Table of Contents Introduction
Managing Culture Shock
Culturally Diverse Company Policy
Measuring and Monitoring Company Policy
List of References
Introduction Culture refers to the set of norms which dictate the principles or values in a given community. Cultural diversity refers to a variety of dissimilar societies or individuals with unique origins, religions, as well as customs living and socialising together. The significance of managing cultural diversity is obvious in the hospitality industry. The industry experiences high rate of international mobility.
It is apparent that the management has to establish innovative strategies of dealing with cultural diversity issues (Brotherton 2003, P. 11). This report gives an explanation of the methodologies that the hospitality industry might apply to attain a competitive advantages. The basic rationale for management of cultural diversity is to enable smooth and effective business operations.
Its management creates a sense of tolerance and understanding amongst the stakeholders (Acevedo 2012). Additionally, its effective management enhances an organization’s competitiveness, productivity, and profitability. This is because the instances of conflicts are greatly minimized.
Generally, firms that have effective cultural diversity management techniques have a high competitive edge. Observably, there are notable disadvantages accruing to the management of cultural diversity. These include heavy expenditures as well as extensive business hours allocated for management trainings.
Managing Culture Shock Culture shock is a common incidence when people get exposed to new or unique surroundings that have unfamiliar cultures. A proper management strategy for culture shock would reduce its negative impacts and enhance the performance of the service sector (Foley 2010).
Organizations within the hospitality sector should set up training and capacity building programs for their employees on the methodologies of alleviating culture shock. Additionally, the employees within this sector ought to know how to manage the challenge.
Culture shock may be propagated by an anxiety that emerges from a person losing their entire familiar sings as well as symbols vital in social intercourse (Marx 2001, P. 57). Language for instance precipitates the problem. In order to attain a competitive advantage, organizations within the hospitality sector ought to recruit and train its employees on a variety of aspects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interpersonal skills are vital since they enhance knowledge transfer; improve coordination as well as control. Such skills if majored on will enable stakeholders to establish effective relationships and build trust. Linguistic ability will assist the organization to establish contact (Acevedo 2012).
Corporations within the hospitality sector should also encourage their workers to gain the motivation of living overseas. This enhances their cultural curiosity, which is a vital recipe for successful adaptation. The capacity of an organization as well as its employees to develop tolerance during uncertainties or ambiguities is critical.
Global managers within the sector ought to develop the capacity to deal with multiple perspectives any time. The management system should also be flexible to contain such transformations in cultures and act as a role model.
Managing Recruitment Recruitment involves the process through which organizations acquire or bring new employees on board. Analytically, this human resource function remains crucial for organizations within the hospitality industry. Ideally, the management of such organizations should ensure fair and just systems of recruitment (Lewis 1999, P.85).
However, it is apparent that there are basic considerations to be made during the process particularly within multicultural dimensions. To enhance effective performance within multicultural settings, the employees to be recruited should be evaluated in terms of their interpersonal skills as well as abilities to survive within mixed cultures.
Multilingual employees are most preferred within such sectors (Warner
New Product Development Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Challenges experienced by new product managers and how to cope with them
Businesses in different economic sectors have over the past few decades experienced an increment in the number of challenges they are facing within the business environment. One of the major challenges relates to increment in the intensity of competition (Lamb, 2012, p.40). To cope with these challenges, firms’ management teams are integrating different competitive strategies.
One of the major competitive tools that are being utilized entails incorporation of New Product Development (NPD) (Krishnan
Business Case of Airlines: Boeing 787 Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Economics in the Airline Industry
The Features of Boeing 787
Introduction The Boeing 787 has been praised as the most fuel efficient airliner by its manufacture. The Boeing Dreamliner has two engines, which are of medium size and has the ability to travel for long distances; it is manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The plane has a carrying capacity of about two hundred and ten to two hundred and ninety passengers depending on variations in the size of the plane.
The Boeing 787 is mainly constructed using composite materials, making it the first airplane to be constructed using this type of substance as the main one. Boeing has also stated that the 787 dreamliner fuel consumption is twenty percent less compared to other previous models of the same size like the Boeing 767.
The features that make the Boeing 787 stand out from other airplanes include its smooth nose contour, four-panel windshield, and exceptionally silent engines fitted with noise reducing chevrons (Vos
A research investigation on purchasing intentions and customers loyalty towards Michelin in China Proposal essay help: essay help
When customers in a business firm are loyal, they make the organization to attain uninterrupted flow of income and relatively lower costs of production due to favorable economies of scale. The improved income is usually as a result of increase in production whereas the cost of production is cut down due to the decrease in promotional expenses.
The whole process is triggered by high customer loyalty and optimal purchasing intentions which culminate into increase in the firm’s profits. It is important to note that customer loyalty does not grow by itself. As a matter of fact, it is a product of quality marketing strategies in today’s competitive markets.
For a company to achieve customer loyalty, it must create an exemplary value for all its consistent and potential new customers. This dissertation proposal paper seeks to examine how consumer based value at Michelin has succeeded in marketing in addition to creating a loyal customer relations at the Chinese market. A comprehensive framework that leads to desirable results has been formulated.
Based on ground findings and reliable literature reviews, the customer perceived firm value can be investigated and evaluated. This research study will conclude with solid findings which can be evaluated using specified standards rather than the common monetary scales.
Studies reveal that customer loyalty is one of the basic elements which forms a stable foundation for business organizations to be operated successfully (Bloemer
Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees Proposal custom essay help
Introduction Health is viewed as a motivating factor and is required in any organization that is considering success. Incorporating health and wellness into the organizational corporate culture is one of the most influential strategies for the promotion of more productivity of employees (Riedel et al., 2001).
It is also important when an organization is seeking to decrease the costs of healthcare (Weinstein et al., 1996). This strategy would place an organization at a level higher than that of its competitors and therefore stand out.
The wellness programs are meant to promote the employee’s health lifestyles. They also help to improve and maintain their health and wellbeing. The programs are useful in preventing (if not delaying) the onset of diseases (Pelletier, 1999). In so doing, the employee would be in a position to work effectively and the organization would benefit.
Ill health is a contributor to decrease in productivity as the employees spend more time seeking treatment than working (Goetzel et al., 2000). This may be in terms of increased absenteeism by the employees. Ill health also contributes to loss of morale in the working place and causes less productivity.
The health and wellness programs aim at assessing the employees’ health risks and provide interventions to the problems (Aldana and Pronk, 2001). This could be in the provision of health education that provides training on lifestyle management that is meant to decrease the risks of diseases and to improve outcomes. The main aim of the programs is to prevent the occurrence of disease.
They may also provide assistance to those workers with chronic diseases. This is through the provision of disease management interventions and other nurse-based decision support systems. Generally, health and wellness programs may be deemed useful in increasing the performance of employees due to the assurance of health and the motivation that comes with it.
Literature Review Several studies have provided evidence to show the importance of workplace wellness programs. Many organizations have implemented the use of health and wellness strategies in order to realize many benefits. Some of the benefits include an increase in productivity, reduced absenteeism and a decrease in the use of health care benefits (Kessler et al., 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies have also shown that the use of health and wellness programs at the workplace increases the morale and loyalty among the employees. Additional benefits of these programs include the reduction of incidences of injuries and long-term disabilities. These programs also help reduce the health care costs (Aldana, 2001).
Through research, organizations have been able to understand that many diseases can be prevented through the use of health and wellness programs. The preventable diseases have been believed to make up to 80 percent of the burden of diseases. This also accounts for about 90 percent of all health care costs (Anderson et al., 2000).
This has prompted many organizations to take advantage of this statistic by implementing health and wellness programs within the workplace. If the employees increase their physical activity and keep fit, they would have lower chances of contracting some common diseases and conditions. Consequently, the companies will need to spend less in covering for the health costs of these diseases.
Apart from this form of cost, companies can also reduce the incidences of absenteeism due to these preventable diseases. With perfect health, employees will be motivated to work more effectively as compared to those individuals suffering diseases.
The United States has been reported to have spent the most on health care as compared to all other industrialized nation worldwide. However, it is also considered the unhealthiest. This just shows the need for workplace wellness programs in the workplace. This would help reduce the need for health care costs since the health and wellness programs would reduce the risks for diseases.
The implementation of the health and wellness programs in an organization has been regarded as a potential high return on investment. This is because of the rise in health care costs that has translated to high expenditure in the event that employees are treated for diseases, most of which are preventable.
Employers get back a substantial amount of return in reduced health care costs as the individuals become more fit and healthy. This program also helps lower absenteeism costs since employees would not require being away from work while attending to their health issues.
We will write a custom Proposal on Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Certain research studies have indicated significant relationships between certain health risk factors and the performance of employees. Aspects such as absenteeism have also been seen to have a moderate to high degree of association with the basal metabolic rate (BMI). Research also indicates that there is a relationship between the basal metabolic rate and various components of work performance.
In a certain research by Pronk and colleagues, the number of days spent away from work was used as a measure for absenteeism (Pronk et al., 1999). These were referred to as work-loss days. They concluded that absenteeism was significantly associated with severe obesity. These results corroborated other previous findings on the same.
However, there was a specific study that provided different results that showed gender disparity. In the particular study by Narbro and colleagues, the obese females showed a high level of absenteeism when compared to those who were not obese (Narbro et al., 1996).
When it came to the obese males, the situation was different. In fact, their level of absenteeism was less as compared to their non-obese counterparts. Research conducted by Tsai and Gilstrap (1997) also supported these findings.
Tucker and Friedman (1998) also conducted a similar study. They used the percentage body fat as a measure to categorize workers as obese, average or lean. The skinfold measurement was used in the categorization. They concluded that there was a significant relationship between absenteeism and the degree of skinfold. The measure of skinfold was taken to represent degree of adiposity.
In the study by Pronk and colleagues, a significant relationship between the basal metabolic rate and absenteeism was only found at the level where employees were severely obese. The severely obese category consisted of those individuals who had a BMI of 40 kg/m2 or above. There was no severe significant difference when it came to the obese category.
Where obesity did not have an impact on absenteeism, it caused a decrement on work performance. This was specifically as a result of issues associated with interpersonal relationships.
In order to measure the interpersonal relationships among employees, the researchers considered the degree to which an individual got along with the fellow employees. The results indicated a positive association between work performance decrement with obesity. However, this was not the case for other fitness variables.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The issues to do with interpersonal relationships among employees may be related to lack of motivation for employees to spend their time working. This situation worsens as obesity extends into severe obesity. This is probably because of the social stigma associated with this state.
It reduces the quality of peer interactions and increases the chances for absenteeism from work. Various studies have shown the existence of a relationship between obesity and certain characteristics of interpersonal relationships.
Studies have also shown a relationship between obesity and certain issues related with employment. For example, those individuals who were obese were discriminated against during employee selection and recruitment (Klesges et al., 1990). They were less likely to receive employment. Some were even discriminated against during pay – they received lower salaries than their counterparts did (Frieze et al., 1990).
Studies by Proper and colleagues argued that there was no relationship between employee performance and physical activity programs at the workplace (Proper et al., 2002). In their study, they focused on effectiveness. Therefore, they included the intervention trials only in the documentation search.
Other similar studies show that the association between fitness and other physical activities with work performance is not known. However, the health and wellness programs were shown to reduce absenteeism to a certain degree.
Pronk and colleagues reported a significant association between certain levels of physical exercise and the quality of work performance. The results also indicated a relationship between moderate and vigorous physical exercise and individual job performance. They concluded that those who had cardiorespiratory fitness required less effort to perform the same job.
This type of fitness had a relationship with the quantity of work done. This study is one of those studies that tried to provide a meaningful relationship between physical activities that try to ensure health and wellness of employees and their performance at work.
The workplace wellness programs are continuously providing many tangible benefits to the organizations. Research has provided evidence of an increasing support for the health and wellness programs in various businesses and organizations.
These programs are not limited to the big companies only but may be equally useful for the small businesses. Health care costs have been escalating and has raised serious concerns among the managers. This includes the health professionals, insurance companies and other employers.
The costs incurred by companies come in the form of insurance. Some of the health issues including diabetes and high blood pressure are common for overweight and obese individuals and companies insure them. Other habits such as smoking by the employees also contribute to health complications that need to be paid for by the companies.
The individuals with more risk factors cost the companies more than those with fewer risk factors do. The health and wellness programs help to improve the health of individuals who are already at risk. However, they also benefit the healthy individual. This is mainly through raising awareness of the importance of health. Therefore, they strive to maintain health and to prevent any risk factor such as being overweight.
It is obvious that employees spend most of their awake-hours at the workplace. This makes up about 50 hours every week. Therefore, it is the employees’ obligation to make use of the workplace health and wellness programs.
The programs have other benefits aside health benefits. Other benefits include the improvement of employee relations and morale. Therefore, a combination of these factors would be beneficial to the success of the organization.
Absenteeism is another aspect of employee performance that can be improved using the health and wellness programs. Research has suggested that healthier individuals spend more days at work than the unhealthy ones who need to be away from work occasionally as they seek treatment (Mundt, 1997). Work-loss days account for thousands or even millions of dollars as losses of the companies.
The health of the employees could also translate to better family choices. This means that these individuals would not need to be absent from work as they attend to the family members’ health issues (Simon et al., 2001).
Purpose of study The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees. With an increased awareness of the impact of health and wellness on the employees’ ability to work, it is necessary to investigate its impact on their performance.
This study will look at certain aspects of performance in order to determine whether health and wellness programs are necessary for the success of our organizations. The manifestation of the health and wellness programs will be determined by looking at the increase in physical fitness (physical activity) and reduced weight.
The reduction of the level of absenteeism can be measured as the additional days that the employees (who had previously out of work due to preventable illnesses) are available at the workplace following an increase in the level of health and wellness.
The aspects of performance will include the timeliness of performing work, the quality and quantity of work, and absenteeism (availability at the workplace). The aspects that are modifiable with the intervention of health and wellness programs include body weight and physical fitness. Additional aspects of performance will include the number of days that the employees were out of work.
Others include the employees’ performance (quality and quantity of work) at the workplace and their interpersonal relationships. This study will provide useful insight for any organization that is seeking to increase productivity of its employees through providing an assurance of their health and wellness.
Research questions In order to determine the impact of health and wellness programs on performance of the employees, certain aspects of performance will be measured and analyzed.
What impact does health and wellness have on the employee’s self-appraisal and peer appraisal?
Does physical exercise contribute to increased physical fitness and the maintenance of weight at healthy levels?
Does increased physical fitness and reduced weight contribute to improved quality and quantity of work performed?
How is the timeliness of the performed work by the healthy individuals comparable with that of performed by an unhealthy lot?
Scope Basically, every individual at the workplace will be involved in the study since everyone’s viewpoint and perspective will be considered. For self-appraisal, the individual employees will be consulted in order to get a view of their own performance. In order to reduce biasness in these views, the fellow employees will provide a peer appraisal of the employees in question.
In order to measure the quality and quantity of work performed, the management team will be consulted. The records of employee performance would greatly apply in this case. The views of the managers concerning the timeliness of the individual employees will be consulted.
Methodology Research strategy
The research design that will be used will be the qualitative research design. This is because the human behavior and habits will be studied. The performance of the employees will be assessed in the context of the availability or unavailability of health and wellness programs. It will investigate whether these programs are useful for managers (in organizations) who want to make their employees more productive.
The variables that will be tested will include the aspects that indicate the outcomes of a health and wellness programs. These include the reduction of body weight, increase in physical fitness or physical activity and increase in the number of days that employees are present in the workplace. The indicators of performance include their timelessness, the quality and quantity of their work and the individual and peer appraisals.
For the investigation, 10 organizations will be selected within the area. Considering the amount of time and budget available for the research, this is a convenient and manageable number.
Therefore, the selection of the organizations will be a type of non-probability sampling technique and specifically the judgmental sampling. However, the organizations must not be in the same industry (performing similar businesses). This would ensure a representation of different employees from diverse working environments.
In each organization, 25 individuals will be selected randomly in order to reduce biasness. Of the 25 individuals, five were managers in the organizations. Therefore, a total of 200 employees and 50 managers will participate in the study.
The sampling technique that will be used to reduce bias but at the same time get a representation of the entire employee population will be the stratified sampling technique. This will also provide a higher statistical precision because the variability within the sub-groups will be lower when compared to variations that exist when the whole population is considered.
Questionnaires were used to collect data. The kind of information that would be collected using the questionnaires includes the incidences of absenteeism. The employees would be asked to provide the number of days (including full days and partial days) that they were absent from work.
In order to understand the reason for absenteeism, the employees will be asked to include whether it was due to health issues, compulsory leave or other reasons. This is in order to avoid biasness when all incidences of absenteeism are assumed to be due to illnesses. In order to understand the characteristics of the employees, information such as age, sex and position in the company were inquired.
Questionnaires will be distributed to both the employees and managers. The data on self-appraisal and peer appraisal will be collected using the questionnaires distributed to the employees. Information on interpersonal behavior and other personal habits will also be collected using the same questionnaires and during interviews (Kobak et al., 1997).
This information is vital because it is also an indicator of performance. The information collected from the managers will include those involving the quality and quantity of work performed by their employees.
Additionally, a 5-point self-anchoring rating scale will be used to measure the employee’s quality of work. This measure will be applicable for situations where the employee is actually working (working hours).
The interference with the quality of work done will be measured by the score indicated. A score of one will indicate a significant level of interference with the quality of work done. A score of five, on the other hand, will represent no interference.
The amount of physical activity of the employees will be quantified using a special kind of questionnaire. This is referred to as the Godin Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire (Godin and Shephard, 1985). This information will be combined with the amount of weight lost due to the physical activities performed during the health and wellness programs.
Least squares regression analyses will be used to find the associations between the risk factors and the work performance. They will also be adjusted for sex, age and positions to determine the associations between physical activity, weight and performance.
In order to describe the characteristics of the population, several measures of central tendencies will used. Where applicable, graphs and charts will be used to analyze information in the questionnaires.
Validity and reliability
In order to ensure that the observed effects in the research are actually due to the variables, the intervening, extraneous and confounding variables will be controlled. This would be necessary to ensure that the realized health facilitated by the health and wellness programs were responsible for the increased performance of the employees. Reliability of the data collected will also be ensured.
The correct instruments and tools will be used in data collection. Since the data on the employees’ quality of work will be collected twice (using self-rating and rating from the managers), the parallel-forms or alternate-forms reliability will be used (Dillman, 1991). It will be used to assess the consistencies of the data from the two sources since it is the same variable measured at the same time.
References Aldana SG 2001, ‘Financial impact of health promotion programs: A comprehensive review of the literature’, Am J Health Prom, vol. 15, pp. 296–320.
The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations Coursework essay help free
Article Research Problem to be solved The article determines the value of Science, technology, engineering and mathematics qualifications with special focus to vocational qualifications. According to Greenwood et al (2011), STEM is crucial in the present economy and it plays an important role on upgrading disciplines and qualifications offered in vocational training.
Article Research Goals (hypothesis or research questions) The research seeks to answer 3 questions; first is to establish whether there is wage premium earned by persons with STEM qualification compared to vocational qualification or not. Secondly, the study seeks to establish wage premium for persons with vocational qualifications working in STEM occupations.
Lastly, the research seeks to establish wage premium for individuals with STEM qualifications working in STEM occupations (Greenwood et al, 2011). Vocational training and STEM have a direct relationship because STEM qualifications have a higher wage compared to vocational; hence learners are encouraged to study STEM disciplines.
Type of Research Being Undertaken (historical, descriptive, or experimental The type of research undertaken was historical because it utilized recorded data. The research study has statement of the problem, research questions, data collection and analysis methods, target population, findings and conclusion (Greenwood et al, 2011).
The research shows a direct relationship between STEM and vocational studies. STEM encourages learners undertaking vocational studies to pursue STEM disciplines in order to have better wages.
Limitations The research had one limitation; most of the work published was based on secondary sources provided by UK Labour Force Survey (Greenwood et al, 2011). STEM combines its disciplines with those of vocational training in order to ensure learners think creatively.
Population The population of the research study involved households in UK; both males and females with age ranging between 16-64 years. Approximately 163,218 households were involved in the research. The research was done by UK Labour Force.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The households involved were employed with wages and they resided in England and Wales (Greenwood et al, 2011). The study showed that greater percentage of individuals in managerial positions had STEM qualifications.
Instruments and methods of Data Collection The research utilized relevant recorded data from UK Labour Force Survey. The researcher used secondary data which was ideal and had similar purpose with the study. No primary data was collected. Data provided by Labour force was collected from employed households in England and Wales (Greenwood et al, 2011).
The data included information on qualifications of an individual; occupation and wages. The data showed direct relationship between STEM and vocational studies. Vocational learners who have STEM qualifications are able to analyze data effectively.
Conclusions Drawn by Researcher A greater percentage of STEM qualifications a higher value in labour market compared to vocational qualifications. STEM encourages vocational learners to undertake STEM disciplines in order to increase their value in labour market (Greenwood et al, 2011). In addition, vocational qualifications in STEM occupations have less pay compared to STEM qualifications according to the researcher.
The researcher concluded that some STEM qualifications have an added value on STEM occupations. STEM disciplines assist vocational learners to be creative, original in their ideas and inductive in reasoning.
Significance of the study The study is relevant to my study because the information provided is somehow related to STEM, vocational qualifications and wages (Greenwood et al, 2011). The research forms an important baseline for my study because it provides information on contributions of STEM to vocational studies.
Do recommendations support your study? The recommendations of the study support my study because the study suggests that different STEM discipline have different values in labour market. Learners willing to take STEM disciplines should be advised comprehensively.
We will write a custom Coursework on The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, learners should be encouraged to study STEM disciplines because they have higher labour market value than non-Stem disciplines (Greenwood et al, 2011). In addition, conducting a survey would give more comprehensive findings and conclusions.
Reference Greenwood, C., Harrison, M.
Literature Review on Hospitality Strategic Management Dissertation essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Background Strategic Management Since Early 1950s
In the early 1950s, budgetary planning as well as control emerged to be the dominant theme in the hospitality industry management. Organizations within the hotel industry used these strategic planning aspects and as such, the hotel industry enjoyed a successful stint.
However, the main issue with these aspects was the financial control. In the early 1950, there was no effective approach to financial control and as such, it was a major challenge for the hospitality industry players. The major tools as well as concepts used in the budgetary control and planning during this time were capital budgeting and financial planning (Deighton 2006, p. 55).
This strategic management aspect had several implications for the management top teams of the hospitality industry players in that; it was the only way that coordination as well as control could be managed and facilitated was through the then established budgeting systems.
1960s to early 1970s
The budgetary panning as and control faded away as the corporate planning emerged to become the dominant theme in the hospitality industry. Budgetary planning and control was not however rendered insignificant. Instead, it was still a vital strategic element.
It was only that top management teams in the hospitality industry ceased its extensive use with the emergence of corporate planning, which became largely practiced by various industries, especially by the players in the hospitality industry (Porter 1979, p. 65). The major drawback that inhibited its usage was the planning of an organizational growth as well as diversification.
This was a major issue and it took a considerable time for hotel businesses to absorb this issue. According to Sasser, Olsen
Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry Essay essay help online free
What is cultural diversity? According to Gay (2003), culture diversity refers to a situation where an organization is comprised of employees from different backgrounds. These include racial, ethnic, gender, as well as nationality. This diversity, if properly managed, can result to a number of advantages to the organization as they contribute to the knowledge base of the company.
Management of cultural diversity entails recognition and appreciation of culture diversity and ensuring that culture diversity is incorporated in all the core operations of the organization. This is meant to ensure that all the employees are able to contribute towards the success of the organization.
Importance of managing cultural diversity in the hospitality industry Tanke (2000) adduces that those organizations, which effectively manage cultural diversity, benefit in terms of increased ability to consistently meet their targets in terms of profitability objectives. Additionally, effective management of cultural diversity helps an organization to reduce employee turnover.
Management of cultural diversity in an organization has been known to reduce conflicts within an organization, which has the effect of increasing its productivity. In addition, management of cultural diversity helps an organization to comply with government regulations, which are meant to eliminate discrimination.
An organization which effectively manages cultural diversity is able to attract new customers, enter into new markets, and has the ability to harness new business opportunities, which would otherwise be impossible in an organization where all the employees come from the same homogenous culture.
It has also been postulated that organizations which promote culture diversity are in a better position to attract talented employees. This is because they are able to draw from a wider pool as compared to those organizations which are culturally homogenous.
How can this give a competitive advantage? According to Cox (1994), cultural diversity has a way of availing to the company different skills and knowledge from the employees who come from different cultural backgrounds. Additionally, it provides a wider pool from which the company is able to draw talented employees. This can lead to enhanced creativity and innovation, which could be instrumental in enhancing customer service in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Are there disadvantages with managing cultural diversity? Management of culture diversity brings with it a challenge to the management. This is because it has to look for ways of ensuring that the minority ethnic groups are not discriminated against. At the same time, it might result into clashes between the various cultures at the work place regarding issues such as dressing and language problems.
This paper is going to discuss people management, knowledge management, managing culture shock and managing recruitment as effective methods of ensuring the success of the management of cultural diversity in the workplace (Kirkbride 1994).
Discussion and findings Laroche (2003) notes that since culture diversity seems to be increasing with time, it is important that organizations come up with effective means of managing this diversity with a view to making them more competitive. Globalization has a profound impact on all the organizations in terms of increased competition from the foreign based companies as well as the need to be competitive on the international scene.
This implies that the organizations must come up with ways of making sure that cultural diversity is managed in the right way with a view of enhancing their competitiveness. This will help the company in attracting as well as retaining talented employees.
Management of cultural diversity can help an organization to capitalize on the advantages of diversity. This can help in adding value to the company as well as giving it a competitive advantage over those organizations which do not embrace diversity (Lessem 1998).
This is because if the organization makes every employee feel valued irrespective of their cultural background, it will foster an environment which enhances productivity. Effective management of culture diversity can help in providing an impetus for business growth as well as improving customer service, which can come as a result of harnessing the potential of the culturally diverse workforce.
The company can utilize the various attributes, which come about as a result of culture diversity within an organization. They include: language skills, cultural sensitivity and the knowledge of business networks in their home countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these attributes can help an organization to gain a competitive edge on their rivals. This is because the organization will be in a better position to market their goods and services to an increasingly diverse clientele in the home country as well as in the global market place (Henderson 1994).
It has been pointed out that the ethnic minorities would prefer to work for organizations which value diversity. At the same time, the ethnic minorities would prefer to buy goods and services from organizations which are sensitive and responsive to their cultural needs. Other benefits which can accrue from a diverse workforce are enhanced creativity and problem solving skills.
This is supported by the assertion that a diverse workforce is likely to be more creative than a homogenous one. This is because employees from different cultural backgrounds are able to bring different perspectives during the process of problem solving. This can help the organization to come up with new products as well as devise strategies to make their products more marketable than those of its competitors (D’Almeida 2007).
In order for the organization to be able to tap the benefits which result from cultural diversity, there are two main issues that they will need to look into namely: people management and knowledge management.
People management Bono and Heijden (2011) contends that under people management, the challenge for the organization is to ensure that they benefit from the diversity of the employees in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. The management should appreciate the differences which come with diversity and ensure that the unique traits which the employees bring with them are harnessed for the good of the entire organization.
In order for the organization to be in a position to benefit from diversity, there are two issues which they have to look into. These are some of the issues which can hinder effective management of cultural diversity.
Firstly, the management should find a way of dealing with ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism promotes the notion that one’s culture is superior to other people’s culture. This notion is detrimental in that it promotes a monoculture which advocates for one way of doing things.
This brings about the perception that diversity hampers the effective functioning of the organization. This makes it difficult for the organization to benefit from having employees who are drawn from different cultural backgrounds (Phillips and Gully 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Daft and Marcic (2005), the second issue that the organization will need to look into is the glass ceiling. This can be described as an invisible barrier which is erected in order to prevent employees from the minority groups from ascending to top level management positions in the organization. These two issues namely- ethnocentrism and glass ceiling have a way of frustrating effective management of cultural diversity.
As a way of managing diversity in the organization, the management should ensure that there is genuine commitment from all members in the organization in promoting culture diversity. At the same time, the management should ensure that all the structures of the organization are supportive of the whole idea of culture diversity. The structures should be such that they are supportive of fairness in recruitment.
According to Laroche and Rutherford (2007), the management should involve all the employees in ensuring that the goals of management of cultural diversity are achieved. This is because without the participation and involvement of all the employees, the objectives of the management of cultural diversity cannot be achieved. The management should also carry out training programs, which are meant to equip the employees with skills.
These skills can help them to be competent when dealing with people from different cultural backgrounds. This would help the employees to be aware of their prejudices, which can hinder effective cooperation with people from diverse cultural backgrounds and thereby impact on their productivity and that of the entire organization.
Knowledge management It has been claimed that knowledge sharing is severely affected in multicultural settings due to language barriers. At the same time, if the problem of language barrier is not solved by use of an interpreter to facilitate communication, a lot of valuable information may be lost in the process. This problem can partly be solved by encouraging the employees to learn different languages which are used in the workplace.
In order to encourage information sharing, the organization should provide a friendly environment which facilitates free flow of information. More importantly, the management should demolish all the barriers which can hinder effective communication in the organization (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).
Managing culture shock For the effective management of cultural shock, the management should motivate the employees to learn about the new culture. This can help them in adjusting to the new culture. The management should also ensure that they have realistic expectations from the employees who are being inducted into the organization. The management should also ensure that it does not glorify one culture at the expense of all the others.
This can have the effect of assuring news employee that their contribution will be appreciated despite coming from a different cultural background. The management should ensure that the employees are provided with opportunities where they are able to interact outside the work environment in order to break down the inhibitions that may hinder effective communication (Moran, Harris and Moran 2010).
Managing recruitment According to Baumueller (2007), recruitment is a very important function which has the effect of affecting the performance of an organization. It can be argued that ineffective recruitment strategy has a way of adversely affecting the performance of the organization. The recruitment strategy should ensure that the company is able to net talented employees, who can contribute positively in ensuring the success of the organization.
This is very important since the business environment is increasingly becoming very competitive and the quality of the employees in a particular organization will determine the ability of the company to operate in this competitive environment. Towards this end, the management should ensure a non-discrimination policy which allows them to draw employees from different cultural backgrounds.
Conclusion and recommendations It can be seen from the preceding arguments that the management must devise effective means of harnessing the potential of diverse cultures, if they are to remain competitive in the current globalization era. This is because effective management of cultural diversity can help an organization to attract talented employees from diverse cultural backgrounds.
This has an effect of spurring on innovation and problem solving skills in an organization. Ultimately, this can help the organization to be able to come up with new products or take advantage of new business opportunities since they can utilize the various skills of their employees who are drawn from different backgrounds.
More importantly, the organization can harness this diversity in order to improve their customer service which can have the effect of enabling the company to increase its market share. In addition, the management should also appreciate that each individual possess unique attributes which if properly harnessed can lead to increased productivity in the organization.
Therefore, the main thrust of the management of cultural diversity should be to ensure that all the individuals in the organization are motivated to be productive, irrespective of the differences in cultural backgrounds.
In order to ensure that the organization consistently benefits from a culturally diversified work force it should be seen to be committed towards ensuring that all the employees, despite their cultural backgrounds, are provided with opportunities for growth.
In addition, the management should also ensure that all the structures in the organization are flexible enough in order to be supportive of the employees who come from diverse cultural background.
In current competitive business environment it can be argued that the employees are the most important component in ensuring the success of any organization. More importantly, the organization should ensure that it has well qualified and skilled employees.
This can only come about if the organization widens the pool from where they can draw their employees. This can only come about if the organization is able to embrace cultural diversity during the recruitment process.
Reference List Baumueller, M 2007, Managing cultural diversity: an empirical examination of cultural Networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations, International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse.
Bono, S and Heijden, B 2011, Managing Cultural Diversity, Meyer
Consumer behaviour Essay essay help: essay help
Abstract This paper critically focuses on Consumer Decision-making Process models of purchase and post-purchase in relation to the hospitality industry. The paper shall determine the extent these models are vague and all-encompassing, especially when applying to postmodern hospitality industry with the fragmented nature of consumer behaviour, and emerging trends in the global provision of products and services.
Scholars interested in the field of consumer behaviours have developed several models as attempts to explain consumers’ decision-making processes when making a purchase, and what follows after the purchase. Gordon and Saunders have identified six of such stages that involve passive and active consumption phases or sequences (Foxall, 2004).
They identify these stages as emerging needs, active consideration, researching, short-listing, purchase and post-purchase. Smith also supports these stages in his work.
A part from these scholars, other scholars have also offered different perspectives on consumer decision-making process (Kotler, Bowen and Makens, 1999; Chambers, Richard and Lewis, Robert, 2000; Onkvisit and Shaw, 1994; Howard and Sheth, 1996). However, critics argue that such models are vague and tend to be all-encompassing.
Introduction Gabbott and Hogg offer a brief definition of consumer behaviour as “any behaviour involved in the course of buying, using and disposing of products” (Gabbott and Hogg, 1998). Critics have noted that this definition is vague and not practical. From this definition, we can learn that consumer behaviour is a technical issue to describe precisely.
Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard have offered an advance definition of consumer behaviour as “activities which directly involve decision processes prior and after stages of obtaining, consuming and disposing products” (Blackwell Engel and Miniard, 2001). They further explain how consumers choose products and services using a model of Consumer Decision-making Process (CDP).
This model indicates how consumers make decisions before undertaking any purchase decision and post-purchase decision. Consumers make their purchase at the fourth stage after undergoing all other previous stages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers look at the value of the products or service they have purchased against the satisfaction derived or fulfilled from using the product. This experience is fundamental for defining the fifth stage, post-purchase evaluation, which takes a mental evaluation of the value of the purchase.
We have noted that depending on the CDP model alone may not provide the necessary information when applied in a marketing environment. This is because there are other various factors that influence every process of CDP.
Understanding factors that influence stages of CDP model may help markets persuade consumers who intend to use their products or competitors. Consumers are likely to purchase services or products that have solved their problems in cases of recurring needs. This is a purchase they know.
The CDP model must recognise that factors such as culture, personal preferences, social status, family, and the situation also influence consumers’ purchasing behaviours.
At the individual level, we have attitude, resources, motivation, personality, and knowledge. For instance, we may consider how consumers who are conscious environmental behaviour towards purchasing green products or services in the hospitality industry.
Characteristics of products and services in the hospitality industry Hospitality industry mainly caters for tourists or visitors have that need a unique range of services and products. We can group these services and products as packages e.g. accommodation and meals, or stand-alone products such as catering, and entertainment, among others.
We shall focus on a combination of services and products at the hospitality industry so as to enable us to understand the consumer decision-making processes when making such purchases.
We will write a custom Essay on Consumer behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This sector largely deals in provisions of services. According to marketing studies and theorists, services are intangible purchases. Thus, such purchases never really result into any ownership. In this regard, they offer various characteristics of services as follows. The hospitality industry offer services that are intangible. We can never touch, see, taste, or even smell them before we make the purchase.
Marketers in the field of hospitality offer images of their services, such as accommodation locations and the surrounding environment to make such services appear real to the consumer. This is a means of overcoming intangibility. However, such techniques do not necessarily overcome intangible characteristics of such services as tourists have to care when purchasing such services in the hospitality industry.
Services in the hospitality industry also have inseparability characteristics between production and how the service works during consumption. This characteristic influences consumer’s purchasing behaviour. Consumers may link the service to the provider together with the performance, and change their purchasing pattern if the services do not meet their expectations.
Services also tend to be heterogeneous in nature. This means services providers at the hospitality industry may find it difficult to offer the same service to every consumer when their needs arise. Different aspects like emotional status of the customer may also affect how he or she perceives the service at a certain time.
It means that consumers of hospitality products and services may not be able to predict the quality of services they may receive at their favourite places. In addition, consumers cannot depend on past their experiences in order to make subsequent purchase decisions regarding the same services or products.
There may be inherent changes in the services, service providers, or the consumers themselves that may affect the quality as well as experience of services offered.
Services also lack ownership, at least to the consumer. Consumers only experience the service through their purchases and access. Consumers will not own the service. Thus, services serve the purpose of a need satisfaction rather than tangible ownership. Therefore, purchases of services will have significant effects on emotional aspects of the consumer.
The above characteristics are just some of the aspects that may influence consumers of the hospitality industry. Marketing pundits also look at the distinction between convenience goods and shopping goods. Convenience goods tend to have low prices and high frequencies of purchases, unlike other goods that have high prices with low frequencies of purchases.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, we look at shopping goods as serving higher-order needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Howard and Sheth note “the purchase of convenience-type goods involves the consumer in a routine problem-solving behaviour, whereas the purchase of shopping goods involves the consumer in an extensive problem-solving behaviour” (Howard and Sheth, 1996).
We can note that consumers will spend a lot of time in order to understand complex issues of services they are about to purchase in the hospitality industry. The acts of choosing tourism destinations and subsequent service providers involve high-level purchases that require consumers to search for information and make informed purchases.
It requires a high-level of commitment, time, and significant spending. Thus, Middleton and Clarke observe that such influences result into low brand loyalty and expectations of repeat purchases, and low chain of distribution (Middleton and Clarke, 2001).
Complexity in Consumer Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry Consumers involved in purchasing hospitality products and services usually experience some technical issues. Most products and services in the hospitality industry need a high degree of involvement in making purchase decisions and a high degree of consumer commitment. This is due to the nature of products and services that consumers wish to purchase.
Thus, there are no routine or similar behaviour patterns when making such decisions. Consumers consider every purchase unique and need different approaches in making purchase decisions. Consumers in the hospitality industry must first carry out a thorough marketing research before settling on a given decision.
In turn, decision-making processes tend to take longer than when purchasing other products or services. Factors that may influence consumers at this stage may also set in, such as a holiday destination, type of holiday, individual preferences and among other factors.
Consumers link intangible services and products to high levels of insecurity in the purchasing process. The challenge is that consumers cannot have a test of the product before they make any purchase. In this case, most consumers only rely on the assurances from the services or products vendors.
The level of insecurity involved results into complex behaviour patterns where consumers collect information from several sources, including agencies. Information may come from the family, advertisement, travel agents, companies’ Web sites, and social media, among others.
Holidays and visits are significant events in an individual’s life. Thus, there is a considerable level of emotions involved. Holidays restore physical health and provide a chance of escaping the routine of workplaces. Holidays are expensive. This implies that the decision to take a holiday may affect other members of the family, or colleagues in cases of where companies cater for such packages.
This calls for compromises at some points, especially with regard to a holiday destination. There may also be some pressing needs such as purchasing new items, car, improving a home. Thus, family members or colleagues may consider such an expensive holiday a waste of resources.
Consumers who wish to purchase hospitality products and services normally experience strong influences from other people such as family members, colleagues and reference groups. The study of behaviour patterns that are under influences from diverse aspects is extremely difficult. At the same time, such opinion leaders also have tendencies of changing their beliefs and opinions over time.
Most decisions consumers make about visits are long-term decisions that take a considerable amount of time to plan. The challenge is that people may be at different statuses of their minds when they plan their visits, and when they actually go for such visits.
Such decisions depend on aspects of the future that they might not be able to predict. The dynamic nature of the tourism industry may affect such decisions depending on the cost variations, climate changes and lately security.
Purchases made in the hospitality industry involve high levels of search for information. Factors such as emotions and individual preferences may determine the extent to which a consumer will seek for such information.
There is a wide consultation of different sources of information, and the final choice depends on such information gathered. There is a high level of complexity involved as people search for information and make decisions. It may also mean that decisions can change abruptly depending on the new information discovered.
The complex nature of making purchase decision-making processes in a hospitality industry is different from making purchases of other routinely used goods.
The intangible nature, uncertainty of the future and unpredictable of service standards make the process of purchasing services and products a complex experience for consumers. This implies that marketers in may have difficulties when promoting their services and products to such consumers.
The decision-making process in the hospitality industry The decisions consumers make to buy products and services in the hospitality industry are due to complex processes involved. These factors relate to the consumer, and other external factors that he or she may not be able to control when making a decision of purchasing a service or product without prior experience.
In addition, the nature of products and services in the hospitality industry also make purchase decision-making process a complex affair. For instance, in choosing a holiday destination, consumers consider such factors as the destinations itself, mode of travel, type of accommodation services, the length of the holiday period, the time of the holiday, package of the holiday, and agent to provide tour services.
These are among many factors that may influence the decision-making process of a consumer when choosing a holiday package and subsequent purchase.
We can note that the scope and number of such factors are wide and numerous. We also realise that choosing the destination alone is not enough and not an end in itself. There are issues and activities to engage in once in a holiday destination.
Visitors will also make further decisions regarding how to spend their time, what meals to take, and where to take them among others. We can notice that these decisions look simple. However, they form part of the complex decision-making processes that tourists must critically look before making any purchases.
Decision-making models in hospitality Cooper and associates provide three processes in the development of consumer behaviour with reference to purchase processes (Cooper et al, 2005). First, there was the early phase of 1930 and 1940s (early empiricist) where emphasis was on empirical research. Still, the industry tried to establish effects of advertising, product distribution, and promotion decisions.
Second, there was the motivational phase in the 1950s where attention focused on “focus groups, in-depth interviews and consumers’ perception studies, and other projective approaches” (Cooper et al., 2005).
The focus was on what factors motivate consumers to make their purchases. Third, there was the formative phase. This phase included published textbooks by consumer behaviour theorists such as Engel, Blackwell, Kollat, Howard and Sheth.
Most early approaches on the study of consumer behaviour “focused on manufacturing industries, and they later moved to general service industries” (Cooper et al, 2005). In the 1970s, scholars began creating purchase models in the area of tourism. These models presented linear representations of decision-making processes.
It was Moutinho who developed a tourist behaviour model that was different from the rest with two scopes (Moutinho, 1987). First, the model provided for three distinct stages in the consumer decision-making process. These were “pre-decision stage and decision process, post-purchase evaluation, and future decision-making” (Moutinho, 1987).
The model also provided opportunities for feedback mechanism. Second, the model recognised three behavioural aspects in making purchase decisions, such as motivation, cognition, and learning.
The Consumer Information Processing Model: Source: Adopted from Kotler (1997)
Post-purchase Evaluation Post-purchase evaluation occurs as a result of purchase decision. In this context, the consumer considers the level of purchase involvement. As we have identified above, purchases in the area of hospitality are high levels involvement.
In other words, the level of concern for the purchase is high in the hospitality industry because such decisions are not habitual purchases. The process is a continuum where the flow is from low to high level (Solomon, 2006).
High level of involvement during purchase decision-making process will result into an extensive post-purchase evaluation. Consumers usually question if their decisions to make purchases were the best among other alternatives. This is what we call post-purchase cognitive dissonance.
Elaborate Post-purchase Evaluation: Source: Adopted from Hawkins, Best, and Coney (1983)
Consumers are likely to experience such dissonance if the purchase is irrevocable, involves a high level of commitment, individual factors, selection among alternatives, and the importance of the decision.
Post-purchase experience of dissonance makes the consumer feel uncomfortable. Consequently, they resort to a number of ways to reduce such feelings. These may include preferences for the choice, disregard other alternatives, avoid negative comments about the choice, and reduce the importance of purchase decision.
Consumers who fail to reduce the level of dissonance may experience dissatisfaction with their choices. In this process, the consumer is likely to identify new problems and engage in the process of satisfying the need created due to dissatisfaction by the initial purchase. Consumers will use their experiences and negative feeling like part of the new information in making the decision for the next purchase.
Analysis of the purchase decision models There are inherent weaknesses that exist in consumer decision-making process models. These models do not explicitly show how consumers undergo complex processes when making decisions of purchasing services in the hospitality industry. These models cannot serve marketers when designing their marketing strategies.
Most critics argue that such models do not rely on any empirical research; thus, may not present reality of how consumers make their purchase decisions. In addition, most of these models are out-of-date in the postmodern hospitality industry, which is ever dynamic as consumers’ preferences are not static.
For instance, the tourism and hospitality industry has experienced changes with regard to the rapid changes in the Internet as a means of booking and purchasing hospitality packages and airline tickets, explosion of no-frills budget airlines, the development of all-encompassing holiday destinations, evolution of direct marketing, and changes in the buying behaviours of tourists that involve last-minute and spontaneous purchase decisions.
Third, a number of models that exist in the field of tourism, hospitality, and event management have their origins in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia. This implies that these models do not cater exhaustively cater for emerging markets in Eastern Europe, South America, Asian and African markets.
These models also tend to classify activities in the hospitality industry as homogeneous. However, consumers of such products are different and unique in their own ways.
Some of these factors that may influence characteristics of visitors may include their travelling patterns i.e. as an individual, family or group, past experiences of such tourists, and personal traits, which may involve planning patterns such as last-minute decisions or considerable amount of time for planning.
A number of models do not account for influences of motivators and determinants that affect consumers during decision-making processes. Some factors that influence consumers’ decision-making processes may dominate other factors and account for the entire decision-making process. However, such factors mainly depend on individuals’ preferences such as hobbies, means of travelling, or preferences for leisure activities, among others.
Other models take rational approaches to decision-making processes in purchases, which is not always the case. The ability to make rational decisions in purchasing among visitors depends on the availability of information.
In most cases, tourists may have access to imperfect information that does not give true accounts of their alternatives. In addition, rationality of the purchase decision-making process also depends on an individual’s factors such as personal opinions and prejudice.
These models assume that consumers’ activities and purchase patterns are constant. They fail to account for emerging trends such as conference tourism, holiday destinations, holiday patterns, effects of globalisation and instant decision-making process among some visitors. Such factors influence the nature of the decision and purchase patterns among consumers.
Postmodern consumers of hospitality industry Studies show that purchases and consumption in the hospitality industry have become fragmented. The perceived social roles have experienced “breakdown and left majority to adopt any identity they want in a postmodern society” (Thomas, 1997).
In the field of hospitality, the postmodern consumption rotates around “changes in consumer cultures of the late capitalism and the emergence of communication technology” (Brown, 1995). These changes have affected marketing trends in hospitality services (Williams, 2002). Thomas notes postmodernism has significantly influenced marketing.
Thus, he elaborates “Marketing, real-time, real-world marketing is thoroughly postmodern because postmodern marketing openly challenges some of the major axioms of the conventional wisdom as reflected in the standard marketing textbooks” (Thomas, 1997).
Thomas lists axioms that relate to postmodern as “consumer needs, consumer sovereignty, behavioural consistency, customer orientation perceived value, product image, buyer and seller separation, individual and organisation distinction, product and process separation, and consumption and production division” (Thomas, 1997).
We can relate these elements to consumption in the hospitality industry and establish consumerism in postmodern.
According to postmodernism, there is no single privileged form of knowledge, i.e. no theories are superior or inferior to others. Thus, it is no longer possible to believe in a generalisation or meta-discourse. A better understanding of postmodernism should entail sensitivity to differences, fragmented individuality, embrace uncertainty, and discourage the use of consensus to suppress heterogeneity.
In the field of hospitality consumption, we must embrace parallel and emerging trends in the social world. This refers to both self and other spheres of life. Postmodernism recognises that there is a lack of unity, lack of unifying central ideas, order, and lack of coherence.
Lack of certainty applies to an individual as well as the whole system. Therefore, the fragmented nature of consumer decision-making process models results from the fact that postmodernism does not recognise coherent and unified approach to issues as there is also general lack of certainty.
There is also breakdown in the system that leads to distinctions and differences. In turn, we have fragmentation in processes that replace unity or totality. Changes in society will allow for conditions of postmodernism characterised by hyperreality, ambiguity and reproduction of features (Gabriel and Lang, 1995).
Thus, postmodernism does not support any suggestions to replace or impose order to the existing chaotic and fragmented reality. Postmodernism puts it that we should embrace the “limitations of knowledge, question the value of generalisations and accept the impossibility of universal truths” (Thomas, 1997).
Fragmentation also emerges due to a low level of commitment to any one brand. What exists is only a momentary attachment, brand repositioning, and regeneration.
Thus, if we apply the principle of none is superior or inferior to another, then marketing becomes only sensible when it recognises language, symbols and elements of communication that imply and signify essential images in marketing. In the hospitality, the breakdown in the system affects marketing in the hospitality industry, which relates to the universal principle of marketing (Williams, 2002).
Postmodernism tends to question ideas behind generalisations and concepts in overarching theories as it sees them as limited in scopes. Thus, it posits that marketing approaches tend to impose order on the chaotic and fragmented statuses of the modern hospitality industry.
Postmodernism argues that there that the knowledge that exists has limitations about the nature of fragmentation. There is little empirical evidence to support generalisations regarding consumers’ consumption and behaviour patterns.
In addition, consumers’ consumption trends are not orderly and unpredictable. Consumers act on their wishes, ignore the set standards, and fail to maintain systems that may guide their activities (Brown, 1995). Thus, consumers are unreliable and changeable. Dynamic characteristics of modern consumers in the hospitality industry present difficulties in predicting buying behaviours and decision-making processes.
Conclusions This research has looked at the purchase and post-purchase models in consumption of hospitality services. Academicians and market theorists have made their inputs in order to provide theoretical account of the processes.
However, these models offered by theorists have inherent weaknesses both in describing and explaining how consumers make their purchase decisions. Some of these weaknesses result from elaborate decision-making patterns involved in choosing a holiday destination and subsequent activities.
The consumer decision-making process in purchasing hospitality services is a complex affair. It depends on a number of factors that originate from an individual and other external factors.
However, the models present linear processes that do not account for the complex nature and a high level of decision-making process consumers undergo when choosing a holiday destination. Despite these theories and models, understanding consumer behaviour in consumption of hospitality services remains complex.
The post-purchase evaluation occurs as a result of the decision to purchase. It is also a high-level involvement process due to the nature of the decision and purchase involved. Consumers will experience post-purchase cognitive dissonance due to their purchases. However, in most cases, they tend to find ways of reducing negative feeling about their purchases.
With reference to postmodernism, consumption of hospitality services remain unpredictable, fragmented and not attached to reality. Postmodernism believes that consumers of today live in a world of doubt, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Thus, applying a model to explain their decision-making processes involving a purchase remains difficult to limitation of knowledge.
To this end, we cannot apply generalisations to account for behaviours of consumers in the hospitality industry. Still, marketing remains a complex process as predicting purchasing patterns and consumptions among customers are also difficult.
Most consumers will base their purchase decisions on their wishes, make last-minute decisions, and create new trends in demand for services and products. Such are the difficulties that make these theories fragmented and all-encompassing.
Reference List Blackwell, R, Engel, J and Miniard, P 2001, Consumer Behaviour, 9th edn, Harcourt Education, Boston, MA.
Brown, S 1995, Postmodern Marketing, Routledge, London.
Chambers, R and Lewis, R 2000, Marketing leadership in hospitality: foundations
White Female Stereotypes in Media Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
This paper tries to explore the white female stereotypes in the media and thereafter gives the consequences. However, before the explanations, it is necessary to give the meaning of stereotype. It refers to a belief about a certain group of people with regard to their style of doing things. White females are perceived to be superior to the black females and this forms the origin of this racial stereotype.
The media has made profound efforts to make sure that white women are used particularly in advertisements and entertainment to capture the attention of the audience. White female stereotypes in the media have made children to believe that white women are beautiful than black women (Collins126).
Consequently, the use of white women in the media, for example, in television and the newspapers has enormously contributed to the growth of the media industry. Today, images of white girls and women are normally portrayed in the media, and they are empowered. On the other hand, black women and girls tend to think that they are ‘less women’ since in the course of these adverts, their self-esteem is lowered (Collins149).
In most instances, the images that are in the media are of exceptionally slim white girls and women, and this sends a negative image to those women that have bigger bodies. Thus, although there are many media stereotypes, white girls and women stereotypes are the most prevalent and the media use it mostly to influence the society negatively.
Apparently, images of white women that are scantily dressed are everywhere. Advertisements that are aired in the television have images of white women that are seductively displayed, with the degree of seduction varying with the nature of the product being advertised. In addition, there are also magazines that have articles that have images of slim white women.
Some of these images try to explain how women can easily lose weight as well as give the importance of weight loss. These advantages may include a sensational sex life, healthy children or a comfortable marriage. The main challenge that faces the audience is failure to realize that the beauty that is displayed by these white women is almost unattainable and they should not try to imitate them (Collins141-142).
Some of the black women are even depressed by their ‘incompleteness’ and they may even end up skipping meals all in an effort to slim. This is because they feel their bodies are insecure, and they can purchase beauty products at whatever cost or even adopt expensive dietary measures in order to boost their self-esteem. This makes the cosmetic and dietary industries to make exorbitant profits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More White girls and women stereotypes have also been used to portray sex and relationships in the media. Through advertisements, these women and girls are displayed to be sexually attractive by exposing their body parts. This sends an extremely negative image to the audience (especially men), and they may use it to compare the attractiveness in different women. Provocative images of white women are used to lure men.
The image of these women is belittled since they are viewed more as sex objects than human beings. However, the media, like any other business, is profit oriented and it makes good money through such displays. The idea of media stereotyping has made most young people believe that the media is better placed in explaining sexual matters. As such young people mostly rely on the media to be informed on such matters.
Therefore, many women have an impression that for one to be sexually attractive and physically admirable, one must be thin. On the contrary, there are images of women that are displayed in the advertisement, to show the other side of romance. Images of women who are sexually harassed are common in either magazines or television.
Interestingly, here the media is concerned with the life of young people and it illustrates how sometimes relationships are disastrous. By so doing, the media plays a particularly crucial role in educating the youths. Stereotype tries to show that women are vulnerable to sexual abuse and they should always be keen since they are potential victims.
White girls and women stereotypes in the media have adverse effects to the social world as a whole. This can be explained by the fact that it is through adverts that are displayed on televisions and magazines that young people develop an element of associating being slim with beauty, for example. Consequently, the girls may even go without food in order to be sexually attractive.
On the other hand, since most images of the white girls and women are linked with products that are thought to add beauty, women have to buy expensive products in order to live up to these ideal images. In cases where there are financial constraints, women may even sacrifice the most essential needs. The other effect of this stereotype in the media is that morals in the society are eroded (Amundson 34-35).
Women are used as sex objects in advertising matters relating to sex and relationships. In some instances, women have been coerced to sexual activities or abused sexually by men. Indeed, white women stereotype is the most commonly used by media.
We will write a custom Research Paper on White Female Stereotypes in Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Amundson, Daniel. Media Coverage of Religion in America. New York: Center for Media and Public Affairs. 2000. Print.
Collins, Patricia, Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge. 2000. Print.
Chloramine in Drinking Water: When the Threat of Pollution Emerges Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: The Significance of the Issue
ENDS Raising the Awareness of the Problem
The Factors Enhancing the Problem and How to Eliminate Them
Chloramine and the Formation of By-Products: Where It All Starts
Modeling the Procedure, Searching for the Solution
The Possible Way out: Alternative Disinfection Means
Conclusion: There Is Still Some Hope Left
Introduction: The Significance of the Issue In the age when the environmental awareness has become an integral part of everyone’s life, the issue of drinking water pollution causes considerable anxiety and demands immediate solutions. Unfortunately, in the light of the recent conducted researches, the fact that drinking water is being polluted by large amounts of chloramine is undeniable, as well as the fact that chloramines is especially hazardous for people’s health.
It is worth mentioning that certain steps have already been undertaken to avoid the danger of pollution. However, it cannot be denied that the issue of chloramines in drinking water remains unsolved, which calls for another consideration of the issue and offering probable solutions of the given problem.
Analyzing current researches (see Adams, C., Timmons, T., Seitz, T., Lane, J.,
Political Opinion and Public Policy Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Civil and political rights are categories of freedoms that safeguard a person’s rights from unwarranted infringement by state organs and clandestine institutions. The rights guarantee an individual political participation implying that discrimination and repression are never tolerated.
Civil rights entail protecting physical integrity and wellbeing, preventing discrimination based on physical or cognitive capabilities, gender disparity, ensuring that there is freedom of religion, preventing ethnicity, avoiding discrimination based on age and allowing diverse sexual orientation.
Civil liberties can also include freedoms of thoughts and ethics, speech and expression, and the freedom of press and movement. Political rights may include natural justice, rules of law, right to fair trial and the right to participate in political processes, which include the right to vote and the right to present candidature to the electorate.
In the US, civil rights developed first before political rights. The US has had an enduring history with regards to fundamental rights and freedoms. Women and people of color have struggled to fit in the wider society.
Their activities have contributed to democracy in the US. Americans showed their will and desire to govern themselves when they challenged the colonial government due to its high handedness and unresponsive behavior. The colonialists had established their own administrative units that were intolerant and indifferent to the sufferings of the majority.
Americans united to fight a war that was later termed as the American War of Independence. People were granted their rights after the leaders adopted republicanism as a political dogma. This meant that people had to be represented by candidates of their choice.
It was proved that the electorate was more powerful than the ruler. Afterwards, Americans drafted some guidelines that would dictate the relationship between the ruled and the ruler. The principles were found in the federalist papers. Each individual had to vote for a leader of his/her choice. Through this, the state was able to be governed democratically.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In early 1900, Americans entered into another war that was aimed at abolishing inhuman treatment. The war was referred to as American Civil War. The South fought with the North because of different opinions regarding slavery. The North wanted slavery to be abolished while the south posited that slavery was to be allowed. The war nearly divided Americans into two but the North finally won.
This was an indication that Americans were against inhuman slavery that had rocked the society. Some members were forced to supply free labor because of their skin color. Since then, America has never been the same again meaning that much has been gained with regards to civil and political rights.
Women have stood out to fight for their rights by lobbying government to institute laws aimed at protecting them. Presently, it is an offence to use a gender-biased language. Equally, it is a criminal offence to discriminate another person based on gender. Feminist groups have struggled to restore the dignity of women in society by advocating for equality in society.
Due to their efforts, women are currently employed in professions that were previously reserved for men only. At work place, women have found themselves in high positions because the constitution bars an individual from discriminating another person based on gender.
This means that American society is a diverse society that appreciates the efforts of all members. It is not surprising that women have been fully incorporated in the financial system.
Impact of New Technology on European Culture Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of new technology in European culture
Response of artists towards mechanization
Introduction Mechanization is the process of changing from agrarian handicraft economy to one dominated by machine. The process started in Europe in the 18th century. It involves the use of iron and steel and the innovation of new machines that increased production. It also involves the development of the factory system, transport and communication. It started in Britain from 1760 to 1830 and then spread to Belgium and France.
Mechanization led to a major impact in cultures across Europe. In particular, it influenced the development of art and design. New technology in art and design started in the late 19th century. Although modern art and design developed in the late 19th century, contemporary paintings can be located earlier.
Impact of new technology in European culture Modern art is identified as having started in 1863, in Europe. The thoughts that led to modern art can be traced back in 17th century. Modern art involves artistic works developed between 1860s and 1970s. It involves the styles and principles of art produced in this period. In 1789, the French revolution removed assumptions and institutions that had been accepted for centuries without questions.
This helped people to choose their styles of buildings and design of wallpaper. The people who started modern art were romantics, realists and impressionists. In the late 19th century, movements, which were influential in modern art, started to emerge1. These were social and aesthetic movements that advocated for good design and craftsmanship.
This happened in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this period, there was increasing mechanization and mass production. The movements originated from Britain and were concerned with architecture and decorative arts. The movements advocated for the use of plain materials and surfaces which had a lasting influence on modern art.
Mechanization led to the development of graphic design, which is a visual representation of ideas. Graphic art and design are as a result of mechanization. This enabled cultures across Europe to communicate using conventional and inexpensive materials, which are easily transported. In 1922, a book designer developed a graphic design which enabled visual form to be printed.
Mechanization also led to development of languages which were adopted by cultures in Europe. Visual communication of ideas, and facts were developed in different areas from pictograms. The alphabets used today are based on the first alphabet developed by Phoenicians and then modified by Greeks and Romans. The alphabets led to development of languages used today, for example, Arabic, Greek, Russian and Roman.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mechanization in France led to the development of new kinds of paintings in late 19th century. The painting resulted to new fashion that was culturally tied to the development of new visual languages for the 20th century2.
Art Nouveau, which is an international style in decorative arts, reached many European countries, in the early years of 20th century. The movement was the horrors of mass production, and it was aiming to reintroduce the skills, and craftsmanship that was fading out. It rejected the order of a straight line and right angles and advocated for more natural movement.
It put emphasis on decorative patterns and flatness devoid of perspective. This movement is seen as the synthesis of European art. Some of its stylish revival was attributed to growth in nationalism. It arrived in Germany in 1896 with an exhibition of thirty five monumental embroideries at a Munich gallery. By the late 19th century, it had influenced all aspects of Munich’s artistic life.
This led to a demand of a new relationship between life and art. At the end of 19th century, new technology led, to the issue of modifying women’s dress. This became a fundamental element of feminist concern. In 1880s fashionable, tight lacings came under attack in progressive circles by criminals obstructing female movement. In 1890s, Britain’s dress reform was associated with socialism.
However, many historians had argued that dress reform was an issue of taste rather than politics. The new dressing styles implied a shift from earlier notion of clothing indicating class, and occupation to a more modern preoccupation with clothing as a means of identity.
Response of artists towards mechanization Between 1909 and 1912, many artists in England and France, were abandoning naturalism to stylized abstractions. Many artists such as Vanessa bell and roger fry concerned with developing a pictorial language received from decorative arts with a new content associated with the formal lessons. Roger Fry displayed post impressionist exhibitions in London in order to attack the Philistine tastes of the middle class3.
Experiments in decorations were started by Bell and Grant which involved the introduction of geometric patterns derived from mosaic and tile work. The design of Clive Bells art in 1914 also developed an aesthetic in which design and color determined the content. The artists established the Omega workshops which helped them in designing and decorating fabrics, furniture, pottery and other items.
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of New Technology on European Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These were developed to challenge the Victorian differentiation between art and craft. The work of participating artists was believed to be privileged compared to other forms of labor.
The women who started fine arts established a relationship between class and modernity which had major implications. As technology improved these artists were able to design items such as curtains, bedspreads and boxes that were displayed at places like Daily Mall Ideal Exhibition4.
Most of these designs were developed from oil paintings. The distinction between bells paintings and decorations helps in the development of structure and lyrical and color harmonies that improve her figurative work. The dress design in Omega experiment was not successful.
Few dresses were sold this is because the design was too exotic to clients. Delaunay was another artist who developed designs as technology advanced. She worked with textiles and embroidery in 1906. She started designing book covers, posters, curtains, cushion covers and other items from home. In 1913, she started making simultaneous dresses in accordance with the current fashion.
The patterns of the dresses were designed to enhance the natural movement of the body5. The patterns also helped in establishing a shimmering movement of color. The principle of abstraction helped in defining modernity for a broad public.
In the year 1913, Italian futurists exploited the idea of clothing to signify revolutionary modernism. However, futurist attitudes towards feminism were compromised by the cult of virility. In the first decade of 20th century, Russian artists believed that, they can only be able to express key ideas through culture and traditions. Between 1914 and 1917, Russia was forced into cultural and intellectual isolation.
During this time, many artists who were living in other countries were forced to go back home6. The artists developed a new art for the people in preparation of political revolution. This involves searching for a new aesthetic language compatible with modern industrialization. As technology improved art developed, and painting was taught in Moscow.
Popova who, started painting in Moscow emphasized on color and texture7. By 1923, Delaunay’s fashions and textile designs were commercially produced. Avant-garde spectacles such as Dada performances helped break down the belief about clothing as a cover of the body. This was replaced by an image of the body as a fluid screen.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of New Technology on European Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Delaunay’s designed male costumes although commercial developments were designed for women. Many architectural designs in Russia designed by artists remained theories due to lack of raw materials. By 1922, Moscow had large textile industries for manufacturing clothes. In 1923, there was an article which urged artists to address industrial problems.
Many artists responded through sending sketches to First state textile factory in Moscow8. Tatlin and Rodchenko established clothing designs, which were used in social functions.
Popova and Stepanova redesigned the clothes within the framework of the existing industry. In 1925 French and Russian design were combined together9. In the same year, exhibition of decorative and industrial arts was organized to combine art and commercial enterprise in decorative design.
There exist a relationship between an ideal fashion of cloth developed in 1920s and glamour which stress the modern woman and sexuality. This is a complex relationship as both are masked to profound economic and cultural changes. Kandinky was a great artist from Russia10.
He studied law and economics in the University of Moscow in Russia. He was brought up within a cultural heritage, which was partly European and partly Asian. The artist had an unusual interest in color as he contemplated Moscow architecture and its collections of icons.
He had lasting interest on nonrealistic styles of Russian folk paintings. By 19th century, he was a competent professional artist, in touch with new technology for art and design. He was influenced by impressionism and decorative effects of art Nouveau11. He displayed his work with vanguard groups and non academic shows which had spread all over Europe. He was the founder of nonfigurative paintings.
He was an active member of avant-grade movement in Germany. He assisted in the establishment of new artists association in Germany. Later on he informally organized a rival group together with German painter Franz Marc. He became a professor of fine arts at the Moscow academy.
In 1919 Kandinky established the institute of artistic culture. He was appointed as the director of Moscow museum for pictorial culture. This enabled him to help in establishing 22 museums across the Soviet Union12. He started the Russian academy of artistic sciences. He developed the general direction of geometric abstraction with a taste for detailed crowded pictorial space.
He analyzed the effects of abstract elements of drawing by interpreting a horizontal line. He developed visual languages, which turned into a collection of signs that looked like decipherable messages13. He influenced the developed of art in 20th century and his works are exhibited in other painters work. Paul Klee is another artist who made a major contribution to art and design.
He had a multifaceted artistic personality, which ranged from sensibility to theoretical lucidity14. He was a member of various avant grade movements. He became devoted to painting when he visited Italy and saw the work of Leonardo da Vinci. He was based in Munich where he made contacts with other artists about children’s drawings and non European cultures15.
He discovered the power rhythm and dynamism of contrasting colors. After the First World War, he combined figurative language with geometric forms in pictographic writing. He adopted abstracted style of cubists which is seen in a number of his drawings. He also developed the use of letters and other signs in his work16.
Reference List Aynsley, Jeremy. Graphic design in Germany:1890-1945. California: Univesity of california Press, 2002.
Clegg, Elizabeth. Art,design and architecture in Central Europe. Yale: Yale University Press, 2006.
Crouch, Christopher. Modernism in art and design. London: St.Martin’s Press, 2007.
Drucker, Johanna. Graphic design history:a critical guide. Chicago: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.
Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic design:a new history. Yale: Yale Univesity Press, 2007.
Heller, Steven. Design literacy:understanding graphic design. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2004.
Heller, Steven. Graphic design history. Chicago: Skyhorse, 2005.
Heller, Steven. Graphic style. Chicago: Harry Abrams, 2007.
Hollis, Richard. Avant-garde graphics 1918-1934. Michigan: Hayward Gallery, 2007.
Hollis, Richard. Graphic design:a concise history. New York: Thames