Moliere once said, “We only die once…and for so long!” of all the subjects that have remained unclear and marred by uncertainty is the subject of life and death. Very many people have tried to understand what life is and the purpose of our existence on earth. However, there has never been summative explanation generally accepted by all.
The only thing that remains generally and undoubtedly acceptable is that there is inevitable death and that it is appropriate to prepare for it. This paper tries to explain the meaning, structure and purpose of life. It draws from different writings and personal philosophy and revelation.
The question of the meaning of life can be discussed from various perspectives (Christiansen, Baum
Americanization of Global Media Report (Assessment) online essay help
Table of Contents Summary
ICT and its influence
Summary The boom in the global media in the recent years owes much of its success to the integration it has made possible on the cultural levels. The paper tries to gauge the extent to which media has become global with special references to the web based media and then takes up the Americanization that the social fabric of the world has become enmeshed in. The paper also seeks the reasons for these phenomena.
Introduction “A Literature Review is a systematic examination of knowledge available on a topic”. It is further opined that as far as academic literature review is concerned “it involves the use of appropriate peer-viewed articles” (Dawidowicz, 2010). The paper therefore examines and categorizes various texts that fall under the purview of global media studies and analyses the context and magnitude of influence of Americanization on the media in particular and the general masses in general.
Today, in the wake of globalization, the world is no longer a discreet entity but is to be taken as an organic whole. The metaphor of a “melting pot” could have aptly described the situation (Storey, 2000). People across the world are in a state of constant drift and are trying to become world players.
Still, the indigenous cultures of these people and their roots can never be entirely annihilated and hence the world has become a “salad bowl” implying that though people from various cultures reside in a particular area, they still retain their individual characteristic features as in a salad bowl the various vegetables, though mixed, can be separately identified (Campbell
Sustainable Global Energy Options Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract In the recent past, nuclear energy sources have proofed dangerous to the environment due to the poisonous emissions they produce. Fossil fuels are also diminishing and their energy has become very expensive. Other sustainable sources do exist that are a bit cheaper, clean, renewable and long lasting.
Technology can be applied to make some nuclear sources safer. The only problem that exists is the level of advancement in production of these sources although some countries such as the US and Germany have successfully invented in these sources. If these sources are embraced in all countries, in combination they can be able to produce more than enough energy that is capable of meeting the demand.
These sources are safe and regardless of their technological advancement, they can be opted for in order to counter the inflation in the energy sector and save the environment from pollution. This is important as all irrespective of their financial status will be able to afford energy for various uses such as domestic and industrial needs.
Introduction A sustainable energy can be defined as energy that can be harnessed and used in a manner that ensures a sustainable development for a long period of time. It concerns how the available resources can be utilized without strain due to the number of people demanding for its use. Here sustainability looks at the three pillars of development that is social, economic and environmental (Kruger 2006).
Over the past, energy from nuclear emitters has been in use and it has been believed to be a safe form of energy, though in the recent, it has proved otherwise especially in matters concerning environmental pollution. The cost of fuel and energy has also gone very high. Therefore, there is a need for formulation of new policies that will encourage energy delivery in a more efficient and safer manner thus leading to an equitable, economic viable and environmental sound globe.
According to a research report on a sustainable global renewable energy system, it is possible to achieve renewable energy sources at a global level by 2050; these sources will put in mind the level of poverty in the developing world, available resources, population growth, climate change and the energy demand in various sectors such as transport, industries, buildings and services.
Energy is used in three major forms; fuel, heat and electricity. To achieve this sustainability in energy production, renewable sources such as solar, biogas, wind, hydropower, geothermal, waves and tides should be considered (Kruger 2006). Implementation and success of such sources of energy in various countries proves that options safer than nuclear energy exist and can be successfully implemented at their current level of development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Solar energy In this source of energy, two types are put into consideration, active and passive. In active, photovoltaic panels (PV) are used to convert sunlight into useful energy where as in passive, useful sun rays such as sunlight are trapped. In active type, the panels have cells that are composed of semiconductor materials such as silicon.
In its development, important to consider is the availability of space in which to erect the panels (Dawson, Spannagle 2009). The amount of energy produced depends on the amount sunlight heating the panels thus the angle of sun’s incidence and the duration in hours of sunlight availability is also vital. It is a cost effective system in that no raw material is required neither is a station necessary for its operation.
Maintenance is not required at a large scale and this makes it less expensive thus achievable also in the developing world. Solar energy is also inexhaustible as long as the sun is available. Apart from the disadvantaged countries where by the sun is affected by snow, hailstone and thick cloud cover and especially those at the poles, this energy are viable in many of the globe’s countries. The only extra cost that is incurred in harnessing this type of energy is the purchasing of storage facilities such as batteries and fuel cells.
Environmentally, there is no form of pollution experienced with this kind of energy or any hazardous material produced apart maybe from residues emanating from the manufacture of the semiconductors used. No noise is produced, meaning that these plants can be placed near residential places and other environments where no noise is permitted such as learning institutions and hospitals.
Apart from electricity, solar energy can be used to create fuel for example, by use of this energy to burn hydrogen and heat up biomass fuel. Generally, solar energy can be used for various uses ranging from domestic hot water (DWH) to industrial process heat (IPH), meaning that it can be able to cater for the current world energy needs (Dawson, Spannagle 2009).
Most of the developing countries are near the equator and they can therefore be in a position to harness as much as the solar energy as possible. An example of country that has embraced solar energy is South Africa where a group known as solar energy international (SEI) advocates for use of this form of energy to ensure sustainability, poverty eradication and to embrace globalization.
The group mobilizes development organization and other stakeholders by offering training and education on the use of the technologies involved. PV systems worth millions of dollars have been implemented in Indonesia and Philippines. Kenya is also mentioned among these countries. Although the initial cost for such projects is high, they become economical in their operational phases thus making it a viable source of energy even in the developing countries in the world.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sustainable Global Energy Options specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wind power Wind is usually in the form of kinetic energy and through the use of turbines, is is possible to converse it into electric energy. Usually, these turbines are placed on a higher ground where the winds blow at a higher speed. Just like solar energy, wind power requires a large piece of land for the installations of the turbines (Kruger 2006).
There are no hazardous products or dangerous emissions by these turbines compared to nuclear sources. The aesthetic value of the places of installation is affected but this effect is harmless to the surrounding. No raw material is required and this makes it a cost effective project to handle especially with the developing countries and the rising costs of other available sources of energy.
Germany has heavily invested in this type of energy with 17,574 installations in 2005 which generated 4.3per cent of the energy required. If f more emphasis is put on this, it is a viable source of energy in the current world. Besides its advantages, it is clear that it has some obvious demerits such as noise pollution produced by the rotating turbines. Therefore, it is not appropriate to install such stations near noise sensitive environments.
Also, the wind is not available at all the times but this does not nullify its effectiveness because these turbines can be concentrated in regions such as off shores where there is a lot of wind that moves at a higher speed (Wengenmayr Bührke 2008). Canada has also invested in wind power with 97% of its energy production coming from wind in 2005.Several installations have been put in place both by the government and individuals.
In Canada a business turbine can produce up to 1,800 kW at a cost of between 2000-2750 Canadian dollars (Bernstein 2008).Though this source of energy is environmentally and economically sustainable, it has not been embraced by many nations, but with its success in some countries such as the above mentioned, it will be advisable for nations to consider this type of energy.
Hydroelectric power The main source of energy here is flowing water. It can be regarded as a source of free electricity though the cost is incurred in the harnessing and transmitting. Its harnessing involves either impoundment or diversion of some water from a flowing river, although dam construction is the most common method used.
Apart from distraction of the ecosystems such as migration of fish, this method is advantageous compared to the use of fossil fuels because the cost of operation is low and there no known forms of pollution experienced. To avoid much distraction to the fish ecosystem, propellers that are less harmful in turning the turbines can be used and ladders used to encourage fish movement upwards and downwards a river.
Large dams are not necessarily required as a micro one can produce enough electricity for a home or a farm, and this makes it affordable by a majority more so in the developing world (Green energy 2011). Although dam sites are determined by the available rivers and other uses such as recreational, industrial, settlement and other functions, the much that is produced combined with others can be enough for use.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable Global Energy Options by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Countries with big rivers are advantaged because the energy harnessed can be used for industrial purposes. The created dams act as resoviours and create home for both terrestrial and aquatic life, controls rate of floods downstream of a river and at times can act as a tourist attraction center generating foreign exchange to that country.
Hydro electricity can therefore be termed as a sustainable form of energy socially, economically and environmentally. It is used in most of the developed countries such as the United States of America where most of industries are located near water bodies in order to use the energy generated from this waters. Some good examples in the United States include Colorado River and Tennessee Valley.
Other countries include Kenya, Canada, Germany and others. Though this form of energy can be affected by climatic changes which has affected the amount of water in the rivers, it is a safe and cleaner form of energy which can be produced for a long period of time (Green energy 2011).
Nuclear options Nuclear energy production can be safe when especially the right technology is used; however, the wastes produced are what proofs troublesome. Nuclear fission occurs naturally and much can be gained by utilizing the natural process. If engineers can learn from their previous mistakes, then the improved design in power plant reactors can lead to a secure source of energy that is both environmental friendly and sustainable.
One of the technologies is Uranium reprocessing where by just like in a fuel refinery, coal and biomass are used for the production of electric power, liquid fuels and chemicals such as ammonia, a network of pipes is fed with hydrogen and carbon monoxide to produce fuel and other chemicals through various processes. The synthesis gas produced is used to burn coal and biomass in order to produce energy and chemicals.
This is a process that is cheap in the sense that there are no extra costs for transportation, no need for a gasolification facility and the gas produced is more or less the same as a natural gas. Because of its ease production, both large and small scale processes can employ this technology for energy production. Chemicals produced like ammonia are used as fertilizers. Such technologies have been successful in the US and they have several advantages as compared to coal and petroleum (Suppes Storvic 2007).
Other sources There are also other sources that can produce energy in a sustainable manner; such include the geothermal power where heat is harnessed fro underground through maybe a fluid allowed to flow through the porous rocks which produces heat. This heat is eventually tapped through a turbine and used for electricity generation, in this technology, other forms of gases that are harmful to the environment can escape into the air thus causing pollution, this include, nitric oxide, sulphur and carbon dioxide.
Energy can also be harnessed from the ocean, which is the use of tides and waves. In tides, water energy is used to drive water in and out of a dam thus driving an electrical turbine while the wave’s oscillations can be used to generate hydraulic pressure for driving motors which in turn can be used to produce electricity.
These sources are environmentally friendly because there are no emissions involved although they cannot be used in most parts of the world since not all of them have oceans or are close to one and in any case the available ones cannot be enough to produce enough energy to meet the demand.
Conclusion A number of sources for sustainable energy exist, but they have not been fully embraced. Though with the rising costs of fuel and the need to combat the effects rendered by the emissions produced during fossil fuel burning, there is an urgent need to consider all these alternatives in order to meet the energy demand in a more sustainable, effective, sufficient and environmental friendly manner. If all these forms of renewable energy sources are put in place, then it is possible to meet the energy demand at a global level.
References List Bernstein, S. Bernstein, F. (2008). A globally integrated climate policy for Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Cowie, J. (2007). Climate change: biological and human aspects. London: Cambridge University Press.
Dawson, B. Spannagle, G. (2009). The complete guide to climate change. London:Taylor
Revolution in physics and chemistry Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Revolution in physics
Revolution in chemistry
Impact of revolution in chemistry and physics
Introduction Chemistry and physics are among the major subjects studied in the world today. Historically, the revolution of science dates back between the 16th and 17th century. Europe is the mother of all scientific revolution for it laid the foundation of innovative and advanced science.
The urge to carry out a series of experiments and research led to the initiation and the ultimate breakthrough of chemical and physical revolution by ancient scientists. The chemical revolution led to different discoveries in chemistry opening doors to other scientific inventions in the medical and industrial setups. The following discussion focuses on the scientific revolution of two main sciences; physics and chemistry and its impact.
Revolution in physics Different philosophers contributed to the ideologies in chemistry and physics. Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who first initiated discoveries in physical sciences. The Aristotelian theory describes the earth as the center of gravity and the shape, size, movement or behavior of both living and lifeless objects on the earth’s surface. Additionally, he defines physics as a natural science composed of both living and non-living things. From Aristotle description of the earth as the central attraction of all objects, gravitational theory emerged.
In 16th century, Sir Isaac Newton pioneered the discovery of the gravity theory after studying Aristotle’s ideas. Due to the success of the gravitational theory, scientists discovered two other planets, Neptune and Uranus. However, the inability to locate the position hence orbit of Mercury was the main cause of its failure which pushed for a detailed research on gravity.
Later corpuscular model by Louis and electromagnetic radiation model by Lorentz explained the law of gravity and emission of electric charges by bodies. Unfortunately, in the 19th century, all the laws became invalid because they violated modern laws on conservation of energy and thermodynamics especially in physics. Although the gravitational theory is no longer applied, its concept has enabled calculation of gravity in the modern science.
On the other hand, the impetus theory redefined the physical concept on inertia force as described by Aristotle. The ability of a body to retain its continuous motion despite application of external force underscores the Impetus theory. Similarly, Hipparchan-philoponan theory describes application of force or motion against the gravitational force like throwing of a stone while Avicenna theory describes projectile force.
All these ancient theories redefined Aristotle theory, which describes physics in terms of inertia force, impulsive or momentum, and speed (acceleration). Galileo Galilei was a famous physician whose physical invention is still applicable in all modern learning institutions. He described and interpreted all experimental facts in physical science leading to the discovery of kinematics as a subject. Therefore, the mechanical and chemical philosophies describe the scientific revolution while Empiricism initiated revolution in physical science.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Revolution in chemistry As the physical revolution was taking part, the chemical revolution was also underway. A number of philosophers and scientist progressively led to the success of chemistry as an area of study. The major scientist who led to success of modern chemistry is Antoine Lavoisier through his presentation of chemical elements.
Lavoisier discovered the major elements in chemistry like Oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur. This landmark discovery was in line with the invention of oxygen theory which holds that most chemical compounds consist of different elements and oxygen is the common element among others.
Additionally, Lavoisier described the components of water as oxygen and hydrogen on top of discovering that air consists of gases like nitrogen, oxygen and other trace elements. Due to his description of the chemical nomenclature, there was derivation of different chemical compounds like sulfate and sulfuric acid among others. Using the single theory, Lavoisier described chemical balance which opened the way for stipulating origin and derivation of chemical equations in chemistry.
Apart from concentrating on chemicals, Lavoisier researched on physical chemistry and thermodynamic laws, which were part of physical science. Lavoisier’s radical theory describes elements and concept of allotropism in elements. The emergence of diamond and carbon are among Lavoisier’s major discoveries.
Unfortunately, most of Lavoisier’s discoveries and theories received rejection and criticisms from fellow chemical scientists. Priestly, one of the major scientists declined to acknowledge Lavoisier’s work especially the law on conservation of mass. Despite receiving objections, Lavoisier’s experiments are still applicable in the current world especially in the chemical and laboratory practices.
Other great contributors to chemical revolution include Jacob Berzelius who besides writing chemistry books, he drew tables on atomic weights. Additionally, Berzelius gave each chemical element a letter or notation for easier identification.
Other chemicals like silicon, selenium, lithium, and vanadium were among his discoveries. Luckily, he did not receive opposition from other scientists during his research. However, he opposed the discovery of chlorine in 1810 by Humphry Davy even though, his opposition ended in 1812 after discovery of iodine.
We will write a custom Essay on Revolution in physics and chemistry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides Berzelius, John Dalton was also a chemistry philosopher who discovered the atomic theory. According to Dalton, all chemical elements are composed of particles called atoms and they can neither be created nor destroyed; they can only undergo chemical reactions (changes).
Additionally, Dalton researched on the effect of heat or temperature on gases which led to the principles of pressure and expansion of gases or water evaporation. His research on gases like methane, ethylene, carbon dioxide and nitro oxide initiated the development of atomic theory. The Dalton theory is still applicable in contemporary world taught in scientific learning institutions.
In addition, Boyle’s law initiated chemical revolution in the 16th century. Robert Boyle’s research on water expansion (freezing), crystals, electricity and color blindness led to the publication of his book the Sceptical chymist, which forms the foundation of advanced chemistry. He defined chemistry as a science and not an art by describing composition of all substances in chemistry.
Impact of revolution in chemistry and physics The scientific revolution involved research on natural, chemical, and physical sciences. However, most scientists who initiated chemical revolution had knowledge on physics. Therefore, the revolution in chemistry and physics happened at the same time during the 16th and 17th century.
Consequently, the chemistry and physical revolution initiated industrial revolution in Europe and other western countries. In comparison, chemistry and physics are similar because they all describe the elements of nature either in the physical or chemical form. Currently, inventions in physics and chemistry are applicable in the medical and industrial industries.
Conclusion In a recap, the sixteenth and seventeenth century was the age of renascence which defines scientific revolution. Famous scientists like Aristotle, Boyle, Newton, and Dalton led to scientific revolution. Besides other discoveries like in medicine or psychology, there were tremendous inventions in chemical and physical sciences. In physics, there are different theories, which include gravitational, Avicenna, and impetus among others. The theories in chemical revolution include atomic, Dalton and radical theory among others.
All the scientific inventions in physics and chemistry are currently applicable in industries and all learning institutions. However, the works of early scientists like Lavoisier received opposition from fellow chemists or physicists hence obstructing adaptation of their discoveries. Chemical and physical revolution was the foundation of industrial revolution. In addition, most industries in food, medical or machinery base their research on elements of chemistry and physics.
Bath and Body Works Company Essay online essay help: online essay help
Bath and Body Works is an American retail store which specializes in producing and selling products such as lotions, Bath items personal care items and house fragrances. Founded in 1990 the company has expanded beyond United States and offers after sale services as well as customer care services as part of selling their products.
So how do the four I’s of service in the Bath and Body Works company? First it is worthy noticing that today businesses have realized that customer care service is an integral component in the marketing and maintaining customers. This is why Bath and Body Works, being a merchandise company cannot evade service provision.
The four I’s in the service provision includes firstly intangibility; meaning that after sale services and customer care services provided by Bath and Body Company are not physical commodities which one can carry home. The second one is inconsistency which implies that whoever provides the service may not be the one to offer the same service always.
The third component is inseparability of the service and the person rendering the service and the last component is the inventory part meaning that the service provider will always have enough stock of knowledge regarding the service to be rendered. Bath and Body Works ensures that inconsistency component is bridged by training all personnel so that they all provide informed quality services.
A gap analysis may be needed in the service and product relation whereby the service provided in terms of information regarding a product should be regularly evaluated so that improvement is done. Gap analysis involves evaluating the target of the company versus where it is at that particular time, this will enable the company to see loopholes that may hinder its progress to where it aims to be and take necessary measures.
According to the kind of products Bath and Body Company deals with, there are many other competitors in the market and therefore its pricing objective should be to maximize long run profit and increase sales volumes. Prices should be set at a competitive rate which should ensure consumers are sustained and the company benefit from economies of large scale. Competitive pricing will foster consumer loyalty in the long run although at first less profit per product will be made.
This strategy pricing will be the only best alternative because Bath and Body Company operates in a competitive type of market where many companies produce alternative products. In determining the prices therefore the cost of producing each product and the prices of alternatives products in the market should be considered. The products the company deals with are consumer products with relative elasticity and therefore any slight changes in price will bring about the high changes on quantity demanded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The potential revenue will be determined by the total revenue generated by each product and the cost will involve the production and packaging cost including the cost of services provided. Maximum revenue is attained when there is the highest difference between the set price and the cost of producing the product. In this case there are six steps to this goal; the first step is to set a price low enough to be accepted in the market and high enough to maximize profit
The second step is to set a price that can stand competitor’s prices in the market by researching on other company’s prices for alternative products. The third step is to analyze the consumer characteristics so as to create a price that is acceptable to consumers. The forth step involves determining the company’s desired position to charge high for high quality products or otherwise.
The fifth step involves testing the market first with lower prices then determining consumer’s level by the sales made. The final step is to determine the optimal price based on market response and time should be taken to set the prices for maximum sustainable revenue.
Determining prices using competitive oriented approach is always the best for Bath and Body Works Company and because it operates in a competitive market, relying on step five and six above will be paramount.
Autism and Visual Thought Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Autism and Visual Thinking
Different Ways of Thinking
Variations among Autistics and Visual thinkers
Introduction The human mind is a critical component of human life because it is the control unit of not only the physiological processes of an individual’s body but also the social-psychological procedures. Social-psychological capacities are key to formation of meaningful and genuine relationships with others at the family level and the wider society. In spite of our inheritance of intellectual abilities our academic growth and development largely depends on our mental conditions and well being.
Unfortunately, some children are born with incapacitating mental conditions which adversely affects their growth and development either physically, academically and/or social-psychologically. One such condition is autism. This task is a presentation of my agreement with Dr.Temple Grandin’s assertion that there are individuals who think in vivid pictures but most of us think in a combination of words and blurred, indiscriminate pictures.
Autism and Visual Thinking According to Baron-Cohen and Bolton “autism is a condition that affects some children from either their birth or infancy and leaves them unable to form normal social relationships or to develop normal communication.”(1).Autistic children are normally cut off from social contact and always engaged in monotonous activities and interests that are fascinating to him or her alone.
They may have hearing problems which differ in severity in different cases.Bogdashina provides that there are autistic children who suffer from severe hearing processing problems who may either be late speakers or never speak throughout their lives while others may live with speech difficulties their whole lives (118).
Bogdashina explains that variations in perception between and among individuals including those born of the same parents lead to different abilities and thinking style (118). Visual thinking and verbal thinking are two of the main thinking styles recognized by psychologists. According to Bogdashina, autistic thinking is more often than not perceptual in dissimilarity to the verbal thinking of ordinary individuals (118).
Autistic individuals if put under remedial procedures in good time may have a normal life. However, they are usually visual thinkers. Bogdashina points out that the most common type of insightful thinking in autism is visual (118).O’Neill as cited in Bogdashina elucidates that visual thinkers express ideas as images that offers them a real basis for understanding (118).The world as well all that is around them tends to be fathomed in terms of what the psychological experts call visual images.
Visual thinkers experience problems understanding something that does not have an object or an image they can associate with and that is why some words are totally meaningless to them. In fact, the most meaningful words to a visual thinker are nouns while majority of adjectives and verbs may have no concrete meaning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different Ways of Thinking There is overwhelming evidence that people have dissimilar thinking styles. As a already noted earlier, psychologists have established that autistic and non-autistic individuals have different thinking patterns On one hand non-autistic individuals are largely verbal thinkers while on the other hand have been confirmed to be mainly visual thinkers.Visuial thinkers as opposed to verbal thinkers have an associational kind of thought processes.
That is why they may talk of two things in manner that sound of context in their attempt one thing to another in a manner may not be articulate to verbal thinkers. For example, an autistic person may associate his or her lack of fear for heights with height at which aeroplanes fly and think that airplanes fly high because her she does not fear them.
Variations among Autistics and Visual thinkers Autistics and visual thinkers vary depending on their where they fall in the Autistic Spectrum (AS). So that it is not all individuals who are autistic in real life who are highly visual thinkers or who process information in the same manner.
Those with cases of severe autism as noted earlier take longer time before they can begin talking verbally or they may never speak the rest of their lives or have speech difficulties the rest of their lives.Diiferences in growth, development of the auditorial and verbal capacities eventually bears on the way individuals thinks visually.
Bogdashina argues that visualized thinking models vary from one individual to another (118).on one hand there is a category of visual thinkers who are able retrieve memory pictorial images in manner similar to searching through slides and are also able to manage the speed at which the pictorial images pass through their imagination.
On the other hand, others are unable to control the speed at which the images are retrieved and may end up filled to full capacity of his or her mind with too many pictorial images being retrieved at the same time Bogdashina (118).
There are o0ther autistics who have serious difficulties in terms of interpretation of written or spoken information into a visual form. Still others are unable to hold in their minds visual images together Bogdashina (118).Meaning that there are autistics who have speed problems in terms of converting a piece of information into pictorial images while others have mental challenges of putting together visual images in their minds.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Autism and Visual Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Suprisingly the quality of visual thinking according to Bogdashina is dependent on other factors like time and the state the autistic person is in (118). Example is given of Dr.Temple Grandin world’s moist popular visual thinker whose mind pictures are said to be more vivid and to have the most comprehensive visual images when she is drifting off to sleep (118).
It is important to note that visual thinking is not exclusively the only possible type of thought process in autism. In other words autistic individuals are not automatically visual thinkers.Likewise; there are visual thinkers who can not be categorized as autistic per se even though they may show signs of autism. However, research studies have shown that in most instances the greatest majority of autistic individuals are naturally visual thinkers but not absolutely all the time.
This fact owes largely to their auditorial and verbal challenges which if it is allowed to go unchecked in good time makes their autistic condition to worsen thereby making their communication the rest of their lives worse. Bogdashina points out that a relatively good number of people at the working end of the autistic continuum and a considerably big percentage of people at the more intellectually challenged autistic end of the scale may not necessary think in pictures oat all (119).
Bogdashina asserts that majority may not in reality be able to think in visual images and may in the end be denied what could work better for them and in such circumstances their intelligence is wrongly judged by their ability to link visual images with words [or even sounds (119).
The above line of argument is a stern warning to all especially teachers and parents dealing or handling autistics from rushing to assume and conclude that the individual should be able think visually at a given point of their lives. This is a call for unshakeable patience so that you may understand fully his or her thought patterns and be in a perfect position to decide the best help that befits their special condition. Bogdashina cautions that “…not all autistic individuals are visual in their thought-production process.”(119) see also Gray (56).
He points out that some autistic individuals think in kinaesthetic images that can not be converted into mental images and more often than not have problems learning nonfigurative things that can not easily be visualized through perceptual form Bogdashina (119).This sentiment is in a perfect harmony with Dr.Temple Grandin’s assertion that not all people with autism are necessarily highly visual thinkers and that not all process information in the same way.
Visualization skills are important but when coupled with mental conditions they pose a threat to the development of the communication abilities of the autistic individuals who are more often than not visual thinkers. Consequently there is need to understand autistic children as early as possible so that the necessary help may be accorded.
If helped at the right time those who are intellectually able like in the case of Dr.Temple Grandin can learn to appreciate their condition and be helped towards improving their verbal or articulation skills. Also they can be helped to nurture their visualization skills which can be utilized for the common good of the individual and the wider society Lichtenstein Creative Media (13).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Autism and Visual Thought by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bogdashina explains that children with autistic condition are actual thinkers and that therefore there is need to understand their associative and spatial thought patterns (119).
A spatial thinker understands things in his or her mind in a multi pattern which is usually the case with visual thinkers like Dr. Temple Grandin who has a unique ability to design live stock structures and equipments in her imaginations long before it is made in real life. She is also able to sense structural and design mistakes with many structures and equipments because her ability to represent them in multidimensional pattern in a manner that many verbal thinkers can visualize.
This argument is supported by Bogdashina’s assertion that spatial way of thinking brings both pros and cons in that on one hand it is easier to see certain patterns of the world and infer images from those patterns (119). On the other hand, he argues that spatial thinkers may have problems to things that are largely one dimensional particularly when that comprises taking a mono-dimensional line out of multi-dimensional alternatives Bogdashina (119).
Conclusion In conclusion, it is evident that even though majority of autistic individuals are usually visual thinkers not all of them are able to think visually. And as argued by Dr.Temple Grandin and other quoted in this essay, autistic individuals who are visual thinkers exhibit identifiable differences in terms of their visual thinking abilities. This is determined by factors like time as well the state that the individual is in.
Works Cited Baron-Cohen, Simon and Bolton, Patrick. Autism: the facts. Oxfor Lichtenstein Creative Media d University Press, 1993.Print.
Bogdashina, Olga. Theory of mind and the triad of perspectives on autism and Asperger syndrome: a view from the bridge. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2006.Print.
Grandin, Temple. Thinking in Pictures. Grandin.com.Web.2011.15th April 2011. Gray, Carol (FRW). Learners on the Autism Spectrum: Preparing Highly Qualified Educators. Autism Asperger Publishing Company, 2008.Print.
Lichtenstein Creative Media. Autism: Beyond the Silence. Lichtenstein Creative Media,2001. Print.
Training crucial for hotels Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Case study: hotel training needs and issues
VI. Best practice
Introduction Organizations all over the world have woken up to the reality that there is need to have employees that can help the organization meet client’s needs. This also includes hotels and other organization in the hospitality industry. Hotels being in the service industry depend largely on the impression they create on their customers for sustained business.
As such some of the major hotels such as the Ritz-Carlton and the Sheraton have gone ahead and invested heavily in employee training programs. Training of employees in these hotels employs various techniques and is concerned with building the employee capacity not only on customer service and public relations skills but also on increasing the employee flexibility to attend to guest and make on-the spot decisions.
Training for hotel does not only target service staff but also management a well as administrative personnel. To underline the need for constant training for staff some hotel have in-house trainer. The result is that there has been a reduction in employee turnover rates. Therefore employee training becomes important for survival in this industry.
Case study: hotel training needs and issues Hotels need to train employees for a number of reasons. Hotels like the Carlton-Ritz train their employees so as to have competent staff which will help in execute the organization business strategy. This kind of training thus involves educating employees on the hotels values as well as how to achieve its mission through its daily practice.
Therefore the training is aimed at increasing the employee’s capacity to competently execute their daily roles. This improves the hotels competitive advantage as it is able to offer quality service to its customers (Jackson Schuler and Werner 270).
Many of the hotel employee training programs are intended to equip and empower the employee with skills to efficiently meet customer demands. As such the employee is not only able to offer quality service but also make crucial decision without necessarily consulting immediate bosses (Enz 487).
To do this employee must be trained on the skill they need to acquire so as to understand customer needs and wishes. The employee will thus acquire the necessary communication skills and body language to enable them to provide sufficient support to any client. Furthermore the employees are trained on social skill such as how to interact with people from different cultures as well as enhancing their selling skills (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 271).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To add to this Blokdijk adds that training hotel employees is not only intended to enhance world class customer service but also enhance consistency such that there will be a continuous trooping back of customers and that it also includes how to control employees moods and emotions such that not affect the outcomes of their work (113). This customer focused approach creates a customer based culture in these hotels.
Most of the hotels also implement training programs that are intended to improve employee retention rates by reducing the turnover of employees. This thus becomes a way of enhancing recruitments and employee retention. Most of the employees are seeking latest job skill and competencies that are not taught in conventional hotel training courses. The only options left for hotel staff are to enroll in part time courses to improve their professional competences.
Better still, employees prefer when the employer offers such training as it is more contextual and also has more learning experiences as compared to classroom training. Employees also see such opportunities as highway for career growth and advancements. Therefore employees are more likely to own up their jobs and also increase their commitment to that particular employee. This increases employee satisfaction and is more likely to reduce the turnover rate of employees (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 270).
To produce the desired outcomes hotel training programs use a variety of methods. These methods are deliberately designed to produce certain kinds of skills and abilities. Such a method of train is the cross-training methods that have been adopted by many hotels.
This method of training is aimed at equipping the employee to acquire multi tasking skill. As such the employee can serve in more than one areas satisfactorily (Bardi 362). Some hotels also combine lecture methods with practical skill straining. Under such program hotel trainers simulate role play that give employees the opportunity to learn in controlled real life experiences (Hayes and Ninemeier 227).
Some hotels have gone a notch higher and engaged their won trainers. These trainers carry continuous in house training to employees. The trainers are also given the mandate to train and induct new employees.
Most hotel choose such a trainers from among a person in senior management and one who clearly understand the hotel model as well as one who is ell versed with employee training methods. Furthermore these trainers have also to be trained. Training the trainer is always necessary as the trainer must also be equipped with the latest industry trends and human resource needs. When hotels do this they become self sufficient and reduce significantly their reliance on outside sources fro their training needs (Bardi 362- 365)
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Training crucial for hotels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training solutions There are several training solutions that hotels can adopt in response to the issue mentioned above. Talent management is a terminology that is increasingly gaining popularity in human resource circles. It has become part of organizations human resource planning strategies. Talent management involves a number of activities and starts from the recruitment process, where that right personnel is identified and incorporated into the hotel human resource pool.
Such talent is chosen so as to fill in the hotel’s human resource supply/gap. The advantage of talent management is that it creates and prepares a reservoir workforce for the hotels future human resource needs as well as ensuring that the hotel has its own self-made resources. However finding talented people to fit in the hotel unique needs is not always an easy task. Moreover talented employees can be poached by competitive employers (JACKSON and MATHIS 292- 322).
Training for hotel human resource need an be a vain venture if there no motivation and reward mechanism to maintain and encourage top performance. While training hotel staff equips them with the knowledge and skills, rewarding these skills can make a big difference for the organization.
This is because employees will be motivated to apply what they have been trained on for gainful experience. Rewarding performance can include monetary as well as non monetary rewards. Monetary rewards are vital as they can be used to retain employees tempted by better offer elsewhere. Motivation and rewarding is howeever a complicated activity as it is more perceptual. When interpreted wrongly a reward can have detrimental effect on the organization (Sturman, corgel and verma 147-148).
VI. Best practice The best solution would be talent identification and management. Talent management training is a multifaceted approach. It main intention is to recruit and maintain a highly talented and gifted staff for the company’s well being. Other than this some hotels have acknowledged that this approach can be used for other purposes.
Talent management training is now being used by hotel as part of its future planning for its human resource needs. Hotel are identifying and training best staff so as to build a reservoir that will facilitate career succession planning for the hotel as well as for the individual employees. This ensures that there is continuity in the hotel management and leadership and as such avoid such uncertainties about future leadership (Jackson and Mathis 293-294).
Conclusion Training of hotel staff is increasingly becoming part of hotels business as well as a new strategy for other organizations. This has been necessitated by the facts that the hotel industry is in the service sector and demand keep changing as such hotel must keep up with the best industry practices to survive. Hotel need to develop their employees through training to increase staff capacity. The increased capacity enable employees help the hotel implement its business strategy.
This enhances better customer services thus ensuring consistent client base. To do this employees have to be equipped with among other skills, interpersonal skills as well as emotional intelligence. There solutions however that can help hotel meet human resource needs. Such efforts as talent management training are increasingly gaining popularity as they have more than one benefit. As the industry trend continues to change so will the training needs for hotel increase.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Training crucial for hotels by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Bardi, James. Hotel Front Office Management. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print
Blokdijk, Gerard. Management Training 100 Success Secrets. Vancouver: Gerard Blokdijk, 2008. Print
Enz, Cathy. The Cornell School of Hotel Administration Handbook of Applied Hospitality. California: Sage Publication Inc., 2010. Print
Jackson, John and Mathis, Robert. Human Resource Management. Ohio: Thompson South western, 2008. Print
Hayes, David and Ninemeier, Jack. Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print
Jackson, Susan., Schuler, Randall and Steve Werner. Managing Human Resources. Ohio: South Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Print
Sturma, Micahel., Corgel, Jack and Verma, Rohit. The Cornell School of Hotel Administration on Hospitality: Cutting Edge. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print
The Mobile Phone as an Electronic Wallet Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors in Favor of the Innovation
Cases Studies in Mobile Payment Systems
New Approaches in Mobile Payment Systems
Potential Success Factors
Introduction The initial attempts to make the mobile phone an electronic wallet can be traced to the efforts by Nokia around 1997 (Leavitt 2010). In that year the Company (Nokia) made attempts to allow people purchase soft drinks from vending machines through the use of Short Messaging Services (SMS). Soon after that initial effort another Finnish company, Merita Bank, offloaded the first mobile banking system based on SMS (Leavitt 2010).
A mobile payment system is one that facilitates transfer of funds securely for purchase of goods through a mobile phone based application (Quigley 2008).However, mobile payment systems did not make the expected impact owing to the fact that the use of wireless devices was still not widespread and the GUI’s for most of these initial devices were poorly designed (Leavitt 2010).
Technological advancement has seen the production of smart phones with many capabilities and significant changes in the capacity and bandwidth on the cellular networks around the world. Further dissatisfaction associated with credit card fees has worked to further increase the propensity towards mobile payment options.
Currently through the use of smart phones there are applications to make purchases such as music and videos possible online. It is in light of this that an innovation such as a comprehensive mobile payment system may go a long way in reducing the complexities associated with transfer of cash in Abu Dhabi. Such a system could be useful in activities such as the collection of charitable donations, purchase of air time, utility bill payment and mobile banking.
In this project the objective is the creation of a mobile payment system for use in Abu Dhabi. The proposed system could be used to pay for services such as taxi fare, make purchases and pay utility bills. The system could be especially useful for visitors as the region is typically inhabited by an Arab speaking population (Middle East Hub).
Factors in Favor of the Innovation Prior to making a decision on the innovation it was essential to establish the viability of the project. In this regard it was noted that the revenue fro telecommunications in UAE rose from $ 2.7 to $3.1 million between 2000 and 2004 (Shirazi
The World Though the Prism of Ideas: Impressionism as It Is Essay online essay help
One of the world’s most mysterious and at the same time elegant branch of arts, impressionism, is both a riddle and an answer to it. Suggesting people to take a closer look into their own minds, impressionism offered that the spectator could incorporate his vision of the world together with that one of the author.
Despite its seeming simplicity and inspiring shapes, impressionism conveys the most complicated ideas and bases on philosophical and cultural foundation that has a history of its own. Discovering the ideas underlying the impressionists’ paintings, on can open the whole wide world in front of his/her eyes.
Speaking of the techniques that the artists used in creating their impressionism masterpieces, one must note that the style which impressionists used ensued from the peculiar vision of the world which impressionism presupposed.
Oriented exclusively on the ideas and perceptions of the artists, this style of painting could not be considered as a separate trend in visual arts – this is rather a string of ideas embodied in paintings. Depicted on the paper, the world picture of impressionists turned into the door to the other world – the world where the reality mixed with the surreal to create one of the most incredible cocktails. As van Gunsteren explained,
We may, first of all, certainly discount the more loose or merely lyrical usage in which impressionism means anything ‘fanciful’, ‘disorderly’ or ‘illogical’. Having done so, however, it is possible to penetrate to a fairly solid core of the new ideas and methods, which gave the group cohesion even without the formalized rules of a ‘school’ of French painters. (29)
Thus, it is obvious that there is more to impressionism that merely distorting the usual forms and shapes, turning them into a chaotic something. With the powerful idea in the background, an impressionism painting obtains the meaning of its own. With help of the impressionism vision, one can see the reverse side of the world, the subconscious and the sub-real. Getting into the depth of people’s minds, these images depict ideas, not objects, which is why this style differs from what the mankind is used to so much.
It is quite peculiar that impressionists were a kind of rebels in the sphere of art, breaking all possible laws of painting to create the ones of their own. According to Salvi, “The Impressionists broke many rues of academic painting. One was their insistence on working direct from experience” (16). This was where the idea of the plein-air technique appeared from – trying to find the right environment to create the masterpieces of their own, impressionists tried to break the boundaries of space, which led them to creating outdoors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For them, painting did not mean staying behind closed doors in the cold light of a studio, but taking easel, canvas and paints and working en plein air (outdoors). This gave their canvases a feeling of spontaneity, but also required some new painting techniques. (Salvi 16)
Monet offered a perfect example of what the plein-air method of painting is. With his masterpiece called The Japanese Bridge, the author managed to represent not only the new idea of art, but also the new means to create it with. Painted with the plein-air technique, this was the essence of impressionism, the very spirit of the new art.
Breathing with the fresh ideas, this painting stirred the most unusual thoughts. Intriguing and capturing, this was the kind of masterpieces that gripped one and would not let go for another couple of hours. The creation required deep considerations and thorough meditations to understand the ideas underlying it.
Monet, Claude. The Japanese Bridge, c. 1919-24. Web.
Another perfect specimen of the new style of painting was the Water-Lily Pond that can be considered the perfect beginning of the impressionists’ triumph. With help of the peculiar open-air technique and the unusual, non-traditional approach to the art, the impressionism embodied in the Water-Lily Pond created quite a stir in the artistic circles.
This was a new and original way of expressing the ideas without fearing of being misunderstood – for impressionism could be understood in a million of ways; everything depended on the spectator.
Monet, Claude. The Water-Lily Pond, 1899. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on The World Though the Prism of Ideas: Impressionism as It Is specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the new art helped people to understand art in its new shape. Hiding beyond the disguise of the chaotic and the subconscious, the paintings created by impressionists made people open their eyes and see the reality the way it is. At this point, the definition of impressionism intertwines with the idea of ripping the world of its veil.
Lying bare and naked in front of the artist, the world took the most incredible shapes, which were depicted in the numerous impressionism paintings. Shockingly surreal and at the same time grotesquely true, these pieces broke new ground not only in the sphere of arts, but also in people’s lives.
Considering the three theories of art which Frank suggests, one can see clearly the way impressionism develop as the time passed by. Starting from what further on was called the theory of representation, the new style developed into the “pure seeing”, which later on evolved into the “experimental aesthetics” (Frank 2006).
Due to the organic and swift way in which the ideas of impressionism evolved, the latter shaped quickly and in rather natural way. Relying on their own vision of the world and their ideas concerning people and nature, artists embodied their impressions into peculiar and intriguing artworks. To understand the train of impressionists’ ideas, one has to consider the paintings by Monet as the founder of the new artistic tendency. For instance, his painting Irises is the very idea of impressionism itself:
Monet, Claude. Irises. c. 1914-17. Web.
To understand the essence of this peculiar vision, one has to consider the expressive theory. Painting their feelings on the canvas, artists could get rid of the haunting ideas for a while. But then the need to tell the world important truths took its toll on the artists again… Trying to regard “the flux of sensation in its totality”, as Holt brilliantly noted, they created the world of their own, the world that mirrored the reality.
In his creation Bathers at La Grenouillère, the artist also followed the famous representation style, with help of which he created most of his pieces. Like the rest of his pictures, this creation also featured the famous plein-air technique and followed the principles of the representation style. However, it must be admitted that this creation of the great artist also incorporated some elements of the traditional vision of the world as well.
Monet, Claude. Bathers at La Grenouillère 1869. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The World Though the Prism of Ideas: Impressionism as It Is by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Taking a closer look at the picture, one case that the artist deviated from the way in which he began creating the impressionist works. It has gained certain sociological meaning, for it considers the society in general rather that the sufferings of an individual.
Thus, there are no doubts that the impressionist ideas were broadening as the experience of the artists grew, and the spectrum of the ideas that could be communicated with help of the paintings grew increasingly huge. This is the right time to start talking about the formal theories of impressionism.
It cannot be denied that the pictures that followed Monet’s innovation in the world of art were mainly inspired by the great author of the Water-Lily Pond. However, there are no doubts that the main source of the painter’s inspiration came from their observations of the world, their meditations and their philosophical approach to understand the nature of a human being and the place the latter takes in the great circle of life.
However, it would be erroneous to speak of formal theories as of something that fit impressionists’ ideas impeccably once applied. It would be better to suggest that the formal approach was to be tailored to the ideas of impressionism. Since the latter presupposed the denial of any norms at all, the formal approach could not be applied to the paintings strictly. As Lanier noted,
Although there are similarities in their [impressionists’] art, these artists had no “formal theory” and “abandoned any fixed program.” They diminished the importance of subject matte, denied the importance of genre and subjected everything to the stamp of their own personalities and sensibilities. (79)
Morrisot, Berthe. Summer’s Day. c. 1879. Web.
However, it cannot be claimed that the sociocultural element of the impressionists’ paintings appeared only as time passed; one had better say that it became obvious only as certain time passed. Therefore, it can be suggested that the impressionism paintings helped the society get ready for certain changes in the vision of the world and the world philosophy. Since such transition could turn rather painful and ever impossible without any links to the previous experience, impressionism served as a bridge between the old and the new.
Considering the paintings from the sociocultural point of view, one has to admit that the authors of the pictures were trying to communicate their opinion concerning the most important vents in the social life of the then epoch. With help of their attempts, the paintings opened a door to the world where people could face their most secret ideas and feelings and realise that these are integral parts of themselves.
Every single picture created in the period when impressionism reigned spoke of the floating world, the time of changes, the instability and the attempts to relate a man to the nature. As Frank himself explains, the expressive theory of impressionism is one of the means to approach the mysterious pictures of impressionists, filled with the meaning that only the authors could see distinctly: “All art works are made by people.
The skill level, persona; intent, mental state, gender, or mindset of the creator must play a role in the creative process” (Frank 96). Glancing at the creations of impressionists, one can understand that the ideas of the world as chaos were only beginning to appear in their creations, whereas most of the pictures conveyed the idea of beauty in the natural and the irrational, the blurred vision of the world.
With help of the new artistic tendency, people have managed to experience an escape to an artistic Wonderland, which they must thank impressionists for. Unless Monet, Morisot, Renoir and all the rest had not contributed their viewpoint to the world of art, the latter would have been incomplete.
Works Cited Frank, Patric. Prebles’ Artforms: An Introduction to the Visual Arts, 8th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.
Holt, Ysanne. British Artists and the Modernist Landscape. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003. Print.
Lanier, Doris. Absinthe the Cocaine of the Nineteenth Century: A History of the Hallucinogenic Drug and Its Effect on Artists and Writers in Europe and the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2004. Print.
Salvi, Francesco. The Impressionists. Minneapolis, MN: The Oliver Press, 2008. Print.
Van Gunsteren, Julia. Katherine Mansfield and Literary Impressionism. Amsterdam: Rodopi1990. Print.
Embracing the Entire Globe: Globalization Is not to Be Feared! Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help
No matter what one might say about the links between different people and different nations, there can be no possible doubts that certain countries stay miles away from each other. Preserving their cultural identity, they are still linked to one another, which cannot be considered but a positive state of affairs.
Despite the fact that globalization is designed to reunite people, restoring their economical, political and personal links with one another, there are certain suspicions that the effect of globalization can possibly harm the ethnicity and the cultural peculiarities of various countries, making the latter absorb the culture of the world leading states.
Considering the matter closer, one can see distinctly that the fear of the globalization effect comes from the strong feeling of national identity. According to the essay under the discussion, the fears that globalization would be the merging of cultures until they fuse into a single entity are completely groundless.
However, the author of the essay has sufficient arguments to back the statement with. It is quite clear that integrating into a globalized world will presuppose that certain traits of national character and identity might disappear. As the process unwinds, people will focus on the economical and political aspect of the problem, whereas the cultural one will be likely left behind. However, this is not a reason to be greatly anxious, the author of the essay claims.
Moreover, the argument of the essay is backed up with significant information concerning the plausible positive effects of globalization. Like in Ben-Rafael’s book, “globalization is seen here as an effort to build a world meta-culture sui generis, not by superimposing one culture on others” (280)
However, it cannot be denied that, once started, the process of globalization is bound to continue, not matter what people could think about it. Whether it is a negative or a positive “polysyllabic phenomenon” (Blanchette 71), it can be only hindered, not stopped. Like every other stage of people’s evolution, this process is irreversible.
Therefore, the only thing that people can do at the current moment is to try slackening the process of globalization down. With help of reasonable approach and considerable effort, people will be able to postpone the globalization process until they feel that the mankind will handle the complicated stage of self-development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike the rest of political and economical phenomena, this one embraces the entire world, which is already a reason for thorough considerations. According to the essay, the suppositions concerning the negative effect of globalization have been greatly exaggerated. Still, there are sufficient reasons that the threat of globalization was underestimated by the author of the essay.
On the one hand, globalization does have its effect on the world culture, encouraging the process of fusion. Yet on the other hand, it is obvious that the effect of culture mixing can lead to deplorable effects. As soon as the cultures reach certain point of globalizing, they will disintegrate into a mess that will represent the “globalized culture”. Wiping out the unique cultural features of specific countries, globalization is highly likely to produce an effect of a social stencil for the mankind.
Moulded according to the stereotyped pattern, people will not be able to keep their cultural values, which the author of the essay does not take into consideration. As El-Shibini claims, globalization can pose certain threat to the Islamic people with their specific culture and traditions, which means that the process of globalization must take another shape in this society to help them preserve their cultural identity:
Extremists fear the incorporation of Western Civilization into Islamic countries. Therefore, Arab communities need to take from globalization what coincides with the national interest for economic, scientific, cultural and technological development and to identify and abandon whatever conflicts with Islamic beliefs, traditions, social values and norms. (El-Shibiny 83)
It must be admitted though that the essay has certain strong arguments to support the idea that the globalization is bound to have positive effect on the world cultures. The thesis of the essay explains that the effects of globalization will not hinder the cultural development and threat the cultural values of different countries, since globalization will itself encourage the process of cultural growth.
Emphasizing that globalization enhances the understanding of cultural values and the national identity, the author does make an efficient use of logical arguments. Indeed, it cannot be doubted that with the globalization process, certain innovations that will enhance relationships between ethnic communities will appear:
For example, consider the existence of the electronic media. And, more recently, the Internet which allow members of national and cultural groups new and more effective ways of communicating with one another and of promoting their culture and traditions. (Hogan 415)
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Embracing the Entire Globe: Globalization Is not to Be Feared! specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, it must be admitted that the essay under the discussion does have its point, yet these benefits cannot outweigh the negative effects of globalization anyway. Since the electronic media can be used both for finding like-minded people, and for promoting certain views, either cultural or political, into a different community and thus destroying their life pace.
Considering the effects of globalization, one must say that these are deadly for a number of cultures. Therefore, it can be supposed that the mankind s not ready for the globalization process yet. As soon as people are able to keep their traditions, the world integration will be possible.
Works Cited Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, and Yitzhak Sternberg. Identity, Culture and Globalization. Leiden, Netherlands: BRILL, 2002. Print.
Blanchette, Olivia, et al. Philosophical Challenges and Opportunities of Globalization, Vol. 1. New York, NY: CRVP, 2001. Print.
El-Shibiny, Mohamed. The Threat of Globalization to Arab Islamic CU. Pittsburg, PA: Dorrance Publishing Co., 2005. Print.
Hogan, John P. Cultural Identity, Pluralism and Globalization. Vol. 1. New York, NY: CRVP, 2005. Print.
The Management and Governance Structure of International Business Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction This research paper is a close examination of the international business. It has tacked the management and governance structure found in international business and how each relates to the success of the international business.
Those structures usually depend upon many factors when it comes to consideration of diversification of goods and services. They also (structure) dictate the kind of branding a business puts into the businesses across the globe. Still those structures have their strength and weakness which has been tackled as advantages and disadvantages.
International business is the business which describes all the transactions which are commercial in nature between the countries or regions. These transactions may include sales investment logistics and purchases. Many governments do engage themselves in international business as a collective decision or political reason which has been reached by the government officials. The government may sell the product or service in exchange of money for the purpose of completing the commercial activities.
Private company can also get involved in international business but unlike the government their main role is to get profit, private company may invest in goods and services across the boarder in form of economic resources e.g. capital. Import is simply moving of good and services among nations. Exporting is regarded as moving of goods and services to other nations.
This structure considers the complexity of business most likely the geography the functionability of the business and the technology. Matrix structure deals with internal complexity in the business as well as external complexities this is done by reflecting those external complexities by analyzing the structure of the business internally. This structure realizes and considers the importance of geography functional grouping of the customer product and technology.
When using matrix structure it’s more emphasize on the clarity which yield more flexibility. Matrix cannot solve the complexities in business but working together of the people in the organization dictates the success or failure of the business.
Global market structure
According to Zinzaro (2010), this structure reflects the global philosophy which states that world is just one homogeneous market. The philosophy sees the world as a monolithic market with tastes and preferences which are similar. In Global structure it assumes that the national tastes and preferences are not different hence standardized products are put into consideration hence the structural process are integrated so that the coordination of activities are the same worldwide i.e. production marketing and planning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Decision making comes from the corporate headquarters and directed to the parts of the business. Hence decisions are centralized and for this matter the importance ones. For example they are decisions which are made at corporate level and not subsidiary level. These are the issues of research, product range and branding.
In some instances they are some services which should be closer to the customer but their policies still are set at corporate level.
Global structure does not consider geographical aspects but focuses on products and markets and how to globally implement success of products and markets.
This is usually fragmented into some trends. Some are talked in this research.
This is directed to eliminating vertical hierarchy and it bases its structure on process instead of functions the management is usually delegated to the teams which has been formed in the regions (Zinzaro, 2010). It usually assists in the close contacts to the customers.
Those teams do perform their tasks independently and makes sure that they include all the skills to accomplish their tasks.
This is usually based on outsourcing where the hierarchy which is vertical is replaced by controls of the market as the core activities are kept by the organization.
We will write a custom Essay on The Management and Governance Structure of International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dynamic network has got low administrative overhead and very flexible in resources allocation. It has got some of weakness which sometimes makes it impossible to define the organization and its employees do not have loyalty.
Factors to consider when choosing appropriate structure for international business
When it comes to governance the structure to be considered should be taken into account because some business are governed by boards while some structures may require some legal restriction which requires the business to have another entity board for the diversification factors or to manage the international business.
International business usually because of their size do separate the corporation from its owners hence owns liability is limited to the investment made by the new entity its like starting another company standing on its own so when deciding to look for the structure consideration must be into consideration.
There is additional cost which comes hand in hand when a business has been diversified for example business taxes record keeping. Sometimes they are ventured if the international business is operating globally and from a centralized position. This factor should be considered on which structure to adapt.
Start up funds is taken into account when an international business wants to be diversified. Hence some structure like matrix structure will need a lot of funds because of its decentralized nature it also requires funds to cater for numbers of manages involved (Zinzaro, 2010). So it’s the decision of the business owners to lay out plan considering the cost involved in various structures and hence adopting the promising and profitable structure.
Advantages of global market structure
This can enable the international business to introduce the product by using a very powerful tool called advertisement due to present of global advertising tool like internet its possible for Global market structure to do the
There is presence of economy of scale due to the fact that individual needs and preferences are universal those markets produces good and services in large quantity hence the cost is reduced considerable consequently enjoying economies of scale.
There is informing in practices like marketing because this structure ensures that all individual are similar hence the information required should be directed as if it was going to a single person.
When it comes to branding it is consistent in the source that all the practices of branding has been centralized and all the decision comes from a single source but directed worldwide.
Disadvantages of global market structure
Global market structure sometimes its ‘philosophy’ doesn’t work at all instances because customers need and usage of produces is not always universal sometimes its different according to many factoring such as geographical factors cultural and many more.
Sometimes customer from one region may not respond to the products as the same way others may respond.
In international business the issue of competition usually occurs we find that some areas are more competitive than others in the brand and product development hence in Global structure this issue may not be put into consideration due to its philosophy.
In some regions away from home market there are some administrative procedures which might be different from the one from home markets this may affect the international businesses because of trying to adapt to those procedures which might Jeopardize the success of the business.
In some regions there is complexity difference when it comes to legal processes some are harsh than others for example in some regions operations of those business may be limited to a number of homes while others may be operating in 24hours system this may also be as a result of security issues environment and crime rates (Joshi, 2009).
Advantages of matrix structure
Matrix structure by its ability to consider the geographical set up is able to improve the access of resources across the geographical set up. This usually enhances the
Organizations using matrix structure usually have better coordination when it comes to the sharing of technologies for example information technologies companies who share technologies do have better coordination.
In matrix structure the governance is usually decentralized and this allows effective and fast decision making. This usually saves time because the consultation of each sector is put into consideration without the bureaucratic process which undermines other decisions.
This structure usually allows access to skills and perspectives which are diversified because of its nature we have seen that when it comes to management and governance it usually considers many sectors such as geography technology and functions.
Because of its diversification it usually improves projects which are regional and also global projects. This usually enhances the success of the business due to diversification of its resources.
People who are usually concerned in those businesses which have adopted matrix structure they usually develop in skills which are broaden due to a great exposure which matrix structure gives.
Matrix structure engages in decentralization of its governance this usually is very effective when it comes to communication and coordination of the business activities.
Matrix structure enhances a holistic outlook upon its customers whether regional or global it makes sure that their needs are met.
It also enables adaptation and responses which are instant to the complexity of the world because of the skills its participant has.
Disadvantages of matrix structures
Due to it decentralized nature sometimes it might be difficult to follow up the teams and their operations because decision making is independent of the sector. This form of independence may jeopardize the whole system most likely if there is a poor transition from one sector to the next.
Due to creation of many project teams this also gives the need to increase numbers of managers to lead those projects which consequently leads to increase in costs.
When it comes to allocation of resources and there is difference in policies between the line manage and project manages this may bring delay and conflict to a particular international business when allocation of resources id urgent.
It is also hand to reach into final decision because of number of managers involved (Joshi, 2009). If we compare with line management here we usually have double number of managers which makes decision making to delay.
Sometimes it’s regarded as an outdated method to organize a company because the top most sectors may not be aware of the activities happening in regional sectors and this may compromise the success because it lacks that chain of command which in some cases scrutinizes every sector of the international business.
When there is conflicting loyalties this brings about the confusion amongst the employees they do not know which policies to follow or the guiding principals in the business this can lead to failure of the business.
Conclusion It’s evident that we cannot survive without international business, many companies which are universal do usually have better terms than those which are domestic in nature as indicated above there is issue of economies of scale this assist the business itself and the consumer because goods manufactured at bulk will cost less compared to goods which are produced in small quantities, this is also reflected to prices of the goods and services to the consumers since the business produces more with less they will also reduce the cost (Joshi, 2009).
When it comes to management we have seen that in matrix structure there is decentralization this enable the policies which are set to favor the local because the managers on the ground have got the actual touch of reality as far as need and preferences of that region is concerned.
This also brings about good relations between regions because of universally of the management and governance of the business.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Management and Governance Structure of International Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand international markets also do have some negative effects towards a particular region because some of the needs and preferences might be different from what is known from the home company. Due to dynamic nature of society sometimes the international business takes time to catch up and make changes because of bureaucratic process involved.
Reference List Joshi, M., 2009. International Business. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Web.
Zinzaro, F., 2010. Market Global Structure. Web.
Culture and the Black Freedom Struggle Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The United States is the world’s ultimate super power constituted by a diverse mix of different races. 13 percent of these constituents are pre-dominantly blacks. Even in this era, inequality and racism seem to be rampant in the country and in fact, capitalism seems to feed off these vices; as Malcolm X said, “You cannot have capitalism without racism”.
The aftermath of the Katrina disaster exposed these ugly trends in the country after many blacks were displaced and seemed to be neglected. Statistics show that the black community has decreased in terms of population in New Orleans; once at 67 percent, now is at 58 percent. Louisiana Republican Congressman, Richard Baker said, “We finally cleaned up public housing in New Orleans. We couldn’t do it, but God did” referring to the displacement of poor black residents in New Orleans.
Black youth seem to be the target of police harassment and imprisonment in addition to them being the most exploited and unemployed in the country. These inequalities have sparked social explosions as was evident in 1992 when there were riots in Los Angeles, a rich city having a large number of poor blacks. The past struggles which yielded the heroes of yesteryears have done little to improve the lives of many blacks who have not experienced any change.
Black culture Black freedom struggle has taken many shapes over time, but during this period shaped what is commonly and popularly referred to as black (African-American) culture. The struggle has taken various steps since the slavery days when Africans were shipped into America.
The march on Washington Campaign of 1940 is the earliest cited genesis of the struggle by “No Coward Soldiers” and subsequent struggles have taken the shape of bus boycotts (Montgomery 1955-56), freedom rides in 1960, Poor People’s March in 1968 and attempts at establishing a black political party in 1970. All these events exuded passion from the black community and have largely influenced black culture to this day.
“No Coward Soldiers”, has traced the development of the modern freedom struggle and attributes it to the need by blacks to have a distinct culture that uniquely defines and influences them. In an attempt to understand the modern freedom struggle, this paper focuses on the black culture which has influenced the struggle and is influenced by the black community today. The genesis of the distinct African-American culture is the fight against white hegemony.
This factor has probably singularly shaped most of what constitutes the black culture albeit not single handedly. The need to have a political structure that advocates the needs of the black community has also played a big part in the shaping of black culture. Politics and culture neither substitute nor determine one another but rather relate each other in a more complex manner. Politics can shape culture and vice versa. Therefore, in an attempt to understand black culture, the book attempts to analyze black internal politics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More African-American culture has its roots in sub-Saharan ad Sahelean cultures, it has however been greatly influenced by white culture in the post-slavery era. It is one of the most unique cultures which greatly influences mainstream American culture and that of the world evidenced in music, art, literature, cuisine and sport.
The culture aids in the removal of historical complexities from the mind. Take for example black music which is accepted world wide and is central to black culture as it a reflection of it. Politics are central in the influence of cultures and present modern day heroes for the common African-American in the likes of Obama, Rice and Powell. African-Americans consider themselves the saving nation of the larger American nation and this notion is captured in poems such as ‘My Blackness Is the Beauty of This Land’(Martin, 11).
Blacks are known for their interests in political processes compared to any other minority group in the US evident in the large numbers of registered voters. They also have higher education levels compared to any migrants in the country.
This helps to show that blacks are fighting on every front to level the playing field when compared to whites so as to better advocate their rights which they feel have not been wholly addressed. While upholding the doctrine of beating people at their own game, blacks have enrolled in all social areas and are striving to excel in those areas so as to offer themselves the opportunities that they previously have been denied.
The accent of Obama to presidency, the presence of sports heroes in the likes of Gay and Kobe, the wealth accrued by Oprah and Johnson of Black entertainment Television and other examples have been a driving force in empowering blacks and better placing them to advance their struggle for true and ultimate freedom.
They have not only black Americans with the impetus, but also provided white America with new ways of describing black bodies and sounds distinctively(Sklaroff, 247).
African-Americans largely favor the traditional American values. They cite their culture as the major determinant in their opposition to same-sex marriages and the upholding of traditional family values which discouraged divorce. Increased divorce rates among blacks, and increased single parent households evidenced by the fact that only 38 percent of black children live with both parents (McKinnon 2003), indicate an influence of white culture and changing economic realities.
We will write a custom Essay on Culture and the Black Freedom Struggle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “No Coward Soldiers”, draws parallels between the past freedom struggle and the present freedom struggles and argues it from a realities perspective. The past was characterized by fight for equality brought about by segregation whereas the present although still focused on equality is of a different nature.
“In black culture, we can find a history of American perfidy, American violence, American oppression and American racism, all captured for our delectation in a way that provokes reflection without spurring us into action” (Cashmore, 170).
He further adds that the culture of blacks is the source of comfort rather than a challenge. It is in the culture that blacks draw their inspiration as they reflect on the road they have taken to a form of freedom envisaged by the initial freedom fighters.
Conclusion “No Coward Soldiers” has discussed in detail the genesis and the continued proliferation of black freedom struggle. The fact that culture has played a major role in the shaping of this struggle over the years is not in doubt, in fact, both the culture and the freedom struggle have affected each other mutually.
It is the struggle that conglomerated blacks in the beginning and it has continued to umbrella them in institutions appealing to their course. For example, blacks initially were republican since Abraham Lincoln aided in abolishing slavery, they have since defected to the democratic movement as Johnson and Kennedy were sympathetic to the civil rights movement of 1960’s.
Works Cited Cashmore, Ellis. The Black Culture Industry. London: Routledge, 1997
Martin, Waldo E. Jr. No Coward Soldiers. Black Cultural Politics in Postwar America. President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2005
McKinnon, Jesse. The Black Population in the United States: March 2002. United States Census Bureau, 2003
Not sure if you can write a paper on Culture and the Black Freedom Struggle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca. Black Culture and the New Deal: the quest for civil rights in the Roosevelt era. Charlotte: The University of North Carolina Press, 2009
Product Advancement Trend Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Relevant consumption trends The onset of mobile technology has transformed the way of life of the modern day society. Every person out there wants to communicate. A cell phone is a convenient way to communicate due to its portability as well as cost. The information age has demanded more than just communication in the strict sense.
The consumer wants an opportunity to derive entertainment information access as well as the actual communication itself. The mobile phone companies have adapted to this demand by developing products that meet the average requirements in a satisfactory manner. The cell phone cuts across all the market demands and therefore offers the customer the benefit of a single gadget with several applications.
The cell phone market has been typically subdivided into two main segments. The first is the high end segment that comprises of business persons and the professional class. These customers are the most influential in as far as price is concerned since they have a high level of loyalty to the product as long as they develop a sense of trust for such a product. The second segment is the low end consumer class that is made of the blue collar as well as the personal end users.
The preferences of these customers greatly depend on the individual’s behavior and preference. However the actual purchase is mostly affected by the financial implication of the product purchased. The high end customers are more likely to purchase the more expensive versions of the black berry that have more features that assist them in their daily professional encounters.
Their spending may be motivated by either necessity or actual availability of finances. They are therefore more product-specific. For instance the professionals are more likely to go for a cell phone that has an operating system that will allow them undertake the duties that they would otherwise have waited to get to a computer in order to access such features. The general average annual spending among the first segment is higher than that of the second.
Customers from both segments have an opportunity to access these products from the certified dealers in selected selling points such as malls and supermarkets. There are also numerous specialized dealers who deal in electronic sale that offer the black berry based products. Customers have the option of also purchasing the product online from the various websites such as E-bay.
Online sale has gained credence due to its flexibility convenience and speed as compared to over the counter sale. The products are available on these sites with varying charges depending on the prevailing rates. The most recent statistics suggest that the customers buy more at the end of the month and before festivities. The levels of sales were also very low during cold seasons as most of the customers were indoors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The preference has been the purchase through online dealers who deliver the product after a given period of time. The percentage of people who ordered the product specifically as a present amounted to 20% of the general consumer base. With these customers the probability of purchasing this product again is quite slim. This would be because they were not actually getting the phone for someone else. They could either be creating an impression on the person or recommending the product.
The other percentage either went through the actual product acquisition model that involves gathering information, evaluation of the product, purchase and post purchase procedures. The market is affected by various variables and there can be no specific conclusive explanation of the current or future trend in the consumer’s behavior. On average however the loyalty of the consumer was motivated by advertisement and word from friends and alternative sources of information.
The black berry has been in the black berry phone specifically the touch 9800 mobile is a market leader that has been created to serve the interests of the consumer form both ends. The all too familiar receptiveness of the device to new applications and the removal of old ones give it a dignified prominence in the specialty.
The black berry company has made several efforts over the years to ensure that their products subscribe to the demands of the modern day consumer. The product has an inbuilt operating system that supports most document formats (Alba and Hutchinson 2000, p 123).
The core proposition of the brand is to ensure that the customer receives quality. The substance of the brand slogan suggests that the product inspires
Personal Reflection on the Self Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Self Concept
Self Concept Self-Concept, self esteem, self efficacy and self confidence are believed to have great influence on an individual’s way of life. Self-Concept, also known by self-image or self-perspective, refers to the way an individual views himself (Bong
The life and Works of Titian Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction Art has been evolving for many years since time immemorial. One of the reasons as to why it is pretty difficult to date the time artwork began is because the practice is as old as human beings. However art gained its known exponential growth within the last one thousand years. This was the era when the famous Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci brought their paintworks into fame. It was also during this period that the famous painter Titan exposed his remarkable talent through paintings.
The real names of Titian are Tiziano Vecellio. He was ranked the best artist of the (sixteenth) century. He is well known because of his extraordinary use of color in his paintings. Titian used his paintings to influence the society greatly. Thus he contributed to all the major initiatives of art and related works. His paintings could touch on all sectors of life to exhibit the mythology and cultural practices of the prevailing environment.
Titian’s trainers were Giovanni Bellini (1459-1516) and Giorgione (1478-1510) of which Giovanni was influential because he used a tonal approach in his artwork and for his landscape styles that were quite evocative. Thus Titian and Giovanni worked in a similar way to the extent of making the situation hard for the artistic world to fix the boundaries between their works.
The works of Titan are celebrated way beyond the national border of Italy to the entire planet. His timely works include the drawings of landscape and goat and two Satyrs in a landscape which exemplified mythological figures in a fine landscape whose naturally occurring picturesque contrasts sharply with the ordered arrangement that is at equilibrium.
Early years The early years of Titian were marked with major achievements of his life. When he was nine years old he went to Venice with his elder brother to his uncle’s home for a stay. The other reason why Titan went to Venice is because he wanted to partner with Sebastiano Zuccato who was by then a master of mosaics, that is, Sebastiano knew a lot about the art of painting. Titian soon passed to the workshop of the Bellini the place where Giovanni became his true teacher (McKenzie 2003). By then Giovanni was the greatest Venetian painter.
During his school times, Titian’s works exhibited the nature of a young man who coupled up to be a student. Titan also became friends with another young student of Giovanni Bellini. The young man was called Giorgione and his hometown was Castelfranco. The two young men combined their efforts in major paintings during the time they were together. This explains why it is so hard to differentiate between the two artists in their early years. That was during the 16th century (NNDB, 2010).
As it is demystified, Titian’s first work which he was able to do independently was the paintings at Padua. These paintings are famously known as the three miracles of St. Anthony.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other exemplary masterpieces of Titian include the “Miracle Of The Speaking Infant” and the “Miracle Of The Irascible Son” in which the latter has a beautiful background landscape which has captured the eyes of many interested individuals. When Giorgione died Titian was involved in the duty of adding the landscape background to his master’s unfinished work, the famous Sleeping Venus.
Another work which displays the sexual relationship of a young couple which is hidden and there is also a tender and sad mood is in the portrait of the Three Ages of Man. This is also one of the most prolific works of Titan during his young energetic years.
The current work of Titan whose allegory is more hidden and is presented in a landscape of great levels of beauty is the work called Sacred and Profane Love. In this illustration it is explained comparatively to the Neoplatonic theory that the two women, the characters on the left side and those on the right side of the painting are particularly well known characters of that time. The lovely Salome is represented by a beautiful young lady instead of a cruel biblical woman.
In addition to this there are quite a number of paintings which were attributed to Giorgione, Titian’s master. However these works have been conceded to Titian, an action which makes it hard for historians to structure Titian’s early career. That is why until now his career has remained quite unclear with the correct sequencing of his work becoming more and more elusive to modern historians and artists (McKenzie 2003).
It is worth noting that Titian was hired by Federico in 1529 where Titian was paid on a commission basis. Federico had also done this to help Titian purchase land near Trevisco.
The land issue however, never materialized but the Duke compensated Titian with the gift of Benefice of Medole. This made Titian work for Federico for the next ten years (Reiss
Environmental Degradation and Poverty Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Environmental degradation has been on increase, thus raising the concern all over the world on how to compact it. It is defined as the declination of the environmental value in its quality. It is however important to understand the causes of the environmental degradation and the ways to reduce them, which will promote the improvement of the environmental quality.
Human activities are the major cause of this degradation, which are highly associated with poverty and dependence. Poverty is the state of deficiency in affording the basic material needs with ease thus leading to over dependence on the available resources for a short term intervention. This paper therefore is a discussion which illustrates the relationship between poverty and dependence to the environmental degradation (Ali-Akpajiak
Political Immigration as Addressed in City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Synopsis
How the Cubans Came to be
A Paradigm Shift
Implications of City on the Edge
Synopsis City on the Edge: The transformation of Miami authored by Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick sets out to study the trends of urban settlement in Miami, and to review the role played by Cuban immigrants in stimulating economic, social and political change in the region. The two authors study-other than the widely accepted trends in urban settlements- the effects of political immigration, and how these particular immigrants differ from other immigrants.
How the Cubans Came to be Cubans have been present in the United States as a minority group for over a century. The first major immigration occurred in the 1880s because of Cuba’s production of Cigars. The next major wave of immigrants came into America between 1959 and 1962 during Fidel Castro’s communist regime. They were referred to as the ‘Golden exiles’ because they were mostly professionals and educated people who wanted to get away from Castro’s oppressive regime (Portes
Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will Essay college essay help online
Film/Cinema, in the context of movies and documentaries, is a modern visual art form that has had intense impact on our daily life for humanity has profoundly been affected by what it sees and hears via film or the motion picture experience. It utilizes the concept of simple story telling via a mesmerizing technical medium and its ability to influence is rooted in the utilization of images/impressions and imagery. Cinema has a social as well artistic function.
Although the demand for imaginative entertainment is at an all time high, interest in the realities of the world is also on the rise. Documentaries address this interest because they are comprised of real people, world events, places, and social conditions – documenting history, reality. British film maker, John Grierson first coined the term in 1926. Prior to 1926, such films were referred to as “actuality” films and came on the scene at the turn of the 20th century as well.
Like American director, D.W. Griffith’s film The Birth of a Nation/The Clansman (1915), German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will (1934) was considered masterful/innovative and ground-breaking for documentary filmmaking at that time. Triumph garnered her the accolade as one of the greatest female filmmakers of all time but most infamous.
Chronicling the Nazi Party Congress held in Nuremberg (1934), Triumph of the Will (1935) catapulted the documentary as mode of propaganda designed to specifically argue a point and influence public opinion.
“Documentary cinema is intimately tied to historical memory. Not only does it seek to reconstruct historical narrative, but it often functions as an historical document itself. Moreover, the connection between the rhetoric of documentary film and historical truth pushes the documentary into overtly political alignments which influence its audience (1993Rabinowitw).”
Triumph of the Will lionized Germany as a recurring superpower with Hitler at the helm as the authentic leader/savoir. This fundamental thematic message can be found in opening prologue – “20 years after the outbreak of the World War, 16 years after the beginning of German suffering, 19 months after the beginning of the German renaissance, Adolf Hitler flew again to Nuremberg to review the columns of his faithful followers (Triumph).” The opening scene further substantiates the message with an aerial view of Hitler’s plane flying through the majestic clouds and over various parts of Germany.
He finally arrives in Nuremberg greeted by ecstatic supporters. The consequence of war is a people spiritually, mentally, and physically downtrodden and inept. Riefenstahl’s revolutionary use of cinematography (telephoto lenses, aerial photography, moving cameras, etc.) and music (German composer, Richard Wagner) epitomizes this escalating German Renaissance which has freed the German people from such a plight. It explains their fanaticism with Hitler.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout the documentary German militaristic power, political religion, unity, and pride are highlighted. With these four elements as an integral force, one cannot ascertain a distinction between the German people, the state, and the Nazi Party.
Riefenstahl vehemently denied the film served as a propaganda tool for the Nazi Party but rather was an historical film told through an aesthetic lens. Many critics purport differently.
Just as Birth of a Nation reeked of racist negative/stereotypical portrayal of African- Americans and shaped the America’s public’s attitude/image about race, Triumph contributed to heightened negative perceptions of European Jewry and anti-Semitism. Hitler’s conquest for German purity emanates from his speeches as well those of his featured compatriots – Goring, Goebbels, etc.
Could Riefenstahl have been that naïve and blind to Hitler’s maniacal plans that lay ahead? Objectivity has meaning but in reality it is greatly influenced by the filmmaker’s point of view via perceptions, emotions, etc. thereby determining the extent they can be biased or slant their point of view. Suffice to say, Triumph of the Will authenticated that film has the ability to influence as well as alter how people perceive themselves, aspects of their society/culture as well as other peoples and their culture.
Work Cited Rabinowitz, Paula. “Wreckage upon Wreckage: History, Documentary and the Ruins of Memory.” History and Theory, Vol. 32, No. 2. (May, 1993), pp. 119-137. Triumph of the Will (Video). Web.
Experiential Computing Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Dimensions of Experiential Computing
Introduction Information technology has emerged to be a new discipline in the management of organizations because it predicts the outcome of computer applications in contemporary management systems. Computers have now taken over organizations and totally changed managerial practices to make them more digital; thereby prompting an understanding of experiential computing as a new discipline in management because it is currently part of everyday life.
In light of this development, it has become increasingly important that organizations adopt a new approach to information technology with a special emphasis on experiential computing as an emerging discipline in organizational management. In a practical point of view, experiential computing appeals to certain facets of human experience such as time, space, actors, artifacts and the likes (although the experience is virtually experienced in a digital world).
This study will borrow from both a design aspect and from a behavioral point of view to determine how organizations can improve their approach to experiential computing. Ultimately, this study will point out that various organizations ought to focus on their roots and emphasize more on the discipline of management in its artificial sense. This is to be accomplished through breaking organizational limits and exploring new domains of research in experiential computing and inculcating this technique into the organizational culture.
Conceptual Framework Yoo defines experiential computing as “involving digitally mediated embodied experiences in everyday activities through everyday artifacts that have embedded computing capabilities”. Experiential computing is therefore a deviation from the superficial form of computing to represent a deeper relationship between the world, people and technology (all at the same time).
This kind of relationship is embodied together and represents the manner in which everyday life ought to be perceived. The relationship experienced here (whether social or economic) is not abstract but rather experienced through real life undertakings.
Without experiential computing, humans would view the world in a symbolic form; but relating the world with human experience gives a deeper meaning to the relationship because the world is part of life and humans form a perception of it through their interaction with it.
In this manner, technology acts as a mediator of human experience with the world. In the same manner also, technology seeks to underscore the importance of physical human interaction with the world and instead, its mediation between humans and the world develops around the core areas of space, time, actors and artifacts. These facets form the experiential framework of computing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dimensions of Experiential Computing Experiential computing observes that the digital experience takes its first step of development through the human body which exists in space. The human experience cannot be easily separated from the body because it is a living part of human existence. Space is therefore represented by the occupation of the body in the world and it can only be represented as being in the present because it represents our current lived experiences.
Space should therefore not be perceived as a passive manner in which we evaluate our possessions or the way we view our bodies (in relation to the occupation these forms take in the world), but a framework of structured consciousness that enable us experience new things in the world.
In the same manner, we experience time differences through the analysis of our bodies because as human beings, we do not have the ability to be in two places at the same time. In fact, our experiences take a more definite way of analysis; like we are either in the present, going somewhere or have been at a given point in a given time. It is therefore correct to say that the digital experience we have as human beings should not be analyzed as one that’s here to stay because it is temporary and also in the process of being definite.
Time is not characterized by a given set of secretive actions but rather a conglomerate of intentional activities. Time is therefore best analyzed through the comprehension of the difference in our expectations and the experiences we have undergone as human beings (in the past). Through these experiences in this time frame, we experience other social actors in our analysis who bring us to another important facet of experiential computing which is core artifacts.
Experiential experience makes us digitalize artifacts through the development of simple forms of tagging such as RGIS chips or through the use of bar codes and other similar type of networks, within a spectrum of simple and sophisticated applications.
The digitalization process can take the form of a simple mobile device or embedded sensors which memorize data such as of an object (like a cup) which the user can therefore interact with through digital experience. In addition, users can enjoy mixed experiences through the Web 2.0 services which mean that different artifacts can be sourced and mixed in a simple manner to share the experience of different users with different artifacts.
For instance, the digitalization of actors has been greatly facilitated in the recent past through an upsurge of social networking sites like tweeter, myspace and facebook which enable users to share information, pictures and the likes (thereby interacting with different social artifacts).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Experiential Computing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The kind of relationships observed in such kind of social networking sites are not ordinary because they represent an exclusive kind of interaction; like a professional interaction, as can be evidenced through linkedIn. Moreover, users or participants in these kinds of social networking sites can be expanded from the basis of friendly associations to group affiliations.
At present, there are already existing relationships which are not only based on friendships but on locations as well. In the same manner, there have been other similar organizations like the association of people doing the same kind of activity in the same time period (association of time); the association of people on the basis of artifacts, or people who use the same type of tool for trade and the association of people based on a mixture of any of the above two criteria.
For instance, DOPPLR has been singled out to be the leading social networking site that best links users based on the element of similar travel destination in addition to the capability of linking its users or their friends to other existing social networking sites.
Experiential computing has found its foothold on the above basis for digitalization and it practically encompasses most or all facets of human interaction. In fact, most of the users or actors in this digitalized world have all internalized the system because of the acknowledgement that technology is part of our day-to-day lives.
From the above example of social networking sites, most human interactions within the context of business operations can almost entirely be done online. This includes the ordering process, purchasing, payments, and delivery. It is therefore quite difficult for such users to view experiential computing as any different from everyday operations.
In the same manner, considering current trends, the hype related with computers will be absolved within the context of experiential computing. In this manner, computers will be used in devices like music players, cars, office desks but they will not be in the open for everyone to see because this new paradigm (experiential computing) in an organizational context is not to represent the world but to develop a newer and efficient world whereby everyone can take part in it with pleasure.
In this respect, the computing aspects are actually given real life forms, stored, and created in experiential computing through the involvement of conventional tools such as actors, artifacts or even through different locations. In this regard therefore, computing should not be perceived as an external factor to our existence but part of our day-to-day lives.
Conclusion Experience is an important part to the existence of any human being an indeed the success of any organization. In fact, through the experience we hold, we are able to inculcate specific ideals, values and principles within ourselves.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Experiential Computing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this study, we explore how organizations should take note of the fact that digitalization has the potential of transforming daily experiences because of its potential in merging human relationships with the real world. Many of the elements outlined in this study, such as space, artifacts, actors, and activities can all be of high importance especially in the analysis of information technology in organizations because they converge radical human experiences in a digital manner.
Bibliography Goldin, D. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm. Routledge, London, 2006.
Meister, J. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. Walter de Gruyter, London, 2003.
Silberman, M. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2007.
Tedre, M. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective. Matti Tedre, Amsterdam, 2006.
Yoo. Y. Computing in Everyday life. Temple University, Philadelphia, 2009.
Footnotes Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 1.
Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 16.
G. Dina. Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm. London, Routledge, 2006, p. 324.
Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 15.
T. Matti. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective.Amsterdam, Matti Tedre, 2006, p. 169.
M. Silberman,. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 2007, p. 217.
M. Jan. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. London, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p. 116.
Y. Youngjin. Computing In Everyday Life. Philadelphia, Temple University, 2009, p. 17.
Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory Research Paper college essay help online
The use of cannabis is often associated with memory challenges in the short term and long term basis. Studies continue to be carried out to determine if chronic cannabis use affects long term memory by examining variety of cognitive functions. This paper reviews related literature on memory dysfunction in cannabis users (Parath, 2009).
The literature reviews includes studies that looked at memory function in cannabis users of chronic intoxication period (Austin, 2010). Specifically, it examines studies in working memory and verbal episodic memory. In addition, they have continued to deduce evidence indicating impaired encoding, storage, manipulation and retrieval systems in long term cannabis users (Allhoff, 2010).
Cannabis is extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa. Usually, Cannabis is taken in the form of dried leaves and female flower heads, or the resin secreted by these. This drug can be eaten, but is more usually smoked in the form of cannabis cigarette, or joint, often mixed with tobacco, or in pipe.
Cannabis is an illicit drug that is commonly consumed in Europe and approximately 10% of adults aged 16-59 years in the UK used it in the year 2000 (Solowij, 1998). Majority of cannabis users attribute short memory problems as the most prevalent and this forms part of the reason many of them seek help to quit or reduce its consumption.
Scientific literature in general avers memory impairment as often cited in relation to cannabis use (Wilson et al., 2002). Cannabis use has risen to become the most widely used drug in the developed world over the years. The memory function in general has been studied in acute administration studies of long term users of cannabis to humans and animals, and in long term studies of cannabis users (Pope et al., 2002).
Cannabinoid System and Memory
Endogenous Cannabinoid system is directly involved in the necessary functions of memory. This is because cannabinoid receptors happen in high density in brain areas critically involved in memory functions. Profoundly, cannabinoid affects synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory, disrupting long term potential in hippocampus (Martin-Santos, 2010).
Cannabinoid receptors are metabotropic receptors which are the most common in the brain and are involved in multiple physiological and behavioural events. They are found on pre-synaptic terminals in locations concerned in cognition, especially learning and memory, critically in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated, basal ganglia and cerebellum (Miller, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Endogenous cannabinoid system guides the flow of information in the brain through retrogrades signalling, modulating inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release critical for synaptic plasticity, depolarisation-induced suppression of inhibition or excitation, long term potentiation, and hence learning, memory and other higher cognitive functions (Kanayama et al., 2004).
Structural Brain Changes Related with Chronic cannabis use
There is lack of concrete lack evidence in most undertaken indicating that structural brain alterations in cannabis users. There are no global or regional alterations in brain tissue volume or composition in some recent studies (Ries, 2009). Other studies have discovered grey and white matter density alterations globally or in para-hippocampal areas.
Utilizing more sensitive measures and assessing cannabis consumers with greater exposure to cannabis than previous research, critical reduction of hippocampus and amygdale volumes in long term cannabis users have recently been reported (Lyketsos et al., 1999).
Hippocampus volume reduction was related to dose, correlating with current daily dose, and cumulatively. Only excessive daily doses over long period of time, will lead to structural changes.
Another critical factor may be the age of onset of cannabis use. This has a devastating impact to the brain, specifically cannabis consumers’ start at the early stages of neurodevelopment (Allhoff, 2010). Evidence adduced recently of reduced neuronal and axonal integrity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex represented by magnetic resonance spectroscopic markers of metabolism (Solowij, 2009).
Changes related to dose were found in anterior cingulate and globus pallidum, but not in hippocampus. Solid evidence for dose related cumulative neuronal damage, neuronal and synaptic density. Since functional dysfunction is likely to precede major structural changes in the brain, or to show concomitant to more minor neural alterations. This presents good reason to think that long term effects of use of cannabis on memory function (Wilson et al., 2002).
A Review of Related Literature: Effects of Cannabis Use on Cognitive ability in the long term
Cannabis has the ability to exert prominent effects on the central nervous system. In the central nervous system, cannabis acts on an endogenous cannabinoid system that is concerned with regulation of mood, memory, emotion, attention, and other cognitive functions (Hall, 2009).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cannabinoid receptors play a significant role in memory storage and retrieval processes. Discoveries from human and animal research reveal that prolonged use of cannabis changes the functioning of the cannabinoid system of the brain. However, this does not lead to serious impairment (Solowij, 2002).
Observation for structural brain impairment for in humans following long term cannabis use has not been sustained generally. Some current research has discovered no global or regional alterations in brain tissue volumes. Other studies have however, shown grey and white matter density changes world wide undertaken to date lack evidence of changes in structural brain in cannabis users or in para-hippocampal areas (Wilson et al., 2002).
A recent study that used unique techniques of measurement to indicate that frequent but relatively short term use of cannabis creates neither structural brain abnormalities nor global or regional alterations in the brain tissue volume or composition that are assessable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Pope et al., 2002).
Several studies have indicated altered brain function and metabolism in humans due to acute and chronic use of cannabis using cerebral blood flow, positron emission tomography, and electroencephalographic methods. In sum, use of cannabis has deleterious effects on memory and attention (Solowij, 2009). Individuals who use cannabis show clear signs of cognitive impairments relative to controls.
More of concern about cannabis is that its use may cause neurological damage resulting in persistent cognitive deficits, but the evidence is currently inconclusive. The evidence, however, does suggest that early use of cannabis may cause long-term cognitive problems (Solowij, 1998).
Chronic Use of Cannabis and cognitive Dysfunction
Cognitive dysfunctions or impairments, specifically deficits in short term memory, are reported by many cannabis addicts who seek help to stop using cannabis, and are often advanced as one of the main reasons for needing to stop using cannabis (Allhoff, 2010).
However, evidence provided from controlled studies shows that long term heavy use of cannabis does not appear to produce severe debilitating dysfunction of cognitive function like that produced by chronic heavy alcohol use (Ries, 2009). Nonetheless, there is evidence that long term or heavy cannabis users exhibit more subtle types of cognitive impairment that are detected in well controlled studies using sensitive measures (Lyketsos et al., 1999).
Earlier studies of the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use have elicited major concern that cannabis users may have had poorer cognitive functioning than controls before they commenced to administer cannabis (Sadider, 2010). However, studies from the recent past have looked at this problem by matching users and non-users on estimated premorbid intellectual functioning or on test performance prior to the onset of cannabis use.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cannabis and its Effects on Long Term Memory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These studies have revealed cognitive impairments associated with frequent and long term use of cannabis (Solowij, 1998). Frequent cannabis consumers were showed impairment in tests assessing verbal expression, mathematics, and memory. Heavy users of cannabis were more susceptible to interference, made more perseverance errors, had poorer recall, and indicated deficient learning compared to light users (Wilson et al., 2002).
Solowij et al., (2002) discovered few dysfunctions when they compared neuropsychological performance of dependent, heavy cannabis users with an average 10 years of regular use to anon-user control group. Chronic cannabis users with a regular use averaging 24 years were discovered with impaired attention and had retarded memory in general with dysfunctional verbal learning.
Both groups of users indicated impaired temporal judgment. Solowij (1998) in a series of earlier studies applied more sensitive measures of brain function to demonstrate attention impairments in short term users. Solowij et al., (2002) deduced that long term use of cannabis escalated memory impairment.
Specific deficits in verbal learning, memory and attention continue to be the most consistently replicated impairments to cannabis users. These impairments are associated to the period, frequency, and cumulative dose impacts (Pope et al., 2002).
Differential effects of the various parameters of cannabis use such as, frequency, duration and dose, have not been investigated consistently. As a result, studies are still ongoing to determine whether memory impairments should be related or associated to acute, drug dose, and others occurring the brain memory due to long term cannabis exposure (Solowij et al., 2002).
Studies continue to be conducted to investigate the propensity for recovery of cognitive functioning following cessation of cannabis use. Solowij (1998) discovered partial recovery following median 2 years abstinence in a small group of ex-users performing a selective attention task. However, sensitive brain event related potential measures continued to indicate impaired information processing that was correlated with the number of years of cannabis use.
Solowij et al., (2002) showed persistent dose associated decrements in neuro-cognitive performance after 28 days abstinence in heavy young users of mean age 20, 5 years use. According to pope et al., (2002), verbal and memory deficits persisted in those who had started using cannabis prior to the age of 17 years but not in those who commenced later in life.
The sampled population was between the ages of 30 and 55 years at the time of research. This observation agrees with other observations of adverse effects in that beginning regular cannabis use before versus after the age of 17 years (Wilson, et al., 2000). There is still need for further studies to elucidate the effect of cannabis use in developing brain.
Solowij (2009) reported that hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum are main sections of endogenous cannabinoid activity and heavily implicated in the cognitive impairments associated with chronic cannabis use. Lyketsos et al., (1999) were able to report the only large scale prospective epidemiological study of the effect of cannabis use on cognitive functioning.
They made assessments on cognitive reduction on the Mini Mental State Examination in 1318 adults over 11.5 years. They deduced no relationship between cannabis use and decline in Mini Mental state Examination score, and this persisted when adjustments were made for sex, age, education, minority status, and use of alcohol and tobacco. This study concurs with other evidence that cannabis does not produce gross cognitive impairment (Pope et al., 2002).
Memory in Chronic Cannabis Users
A cute administration of cannabis can disrupt the working memory. Animal literature exists that reports impaired working memory following acute and chronic use of cannabinoid, including an impaired delayed matching to sample tasks that resembles lesions or removal of the hippocampus (Azzam, 2010). A growing number of recent literatures have continued to study working memory and related functions in chronic cannabis users.
Kanayama et al., (2004) examined spatial working memory in long term heavy cannabis users by using functional magnetic resonance imaging using relatively simple tasks. In this study non users made non significant more errors on the task, although few errors in both groups reflected the simplicity of the task and it has been suggested that performance deficits in chronic cannabis users are more likely to be elicited in complex tasks (Kanayama et al., 2004).
In addition, Kanayama et al (2004) studies revealed that cannabis users exhibited widespread brain activation with enhanced activation of areas utilized in spatial working memory tasks. They interpreted their findings in terms of cannabis users experiencing subtle neuro-physiological deficits for which they compensate by working harder and calling upon additional brain regions to meet task requirements (Mack, 2010).
In a study of abstinent adolescents aged 13-18, cannabis and tobacco smokers compared to tobacco only smokers (Hall, 2009). The group identified functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of changed neuro-circuitry during the performance of an n-back auditory working memory task in the cannabis group, but only during nicotine withdrawal.
Representative samples were tested twice, once during an ad libitum cigarette smoking condition, and again after 24 hrs abstentions from tobacco and cannabis users were in abstinence from cannabis for at least two weeks prior to testing. Cannabis users who abstained from tobacco revealed enhanced task biased activation, for instance, posterior cortical regions and others (Solowij, 1998).
A study using real world functions approach examined mood and cognitive performance in a sample of workers with and without recent cannabis use, before and after work at the start and end of the working week. There were scanty details regarding cannabis levels in the sample. A verbal reasoning task was used to measure working memory.
Other memory tasks encompassed immediate and delayed free recall and recognition of 20 words presented on a computer screen and a semantic processing task measuring speed of knowledge retrieval from general memory (Pope et al 2002). Poorer performance in verbal reasoning was apparent in cannabis users at the start of the working week and correlated and frequency of cannabis use.
Lacklustre performance in verbal reasoning in delayed recall was found in cannabis users pre-work at the end of the working week and was correlated with duration of cannabis use. Cannabis users also indicated slower response organization and lower alertness than non-users, and slower psychomotor speed toward the end of the week, reflecting a lack of improvement in the speed over the working week in contrast to controls, rather than a progressive slowing by cannabis users (Solowij et al., 2002).
Episodic Verbal Memory
Verbal learning and memory have been the most impaired cognitive functions in the studies of acute cannabis use as well as in chronic cannabis users. Cannabis users experience impairments in cognition in terms of the period of cannabis use and the frequency of cannabis consumption, and lastly, the impact of cumulative dosage.
Studies of acute cannabis use suggest that poorer performance can be seen in immediate and delayed recall of words. Recent studies have replicated dysfunction in learning, recall, and delayed recall, with some evidence of rot. The studies deduced 17 hour abstinent long term chronic cannabis users recalled fewer words than shorter term chronic users and non user controls over learning trials (Roffman, 2009).
Conclusion Satisfactory evidence has gathered from recent research of cannabis users in the unintoxicated state to conclude heavy cannabis use in the long term is associated with impaired memory function. This implies that impaired memory function goes beyond the period of acute use and is related to a variety of cannabis use parameters.
Studies deduce memory impairments to increase proportionate to frequency, dosage, and cumulative dosage of cannabis administration. However, the exact that lead to memory deficits remain to be determined. A collection of research of cannabis users abstinent for reasonably long durations suggest that dysfunctional memory may persist for some time after acute use (Solowij, 2009).
The overall evidence from the various reviews suggests that the use of cannabis does in a way affect negatively upon the function of memory. Greater deficits in memory may be apparent in tasks that are more complex and among chronic cannabis users. The kind of memory deficits in chronic cannabis users is not different to that observed under acute influence (Roffman, 2009).
Heavy cannabis consumers in the unintoxicated state also indicate impaired immediate, but further delayed free call of verbal information, poor retrieval of information from memory, and difficulties manipulating the contents of the working memory. Memory recognition is inconsistently reported and dysfunctional (Sadider, 2010).
Strategies of organizational nature within memory have not received sufficient research. Limited evidence is available for strategy use in spatial working memory. Several studies found similar dysfunctions in cannabis users in learning, on measures of immediate and delayed recall and to research where other verbal learning tests have been administered to cannabis users (Roffman, 2009).
In sum, there exist a wide range of individual differences in the propensity to create memory impairment associated with long term chronic cannabis use. The effect of multiple interpersonal factors on resilience to and susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction deserves greater attention. Such factors may involve personality and differing genotypes. A perspective to substance use in general may also confer enhanced vulnerability to cannabis related cognitive memory and needs further attention in prospective studies (Allhoff, 2010).
Generally, findings of changed brain activation from imaging studies of cannabis users suggest compensatory procedures activated to ameliorate cognitive deficits. A number of recent advances in techniques are beginning to interrogate pertinent questions; however, the field is still open for continued research. The specific nature of memory deficits in cannabis users has not been comprehensively elucidated. Evidence exists for dysfunctional encoding, storage and retrieval (Roffman, 2009).
Reference List Allhoff, F., Jacquette, D.,
Prohibition: War on drugs Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
When and why alcohol prohibition was passed in the United States Prohibition of alcohol in the United States took place between 1920 and 1933. The reasons for this move were to minimize crime and exploitation, provide remedies to social issues, reduce revenue burden enhanced by prisons and shanties, and make health and hygienic standards in America better (Thornton 1). In short, it was thought that less drinking would lead to better lives.
Some scholars have referred to the ban as a prohibition experiment, rather than a law enforcement action. This is because compared to all other reforms, it is the only one that was intentionally and decisively repealed (Burham 1). Whereas this perspective regards prohibition as a total failure, others regard it as a success. Nevertheless, the lessons learned from prohibition are relevant and applicable to the contemporary world debate over the war on drug and substance abuse, abortion, gambling, and other issues.
Alcohol prohibition was a failure According to Thornton (1), alcoholism declined shortly after Prohibition began. On the other hand, the Schaffer Drug Library (1) states that most indicators show alcohol consumption declined just before national prohibition began. However, by 1926, it had increased over its previous rates, leading to a rise in both crime and corruption that really strained the courts and prison systems.
There were also various newer problems; for instance, a drinking epidemic among children. The Introduction of Prohibition also triggered many drinkers into the use of other dangerous drugs such as opium, marijuana, and cocaine. This could not have taken place in the absence of the alcoholic prohibition.
In the workplace, Prohibition did not have positive effect on levels of productivity and absenteeism. American Labor Leader Andrew Furuseth spoke before Congress in 1926 and noted that just after prohibition began, there was a large change in the working population, but he also added:
“Two years afterwards I came through the same identical place, staying in Portland for about three days, and went to the very same place for the purpose of looking at the situation, and the condition was worse than it had been prior to the passage of the law” (Schaffer 1).
Prohibition did not only lead to a large loss in business revenue, it also affected the government spending. Primarily, tax revenues declined as alcohol traders closed shop or switched to underground market where the taxman could not reach them, while at the same time, production and distribution of alcohol business declined resulting to lower taxes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, as noted above, productivity and absenteeism at workplaces led to reduced income thus lower taxes to the government. In relation to government’s spending, large sums of money were spent on policy implementation and enforcement. In the perspective of its supporters, Prohibition related advantages were dependent on reduced quantity of alcohol consumption. Shortly after the ban, there were indicators that the quantity of consumption had indeed been lowered.
The iron law of Prohibition The Eighteenth Amendment was the culmination of a long campaign by church and women’s organizations; they wanted an iron law that would keep people away from alcohol and its immoral behaviors.
Four conditions that indicate a reduction of alcohol intake: first, there must be a decrease in alcohol usage after Prohibition began. Although it was discovered that the amount of alcohol bought had declined some years before the ban, Prohibition did not exactly eliminate alcohol consumption as speakeasies became an underground sensation and gangsters ran liquor everywhere.
Secondly, although the drinking of alcohol had initially dropped, this did not hold in subsequent years as consumption eventually soared beyond its previous numbers. The annual degree of consumption had been reducing from 1910; however, it reduced greatly during the 1921 recession and shot up again after the ban in 1922. Even investment in enforcement resources showed little results such that, despite the 1933 repeal of Prohibition, alcoholic consumption levels exceeded the pre-prohibition period.
Thirdly, increase in enforcement resources were directly proportional (rather than inversely proportional, as they should have been) to alcoholic consumption. Therefore, this did not discourage consumption either.
The fourth condition is the most imperative in that, a decrease in alcohol consumption does not actually equate to a success of Prohibition. In this vein, the overall social implications of Prohibition must be analyzed.
Prohibition did not only have degenerating effects on alcoholic consumption, but also on its production and distribution, leading to unprecedented repercussions in the whole system. The most notable of those repercussions is “the iron law of Prohibition” which states that the more harsh the enforcement law, the more potent the prohibited product becomes.
We will write a custom Essay on Prohibition: War on drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statistics reveal that prior to Prohibition, most Americans spent equally on beer and spirits; however, during Prohibition, beer became a liability because of its expense and bulkiness leading to increased consumption of both homemade and near beer.
Hence, the alcohol dealers turned their attention to cheaper and stronger liquors (whiskey) instead of beer in order to meet the needs of the consumers. The usual beer, wine, or whiskey was more highly alcoholic by volume during Prohibition than was during either pre-Prohibition or post-Prohibition (Thornton 4).
The production standards were compromised during Prohibition, resulting in largely non-uniform quality. Moonshine production by amateurs during Prohibition resulted to products that were detrimental to human health and contained dangerous ingredients. It was also reported that during Prohibition, the death rates due to consumption of toxic illicit liquor rose (Thornton 6).
Primarily, prohibitionists looked at alcohol related deaths as those occurring from cirrhosis of the liver. However, they did not count deaths stemming from other elements of prohibition drinking such as blood poisoning, fighting, car crashes, and other seemingly unrelated issues. These resulted in public relations constraints since the deaths were not necessarily accidental, though they were considered accidental.
In the 20’s there were no restrictions on the portrayal of drinking and smoking in film. Among the youth, the product became attractive due to its associated glamour. Young people gained interest in these vices by watching their parents and seeing glamorous stars drinking in the movies.
Apart from selling to the youth, the sellers successfully built up their businesses during Prohibition by selling to people who would not otherwise drink. Moreover, most old-fashioned Americans and new immigrants were unwilling to be left out making the whole period a moment when people drank more dedicatedly than at any other time.
One large deficit to Prohibition was that it changed the distribution pattern of alcohol. It eliminated the government-overseen bars and restaurants, replacing them with many covert speakeasies. In this, Prohibition increased the availability of alcohol such that, there were many places where people could buy alcohol from during this period than there were during pre-Prohibition.
Prohibition led to the elimination of alcohol production, location, and distribution regulations. Before Prohibition, the government had rules that could help deter selling alcohol; for example, near churches and schools on weekends and holidays.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Prohibition: War on drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, during Prohibition, the regulations and oversight were eliminated while speakeasies opened up and dominated various areas that were initially dry. Following Prohibition, more Americans turned to increased intake of other forms of ‘legally’ distributed alcohol such as sacramental alcohol and patent medicines.
This happened despite existence of new regulations. Although the prohibitionists’ intention was to help people change from using alcohol to using dairy products, what was witnessed was an increase in spending on both alcohol and its substitutes. Apart from alcoholic medicine, those who could not consume alcohol switched to the use of other more addictive and dangerous drugs such as marijuana, hashish, and tobacco, to mention but a few.
The harmful consequences of the iron law of Prohibition proved more hindrance than benefit, thereby resulting to greater consumption. By these standards, it was only a mirage that alcoholic consumption decreased.
Prohibition was not a healthy initiative Both American health and hygiene did not improve during Prohibition. This is indicated by the continued stream of deaths due to cirrhosis arising from increased intake of alcohol and other dangerous alcoholic beverages during the prohibition (Thornton 8). Those deaths, however, should not stand alone as indicators, since alcohol consumption went underground.
As noted earlier, there are other important indicators of drinking as well as cirrhosis. Contrary to the expectations of the prohibitionists that drunkards should be forgotten to let the young benefit from Prohibition, the health of young people was only at its best before Prohibition. For instance, during Prohibition, most young people’s lives were swept away due to increased alcohol intake.
Whereas it is medically proven that moderate alcoholic consumption is not harmful to one’s health but rather improves it, excess drinking on the other hand has devastating consequences on one’s health (Thornton 8). What took place during Prohibition was excessive alcoholism that had no positive impact on the American people.
Therefore, if the prohibitionists were concerned about the health of the public, they could have championed for moderate alcohol intake that has more health benefits, rather than banning alcohol as a whole. As we know now, to change the behavior of the people, one must change the sensibility of the culture.
Prohibition increased crime rate The proponents of prohibition expected it to be a solution to all social evils (Thornton 10). Early reformers were right to assert that alcoholism led to poverty, broken homes, tax burden, and suffering. In this vein, America had registered a decline in crime rate towards the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century (Thornton 10). That trend was disrupted by launching the prohibition on alcohol. Increased cases of homicide were noted during this time.
Records show that during this period, more funds were spent on police and many people were arrested for flouting prohibition regulations. Furthermore, although drunkenness and disorderly arrests increased, the rate of drinking did not decline. This meant that instead of helping to decongest prisons prohibition and its enforcement seemed to fill prisons. This in turn increased spending on police and prisons. Along with expected crimes, there were also increased cases of burglary, robbery, and murder during the prohibition period.
Prohibition raised corruption levels Thornton points out that there was increased bribery among politicians and the police, as they dealt with the cottage industry of moonshine, speakeasies, and organized crime bosses and their families. There was also corruption inside the bureau of Prohibition itself, leading to an influx of cases in the courts regarding corruption and lessening the efficiency of the judicial system.
Prohibition was a success To begin with, contrary to the views of many, the enforcement law was not all-embracing (Moore 6). The amendment banned the commercial production and distribution of alcoholic products; however, it did not ban both use and production of alcoholic beverages for personal consumption.
In addition, the enforcement was to be effected after one year in order to give people sufficient time to amass supplies. Secondly, Prohibition led to a decline in alcohol intake, reduction in deaths due to cirrhosis, and a reduction in admission to state hospitals for drinking psychosis.
In addition, alcoholic consumption declined leading to a drop in arrests that resulted from drunkenness and disorder (Moore 7). Thirdly, Prohibition did not contribute to organized crime because this existed before and after it. Moreover, other forms of crime did not rise dramatically during Prohibition (Moore 8). Fourth, after the repeal, there was increased alcohol intake. However, in the recent past, both thousands of motor vehicle deaths and homicides have been attributed to the use of alcohol (Moore, 10).
The modern war on drugs Modern prohibition on drugs began in the nineteenth century due to a rise in production of both potent and habituating drugs from the medicinal industry (DuPont and Voth 3). Initially, drugs like cocaine were used for medical purposes, but later on, their use by public increased to unprecedented levels, resulting to distasteful consequences.
However, this period of carefree sale and consumption of illicit drugs ceased after the first two decades of the 20th century (DuPont and Voth 4), with several acts requiring not only labeling but also prohibition of some drugs. This led to sparing sale of habituating drugs mainly for medical rather than addictive reasons.
This move by the social contract to regulate drugs of abuse also led to great reduction of drug abuse epidemic. Moreover, the United States drug control laws were internationally recognized and their enforcement led to a decline in use of habituating drugs between 1920 and 1965 (DuPont and Voth 7).
The non-use of both dangerous and alcoholic drugs continued until the culture of the ascendant youth who incorporated drugs as part of their life style. However, the use of hard drugs such as marijuana, cocaine and the hallucinogens resumed with increased calls for their legalization under allegations that they were better in comparison to alcohol and tobacco. This led to negative effects, a situation that continued until recent calls for legalization.
Lessons in relation to the current war on drug abuse Prohibition, which failed to reduce alcoholism in America, can be likened to the modern war against drug abuse. However, repeal of Prohibition led to a dramatic decline in many types of crime and corruption (Thornton 15). The result of this was that, not only were jobs created, but also new voluntary actions came in to help alcoholics.
In addition, the lessons on prohibition should be used to suppress the desire to prohibit. Current prohibition of alcohol and other drugs may lead to a rise in crime rate, corruption and increased use of other dangerous substances that may be a threat to people’s health. It may also lead to increased government regulation on its citizen’s lives (Thornton 15).
Conclusion Prohibition was supposed to lead to reduced crimes, reduced alcohol consumption, cut in taxes and generally a boost in the moral and economic aspect. However, although some theorists claimed that alcohol consumption declined following prohibition, others claimed that the consumption was lower before prohibition, and further claiming that the actual result of prohibition was an increase in other social vices.
For instance, prohibition led to increased crime, corruption, and use of hard drugs. From another perspective, alcohol consumption per se did not decline, as people turned to underground market for cheap and illicit alcohol. Modern war on drugs has however had some impact mainly due to regulations that have set up to regulate sale of addictive drugs. In this case, due to the failure of prohibition, legalization has been incorporated in regulation to provide a viable solution to the problem of substance abuse and related vices.
Recommendations America government has done a lot with regard to war against alcoholism drug use. This ranges from funding social initiatives that provide awareness on drugs to prohibition by establishment of laws through the office of National Drug Control. These efforts have not yet led to a drastic drop in the use of drugs as fighting drug use in most cases seems to attract violent war from dealers.
Neither prohibition nor legalization can end drug use as it will only aggravate drug usage, crime, death and other drug – use related consequences. The government reserves the right to protect its citizens from the adverse effects of drugs and alcoholism use. However, in regulating this, force should not be used as in prohibition.
In an attempt to regulate, two approaches are recommended. First, the government should devise policies that focused on drug harm reduction and in this way concentrate on dealers rather than users. This will allow production of drugs with reduced potency and toxic composition. Secondly, a policy permitting only doctors to prescribe drugs to addicts can be put in place.
Works Cited Burham, John C. “New Perspectives on the Prohibition Experiment of the1920s.” Journal of Social History. 1968. Web.
DuPont, Robert and Voth, Eric. “Drug legalization, Harm reduction, and Drug policy.” Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995. Web.
Moore, Mark. “Institute for Behavior and Health: Actually Prohibition was a success.” The New York Times. 2009. Web.
Schaffer Library of Drug Policy “Did Alcohol Prohibition Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Crime?” Staff Writer. Web.
Thornton, Mark. “Policy Analysis: Alcohol prohibition was a failure.” Policy Analysis, No. 157. 1991. Web.
Memory Scanning Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract The key purpose of this study was to measure reaction time and accuracy of responses to a certain stimulus (digit) during a memory-scanning task. This research originates from a series of experiments, conducted by Saul Sternberg, who examined the relation between the reaction time and the size of the set. This research aims to test a hypothesis which postulates the reaction time is directly proportionate to the size of the set.
Introduction Mental chronometry has long been of great interests to psychologists and neuroscientists; in particular, they study those factors that determine the response time (RT). Such studies are usually based on the so-called stage theory according to which perception and reaction to a stimulus or irritant consists of multiple-processes or mental operations, and RT depends on the number of these operations (Donders, as cited in Sternberg, 1969, p 61).
Overall, RT may also be determined by the type of stimulus, its intensity, duration, or the type of reaction, needed (Rosenbaum, 2009). Furthermore, one should not forget about individual characteristics of a person such as his age and the state of his health. In this paper, I would like to describe an experiment that has recently neen conducted. Its key objective was to measure the reaction time, needed for a memory-scanning task.
This experiment is similar to that one conducted by Saul Sternberg in 1968. He hypothesized that the reaction time, required for a memory scanning exercise is influenced by the type and number of mental operations, performed by the respondent (Sternberg, 1969, p 454). The essence of this experiment lies in the following: respondents are required to memorize a set of digits (the number of items in the set ranges from two to five); afterward the subjects are provided with a stimulus also in the form of a digit, from 0 to 9.
The responds need to determine whether the probe was present in the previous set of digits or not (Sternberg, 1968). By conducting such experiments, Saul Sternberg ascertained that reaction time was directly-proportionate to the number of items within the set of digits; in other words, if the experimenter increases the digit set, the response time will also increase, and vice versa.
He also postulated that the subject usually conducted exhaustive serial search, rather than self-terminating search, which means that he/she checked all items in the digit set, even despite the fact that the stimulus had already been identified (Sternberg, 1968). This is the key hypothesis, which needs to be tested in the course of this research.
On the whole, his experiments support the stage theory, which relies on the idea that reaction time is a sum of mental processes and that it is possible to decompose the reaction time into several parts (Sternberg, 1969, p 421). Sternberg relies on the idea that the reaction time is determined by the total amount of mental operations, such as recognition of the stimulus and organization of the response (Sternberg, 1969). In his study, he excludes such factors as the type of stimulus or its intensity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology The subjects for this experiment were seven students from an experimental psychology class. They were briefed on the purpose of the study and the experiment. Afterward, each of them was directed into an individual cubicle so that their attention was not distracted to any other stimuli such as light or noise. In the course of this research, the following tools were used: Windows XP desktop computers, placed in each room, and such program as SuperLab Pro which is quite suitable for such experiments.
The participants were asked to follow instructions that flashed on the screen. At first, they needed to memorize a number, (the number of digits ranged from one to six). Afterword, they were digit a digit.
They were asked whether this digit was present in the previous number or not. If they answer was positive, the participants needed to press slash (/) located at the right side of the keyboard, and if the answer was negative they needed to push Z, located at the left side. The task of the subjects was to respond as quickly and as accurately as possible. Finally, the participants were completely debriefed about the experiment. These are the key steps, taken in the course of this study.
It should be noted that in this experiment, the participants were allowed a limited amount of time in order to memorize the digit set; namely, they had only sixty seconds. The thing is that this mental scanning exercise is designed specifically for a short-term memory, which lasts for several seconds.
Furthermore, short-term memory can only hold 7±2 symbols, as it was ascertained by George Miller (1956, p 344). Although this article is not directly related to Sternberg’s experiment, it is crucial for our understanding of short-term memory and its functioning. It shows that the individual capacity of a short-term memory varies, and subsequently this individual characteristic impacts the reaction time.
In this research, it is possible to single out two independent variables: 1) the size of the initial set and 2) presence or absence of the stimulus (digit) in the initial set. In turn, the dependent variables are the reaction time and accuracy of responses. This study aims to measure the relations between these variables.
It should also be noted that the focus of this study is on digit recognition, not letters or any other symbol. The thing is that digit recognition and letter recognition are separate processes, and different parts of human brain are responsible for them (Polk
The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
History of the white house
How the white house acts as a cultural symbol
Introduction Cultural symbols are often images that embody specific ideas amongst the populace thus denoting the culture of that group. These may range from national flags, buildings, monuments and the like. Usually, cultural symbols have an emotional appeal because they have the capacity to motivate and appeal to a wide range of people.
The United States has a diverse population and there is a need to bring together these variant groups through a cultural symbol synonymous to the entire nation. The white house has been instrumental in achievement of this objective from the early nineteenth century.
History of the white house President George Washington is credited with the idea of the white house. In 1790 this leader announced that there would be a residential area for all subsequent US presidents and their families and that this would be in Pennsylvania Avenue. He was responsible for selection of the architect who would build this historical building.
Ten years later, the building was completed and the first president moved in. There were several changes that the building underwent especially after the 1929 and the 1814 fires that took place. Some parts of the building have been altered but the main section remained as it was originally (Whitcomb, 33).
How the white house acts as a cultural symbol The white house is quite easy to recognize in Washington DC. It architectural design is rather simple when compared to other national buildings. However, it is this simplicity that has endeared it to a number of people. The founding fathers had intended for it to be that simple because they probably felt that this would be a representation of the principles and ideals that they had in mind for the United States.
When one sees an image of the white house, the first thought that is likely to come to one’s head is it is a residential home for the head of state. In other words, citizens often view this building to be synonymous with leadership because this is where the nation’s leader resides.
In essence, this can be translated to mean liberty and democracy in that the country has a leader who was elected democratically by the people of the United States and the place where he resides therefore captures these values. To many, the white house symbolizes power or the ability to control and influence such a large nation as the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The white house is able to trigger these deep associations because of plenty of reasons and one of them is its history. The white house was first completed in 1800 but its beauty was soon to be interrupted in 1814 when British soldiers came and burned it.
However, it was rebuilt with even better improvements. With time, a number of features kept being added such as the wings, green houses, offices and the like (Johnson, 83). These subsequent changes represented a critical aspect of the American culture; resilience. Even after the white house had been burnt down by the British soldiers, the country was still able to pick itself up again and rebuild.
Many Americans have carried forward that message into their lives because even when life presents certain predicaments, Americans can still pick up the pieces and try again. The continual redesign of the white house also illustrates the creativity inherent in many citizens. Most presidents who resided in the building would customize it so that it could suit their needs. Sometimes this necessitated tearing down certain elements and in certain scenarios it necessitated building others.
Therefore, most changes made to the building represented the character of the leaders that created it. Furthermore, interior decorations made almost always represent the preferences of the residing families. Americans have come to identify with this principle because most of them will utilize their creative talent in order to make situations workable. The white house is therefore able to appeal to citizens emotionally because most of them will reexamine the history of the building and relate it to their own lives (Johnson, 12).
Presidents usually have the prerogative of hosting visitors of the state in whichever way they would like. In the past, this was done very openly in that the public could enter the white house. Most often, the public would be allowed in after the inauguration ceremony. However, that culture changed because of security concerns for the president. Notable presidents who kept the white house open to the public included Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln.
With time, inaugurations came to be marked by the inaugural parade that is often displayed in front of the white house. Instead, most dinners are organized based on the preference of the leader in office. All these different ways of hosting reflect the diversity of American Presidents in the past. Consequently, this is also synonymous to the diversity of the American people; conversely, it also shows their hospitality.
The existence of a committee for the preservation of the white house illustrates how historic this building is. Every time a single president intends on making changes to the building, he must present the draft to the latter committee and wait for feedback from them. This is done in order to protect the historic integrity of the building.
We will write a custom Essay on The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that most first families are aware of the fact that they are only in those premises temporarily although they still have the opportunity to make their mark in the country’s history. The relative ease with which one can recognize the white house today even after two centuries of habitation is a testament of how historical this building really is to the American people.
The white house is also unique to the United States because even though other countries of the world have official residents for their heads of states, none of them have designs like the white house. Indeed when receiving Presidential visitors from other countries of the world, it is the white house which is usually used for these purposes.
Therefore the contrasts between visiting nations and the host country often demonstrate how representative the white house is to the nation. Usually, visiting heads of state will be expected to land at the South lawn in the white house and their receptions will be carried out in a grand way through minor ceremonies (Whitcomb, 33).
It is quite interesting how many external developments in the country have been incorporated into the white house. In 1890, the white lawns were made up of green buildings where plants were grown through the use of glass buildings. This represented the growth and development of green houses around the country.
Therefore because of this, one can say that the White house epitomizes technology and development in the country because new inventions will often be tried out in this building. For example, in the carter administration, computers were just getting introduced into the world of work. This was the reason why President Carter felt it necessary to bring them to the white house.
He also did this alongside the laser printer. He also wanted to be proactive when it came to green energy and added solar heating panels in the white house. The subsequent president Ronald Reagan continued to improve computer technology within the white house and he therefore encouraged other people who were interested in making similar changes in their lives to do the same. The white house normally contains state of the art machinery and technology and therefore can be seen by many as an instrument of development (Seale, 11).
The white house also contains a press briefing room. Usually, when there is an important state development or some information that the President or his staff wish to give to the public then they will normally employ the press briefing room. With time, the white house has therefore become a source of news and information on public policy.
Many presidents have often stated their opinions on crucial issues such as public education and terrorism using this very room. In fact, it has been synonymous with policy dispensers. White house representatives are often politically oriented as most of them must be highly aware of the issues going on in the country and the presidential stand on them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The White House as a Cultural Symbol in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It should be noted that although the white house is unique in its own right, its design was inspired by several Irish based buildings including the Leinster house in Ireland’s capital. The latter building used to host members of the Irish parliament. Other inspirations for the building include the Rastignac country house found in France.
Although it is debatable to what extent the white house borrowed from either buildings, it is essential to acknowledge that the work was not completely unique to the US and that there were foreign elements in it. This indicates that the United States, much like the white house, depends on other nations in order to survive. The country cannot deal with its challenges without networking with other partners in just the same way that it did when building the white house.
It should be noted that the actual construction was done by a number of immigrants with some coming from Scotland and others emanating from other parts of Europe (Seale, 40). The white house therefore needed input from different types of people without discriminating upon them. The same applies to the country which often requires input from a number of people so that the idea can be workable.
The white house can be seen as a representation of the independence of the United States. The country would not have been able to construct premises for its head of state if it was not independent. In deed the reason why British soldiers came and burnt the building in 1814 was because they opposed that independence and wanted to make a point about it.
Citizens of the country often reflect upon this history and think of the astounding progress that the nation has made through self governance. The residential home of these leaders who have taken the country through such a journey is therefore precious to the eyes of the Americans.
One may wonder why the white house has not changed much over the years especially since heads of state tend to be highly opinionated. However, for something to have sentimental value or to act as a cultural symbol, then it must remain the same or as close to the original as it possibly can be. The white house today still has very close resemblance to the white house of 1800 because most of it was preserved for posterity’s sake.
Conclusion The white house is in the same league as many cultural symbols of America. It is often identified with leadership, liberty, independence and freedom. Others think of it in terms of power while others appreciate the creativity incorporated by most heads of state in incorporating some of their preferences in the interior design. The white house also represents the resilience of the American people and their diversity as seen through the design’s influences.
Works Cited Whitcomb, John. Real life at the white house: 200 years of daily life at America’s most famous residence. NY: Routledge, 2000
Johnson, Micheal. A chateau fit for a president. International herald Tribune, September 2006
Seale, William. The White house, the history of an American idea. American institute of Architects press, 1992
Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In every culture and era, death has been taken as an important period of human existence. This is characterized by the rituals, beliefs and items used during burial. The ancient Greeks and the ancient Egyptians also had their beliefs associated with death.
This is evidenced by the rituals and the items used during the funeral practices as pointed out in the excavations. Consequently, this paper intends to highlight the importance of the krater as a monumental marker in ancient Greece and the mummy mask as another item used in the burial rituals of ancient Egypt. It will also highlight the rituals and beliefs associated with the two items.
Hornung (7) indicates that the ancient Egyptians’ belief in immortality was the basic reflection of their richness of rituals. The goods and rituals, according to Hornung were necessary items that would prove useful in the afterlife of the dead person.
Similarly, the ancient Greek culture had an equally strong emphasis on the phenomenon of death. The rituals and beliefs associated with it led to the development of several practices that would clearly reflect the meaning of death in the culture. On the other hand, the burial rituals of the ancient Greeks in the period of 750BCE and 700BCE were affected by the age of geometry.
Most of the decorations on the items used during burial were designed to acquire some geometric form. The krater, for instance is one of the items used during burials. It was the monumental marker of graves during the 750BCE-700BCE.This vase was clearly decorated using geometric figures that depicted a ritual referred to as prothesis. The general presentation highlights a series of vertical and horizontal arrangements of geometric figures that, under close scrutiny, reflect a scene (Boardman 26).
The paintings on the krater depict a dead person laid on a bier. This farewell ceremony depicted on the vase shows the emphasis laid on burial by the ancient Greeks. For instance, they emphasized more on the deceased person’s life on earth and his relations. This is pictured in the paintings on the vase. Standing at the head of the bier is the priestess who is usually present to perform certain rituals that would assist the deceased to navigate in the two worlds.
At the foot of the bier is a woman seated on a chair with her feet rested on a three legged stool. On her lap she carries a baby. Probably, this is the deceased’s wife and a child. At the foot of the bier are two figures, one slightly larger. These are depictions of the other children of the deceased. Women are seen mourning by pulling their hairs. This was the original sign of morning in ancient Greece (Boardman 27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paintings on the krater also show some gifts and presents offered to the deceased. Under the bier are animals both four legged and two legged. These are sacrificial animals that are offered during the ceremony to ensure that the deceased gets a decent farewell.
The presents of swords or other paraphernalia offered during the ancient Greek burial ceremony is a clear projection of their belief in life after death. They strongly believed that lack of decent burial would lead ghostly haunts (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, para. 3). The ancient Egyptians also offered items to the deceased.
Contrarily, the items were not meant for a decent burial but as Malek (351) argues, for a comfortable life after death, the ancient Egyptians buried their deceased with certain goods that would assist them carry on with life. The most basic goods that accompanied the deceased were everyday utensils like comps, cups, bowls and several other useful trinkets. In addition to this, the deceased would also be given food that would be necessary for his afterlife.
The economic status of the deceased also dictated the amount of items to be available for burial. For instance, wealthy people were buried with jewelry, furniture and anything that would add value to life. This however became a great attraction to tomb robbers. It was this ritual that led to tombs of the early dynastic period to be filled with utensils of daily use and other valuable goods (Murnane 63).
On the other hand, the ancient Egyptian’s item of burial was the mummy mask. This was a mask that covered the head and chest of the deceased. It was worn on the head of the deceased which would originally be wrapped. This mask was made from wet linen that was glued together and a thin layer of plaster applied. Once hardened, it could be painted or gilded (The British Museum, para. 4).
Just like the krater in the Greek culture, the mummy mask also had several decorations that had meanings. The decorations were a clear reflection of the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians concerning the afterlife. First, the Egyptians believed that the dead would live again after burial.
They strongly believed that the spirit, also referred to as Ba, would leave the tomb time after time. The mummy mask would therefore be the only way that the returning spirit would recognize its body which has its face wrapped in bandages. The belief in reunion with Re, the sun god is further evidenced by the presence of a winged scarab beetle. This was a symbol of the sun god and would therefore act as an identifier that would assist the mummy reunify with Re. it also symbolizes the issue of resurrection (The British Museum, para. 3).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Behind the mask are other symbolic depictions that highlight the ancient Egyptians’ funerary practices and beliefs. There is a picture of a human headed bird. This is a symbolic representation of what they believed to be the aftermath of life. This was the symbol of Ba, the spirit that would resurrect.
Finally, there is the picture of a hawk whose wings are stretched out wide. This bird is a sign of protection. It represents Horus who protected his father Osiris. This would offer protection for the deceased in the afterlife. Typically, this falls within the beliefs that form the practices of the ancient Egyptians. Their basic belief was to ensure that the deceased enjoyed his afterlife and that he was well protected (Malek 354).
Furthermore, the mummy mask was coated with gold as a clear reflection of the belief that the mummy would be reunited with Re, the sun god. The gold coat would be a form of identification as the sun god Re was made up of a body of gold. The formation of the broad chest and raised relief at the collar provided space through which the funerary text would be placed. The funerary literature marks another ritual symbol used in ancient Egyptian burial ceremony.
Due to their profound belief in life after death, the ancient Egyptians believed that information on how to start life and carry on with it in the next world was necessary. As a result, they buried their mummies with what is referred to as the funerary literature. The information contained in the literature gave the mummy directions on how to navigate through to the next life. This information was kind of a secret that was never availed to other people but the Pharaoh during the 1st intermediate period.
However, the information started finding ways to other high ranking officials during the middle Kingdom before becoming necessary for all burials in the New Kingdom. In the 1st Kingdom, it was referred to as the pyramid text by scholars because it belonged to the Kings; it became the coffin texts in the Middle Kingdom before ending up as the Book of the dead in the new kingdom. The changes in names were also accompanied by changes in the content of the text.
The newer versions carried over the original spells but also had additional spells and slight changes. These books played important roles in the afterlife of the deceased. For instance, the pyramid text ensured that the pharaoh attained a royal resurrection and that there were no malignant influences in his afterlife (Murnane 45).
A distinct contrast in the beliefs of the ancient Greeks and the ancient Egyptians is the destiny of the soul or spirit. The mummy mask contained a distinct wide open eye. This could be a clear reflection of their burial beliefs. It showed the mouth opening ceremony, another ritual involved in the preparation of a mummy in the ancient Egyptians’ burial. As mentioned earlier, the Egyptians believed in life after death.
They, therefore, wanted to ensure that the dead person would be able to perform his day to day activities in his life after death. The re-animation ceremony involved the mouth opening ceremony. This was a ritual conducted by a priest by touching the dead person’s mouth using a blade made of copper or stone also referred to as an adze. This practice was accompanied by utterance of certain words meant to cast a spell on the mummy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece’s Burial Rituals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The meaning of this ritual was to ensure that the dead person would be able to speak and breathe in his life after death. Apart from enabling the mummy to speak and breath, the priest also uttered some spells that would re-animate the dead person’s legs, arms and other body parts that are necessary for a normal performance in his life after death (Forman
Psychology in Nursing and Elections Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Maslow’s Theory
Psychology and Elections
Maslow’s Theory Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs show the order of the fulfillment of the human needs under ideal circumstances. According to Simons and Irwin (1987), “if the environment is right, people will grow straight and beautiful; actualizing the potentials they have inherited and if the environment is not right, they will not grow straight and beautiful.” This means that the environment affects the satisfaction of our needs. Maslow’s theory applies to the educational and career development in the nursing.
The physiological needs are necessary to sustain life and they include air, water, nourishment and sleep. These needs are the minimum needs required to sustain life without which there is no life in this world. In education, for one to learn more effectively these needs must be satisfied as they are the integral components of the health, while in the nursing profession, the physiological needs are the basic needs necessary in the recovery of the patients hence the nurse ensure that these needs are not limited to the patient.
The safety needs in the education and nursing are the health security of patients, the safety of the nursing profession and the job security. The social needs of love and affection are very important in effective interaction with students, lecturers, patients and workmates thus forming health relationships in the society.
After the social needs are satisfied, one focuses on satisfying self-esteem through achievements in the education and nursing profession, hence, making one earn respect and recognition. Self-actualization is the summit of human needs such as wisdom, justice and truth. These needs enable one to achieve excellence in educational performances and become a passionate expert in the nursing career.
Psychology and Elections Politics and psychology are related because for a politician to win an election there must be a psychological correlation between the voters and the politician.
Politics is about convincing and satisfying the voters’ psychological interests, and if their psycho logical interests are satisfied, then a certain politician will win an election. “An election campaign that fails is one that could not understand the political psychology of the voter” (Comstock