize biases to a considerable level. Investigators should also chose the most appropriate measure of association when carrying out epidemiological research (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).
References Aschengrau, A., and Seage, G. (2008). Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health (second edition). New York, NY: Jones
Behaviour in Economics Critical Essay college application essay help
In his exploration of the organization of complexity, Herbert Simon brings out the understanding of economic rationality in, “The sciences of the artificial”. The book is more of Simon’s conception of complexity in terms of how it can be studied, adapted to and understood by human beings.
With knowledge from diverse fields such as social science, economics, psychology, computer science and biology, Simon has well illustrated a theme that pervades these fields, namely, the complexity emerging from simplicity of a complex environment.
He explores how human beings are viewed as behaving systems while the real thing is that the complexity of their behaviour is a reflection of the complexity of their environment. He defines economics as a theory of human rationality stating that decisions are usually made based on procedural and substantive rationality (Simon 1996, p.57).
The author starts by describing the differences between artificial and natural; he explains that artificial is the one that is made by human including skyscrapers and software (Willemien 2006, p.181). It is through this statement the point is rarely discerned. In his explanation, he talks of how science deals with things as they are perceived.
For instance, classical science only allows people to reason about the various properties of the structure they put in question; but what they do not tell straightforwardly is how to come up with a new structure from scratch with better designs that meet the needs of consumers. Also on the basis of design, accumulated knowledge is better as it gives rational view of things helping people make better decisions.
The real world is usually satisfied by the strictness of standards generalized on matters (Simon 1996, p.129). It is for this reason that designers study old designs aiming at making better ones that meet the new demands. Therefore, economic rationality is a scientific reasoning mode that economists use to interpret the models and designs of future behaviours of socio-economic systems.
On the other hand, Milton Friedman’s, “The methodology of positive economics” is cited as among the most influential and controversial pieces of methodological writings in the economics of the twentieth century. The essay is Friedman’s research based on John Neville’s distinction of normative and positive economics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relation between positive and normative economics somehow brings out inevitable confusion, which has resulted in mischievous errors.
Tautological completeness should not be the judging factor for a useful economic theory; instead, simplicity, fruitfulness, predictability and the ability to generate additional information on the matter should take the role; the more unrealistic the assumptions are, the more significant the theory is. The essay is a plea for a positivistic interaction of theories and observations (Friedman 1953, p.14).
The essay primarily focuses on certain methodological problems that arise when constructing the so called “positive science”. In other words, the problem comes when determining whether a theory should be accepted as part of knowledge it emphasizes (Maki 2009, p.91). Assimilation of theories, unrealistic concepts, social constructions, predictive tests and explanatory unification are the concerning issues that Friedman raises.
The author acknowledges the element of omission of details perceived to be irrelevant, and as a result, presents invalid predictions. What is more, the book provides an insight of useful heuristics of economics. It is in this book that the author talks of economics as a rationalized skill used to predict behaviours, and determining whether they are factual through perceptions.
Reference list Friedman, M 1953, Essays in positive economics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Maki, U (ed.) 2009, The Methodology of Positive Economics: Reflections on the Milton Friedman Legacy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Simon, H 1996, The sciences of the artificial, MIT Press, Cambridge.
We will write a custom Essay on Behaviour in Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Willemien, V 2006, The Cognitive Artifacts of Designing, Routledge, London.
Personal Skills Development in the Teamwork Report (Assessment) essay help online
Introduction In the modern world, organizations are increasingly becoming active and uneven (Barthe 2010, p. 94). Instabilities force organizations to form groups and teams that are expected to work together in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives. An organization relies on teams and groups in delivering services to clients.
There is increased complexity regarding the composition of teams, skill requirement, and risk management. In high reliability organizations such as the telecommunication company, teamwork plays a critical role in enhancing service delivery. A small mistake would result in serious losses, as well as complaints from customers.
Working in a team enabled me to learn various coping skills (Horlick-Jones 1995, p. 310). I realized that teamwork is a tool that can be utilized to achieve high results. In the Nigerian network industry, competition is stiff implying that organizations must develop some strategies in order to outsmart their competitors. MRN employs teamwork in order to conquer its rivals.
Working with other experts in the organization assisted me in understanding that teamwork entails three strategies. One of the strategies employed in enhancing teamwork is grouping individuals according to capabilities. This is upon realization that people differ in terms of talent. For instance, I was placed under the supervision of a network professional, with adequate skills on matters related to networking.
This was to ensure that I learn the basics of networking in detail. In the team, there were individuals with task-oriented skills while others were team-oriented. It was the role of the manager to balance the two groups (Geschwind 2001, p. 69).
In the team, the management ensured that organizational goals are achieved by modifying the tasks of individuals and the organization structure. This was to ensure workflow in the organization. Team competency was guaranteed in the organization through continuous training. The management at MRN capitalized on team training in enhancing team performance.
Scholars define team training as the application of set of instructions that depend on well-tested apparatus. This apparatus includes simulator, lectures, and videos. In the organization, the management ensured that employees are provided with relevant training lessons each week. The main aim of management was to ensure that team training replicates the general values of learning theory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, training was meant to present information regarding basic group behaviors. Training provided team members with a chance to practice the skills they learned on a weekly basis. Working under the supervision of an expert was vital to my career because I could get feedback as regards to my performance (Dressel 2001, p. 39).
Drawing on relevant theory and concepts, would this be described as a group or a team?
Usually, there is a difference between a group and a team. However, many people fail to note the difference. A team is internally structured while the group is externally structured. A team has objectives, with tasks for each team member. On the other hand, a group is a collection of individuals who share the same objective. It may include people with similar interests.
In the organization, all employees belong to a group because their major interest is to earn a salary. A number of scholars have designed theories to explain the behavior of individuals in a team. However, Tuckman’s theory is the only outstanding theory that explains the activities of individuals in a team precisely (Drake, Wong
Property Management Systems (Hospitality Industry) Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Property Management Systems (PMSs) are essential tools in the hospitality industry. Hospitality industry is complex and has numerous challenges. Reservations, customer care and administration of hotels and resorts offer challenges that the management must confront in order to attain customer satisfaction, productivity and profitability of the establishments (O’Connor, 2004).
For this reason, PMSs are devised to manage the operations that take place in the complex hotel and resort environments. Therefore, PMS is an investment option that firms in the hospitality industry must implement. Technological developments have made various types of PMSs available for hotels at low prices (Deakin, 2004).
This paper explores the functions, importance and structure of PMSs. In addition, it includes a SWOT analysis of the use of PMSs in the hospitality industry. Finally, it considers some of the financial considerations that firms in the hospitality industry should consider before they integrate PMS systems in the management of their establishments. The paper focuses on hotels and resorts.
Property Management Systems (PMSs) A property management system is software that computerizes the operations of resorts, restaurants, hotels and casinos. The automation of operations in these establishments includes the integration of back and front office activities and applications to enable full control of the entire establishments.
A fully functional PMS system should be able to incorporate all value-chain parts within the establishment’s business network into one functional storage area (Ismail, 2002). Property Management Systems (PMSs) are significant components of business oversight mechanisms, and assist the management to oversee the operational activities of establishments (Bhattacharya, 2009).
A PMS is a vital component of a firm’s decision assembly process. It is a group of application programs that are related directly to front and back office activities of hotels. Notably, the main activities that PMS deals with in hotel management include revenue, guest relationships and reservation management. Others are check-in and checkout, room condition and folio management.
Consequently, PMS collects vital amounts of information that management can use to improve tactical, strategic and operational decisions. The management can also collect data from other sources due to the use of PMS. The management can obtain more data through customer relationships, electronic point of sales at outlets, the internet via hotels website or through loyalty programs (Karolin
Goodman Fielder Benefits in Asia Report (Assessment) cheap essay help
Businesses organisations expand as a result of hard work which involves ensuring that customers get satisfied and aggressive exploration of the market. Sometimes, old fashioned methods of marketing are used to increase sales. This approach is supported by many consultants and business experts.
Although hard work is important for business growth, it is basically described as traditional wisdom. Both small and large business organisations can increase their growth through acquisitions. Goodman Fielder will enjoy many benefits of acquisitions in Asia as opposed to other entry modes.
The first benefit that he will enjoy is easy integration. Rapid business growth is associated with numerous risks. This has been witnessed in some business organisations where rapid growth has caused their decline because they have been forced to do many things at the same time.
Acquisitions will be beneficial to Goodman since they will provide enough procedures and systems to accommodate business growth. This will be done through the selling company that will provide the necessary facilities and human labour to ensure that the new business operates in a smooth manner.
The second benefit that Goodman will enjoy from acquisitions in Asia is ability to deal with entry barriers. Entry into new markets is often associated with numerous challenges that limit business growth. In some extreme circumstances, businesses may even collapse completely.
Acquisitions will enable him to use the resources of an existing organisation to stabilise his business. As a result, the risk of stiff competition from rival companies will be reduced. Without acquisitions, this will not be possible because of stiff competition (Gaughan 28).
The third benefit of acquisitions in Asia that Goodman will enjoy is market power. Market is very important in any business establishment since it enhances its growth. Most business organisations fail due to lack of a strong market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through acquisitions, Goodman will be able to establish a strong market presence in Asia. Consequently, this will enhance the rate of business growth. The market power will be strengthened by increased market share (Advantages and Disadvantages of Acquisition 3). In addition, there will be reduced competition due to capacity shut down. These are benefits that will only be achieved through acquisitions.
The fourth benefit that Goodman will enjoy from acquisitions in Asia is financial gains. The aim of establishing any business venture in a particular region is to make profits. Without making profits and generating the required revenue, businesses do not perform well. Acquisitions will make it possible for a company whose share value will be low to become part of a stronger company in order to strip assets and acquire short term benefits.
For example, getting finances from banks will not be difficult since there will be tangible assets that the banks could sell in case borrowers fail to pay back the borrowed money. This will not be possible without acquisitions since a company will be forced to rely on its limited resources (Growth through Acquisition 4).
The fifth benefit that Goodman will get from acquisitions in Asia is reduced marketing expenses and risks. Some companies attempt to initiate marketing campaigns in order to increase their sales since they think that it is easy.
However, the expectations of getting huge sales from marketing campaigns are not usually realistic. Marketing is a risky activity that can lead to losses instead of profits. Acquisitions will therefore be beneficial since marketing through an existing company will reduce the risks involved and increase the sales.
Works Cited Advantages and Disadvantages of Acquisition 2012. Web.
Gaughan, Patrick. Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings, New York: John Wiley
Does the East Asian “Miracle” Invalidate Dependency Theory? Argumentative Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The phenomenal growth enjoyed by the 4 Asian Tigers, namely Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, call into question the validity of dependency theory and its application to a modern-day setting.
The main idea behind dependency theory is the notion that “various resources from the periphery, representing the poor and underdeveloped states, flow towards the core, representing the rich and industrialized nations” (Nelson and Pack, 1999).
It must be noted that the theory itself is a branch of Marxism and was actually heavily developed during the midpoint of the twentieth century (Bhatti,1980).
Taking this into consideration, it can be stated that theory itself may be slightly outdated in terms of its applicability in a financial system that is continuously evolving as a result of new technologies and globalization.
While its central premise was the “core and periphery” system it did come with the implication that poor states were integrated into world economic order in such a way that developing countries cannot or couldn’t dramatically develop into rich industrialized states under the present political-economical world order (Baylis and Smith 2001).
At the time of its creation such an assumption proved to be quite true, wealthy industrialized countries at the time had the advantage of technological innovation, modern-day infrastructures and systems, an educated population base as well as several centuries worth of social development that emerging economies were hard-pressed to even reach a fraction of what such societies had accomplished (Chilcote, 1981).
In order to survive in such an environment, various developing countries fell into the pattern of supplying raw resources to industrialized countries in exchange for various products and technologies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It must be noted that these products and technologies were not bought at the same price of the natural resources sent but rather had a significant amount of added value-added to their overall price (Santos, 1970).
It is this added value (justified as processing and production costs) that was one of the main reasons why dependency theorists at the time stated that there was little possibility for periphery states to get out of their current situation since more value was flowing towards the core than what was actually flowing out (Frank, 1967).
For a time this proved to be true since core states enjoyed years of sustained growth and development as a direct result of the resources flowing into core and the wealth accumulated by selling processed resources to the periphery (Cox, 1981).
The occurrence of the East Asian Miracle threw this notion developed by dependency theorists into question since countries that were previously part of the periphery took on characteristics of core states as a result of sustained economic growth and development (Amsden, 1979).
The inherent problem with dependency theory is that it neglected to take into account what would happen if periphery states started to develop their own means of producing goods and services that would be in demand by the core states (Dunne et al., 2010).
In fact, it can be stated that rapid globalization and technological development combined with significant foreign investments and demand for cheap processed goods were the main reasons behind the East Asian Miracle which could be considered a continuing trend to this very day.
Explaining the Origins of the East Asian Miracle An examination of the historical factors leading up to the East Asian Miracle show that the actors involved, namely: Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand had several years of supercharged growth as a direct result of market liberalization and a focus on increasing exports to other countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Does the East Asian “Miracle” Invalidate Dependency Theory? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What must first be understood is that each economy, society and culture in each of the actors involved in the East Asian Miracle is unique and as such it cannot be stated that their sudden growth is inherent to special factors inherent in the countries themselves (Strange, 1987).
A better approach would be to examine the common threads that unite each specific case that gives a better picture of the whole instead of trying to interpret each country on a case by case basis.
One of the first aspects that must be answered is how the rapid growth and industrialization happen in these countries did in the first place?
Dependency theory clearly states that wealthy nations perpetuate a state of dependence on such countries through various means whether it be economic, financial, political or the development of human resources.
If this were so the East Asian Miracle shouldn’t have happened in the first place since in order to perpetuate a continuous stream of resources towards the core, periphery states needed to be kept in a constant state of dependence.
In 1993 the World Bank presented the argument that the reason why high performing Asian economies were able to bring about the supposed “miracle” was due to them “getting the basics right” in that they were able to instill sound economic policies and were able to expand the quantity and quality of their physical and human capital (Nelson and Pack, 1999).
This explanation though still doesn’t explain how this sudden reversal came to pass if one were to take dependency theory into consideration, then the East Asian Miracle should have been prevented since it would have been in the best interests of core states to keep the periphery in check.
In addition, due to the unequal exchanging relations between the core and the periphery, the root cause of this phenomenon is because of the unfair terms of trade established by the core states (Frank, 1967).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Does the East Asian “Miracle” Invalidate Dependency Theory? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is due to this, the global capitalist system and the distribution method of economical surplus values resulting in the relatively minor development of periphery countries in other parts of the world.
The global system was one wherein developed countries controlled various regions through the export of capital and the capital accumulate system, through the combination of economic expansion and political domination, even through the use of military assets.
It was through the use of such means that the unequal relations between developed countries and underdeveloped countries became firmly established resulting in the economic plight of peripheral states (Santos, 1970).
An examination of the international political climate at the time reveals that a few years before the Asian Miracle started to come to pass, there was an ongoing political clash between the ideals of communism and democracy.
In its attempt to increasingly isolate the “communist threat” the U.S. undertook numerous endeavors such as the Korean War and the Vietnam war however one of the most lasting and positive methods of preventing the spread of communism was to bolster the economies of various countries that were supposedly “vulnerable” to the spread of communist ideals.
In the eyes of the U.S. communism spread more easily as a direct result of economic scarcity, it was due to this notion that it began to invest in numerous Asian economies in order to create more allies in East Asia as well as prevent the spread of communist ideals.
The various authoritarian regimes in Asia at the time were more than willing to comply with the plans of the U.S. in exchange for foreign direct investments and as a result this began the initial stages of the East Asian Miracle (McKinnon, 2008).
Through millions (possibly billions of dollars) in foreign direct investments countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, etc. were able to invest in infrastructure development and technological advancement resulting in the development of various local industries.
Due to the policy of the U.S. in supporting developing economies in order to ward off the spread of communism the U.S. in effect became the largest market for various goods and products originating from these now newly industrialized countries (Linklater, 1986).
As this relationship evolved the periphery no longer became a source of raw materials but rather processed goods and as a result the cycle of described in dependency theory was broken.
Supporting Factors behind the East Asian Miracle Wage Gap Explanation Model
One of the basic premises of dependency theory is the fact that developing nations are source of natural resources as well as cheap labor however the theory doesn’t take into account what would happen if the natural resources and cheap labor found within such countries were utilized for the country’s own benefit (Hall, 2004).
Dependency theory operates under the assumption that developing countries (the periphery) will always have inferior technology compared to the wealthy countries (the core) (Helleiner,2002).
Under this assumption, it is thought that since developing countries will always have inferior technology then the core will always be a necessity as a source of processed goods (Keohane and Nye,2003).
In the case of the East Asian Miracle large amounts of direct foreign investments necessitated the development of various technologies and methods of innovation within periphery countries in East Asia.
Under the wage gap explanation model as economic development takes place differences in wages makes the production of certain goods more viable in other countries with low wages as compared to countries with high wages.
From the 1950’s all the way till the present American and European wages always surpassed those in Asia this, of course, created added costs for the production of certain goods and services.
In the case of the now newly industrialized countries in East Asia their comparatively low wages along with the lower costs of production and distinct lack of transportation fees usually seen in transporting natural resources resulted in significantly lower prices for certain products produced in such countries as compared to those in the U.S (Jones, 2006).
As a result a new system developed wherein the production of certain non-viable items were done in Asia (the periphery) due to the lower cost of production as compared to those in the core system (Terry, 2002).
Under the neoclassical thesis of economic growth, the subsequent economic expansion of the periphery states after the period of direct foreign investments is explained by the fact that “markets are efficient systems and as such will create growth if left alone”.
In the case of developing markets in East Asia the new system created as a result of direct foreign investment, industrial development and markets for processed goods in the U.S. continued well into the future due to wage gap model utilized as a means of ensuring continued economic growth (Wendt, 1992).
The concept of globalization can be described as the rapid integration of financial markets, economies, societies and cultures through trade, communication and transportation (Olds et al. 1999).
Dependency theory states that one of the methods utilized by the core in order to perpetuate dependency was through economic, social, financial and political means.
Under such a notion it can be assumed that one of the reasons why developing countries remained in the state that they were was because they were increasingly isolated to domestic trade within their region and couldn’t effectively enter into the global market place as a result of interference from wealthy countries seeking to perpetuate dependence (Olds et al. 1999).
As a result of globalization financial markets within Asia were actually able to effectively enter into the global market as a result of the integration of financial, transportation and communication systems thus facilitating the abolishment of the old system (Mayer,2009).
One of the reasons why East Asian countries were able to create the “Asian Miracle” was due to the establishment of “prudent” fiscal policies that focused on macroeconomic stability.
Compared with other developing countries, the governments of East Asia paid great attention to maintaining macroeconomic stability and creating a good environment of investment and operation activities for enterprises (Singh, 1995).
They followed two basic principles: the use of a prudent fiscal policy and avoiding overvalued exchange rates (Stiglitz, 2004).
It was due to this that they were able to respond to rapid changes in the economic system and create a flexible response to the changes of the economic situation which resulted in the successful management of fiscal deficits, inflation, external debts and exchange rates.
These countries usually limited the fiscal deficit carefully in order to cover the deficit without causing sudden inflationary pressures and internal and external debt. It must be noted that macroeconomic stability is conducive to long-term planning and private investment, thereby promoting steady economic growth.
All in all, the high savings rate, relatively low taxation, a strong educational system as well as a lower price pressure, access to foreign knowledge and technology, a friendly investment environment and the strategy of government intervention were key factors behind the success of the East Asian countries which resulted in the supposed “miracle”.
Arguments of the Dependency Theorists Regarding the East Asian Miracle In response to claims of the East Asian “miracle” invalidating dependency theory several theorists in support of its claim that the “miracle” is by and large a “temporary experience” which was brought about through a crisis situation that created a distinct imbalance in trade between the core and the periphery (Krugman, 1994).
The aforementioned situation was the world economic crisis that occurred in the 1970’s wherein sudden booms in production resulted in a distinct “overheating” of international markets resulting in spiraling prices of various commodities.
One of the greatest increases in prices was seen in the sudden spike in the price of petroleum which further exacerbated an already dire situation.
The end result was an attack on the concept of the Keynesian welfare state and the establishment of monetarist solutions advocated by Milton Freedman as a method of stabilizing the system.
Dependency theorists argue that that the worldwide economic crisis that occurred and the resulting changes to global financial markets were the main reasons behind the sudden boost in performance of East Asian markets due to the fact that this provided sufficient impetus to weaken the ties between the core and periphery which enabled East Asian markets to expand without the limitations imposed on them by the core.
While dependency theorists agree that the possibility for development does exist in the periphery, they state that it can only occur on a temporary basis and can only occur in times where a certain economic crisis affects the core weakening its dominant position.
A.G. Frank, a dependency theorist, completely dismisses the possibility of the periphery rising to the level of the core and rather asserts the claim that “the growth of export-led manufacturing in East Asian countries and the concomitant exploitation and repression of labor force cannot in any sense be called development” (O’Brien and Williams, 2007).
In other words, he believes that the growth in Asian markets is only a temporary phase with the core eventually asserting its dominance.
Another dependency theorist, Samir Amin, even goes to far as to reject the classification for various East Asian countries as being called NICs or Newly Industrialized Countries.
He asserts the claim that the classification itself is merely superficial and that such economies “have no real conjectural phenomenon of their own, even transmitted from outside, because they are without any internal dynamism of their own” (O’Brien and Williams, 2007).
He even goes so far as to state that the 4 tiger economies are merely showing a new type of inequality in the global market due to the fact that the manufacturing and economic processes found in such economies cannot be extended to encompass the entirety of the East Asian region (O’Brien and Williams, 2007).
As such it can be seen that for dependency theorists they claim that the East Asian Miracle, the growth of various Asian economies the creation of the 4 Tiger economies as well as the rise of manufacturing and economic centers within East Asia is nothing more than a temporary occurrence.
For them the 4 Tiger economies are merely another level in the framework of periphery and thus are an inconsequential existence.
Argument against the View of the Dependency Theorists After examining the view of the dependency theorists regarding the East Asian Miracle, one cannot help but feel that their view is highly erroneous when taking into consideration the fact that at the present Asian economies are actually outstripping their Western counterparts.
For example, China used to be considered part of the periphery within East Asia however within the past 20 years China has grown to become an industrial powerhouse outstripping the production rates of several of the world’s Western economies.
It has grown to become the world’s second-largest economy and is in fact, well on its way to becoming the largest economy by 2015.
Not only that the growth of economies such as that of Hong Kong, Thailand, South Korea, and Singapore have continued to rise over the past several years and in fact, Asian economic growth rates have far outstripped that of countries that were previously known to be part of the “core”.
Further examination of the current situation in East Asia shows the case of the Philippines that was previously not part of the original countries that directly benefitted from the East Asian “Miracle” but as of late has been creating a miracle of its own.
The country is now known as the world’s largest business process outsourcing location with literally thousands of companies outsourcing their back-office processes and call center work to various companies within the Philippines.
As mentioned earlier, with the advent of globalization comes the ability of greater interconnection and communication, which as a result has enabled the creation of processes where particular jobs can be done anywhere in world by anyone.
Globalization is also one of the reasons why the Chinese economy has grown the way it has, due to the advent of interconnected financial services and methods of transportation companies can now easily set up their offshore manufacturing locations within Chinese markets and transport their products to various countries around the world (Rowthorn, 1996).
As mentioned earlier regarding the wage gap explanation model, due to the relatively low cost of labor within East Asian countries such as the Philippines and China a new trend has occurred, supported by globalization, wherein manufacturing processes and various business offices no longer have to be isolated within the core but now are present within the periphery due to the lower cost of labor.
It all basically comes down to economies of scale, the Chinese and Filipinos are basically cheaper and easier to hire compared to workers located in western countries and as such global businesses prefer to have their factories, call centers, and back offices located in such countries in order to save on the cost of labor.
The problem with the dependency theory model is that it neglected to take into account the possibility that new developments brought about by globalization and technological innovation could, in fact, create a situation wherein the greater interconnectivity of financial markets made it possible for developing countries to enter into the world economy despite interference from the core.
One of the arguments presented by dependency theorists that is apparently self-defeating is their assertion that the current status of East Asian countries is only temporarily and can only be brought about through a certain crisis affecting the core.
The recent 2008 financial crisis did, in fact, support this theory however not in the way the dependency theorists predicted, while western markets did, in fact, take a beating from the fallout of the U.S. housing crisis conservative investments done by East Asian markets actually resulted in minimal losses for the region.
While this did result in a sudden increase in the economic activity of East Asian markets another consequence that development theorists didn’t think of was the potential for businesses to move specific service platforms from economies in the U.S. and Europe to locations within East Asia.
Various companies suffering from the fallout of the financial crisis in effect shifted their back office and call center work to the Philippines while at the same time transferred their manufacturing processes to China.
As a result, the economies of the two countries benefitted heavily from the financial crisis and it is estimated that such companies will continue to maintain their offshore operations in China and the Philippines due to the relatively low cost of operations.
What this means for core countries is a continuous decline from their “core” position wherein a relatively new global economic situation is taking place where it is Asian countries with their ability to deliver products and services at a much lower rate that has in effect almost completely abolished the system of core and periphery.
Conclusion Based on the arguments presented it can be seen that the East Asian Miracle and the subsequent events that followed did indeed invalidate dependency theory. In fact, it can even be seen today based on the substantial growth of China, the Philippines and various other countries in East Asia that dependency theory is no longer applicable to their current situation.
The arguments presented by the dependency theorists have been shown to be fairly wrong as proven by current situations and as such the core and periphery system that used to exist in the past can now be relegated to nothing more than a historical footnote in the greater history of the global economy.
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Bhatti, A., (1980), Realism in Marxism, Source: Social Scientist, Vol. 8, No. 5/6, [Marxism and Aesthetics] (Dec., 1979 – Jan., 1980), pp.30-51.
Baylis, J. and Smith, S., (2001), The Globalization of World Politics. New York, Oxford University Press.
Chilcote, R. H., (1981), Issues of Theory in Dependency and Marxism, Source: Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 8, No. 3/4, Dependency and Marxism (Late Summer-Autumn, 1981), pp. 3-16.
Cox, R. W., (1981), Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2.
Dunne, T., Kurki, M. and Smith, S., (2010), International Relations Theories Discipline and Diversity, second edition, New York: Oxford University Press
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Helleiner, E., (2002) Economic Nationalism as a Challenge to Economic Liberalism, Lessons from the 19th Century, Source: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 307-329.
Jones, S., (2006) Antonio Gramsci. London: Routledge.
Krugman, P., (1994) the Myth of Asia’s Miracle Source: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 6 (Nov. – Dec., 1994), and pp. 62-78.
Keohane, R.O. and Nye, J. S., (2003) Realism and Complex Interdependence, from Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition, 2d edition, PP.23-25; 29-37.
Linklater, A., (1986), Realism, Marxism and critical international theory, Review of International Studies (1986), 12, 301-312.
McKinnon, C., (2008), Issues in Political Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mayer, J., (2009), The Growing Interdependence Between Financial and Commodity Markets, No. 195, October, 2009; Discussion Papers, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
Nelson, R. R., and Pack, H., (1999), The Asian Miracle and Modern Growth Theory, Royal Economic Society 1999. Published by Blackwell.
Olds, K., Dicken, P., Kelly, P. F. and Yeung, H. W., (1999), Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific Contested Territories, Bristol: Routledge.
O’Brien, R. and Williams, M. (2007) Global Political Economy, Hong Kong: Palgrave Macmillan, pp, 15.
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Singh, A., (1995) How did East Asia Grow So Fast? Slow Progress Towards an Analytical Consensus, No.97, Discussion Papers, From United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
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Terry, E., (2002) How Asia Got Rich Japan, China, and the Asian miracle, USA: M. E. Sharpe.
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Virtual vs. Traditional Tour Operator Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Business model in tourism
Criteria for evaluating website for travel agency
Introduction Virtual tour operators offer online tourism services while traditional tour operators use other mode of services but not online services. Lastminute.Com is one of the leading online tourism operators offering variety of online travel services.
The company headquarter is located in London and it is currently performing well in the London stock exchange. The company was founded in 1998 with an aim of providing online deals for late holiday booking.
It had about 500,000 regular users by 2000, and it has continued to improve its services to include gifts, entertainment, and travel. The company has also continued to charge lower prices for their services, which have continued to attract more and more customers.
The company offers all its services online and customers can see and choose the services they would like and charges for the services. As Campo and Yague (2008) argue, perceived price quality and satisfaction is very important to the consumers (p.20).
Moreover, “The choice of tourist destination depends so much on their finances” (Schetzina, 2010, p.28). For instance, the company offers prices for their travel services to different destinations and their respective prices.
Lastminute.Com Company also offers variety of services in the UK and Ireland. The hotels offer quality services and at the same time charge rates that are affordable.
The company also offers theater services at very affordable rates that have attracted customers from all parts of UK and Ireland. Thus, this company has continued to excel in the virtual tourism operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Kuoni.Com has continued to use traditional tourism services in the UK. Kuoni.Com is a tourism company owned by the Kuoni group of companies and offers variety of services for tourists.
The travels services include travel services, hotel services search as venues for retreat and honeymoon, and medical services to the tourists among other services.
The company provides its services using traditional tour operations where customers have to visit their offices or those of their agencies in order to book for their services. People have chosen the two companies because of their different mode of operations.
Business model in tourism According to Rachman and Richins, “tour operators are very important for they facilitate services for tourists” (1997, p.78). The two companies have continued to use different marketing strategies as well as offering quality services as way of attracting and retaining their customers.
Customers of tourism services would like to have a tourism agency that is offering a variety of services that will meet their expectations. In tourism industries, quality services and lower charges are important requirements from the customers.
Tourists will give a priority to a tourism company that offers services at lower charges without compromising quality when they are selecting their agencies. These two companies have continued to offer different discount rates for different services as a way of attracting and retaining their customers (Broadus, 2003, p.45).
For instance, Lastminute.Com Company gives its customers 5 percent discount for different travel destinations and this has made many tourists to choose their travel services just because of the fair prices.
We will write a custom Assessment on Virtual vs. Traditional Tour Operator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two companies have also continued to give quality services and this has satisfied their customers making them come back repeatedly. Kapoor and Quinby (2009) note that, “Online travel agencies have continued to outperform the traditional agencies” (p.15).
For instance, they offer medical services to their customers when they are traveling. They also give different beverages to their customers when they are using their services. These factors have enabled the companies to develop and build loyal customers who will always choose their services.
These strategies underscore distributing channels, which are very important in tourism (Williams and Richter, 2002, p.404).
However, the traditional mode of tourism has been seriously affected by the new technology (Sangpikul, 2010, p.110) but Machlouzarides observes that traditional modes of business are still used to govern operations of tourism and travels, (2010, p.161).
Last Minute.Com Company has continued to use online services as way of reaching more customers. All the potential customers in all the parts of the world easily access online services at any time they want them.
Through online services, the two companies advertise all their services and carry out all the booking services with their customers at very low charges. Khare and Anshuman (2010) argue that use of technology has improved online transactions.
Traditional tour operations took place through agencies, which took a lot of time before they were completed. Customers had to apply for these services earlier enough before the actual date, which was costly in terms of time. However, online booking services are very fast and customers can book even in the last minute.
Hailin, and Dong (2009), observe that it is very easy to buy air ticket online (p.203).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Virtual vs. Traditional Tour Operator by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These services do not require customers to book a few days before the actual date of services; they just need to place their order one day before or even a few hours before the actual time for using the services, which has brought convenience on the side of customers especially those who like to book at the last minute.
Again, online booking services are very efficient based on the installation of all the customers’ requirements in the system. Mistakes and errors that made by traditional system are not common with online booking and this has made many customers to prefer online services as compared to traditional services.
These companies have also used online services as a marketing strategy where the operators place all the information about services offered on the internet. Customers are informed about different offers such as discounts offered by different travel companies as well as other services on offer.
As noted by Javanbakht, Alipour and Hajaliakbari (2009), “tourism and internet is the same thing” (p.267). Kim, Chung, and Lee (2009), support this argument by observing that online tourism services are very important for success tourism industry (p.256).
Criteria for evaluating website for travel agency Evaluation of the website for travel agency involves determining whether the website is meeting its objectives for which it was established. The main aim of this website is to reach the potential customers and giving them all the information they require about the services offered by the agency.
First, the website must have the right authority as a way of authenticating information provided.
Secondly, the agency ought to provide different services to its customers.
Thirdly, it also needs to provide the prices charged for these services.
Fourthly, it needs further to provide other services offered to the customers such as help services.
Fifthly, the information provided over the website should meet the needs of the customers. According to Chaiprasit, Jariangprasert, Chomphunut, Naparat, and Jaturapataraporn (2010), quality of information is very important on travel agencies website (p.45).
Company Evaluation The websites of the two companies are different given that, one of them is virtual tour operator and the other is traditional tour operator. Though the two companies’ websites are meeting their objectives, virtual tour operator is doing it better than the traditional tour operator is.
Lastminute.Com Company meets almost all the aforementioned criteria since it has provided all the information about their products in its websites. The company displays different discount rates in the website in a way that will capture the attention of the customers.
According to Park and Jemieson, (2009), a good monitoring system is important in tourism (p.46). On the other hand, the Website of Kuoni.com Company does not have all the necessary information about their services.
It also lacks online booking facilities that are very important to the customers. Therefore, it is important to evaluate online services in order to ensure their quality (Tsang, Lai,
Sustainability in Cruise Tourism Industry Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction As the sources of income become limited and human being needs become insatiable, man has looked for alternatives for making sure that he is able to fulfill his needs. One such need has been the need to enjoy the aesthetic value which our environment offers.
This has resulted in engaging in different activities as he tries to fulfill these aesthetic needs. Several activities which man has engaged in include mountain climbing, beach rallying, and watching wildlife and so on.
With globalization and the ability of people to move freely from one place to the other without many barriers a different kind of tourism has gained momentum with the number of tourists increasing day in day out: The cruise tourism industry.
The gains from the industry have been increasing, however as the industry grows issues of major concerns have risen concerning the contribution of the cruise tourism industry to unsustainable development with proposals of the sustainable development strategies emerging and the authorities insisting on the need for their implementation.
In this essay, we shall discuss the environmental impacts the cruise tourism industry has had on the environment and then propose mitigation measures which need to be observed to promote sustainable development of the industry.
Cruise Tourism Any trip taken through the sea with the sole purpose being for leisure is usually defined as a cruise. A cruise involves stopping at several stop points which are usually defined as destinations with in the coast line during the expedition (Dowling, 2006).
It is on this basis that a cruise tourist is thereby defined as a person who travels in such a ship (cruise) enjoying visiting the various destinations as well as the journey itself. A cruise ship is different from your ordinary ships since it is aided by the weather and the sea conditions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is aided by the weather and the sea condition in the aspect that, cruise tourists only use the cruise ship when visiting a certain area which is assumed to be having a nice weather (usually sunny) and the sea condition which makes the cruising enjoyable (Stonehouse
Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries Critical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary Written by Adrian Wood, the article Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: the Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom, explores the effects of openness and wage inequality especially in developing countries.
The conventional wisdom theory of East Asian is analysed in relation to the experience of the Latin America countries in the mid 1980s.
As the author puts it, the conventional wisdom theory that was developed from the experience of the East Asian countries in the 1960s argues that increased openness to trade particularly in the developing countries increases efficiency and reduces inequality that exists in wages between unskilled and skilled workers.
According to this theory, increased openness to trade raises the demand for unskilled workers who form the largest proportion of workforce in the developing countries hence reducing the rate of unemployment.
Wood argues that, in developing countries, the number of unskilled workers far outweighs the number of skilled workers. This argument is supported by the well-known Heckscher-Ohlin theory.
On the other hand, the author argues that the experience of the Latin American countries in the mid 1980s contradicted the theory of the conventional wisdom.
The challenge faced by these countries showed that increased openness to trade made the wage gap to widen rather than to reduce as it is portrayed by the conventional wisdom theory. Increased openness to trade in the developing countries has continued to raise wage inequality in greater magnitude than expected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author attempts to bring the two views together by providing an explanation of what could have caused this increased wage differential in the Latin America countries.
As demonstrated in this article, the possible explanation for the difference between the two theories lies in the economic difference between the two regions and time difference between the experiences of the two regions.
Analysis The debate over the two schools of thought has been going on for many years. As the author in this article points out, increased openness to trade reduces wage differential in the developing countries (Wood, 1997, p.33).
An economic occurrence that contradicts this theory is not easy to explain for it goes against what is empirically tested and accepted. Openness to trade creates employment opportunities among skilled and unskilled workers in the developing countries.
As Heckscher-Ohlin theory explains, countries tend to produce goods, which will intensively use the resources that are available in abundance.
On the hand, countries import goods that require resources in scarce supply and this explains why countries in developed world produce goods that are capital intensive while developing countries tend to export goods that are labour intensive (Wood, 1997, p.34).
As Juozapaviciene and Eizenta argue, resources endowment may help to explain export and imports of different countries (2010, p.87). Thus, openness to trade will allow exchange of these factors of production between developed and developing countries.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Increased demand for unskilled labour because of openness in trade will create more opportunities for unskilled labour thus reducing wage differential and as Pollan notes, “Reduced wage differential will increase income inequality” (2009, p.389).
The author of this article presents two possible explanation of why openness to trade led to wage inequality in the Latin American countries. First, there was economic difference between the two regions and secondly, the time difference between the experiences of the two countries (Wood, 1997, p.55).
These two explanations are possible since they are supported by empirical evidence, which is presented by the author of this article. The two regions are different in terms of endowment in natural resources.
The supply of skilled labour in the East Asian countries is growing at a faster speed, which is different from the Latin American countries where labour market is highly regulated.
The two regions are almost the same in resources endowment since both enjoy developed infrastructures and high literacy rate compared to other regions like south Asia and Africa.
In spite of this, Latin American countries have more natural resources compared to East Asian countries that make the former to prefer primary products production (Wood, 1997, p.46).
On the other hand, East Asian countries have a competitive advantage in manufactured products though with a narrow margin and this phenomenon explains why the export products of East Asian countries are mainly manufacturing products while those for Latin American countries are primary products.
Therefore, in Latin American countries, natural resources and skilled labour were used to complement each other (Wood, 1997, p.47). Expansion of the primary products industry because of openness to trade raised the demand for skilled labour thus increasing the wage of this type of labour.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the case is different for East Asian countries where expansion in the manufacturing industries provides more opportunities for unskilled workers. Increased employment for unskilled workers will reduce wage differential (Wood, 1997, p.47).
The author of this article brings out this point very well by providing an empirical analysis of both manufacturing and primary products industries in the two regions. The two regions also have different trade policies, which could have resulted to this contradiction (Wood, 1997, p.48).
As the article presents, the experiences of the two regions happened at different economic periods. The Latin America challenge happened at a time when several activities that had great impact to the world economy were happening.
First, there was entry of middle-level income generating countries such as China into the world economy, which affected global labour market in many ways.
Secondly, there was technological advancement and mobility of capital and labour globally, which affected operations of the labour market. These differences can help to explain why the two views are different (Wood, 1997, p.55).
For instance, Egger, Huber, and Pfaffermayr posit that, export openness in Eastern and Central Europe has also continued to increase wage disparity (2005, p.63) and this could explain the differences experienced in the aforementioned case.
However, the author of the article does not appreciate the fact that Heckscher-Ohlin theory is not universally accepted in international trade. As Thompson argues, “factor price equalisation does not hold for capital and labour” (2011, p.186).
This may make Heckscher-Ohlin theory not to hold when explaining the relationship between wage inequality and openness to trade in developing countries. Again, productivity differences as noted by Morrow (2010, p.139) may also help to explain the differences between the two outcomes.
Conclusion The author of this article gives two explanations in his attempt to harmonise the two different views of openness to trade and wage inequality.
Economic and time differences between the two economic phenomena in Latin American countries’ challenges and East Asian countries’ conventional wisdom are strong explanation of the contradiction.
However, Heckscher-Ohlin theory may not fully explain this contradiction since it is not universally accepted in international trade. Differences in productivity between the two regions may also help to explain the contradiction between the two views.
Reference List Egger, P., Huber, P.,
How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World? Expository Essay college essay help near me
Gender inequality is a complex phenomenon that does not seem to have a conclusive argument. According to Rives and Yousefi (1997), the statement above is right in its articulation that the problem is prevalent and widely spread all over the world (p. 90).
This has prompted scholars to critically debate about the issue with varying opinions among those that support it and those that oppose it.
The argument supporting gender inequality derives its support from the belief that there is injustice that stems from unequal access to resources and opportunities based on gender or sex.
Rhode (1997) says that as a result, gender equality movements have sprang up allover the world from the beginning of the last century culminating to passage of various acts by different governments allowing inheritance of property by people of both genders and criminalizing any act that is contrary to those (p.102).
Despite the strides made by society in stemming gender inequality, it will be naive to assume that gender equality has been achieved in the world today.
Rhodes (1997) further says that Even the most advanced societies that boast of constitutions that guarantee universal freedoms and human rights experience different forms of discrimination based on sex (p. 114).
Rhode (1997) concludes that gender inequality nowadays has become synonymous with the struggle of women fighting for the same treatment as men (p.76). It is not correct however to assume that only women are negatively affected by gender inequality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historically however, traditions of different peoples who inhabit the earth have been biased against women often showing open prejudice against them compared to men REFERENCE (own words).
Women have since time immemorial been subjected to restrictions that have ensured they are treated as sub humans. All cultures from European, Asian, and African have considered women to be subordinates to their men.
These discrimination has been passed on to successful generations through socialization and has over time been accepted a way of life REFERENCE (own words).
Rives and Yousefi (1997) say that little boys are taught from a young age to behave in a superior manner while girls are taught to respect men and look upon them as the providers and ultimate destiny deciders (p.106).
Men are regarded as the heads of the family and major decision makers. Women are traditionally not allowed to inherit property as it is assumed that they will get married and would have access to the husband’s property. Even then, few have a major say on the how family property should be managed REFERENCE (own words).
Rhode (1997, p. 28) says that besides general cultural traditions, religion has played a major role on propagating gender inequality and sex discrimination. For instance, the world’s two major religions; Christianity and Islam have openly shown preference of the men folk to women.
Women are not allowed to hold high positions in these religions because they were not considered full human beings. Only men went out to talk to God, wrote the holy books, and up to date, carry out religious functions.
We will write a custom Essay on How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The language itself used in these books makes no effort to hide its prejudice against women as human beings are referred to as men.
While some sections of Christianity have undergone reforms and accommodated women in their ranks, many have not. Islam on its part is more or less, what it used to be since its inception as far as women issues are concerned (Rhode 1997 p. 28).
According Ridgeway (1992, p.86), it may not be correct per se to say that its only women who are aggrieved by the gender imbalance but majority of the cases that depict gender inequalities involve women on the receiving end
According to Oxfam (2011, p 1), quoting UN (2005, pp 2), gender inequality that has resulted in the discrimination of women through denial of basic human rights is a leading cause of poverty in the world today.
Oxfam (2011, p 2) adds that majority of women in the world have little or no control on matters of sexuality, reproduction and marital choices.
Oxfam (2011 p 2) further adds that women have diminished recourse to legal and political protection and recognition. Women also rank poorly in terms of access to public knowledge, and decision-making power compared to their male counterparts.
According to Robeyns (2002, p.457), positions like the above mean women have reduced participation in public affairs hence increasing their vulnerability to abuse and subordination.
Many organizations have carried out research to paint the clear picture of the problem. This paper will focus on some of the studies carried out so far, the sectors that have been hardest hit by gender discrimination and some of the forms through which gender inequality has manifested itself in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Facts about Gender inequality Oxfam (2011, p 3) referring to IPU (2009) estimated in 2009 that only 18.4% of women made up composition of parliaments in the world. Far less women contributed to major decision making in the world. It therefore means few women participated in making laws and decisions that directly affect them
UNESCO estimates that there are almost 780 million illiterate people in the world (United Nations 2005, pp 2). Furthermore, there are over 75 million school drops out in the world according to the UN body.
Two thirds of the illiterate population is women while over 55% of the school dropouts are girls (United Nations 2005, pp 2). The blatant lack of access to information as shown above clearly puts women at a disadvantage in terms of access to information and knowledge REFERENCE(own words).
Statistics about wage earnings too paint a grim picture about the position of women. According ITUC, women make an average of 84% of what men mage in income.
This is besides the fact that they are largely concentrated in the informal sector and exposed to dangerous working conditions. Ridgeway, (2011, p 326) says that the instability associated with this work and the low earnings have compounded the problem leading to income disparities between men and women.
By virtue of giving birth, women are exposed to more risk than men are.
The world health organization estimates that over half a million women die from complications related to pregnancy while millions ranging from 8-20 million suffer irreversible injuries and permanent disabilities from pregnancy related complications (United Nations 2005, pp 3).
Factors cited earlier as low pay and lack of education contribute greatly to this situation. Further highlighting the poor treatment of women in healthcare, the UN estimates that more than half of the people living with HIV in the world are women (United Nations 2005, pp 3).
According to Ridgeway (2011), both men and women are exposed to the same risk of contracting the virus.
However, lack of access to health care by women in equal measure as men, coupled with low pay, minimal rights to decide sexual matters and lack of adequate information due to illiteracy have contributed o the high cases of HIV in women (p.127).
Though both men and women experience domestic and sexual violence, the problem is more prevalent in women than men are. Systematic rape is common in many countries that leave women traumatized, pregnant, or infected hence living disjointed lives.
The UN estimates that between 10-68% of women experience domestic violence and abuse from their sexual partners. The high cases show trend where culprits are not brought to book due to weak institutions or laws that are biased against women or not updated to deal with delicate women issues (United Nations 2005, pp 4).
While men suffer as causalities in conflicts, women and children make up over 85% of refuges in the camps. The women are usually not well looked after and the men who survive the conflicts often flee their families.
Laws to address the situation that is highly disadvantageous to women are almost non-existent (United Nations 2005, pp 4).
The above statistics depict a precarious situation for women and do not at all reinforce a notion that gender inequality may be a two-way phenomenon where men are also negatively affected. Even if there is a situation like that, women are clearly more affected than men are REFERENCE (own words.)
Manifestation of gender inequality Gender inequality has manifested itself through many ways in society. In most of these cases, its women who bear the brunt of the injustices that are as a result of the inequalities.
According to Jacobs (1995) there are numerous practices carried out all over the world that amount to gender discrimination, the Asian and Middle East region has some of the most disturbing cultural practices that do not favor women (p. 68).
Miller et al (2009, p. 257) says that in western cultures, divorce is accessed by either partner who feels aggrieved hence cannot continue to stay in the arrangement.
However, some cultures like in Lebanon the divorce process is extremely punitive to women until many prefer to stay in their dysfunctional marriages to divorce. The laws governing such places have heaped both legal and financial obstacles on the part of women who would like to divorce effectively locking them out of the process.
Egyptian women are allowed to initiate divorce if they wish. However, the law makes it difficult for them to be granted their wish since it requires them or their families to repay dowries. The law further demends that they give up all the rights on the couple’s finances.
In Lebanon, women who experience domestic violence must produce an eyewitness for them to be granted divorce proceedings, a requirement that is quite stringent and difficult to fulfill.
The situation is no different in Israel. The right to divorce can only be given by the husband and never the wife. On the other hand, men in the above territories can do as they please as far as divorce is concerned Miller et al (2009, p. 305).
According to Spade, and Valentine (2008, p. 203), access to education by girls is lower compared to that of boys. Everywhere in the world with the exception of a few countries, the enrollment of boys is always higher than that of girls.
In Afghanistan for instance, the Taliban regime that aggressively enforced fundamental Islamic practices banned enrolment of girls to school. Still the literacy rate of women in the country is low owing to the fact that there is a shortage of female teachers, who must teach girls from a certain age.
The most discriminative practice in the country involves taking girls to school at puberty, effectively ensuring lack of uniform education among women from an early age.
Some communities in the Middle East and Africa demand that women walk accompanied by a male relative, even if the male companion is the age of a child. In other countries of the Middle East, husbands have the right to restrict their wife’s movements by filling papers at the airport that ban their women from traveling.
In other countries like Libya, married women must have a written permission from the husband authorizing her travel abroad. The practices are quite discriminative to women especially considering the demand places women at par with children Miller et al (2009, p. 310).
Women in such communities cannot decide what is right for them. Jacobs (1995) says that religious and selfish interests reign supreme and women are the losers at the end of it all (p. 56).
In the Middle East there are no laid down judicial procedures combating violence against women, especially sexual violence. Men have absolute control over women and battering is always treated as a domestic matter outside the state’s jurisdiction.
The system is not favorable at all to women who experience violence of any kind. Police stations do not allow reporting of cases of abuse nor do they take actions when actual cases are reported (Jacobs 1995, p 80).
Female infant discrimination
Blau (2006, p.308) says that there is a traditional believe that boys are better than girls are. Preference for boys over girls has led to increased infanticide, neglect, and abandonment of girls by parents who are desperate for boys.
In China and India, for instance there are high abortion rates of female fetuses by parents in search of boys. Such cases show the level of discrimination and outdated thinking that people have towards women.
Sectors hardest him by gender inequality
According to Tischler (2007, p.48), effects of gender inequality are universal. Many systems through which human beings operate have had negative impacts of gender inequality.
Education, the economy and labor markets and politics are some of the sectors that have experienced gender inequality and the negative consequences that are associated with it.
According to UNFPA, education for girls ensures long-term economic benefits for the entire society, access to more economic opportunities by girls and engagement in public life (United Nations 2005, pp 5). Educated women tend to make wise choices about health by bearing fewer children.
On the other hand, education increases girls bargaining power in sexual matters resulting in reduced chances of infection by HIV. The agency however casts some doubt about the achievement of millennium development goals on gender balance in the enrollment of girls into school.
According to the organization, there has been some progress but regions like south western Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa still lag behind in the enrollment of girls to school.
Blau (2006, p.308) adds that in countries that fall in these regions, choices about sending children to school are made and more often than not boys are sent to school while girls are left out (p.198).
Some of the issues that discourage girls from going to school include provision of safe transport, construction of separate amenities from both genders and discouragement of gender stereotyping in classrooms.
The above are very prevalent and greatly contribute in to the gender inequality that is witnessed in the education sector. The same situation is witnessed in the secondary school level where enrolment of girls is same as that in primary school. In some cases its lower (United Nations 2005, pp 5)
Bruckner (2004) says that, to ensure economic security for women and sustainable development and growth of economies, gender inequality must be done a way with in the labor sectors (p.84).
According to the UN, gender inequality in the Labor market is manifested through occupational discrimination, wage gaps based on gender and the uneven representation in informal employment, unpaid work, and high rates of unemployment (United Nations 2005, pp 5).
The UN further says that the majority of the working poor in the world are women. The working number up to 500 million and out of that, women comprise 60%.
The undervaluation of women’s work and the potential of clashing of their careers and other obligations like giving birth and raising families, contributes to the situation above (United Nations 2005, pp 5).
Kendall (2007, p. 248) says that some countries have even gone further and placed restrictions on the type of work that women should do and the earnings they should make.
Further more women earn less even when they do the same kind of work as men. Bruckner (2004, p.157) asserts that far less women own businesses compared to men and over 60% of all women who work in household businesses are not paid for their services.
There has been significant increase in the number of women elected to their national assemblies over the last decade. Despite the progress, national parliaments are yet to achieve the gender parity that they are supposed to have.
Generic Toolkit for Implementing a Web-Based Product Innovation Strategy for Zara Fashion Retailer Report (Assessment) essay help
Introduction Sweeping demographic changes, technological advances, increased competition, geopolitical realignments and other related pressures are combining with concerns for security, changing customer preferences and expectations, expansion urges, and shifts in organizational governance to generate momentous pressure for organizational change (Kotter, 2007; Howard, 1994).
A multiplicity of studies (Haveman, 1993; Amburgay et al, 1993) demonstrate that organizations need to continually change and reinvent themselves to maintain profitability and competitiveness in the ever shifting and continuously more complex business environment.
In this regard, effective management of change becomes a critical constituent in the organization’s attempt to meet and even surpass its goals and objectives (Johns Hopkins, 2008).
It is against this background that this report seeks to detail a generic toolkit that will be used to initiate a web-based product innovation strategy that will assist the company to deal with changing customer preferences in the fashion industry through customer integration
Background to the Company Headquartered in Corona, Spain, Zara Fashion Retailer’s main interests revolves around the manufacturing, distribution and retailing of various fashion products, which include clothes, footwear, designer bags, children’s wear, designer glasses and other fashion and beauty accessories (Zara, 2011).
With an estimated 1,500 fashion retail outlets, 92,000-strong workforce and € 6.26 billion in 2007 annual sales, Zara is not only one of the leading fashion retailers globally, but it has also become one of the most treasured and respected apparel brands worldwide, in part due to its impressive financial growth and stability in recent years (Caro et al., 2010).
According to these authors, “…the success [of Zara] is widely attributed to its fast-fashion business model, which involves frequent in-season assortment changes and ever-trendy items offered in appealing environments and at competitive prices” (p. 71).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Zara has a market presence in over 70 countries dispersed around the world (Zara, 2011).
Brief Description of Pressures Faced by Zara The impetus for change arises from certain key drivers originating from the external environment (social, legal, economic and technological) as well as drivers originating from the internal business environment (Oakland
Corona Beer Company Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Trends in the global market beer
Mondelo’s international expansion
Next foreign market for Mondelo to enter
Challenges facing Modelo
Trends in the global market beer The global market trends has faced substantial changes over the past three decades with giants like Heineken being edged out by upcoming new brands such as Corona Extra from Grupo Modelo.
The two key strategies that clearly alter global beer market are strategic alliances with strategic partners and global marketing strategies that are unique and quickly identifiable.
The two Mexican companies Modelo and FEMSA were forced to form strategic alliances with international distributors with sound knowledge on local market and because of the fact that they enjoyed less international restrictions especially because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Modelo chose Anheuser-Busch while FEMSA opted for Heineken. These strategic alliances were especially important in terms of market penetration since less cost was incurred.
The strategic marketing images of “fun in the sun” and strategies employed by Modelo played a pivotal role in its international growth toppling market leaders such as Heineken in the United States.
On the other hand FEMSA faced a rather difficult time while Heineken marketing strategies caused its significant market loss to Modelo. This was because Modelo focused less on human image for marketing but rather focused on the experience enhanced by its products.
It actually created a myth “fun in the sun” which swept the U.S. market like never before. Its mergers with Gambrinus Inc and Barton Beers also reduced the cost of distribution, marketing, insurance and advertising.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current global marketing has rather shifted to strategic alliance partnership to enhance global market dominance as evident in the case of InBev and Anheuser-Busch possible alliance.
Such an approach has shaped the brewing industry towards global strategic partnership to create a behemoth capable of taking advantage of economies of scale and other strategic benefits to enhance their market presence and future sustainability.
Mondelo’s international expansion International market entry for Modelo was particularly strategic because the international market nature and the restriction faced by foreign companies while exporting their products across borders.
This was specifically experienced in the United States where North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) limited foreign companies from accessing the market.
It was because of these restrictions that forced Modelo to form strategic alliances with local distributors that could ease the expense incurred as a result of the restrictions. Modelo first chose Anheuser-Busch because it enjoyed the NAFTA environment.
This initial step was particularly important for Modelo to enhance its international coverage especially with its economically strong neighbour the U.S.
In order to further increase their international strength internationally, Modelo entered into new contracts with local distributors with local market knowledge to further their creative campaign strategy of “fun in the sun”. Modelo also maintained an active role in the decision making process regarding its products.
We will write a custom Assessment on Corona Beer Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modelo aligned itself with Barton Beers a large importer of beer with more than 25 countries internationally and also experienced in marketing of imported beers. It was through Barton Beers that the image of “fun in the sun” gained a substantial ground. Because of the continuing growth in the U.S. market, Modelo decided to add another major distributor, Gambrinus Inc. Modelo was advantaged because the company was headed by former Modelo executive.
Modelo gained from these two distributors because they helped to ease cost related to transportation, insurance, customer and even advertising among other international expenses.
Modelo however maintained an active role with respect to the brands image and thus ensuring the brands increased performance internationally.
To further strategically coordinate its international distributors, Modelo tasked Procennex Inc as a subsidiary mandated the task of coordinating and supervising the activities of the two distributors.
Next foreign market for Mondelo to enter The next strategic market that Modelo should enter is the European and Asian market. The rationale for this is because Heineken has succeeded in these regions. In Europe Ireland and Germany are potential countries while in Asian, China is strategic market opportunity.
Modelo has a number of strategic advantages that it has gained from its U.S. market exploitation; the key advantage is its marketing image “fun in the sun” which has gained popularity as opposed to Heineken strategic plan that is focused on its qualities.
Modelo should enter these Key international with an open mind considering that the strategies used in U.S. may not be efficient especially in China.
It is however strategic for Modelo to consider the same approach of selecting an experienced distributor that is well acquainted with the local market in Europe and Asia. This will ease the trade restrictions that are especially significant in China and thus reducing the cost of market penetration in the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corona Beer Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another important aspect that Modelo should ensure is the uniqueness that it demonstrated in the market penetration both locally and in the United States.
In the modern marketing strategies, it is imperative to ensure that the products being sold and unique and remarkable for the consumers to be able to instantly recognize the brand and differentiate it from other brands.
Constant and strategic marketing strategies that align with the local market should also be enhanced in order to ensure that these strategies are successful in the target local market. Few modifications may therefore be necessary with advice from the local distributors in order for Modelo to penetrate the market significantly.
Challenges facing Modelo The possible alliance between InBev and Anheuser-Busch will likely create unimaginable behemoth in the brewing industry, a situation that will dwarf giants like Modelo and Carlsberg and Heineken among others.
Such a strategic alliance will not only play an important role in cost saving through economies of scale but also provide a strong competition to almost all the brewing industries in the world.
Such a step announced by the InBev executive has forced other industry stake-holders to rethink their strategies in order to be sustainable amidst a strong competition from the colossus merger.
The immediate strategic response that Modelo should take is to create a consolidated merger with other stakeholders in the beer industry. Such a merger will be a response to the steps taken by InBev (Ellet, 2007).
The most immediate alliances should thus be started with mid-tiers such as Anheuser, Molson Coors and Heineken among others.
The steps taken by InBev will limit the options of these mid-tiers and thus important for Modelo and other to consider an immediate response strategic alliance in order to ensure their sustainability (Hughes, 2005).
Modelo’s diversification The most immediate action that Modelo should ensure is not to diversify into other businesses but rather enhance its global presence in terms of market ownership of the beer industry. The rational for this reasoning is because a company ought to be sustainable in order to think of other diversification elements.
If Modelo for instance diversifies into other market niches, its primary source of income may be relaxed and thus allowing competitors to reduce the company’s market share.
It is however strategic for Modelo to diversify into other market niches such as wines production, this should however happen only when the company has acquired a substantial global market share in country’s outside the US and Mexico.
Since the Modelo brand is already established and even a market leader in the United States market, the brand should help the company acquire more international market niches instead of pre-mature diversification (Thompson, 2010).
The other rationale for objecting pre-mature business diversification is the overall risks of another business venture. Modelo will have to drain its resources and risks market variations in a new market niche yet its core competencies are doing extremely well established.
Its 7.8 % revenues from international market will be reduced by the cost of starting new operations and thus weakening its financial status when its competitors such as InBev are forming strategic alliances to capture global market.
These alliances are significant in terms of reducing cost of new market penetration. Modelo should also seek strategic international alliance in order to keep at pace with the global leaders if it is to be sustainable in the beer industry.
References Ellet, W. (2007). The case study book: How to read, discuss, and write persuasively about cases. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
The Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory Report (Assessment) essay help
Analyzing the Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory and Research Organizational knowledge creation involves making available and intensifying knowledge created by individuals and also shaping up and linking it with an organization’s knowledge system.
The description of knowledge and knowledge conversion triggered research on conducive organization for and the context for knowledge creation. Research particularly found that knowledge, vision, activism, organizational forms and leadership affect organizational knowledge creation.
With further evolution of organizational knowledge creation theory, the nature of the firm was made clearer and ‘knowledge strategy’ concept was furthered (Nonaka, Von Krogh
Importance of Organizational Knowledge Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
In today’s world, there is hardly any organization that enjoys monopoly due to liberation of trade. This is because in every sector there are many traders and thus, each business entity must up its game to remain ahead.
Gone are the days when legendary businessmen used to sabotage the businesses of their rivals by collaborating with the authorities, just to eject them from the market place. Consumers are in praise of this stiff competition because they get the worth of their money at subsidized rates.
It is said that knowledge is the strongest source of power, and the organizations that are ranked at the top in business world, such as Apple, Google, and Southwest Airways are investing lots of money on knowledge because they know lack of it will cost them their fortunes.
O’Keeffe (2002) explains that in organizational knowledge, getting at the top is not a problem as long as the organization is willing to pay the price.
What matters the most is retaining the position because learning is a continuous process and if an organization stops its employees from upgrading themselves, then that marks the beginning of the end for that particular organization.
In organizational knowledge, an organization has to learn more than its rival companies and this means that they have to learn quickly. Learning entails observing what competitors are doing, and repackaging their approach to make it much better.
Organizational learning is initiated by the administrators because employees would take ages to take the initiative unless they are assured it will come with appraisals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several benefits of organizational knowledge. The first one is that it enhances the quality of output. Besides, it enables organizations to come up with techniques of completing the processes involved in production faster thus saving time.
Similarly, a knowledgeable work force is able to cope with the challenges as opposed to when it’s not informed. This is because learning provides early warning to the expected challenges and thus, organizations prepare adequately for those challenges.
For instance, British Airways uses learning as the platform to improve the quality of its services. This has been done in collaboration with its suppliers after trimming them.
Processes and Systems There are various approaches of acquiring organizational knowledge, but the most common ones are mastery and team learning. Team learning entails gathering employees through seminars and workshops and it’s the most preferred mode of learning.
Mastery learning revolves around an individual and in this approach an individual is sponsored by the organization to upgrade his/her skills with expectations that he/she will make a positive contribution to the success of the organization.
Hardie, Bontis, and Serenko (2007) argue that most organizations do not like this approach because there are many cases where employees are trained only for them to leave the company that paid for their training because they have identified another employer who can pay them better.
Organizational knowledge should be based on trust and this can be achieved by appreciating what employees are already doing which will make them hold on to their current position.
We will write a custom Assessment on Importance of Organizational Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, appropriate communication channels should be established to enhance sharing of knowledge. This is because the few employees who will be trained should share what they have learnt with their colleagues in various departments.
This is necessary because they are not the ones who will carry out all the tasks involved in production. For communication to be effective there must be working relationships among employees to eliminate the fear that the juniors have towards their seniors.
Organizations can succeed in encouraging their employees to gain more knowledge by sharing the benefits that are achieved by the organization with the employees.
For instance, the suppliers of British Airways were resentful to learning because they felt that the changes were coming to throw them out of the business. This is why organizations should counsel their employees so that they can understand why it is necessary to learn.
This will make the employees change their attitude towards learning because they will be assured that their efforts will eventually pay when the organization thrives.
In another example, companies like Toyota and Ford were successful in the implementation of lean manufacturing because information about the new technology was shared among the stakeholders, and everyone’s view was considered.
Therefore, organizational learning should not be mandatory because it will imply that the employees are only learning for the betterment of the organization. This suggests that learning should be voluntary and no one should be victimized for declining it.
References Hardie, T., Bontis, N., and Serenko, A., 2007. Organizational size and knowledge flow: a proposed theoretical link. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 8 (4): pp. 610-627.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Organizational Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More O’Keeffe, T., 2002. Organizational learning: a new perspective. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26 (2): pp. 130-141.
Ethical Issues in Online Learning Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Online education is a common form of learning today. Learners are now benefitting from online learning process without having to go to school. Online learning has been promoted by modern technologies. These technologies include computers, smart phones and the internet.
However, this promising innovation has its own set of challenges. The issue of identity is a major concern in online learning. Some experts argue that distance education can lead to cheating and academic dishonesty (Oosterhof, Conrad
The Required Skills for a Sales Manager Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction and Summary
Educational Requirements for Sales Managers
General Skills Required for Sales Managers
Introduction and Summary In sales jobs, sales managers normally play a very crucial role. This is majorly based on the fact that they act as intermediaries that link an organization to its potential clients while offering proficient leadership in the management of sales.
It is based on this reason that these sales managers have to be well-equipped with the skills on their sales jobs while they have vast knowledge about the company to represent it well (Goleman et al. 42-51).
Even more importantly, the sales managers should ensure that they carry out themselves professionally and in a decent way that aptly represents the organization that they represent. Also, they should be able to set a good example that can be emulated by those working below them.
If the above roles are to be ardently played by the sales managers, some adept level of education is required. It is upon these fundamental requirements that this paper seeks to give an analytical and expansive explanation of the skills required for one to be a good sales manager.
Educational Requirements for Sales Managers Based on the fact that a sales manager is among the most celebrated and greatly rewarding job titles in today’s world; it is very elemental that one is equipped with relevant educational skills in the management of sales endeavors.
The prominence of sales managers is not only because most sales managers are placed in charge of high-profile sales operations, but they also have to go through rigorous educational systems and trainings to get the credentials that enable to do their work.
Some of the crucial education requirements for sales managers are given below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To begin with, different countries and regions have different education systems and requirements for sales managers. However, as a generally accepted rule by most scholars, the more industrialized or developed a country is; the more meticulous its learning and education system is.
Moreover, a good number of high-performing organizations usually need well-skilled sales managers to manage the dynamics and intricacies of sales in their companies.
This, probably, is the reason Calvin (30-50) states that a sales manager’s salary in an industrialized country, as well as high-performing organizations, tends to be high when compared to the less industrialized countries and small-performing sales institutions.
Generally speaking, there have been great advancements made on the nature of education in most countries (Devine). As a result, a diploma or degree from a certified academic institution is usually considered as the least academic qualification for sales managers.
However, to get top sales management positions, particularly in high-flying sales organizations, a masters or PhD in academic fields that deal with sales management is very necessary. On the other hand, sales managers in small organizations can even get sales management jobs with certificate-level education.
Again, higher educational prowess and knowledge on the management of sales and salespeople often leads to higher pay grades while the lower forms of education lead to lower pay grades (Vince 1325-1335).
On a final note regarding the education skills required for sales managers, the sales management salary of individuals with experience is often higher than that of their counterparts.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Required Skills for a Sales Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Remarkably, most countries today dictate that university and college students seeking to be sales managers must go through industrial training in an organization dealing with sales. This should be done under the supervision of some professionals.
Gaining experience from these training institutions is usually considered important thus assessed by most employers who seek to employ sales managers. For this reason, aspiring sales managers should always strive to gain as much experience as possible to better their chances of getting good jobs and salaries.
General Skills Required for Sales Managers Other than the educational skills, there are other important skills required for one to be a good sales manager. These other skills are succinctly detailed below.
Progress as sales managers in sales companies can be ensured by the observation of important business facets like teamwork, accountability and hard work, among many others.
However, it is inherent to note that the performance and job jurisdictions of sales managers hugely vary depending on factors like the region an individual is working in, the person’s competencies, the type of clients the salesperson deals with and the experience a salesperson has on a particular job—just as was glimpsed in the section about educational skills for sales managers.
Such skills help in motivating other workers while ensuring that clients are satisfied with the sales services and products offered by the company (Goleman et al. 42-51).
Moreover, different clients call for different sales services and thus different levels of attention from sales managers. For example, when the client is irate, it is vital for the sales manager to deal with them calmly just in the same way an uneducated customer requires the use of simple and easy-to-understand language.
In spite of working for the same company and having similar objectives, different sales managers have different potentials, experiences and regions they deal with. As a result, the final performance of such people in their jobs varies from one person to another just in the same way it varies with regions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Required Skills for a Sales Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As is common with many business-oriented industries, no sales company will ever have everyone performing to his/her utmost best to achieve all the objectives of the company.
So, whether or not everything goes as planned by the organization, you should always strive to give your very best and lead others by example. Common knowledge dictates that lazy and uncommitted sales people will only focus on quickly skimming through their jobs and make as much profits as possible.
As a manager, you are expected not to be like such lazy people. Of course making money or rather getting profits is the target of most sales organizations.
However, when profits are heralded in sales jobs to the point that organizations have to sacrifice fundamental business statutes like discipline and loyalty; then urgent measures have to be put in place to correct the money-minded mentality.
The current diversified and highly competitive nature of businesses today calls for very effective sales managers to ensure overall efficiency in the organization. The best way of doing this, as a manager, is by staying industrious while staying in focus so as not to deviate from achieving the company’s objectives.
Conclusion Finally, as was stated by Benjamin Disraeli, it is important to remember that the secret of success is constancy to purpose.
Therefore, instead of sitting back feeling contented of what you have achieved so far as a sales manager, or someone aspiring to be one; you need to overcome the challenges in your industry while continually laboring to ensure that you maximize your potential and that of the company you work for (Gosling and Mintzberg 19-22).
It is only by doing this that we can be assured of adequate success as sales managers.
Works Cited Calvin, Robert. Sales Management Demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.
Devine, Anne. Is a Career in Sales Right For You? 2010. Web.
Goleman, Daniel, Boyatzis Richard and McKee Anne. “Primal Leadership: the Hidden Driver of Great Performance.” Harvard Business review, (2001): 42-51. Print.
Gosling, Jonathan and Mintzberg Henry. “The Education of Practicing Managers.” Sloan Management Review, 45.4 (2003): 19-22. Print.
Vince, Russ. “Power and Emotion in Organizational Learning.” Human Relations, 54.10 (2001): 1325–1351. Print.
Marketing Mix Strategy Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Marketing mix refers to a combination of product/services, price, place, and distribution. A marketing manager of Campos Coffee can have control of these four factors subject to external and internal environment factors. Campos Coffee has to make decisions regarding its products and services (Antony 2008, p. 58).
Products/Services Products refer to anything tangible or intangible offered to customers for purchase, acquisition, and attention. This includes the physical objects, places, ideas, services, and personality.
Campos Coffee offers products such as Campos Coffee Superior Blend, Clever Coffee Dripper, Kenya Wamuguma Pea berry, Papua New Guinea, and Panama Esmeralda Special.
This shows that the company has done enough research and found out what their customers want in different countries and it has enabled the company to produce products that are tailor made for that particular market. There is good branding of the products.
This appeals to customers and helps them meet their preferences and consequently, get value for their money (Antony 2008, p. 98). The products and services target the high-ended and the low-income customers.
Campos Coffee has made its products and services accessible to customers in different places through its online purchasing platform. Campos Coffee should offer products that are low in prices and quantities that are different.
Customers expect to get unmatched experience from it services such as the Cupping Experience, which enables customers to enjoy coffee tasting sessions, learning about the background, and processing of coffee table. The company has strategically positioned its products to beat its competitors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Porter’s five forces model of the Company Analysis (Andreas 2009, p. 61) Threat of entry by competitors
There are potential entrances into every industry. Campos Coffee may make use of the following strategies;
Reputation and goodwill of the company
High industry standards that the company has set
Use of low costs
Taking advantage of its large economies of scale
Campos Coffee should use its strong channels of distribution
It should switch costs to buyers
Where the economies of scale are sufficient, Campos Coffee may reduce its prices significantly to preempt the entry of a new comer (Andreas 2009, p. 66).
Bargaining power of buyers
In this industry, buyers exact a considerable amount of influence on the level of competition and strategy development. This happens under the following conditions,
There are few buyers in the market
Campos Coffee has not differentiated its products
The differentiation of Campos Coffee’s products is easy.
Campos Coffee should emphasis on the importance of their product to the buyer
It should emphasis on the volume of purchases made by buyers
It should develop strategy to stop buyers from switching to other products.
Bargaining power of suppliers
Suppliers exact pressure on competition and strategies developed in the industry where,
There are few suppliers
There are few substitute products
The products are highly differentiated and cannot be differentiated
Campos Coffee should emphasis on the importance of the industry to suppliers.
Suppliers’ notification of the importance of their input to customers
Threats of substitute products
The extent to which substitute products exist will affect the intensity and dynamics of competition. Substitute products are those products that fulfill similar purpose to consumers.
The company should examine the relative prices of the substitutes and reduce their own prices. The firm should also improve the quality of their product to prevent customers switching to substitute products (Richard 2000, p. 27).
We will write a custom Report on Marketing Mix Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rivalry among existing firms
Campos Coffee faces stiff competition where;
There are numerous and equally balanced companies and therefore, Campos Coffee must compete aggressively to survive.
There are similar companies offering similar products, they are of same size, and therefore, Campos Coffee must distinguish itself from the rest.
There are diverse competitors in the market.
The industry is slow and companies must work hard to maintain and improve their market share (Richard 2000, p. 14).
List of References Andreas, S 2009, Porter’s Five Forces Framework, Grin Verlag, New York.
Antony, H 2008, Understanding Strategic Management, Oxford University Press, London.
Richard, S 2000, Marketing, Barron’s Educational Series, London.
How Does the Leadership Style Adopted by the Franchisor Affect the Behavior of the Franchisee? Thesis essay help
Abstract Franchising is regarded as one of the easiest forms of business deals that an entrepreneur can take advantage of. The requirements of such a venture are not very straining provided one secures a franchisor. A franchisor is an organization that lets another business entity utilize its intellectual property and transact on its behalf.
The arrangement is based on a consideration, which is paid in terms of royalties or fees. On the other hand, a franchisee is an entrepreneur who establishes a business relationship with a franchisor. The two entrepreneurs seek to exploit opportunities and receive incentives from franchising.
Franchising is common all over the world. It has become difficult for clients to differentiate between an outlet owned by the company and a franchise shop. The major advantage of such a deal is the creation of numerous job opportunities.
At the same time, the arrangement expands the outreach of the brand in the market. Franchising makes it possible for consumers to access high quality products. As a result of franchising, the quality of products has improved because of stiff competition.
The franchising industry has faced its fair share of challenges. Franchisors seek to improve productivity, performance, and quality of goods and services delivered by the franchisee. But this has not always been the case due to weaknesses exhibited by the franchisee.
In order to combat such weaknesses, franchisors adopt various leadership strategies. The change in leadership style gives rise to conflicts with the franchisee or a corresponding change of behavior on the part of the franchisee. The effects of the various leadership strategies are evaluated in this research paper.
Introduction to the Franchising Business Franchising has enabled many multinationals to grow their products and brands in the global market. Franchising has enabled consumers in the international market to enjoy products and services that are of the same quality as those produced by the company in the mother country (Rothernberg, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a nutshell, franchising is a form of business practice that enables the holder of production rights, trademarks, patent rights, and brands to enter into an agreement with another party. The second party is granted the rights to produce or utilize the trademark on behalf of the first party (Gappa, 2012).
After agreeing on the terms and conditions of such a business transaction, the franchisor issues the franchisee with a license to operate under those terms at a stipulated fee. The practice of franchising has enabled numerous multinationals to grow their brands and products throughout the world (Shane, 2008).
Such multinationals include, among others, Coca Cola Enterprises, KFC, Pepsi Corporation, and McDonalds. The multinationals find it cheaper to franchise than to open branches in other parts of the world. The franchisor takes advantage of the franchisee’s distribution network and experience in the local market.
The business giants mentioned above view franchising as one of the most affordable ways of establishing their products in new markets. As already indicated, setting up branches in the respective markets is viewed as an extremely expensive venture.
Their argument is that setting up a branch in a new market is capital intensive, increasing the expenses of the company (Combs