The Lottery By Shirley Jackson Report (Assessment) Scholarship Essay Help

Modern fictional scripts analysts stress on strict text interpretation. Assumptions and conjectures regarding a writer’s objectives or booklover’s reactions are unacceptable. The study is dominated by accurate structure and terminology analysis. A writer’s state of mind or how a script is received must not be used as a basis of study.

America has had prominent novelists over the years. Authors employed various writing styles to narrate their tales. Divergent writing techniques have raised most writers to fame. Fictional stories reviewers have had interest in works by an American author Shirley Jackson.

The Lottery story by Shirley Jackson received incredible interest from literary analysts. The detractors considered the Lottery script as a tale exclusively developed for fright. Conversely, scare was never Shirley’s intention when writing the story. In fact, she was recognized for creating stories concerning jovial people waiting for obscurity. Shirley’s objective was to illustrate humanity living in a bizarre situation (Stelly p. 1). The Lottery tale started in a relaxed daybreak. The day was intentionally selected by the author on the 27th of the sixth month.

A European traditional fete commemorated on the 21st had past and the American independence day of 4th July was further ahead. Therefore, Shirley’s chosen date appeared central to the two significant days. The European fete was occasioned by peculiar cultures while the American sovereignty date manifested liberty of persons. The fourteen days in between the two major occasions were cut in half by the 27th day. Shirley’s preferred date symbolized the disparity amid illogical evils and coherent equality.

Variances in the events signified a vital character in the Lottery story (Shields p. 4). The Lottery tale was centered on practices of societal brutality and injustice. Similarly, a midway date exemplified the dissimilarity between the two occasions. Furthermore, Shirley Jackson sought to draw attention to the existing events in Europe at that time. The date was used as a platform for the Lottery tale.

Shirley employed diverse writing styles in the Lottery story. She utilized imagery to characterize humanity as impure despite individual or group perceptions. The figurative approach assisted Shirley in her quest to explain humanity’s wickedness (Mccullough p. 1). Images represented what was intended and were applied in many areas of the tale. As a substitute to numerous terminologies, an image was used to represent expressions.

The lottery story was likewise based on sarcasm. Pleasant speeches and a grant to the game of chance were worth a celebratory affair of hope. However, in contrast, the tale ended in a brutal death (Voth p. 1). Irony in writing engaged readers and kept them in suspense. The technique allowed the author to twist her script to a desired direction. Satire in the tale made it lively and intriguing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lottery story had predictions in its writing. Shirley wrote about how youngsters gathered pebbles, residents picked grain and other incidences to point to the method used for victimization at the final end. Tessie Hutchinson was illogically chosen to be stoned (Shields p. 9). Mockery in the written script teased the reader into imagined intentions by the author. This technique kept the reader connected to events of the story. A mock pointed to the main event but it was not the experience.

Shirley maintained a specific subject matter throughout the Lottery story. She stressed on how the people of New England town held on to their culture. The town was not ready to alter anything not even the black box. The inhabitants preferred to maintain everything as they were (Blaylock p. 1). Retaining a definite idea in writing enhanced the flow of events. A reader always requires easy follow through when reading a story or document. Therefore, adherence to a particular topic is recommended in writing.

The Lottery was a short story but had enormous literature richness. Shirley applied professional writing skills that earned the Lottery story much approval. She sustained a uniform topic throughout the story and used good writing methods. Although the work was done in early 20th century, it continues as a reference point for most learners. Such precision and adherence to literature works ought to be encouraged in writings study.

Works Cited Blaylock, Janet K. Sort Story Review. The Lottery by Shirley Jackson. British Literature. 2003. Web.

Mccullough, David. Lottery. a Breakdown of Jackson’s Symbolism. 2002. Web.

Shields, Patrick J. Arbitrary Condemnation and Sanctioned Violence in Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Lottery’. Contemporary Justice Review. Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 411-419. 2004. Web.

Stelly, Timothy N. Shirley Jackson’s Short Masterpiece ‘The Lottery’. 2005. Web.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Voth, Lori. Analysis of ‘The Lottery’, a Short Story by Shirley Jackson. Associated Content. 2005. Web.


Historical Analysis of Drug Use and Abuse in the United States of America during 1900–1950 Essay college essay help online

Throughout the whole history of mankind existence, people have demonstrated propensity for a range of substances, the most addictive of which are — along with alcohol and tobacco — drugs.

The importance of drugs in certain cultures cannot be overestimated; for instance, the intoxicating haze of opium is part and parcel for the civilizations of the oriental countries. The two-hundred-year old history of the United States of America has witnessed several dramatic swings in the cultural attitude to drugs, from favorable acceptance on the one hand to passionate rejection on the other hand.

One of the most exciting periods of a cultural shift in relation to drugs occupies around fifty years: in the first half of the twentieth century, the general cultural trend in America’s attitude to drugs took a rapid turn towards legal limitation of drug use. Therefore drugs were no more viewed as substances used for purely medical purposes but as forbidden fruit that became more and more widespread among such social strata as criminals, assuming a new cultural perspective.

However striking one may find it, at the beginning of the twentieth century the percentage of the United States population addicted to drugs was not much lower than modern statistical data. According to Whitebread (1995), up to five percent of the nation experienced dependence on drugs, and there were two major reasons which called this situation into being.

On the one hand, the common medical practice of the whole preceding century made wide use of morphine as a pain killer in every possible surgery situation. Morphine was used both during operations and after them, thus condemning the patients to drug addiction even if it was the last thing they wanted.

On the other hand, the specific nature of the social stratum mostly involved into drug use also contributed to the growth of statistics: contrary to the present situation when the person most likely to be a drug user is a young male city dweller, preferably representing a minority group, at the turn of the twentieth century the most typical drug addicts were middle-aged white women living in the countryside.

The reason for such popularity of drugs among those women was the flourishing trade of various patent medicines that were claimed to be no less than universal panacea but in fact often consisted of morphine by almost fifty percent. Thus, the main peculiarity of the drug culture that had developed by the 1900s lays in the fact that the drug addicts of the time were not aware of their addiction which was therefore accidental. (Whitebread, 1995)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the development of scientific and medical knowledge about the dangerous addictive nature and the devastating consequences of drugs on human body, the United States realized that something must be done to control drug usage and prevent more people from falling into the hopeless abyss of addiction.

Already in the last decades of the nineteenth century, there arose a wave of general concern for environment and a whole range of American cities and states started passing laws that banned certain kinds of adulterated food and mood-altering drugs (Musto, 1991).

The first federal triumph was celebrated by the prohibitionists when in 1906 the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed; although the Act did not prohibit selling such addictive substances as cocaine, morphine and cannabis, it at least obliged all the manufacturers of patent medicines to properly label all the medicines containing opiates.

The efficiency of the Pure Food and Drug Act is highly prized by the researchers; Whitebread (1995) estimates this noncriminal law to be more successful in reducing the level of addiction than any other consequently adopted statute. The society became conscious of the drugs it was taking and possibly getting addicted to; statistics shows that public campaigns persuading people not to use patent drugs containing opiates yielded positive results and the opiate addiction had moderately declined by 1914 (Casey, 2009).

Together with preventing the more conscientious part of the nation from falling into the clutches of drug addiction, labeling the opiate-containing medicines evoked the morbid curiosity of easy pleasure seekers.

Moreover, cocaine, which had previously attracted mostly the intelligence who drew additional energy from it for intellectual tasks, started to associate with a new generation of users — the tough youth and criminal elements. Police reports formed a general public stereotype linking cocaine with the low-class black workers; that led to a new wave of racial prejudice (Morgan, 1981).

To make things worse, heroin that had been initially viewed by doctors as a cure from opiate addiction and was enthusiastically used in medicine of the 1910s was proved to be no less addictive and dangerous than the drugs it was substituting for. Shaping the negative popular opinion, mass media outlined the typical image of a contemporary ‘gang’ member as an unemployed young white male living in the suburbs of a large city and being heavily dependent on heroine (Morgan, 1981).

We will write a custom Essay on Historical Analysis of Drug Use and Abuse in the United States of America during 1900–1950 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the society needed a new law that would come out against the asocial elements brought about by drug addiction which was now viewed as a social evil.

The way out was found in the 1914 Harrison Act, the first American law that criminalized any non-medical use of drugs and prescribed that “manufacturers, importers, pharmacists, and physicians prescribing narcotics should be licensed to do so, at a moderate fee” (Casey, 2009). Together with certain positive results, among the consequences of the Harrison Act was total misery and anguish of the poorer part of the population who used to purchase their dope not from official medics but just in the street.

At that time the American legislation chose not to permit any maintenance of addicts and only allowed prescription of drugs as a part of a cure (Morgan, 1981). Strict justice was administered to those who had become desperate criminals due to their drug addiction: according to Clark, “in 1923 seventy-five percent of women in federal penitentiaries were Harrison Act prisoners” (as cited in Casey, 2009).

But despite all the governmental efforts, new addictive substances came up to replace the prohibited ones. After the 1920 Volstead Act increasing the alcohol prices in the US, marijuana that had been introduced by Mexican immigrants appeared an attractive alternative and became a significant part of the popular black “hepster” jazz culture.

Gradually marijuana grew into such evil a scourge — combined with the Great Depression fear of unemployed criminals from lower class communities, mostly associated with Mexicans, — that another prohibition law was passed by the Congress, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Law (PBS Frontline, 2000).

Throughout the following decade, marijuana got an indeed terrific reputation, labeled “the killer drug” and “the assassin of youth”, and the American government lead a fierce war against the “addictive drug which produces in its users insanity, criminality, and death” (Whitebread, 1995). However, by the mid-twentieth century, the United States were still among the countries with the highest rates of marijuana addicts.

In first half of the twentieth century, the United States of America appeared a scene for dramatic changes in the social attitude to drugs. Initially taken as wonder-working medicines, drugs were studied in-depth and revealed their hazardous nature.

Popular opinion formulated a rigid negative stereotype against drugs and drug addicts; non-medical drug use started to be viewed as a crime and drug addicts were treated as outlaws. Though by the Second World War drugs were already considered a social ill (DEA Museum, 2007), there was still a long way to go to the modern attitude of maintenance and rehabilitation that helps former addicts return from their blurred mirage to a normal social life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical Analysis of Drug Use and Abuse in the United States of America during 1900–1950 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Casey, E. (2009). History of drug use and drug users in the United States. Web.

DEA Museum. (2007). Illegal drugs in America: A modern history. Web.

Morgan, H. W. (1981). Drugs in America: A social history, 1800-1980. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Musto, D. F. (1991). Opium, cocaine and marijuana in American history. Scientific American, 20-27. Web.

PBS Frontline. (2000). A social history of America’s most popular drugs. Web.

Whitebread, C. (1995). The history of the non-medical use of drugs in the United States. A speech to the California Judges Association 1995 annual conference. Web.


Contemporary British Muslim artists Expository Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Famous post-colonial British Muslim artists

Sarah Maple



Introduction Post- colonial art is a genre of artistic expression that portrays the discourse an artist has over colonization. Post-colonial art often involves works that deal with issues of de-colonization or the political and cultural emancipation of people previously subjected to colonial rule.

Post-colonial Britain art is an imaginative evaluation of British society, and the art works incorporate racist or colonial innuendos (Anwar, 1979). Post-colonial art on the contemporary scene also makes an effort to analyze the current post-colonial debate that has taken root over time (Anwar, 1979).

Muslim artists have in particular expanded their artistic coverage of the attitude and mentality they bear towards the British imperial rule since their religion mostly puts them in a highly charged position (Murray, 2008). Several artists of Islamic affiliation have gone ahead to exhibit a number of controversial artworks in the British cultural scene.

The art presented by these Muslims bears the attitude portrayed by the British society towards them and the Islamic religion as a whole and the artists’ own views on Islam (Shaw, 1994). Some of the expressions include racism, sexism, segregation, peace, harmony and love. These artists are especially recognized for their work in critiquing the both the British and the Islamic societies’ aggression toward each other based on simple differences perpetuated by different cultural backgrounds (Jacobson, 2001).

Famous post-colonial British Muslim artists A great number of young and talented artists have over the recent years been discovered among the British Muslim community. These artists include;-

Mohammed Ali who uses graffiti to express the cultural uniqueness of Islamic art. He derives inspiration from the Qur’an and his work depicts universal principles such as Peace, Knowledge and Patience which criticize religious prejudice and act as a bridge that links all religions (Webster, 2007). Mazzy Malik is also a graffiti artist but highly influenced by hip hop music. She uses Islamic calligraphy on her images to comically depict western civilization and the chauvinism against Muslims.

Taslim Rashid founded the Tranquilart: a personal arts project in 2003 at a time when she was teaching people suffering from mental illness (Webster, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She uses the image of a butterfly as an allegory for the change the British society needs to embrace. Modasar Rasul is a professional photographer who was first discovered through a photo essay he carried out to document the suffering of Chechen refugees. Currently he exhibits pictures of old doors to symbolize opening up of new opportunities in life’s continuous journey (Webster, 2007).

Some of the other contemporary British Muslim artists are Jamil Ahmed who specializes in classic Islamic calligraphy fused with European contemporary style, Rafia Hussain Kamel who specializes in calligraphy, modern Islamic art and architecture, Samsul Islam a graphic artist, Hasina Zaman who produces Islamic themed mosaics, Bilal Badat who is well groomed in painting, calligraphy and interior design and Samir Malik, a canvas painter (Webster, 2007).

Sarah Maple She is a contemporary painter who specializes in self portraits and still life paintings and also indulges in sculpture and photographic expressions. Over the recent years, she has turned out to be the most controversial British Muslim painter, with her work deeply criticizing the British and Muslim communities.

Sarah was born to a Christian father and a Muslim mother, but she was raised in accordance to the Islamic traditions. She was first recognized in 2007 when she won the “4 New Sensations” competition which was organized by Channel 4 to find the most creative talent in Britain. Since then, she has gone on to release a series of controversial paintings that have attracted negative attention for their candidness in regards to race religion and sex (Sherwin, 2007).

Some of her most controversial paintings include “The New Black” which is an oil based canvas painting of a Muslim woman covered in a black gown. The portrait insinuates that the Islamic code of female dressing as being discriminated against and it is therefore given the name ‘new black’.

Another painting is an acrylic board painting titled “passport”. This one seems to suggest that a woman can go anywhere she desires as long as she can offer herself through intercourse. The ‘Cherry Bakewell anyone’ and the ‘Bananarama’ oil on board paintings have a woman covered in traditional Islamic attire and performing sexually suggestive actions (Walker, 2008).

Considering the Islamic world take their faith and dress code to be sacred, it is therefore not surprising that these paintings evoked violent reactions from the Islamic community (Walker, 2008). ‘…join them’ is an open impression of the British women which suggests that if the Muslim women cannot stand the discrimination of their dressing they may as well walk in the nude. Other controversial paintings include, ‘God is a feminist’, ‘Paintbrush Wank’, ‘I love Orgasms’, ‘Haram’, ‘Burka Chic’ and ‘Blue, Badges, Burka’.

We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary British Muslim artists specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, Maples has a number of paintings that basically contain hand written messages, some of which are funny whereas others are considered to be offensive (Walker, 2008). They include, ‘Does anyone still wank over Hitler?’, ‘You could have done this’ and ‘Who decided….?’ Most of these paintings are considered offensive among the conventional Islamic populace for they bear sexual or improper portrayal of Muslim women.

A major contributor to the inspiration behind these paintings is the fact that Maple is not a staunch Muslim. This has consequently worked to maple’s advantage since she has no barriers either psychological or emotional that hold her back from expressing Muslim women in accordance to her freedom of expression (Walker, 2008). The end result is a comical representation of Muslim women and a semi-mediocre depiction of the Islamic religion as a whole.

In comparison, other Muslim women in the art industry take their identity to be sacred and holy (Sherwin, 2007). The art work of women such as Taslim Rashid, Hasina Zaman, Rafia Hussain Kamel among others, all bear a reserved approach toward Islamic art. Identity to these women is something priceless and should not be corrupted as Maple does, rather it should be treasured and preserved. This can be supported by the works of art they produce, all portraying Islamic design in an intellectual and glorified demeanor.

Multiculturalism The fact that the U.K has a foray of individuals with diverse cultural backgrounds in a way subjects the Muslim women to a precipice of ideology and cultural dilemma (Murray, 2008). Muslims in the U.K are a minority group and therefore are subject to a religious democratic environment.

Sarah Maple in her portrait ‘…join them’, gives a clue of the religious adversity Muslims, especially what Muslim women go through. Her painting propels a feeling of surrender to the majority and she therefore tells the other Muslim women to relinquish their religious attachments to attire and simply dress like the rest of the women in Britain. The painting is however not subjective to attire alone, rather the principles and ideology of the Islamic faith are also taken account.

Other Muslim women are however of a different opinion and taking into consideration the content of their art, it is evident that they deem it necessary to preserve their culture more than ever (Ermes, 2001).

From the cards and graffiti to the architectural designs produced by Taslim Rashid, Hasina Zaman and Rafia Hussain Kamel among others, female British Muslim artists have taken it upon themselves to magnify the beauty of Islam (Sherwin, 2007). They intensify the Islamic core values through their propensity for peace, love and oneness, qualities that are clearly prevalent in their work (Ermes, 2001).

Maple’s work has received a lot of criticism from the public and the Islamic community for it is considered extremely insulting especially to Muslim women. She however cites that cultural differences and the preserved nature of the Muslim faith as her greatest inspiration and sees nothing wrong with her art. Contemporary art lovers on the other hand appreciate the beauty and the explicitness of her work and continually encourage her to cultivate her freedom for expression.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary British Muslim artists by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Western critics have partly embraced the art by Middle Eastern women, but they are yet to fully understand the core significance of the paintings. Some of the critics have the inclination that the works have suggestive extremist allusions while other critics view the works as a portrayal of hope and encouragement to the rest of the women in the Middle East (Jacobson, 2001).

With such differing opinions, it is difficult to quantify the overall acceptance of such works. However, with the dynamic shift of public interest and global events carried out by members of the Islamic community; art by Middle Eastern women is still currently being considered a moving target, yet to gain the acceptance into the mainstream pedestal.

References Anwar, M. (1979). The myth of return. 2nd edition. London: Heinemann.

Ermes, A. (2001). Contemporary Islamic Arts: A positive contribution to London, RMCJ. Web.

Jacobson, J. (2001). Islam in transition: religion and identity among British Pakistani youth. 1st edition. London: Routledge.

Murray, J. (2008). Brick Lane, BMJ. 56.5(56). Web.

Shaw, A. (1994). The Pakistani community in oxford. 1st edition. London: Hurst and company.

Sherwin, B. (2007). Art Space Talk: Sarah Maple. British artist journal. Web.

Walker, T. (2008). Sarah Maple’s exhibition poses questions that anger Muslims. Telegraph. Web.

Webster, R., 2007. A Brief History of Pop Art in Britain and America. MJKJ. Web.


Manchester United Football Club Report essay help site:edu

Abstract This paper discusses football as a business and more so, focuses on Manchester United as one of the most recognized football clubs in England. The paper analyses the clubs business strategy, its competitive position as compared to other clubs, its resources and capabilities and finally how it can improve on its management strategies to ensure survival.

Introduction Currently, Football is considered as one of the business industry that is growing tremendously. The business strategy used in football can easily be retrieved since the competition in the football arena has been found to be highly structured and the results easily and clearly measured. The outcomes are measured in the line of success in financial management, performance at the pitch, the number of games won and lost, the number of trophies won within certain duration of time and also the league positions (Szymanski, 1998, pp 47-54).

The wage costs that were recorded in the English Premier League clubs in 2005/2006 increased to above EUR 850 million. The clubs that attained the first five positions recorded wage costs as follows; Chelsea 114 million, Manchester United 85 million, Arsenal 83 million and Newcastle United 52 million. The wage cost is however expected to hit more than 1 billion Euros in the Premier league in the near future (Waltersdorf, 2007). Manchester United and arsenal were recorded to have spent more than 250 million euro in the process of expanding their stadia.

Manchester United has been considered as one of the most successful English football club within the last two decades. It has won the premier league eight times since 1992, the FA cup it has won more than five times since 1970. The club has also performed so well financially generating an income of £249 of which 66m of this was reported as profit and this was between the years 1992 and 1997 (Szymanski, 1998, pp 47-54).

Q. Identify Manchester United’s strategy and explain its rationale.

Manchester United football club has been known currently as one of the best football clubs in the world. The top five current stakeholders of the club include; Malcolm and family, Magnier and McMarui, Fans (shareholders), Mount barrow investment limited and many others (Walker et al, 2004).

The management has tried so much with fruitful efforts to focus the team towards the perspective of making money while winning trophies. The club from its early stages was rescued when it was almost collapsing in 1902, by J.H. Davies who was a local brewer. He contributed heavily towards the development of the Old Trafford ground, which later after completion became one of the leading stadiums in the North England, hosting cup finals and Semi-finals of the Football Association (Szymanski, 1998, pp 47-54).

Manchester United has for many years become a team of expensive players, which have for the years played attractive football hence attracting more fans. This history has made the club to be one of the most sought out club in the recent history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The brand image of the club which incorporates a range of activities, services and products has contributed to the clubs growth; this is so since consumers most of the times make choices based on the image. The club has strategized successfully by marketing the club beyond their local supporters hence has created massive support both nationally and internationally, this has helped them to convert more fans to customers (Szymanski, 1998, pp 47-54).

One of the shareholders Louis Edwards bought many shares of the club in 1964 when the club was undergoing financial turmoil. Later his son became the Chief Executive of the club in 1981 and tried to lift the club financially. After the sucking of the then manager of the club Atkinson, Ferguson took over in 1986 after which the club started realizing increase in income. This was realized from the commercial activities such as conferences held at club’s facilities.

The club currently has the idea of developing the value of its media rights (Szymanski, 1998, p53). The club has also incorporated some commercial plans by allowing their fans to be treated as customers. This they have achieved through the targeted key markets by providing membership to the fans. The club has resorted to working with the right partners and hence has restructured the rule of sponsorship.

The link that the club has with financial institutions like Bank of Scotland and Zurich Financial services helps in the marketing of the products that falls under the Manchester United finance brand. Also its link with the sports giants Nike in a £300m deal for all the footwear, apparel, equipment and other merchandise bearing the Manchester United’s trademark has created a big boost for the club (Walker et al, 2004).

Q. Compare Manchester United’s resources and capabilities to those of Liverpool. What does your analysis imply for Manchester United’s potential to establish cost and differentiation advantage over Liverpool?

Resources and capabilities in a business entity are often considered to be the primary sources of profitability. The resources are tangible, intangible or human in nature, the tangible resources include; financial, land, buildings, plant and equipments, intangible include; technology, reputation and culture while human resources include; skills, capacity for communication and collaboration, motivation (Szymanski, 1998, pp 47-54).

The resources and capabilities are very vital in a business entity. For instance the tangible resources show the value of fixed assets of a business, the Debt/Equity ratio, credit rating and Net cash flow of the business. The intangible resources indicate the income and expenditure of the firm, brand equity and loyalty of the staff. While human resource helps in determining the employee credentials, pay rates and turnover (Szymanski, 1998, pp 47-54).

Manchester United has been listed as the biggest financially stable football club, generating revenue of £ 172 million and operating profit of £ 58.3 million in the year 2004 while earnings per share was 7.4 pence. Manchester has also emerged as one of the top performing team in the European league due to the quality players it has nurtured as a club, and also its financial ability to acquire star players.

We will write a custom Report on Manchester United Football Club specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has been boosted by the fact that top players go for clubs that have got the financial ability to pay attractive salaries (Grant


Compare and contrast the records of one of Debussy 24 preludes “WEST WIND” Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction


West wind



Introduction Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was a French pianist and composer whose exceptional work in technical composition made him one of the most prominent composers of his era.

He is considered to be the founder of modern sensualist compositions, creating a new trend in musical performance by use of contemporary scales and a diversity of tonal arrangements, greatly influenced by Russian compositions and Eastern cultures. He had the unique ability of collectively assimilating different tonal variations simultaneously to form a richer unified reminiscent resonance which earned him the title of a musical impressionist.

His mastery in solo piano saw the addition of Preludes to his repertoire, which until his contribution were not regarded as important in musical composition. Debussy composed the entire collection of preludes over a period of three years (1910-1913) and divided them into two separate books, each book containing twelve preludes.

Preludes The 24 Preludes composed by Debussy in book 1 and 2 are short musical pieces that are meant to put across a specific atmosphere or feeling which is pointed out by the title of each piece.

The titles are placed at the foot of each peace to allow the pianist and the audience to inwardly interpret the music before they get to understand the composer’s perspective (Harpole 1986). The Preludes are considered to be among the epitome of the composer’s keyboard mastery, but even Debussy himself admitted that not all the preludes received the commendation he had hoped for.

West wind What the West wind saw (Ce qu’a vu le vent d’ouest) is the seventh of the twelve preludes in Claude Debussy’s first book of preludes. The piece begins with tension preceded by a metrical build up of the bass which elevates the tension present in the music (Roberts 1996).

The build up of the bass is gradual and then rapidly explodes with two tonal variations the high pitched tones in the registry giving out a howling sound while a growling sound emanates from the lower pitch tones to give a cumulative effect of rage and destruction (Harpole 1986).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Like most of the other preludes, Debussy withholds from the latent use of imagery and instead bases What the West wind saw entirely on musical and harmonic texture. He creatively replicates the natural sound of wind to produce the wailing, loud and moving sounds of a powerful wind (Muller, nd).

This three minute prelude is supposed to induce the violent and overwhelming power of an aggressive wind. The piece is also particularly potent in tritones and whole-tone motifs which can be found in all of the aggressive chords and fast comprehensive arpeggios (Roberts 1996). Debussy’s virtuosity is evident in the rapidly alternating tonal variations and the low range tremolos (Weiss 2003).

Book 1 is made up of 12 preludes, What the West wind saw being one of them. Most of the preludes in book one are of a light texture though there are some preludes that come close to What the West wind saw (Park 1967). The first prelude, Danseuses de Delphes (Dancers of Delphi) sharply differs from West Wind in melody and harmony.

The harmonies are of a lighter tone and the melody is more prominent and much closer to the accompanying chords. It also bears percussion accents which are not present in the west wind. However, the technique used is similar to that of west wind in terms of layered texture and modal scales.

Voiles (Veils or sails) uniquely lacks the half-step and bears a prominent B-flat tone through out. The melody is intermittent projecting sonorously whole tone scale. This prelude bears no similarity to west wind both in character and color (Lockspeiser 1978).

Le vent dans la plaine (The Wind in the Plain) suggests the presence of wind and is similar to west wind in content (Harpole 1986). The prelude is however different from west wind in that it suggests a calmer and more bearable wind in form of a breeze.

Whole tone scale only appears in the middle, the rest of the prelude being dominated by pentatonic scale (Weiss 2003). Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l’air du soir (The sounds and fragrances swirl through the evening air) just like west wind, this piece is rich in harmonic content (Lockspeiser 1978).

We will write a custom Assessment on Compare and contrast the records of one of Debussy 24 preludes “WEST WIND” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The melody is however different from west wind, and this prelude bears two thematic melodies that are layered over and interchanged through out the prelude. Les collines d’Anacapri (The Hills of Anacapri) is similar to west wind in that it is richly embodied with energy. The difference is that the energy present in The Hills of Anacapri is thematic to a party mood whereas the energy of west wind is more of a destructive nature (Park 1967).

Des pas sur la neige (Footsteps in the Snow) precedes west wind in book 1 and is a sharp contrast to the latter prelude. The perelude has a slow sad melody of the minor keys and ends with staccato bass. La fille aux cheveux de lin (The Girl with the Flaxen Hair) follows west wind and the use of simple harmonies make this prelude openly different from west wind.

The melody is pentatonic, a stark contrast to the previous prelude (Roberts 1996). The layered harmony of melody and diatonic chords gives this prelude an impressionist aura. La sérénade interrompue (Interrupted Serenade) unlike the west wind is unique in attempting to imitate a guitarist as he attempts to serenade a maiden (Harpole 1986).

This prelude is full of imagination and unlike west wind bears a legato melody together with a concise cadenza. La cathédrale engloutie (The engulfed cathedral or the sunken cathedral) is distinctively rich with Impressionist technique. Similar to west wind, this prelude uses of modal scales but differs from west wind due to the presence of pentatonic scales, bell-tones, and pedal-points that are used to sustain specific notes or chords.

The prelude La danse de Puck (Dance of Puck) is a light and comical examination of an imaginary world and is Scherzos in nature (Weiss 2003). Unlike west wind, this prelude is presented as a sonata which begins with three F flat keys (Muller, nd). Chromatic scale, thematic rhythms and bitonal melodies are constantly used to magnify the comical effect of the prelude.

Minstrels is the final prelude of the first book and like the previous prelude, it is dotted with humor. A dominant G-major totonic pedals holds this prelude together and acts the constant through out the prelude. Banjo and drum themes make a number of appearances through out the prelude to give it an animated feel (Weiss 2003).

Conclusion Debussy’s mastery on the solo piano is evident by the uniqueness and richness of all 24 preludes that he composed. Even though his initial work was not widely recognized or appreciated by accomplished solo pianists and composers, Debussy deeply understood that music was not about physical learning rather it was a form of suggestive expression. His attitude led him to produce some of the greatest works in the early 20th century that set the trend for other pianists and composers.

The prelude What the West wind saw can be said to be one of Debussy’s greatest accomplishments due to the fact that no other composer had ever successfully attempted to imitate the sounds of nature as he did. A captivated audience would easily get a mental picture of a strong wind clashing with sea water as it made its way to the shore. This makes What the West wind saw unique in many ways, both in composition and in content.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and contrast the records of one of Debussy 24 preludes “WEST WIND” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are however other preludes that are similar to west wind in terms of tonal composition and harmonic structure. Preludes such as The Wind in the Plain and The sounds and fragrances swirl through the evening air bear a slight semblance to the west wind but the difference is much greater. A closer examination of Debussy’s book 1 of preludes reveals the overwhelming difference the west wind has from other preludes.

The west wind is inanely violent and loud and the detailed technique requires a pianist’s full attention when playing it. The layered tonal pattern found in the west wind and also in some of the other preludes is what caused Debussy to be referred to as an impressionist. All in all, Debussy’s work is indeed truly unique and light years ahead of other pianists of his generation.

References Harpole, W. (1986) Debussy and the Javanese Gamelan. 3rd edition. London: Heinemann.

Lockspeiser, E. (1978) Debussy: His Life and Mind. 1st edition. New York: Cambridge University Press,

Muller, N. (n.d) Preludes. Piano Society Web. Available from:

Park, R. (1967) The Later Style of Claude Debussy. 1st edition. Michigan: The University of Michigan.

Roberts, P. (1996) The Piano Music of Claude Debussy. 2nd edition. Portland: Amadeus Press.

Weiss, C. (2003) Debussy’s preludes book 1 and 2. Ohio: ivory classics [E-book]. Available from:


Reducing Poverty: A Case Study on Unilever and Oxfam essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Unilever’s Strategy

Unilever’s Relationship with Oxfam

What are the Key Learning’s?

Reference List

Unilever’s Strategy Any organization, whether profit-oriented or charitable, must proactively define, design and develop its strategy or model of operation for current and future needs. A working strategy assists organizations to make credible decisions on the way they apportion their resources, pursue their objectives, and relate with the outside environment (Blazey, 2008, p. 8).

Unilever’s strategy revolves around producing products that people will identify with for profitability reasons, while working with communities on the ground to promote good health and better life under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (Crawford


Controversial Issues in Entertainment Expository Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Controversial Issues in entertainment Paper

Nature of Controversy

Mass Media Messages on the Controversy

New Technology and how it affects News and Advertising


Controversial Issues in entertainment Paper Sexual content in the media which is at times awfully explicit and insulting has been around for along period of time. It is worth mentioning that major occurrences in the world are controlled by the media. Sexual content in various media sources such as print and electronic has increased over the years and decency has become a style of the past.

Take an example of a half dressed female musician during performances. Such an individual is respected by teens as evident in several revelations that highlight the role model status attained by such musicians. The image of such a person is synonymous to the thoughts of our country’s general populace and that of people across the world.

A high percentage of such sexual content portrayed all over the media mostly affects the female population. An illustration is evident in the pressure exerted on women especially the young girls through advertisements, movies among others avenues. This is to encourage them to be attractive sexually and ultimately achieve the status of sexually activity.

The National Eating Disorder Association has conducted research on the effects of the media on women. It reports that in every four television commercials, one will send a message on attractiveness and this communicate to the viewers that one thing is attractive and another is not in a definite manner (Vivian 2009).

Nature of Controversy It has become a common thing in video games to see the characters dressed scantly, others barring breasts, cleavage while others expose their stomachs, thighs and midriffs. In advertizing, provocative images of women who are half naked or just naked is no longer an issue. A number of entities and individuals in their defense argue that these pictures grab their customers’ attention and in the process increase the volume of sales.

What most do not realize however is that by linking naked women to products, an impression that women are sexual objects is achieved. For example, a media activist Jean Kilbourne notes that bearing women’s bodies in parts gives the impression that women are not human beings but objects.

It is not everyone who views the sexual content in the media negatively. A number of researchers indicate that such sexual exposure of women can grant them the much needed liberation. An example is how Laurie Abraham of Elle magazine views the controversy. She says that one of the biggest problems with most women magazine is lying about sex.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She says that such lies keep on cultivating the idea that the sexuality of women is there to serve men. Nicole Krassas conducted a study on the playboy and cosmopolitan magazine and found that both the male and female magazines depict a woman’s sexuality to serve the purpose of satisfying men sexually therefore attracting them (Cope


Is Psychology a True Science? Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

There is reasonable doubt as to the classification of psychology as a science in the minds of the lay person. This is mostly as a result of the overly simplified and logical manner in which psychology and indeed psychologists are represented by popular media.

As such, psychology is seen to be more of a subjective human-oriented art as opposed to an objective and exact science. This paper shall set out to make a case for psychology as a science. The arguments made by people who do not accept the status of psychology as a science shall also be presented and their due merits evaluated.

Science is defined as knowledge which emanates from factual evidence. This being the case, there are certain features which are fundamental to all sciences and they make up the scientific methods. They include the collecting of quantitative data under controlled conditions, objectivity as opposed to subjectivity and an establishment of general laws and theories after experimentation. An interesting consideration is that this laws apply universally and as such, there is the element of repeatability.

Proponents of psychology as a science contend that psychology uses the stated scientific methods to study both human and non-human behaviors in various settings. Studies such as the genetic theory of IQ involve carefully controlled scientific experiments which are not only objective but are also high reliable and verifiable.

As with other scientific experiment findings, psychology results are produced and made open to the public domain for the interest of furthering science. The findings are also presented over for peer review to ensure their critical analysis. This is in line with the requirements set forth for scientific findings.

There exist theories in the psychology field which have been proven time and time again. This is a concept that is common to science whereby prediction of future events can be made by derivations obtained from experimentation.

An example is the behaviourist theory of operant conditioning which proposes that behavior is learned through reinforcement. Since this theory is objective and quantifiable one can from this theory make predictions about learning. The concept of generalization which is core to science is therefore exhibited in psychology as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand the seeming lack of objectivity in most psychological endevour is advanced as the most common argument advanced by opponents of psychology as a science. This claim is affirmed by the labeling theory of schizophrenia which proposes that schizophrenia is not caused so much by biological factors but rather, diagnosis of the disease is a result of subjective factors. This is because the social construct and reality will play a big role in the diagnosis process therefore presenting psychology as a hugely subjective art.

Science requires that there by measurable concepts meaning that the phenomena should not only be perceivable through our senses but also quantifiable as data. Psychology fails in this count since unobservable behaviour such as feelings play a pivotal role in psychology. This is contrary to the methods of science which dictate that all data must be quantifiable.

This paper set out to reinforce the notion that psychology is a science. In light of the arguments presented in this paper, it can be stated that to some extent, those who propose that psychology is not a science are right in that psychology can never be an exact science given the dynamic nature of the human subject which psychology sets out to examine.

However, most of the other attributes of psychology reinforce the claim that psychology is indeed a fully-fledged science deserving the same merits as physics or any of the other “accepted” sciences. This being the case, we can authoritatively state that psychology is indeed a true science.


Improving the Benefits Packages of an Organization Expository Essay online essay help

Introduction It is almost impossible to determine or predict future economic turmoil that is likely to affect an organization’s business activities. The whole issue is even becoming more complicated due to current changes in labor relations and working patterns, where workers know their rights, hence are continuously demanding for them. In addition, although human resource department (HRM) can make predictions on future labor demands, sometimes many inconveniences occur, hence disrupting the smooth running of an organization.

In this regard, due to these uncertainties, it is important for human resource departments to adopt measures that will ensure organizations have and attract a cohort of employees, with required skills to meet any challenges that may occur. Correct HRM practices not only ensure that organizations maintain their competitiveness, but also they help to ensure an organization has a good employee treatment rapport (Martocchio, 2007, pp. 3-7).

Improving the Benefits and Compensation Packages of Organizations For organizations to attract and have the best-qualified employees, it does not mean that they have to offer high salaries during recruitment, but rather it depends on the nature of management practices adopted by such organizations.

In addition, it takes more than good salaries for organizations to attract the most competitive and talented workers. This is to say, for an organization to ensure it maintains well-qualified employees; it has to adopt good attracting and retention measures.

These measures should not only promote achievement of organizational goals, but also good employee relationships, a prerequisite for organizational success. In addition, It is important for managers to note here that, employees’ rights are not only good working conditions or good treatment of workers, but it also includes a good compensation and benefit package that compliments their work.

This is to say, the more duties workers have, the more their compensation package should be and vice versa. In addition, it is important for an organization to give its workers additional benefits (depending on their work output), additional to the normal salary. This is because; researches in labor relations have proved that, this is one of the main attracting and motivating factors to workers, hence likelihoods of increased productivity and attraction of more qualified workers.

For example, consider a manufacturing and sales company such as Dell. Owing to the extensive nature of activities its employees are supposed to perform, there is need for its management to adopt good incentive mechanisms. This will not only ensure it maintains its good employees, but also it will give the organization a good external rapport. This good external rapport will not only promote the organizational revenues, but also will help to attract a cohort of more qualified workers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, for it to ensure it maintains such a rapport using adopted benefit schemes; HR managers should formulate strategic plans that will ensure its employees maintain a skill competitive advantage over other competitors in the electronic world.

This is possible through the HRM department offering its workers opportunities of skill development through seminars, trainings, and sharing with other employees in same manufacturing industry or experts. Dell can achieve this through formulating mechanisms that will ensure it gets rid of external obstacles as concerns performance and work output by identifying employees’ capabilities.

Although to many it may a seem a strategy that will benefit only workers, it is important to note that, skill developed via such means mean a lot when it comes to an organizations revenue multiplication. In addition, it is also important to note that, when employees have un-imitable talents and skills organizational competence and sustainability increases; hence correct management of human capital.

Another common mechanism that HR managers can use to increase this like organizations employee benefits is through encouraging teamwork. Considering the complexity sometimes associated with manufacturing of electronics, it is important for managers to encourage collaborations among employees.

This strategy will not only help to encourage skill development among employees, but will also give employees an opportunity to share, hence come up with better problem solving strategies. Developments of such strategies are important in solving disagreements, owing to the fact that technology is changing, hence a variation of innovation ideas.

It is necessary for managers of such a big organization to note that, during conflict period, an organization looses a lot of time and valuable resources, which it can use to better its operations. Hence, in addition to trainings and job enhancement opportunities, depending on the conflict resolution mechanisms adopted by this department, an organization can reduce expenditures on compensations, strikes, disruptions, and fines, hence convert such funds to employees’ benefits (Max, 2005, p.1-2).

Consideration of compensation programs is another important tool that managers in this organization (Dell) can use to ensure it remunerates its employees’ efforts correctly. Considering the nature of duties assigned to different departments, there is a variation is skill required in different fields.

We will write a custom Essay on Improving the Benefits Packages of an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example people doing assembly, require less skills as compared to employees involved in programming, owing to the fact that programming is more strenuous as compared to assembly. This to say, fairness should be a major factor to consider when deciding remuneration packages, because to larger extents it gives an organization’s values and core principles. In addition, any adopted remuneration package should not only serve current employee needs, but should also be a form of enticement on prospective employees.

Good remuneration and benefits packages are good attracting mechanisms, for they will make qualified individuals to long working for this organization. In addition to remuneration packages in form of good salaries, this department can also adopt extra appraisal mechanisms, which it can use to reward the most hardworking employees.

Examples of strategies that HR managers in this like a big organization include promotions and salary increases. The effectiveness of appraisal strategies are important tools of ensuring an organization appreciates its employees’ efforts, hence depending on its success an organization can attract more qualified personnel and employees(Obringer, 2010, pp.1-2).

Apart from normal work incentives and benefits, it is important for this department to advice an organization’s management on correct employees’ health and retirement packages. Common plans that will ensure an organization maximizes employees’ benefits and attracts employees who are more qualified include stock ownership, defined benefit retirement, thrift savings, and defined contribution (for example 401(K)) plans.

In addition to this, the human resource department can help an organization provide its employees with good health benefit and insurance programs. This will not only ensure workers remain motivated to work, but also will make them feel secure, hence a main attraction strategy for more qualified personnel (Bureau of labor statistics, 2010, p. 1).

Conclusion In conclusion, it is important for all managers to remember that, the same way they endeavor to improve an organization’s performance standards and level in a collaborative manner, adoption of a working reward and recognition system is a collaborative process.

This process too needs teamwork and collaboration among different departments of an organization, where the HRM department plays a central role of producing qualified and well-trained workers. In addition, adoption of a good incentive system is a key attraction to many prospective employees.

Reference List Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Occupational outlook handbook. 2010-11 edition: Human resources, training, and labor relations mangers and specialists. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from

Not sure if you can write a paper on Improving the Benefits Packages of an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Martocchio, J. J. (2007). Employee benefits: Primer for Human Resources Professionals. 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Max, M. (2005). Creating an attractive compensation and benefits package. All Business. Web.

Obringer, A. L. (2010). How employee compensation works. Get Stuff. Retrieved from


The Sovereignty Goodness of God Report college admissions essay help

Thesis Statement The narrator of “The Sovereignty and Goodness of God”, Mary Rowlandson is a middle aged England born woman who resides in America for a couple of decades and then settles for Lancaster for some years as well. She has a strong devotion to Christianity and strongly believes in the role played by God in shaping people’s lives.

The main outline of her writing depicts God grace over life through the enhanced safety and wellbeing and also disappointment or disapproval in form of the existing misfortunes as well as tragedy. She questions her believe and association with the society when she is a captive in the Indian disastrous attack that confronts her. Her perspective interprets that such an attack has a reason of occurrence and her narration depicts the personal aim to uncover the reason.

Rowlandson’s search for understanding is primarily based upon the Christian believes.

Considering the insight into the seventeenth century, the narrator shows the role of England Kings and the political role. The aspect of demanding leaders who meander in the illusion of entitlement thus the captivation and people’s violence. The thin line between civilization and savagery shown by the author is the force upon the journey to civilization and the twenty first century is a good indication of leadership.

Today the narrator’s initial perception of what civilization is has seen radical and permanent changes. She took civilization as that which lacks salvation as indicated in the view of Indians’ savagery as actually having a connection to nature. (Rowlandson, 21) Their eating habits such as feeding on coarse foods like the horse meat show her great concern regarding civilization. She also speculates their violent savages through their constant travels. The writing equally shows some similarities between the Indians lifestyles and settlers.

There is great interaction between them and other people and in line with Rowlandson, (17) she also finds herself enjoying some of the Indian dishes and acquires behaviour of callousness comparable to those of her subjugators. There is an overview of the initial perception of a huge distinction between good and evil, or savagery and civilization. The narrator eventually shows the wide view of showing more ambiguity and uncertainty of life.

As a believer, Rowlandson shows God’s grace and providence to shaping the world and that everything occurs for a purpose. Throughout the narration her emphasis is upon people’s believes showing the importance of accepting God’s will and aims at making sense out of the believe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everything in the narrative happens for a reason for instance; the British troops failed to defeat the Indians because they lacked the humbleness and believe strong enough for a rewarding victory. People develop a fear to face a new experience or environment. During their time with the Indians, Rowland and other captives are in a position to gain practical knowledge regarding the natural world.

Like the other believers, she is not certain over the depth into which the colonialists should forge. The attacks are a sign that perhaps the push is too far. She becomes accustomed to the lives of those who hold them captives and takes part in their awkward feeding styles but the experience creates anxiety and guilt regarding the issue of abandoning civilization.

Conclusion In her narration, Rowlandson constantly quotes the Bible for instance “the Load still showed mercy to me, and helped me; and as he wounded me with one hand, so he healed me with he other.” (19) This is a close reference to immediate situations and how to make the best out of a situation for a better situation and having a strong believe regarding God’s will as evident in today’s setting.

Works Cited Rowlandson, Mary. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God. Bedford/Saint Martin’s publishers, 2002


Mom and Pop stores have managed to escape McDonaldization Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

McDonaldization relative to Mom and pop stores


Work Cited

Introduction McDonaldization according to George Ritzer is the process by which the operational mechanisms of the McDonald fast-food chain of restaurants are being applied as the standard mode of operation not only in other businesses but also in social conduct on a global scale. Mom and pop stores on the other hand are commercial ventures that are central to a specific locality like a town or city.

These businesses are owned and run by established members of the given society and are known to have historic or native value. Such businesses include the local general store or the local drug store where the proprietors are usually personally acquitted to their common customers.

McDonaldization relative to Mom and pop stores To fully understand the extent in which mom and pop stores have deviated from McDonaldization, it is imperative to understand the underlying principles of McDonaldization. According to Ritzer, McDonaldization has four elements of operation and they are efficiency, calculability, predictability and the replacement of human with nonhuman technology.

The application of these elements has notably been different in mom and pop stores via-a-vies McDonaldization. According to Ritzer, efficiency involves the optimization of standard modes of operation to arrive at a much greater speed to the required end of a process. McDonaldization has accomplished this by reorganization of due process, simplifying goods and services and allowing the customer to perform various tasks rather than using paid employees (Ritzer 58).

However, the mom and pop stores insist on personalized service thus dependant on service staff. A notable indicator to the lack of McDonaldization in these stores is the fact that mom and pop stores still have customer attendants and service personnel who endeavor to serve their customers rather than allow customers to serve themselves (Ritzer 61). Such services as catering and after sale services are now exclusive to mom and pop stores consequently extricating them from McDonaldization.

Calculability is the quantification of input and output which has been achieved through the use of bureaucracy, where various hierarchical levels perform specific limited tasks in aid of the greater process. It is worth noting that bureaucracy is entirely superfluous in terms of its application in mom and pop stores (Ritzer 78).

There is no apparent need for bureaucracy in the local general store for they thrive on effective service at minimal cost. As a result, one attendant is capable of performing a multiplicity of tasks while serving two or three people at the same time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McDonaldization has ensured that predictability is sustained by providing structural systemization and veto points through which customers must go through to get to the final product. For example there are security checks at the gate to man cars, metal detectors at the doors, a specific direction to take to get to the product and finally a line for different payment options.

Mom and pop stores on the other hand do not rely on sequential impediments to provide goods or services (Ritzer 99-100). Customers are accustomed to walking in and procuring the products they need, pay for them and leave the premises, hence these stores have deviated from McDonaldization.

McDonaldization has especially been prominent in the application of mechanical and electronic services thus avoiding human labor (Ritzer 120). Bank tellers have been replaced by ATM machines, doormen have been replaced by keycards and security personnel have been replaced by CCTV cameras, among others.

The prominent absence of advanced technology replacing human labor in mom and pop stores is an indication of their divergence from McDonaldization (Ritzer 122). These stores chiefly depend on human labor to provide effective and personalized service and the most they can employ in terms of technology is a security camera and the cash registry.

Conclusion It is evident that mom and pop stores have in their true essence deviating principles from those of McDonaldization. It is also clear that mom and pop stores heavily rely on simplicity of process and human labor to provide goods and services. It is therefore appropriate to perceive that whereas McDonaldization is highly profit driven, mom and pop stores are more product-oriented thus the great divergence from McDonaldization.

Work Cited Ritzer George. The McDonaldization of Society. Web.


“Shame” By Dick Gregory Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help

Shame is defined as an intense and debilitating feeling of embarrassment and it can play a vital role in the development of the human conscience. The feeling can be associated with honor and pride, thereby being an important component in shaping of a person’s identity.

However, shame is a double edged sword and possesses the ability to have an adverse or traumatic effect on one’s emotional well being. The essay “Shame” by Dick Gregory presents a satirical commentary of the role that shame plays in shaping the lives of the people. He illustrates through his childhood experiences what shame causes as a result of poverty and social differences. Gregory provides a glimpse of the misery by depicting his poignant experiences as a child in a community riddled with poverty, inequality and discrimination.

Dick Gregory begins the essay on an ironic note while depicting his first feeling of shame. Richard, the narrator, encountered the first feelings of shame and hatred at school. As a child, Richard is subjected to the defective nature of the educational institution.

The vice of hatred is introduced to the innocent child’s life not by his experiences in the outside world but rather by the experiences that happen at school. He asserts, “I never learned hate at home, or shame. I had to go to school for that” (583). Dick Gregory highlights a school system where children learn how to hate and are subjected to shame and humiliation which is detrimental to their growth and well being.

As a child, Richard’s view of the world is both innocent and frank and is not colored by aspects of social injustices prevalent at the time. When talking about his only pair of clothes, Richard declares, “I’d put them on, wet or dry, because they were the only clothes I had” (583).

He acknowledges these facts without delving into the evils of a society that allows a child to face such misery. Despite the daunting circumstances, Richard still remains ambitious and determined that his hard efforts will pay off. He makes great efforts to impress his beloved classmate, Helene Tucker, even though his social and economic level makes this especially hard.

Richard plans to shine in front of Helene when he has prepared three dollars in dimes and quarters to top her pledge as to buy his legitimacy and a “passport” for acceptance. Richard is ready to go to great ends to achieve his goals, but his hope is extinguished when the teacher disgraces him in class by pointing out his poverty and his lack of a father. She makes the boy lose hope of ever making an impression on Helene which causes him to feel a great shame for the first time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theme of social inequality is addressed in “Shame”. Even the eleven year old Richard is aware of this, as is evident in his relationship with Helene. He states, “if I knew my place and didn’t come too close, she’d wink at me and say hello”(583). He has hopes of building a future relationship with her and demonstrates his love and desire to protect her in different ways. Richard envisions the future with Helen and tries to impress her mother and aunts by shoveling snow off her path.

Richard contends, “sometimes I’d follow her all the way home, and shovel the snow off her walk and try to make friends with her Momma and her aunts” (585). On the other hand, one may interpret this as a metaphor for the way in which the people in the lower caste of the society are obligated to serve those of a higher status. Richard expresses his need to protect Helene and his desire to be her knight by dropping money on her porch.

Despite the fact that Helene is the one who is higher up on the social ladder and therefore has more money than Richard, who works hard for the little money he obtains, he secretly “[drops] money on her stoop late at night” (585). This is Gregory’s metaphor for the manner in which the poorer members for the society ironically end up giving their hard earned money to the richer ones despite the fact that they are the ones who are more in need of it.

In the class context, Richard is designated as a troublemaker. Gregory’s description of Richard’s seat as “the idiot’s seat”(585) highlights the fact that the teacher is not interested in trying to determine Richard’s problems but rather appears content with labeling him “an idiot” and “a troublemaker” (585) therefore absolving herself of the need to offer him any help.

Richard states that all he needs is a little attention and all the mischief he involves himself in is to get that attention. However, instead of being given attention, he is discriminated against and disgraced by being isolated in the “idiot’s” seat, where he encounters intraracial discrimination present in the classroom.

Gregory also addresses the themes of poverty and discrimination in “Shame”. Even though Richard is relatively ignorant of the vast social distance that exists between him and others in the society before the incident at school, he is aware of the poverty gap that exists. The fact that he has to do odd jobs such as shinning shoes in the tavern for money accentuates the fact that he lives in dire poverty. His family relies on welfare and wears old clothes handed down by the white people who are relatively rich.

He wishes that “the white folks’ shirt fit [him] better” (583). Describing his lack of concentration in school, Richard says that “[he] was pregnant with hunger” (584). Gregory presents a metaphorical meaning of being pregnant, but in Richard’s case his bulge his apparent because of emptiness and air in his stomach. This image alludes to the fact that he is burdened by hunger as a result of the poverty that is experienced by his family.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Shame” By Dick Gregory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is this poverty that causes the ultimate shame that Richard is subjected to. Due to his poverty, Richard has to rely on aid which is from charities and the government. The teacher forcefully brings this fact to the attention of the class when she reminds Richard that “if your daddy can give fifteen dollars you have no business being on relief” (583).

Her attack greatly shames Richard in front of his classmates, and from that point onwards, he becomes acutely aware of the differences between “his kind” and the rich people. Issues which remained inconsequential to that point, such as wearing the coat given by the welfare or going to the Worthy Boys Annual Christmas Dinner, suddenly began viewed by Richard as extremely shameful.

The theme of change is addressed by Dick Gregory when he illustrates an encounter between Richard and an old “wino” in a restaurant. The old wino is unable to pay for his meal which prompts the owner of the store to beat him badly. Richard intervenes only after the damage has already been done.

The old man refuses Richard’s help stating “you don’t have to pay for it now. I just finished paying for it” (586). Richard is greatly affected as he is reminded of the fact that he could have assisted the man earlier on when his help would have made a bigger difference.

This incident represents a society where aid is only offered when the suffering of the people has already taken place, thereby diminishing the benefit of the aid. This episode is similar to the episode of shame and humiliation Richard experiences in the class, however, Richard’s decision to help wino can be interpreted as a subconscious decision to feel important and in control over the situation. Again, he experiences shame, but this time due to his own conscience.

“Shame” describes painful experiences in the childhood of Dick Gregory which results in him having a crippling sense of shame. Gregory addresses the themes of racial divisions, poverty and social inequality. The effective progression of the essay develops from the event that shamed Richard in class to an encounter with an old wino that changes his future outlook on life.

The irony of first sentence connects with the irony of the last sentence when Gregory declares, “I was pretty sick about that. I waited too long to help another man” (586). Through structure and metaphor, “Shame” expresses the injustices that were prevalent in the society and highlights how these events can scar every member of the society, the children in particular.

Presenting this enduring emotion in a variety of contexts, Gregory successfully conveys his message concerning social and individual inhumanity. The essay portrays the damage that poverty and discrimination inflicts on Richard’s life. It is poverty that causes shame to Richard and further on results in the old wino paying the price of blood for a measly meal.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Shame” By Dick Gregory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Congressman Parker Griffith: A Person to Trust Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Parker Griffith is a 67-year-old American politician, who raised from a radiation oncologist to one of the most famous Republican members of the United States House of Representatives. He is a retried physician, a small business owner, and an ordinary person, who wants to achieve success and recognition by means of good and thoughtful actions.

Since 2009, he stands for Alabama’s 5th congressional district that involves such counties like Jackson, Madison, Morgan, Limestone, Lawrence, Lauderdale, and Colbert (Feldman, 71). The point is that he was chosen as the district’s representative from the Democratic Party; but on December 22, 2009, Parker Griffith announced that he switched parties because of considerable disagreements with Blue Dog Coalition.

There is a great variety of issues, Parker Griffith stands for and tries to improve. The ideas of small business, questions of immigration, health care problems, and education challenges become the main points of Parker Griffith’s work. He admits that our current educational system requires considerable and fast actions in order to take the leading positions on a global scale.

“I believe the best way to ensure our children are prepared for school and ready to learn is to expand our early childhood education programs to include pre-kindergarten classes” (Griffith, Education). Parker Griffith also supports the ideas to legalize immigration because illegal legislation leads to affecting our health care system, decreasing local economies, and hurting the communities we live in. In general, Griffith’s political positions are regarded as conservative ones.

He cannot support same-sex marriages, and this very issue may antagonize certain groups of people and attract the attention of people with the same preferences. It is not easy to be right in all questions and please all citizens. Parker Griffith is one of those congressmen, who comprehend this truth and tries to weight as many pros and cons of this life as possible to achieve the best results of his campaigns and create a prosperous and successful state.

Sometimes, it is very hard to trust one person and believe that all his/her words are true. In case with Parker Griffith, people may start doubting concerning his unexpected switching of parties and changing own principles. It is useless to spend much time to clear up the reasons of his actions. It is better to concentrate on his actions, his words, and his intentions in order to realize that this is a person, who cares about his native country and about its citizens.

He is not afraid to say that the representatives of the Democratic Party start taking the steps that negatively influence the development of the country. Bills and policies offered by this organization are not good enough to be an integral part of the north Alabama current life. His personal experience and belonging to different spheres of life make him closer to his people and their problems, demands, and wishes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a person starts its political career, he/she tries to take into consideration the ideas and needs of people. However, with time, all his/her promises are forgotten. Parker Griffith does not like to give empty promises. He prefers to plan not much but use all the efforts to achieve success and help people. Before a person gives his/her own vote, it is necessary to consider this information about Parker Griffith and makes the right decision.

It is necessary to admit that Parker Griffith is a retired oncologist; this is why all his attempts to improve the health care system have considerable grounds and reasons. This person is really close to the problems and challenges the health care system faces. He as no one else knows what should be done and how it should be done.

He calls Congress for actions to improve the system because the life of American people depends considerably on the correctness of their decisions. Being a member of the Democratic Party and a professional oncologist, Griffith opposes Obama’s health care reforms arguing that “it costs too much, imposes a new tax and fines businesses that don’t provide insurance to employees.” (Soraghan and Gleeson, The Hill).

Of course, a reform may help to improve this life, save the lives of many people, provide poor people with one more chance to get proper treatment. People may be impressed by such ideas and phrases and be eager to support everything to get some benefits. However, there are also people, who realize that it is impossible to change one sphere of life considerably and not to affect the development of other spheres.

Parker Griffith is also known as a small business owner, and his positions in small business allow him to evaluate the situation and clear up the needs of other small business owners (Griffith, Small Business). Taking into account current state of affairs and people’s intentions to improve the health care system, Parker Griffith proclaims that this bill will create more negative outcomes for both patients and doctors. What people know today is not enough to make decisions and improve future.

In spite of the fact that he left Democrats, who did not support the same reform, he continues to develop his opposing ideas from the Republican point of view and proving that this Obama’s reform will be nothing but one more threat for nation. He understands that many people cannot support his position. However, it is always easy to support the President and find people of the same position.

His opposition to Obama’s bill is one more proof that his intentions are pure nationalistic; he cares about our future. Parker Griffith will never betray his people just in order to earn more or get more benefits. If it helps, he opposes the President but proves that even such people are able to make mistakes and that citizens’ wellbeing is more crucial nowadays.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Congressman Parker Griffith: A Person to Trust specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parker Griffith even switched a party because he could not accept his collaborators’ wrong intentions. He proclaimed that “our nation is at a crossroads and I can no longer align myself with a party that continues to pursue legislation that is bad for our country, hurts our economy, and drives us further and further into debt” (Pergram,

His actions before Christmas made many Democrats take the opposing side and do everything possible to mislead all voters, who wanted to accept Parker Griffith. The representatives of the Democratic Party pointed out that he cannot be a real Democrat if he is not able to accept the reality and sacrifice something to achieve more.

If we talk about the endorsements of this congressman, we should first admit the fact that he is still a representative of the Fifth congressional district of Alabama. It means that many people trust him, accept his ideas, and support.

Trust of other people, who know this person and benefit from his actions, should become the evidence number one to pay more attention to his activities and plans. Those people, who want to achieve prosperity and success in their lives, have to be more attentive with their votes and pick out a person, who will take care about them, a person, like Parker Griffith.

Works Cited Feldman, Glenn. The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restrictions in Alabama. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press.

Griffith, Parker. Education. Congressman Parker Griffith Representing the Fifth District of Alabama. Web.

Griffith, Parker. Small Business. Congressman Parker Griffith Representing the Fifth District of Alabama. Web.

Pergram, Chad. “Freshman Alabama Congressman Switches Parties to Join GOP.” Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Congressman Parker Griffith: A Person to Trust by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Soraghan, Mike and Gleeson, Michael. “Already, 23 Dems Have Said They Will Vote ‘No’ on Healthcare Reform”. Web.


SWOT/PEST (LE) Analysis on Cadburys PLC Report college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Cadbury is the brand of a reputable confectionary company with a diverse assortment of chocolates, gum and candy. The company’s kernel stretches back to 1824 when the company’s pioneer, John Cadbury opened a chocolate shop in Birmingham (Watson 6). Currently, the company is dominant in the chocolate business and boasts an extended global presence and influence. On May 7, 2008, the American beverage businesses sector and the confectionary sector completed their separation and Cadbury became Cadbury PLC.

SWOT Analysis Of Cadbury Plc SWOT analysis is a calculative strategic technique used in organizational planning to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a business project or the business as a whole. SWOT analysis entails the identification of targets of a project or a business venture.

Once identified, the process in achieving the targets is examined together with the interior and peripheral influences that affect the process leading to favorable or unfavorable achievement of the target. In analyzing Cadbury PLC, it is imperative to study the organization’s performance against a similar scale to that of the competition (Leikin 3). The competitors in this case are other confectionary companies like Nestle which have over the years challenged Cadbury PLC.

Strengths Of Cadbury Plc

The first strength Cadbury PLC has is the advantage of numbers considering the organization has business units all over the world. The units are present in Britain, Ireland, Middle East, Africa, north and South America, Europe, Asia and the pacific (King 1). All the units have commercial inclinations as their principle driving force, but the units also do have supply chain and science and technology functions. The interior organization of Cadbury PLC creates room for four corporate functions in all the units.

The functions are human resource


Gender Distinction in the Candas and Zimmerman’s Article “Doing Gender” Report (Assessment) essay help

In the article “Doing Gender”, Candas and Zimmerman emphasize the point that gender is not a once achieved and fixed state but rather a process of creating a gender image. Contradicting the traditional views on gender as an achievement, the researchers propose a vision of gender as a ‘display’ in a series of interaction between multiple participants (Candas and Zimmerman 127). To demonstrate the essence of gender, Candas and Zimmerman employ the notions of sex and sex categories.

The latter serve as a framework for constructing one’s conduct in accordance with the normative attitudes and activities proper to a certain sex category (Candas and Zimmerman 127). The researchers stress the importance of context and circumstances for rendering one’s behavior in a certain way, as well as point out the necessity for the ongoing process of ‘doing gender’ under the constant attention and gender assessment of the surrounding society (Candas and Zimmerman 136–137).

Having demonstrated gender as a process, the authors engage with the issue of gender being a powerful instrument of social influence. As it appears, the process of doing gender comprises an indispensable basis of social organization (Candas and Zimmerman 146). When men assume masculine roles and stand on positions of power, and women comply with feminine roles of deference, hierarchical arrangements are easier to legitimate and explain by the supposedly ‘natural’ order of things (Candas and Zimmerman 146).

At a higher level of organization, gender standards assist in creating powerful institutional arrangements, and therefore makes redefining or repudiating gender an act of not only individual change but of a social and ideological revolution (Candas and Zimmerman 147).

The importance of gender standards for social organization cannot be overestimated. Although due to the efforts of feminists and other human rights activists, the borderline between sexes is becoming more obscure, modern society is still characterized by and arranged according to established gender ideals. Men are physically stronger, therefore they are assigned more complex physical jobs; women are more graceful and fragile, which results in their vision as ‘the fair sex’ to be protected and cared for.

Denouncing the established order of things would mean nothing less than going against the human physical nature with men being the main breadwinners and women being the keepers of the family hearth and the nurturer of the offspring. Then the mere basis of society and one of the main social values — the family — would be questioned and resigned as an untenable notion.

In his comprehensive research on the nature of relation between sex and gender, James Messerschmidt employs a case study investigating the perception of sex and gender, and arrives to the conclusion that “social interaction relies on the inseparability of sex appearance and gender behavior” (87). Supporting this argument are two examples of teenagers whose peers perceived their sexual appearance as incongruent with the gender behavior they had assumed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, in different social contexts and environments this incongruence was taken differently. In one case, the boy’s family members perceived his behavior as totally masculine, while his schoolmates viewed his sexual appearance as incongruous with the male stereotype. In the other case, the girl’s family and classmates rejected her male gender behavior since it was contradicting her natural female sex appearance.

Such unacceptance by society resulted in assuming an aggressive attitude and led Messerschmidt to the idea that “an imbalance in sex appearance and gender behavior may motivate assaultive violence” (87). Indeed, the boy — who was feeling masculine enough but unaccepted by his peers as a male — created his own society of younger teenagers that would accept him as a strong masculine leader.

The girl — who was feeling more attracted by male standards, witnessing the failure of her mother to comply with the accepted female stereotype — engaged into male-type behavior at school and in the street in order to assert her consistency as a person. But while the boy succeeded in bringing his sex appearance and gender behavior to conformity by means of street violence, the girl could not reach that balance due to her natural feminine exterior, which made her the more violent and aggressive.

The idea of inseparability of gender and sex perception in modern society appears to be more than reasonable. If sex is considered a purely biological quality, it still does not create a man or a woman alone: certain type of gender behavior is necessary for the person to be fully accepted as a representative of either masculinity or femininity. On the other hand, pure gender behavior without proper sex appearance does not convince the society of considering a person male or female.

A human with female appearance and male behavior, and vice versa, would be considered at most a transitional phenomenon but not a full-fledged masculine or feminine being. Depending on the congruence or misalignment between the sex appearance and gender behavior, one is viewed either as a gender conforming or a gender deviant personality within certain social environment. Therefore, in order to harmonize one’s social relations, it is vital to maintain the right balance between one’s appearance and behavior.

Works Cited Messerschmidt, James W. “Goodbye to the Sex–Gender Distinction, Hello to Embodied Gender: On Masculinities, Bodies, and Violence.” Sex, Gender, and Sexuality: The New Basics. Eds. Abby L. Ferber, Kimberly Holcomb and Tre Wentling. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008. 71–88. Print.

West, Candas, and Don H. Zimmerman. “Doing Gender.” Gender and Society 1.2 (1987): 125–151. Print.

We will write a custom Assessment on Gender Distinction in the Candas and Zimmerman’s Article “Doing Gender” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Business continuity planning (BCP) Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Today, recovering a business from a disaster is a common phenomenon. For many years, it has been a long and risky procedure for the overall business practice unless one used the business continuity arrangements to get extra information for carrying on the disaster recovery process. According to Helies (150), sections of business continuity plan have basis upon exposure, economical ability and availability of resources.

The new trend most companies are adopting entails outsourcing the disaster recovery teams. This is an optimal procedure but economically impossible. It is important for a business to have some backup procedures of storing information and other important assets. This is the reason businesses are considering the standard procedure of incorporating the continuity plans or disaster recovery plans as necessary tools for backing-up management procedures and allowing business policies, which authorize a firms’ compliance.

Effective business continuity plan entails management sponsorship and, compliance with polices and procedures. The process is mainly dependent of corporate senior management in a firm. The complexity of businesses as highlighted by the human errors involves compliance measures to determine the critical need for the firm and the vulnerability to malfunctions, which the business services are susceptible Helies (150).

Business continuity plan focuses upon impact and risk analysis of a business. The planner must identify the mission critical to the business services in the aim of recovering them in the event of failure. This means that continuity planning in business is a direct contribution to business’s disaster recovery plan. The business continuity plan therefore requires support from all the firm’s departments where incorporation of policies occurs as part of standard operating procedures, to measure the competencies of these functional areas.

Components of the BCP Business Continuity Planning (BCP) output is an impetus for implementation of disaster recovery plans therefore the main inputs for the business planning process entails the human resources, the ICT and networking infrastructure, physical components such as furniture and, the backup systems. The planning procedure is a life-cycle process of identifying, defining, implementing, testing, maintaining and, revalidating the critical business processes and technological components of the business infrastructure.

The planning process can take various dimensions but eventually have to identify all the operational attributes of a critical business service. To include the components the procedure entails identification of the key business services, documentation of service inter-dependencies, specification of the recovery plan, implementation of solutions, testing and validation, routine maintenance and, eventually evolution change management Haag and Cummings (24).

Planning involves analysis of potential threats in a business. The response depends on nature and impact of the disaster. Some catastrophic threats such as floods cause physical damages to the business infrastructure. Pandemics such as communicable diseases affect human resources while leaving the infrastructure intact.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cyber terror attacks may affect the business network without causing physical damages or affecting the human resource. A bomb attack can cause damages to all the business attributes. Lastly, power breakdown renders the equipments inoperative, and this is not a lasting damage. In line with Haag and Cummings (27), the business continuity plan therefore must cover all these contingencies according to the type through analysis of the impact.

Analysis in the business continuity planning process calls for the assessment of treats or occurrences at various levels. The plan should describe the areas of responsibility during a crisis management situation for the management. During crisis, it is not the time to indicate the responsibilities or assign duties.

Each key personnel should be aware of their duties and performance requirements without squabbling about the decision-making. It is important to have plans that include alternative plans to cover those key persons who may be absent. Personnel’s training is also a key factor for disaster analysis, preparedness, incident administration and, recovery.

The implementation process involves activities required for installation, configuration and readiness of recovery solution for direct by-products Haag and Cummings (31).This include the procedure of vetting necessary processes and solutions to ensure the firm is in a position of recovering the critical business missions and services, within a specified recovery time-frame, recovery objective and, within associable costs.

Testing, validation and maintenance are tasks associated with disaster recovery. Testing involves measuring of services to ensure readiness and full functionality. Incorporation of these activities ensures that the business change administration processes remains acquiescent to the business continuity planning procedures.

Routine maintenance involves validation of compliance with respect to the planning process and all the update information or activities involved. The system life cycle requires continuous management, review, and, updating with all the existing and newly revealed services for conclusive plan. This means that measurement of the tests results ensure full compliance and readiness of services for full disaster recovery.

Routine maintenance is equally important since it involves incorporation of manufacturer’s recommendations (Helies, 154). It also entails remediation of software defects, incorporating changes involving operations and, enhancement of other proprietary applications.

We will write a custom Essay on Business continuity planning (BCP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Routine maintenance ensures the business continuity plan remains up to date on activities that are necessary in keeping the disaster recovery solutions current and operational at all times. It is important for the Business Continuity Planning process to include a recovery phase for reinstating the operations through damages assessment, recovery cost estimation, compensations and, monitoring the recovery progress.

Works Cited Haag, Stephen,


An analysis of the 2005 Al-Qaeda letter from Abu Muhammad to Abu Musab Essay college essay help near me

Various variables must be considered when analyzing and laying out strategies for dealing with enemies. These variables of the operational environment include Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure and Information (PMESII).

Additionally two other variables i.e. Physical environment and Time (PT) have been added to the Army doctrine. In analyzing the letter from Abu Muhammad to Abu Musab, the way in which these variables present is of crucial importance if any meaningful strategies are to be designed and implemented.

Political Variable

From the letter, it is clear that there are administrative ranks within Al-Qaeda under the general leadership of Bin Laden. Being second in command in the global Al-Qaeda leadership, it is Abu Muhammad’s responsibility to offer guidance to regional leaders and this has clearly presented in this letter.

He details a plan for getting the American forces out of Iraq in order to establish a Muslim led administration, “The second stage: Establish an Islamic authority or amirate…over as much territory as you can to spread its power in Iraq” (2005).

The said strategy is targeted at ensuring political dominance by Al-Qaeda both in Iraq and its neighboring countries. He also goes ahead to detail the strategy for installing the government and explains that once the Americans are sent out of Iraq, the governing authority will be elected by the people; an aspect that has a political bearing. Abu Muhammad requests Abu Musab to give him details regarding the political situation in Iraq (2005). This shows that Al Qaeda is interested in political supremacy more than anything else.

Information Variable

In the introductory part of the letter, Abu Muhammad reveals that he had sent a speech on tape for broadcast to the Al-Jazeera network. He inquires if the entire message was broadcast and promises to provide details of the speech in this particular letter. From this introductory part as

well, it is evident that the Al-Qaeda’s most convenient channel of communication is the letter preferably sent through various publications. It is also clear that any letters sent to the leader, Osama Bin Laden,

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Abu Muhammad-Abu Musab 3

either pass through the hands of junior officials or Bin Laden reads them first and then communicates the message to his aides, “we received your last published message sent to brother Usama Bin Laden.” (Abu Muhammad, 2005). Later on in the letter, Abu Muhammad reveals that the greatest challenge that Al Qaeda faces is in the media. He claims that they are in a battle to win the hearts of the people since he perceives the support of the masses as the key driving force in their mission (Abu Muhammad, 2005).

Military Variable

The Al-Qaeda’s intended method of getting the American Forces out of Iraq involves usage of military force. In the letter, Abu Muhammad suggests that in order to get to their goal of forming an Islamic government, they have to start fieldwork immediately “alongside the combat and war.” (2005) He proceeds to propose a combination of military action and political forces in the raid against American forces and advices Abu Musab to ensure that enough support is received from the masses.

Abu Muhammad credits the Jihad as a very successful method of getting to their goal of dominating the Middle East. Even without him categorically stating this, his implied message by virtue of the definition of a Jihad is the use of military attack on forces that don’t share Al-Qaeda’s faith. The proposition that the Mujaheeden should not just stop at chasing away the Americans and “lay down their weapons” (Abu Muhammad, 2005) illustrates the kind of military force that the Alqaeda intends to use in its mission.

Conclusion In order for the American forces to succeed in keeping the warring zones under check it is imperative that the various variables of the operational environment be given consideration while analyzing messages intercepted between the enemies’s various ranks.

Care should be taken to ensure that all seemingly minute details are properly included in all response decisions against an enemy attack. This is even more crucial when the enemy forces have centers of authority scattered all over the world. It is only by understanding the enemy’s line of thought that proper strategies can be crafted to ensure victory.

Reference Muhammad, A. (June 18 2005). Personal communication. Abu Musab, 1-10.


The Relevance of Clausewitz’s Fog and Friction in a Digital Age Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Fog and Friction

Too Much Information

Expanded battlefield, More with Less

Managing Technology

Asymmetric Warfare




Fog and Friction Since time immemorial, when humans started waging war on each other, the ability to reduce and understand the unknowns of warfare has determined the victor in most cases. These unknowns of war, described by Karl von Clausewitz as the fog and friction of war[1], have ever been present in warfare. Until recently, there was little in a commander’s ability to reduce the unknowns on the battlefield.

However, with the development of the digital age and improved command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) and common operating picture (COP), the ability of the commander staff to have real time visualization of every aspect of the battlefield, including the enemy, is now at large. Clausewitz gives the following definition of friction in his book On War:

Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction.[2]

It continues to illustrate that this friction is all over with opportunity, resulting in effects whose determination may not be possible since they are caused by chance. Simply, “Friction is . the force that makes the apparently easy so difficult.”[3]

It is the unknown of war, enemies and friends to which commanders must adapt, overcome, or alleviate. Clausewitz, who is considered an early strategist in the military and the first to offers description of warfare friction points out that it takes place when several small accidents make a combination to bring down the performance levels in such a way that ending down lower than intended is what one gets.”[4]

There are many examples throughout history that depict warfare. For example, an historical account of air operations during Desert Storm showed that:

Aircrews had to cope with equipment malfunctions, inadequate mission-planning materials, lapses in intelligence on both targets and enemy defenses, coordination problems between strike and support aircraft, target and time-on-target (TOT) changes after takeoff, unanticipated changes in prewar tactics, adverse weather, the traditional lack of timely bomb damage assessment (BDA), and, in many wings, minimal understanding of what higher headquarters was trying to accomplish from one day to the next.[5]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Watts asserts that “frictional impediments experienced by [Coalition Forces] were not appreciably different in scope or magnitude than they were for the Germans during their lightning conquest of France and the Low Countries in May 1940.”[6]

Too Much Information On the battlefield, commanders’ crave for information is always intensive. Whether it is about the enemy or friendly units, they want it badly. In the digital age, like never before in history, commanders will have near uninterrupted real-time pictures of conditions on the battlefield.

However, a new kind of friction may replace the old, where information saturation will confuse commanders and staff. A good, recent illustration is during the battle for Fallujah in late 2004 when army and Marine units found it difficult to communicate as a result of multiple communications and COP systems employed by both services in support of the battle.[7]

Expanded battlefield, More with Less One of the major accomplishments of technology in warfare is its ability to reduce the vulnerability of soldiers on the battlefield. Whether it is improved body armor, intelligent munitions, or analytical operating systems, all serve to quickly destroy the enemy and protect soldiers.

Ultimately, this results in fewer soldiers and the resulting misconception is that a few can always do more .This phenomenon occurred in 2002, when, according to Major Shelly Walker, force caps in the invasion of Afghanistan caused friction.[8] This forced unresponsive, ad-hoc forces to engage Al-Qaeda during Operation Anaconda.

Managing Technology Information technology will increase the scope of the battlefield, causing an expansion of fog and friction on future battlefields. However, the addition of information will bring more systems for young leaders to master. This increases the responsibility to focus on automated systems. In their 2001 Military Review article, Jacob Kipp and LTC (ret) Lester Grau describe the following scenario:

The platoon leader . will soon have a portable computer to tell him what his situation really is. The platoon leader serves the technology by constantly monitoring and responding to his radio and inputting data into his computer, causing a clear struggle between controlling his platoon and serving technology’s demands. Both require his attention, but neither receives it fully.[9]

We will write a custom Essay on The Relevance of Clausewitz’s Fog and Friction in a Digital Age specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is so much information, where the resultant tendency will be the replacement of the gap in the amount of what a commander can absorb and what he can decide upon with artificial technology. The only limitation in this is the omission of thinking, adapting enemies, constantly trying to “deceive the commander.”[10]

Asymmetric Warfare In 2006, it was made clear in the National Strategy for counteracting Terrorism that by all means, America was indeed at war with an ideologically radical movement of terrorists purely motivated by passions of killings and hatred.”[11] This enemy seldom uses conventional tactics, largely moving within civilian populace. Based on this information per se, friction would play a role on the asymmetric battlefield.

However, the friction that Clausewitz envisaged was from his view of warfare developed on the Napoleonic battlefields of Europe. Nevertheless, Clausewitz’s theory stands the test of time, in an age where a new enemy exists in addition to a complex asymmetrical warfare packed with fog and friction.

Conclusion For a period of 175 years, Clausewitz’s theory on the fog and friction of war has been applicable. Currently, in what can be easily interpreted as total shift from the theory, some scholars in this digital age believe the theory is obsolete because of real time COP and extensive C4ISR capabilities.

The theory though will find some unavoidable applications on present and future battlefields. With new technology, commanders and staff will reach a point of information saturation, where the huge amount of information produces friction due to enemy adaptability and reduction of information systems usage. Eventually, asymmetric warfare will enhance the fog and friction. Therefore in the digital age, with a view of the future battlefield, Clausewitz’s theory on the fog and friction of warfare remains relevant, not obsolete.

References Bush, G.W.(2006) National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Washington D.C: Government Printing Office, 2006.

Clausewitz, C. V.(1984). On War. Edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Kipp, J. W., Lsester W. G.(2001). The Fog and Friction of Technology. Military Review, September-October 2001: 88-97.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relevance of Clausewitz’s Fog and Friction in a Digital Age by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Matthews, M. M(2004). Operation Al Fajr: A Study in Arm and Marine Corps Joint Operations. Occasional Paper, Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2004.

Walker, S.(2003).Fog, Friction, and Force Caps. monograph, Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, 2003.

Watts, B. D.(1996).Clausewitzian Friction and Future Warfare. McNair Paper 52.Washington D.C: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1996.

Footnotes Carl Von Clausewitz, C. On War. Ed. by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton: University Press, 1984): 119.


Ibid, 121.

Ibid, 119.

Ibid, 38.

Ibid, 2.

Matt M. Matthews, Operation Al Fajr: A Study in Arm and Marine Corps Joint Operations. Occasional Paper, (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute), 79.

Shelly Walker, Fog, Friction, and Force Caps. Monograph, (Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, 2003), 1.

Jacob W. Kipp and Lester W. Grau. “The Fog and Friction of Technology,” Military Review, (September-October 2001), 89.


George W. Bush, National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, September 2006), 1.


Canada’s SME’s can do better Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Canadian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are today among the most dynamic and optimistic entrepreneurs globally, according to common global small businesses study with reference to confidence, most SMEs in Canada expect future expansion of their trade thus increase in economic growth.

The global competitions today seem to revolve about the Latin Americans, Turkey South East Asia, Middle East and, Canada. The resent financial turmoil in Europe might be the root cause of pessimism for trade in France, UK and U.S SMEs. According to surveys, the Canadian SMEs are probably the most likely entrepreneurs to amplification of capital expenditure and staff performance in their export strategies.

Their aim is expanding internationally. Contemporary surveys equally indicate that the expansion has grown from 13% in 2009 to current 39%. The aim of these Canadian SMEs is to increase sales and revenue particularly in the foreign markets particularly the U.S., Europe, U.K., Latin America while others plan to venture to the competitors markets mainly Asia, China, Japan, Taiwan and other South Asian markets.

The major barriers to the entry of Canadian SMEs businesses into the international domain are fluctuation of the foreign currency, high interest rates and lack of knowledge regarding the barriers of entry to a country. In line with the World Economic Forums, on the issue concerning Network Readiness Index (NRI), comparing the degree of preparation between Canada and other countries, Canada in lower than the U.S., Singapore, Denmark and Sweden due to the factors stated above.

The statistics are however changing at an alarming rate because investigation shows that the Canadian SMEs are ready to embrace technology as the most powerful coercer of globalization. According to (Power, 72), there is urgent need for the SMEs to exploit Information and Communication technological advancements for the well-being of the economy.

The war on terror has also been a negative impact over technology because of the constraints placed at the boarder points thus affecting the dealings in the foreign exchange. The United States government has for instance emphasized the protection requirements thus an obstruction to the already well-established productivity from the exports such as the exports from Canada.

The SMEs no-longer depend on the size and reputation of the country and this seem to be a strong driving force to their progressive output. They do not depend on the homogeneity of the markets, predictable human behaviours and mass marketing as important success factors. Market fragmentation and complexity calls for SMEs to advance their strategies, such as easing their procedure and embrace current marketing styles like the internet technology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They work in accordance with the former General Electric CEO utterances garnering for people to view the world dynamically as it is, other than as per the thought of how it or should be. As the backbone of the economy in Canada, the SMEs can survive the hindrances of advancement and highly improve its competitiveness through ICT change.

The current statistics indicates that over 70% of the U.S. products and services origination from the Canadians’ SMEs is a good indication of ability to do better. They have the chance to fight competitors and do better as international entrepreneurs. There is need to focus upon “the long-term goals other than the short-term bottom-line considerations.” (Power, 187) Most of the international trading variables are manageable.

For better advancement, the SMEs need to focus upon other market niche other than the U.S. The proactive geographical advancement means that there will be in a position competing within the global markets as opposed to the local markets dependency, especially when the only market niche seems to fail. Failure to exploit the already visible markets means that the competitors especially China and India SMEs will overwhelm them and sweep clean the consumer networks.

The current new and emerging technologies are enhancing the trade processing speeds and providing smarter or easier options that enables a business to overtake the competitions with ease.

The e-business has trading tools that the Canada SMEs need to utilize in exploiting the globally enabled network connections, enhancing accessibility to markets easily, finding matching sellers and buyers across the globe, and analyzing the market trends before venturing into a chosen niche. Finally, they assist them in finding ways of saving on the transaction expenses.

Competition means that the SMEs are in a potion to play similar role as the large multinational enterprises. For them to perform competitively, they need to identify with the global village to participate in trade competitively and actively.

For better survival and chances for advancement, the SMEs need to constantly scan the details regarding the ecosystem and relate to any exploitable opportunities that emerge at the earliest time possible to be in a position of mitigating the emerging threats. The government has a vital role in the trading industries.

We will write a custom Essay on Canada’s SME’s can do better specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The business ought to lobby for creation of a fair and nationally competitive advantage. The government is able to level the playing grounds for these small enterprises by enhancement of the supportive factors such as infrastructure especially the technological infrastructure, education and, availing research methodologies.

They ought to ensure governance of the consumers needs through enhancement of stringent measures or standards. The consumer demands are the factors facilitating the modes, styles and content of supplies. There is equally the need to eliminate the international trade barriers, monopolies and, industries deregulations. The inter-provisional trade barriers cause a strain to the SMEs due to the national competitiveness.

The government ought to adopt strong anti-trust policies collisions or mergers that control the exports and provide the chances for innovations. They have to support and encourage sustained investment in the aim of gaining long-term achievements of capital and dynamic investments for corporate equity. The use of telecom and technological advancement enables the individual and small businesses to advance to expectations.

Conclusion Access to finances remains to be one of the main challenges facing the SMEs today. The prosperity of these businesses especially the global and innovative ones require support in terms of export for sales, prevention of depletion of capital, enhancement of liquidity and, maintenance of investment particularly by the government.

According to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2009), the global crisis influencing SMEs is significant to economies of the countries involved thus, the urgent need for proper financial support. The support accorded by the OECD is a positive response indicating the possibility of future advancement of the SMEs. The already evident responses include review of business concerning financing by global and national organizations.

OECD also provides an overview and evaluation of data resources and the policies regarding the collection, evaluation and programming for financial innovativeness for better growth. Today OECD (2009) facilitates the required dialogue between the government and financial institutions and SMEs as a periodical procedure with the aim of strengthening their functionality and financial potency. This is a direct indication that the SMEs are doing better financially and advancing further than before.

Works Cited OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship. SMEs and Local Development, Paris, France. 2009. Retrieved from

Power, Terrance. P. International Business a Canadian Perspective. Nelson Education Limited, 2007

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Integrated Marketing Communications Report argumentative essay help

Introduction Marketing is an organizational function that entails a set of processes for communicating, creating, implementing and delivering value to customers. It helps to manage customer-business relationships in a way that will benefit both the organization and the stakeholders involved. Such processes succeed in moving people closer to making a decision to purchase and facilitate a sale. Marketing communication is a very essential aspect of any business organization. (Kitchen, 1997)

This paper looks at Aldi’s case study. It identifies the market segments that Aldi is operating in. It also focuses on the current and potential marketing communication channels used by Aldi to reach its target customers. There is also a competitor analysis of the channels.

The paper also explains the benefits that Aldi might accrue from developing a website. This includes strategies on how Aldi can drive traffic to the website. Finally, opportunities for reciprocal listings and other marketing communication strategies are included in this paper. (Belch, 2004)

Aldi market segments According to Kitchen (1997), market segmentation is an imperative aspect in any business. This is considering the fact that the chosen segment always determines the growth and accrual of profits within the organization. An analysis of Aldi stores shows that it has had local market segments. This is whereby its products are sold in the local market. This is clearly indicated by the marketing communication strategies that the organization has been involved in. Aldi’s strategies were not targeting a wider global population. (Kitchen, 1997)

It has not been venturing into international market segments. Another aspect of Aldi’s market segments entails low income people. This is clearly illustrated in its pricing strategies. From the case study, it is quite evident that Aldi’s products have been having low prices. This definitely indicates that the store has not been targeting the affluent segment of the society. This is also indicated in the image that the store has been having. This is in line with the exterior and the interior aspects of the business premises. (Lages and Filipe, 2004)

Marketing communication channels It is quite clear that Aldi’s current marketing communications strategies also include television advertisement. This through what the organization refers to as television campaign. (Kitchen, 1999)

Through this, the organization will be in a position to market its products to a wider population within the United Kingdom. This is one of the marketing communication strategies that are quite effective since many people watch their television sets virtually every day.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other marketing communication strategies noted are newspaper adverts and posters. Through these two channels, potential customers are also informed of the organisation’s products. It is however worth noting that sometimes newspapers can only reach out to a narrow market segment. (Dan, 2003)

This is considering the fact that there are so many newspapers in the current market and customers don’t buy all newspapers while some do not buy them at all or even don’t bother to read them. Posters are a good way of marketing especially when they are strategically placed. The key objective of these communication tools is to increase the organization’s customer base. (Lages and Filipe, 2004)

This is also geared towards profit maximization within the organization. An overall analysis of Aldi’s operations shows that it has various marketing communication channels. One of its current marketing communication channels entails refurbishing its existing stores. This is also evident in the plans to update all its new stores such they become more customer-friendly. This also includes the aspects of re-branding its stores. (Kitchen, 1999)

In this case, the organization is trying to improve its image and communicate to its customers about improved products and services. This is an essential avenue of marketing communication as customers tend to judge an organization’s products based on the Company’s overall image. This is actually aimed at luring more customers to try the organization’s products.

Another marketing communication strategy in Aldi entails the use of discounts on its purchased products. This is aimed at retaining its customers and also enticing customers to buy more products from the stores. This is considering the fact that the more the customers buy, the more the discounts on the purchased goods. (Lages and Filipe, 2004)

Competitor analysis Each and every business has its competitors. In this case, Aldi stores also have various competitors in the market. They include Tesco and Sainsbury superstores. An analysis of marketing communication channels within these organizations shows that they are up to date. These to superstores carry out their marketing communications through various ways. This includes through television and radio advertisements. (East, 1997)

This enables them to reach a very wide population within United Kingdom. The two are also known for carry out their marketing communications through posters.

We will write a custom Report on Integrated Marketing Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This are strategically placed in city centres in attractive colours. One of the most essential communication marketing strategies that the two have incorporated is online marketing. The two organizations have websites where they market their products. This therefore indicates that they do not just target customers within United Kingdom but also those within the global market.

Aldi’s benefits from developing a website One of the best marketing communication strategies in the twenty first century entails online marketing. E-marketing is relatively a new advancement in the field of marketing even though there are many business and customers who have switched from traditional to online marketing. This necessitates that Aldi opens a company website. There are various benefits that the organization will accrue from developing a website. One of the benefits includes reaching out to a wider market segment. (Kitchen, 1997)

This is considering that through the website, potential customers across the globe will be in a position to access it. This shows that it does not have geographical limitations. This website will also enable Aldi to increase its sales. This is bearing in mind that customers will be in a position to order for products online without necessarily having to travel to the premises.

According to Kitchen (1997), this is also a much cheaper way of marketing as compared to other strategies such marketing through television and the use of posters. Having a website will also enable Aldi stores to cut down on costs. This is especially the costs that are associated with employing professional personnel in the marketing department.

Marketing responsibilities which could have otherwise been done by many marketers can be done by one employee. This therefore saves on the cost of paying salaries to many people within the organization. (Kitchen, 1997)

The other advantage that Aldi will definitely have relates to convenience associated with marketing through a Company website. Through the use of a website, Aldi will definitely enjoy the benefits of flexibility of time spent on marketing communication. This time will be used to carry out other duties within the organization.

Strategies to drive traffic to Aldi’s website It is very essential that Aldi puts in place strategies that will help to drive traffic to its website. One of the strategies that Aldi can have is by writing its website on the receipts given to customers after they purchase their products. Since the organization also uses television adverts, it can advise potential customers to visit its website for more information. Through this many of its customers and potential customers will start using Aldi’s website.

Another strategy that can help Aldi to drive traffic to Aldi’s website includes marketing through yahoo, gmail and google URLs. This is by having pop ups as people access their mails. Through this, various people will be able to see the website as they access their emails. This definitely will make many people to start accessing the company website. (Hart, 1995)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Integrated Marketing Communications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization can also take the initiative of communicating to various stakeholders through its Company website. This includes its suppliers and customers. Through this, the marketing team will drive traffic to Aldi’s website. Traffic can also be driven to the Company’s website through reciprocal listings as indicated below.

Opportunities for reciprocal listings Aldi stores can use reciprocal listings to create traffic to its website. Through this custom messages and requests will be automatically sent to diverse theme sites that are normally stored in a database. Through this, Aldi can make any announcements to the wider population concerning its Company website. This of course spurs interest in the recipients who take steps of visiting the advertised website. (Blythe, 1997)

Through this, reciprocal listings definitely drive the specifically targeted traffic to the website. Research has also shown that web listings help to increase the overall popularity of a website and in the long run there are increased sales. It is highly recommended therefore that Aldi creates a partners page that will play an essential role in enhancing traffic to its website. (Willis, 2009)

Suggestions for other products or services In order to enhance Aldi’s business it is essential that it increases its products and services. One of the most essential services that Aldi can get involved in includes cyber cafe within its premises. This is considering the fact that many people use the internet on a day to day basis. This is for both personal and business purposes. Through this, Aldi will improve its customer base since as customers seek for internet services, they will also purchase products within the store. (Rimini, 2003)

Other products that this store needs to be involved in include wooden furniture. This should be for both home and office. Aldi needs to find suppliers of quality furniture and ensure that there is a constant stock of the same. This should mostly be of wooden materials since many customers prefer them. Many customers are always on the look out for leather furniture and these should also be stocked in large quantities. (Kumar and Morris, 2007)

This will help the store to greatly increase its customer base. This is considering the fact that furniture is always needed in offices as new businesses are started and also to replace old ones. Aldi should also seek to fill the gap that pertains to all household products. This is ranging from cutlery, foodstuffs such as sugar, flour etc. (Fill, 2005)

Aldi can also increase its product line by ensuring there are items such as a variety of footwear stocked in its stores. There is need to include stationery such as writing materials and books on various topics. This should also include current magazines and newspapers that are usually sourced for by thousands of readers each single day. (Fill, 2005)

Communicated to the target market Aldi stores need to take the initiative to communicate its new products and services to its target market. This should be done through online advertisements on the Company website. This can be done by having the photos of products such as furniture displayed on the website. Through this, the targeted customers will get to know of the new products in Aldi. (Lages and Filipe, 2004)

It would also be essential that Aldi communicates to its target market about its new products through television adverts. This should be done in such a way that the products are displayed to the viewers. Through this, the store’s target customers would be able to know of its new products. (Nilson, 1992)

Another way through which Aldi can inform its target customers of new products is through radio adverts. This should be done at specific hours when the target customers are mostly listening to the radios. For instance, these advertisements need to be aired just before news when many people tune in to listen. Through this, Aldi will reach out to wider population. This is considering the fact that majority of target customers tune in even in their offices via their mobile phones etc. (Kumar and Morris, 2007)

Opportunities for Customer Relationship Marketing Aldi needs to make use of various opportunities in line with customer relationship marketing. This should be initiated by carrying out research on customers expectations from Aldi. This can be done through marketing communication channels such as Company website. (Kumar and Morris, 2007)

This is where customers can easily fill forms online on their expectations. These ideas can then be incorporated in the store’s product lines. Coupons for marketing can also have a space where customer fill in their expectations and drop them in one of the stores. This will enhance customers’ relationship with the business. (Neumann, 2002)

The marketing department should give customers contacts that they can call any time within working hours to confirm on various issues pertaining to the business. This will definitely enhance the store’s relationship with its customers. Through these strategies, Aldi will be able to maintain its loyal customers and also attract potential customers in the target market.

Conclusion In conclusion, Aldi store’s current market segments entail the local market and the low income customers. This organization is using various marketing communication channels. These include television adverts, use of posters, improving Company image and newspaper adverts etc. Its competitors use up to date marketing communication channels such as online adverts.

Developing a website would help Aldi to increase its customer base, save time and finances. Aldi can drive traffic to its website through reciprocal listings. There is need for increasing its product line and carry out customer relationship marketing. This will help it to succeed despite the tough competition in the market.

Reference Belch, B. (2004): Advertising and promotion; 6th Ed; London; McGraw Hill

Blythe, J. (1997): The essence of consumer behaviour; Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Dan, S. (2003): The Birth of Internet Marketing Communications; Westport, Conn; commercial online systems

East, R. (1997): Consumer behaviour; advances and applications in marketing; Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Hart, N. (1995): Strategic public relations. London: Macmillan

Hart, N.A. (1998). Business to business marketing communications; 6th Ed; London: Kogan Page

Kitchen, P. (1997): Public relations; principles and practice; London: International Thomson Business Press

Kitchen, P. (1999): Marketing communications; London: International Thomson Business Press

Kumar, V. and Morris, G. (2007): Measuring and maximizing customer equity; a critical analysis; journal of the academy of marketing science; 35(2); 157-71

Lages, L. and Filipe, D et al. (2004): Export performance as an antecedent of export commitment and marketing strategy adaptation; evidence from small and medium-sized exporters; European Journal of Marketing; Bradford; Vol. 38, Iss 9/10; p. 1186

Neumann Eva (2002): Marketing Communications: A Vital Element of Achieving Change, in The Public Manager Ray Sumser

Nilson, T. (1992): Value added marketing. London: McGraw Hill

Fill, C. (2005): Marketing communications; engagements, strategies and practice. 4th ed., Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Rimini, M. (2003): Advertising works; Vol. 12. Henley-on-Thames: World Advertising Research Centre

Willis, K. (2009): Marketing communications; available at


Emergency Department (AD) Stroke Protocol Process for Administering Activase (Tissue Plasminogen Activator TPA) best essay help: best essay help


This is a team project in which you will develop an analysis of an operational challenge in healthcare services using the six sigma methodology. The team would typically select one of their employers or a company in the industry of their choice where they have access to relevant information. Any data shared within the team for the sake of the project should be HIPAA/IRB compliant. Alternatively, publicly available data such as from CMS, or dummy/synthetic data that is similar to the real-world, may be used for analysis.

1. REPORT: A written report needs to be submitted as per the syllabus. This team report would be a minimum of 2500 words excluding tables, figures, references, and title page. It is important for the report to be complete. Please see below for the sections that must be included.

2. PRESENTATION: The team will present online per schedule. Please adopt necessary confidentiality precautions in the presentations. The purpose of the presentation is to share a summary of the project and insights gained with the class. So use a 6-12 slides = 1 title content slides (problem, what data was used, process diagram, pareto and control charts, root cause analysis, recommendations, challenges to implementation). Each team should plan for a 15 minute presentation. Any one team member can do the video presentation. It is not necessary for everyone to talk on the presentation.

The report should be structured as follows:

1. Introduction: What is the industry and company/organization context for the problem?

2. Problem Definition: What exactly is the scope of the problem that is being analyzed in this consulting project?

3. Measurement and Six Sigma Analysis: What are the measures and what is the data being used? How was the data collected? What tools are used in the analysis? Do the analysis and discuss results (DMAIC).

4. Recommendations: What do you recommend based on your analysis?

5. Implementation Challenges: What challenges do you expect when implementing your recommendations in the context of the organization in which the based?

6. References: Include any references you cited in the report.

I AM RESPONSIBLE FOR 1 (Introduction), 2(Problem Definition), AND 4 (Recommendations) ONLY!!

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Don’t forget references!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Improving the Member Communication Cycle with XYZ Long Term Care Plan’s Care Coordinators: The aim of this project is to improve the communication protocols, pathways and frequency used currently at XYZ between a member and their long term care coordinator.
Improving Chemotherapy Turnaround Time at XYZ Facility: The average inpatient chemotherapy turnaround time at XYZ Facility was P minutes with a median of Q minutes and a range of A – B minutes. Delays in chemotherapy administration results in increased length of stay, patient safety concerns and decreased patient and family, provider, and staff satisfaction. The objective of this study is to improve turnaround times.
Emergency Department Intake Process at XYZ Hospital: The current time of patient arrival in Emergency Department to Patient placed in designated area/ triage complete time is too long. This results in overcrowding in the waiting room, leads to delays in patient care, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased length of stay. Therefore, the study aims to improve the ED intake processes, and thereby decrease ED total patient flow time, length of stay in the ED, and to reduce delays in patient care.
XYZ Hospital Disaster Staffing Protocol: On September 10, 2017, Hurricane Irma illuminated staffing and communication failures within the XYZ Hospital. These failures resulted in systemic breakdowns greatly impacting patients and emergency room personnel. With no emergency staffing protocols in place, administrators at XYZ Hospital were unable to proactively schedule shifts during and following the storm. The insufficient number of staff members who arrived for shift duty during the hurricane were unable to handle patient loads, which led to a dramatic increase in wait time and resulted in patients leaving before being seen. This study aims to improve disaster response staffing protocols.
Nurse Staffing at XYZ Hospital: This study analyzes the adequacy of nurse staffing levels, associated with facility and services expansion, to improve efficient operations and reduce nurse burnout.
XYZ Revenue Management Services: XYZ Services is a third party revenue cycle management company whose core service is the quick resolution of complex hospital medical denials. While simultaneously improving hospital cash flow, they reduce aging accounts receivables and administrative bad debt write-offs. This project is to improve service consistency and align it with the goals of each client so as to reduce failures to comply with client contracts.


1. The president and the governor are referred to as the chief administrative or executive officers of the country college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

1. The president and the governor are referred to as the chief administrative or executive officers of the country and state, respectively. Analyze the differences and similarities in the roles and responsibilities of the respective heads of these executive branches.

2. Advocacy and public health nursing intersect in many ways. What are some specific examples that demonstrate how public health benefited from the advocacy provided by nurses?

3. Describe how you will utilize and implement the IOM Nursing Reports from 2010 and 2016 in your role as an Advanced Practice Nurse.


Tribal Inference Essay online essay help

The language of a people is mostly a representation of how the respective people view their world and interpret their experiences. The structure of a people’s language can therefore be used to make inferences about their unique ways of life therefore providing a means by which we can reconstruct the life of a civilization. In this paper, I shall attempt to reconstruct the life of a lost tribe, the Amiable people.

The Amiable people civilization has just recently been discovered by archaeologists. The reconstruction efforts shall be achieved by analyzing some words that linguistic anthropologists have highlighted as characterizing the society’s language. I shall use these linguistic characteristics as a basis for making plausible claims about the tribe.

Although it is impossible to pinpoint the exact geographical location that the Amiables lived, their language sheds some light as to the nature of the land that the tribe may have occupied. It is probable that the tribe lived in a plain or prairie region. Their words for describing the terrain of their land are limited to “absolutely flat,” “rolling,” and “slightly hilly.” It is therefore quite unlikely that the tribe lived in a mountainous region as their language does not accommodate words for such terrains.

The fact that the tribe also has a dozen terms for grains including eight for wheat alone also suggests that the tribe was extensively involved in wheat farming. This further reinforces the possibility that the tribe was from the plains and prairies since these are the areas in which wheat farming thrives. It is possible that the Amiable’s lived deep inland as their language lacks a term for “ocean.”

Their lack of a word for “fish” also hints that they did not live near any large water bodies as it is inconceivable that any costal tribe would fail to engage in fishing as an economic activity. From the Amiable’s language, we find that they had several words for precipitation with most translating as “rain” and only one meaning “snow.” One might suggest from these that their climate was characterized by regular rains and snow falls were only periodically phenomena.

The Amiables language offers us some valuable insight into the type of foods that the tribe may have consumed. The prevalence of words for grain in their language might be a possible indication that grains, and particularly wheat, was the staple food of the people.

In as much as their language gives a positive indication that these people reared animals such as cows, pigs and sheep, there is no indication that the tribe utilized these animals for meat or hide. For example, their language lacks words that translate to “beef,” “pork,” “veal,” or “leather,” despite having words such as “cow,” “pig,” and “sheep.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This could be an indication that the Amiables did not kill the animals for food or hide. It is therefore a plausible assumption that the Amiables were a vegetarian people. However, there it is possible that the Amiables might have used the animals for other means that did not involve killing them e.g. cows for their milk or sheep for their wool since it would be preposterous to concede that they kept these animals as pets. All this is however speculative as we do not have a full inventory of their language.

From the language of the Amiables, it can be proposed that great value was placed on the family. The word woman is synonymous with “wife and mother” to the Amiable’s and the term man is synonymous with “husband and father”.

It is therefore evident that to the tribe, the woman was primarily viewed as a wife and mother to the children and the man as a husband and father of the children. These fusions of the terms (man and woman) with terms related to a family life suggest that the Amiables placed great value on the family which was made up of a man and a woman.

The language of the Amiables contains many terms for children some of which translate as “wise small one” “innocent leader” and “little stargazer”. One can conclude from this that children were highly regarded by the Amiables. This supposition is further advanced by the fact that the Amiables had seven terms to describe the stages of life up to puberty (which marks the end of childhood) and only one term to describe life henceforth to death.

It can therefore be speculated that the family of these tribe was centered on the children. Sex was primarily used for procreation and their term for sex translates as “to plant a wise one,” therefore underscoring the procreative role that sex played to the Amiables as well as the reverence with which children were held.

The Amiable tribe was a literate and educated people. This can be deduced from the many words that the tribe had for books which implies a great exposure by the tribe to books. It is therefore possible that great emphasis was placed on a formal education that resulted in the ability to read by the population.

One might also concede that this people were well cultured and had an inclination to the artistic works. For example, the Amiables had nine words for artist which suggests that there were a number of people engaged in arts. The presence of four words for theatre also suggests that there were numerous artistic presentations such as plays and songs that the general population went to watch in the theatres.

We will write a custom Essay on Tribal Inference specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The social construct of the Amiables was based on communal leadership. This is evident from the fact that the tribe had several words for leaders but all in the plural form. This suggest that in as much as the tribe relied on strong and effective leadership to steer the tribe to success, the leadership role was not placed in the hands of one person but rather collective responsibility was encouraged.

The Amiables were also non-violent as can be illustrated from the lack of a word for violent conflict or war in their language. They preferred to resolve their conflicts diplomatically instead of engaging in war. For this reason, the people who could act as reconcilers were held in high esteem as is suggested from the Amiable’s term of praise translating to “peacemaker” and “conciliator”.

This paper set out to reconstruct the life of the Amiable civilization by analyzing their language. It has been discovered that the Amiables were a peaceful and learned people who placed high value on family and their children. What is admirable about this people to me is that they realized that leadership in the hands of one person can corrupt and therefore took to collective leadership. Their cultural standards were also impressive as is suggested by their artistry.

However, the data provided is not sufficient to conclusively reconstruct interesting facets of their lives such as their economic activities and exactly how the tribe resolved its disputes diplomatically thus averting the use of violence. Such information would be precious to our civilization which can no doubt borrow a lot from the Amiables.


Republican War of Science Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Summary In common practice, majority of scientists have a notion that, when comparing between the republican and the democrat’s ruling principles, the republican’s ruling orientation under Bush caused many impairments to the practice of science. For instance, subjects under Bush messed up with information on changing climatic conditions.

As far as this was not enough, there were clear biases in resource allocation to some scientific departments; a practical case being the fish and wildlife department. On the other hand, driven by his political sense of self, president bush stopped some scientific researches that were going on for example the stem cell research (Kancler p.1).

Sometimes, it is very strange what republicans did in that, to them scientific developments were of less importance, hence their disregard for any attempt to improve on scientific knowledge.

To prove their egoistic views that disregarded scientific innovations, they applied vague political theories instead of facing the real facts that related to the issue. For sure it is clear that, republicans had negative impressions on anything relating to science because, not only did they oppose scientific innovations, but also they promoted anti-intellectualism; something that was clear in the Goldwater’s administration

Critical analysis of republican’s views on scientific developments clearly showed that, there was abuse of science for political sustainability and achievement. It is funny how these ruling elites neglected the field of science something that they should taken responsibility to promote. Even in some instances, the same elites disregarded university’s efforts in scientific development because of the notion held that, such innovations promote immorality.

Although there was oppositions from republican as far as scientific development was concerned, due to the majority number of democrats (in the congress), in the Reagan administration, there was support for scientific developments for example, support of missile stabilization and combating global warming.

It is important to note that, the same was contrary in the Bush’s administration where science innovations received little support. Clear proves of this was the altering of information on environmental issues; as presented by the Environmental Protection Agency, and the changing of certain clauses that touched on the issue of global warming by white house.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reactions The alteration of records and information on environmental issues was a major setback to science in that, the well-being of the environment is what primarily makes science. This in many ways made most individuals to lack trust on the government as far as environmental well-being was concerned. This is because naturally, it was very abnormal for a government that is supposed to ensure its citizens stay in good environments, puts at stake their health living by frustrating scientific efforts.

In addition, this made many to question the competence of decision makers as far as their intentions were, in that the same people trusted by citizens to ensure there was improvement in scientific innovations were jeopardizing what the citizens’ mandated them to do. This was because they were collaborating in twisting crucial scientific information.

To some extent, some of the republicans’ views were right that is, science also had its negative impacts on the quality of life. However, frankly speaking without it life will have no meaning; hence, more benefits as compared to negative impacts resulting from adoption of scientific innovations. In this regard, it was important for republicans to base there disapproval of scientific innovations on professionalism, rather that mere vague theoretical assumptions, which they based on personal ego.

Due to the importance of science, there was need for both the federal government and different industrial sections to support scientific development, because it was the only way of ensuring globalization and improved lifestyle of all citizens.

In addition, because support of such innovations depended on the importance the ruling elites put on scientific innovations; there was need for ideological changes as far as republicans were concerned. By giving such support, there was a guarantee of scientific evolution, something that could translate to alleviation of the conflicts of interests that existed among different worrying groups as far as scientific development was concerned.

In addition, due to media influences on scientific issues, there was need for journalist to get clear facts on scientific development instead of using fake detachments. On the other hand, although in the past, the same ruling elites abolished the technology and assessment department, to prove what the media presents; it is advisable for all individuals to confirm such facts from the National academy of sciences.

In conclusion, to avoid the politicization of science, it is important for governments to look at the numerous benefits that result from scientific innovations rather than capitalizing on few negative impacts of such innovations.

We will write a custom Essay on Republican War of Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kancler, Erik. The republican war on science. Mother Jones, 2 Oct. 2oo5. Web.


Methods of Job Analysis and the Importance of Job Analysis Expository Essay custom essay help

Job Analysis and its role in Human Resource Management Job analysis, defined as the process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge for performing work in an organization is an essential component in human resource management. In the case of veteran health administration (VHA), the set of activities performed by the employees to achieve organizational goals defines the job for its workers.

According to Richard G. Best, Hysong, Pugh, and Ghosh (2006), job analysis techniques incorporate detailed examination of activities of organizational objectives, goals, and purposes. In addition, it provides a detailed analysis of the functions of the workers in relation to their experiences, educational level, the kind of training undergone relevant to the job description and specification, and the capacity or abilities of the worker. Job analysis entails collection of data for evaluating and selecting qualified personnel.

The collected data, according to Richard (2006) incorporates essential components such as, work activities, human oriented work activities such as social behaviors, actions, tools such as machines, tangible and intangible work related activities, performance levels that include standards and other measures of efficiency, context of the job, and personal attributes such as attitude to the job.

On the other hand, functional job analysis, which is a quantitative technique, waters down to task specific, occupation and standards of efficiency in the performance of the task. The assignment of primary care tasks stems from successful job analysis techniques to ensure personal decisions meet organizational needs and requirements. This provides sound basis for decision making at the human resource level.

Job analysis is vital in human resource management by defining how strategic planning is done, provides a statements of work, clearly expounds on work content, identifies employee qualifications, organizational structure, and the flow of work within an organization. Job analysis enables human resource persons to make decisions according to the law. This incorporates Acts such as; the Fair Labor Standards Act, Equal Pay Act, Civil Rights Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

In addition, the top management is able to make strategic decisions based on job analysis for achieving organizational goals and objectives. Staffing is a basic component in human resource management. Efficient utilization of resources is vital. To achieve these, job analysis techniques enable the HRM to analyze and identify work characteristics by identifying who should do which work.

Developing personnel resources and staffing of personnel by incorporating HRM responsibilities. Human Resource Management is responsible for identifying and distributing employment opportunities to all, with defined methods on hiring issues. These methods developed through job analysis techniques provide clear interview guidelines and new employee orientation (Oswald 2003). Training and development needs are core in HRM activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The kind of training needs, new employee development and other employees training guidelines, polices and procedures, preparation of training programs targeting specific work, identification of wage and salary needs and due compensation in relation to job analysis and work description are core activities of HRM.

Job analysis enables the HRM identify appropriate compensation, fringe benefits and helps to conduct job surveys to retain workers. This also includes tools, materials, and procedures used to perform specific tasks.

Mazurkiewicz and Heggestad (2009) asserts that Job analysis specifies the duties for a specific position, tasks that are critical to a specific area and expected results, the deliverables or milestones for the person in that position which is used to evaluate an individual in a specific position, which may be vital for achieving organizational goals and objectives.

To carry out job analysis, techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, incident investigations, and background information may be vital. Thus, this serves as a prelude to job descriptions.

How job analysis drives job description Job analysis enables the HRM identify the position of a job and the various tasks performed at that level. While it identifies the tasks or functions, skills, duties and knowledge requirements for a job, job descriptions are the specific tasks and responsibilities of a job.

This includes the job’s hierarchy in relation to its position in an organization, thus departmentalization, and qualifications in terms of education and experience based on job analysis data. Oswald (2003) points out that, job description builds on job analysis. Various facts compound to develop job descriptions. These include the, mental functions incorporating the coordination of various elements in an organization, and the descriptions on how workers relate to each other.

Provides information on supervisory roles of coordinating and directing work activities, how to negotiate on the job, how to efficiently communicate through the available communication channels between employee and employer, instructing workers on how best to deliver on their jobs, how to develop interpersonal skills, and places emphasis on the physical demands of workers.

We will write a custom Essay on Methods of Job Analysis and the Importance of Job Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Job description answers the questions on environmental demands and the physical environment, managerial tools used and the hazards employees find themselves subjected to, such as mechanically caused injuries, electrical shock and exposure to toxic materials or chemicals. Thus, job description builds on job analysis.

How job analysis and job description have been used effectively in VHA case According to Richard et al (2006), there is a noted deficiency in decision making in the HRM. The VHA scenario unfolds cases in which technicians and clerks appeared to be underutilized while registered nurses, physicians, advanced practitioners, licensed vocational nurses registered a stunning percentage of task overlap. Task overlap in the case of VHA resulted from HRM’s failure to collect and critically analyze the data through qualitative and quantitative job analysis techniques for the health workers, clerks and technician.

In order to efficiently run VHA, accurate information had to be collected on the various jobs, the purpose of each job determined, what responsibilities each job entailed, the specific tasks to be performed for each job, the methods for analyzing the jobs identified, and the relationship between the jobs determined asserts (Caudron 2009). These could give an accurate picture of where each job belonged for efficient utilization of the available human resources.

In addition, VHA did not put into critical use its HRM, which could have done a thorough evaluation of its human resources by identifying and providing training needs consistent with its human resources available. According to Richard et al (2006), the number of workers who performed overlapping tasks hence underutilized included, physicians and advanced practitioners, physicians, RNS, and health technicians.

Research shows that if the HRM conducts job analysis well by employing the available quantitative and qualitative methods, and builds on job description, then each employee could have a clearly defined job description asserts (Oswald 2003). Each could be specific about their roles, know the requirements in terms of performance expectations, the compensation to receive from each tasks performed and additional motivation available to provide for the workers (HR Guide to the Internet 2001).

In addition, job analysis in the case of VHA could help the HRM develop performance appraisal for the employees, needs assessment particularly training needs in VHA, and lay down compensation plans to motivate the workers.

Job description on the other hand could help the HRM in VHA conduct selections in relation to the human resource needs of the organization resulting in efficient utilization of the human personnel thus avoid the scenario of underutilization and tasks overlap. This could also help in human resource planning in the primary healthcare process.

References Caudron, S. (2000). Jobs disappear: When work becomes more important. Workforce, 79 (1), 30. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Methods of Job Analysis and the Importance of Job Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mazurkiewicz, M. D.,


Violence Against Women as a Global Phenomenon Research Paper writing essay help

According to Heise (1998, p. 262), Violence against women is any incidence of gender-based violence that ends up in, or is likely to end up in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women. This includes threats, coercion or unwarranted deprivations of freedom, whether occurring in private life or public.

While the incidence of this kind of violence is to a large extent global, it is more prevalent in some households as compared to others. An analysis of the various reasons for the prevalence of domestic violence was carried out and the findings reported below are varied as the manifestations of the phenomenon.

Culture and norms by and large undergo changes with time. However, some aspects of traditions are retained even with passage of time. One of these aspects is the position of the man in the home (Pourreza, Batebi,


Labour Problems in UK Economics Essay essay help free: essay help free

Changing Nature of Employee Relations in the UK Evident from previous research and casual empiricism, there has been increased tension and work strain across many work places, a problem often attributed to pay discipline and flexibility. It has often been perceived that increasing work strain is directly linked to changing working hours and the expected minimum wage.

The obvious fact is that work force occupies important part of both economical and psychological needs of the labour contract and its intensification triggers welfare effects on employees. It’s been argued that changing work intensity is likely to have substantive negative figures on productivity change.

Work force relations in the UK continue to receive intense criticism for the obvious fact that managers are unable to effectively control their employee’s performances in relation to pay, discipline and flexibility. In this paper, I intent to explain the intellectual, moral and policy arguments in relations to labour problems, job regulations and trade unions in attempt to capture the triangular relationships of the three.

Labour relations involve both work and employment relations and involves management and employees in coordination with policies of a country, for this instance the UK, dynamics of capital markets and relationship between paid work and work load. In my analysis, I will look are various research ranging from the past, present and the future of labour problems.

Labour Problems

Many organisations in the UK consider downsizing and restructuring of their work force to be “a quick fix” to their company’s inefficiencies. This strategy temporary improves the organisation’s output hence demoralizing the surviving employees.

Recent studies conducted by Green (2000, p.5) indicate that work intensification has increased competitive pressure which is often offloaded to workers. One would assume that work intensification in UK is accompanied by rising real wage which is not the issue here. Job insecurity and work intensification has also been extended to include reward system and the unexpected benefits.

With Effort intensification, workers are subjected to longer working hours with large volumes of work in the anticipation of income expansion which is never the case. Here, structural changes including facility employment to measure workers performance, motivation and discipline are inaccurately measured hence unsatisfied employees (Kersley et al 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Redirecting our focus from work and effort intensification to technical change, there is a strong indication suggesting that technical change is often effort-biased. For example, technique measured by employers on employees’ performances is dominant in most work places which are attributed to decline of union influence. Companies have refused to acknowledge the relationship between company human resource policies and work effort thereby increasing job insecurity.

While human resource policies and work force skills have initiated the impact of organisational and technical change, widely seen as efficiency improvement, there is evidence that suggest that the techniques applied are effort-biased. The Standard competitive model of effort determination requires firms to turn up the wages of high effort workers contrary to the UK employment practice (Green 2000, p.7; Burchell


After, reading all three articles for Week Five, please point to one aspect of EACH article that you found be essay help online

After, reading all three articles for Week Five, please point to one aspect of EACH article that you found be of interest and explain why. Be sure to fully elaborate and discuss how this particular aspect of the article furthers our understanding of terrorism and political violence. It must be evident that you have carefully read and reflected upon all three articles. Next, as you know, even the best articles that are published in peer-reviewed journals are never perfect and lend themselves to constructive criticism. Please identify one weakness, shortcoming, or possible area that could have been elaborated or expanded upon in EACH of the three articles. It must be evident that you have given considerable thought to each aspect of the above discussion assignment. You must also pose a critical thinking question to your classmates. And, you must attempt to fully answer a question posed by one of your peers.


Marketing Plan for Day Care Operations: the Making of CareMax Children’s Center, Hazel Green, Alabama Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Background Summary CareMax children’s center is a limited liability company (LLC) located in Hazel Green, Alabama, and operated by the George Williamson family. CareMax has largely concentrated its activities in the provision of daycare services for the Hazel Green community of an estimated 4,200 residents and 1,340 households as of July 2007 (City-Data.Com, 2010).

The center was carefully designed and developed after the realization that professional childcare is a necessity in every civilization, from small towns to large cities. From its inception, the center has been received warmly by the community especially due to its multifaceted nature and capacity to offer timely, flexible, and individualized day care services to the minors in different age categories.

CareMax Center officially opened for business in 2003, with a license to provide daycare services for thirty-five children. Presently, CareMax is licensed for seventy children aged six weeks to six years. 62 children are currently enrolled at the center, representing 88.6 percent enrollment level.

The center appreciates the fact that children need to be treated with warmth and respect. Its mission statement is to provide high quality childcare services with a bias on developmentally appropriate activities for the minors under our care. The key rudiments of CareMax’s business concern are as follows:

Diversified services — the center has increasingly diversified its services to maintain competitive advantage while ensuring that parents of children with specialized needs benefit from our exceptional services.

Convenient location — the center is located at the heart of Hazel Green community, and is easily accessible from all directions. Its magnificent buildings and stupendous age-appropriate play stations reveals the center’s dedication to the wellbeing and comfort of children, and also serves to instill a permanent unique image on the mindsets of parents about the center’s capacity to offer splendid services and care to their children

Investment in employees — Given the labor-intensive nature prevalent in the industry, CareMax has invested heavily in the number and quality of its employees to keep in line with its tradition and mission of offering high quality childcare with a view of assisting the child attain the fullest potential during the formative years of development. The center has 10 full-time members of staff and 2 CPR certified supervisors. CareMax has also engaged the services of a nursing officer to cater for the health needs of children under our care. All our staff members have contributed individually and collectively to the success of CareMax.

Quality services — CareMax is extremely aware that parents are increasingly relying on independent rating services or recommendations from friends about the quality of services offered by daycare operators (Lownes-Jackson, 2004). As such, the center has invested heavily in developing superior capacity to ensure daycare services are delivered in a highly efficient environment that ensure core values and procedures are stringently followed by caregivers in the process of satisfying customers’ needs. Quality services have enabled the center to retain its competitive advantage as the preferred daycare services provider in the wider Hazel Green’s area, Alabama.

Strong financial muscle — CareMax has been able to maintain a strong financial might despite low levels in the industry occasioned by high operating costs. This has been primarily achieved by maintaining steady growth through aggressive advertisement and the admirable reputation the center has been able to create for itself. The strong financial background has enabled the center to continue offering quality services to preschoolers despite the high overhead costs.

Customers The George Williamson family first initiated the child development center with a view of giving quality childcare to low-income families living within Hazel Green’s community, Alabama. The racial makeup within the community is predominantly white, with blacks accounting for less than 3 percent of the population in the area (City-Data.Com, 2010).

The original mission was to offer children from low-income families a stable, inspiring, and loving environment during their formative years of development. The perception that lower income parents could not afford to pay for quality childcare while they worked greatly influenced the philosophy and value system under which the center operated during its early years.

CareMax center has greatly evolved in its customer portfolio to serve all kinds of working parents with preschool children. However, the center still retains special fees structure for low-income families that may require its services. This has served to endear the center to the community, making it to become part-and-parcel of Hazel Green’s community.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its major customers include parents working in organizations, hospitals, local and regional schools, government agencies, and other service-oriented firms. Some of the needs these customers have in requesting the services of the center include:

Need to continue working while still nurturing a preschool child — statistics reveal that 65 percent of all mothers in the US with children under the age of five years are actively engaged in the workforce. These children require specialized services and attention, and CareMax center offers both.

Security concerns — some parents are apprehensive about leaving their children under the care of nannies and relatives. At CareMax, the security of children is of paramount importance, and no incidence of inappropriate handling has been reported to the authorities for the eight years the facility has been in operation.

Individual development of children — parents need their children to encounter experiences that will advance their physical, social, emotional, spiritual and cognitive development. Not only does the environment at CareMax guarantees all the above, but it also promotes independence, enhanced self-esteem, constructive problem solving, and positive feelings of self-worth among the preschoolers.

Products CareMax center mainly concerns itself with offering products in terms of providing daycare services for children in the wider Hazel Green’s region, Alabama. The center offers unique and diversified services to children in three broad age categories, namely 6 weeks to 1 year; 1 year to 3 years; and 3 years to 6 years.

The services offered at CareMax includes not only the particular services presented for sale to parents with preschool children, but also the reputation, image, and other innovative services offered by the institution such as puzzle and coloring areas (Lownes-Jackson, 2004).

The main services of catering for the children’s individual development are tailored to meet the specific requirements of each age category and any other specialized requirements that may be dictated by the parents or guardians of children with special needs. The center provides entertainment and quality food to the children while they are in attendance. In addition to its core function of offering quality childcare, the center offers the following services to reinforce its earnings:

Transportation services to and from the center for the children

Specialized pre-arranged elderly care

Operates an elementary school

Pre-college counseling through its College Mentorship Programme

Matching the Products with the needs of Customers

CareMax center exercises an open-door business policy whereby all parents and guardians with children at the school are invited after every two months to give their views on how childcare should be offered.

Little children have very specialized needs, and thus the center benefits immensely from the frequent interactions between the parents and the administration, not mentioning the fact that such meetings offer a platform for the parents to expressively state their needs, and for the management to act decisively in developing products that will match up to the stated needs.

Such an interaction has greatly assisted the child development center to remain ever conscious of the ever changing business environment. The center is always prepared to alter its operations and change direction when the needs of its major clients – the parents – demands so.

We will write a custom Report on Marketing Plan for Day Care Operations: the Making of CareMax Children’s Center, Hazel Green, Alabama specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Product Development

The center takes cognizance of the fact that it must continually develop new products and services if it is to remain relevant in modern-day competitive environment (Lownes-Jackson, 2004).

Towards this objective, the parents are involved in the development of new services for their children, and are adequately informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the new services in terms of assisting the children to develop healthily in all critical facets of life. CareMax takes extraordinary measures to ensure that new services are safe and of relevance to the children’s learning capabilities according to regulations stated by the authorities.

CareMax center is particularly keen to involve parents in the process of concept development since they form the center’s target market. The center is always keen to incorporate productive views presented by the parents and guardians especially in the features to be incorporated in the service (Ulrich


Preventing Terrorist Acts Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Preventing terrorist acts


Works Cited

Introduction Terrorism is a term that strikes fear into the nerves of most people. Humankind has practiced terrorist acts since the beginning of recorded history. The acts have made kingdoms to rise, fall, and enabled individuals to gain authority. Terrorist acts are increasingly becoming a major difficulty in the current unsteady world. A simple terrorist act is able to result in the breakage of tensions between two nations.

For example, the Israelis and Palestinians are constantly engaged in quarrels because of religious beliefs and territorial disagreements. Types of terrorist incidents include conflicts with neighboring nations, bombings of cities, kidnappings and hostage-takings, armed attacks and assassinations, arsons and firebombing, hijacking and skyjackings, bioterrorism, and cyber terrorism. There are many ways for preventing terrorist acts.

Preventing terrorist acts Although terrorism is not new, it is a difficult word to define since varied definitions exist for the word. The Department of Defense states that terrorism is “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological” (cited in United States Marine Corps, p.1).

Since terrorism is revealing itself in new forms today, one method of preventing terrorist acts is by the use of a team that is specially designed to rescue the hostages captured by terrorists. This team should have the ability of going into buildings, planes, or anywhere the hostages might be to carry out the rescue mission. This can assist in combating terrorism and saving the lives of the innocent hostages.

On September 5, 1972, eight Arab terrorists made their way into the Olympic stadium in Munich, West Germany. They shot and killed two Israelis and took nine others as hostages (Bard, para.3). They then settled into the compound for a siege and made various demands to the Israeli government. After fruitless negotiations, the Arab terrorists left the stadium with their hostages for the Furstenfeldbruck military airport.

The terrorists were well trained and they easily avoided traps set by the West Germans. At the airport, there was an exchange of fire between the Arab terrorists and the West German sharpshooters. This incident left all the hostages and five Arab terrorists’ dead. If there were a trained team to handle the situation, all the hostages would not have passed away. This loss of innocent lives can be attributed to the poorly trained West German police who failed to handle the threat professionally.

Terrorist acts can also be prevented by gun control. This initiative lowers the number of dangerous weapons within the reach of terrorists. The introduction of this background check is able to reduce significantly the number of terrorism incidents. A simple measure such as enacting a rule of having a considerable waiting period at gun shows is able to lower terrorist acts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is likely that a group of individuals can go into the show one at a time, and buy a number of weapons to use in performing terrorist acts. Presently at gun shows, any person who is above eighteen years old is allowed to purchase weapons. Even though a total ban on guns would not bring to an end the unauthorized entry of weapons into the country, it would reduce its availability to potential terrorists.

It is important to identify potential terrorists before they are able to attack.

Most of the times it is announced after a terrorist attack that the individual responsible for the incident had terrorist connections in the past. Now if he or she had terrorist connections, why was he or she permitted to live freely? Living freely enables the terrorist to plan effectively for an attack.

Prevention of terrorist acts can be enhanced by having a monitoring system that keeps track of individuals with suspected histories of terrorism, or possibly connections to terror groups. Governmental agencies, for example, the FBI can then keep a watchful eye of the individuals’ communications.

This strategy limits the communication between the suspect, and his or her terrorist group. Even though the suspect would not be a prisoner, he or she would be on parole; this would enable him or her to continue living a normal productive life. The place where the person stays can be searched to get any clues on his or her motives. This can assist in the War on Terror since the individual would have limited opportunities of facilitating an attack.

Soon after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. government made major organizational changes. The Department of Homeland Security was thereafter formed on November 25, 2002. This preventive strategy is helpful in preventing further attacks on the U.S. The Department is endowed with the responsibility of preparing, preventing, and managing threats due to terrorism by gathering, analyzing, and effectively sharing intelligence information (Department of Homeland Security, 42).

In order to prevent terrorist acts, it is essential to reinforce intelligence collection to prohibit the actions of those who are intending to create havoc. Careful analysis and sharing of the sensitive information gathered should occur across all the levels of the government. Adequate investments should be made to improve the ability to share and analyze the information collected.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Preventing Terrorist Acts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bioterrorism is one of the most dreaded forms of terrorist acts worldwide as it is able to wipe out a large number of people within a short time (Gaines, 15). All it requires is a person having a small portion of powdered anthrax or any other deadly chemical to get to a busy place, and release the virus or the chemical.

People around the place would then inhale the contaminated air as the powder spreads in the form of fine dust. The result is catastrophic since many people can die. Now it is difficult to prevent such things. However, a method of reducing the number of casualties in such a scenario is to ensure that each person is vaccinated against ailments that are spread easily, for example, anthrax or ebola.

Therefore, every effort should be made to ensure that enough doses of the vaccine are available to everyone. In addition, every country should ensure that it has adequate number of experts trained on biological warfare and countermeasures are available to combat any incident of bioterrorism.

Efforts should be made to prevent the emergence of violent Islamic radicalization in any country since most terrorists arise from such groups. Engaging key communities as partners in the fight against terrorism, identifying and countering the possible sources of Islamic radicalization, improving the ability of the governmental agencies to address radicalization issues, and enhancing the citizens understanding of radicalization, can achieve this preventive strategy.

The world is increasingly becoming digitalized. Currently, the strength of the world’s economy has been founded on the effective use of digital information. However, the worldwide digital infrastructure, composed mainly of the internet, is not free from fraudulent deals. That is why the cyberspace must be protected from terrorist threats.

This calls for a strong vision and leadership to transform policies, technology, and education in order to keep the cyberspace free from such threats. Some countries, for example, the U.S., are engaged in training Citizen Corps to increase the chances of saving more lives in the case of an attack. The Citizen Corps are trained volunteers who are ready to give assistance in case an emergency occur. As much as they give assistance, they are able to detect terrorist threats and respond accordingly to prevent the loss of lives.

The terrorists groups have demonstrated that they are eager to obtain weapons of mass destruction and use them on innocent people. Efforts should be made to prevent their acquisition of these dangerous weapons. This is achievable by detecting, interrupting, and interdicting the uncontrolled movement of terrorist groups around the world. Every country ought to enhance its border security to deter terrorists from exploiting the legitimate entry points into the country (Bush, 24).

All immigrants should be thoroughly screened to determine their eligibility of getting into any country. Since a number of potential terrorists might try to enter a country through illicit pathways, efforts should be made to disrupt this move by adopting an integrated system of individuals, technology, and tactical infrastructure through having secure borders. Appropriate technologies should be available that ensures easier identification and detection of the movement of terrorists.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Preventing Terrorist Acts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In some cultures, religion and politics are connected. Therefore, a person sees it as a great honor to sacrifice his or her life on a suicide mission.

Suicide bombings are nowadays commonly used in the Middle East and in other parts of the world. Suicide bombings can be prevented by erecting two-foot concrete pillars around key buildings to avoid drive up bombings, undertaking one’s activities in secure places, maintaining vigilance against all people, and avoiding suspicious looking people.

Other prevention strategies include rejecting any requests to carry the belongings of a stranger, familiarizing oneself with emergency first aid equipment as this can control damage in case of an attack, and notifying the authorities on receiving a suspicious letter or parcel.

Conclusion In spite of excellent prevention measures that can be practiced, terrorist acts are sometimes unavoidable. Therefore, efforts should be made to minimize the effects of this catastrophe by development of improved alert, notification, and warning systems. These warning systems have to be completely reliable, effective, and flexible to avoid further damages from happening.

Pre-incident alerts should relay intelligence information to people regardless of their geographical locations. The relaying of this information must go on even after the incident. This should give situational updates and suitable directions to follow to avert further loss of lives.

Terrorism against the U.S. and in other nations is still a huge problem; however, a lot can be done to reduce it by adequate initiatives for prevention, detection, and action. The War on Terror will not be won if people relax and stop taking any actions to ensure its success. The society needs to create stringent measures to prevent terrorist organizations from emerging and evolving. With these adequate preventive measures, terrorism can be reduced significantly.

Works Cited Bard, Mitchell. “The Munich Massacre.” Jewish virtual library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 2010. Web.

Bush, George W. “Overview of America’s National Strategy for Homeland Security.” National Strategy for Homeland Security. 5 Oct. 2007. Web.

Gaines, Peter. Terrorism Past, Present and Future. New York: Bantam, 1987.

The Department of Homeland Security. United States Department of Homeland Security handbook. Washington: International Business publications, 2006.

United States Marine Corps. Individual’s Guide for Understanding and Surviving Terrorism. New York: Cosimo Publications.


Parsons and Weber: Tools and Trade Essay scholarship essay help

Talcott Parsons and Marx Weber are two social theorists whose contribution in sociology is undeniable. However, their views are very different although Parsons is a student of Weber. When Parsons first arrived in Heildelberg, Weber’s influence still had a strong grip on the community here despite the latter having died several years earlier (Calhoun et al 82). Weber’s social theories further resonated with Parsons because they had a spiritual and cultural orientation to them.

Weber‘s social theories suggest that human beings level of understanding is curtailed by the difficulties in understanding why social events occur in a specific manner. Weber’s approach is more accommodating in its scope because it suggests that understanding is either observational or explanatory (Calhoun et al 220). Parsons’ theories on the other hand were based on a behaviorist approach, meaning that human beings can deduce social meanings through observation (Calhoun et al 98).

Key methodological issues introduced by Parsons and Weber Parsons’ contributions to social theories and social actions include his analysis of social institutions, outlining systemic theory into sociology, description of the voluntaristic theory of action and analysis of anti-Semitism, fascism and aggression as the main problems facing the society (Calhoun et al 82). Parsons’ action theory explains how structures in the society fit together. The identified systems in this theory include: social systems, cultural systems, personality systems and behavioral-organism system.

Weber’s theories address individual actions based in a social environment, and people’s interaction with the environment. The main difference between the two is that while Weber takes symbolic-interactions perspectives in his theories, Parsons’ approach addresses the same from a functionalistic perspective.

Voluntaristic Theory of Action

Parsons regarded the development of social theory as having developed from three traditions namely: society, man’s nature and human behavior (Calhoun et al 110). Before he set out to put up his own theory about the society, Parsons took time to study work done by other socialist and concluded that “none of them has ever captured the entire truth about social behavior” (Calhoun et al 110).

As such, he took it upon himself to develop a theory that would reconcile and integrate the truths captured by other social theorists. He considered past works by Max Weber, Pareto, Durkheim and Marshall (Calhoun et al 82).

Utilitarianism and economic theory

Parsons captured this theory because it is systemic, analytical and action oriented (Calhoun et al 110). The theory deals with action, experience and understanding since it gives the society a motivation dynamic that explains behavior, thus helping people to anticipate specific things when conditions that are assumed in the theory happen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parsons however had strong arguments against the economic theory as it were stating that economists who held the theory’s conception need to accept that the theory has no precise application in the empirical world.

As such, Parsons argued that a pure economic theory would never achieve the general theory status because neither the classical nor the utilitarian economists were able to develop a theory that took social order into consideration without having to infuse rationalistic or individualistic frameworks in to their theories (Calhoun et al 141).

Weber on his part argued that understanding (verstehen) was the ideal way of studying social phenomenon since it would help human beings to understand their actions, interactions and experiences (Calhoun et al 142)

Significant points between Parsons and Weber Parsons and Weber main difference regards their approach to understanding. According to (Calhoun et al 33), “Parsons lays little regard to material objects revealed through empathy or introspection. Weber on the other hand, does not recognize the distinction of material objects since his sociology is based on real subjective and objective components”. Weber’s approach is tenable when one considers the difference between behavior and action.

This is because behavior refers individual actions, whereby the actor has no clear consciousness of the motivation behind it. As such, Weber states that “behavior is not understandable”. Parsons however fails to recognize this aspect of Weber’s allegation and instead focuses on an action theory, which assumes that human actions are voluntary, symbolic and unintentional (Calhoun et al 77).

Another distinction between Parsons and Weber is their approach to economics. Parsons developed a four-prong system based on four tasks, which relates to the environment. Commonly referred to as the GAIL system, the system is based on polity (Goal-attainment), economy (adaptation), cultural system concerned with social control and law (integration) and normative motivation to fulfill roles in the society (latency).

To Parsons therefore, economic prosperity is reliant on how well the scarce resources in a given environment were allocated. This was a reflection of his idealistic approach (Parsons 20, cited in Calhoun et al 40). Weber on the other hand attributed economic prosperity to a society’s work ethic. To him, the more committed a society was to work, the higher their chances of economic success.

We will write a custom Essay on Parsons and Weber: Tools and Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Weber terms the notion that government can decide the economic reality of a society through legislation as misguided. “In future as in the past, it will be the ‘interests’ of individuals rather that the ‘ideas’ of an economic administration which will rule the world.” (Calhoun et al 77).

He further points out that the proclamations by governments do not in any way affect the value of money. Rather, money’s value is determined by its associations with other goods, thus meaning that “money is not only a means of payment, but a means of exchange too.’(Calhoun et al 77).

To Parsons, demand and supply economics was at the basis of his economic theories. He perceived money as a ‘medium of exchange’, whereby the capitalist could purchase labor through money rather than giving the labor provider a means of existence such as food or clothing (Parsons 112). To Parsons, moneys value did not just stop at being a medium of exchange. Rather, it is also a ‘measure of trust’, hence providing the society with a tool to measure the trustworthiness of their social interactions.

Parsons grouped money with other media that circulates in the society. In particular, he grouped money with commitment, influence and power, stating that the four (money, commitment, influence and power) circulated in the society thus allowing people to achieve specific objectives (Parsons 324 cited by Calhoun et al 142).

These sentiments are shared by Weber. However, his approach is more from a power-money standpoint. He argues that politics and power is a preserve of the wealthy because the average person is too absorbed in making a living such that even if he had the interest or potential for politics, he would not find the time necessary to commit to politics in order to win an elective post.

“Democracy has only the choice of being run cheaply by rich who hold honorary office or of being run expensively by paid professional politicians” (Calhoun et al 113). He however ruled out the possibility that the society would pay professional politicians to run the politics of the country thus concluding that influence and power was the reserve of the wealthy people in the society.

Although he learnt a great deal of sociology from Weber, Parsons was reluctant to admit Weber’s view regarding that “objects susceptible to interpretative understanding are just as real as the phenomena recognized by the behaviorists.” (Calhoun et al 35).

This was despite Weber’s explanation that the phenomena required different study procedures. Instead, Parsons adopted a problematic strategy, based on structural functional analysis, capable of exemplifying social phenomena on priori models of dependence and interrelation (Calhoun et al 49).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Parsons and Weber: Tools and Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weber is skeptic when it comes to the suggestion that a socialist economy can be run without money being the mode of exchange. Even when the economy is small, dealing with simple identifiable needs and centered on consumption only, Weber still expresses doubt that people would be able to trade efficiently in such an environment.

“How does one determine which parts of the economy are doing poorly or what factor of production has contributed to product value?” (Calhoun et al 14). To Weber, a society without money is almost impossible because people would have to incentive to evaluate alternative cost.

To Weber, social action presents the most ideal means of analysis society. According to him, action involves verstehen– “understanding of subjective motivations” (Calhoun et al 207). As such, his theories were based on the ability of one form of social order (e.g. religion, culture or economics) that could transform other domains of the society.

He further argued that social actions by individuals were as a result of benefit calculation or conscious cost in the different spheres of life (Calhoun et al 207). This meant that people were no longer tied to traditional guidelines set by the society.

In the Voluntaristic theory, Parsons suggests that a society should or would not adopt a set of values. His argument suggested that societies need common orienting principles. His argument was based on the belief that human actors in a society are faced with five variable dilemmas.

“Gratification-discipline, private-collective, universalism-particularism, achievement-ascription, and specificity-diffuseness” (Calhoun et al 403). Based on these, Parsons argued that the society had a cultural system, a personality system and a social system, all which were interdependent on each other.

Conclusion Where Weber talks of environment and organisms, Parsons talks of a situation and an actor; where Weber talks of response or behavior, Parson discusses action. From the theories suggested by Parsons and Weber, one gets the impression that social organization consists of social systems, culture, roles and stratifications, which set the conditions which the society is supposed to act on.

However, it is noteworthy that more often than not, people act towards situations rather than towards social structures or culture. This then means that social organization is only potent to the extent where it shapes societal situations thus giving people a reason to act.

According to Calhoun et al (77) social organization can also prompt people to act by giving them with symbols that could help them interpret situations? Both Parson and Weber has given us a reason to view the human society as an organization by identifying the society, conditions or forms that people identify with, and identifying what is most likely to bring change in the specific society.

Works Cited Calhoun, Craig, Gerteis, Joseph, Moody, James, Pfaff, Steven and Virk, Indermohan. Contemporary Sociological Theory. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007. Print.

Calhoun, Craig, Gerteis, Joseph, Moody, James, Pfaff, Steven and Virk, Indermohan. Classical Sociological Theory. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2007. Print.


The Claim That Class Can Be Seen As A Cultural Phenomenon Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Social classes can be defined as the categorization of the individuals in a society according to their financial viability or intellectual capability thus forming a hierarchical arrangement of the society which can also be termed as social stratification. The most basic form of social classification is between the powerful and the powerless, the wealthy and the poor.

On the other hand, culture is defined as the cumulative collection of information, knowledge, beliefs, values, property, religion and attitudes possessed and shared by a group of people which are passed down through generations and are obtained individually and group in social learning.

This makes the definition of culture broad in the sense that it is the mutual structures of information that are possessed by a reasonably large group of people. Therefore, culture in a collective aspect is the way of life of a group of people which represents generally accepted explicit and implicit codes of conduct and behaviors which are formed as a result of former deeds or habitual demands. With the above definitions, it is apparent to note that undeniably class can be seen as a cultural phenomenon.

Social classes Historically, social classes have been inherent to human beings in all forms of civilizations. Documented literature of the early Roman Empire reveals that societies were classified according to intellectual achievements and also according to material possessions (Day, 2001). There are principally two theories that study and explicate the different impressions of social class and they are the Weberian and Marxian theories.

According to Maximilian Carl Emil Max Weber a German sociologist who introduced the seminal sociological elucidation of class and initiator of the Weberian theory; society is basically divided into the upper class, the middle class and the lower class (Goldthorpe


What Is the Nature of Irony in Mansfield Park, and To What Ends Does It Work Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Irony and Its Nature


Reference List

Introduction Mansfield Park, written by Jane Austen, is a complicated masterpiece but thrilling at the same time. Typically, Austen’s work is usually complicated for she creates unusual characters and scenes. However, the complexity in Mansfield Park surpasses any other work by Jane Austen. Mansfield Park is a story about a young woman, Fanny; lost in the social web that she cannot identify with a specific place in society.

Though born in a piteous family, Fanny enjoys vibrant upbringing from her wealthy aunt. In the nineteenth century, women gained status in the society by the person they get married to as opposed to nowadays where a woman can enter any profession and claim her status in the society. Therefore, Fanny has to marry to claim her status in the society.

Nevertheless, as opposed to many marriages in society where women get married based on family connections and prominence coupled with beauty, Fanny is out to earn her groom depending on her character and demeanour. It is unfortunate in Fanny’s world that, everything comes by merit through rewarding virtue where an individual solely determines his or her future based on what he or she does.

This story takes the reader to a complicated journey where one wonders what the primary determinants in one’s life are. Between nature and nurture, what really determines one’s character? Even though Jane Austen addresses many issues like the role of education in life and sexuality among others, this paper looks into the nature of irony in Mansfield Park and determines to what extend it works.

Irony and Its Nature According to Essid (2008), Irony is “perception of inconsistency, usually but not always humorous, in which an apparently straightforward statement or event is undermined by its context so as to give it a very different significance.” There are three different types of irony.

They include, verbal irony, which is variance between the intended meaning and the actual spoken words. Structural irony “involves the use of a naive or deluded hero or unreliable narrator whose view of the world differs widely from the true circumstances recognized by the author and readers” (Essid 2008).

Dramatic irony comes out in drama when the audience foreknows what will happen to the characters, even though the characters do not know. Austen employs structural irony and this applies until the end of the book because Fanny does not come to realize her place in society neither does she appreciate the reality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Going back one of Austen’s books, Pride and Prejudice; she opens it by saying, “it is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife” (Austen 1983, p. 1). This statement introduces Austen’s use of irony in her writing. Ironically, Austen is saying, “a single woman must be in want of a man with a good fortune” (Van Ghent 1998, p. 305).

This serves only as an introduction to Austen’s world of irony. Maybe looking to some of the comments from seasoned writers have made about irony in Mansfield Park, it would help the reader to understand it better. A seasoned author Marvin Mudrick (1968, p. 155) posits that, “Nowhere else does Jane Austen take such pains to make up the mind of her reader.”

To echo these words, Lionel Trilling (1955, p. 208) concludes that, this is a novel, “in which the characteristic irony seems not to be at work. Indeed, one might say of this novel that it undertakes to discredit irony and to affirm literalness, that it demonstrates that there are no two ways about anything.”

Perhaps Fanny is not the person Austen tries to picture in this story; she is a didactic woman who steers her life though clandestinely. Richard Colby; after immense efforts in studying heroines like Fanny in other didactic works like Brunton and Opie, he notes that, “certainly the characters of Mansfield Park would not feel out of place in the atmosphere of Coelebs in Search of a Wife” (Colby 1967, p. 83).

The attitude of Austen in this book is different from other writings. “Miss Austen’s way with the Christian-didactic novel; is not to be compared with her flippant treatment of Gothicism and sentimentality, for her attitude toward her immediate contemporaries is fundamentally different. The novelist of Mansfield Park, therefore; is no longer the mocker, but the improver” (Colby 1967, p. 94)

It is ironical that Austen wants to paint Fanny as a Christian heroine on one side, yet on the other side, Fanny comes out as a non-religious figure who cares for no one else but herself. As opposed to the Christian principles that Austen endows Fanny with, she comes out as a flawed and vulnerable woman without morals.

Most of Fanny’s characters are irritating to the reader, no wonder Trilling (1955, p. 212) notes that, “no reader has ever found it possible to like the heroine of Mansfield Park. Fanny Price is overtly virtuous and consciously virtuous.” Fanny’s character is so exaggerated to be true; no one can attain such self-righteousness, not Fanny, either. Fanny is flawed in her beliefs and this probably poses the greatest obstacles towards her identification of her position in the society.

We will write a custom Essay on What Is the Nature of Irony in Mansfield Park, and To What Ends Does It Work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though Fanny is out to gain ‘self-knowledge’, Austen repeatedly uses the word ‘must’ and this interferes with the logical thinking towards self-knowledge and realization. This enforcement leads the reader to, “read it in its opposite” (Van Ghent 1998, p. 305). Surely, the reader is forced to read both what Austen is saying and what she is not saying.

For instance, looking closely to Fanny’s resolution to draw the line between the reality (the truth based on facts) and fantasies (her wishes), instead of seeing the self-knowledge that Austen purports, the reader concludes this is self-deception.

Mary Crawford is hit by Fanny’s confusion between self-knowledge and self-deception and she seeks to know whether Fanny engages in social world, whether she knows her place in this world or she just observe as events fold and unfold. To this question, Edmund Bertram concludes that, “Miss Price is not out” (Austen 1988, p. 51).

The fact that Fanny is not fully involved in the social world out there is ironical given that she is supposed to be a heroine according to Austen’s insinuations. Heroines should be brave, role models, discerning and standing for a good course. If someone is just like any body else then he or she does not qualify to be a hero or heroine. The outstanding things that people do sets them apart and this calls for making tough decisions, judgments and choices that in most cases does not go down well with the greater populace.

Regrettably, these qualities are conspicuously lacking in Fanny’s character. For instance, when discussing about a clergy job that Dr. Grant took, Edmund looks things from a pragmatic point of view and states that, Dr. Grant has a “very faulty habit of self-indulgence’” (Austen 1988, p.111).

However, Fanny deliberately refuses to see this fact and chooses to defend this clergyman by saying, “It must make him think, and I have no doubt that he oftener endeavours to restrain himself than he would if he had been any thing but a clergyman” (Austen 1988, p. 112).

The fact is Fanny is simply gullible. While on one side, the reader acknowledges Fanny’s moral optimism, it is irritating to see the deliberate refusal to accept the reality. The people heading churches are simply human; susceptible to human flaws like self-indulgence, a fact that Fanny cannot see.

Either Fanny’s gullibility, escapism or self-deception, comes out clearly when she says to Edmund, “Here’s harmony! Here is repose! Here is what may tranquillize every care, and lift the heart to rapture!

Not sure if you can write a paper on What Is the Nature of Irony in Mansfield Park, and To What Ends Does It Work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When I look out on such a night as this, I feel as if there could be neither wickedness nor sorrow in the world; and there certainly would be less of both if the grandeur of Nature were more attended to, and people were carried more out of themselves by contemplating such a scene” (Austen 1988, p. 113). While one appreciates the sanctimony of Fanny’s observations, they only come as a fantasy.

These scenes of harmony and placidity occur only in Fanny’s mind; possibly, because she spends most of her time escaping from the reality. She admits her feelings, “I feel as if there could be neither wickedness nor sorrow in the world; and there certainly would be less of both if the grandeur of Nature were more attended to…” (Austen 1988, p. 113).

This is ridiculous and the closest that these feelings come to realization is only that, feelings. This is self-deception; Edmund realizes it, and even though he assures Fanny that he is going to keep her company by the window, he ironically goes back to the room because he loves Crawford. Again, it is ironical that Edmund claims to support Fanny’s purviews of sanctimony yet draws back to meet Crawford.

Despite the many attempts that Austen tries to bring out the heroine in Fanny, she remains an observer of the world; something that Butler brands, “an active heroine” (Butler 1987, p. 236). According to Mudrick (1968, p. 240), “Fanny’s silences are the appropriate social demeanour of the Christian heroine, who is humble and unassertive.

But in her half of the book, the second half, they also imply the strength of someone who neither needs to seek advice nor to vindicate herself, because she has a source of strength both within and without.” It is visible that Fanny does not have any clue about human nature; not even herself.

While on one side the reader sees Fanny as a flaw-bound person who tries hard to learn, Austen throws all this into disarray and one cannot fully understand the character of Fanny. This is one of the books by Austen that one is likely to get lost in it. It appears that Fanny will appreciate friendships only from a certain point and nothing beyond that. For instance, what explains this scene; Mary is Fanny’s friend for along time and she has been showering Fanny with gifts all the time.

However, one day Mary tries to give Fanny a necklace, supposedly given by Henry and Fanny cannot believe it. “Fanny, in great astonishment and confusion, would have returned the present instantly. To take what had been the gift of another person, of a brother! Too, impossible; it must not be!” (Austen 1988, p. 259. However, after Mary persuades her and Edmunds steps in to commend how beautiful she looks in the necklace, she accepts it.

Immediately after accepting the necklace, Edmund suggests that a chain worn as a cross would even make it better. Fanny immediately accepts the chain and notes that, “they must and shall be worn together’” (Austen 1988, 262). As aforementioned at the beginning of this paper, the repetitive use of “must” forces the reader to read what Austen is not saying.

Austen uses this irony and the reader can easily read what she is not saying. The thing is Fanny has a wears the chain and the necklace to hide something. Not that the chain is of any importance to Fanny no; she uses it to cover her romantic feelings and this is self-deception.

No wonder; after wearing the two of them, she becomes “comfortably satisfied” Austen 1988, p.271. What ‘comfort’? Fanny is only ‘comfortable’ that she has managed to fool herself together with the people surrounding her. She cannot face the reality that she has romantic feelings just like anybody else. Even though to some extent Fanny can control her values and maintain her self-righteousness, it does not hold any water as she continually lives in denial.

Fanny continually seeks to build and shape her life around distorted principles that are too weak to stand on themselves. Not only does she believe that she can build and shape her life, but also, believes that she can shape other people’s lives by her ideologies.

This leads to numerous misunderstanding in different occasions. For instance, she cannot understand Henry as a human being; she thinks, “He must be ashamed and disgusted altogether. He must soon give her up, and cease to have the smallest inclination for the match” (Austen 1988, 402).

This is what she hopes, however, the fact is she knows Henry changed his ways and this fact flatters her. This case resonates to the case of Crawford who had changed and become gentle with people and regarding them with respect. She wonders, “If in little things, must it not be so in great?” (Austen 1988, p. 413). What Fanny is saying is that, it is ‘must’ for Henry to have changed and this is only to her benefit. She sees what she wants to see, not the reality as she continues to build and paint her own world.

Nevertheless, Fanny’s fantasies are yet to face the test of reality. After realizing that Henry had eloped with Maria, she thinks that, “as far as this world alone was concerned, the greatest blessing to every one of kindred with Maria would be instant annihilation (Austen 1988, p. 442). Ironically, this is against her sanctimonious beliefs that call for forgiveness and bearing with one another in times of troubles and challenges.

It is ironical that, while Fanny disapproves Maria’s act to a point of calling for annihilation, she would do the same if she were in Maria’s shoes. Fanny accepts that she has feelings for Henry but she cannot imagine her self having feelings similar to those of a wicked person like Maria. The question is; would Fanny accept to be annihilated for she shared same feelings with Maria. The answer is no, because we are all human beings full of flaws; a fact that Fanny deliberately chooses to ignore.

Though Fanny does not get a chance to annihilate Maria, Austen annihilates the story. As she concludes the story, the wicked people get their share of suffering as the good are awarded on merit according to their deeds. Fanny says, “Let other pens dwell on guilt and misery. I quit such odious subjects as soon as I can, impatient to restore every body, not greatly in fault themselves, to tolerable comfort, and to have done with all the rest” (Austen 1988, p. 461). Like any other story, Austen brings a happy conclusion where lovers lived happily thereafter.

According to Trailing (1955, p. 230), “It shuts out the world and the judgment of the world. The sanctions upon which it relies are not those of culture, of quality of being, or personality, but precisely those, which the new conception of the moral life minimizes, the sanctions of principle, and it discovers in principle the path to the wholeness of the self, which is peace.

When we have exhausted our anger at the offence which Mansfield Park offers to our conscious pieties, we find it possible to perceive how intimately it speaks to our secret inexpressible hopes.”

Austen uses irony in this text to speak about people, how they usually have inexpressible desires and hopes. She concludes by saying, “My Fanny indeed at this very time, I have the satisfaction of knowing, must have been happy in spite of every thing. She must have been a happy creature in spite of all that she felt or thought she felt, for the distress of those around her” (Austen 1988, p. 461).

Conclusion Mansfield Park, just like any other Austen’s book, is about a heroine who seems not to know exactly what she wants in life and her place in the larger society. However, even though Austen tries to paint a picture of a Christian heroine, Fanny does not own up to it according to her living standards. The standards that Austen sets for Fanny are too lofty for Fanny to achieve. Therefore, to cover these flaws, Austen uses a lot of irony whereby Fanny confesses she has to do what she does because it is a ‘must’ to do it; again, it is ‘comfortable’ to do it.

This represents escapism where one tries to create his or her self-beliefs through what is perceived to be self-knowledge only to turn out to be self-deception; deception it was when Fanny realized that she had same feeling as Maria, but wait, a self-righteous sanctimonious being cannot have feelings like a wicked being. What Fanny tries to assume for so long comes back to her. She calls for Maria’s annihilation; however, the question is whether she would accept the same.

Mansfield Park applies structural irony because Fanny does not come to terms with the reality and even though the reader knows the reality of the heroine, Fanny remains in delusions.

Reference List Austen, J. 1988, Mansfield Park Ed. R. W. Chapman, Oxford: OUP.

Austen, J. 1813, Pride and Prejudice, New York, Random House, Inc.

Butler, M. 1987, Jane Austen, and the War of Ideas, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Colby, R. 1967, Fiction with A Purpose: Major and Minor Nineteenth-Century Novels, Bloomington: Indiana Up.

Essid, J. 2008, Literature, Technology, and Society: Invented Worlds. Web.

Mudrick, M. 1968, Jane Austen: Irony as Defence and Discovery, Berkeley: U California.

Trilling, L. 1955, the Opposing Self, New York: Viking Press.

Van Ghent, D. 1998, the English Novel, Form, and Function, New York: Norton.


Thomas Paine, Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence Term Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Response to Questions


Works Cited

Introduction Certain individuals stand out clearly in American history. This is due to the significant contributions that they made towards making the United States of America we know today. Among these is the third president of America Thomas Jefferson. Being a political philosopher, Jefferson stepped up and took the task of drafting the Declaration of Independence document with a lot of precision that he remains a popular figure amongst many citizens.

One of his popular statements is, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson).

On the other side, Thomas Paine stands out due to his work in influencing Americans to push for independence. He wrote Common Sense, a masterpiece that fuelled the desire to stand up and claim what was rightfully Americans’, that is, independence. Common Sense spread like bushfire, taking only few months to have over 120,000 copies of it in the market. During this short time, many people read this book and concurred with its contents. Up to date, no single work has sold like Common Sense.

Response to Questions In writing common Sense, Thomas Paine uses extensive imagery and argues his points out placidly such that rebellion appears justifiable. The first imagery is comparing America’s continued stay under Britain rule of law to babies feeding on milk.

The argument that America had thrived well under colonial rule did not make sense to Paine, making him argue that simply because a child is thriving under milk does not imply that she or he will die once fed on meat. Paine argues that America could prevail on her own because most of her profits benefited the colonialists. According to Paine, a time had come for America to undergo through the weaning process, leave ‘milk’ and chew ‘meat’.

Simply stated, a time had come for America to claim independence. Again, imagery comes in when Paine compares Americans to, “a man who is attached to a prostitute is unfitted to choose or judge of a wife, so any prepossession in favour of a rotten constitution of government will disable us from discerning a good one” (Paine 106). The argument is that England’s constitution was unfit for Americans given its complexity.

Paine creates scenery of a group of people living in an isolated island without governance. He posits that,

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this state of natural liberty, society will be their first thought. A thousand motives will excite them thereto; the strength of one man is so unequal to his wants, and his mind so unfitted for perpetual solitude, that he is soon obliged to seek assistance and relief of another, who in his turn requires the same (Paine 97).

The issue here is that these people will ultimately form government based on laws that they make for themselves meaning that the law will represent them.

This imagery attacks Monarchy directly with Paine arguing that, “The first King should have been appointed either by lot, by election, or by usurpation” (Paine 119). Kings to follow would also be elected or follow these processes and this eliminates monarchy. If anything, monarchy and ruling through kings sprouts from sin. Paine goes ahead to quote the bible and show how Jews angered God by asking for a king.

Based on the evidence given in literature, it is clear that Paine did not overstate the conditions that prevailed in most English colonies before declaration of independence. It is natural for a reader to think that these conditions were overstated to achieve a certain theme; especially given the kind of a person that Paine was. Nevertheless, after scrutinizing the events, it becomes clear that change was needed immediately.

On top of the list is the call for Americans to pay taxes that would oversee the funding of Britain’s defence. This was tantamount to funding an enemy. Not at any time that Americans felt free under the Britain rule so in effect, they were ‘enemies’. There was no freewill on the part of Americans and hearing that they would fund the strengthening of the Britain was bad enough to fuel rebellion.

There were different acts that worsened the situation. The first act was, “Administration of Justice Act.” This called for trial of British soldiers in Britain; hence, justice perversion. The “Quartering Act” called for Americans to quarter for colonial soldiers. That was unpalatable.

To cap it all, “Massachusetts Government Act” took freedom from Americans meaning that they could not meet freely in towns. These conditions were inhuman considering that all these would come through increased taxes. Representation was very poor and it hurts to give up money that cannot be accounted for. Paine did not exaggerate these conditions.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Thomas Paine, Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine proposed similar form of government, Republicanism. Republicanism conformed to the ambitions and dreams of these two people. The quest to uphold human rights and freedom was so much in the hearts of these two men and only republicanism would offer a reprieve to their cries. Paine posits that,

The nearer any government approaches to a Republic, the less business there is for a king. For ’tis the republican and not the monarchical part of the Constitution of England which Englishmen glory in, viz. the liberty of choosing an House of Commons from out of their own body–and it is easy to see that when republican virtues fail, slavery ensue (Paine 116).

Monarchy was a thorn in Paine’s flesh; however, republicanism would offer an antidote. Naturally, people react to most burning issues in their lives and most probably, they will come up with mitigating measures to counter their problems.

Abolishment of monarchy and fostering human rights freedom topped the agenda of both Paine and Jefferson. Jefferson noted that, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson). This statement explains the reason why Jefferson chose republican form of governance; these human rights can only be established, and thrive better under republicanism.

Jefferson made one statements that explains the self-evident truths; that is, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson).

According to this statement, there are two truths. One, men are equal and that is the will, of God. The other truth compounds rights that come by the virtue of creation. God did not create people to be subjected to intimidation and colonialism; but to have freedom, live life to the fullest and pursue deeply held desires that come in form of dreams.

By writing this, Jefferson made the issue of liberation clear. Americans, by the virtue of being created by the same God who created Britons, had the right to be free. Unfortunately, they only possessed this right but never practised it. Nevertheless, Jefferson indicates that nothing was lost and Americans could still rise above intimidation and deception to claim what is rightfully theirs. Actually, this was Jefferson’s, “Americans, arise and shine, claim what is yours and make use of it; that is, freedom and liberty.

Jefferson voiced a number of concerns and grievances directing them to the King of Great Britain while addressing the readers of the document. They come under two categories, those focusing on administration/governance, and those affecting people directly. Concerning administration, Jefferson used “he has” referring to the King of Great Britain. For instance,

Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Paine, Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty


Violent Video Games and How They Affect Youth Violence Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature Review

Anti-Violent Video Games Findings

Pro-Violent Video Games Findings



Abstract A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of violent video and computer games on children and the youth. This research paper seeks to discuss the findings of studies conducted on violent video games and how they influence youth violence and aggressiveness.

Although some of the research findings have revealed that there is negligible relationship between the two, a significant number of the studies have found a positive correlation between the playing of violent video games and negative behavior like aggression, bullying, fighting, and desensitization among the young people.

Researchers who condemn the playing of violent video games argue that children under the age of 12 are greatly influenced and the effects can be long-term. Concerning the teenagers and the older youth, negative impact especially on aggressive behavior is also reported. However, the researchers have identified some crucial limiting factors, especially on the youth.

They include; gender, age, and an individual’s level of education. These factors have been shown to play a central role when it comes to differentiating between the make-believe and real-life situation as far as violent video games are concerned. The research paper will conclude that a lot of research into violent video games and the youth need to be done in order to provide more evidence either for or against their use by the young adults.

Introduction The need to understand the causes of violence and aggression among the youth in the United States of America has been in existence for a long period of time now.

Meaningful research into this issue started over 50 years ago with most of the researchers depicting conflicting findings. In recent times, violent video games have been on researchers’, local presses’, and politicians’ spotlight as the main causes of the reported criminal violence perpetrated by young adults (Anderson, 2005).

This was triggered by the random shootings orchestrated by two youths, Lee Malvo and John Mohammad in Washington, DC. However, despite the overwhelming outcry against the youth playing violent video games, there are a number of researchers and advocates who oppose the idea of directly linking the exposure of young adults to violent scenes and their aggressive behavior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For them, there is no conclusive evidence to support the idea apart from the unreliable and non-standardized ways of collecting and analyzing/interpreting data used by their opponents (Ferguson, 2007).

Literature Review This section seeks to highlight some of the research findings conducted by various researchers. It aims to draw the line between those who advocate for the scrutiny of the type of video games which the youth are allowed to play and those who see no problem at all when youth play violent video games.

According to Anderson, Donnerstein, Johnson,


E-Concert Report for Pieces from Classical and Romantic Music Report essay help online free

The period spanning one and a half hundred years, from the mid-eighteenth to the late nineteenth century, is known as one of the most fruitful periods in the history of music. The era of Classicism (ca. 1750 – 1820), with its tendency to intellectualism and rationality, witnessed crystallization of such model musical genres as classical sonata, concerto, symphony, and opera.

The music of Romanticism (ca. 1815 – 1910) was inspired by emotion, feeling, and intuition, and ran a more unrestricted course in terms of genres and forms, expressing impulsive passions.

In the focus of the present report are works by two composers who represent different styles, genres, and national schools: Mozart’s Overture to The Magic Flute and Piano Concerto K488, and Mussorgsky’s suite Pictures at an Exhibition arranged for orchestra by Maurice Ravel.

The Overture is performed by Med Orchestra (conductor James Levine), the Piano Concerto — by Virtuosi di Praga orchestra with Zoltán Kocsis as soloist, and the Pictures at an Exhibition — by the Philharmonia Orchestra conducted by Esa-Pekka Salonen at BBC Proms.

Perhaps the most renowned of Classical composers, the Austrian genius Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart represents a rare example of universal musician. His composer gift embraced all the possible contemporary genres, adding a unique touch to each of them. Thus his last opera, The Magic Flute (1790), features an Overture that despite all the classical canons does not represent any thematic material of the opera and is only linked to it by its key (Frater).

It starts with three majestic chords followed by strings phrases which gradually calm down as if exploring the harmonies. After this prelude, a fragment follows that is built on polyphonic imitations among the strings and their dialogue with the wood winds. The agitated rhythm of the main motif allows Mozart to build a dramatic development which stops all over sudden and again three chords from the beginning appear.

Now they are played not by the whole orchestra but by the wood winds only, after which an intense fugato on the main motif follows featuring dialogues of various orchestral groups. The material of the first part is repeated, and at the end of the Overture the harmonic balance of the orchestra is assaulted by sudden sounds of trombones, as if questioning the achieved harmony. But the affirmative replies from the string group assure of the positive dénouement.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A brilliant performer himself, Mozart excelled in the genre of piano concerto both as a pianist and as a composer. Initially being induced to write and play concertos as a means of survival, Mozart shortly achieved success and popularity among the Viennese connoisseurs of art (New York Philharmonic).

His Piano Concerto K488 (1786) was written at the peak of his popularity and radiates happiness and optimism. The first Allegro features the customary ‘double exposition’ with the main themes played first by the orchestra and then by the soloist with the orchestra.

The piano part is traditionally virtuosic, rich with breathtaking passages and trills. Together with performing solo fragments and supporting the orchestra in the manner of basso continuo, the piano enters dialogues with various instruments of the orchestra throughout the piece. After developing and repeating the initial thematic material, the pianist proceeds to the virtuosic yet profound cadence which — untypically of the contemporary practice — was written by Mozart into the score (New York Philharmonic).

The heartfelt Adagio opens with a piano melody which is breathtaking in its tender sadness. The orchestra provides a harmonic background and additionally tints the shadows or major and minor keys that flicker throughout the whole part. After this lyrical digression, the final Rondo appears the livelier in its sweeping energetic motion. The piano and the orchestra take turns as if playing tag and finally unite in a triumphant rejoicing.

The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed a rise of national composer schools, one of the bright examples of which was Russian “The Mighty Handful”.

Modest Mussorgsky, as its member, drove inspiration for his works from Russian history, literature, and folklore. His famous suite for piano Pictures at an Exhibition (1874) represents an excursion through a gallery of pictures by Mussorgsky’s friend, an artist Victor Hartman (Eagen). The suite turned out to be so popular with the musicians that its multiple interpretations have been conducted, one of the most accepted being an orchestral arrangement by Maurice Ravel.

Illustrating a walk through a picture gallery, Mussorgsky creates a leitmotif, “Promenade”, which designates the process of walking from one picture to another. The theme is voiced at the very beginning by the trumpets and carried on by the soft timbre of the strings.

We will write a custom Report on E-Concert Report for Pieces from Classical and Romantic Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each time delivered by different instruments, it reappears between each part, letting the audience dwell over the previous picture and get ready for the following. The first picture, “The Gnome”, appears all over sudden in irregular grotesque ‘jumps and leaps’ from the lowest to the highest tessitura of the orchestra.

The syncopated chords and swift passages symbolize the Gnome’s peevishness and unfriendliness. Next comes “The Old Castle”, a stylized Italian troubadour song, the medieval spirit of which is emphasized by a sustained bass and a melancholic melody swaying over it in a three-beat meter.

From the dreamy atmosphere of antiquity, the audience is brought to the scene of children play in the Pairisian park “Tuileries”. This vivid scene is illustrated by the lively passages of oboe and clarinet. Contrasting to the light and agile movement of the “Tuileries”, the following part, “Bydlo”, astonishes by its heavy awkwardness.

The joint powerful efforts of the bulls pulling the massive wooden cart are represented in the heavy reiterating chords of the whole orchestra. And yet another contrast comes in “Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks”: a speedy and bit clumsy miniature dance of barely feathered birds is rendered by grace notes and staccato of the high wood winds.

From the animal world Mussorgsky brings the audience back to the world of people: in “Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle” the composer depicts two Jews, a rich and a poor one.

The first one is illustrated by massive sounds of the bass instruments, while the second one is represented in the nasal ingratiating timbre of cor anglais. Their dialogue is ended by a resolute phrase articulated by the whole orchestra and obviously designating the refusal voiced by the rich and authoritative Jew. “Limoges — The Market” returns to France: this time to the bustling atmosphere of a busy market with squabbles of tradeswomen embodied in the high-pitch repetitions among the whole orchestra.

The more stunning are the massive solid chords of the brass winds that render a feeling of objective eternity and repose: the audience enters the gloomy “Catacombs”. Even the subsequent “Promenade” played by an oboe sounds lost in the grandeur of the eternal silence.

This sacrament is rudely interrupted by “The Hut on Hen’s Legs” — a picture of a folklore Russian witch flight, with the orchestra ostinato sounding threateningly in its speedy progression. After this illustration of an ugly, evil creature, appears the noble and stately image of “The Great Gate of Kiev”. The majestic theme is repeated in different orchestral arrangements several times, including carillons that are symbolic of Russian Orthodoxy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Concert Report for Pieces from Classical and Romantic Music by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The amazing diversity of Classical and Romantic style reveals itself in both the genres and the orchestral devices. While the Classical epoch concentrates on the intellectual genres of sonata and concerto and strives for clarity of orchestration, Romantic music aims at emotionality and employs all the orchestra’s means for a colorful and passionate depiction.

Works Cited Eagen, Tim. “Images for Pictures at an Exhibition.” 2000. Web. .

Frater, S. A. “The Magic Flute.” Lecture on the opera from Web. .

New York Philharmonic. “Piano Concerto in A Major, K.488, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.” Program Notes. Dec. 2009. Web.


The Wireless Telecommunications Industry Term Paper best essay help: best essay help

The wireless Telecommunications Industry Wireless communication is one sector of business that has undergone phenomenal growth over the past few years. The number of individuals using mobile devices like cell phones, I phones, laptop and palm to computers has drastically increased even in the developing and third world countries. This growth in market has attracted a lot of attention in this sector attracting new entrants to compete with the traditional communication giants.

Monopolies are described in economics as the existence of a firm or corporation that has so much control over the market that they have a significant influence on whether a new entrant in the market will succeed or not and if they do enter, on what terms (Heywood and Guangliang, 2009). Monopolies are generally discouraged in most economies with laws put in place to regulate it. Certain monopolistic behaviour can sometimes play to the disadvantage of the smaller new entrants thus the need of regulation to avoid unfair competition.

Oligopolies on the other hand are markets whereby there are just a few product or service providers. This is normally characterised by stiff competition and marketing strategies that always have the competitor’s reaction in mind. Oligopolies have sometimes been perceived better than monopolies because the end consumer then has a sense of choice and the cost of products and services are self regulated (Heywood and Guangliang, 2009).

The wireless communication industry is probably one of the best examples of oligopolistic markets. For many years there have been just but a handful of wireless communication firms dominating the market. The main players have been Nokia, Samsung, Sony Ericsson and LG; but with growing markets, new entrants have been attracted into the market.

The i phone by apple is probably the best example of a new entrant. Apple focussed on great innovation to take mobile communication to a whole new level. They came up with the I phone that allows the users to get their e mails directly on their phone just like text messages while supporting all the other conventional phone features.

China has also come into the market with phones similar to the ones made by the original players. All these combined have put pressure on the traditional top players both in terms of pricing and innovation. The china phones are a lot cheaper but perform all the functions as the original phones plus extras like TV reception.

I do not however think that the competition can push out some players because despite the cheap prices, the cheap phones have some downsides like shorter lives and poor batteries. The traditional leaders are therefore almost guaranteed to keep the upper class markets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The stock prices of the big firms are not likely to be affected because if the firms maintain top quality products then their reputations will remain protected. Reseller phones now available in the market are likely to work against the cheaper Chinese phones rather than the large firms because of the prices. The big firms in the market are only likely to change their strategies in separating their markets.

This they can easily achieve by dedicating a department within their firm to cater for the lower end market by providing good quality phones but at affordable prices.

This would take care of the competition from china. They would also need to invest in innovation to counter competition from the ever emerging new technologies. They would also need to diversify their products to include other services. The graph below shows how these services were distributed in Japan (home of the giants in telecommunications industry) for the year 2009.



Sole proprietorship Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Sole proprietorship forms by far the most common form of business ownership for start ups. Numerous ways of starting businesses are available to entrepreneurs but still this is most preferred. Several reasons can be attributed to this situation. These reasons could include the autonomy one requires. As opposed to partnership and companies that may limit the freedom with which one operates, sole proprietorship allows the business man independence.

Another advantage accruing to this type of business is that it is easier and faster for the business man to make decisions in the business. This is because interruptions in making decisions are few. These decisions may not end up being the best as it were. Some people would want to be their own bosses and this point of not being accountable to any other person like the case is in partnership and sole proprietorship will drive the person to form a sole proprietorship business.

The legal requirements to the formation of a sole proprietorship are not as many as those found in other forms of business organizations like the companies. Sole proprietorship has very few requirements. Only registration and the acquisition of trading licenses are necessary. It takes a short time to as compared to other forms of business organizations.

Formation of this type of business is very easy and one can start it with very little capital. This would then inspire one simply to get into this form of business. Since most business start ups do not have a lot of capital to themselves, this offers to be the best business organization form for them to get into.

Just as easy as it is to start a business so is the winding up of the same. Unlike the companies that have numerous winding up procedures that involve many legal regulations, sole proprietorship is very limited in these regulations and procedures. It will only take the decision of the proprietor as pertains to when it wind up the business. This forms a basis as to why most start ups focus on sole proprietorships.

Even though sole proprietorship appears to be most convenient to the business star ups, it has several shortcomings to it. Care and proper research should therefore be carried out before determining whether to take this up as a form of business ownership.

The biggest question about entrepreneurs is the determination as to whether they are born or made. Many studies have concluded that up to seventy five percent of entrepreneurs are born with these characters while only twenty five percent acquire these characters from learning. The main qualities include: having the inner drive to succeed. It is the greatest desire to gain prominence that will drive people into entrepreneurship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Entrepreneurs also have a strong belief in their potentials. They set out towards a goal in life and have the assurance that they can very well achieve it. George Soros is one such entrepreneur who had utmost belief in his potentials. At one time it is said that he bet against the collapse of the Bank of England. They are innovative. Most entrepreneurs do not come up with copycats but establish something quite different from what is already available in the market.

Entrepreneurs like to embrace change. They do not have a liking for the status quo. They learn from anyone and everyone at that with the purpose of continually improving on what they have achieved at a given point in time what they look forward to achieve. Richard Branson the brainchild behind Virgin Atlantic was one who was zealous for change and it paid off with his multibillion firms.

Entrepreneurs are also competitive in nature. Entrepreneurs are driven by the drive to not only excel but also outshine any competition that is coming forth in the market. Donald Trump the owner of the Trump Heritage is one such an entrepreneur who wanted to stay competitive and his work was inspired by this trait.

Entrepreneurs in their endeavors are highly motivated and energetic. Circumstances do not determine their zeal for success and in put in their ventures. They move everywhere seeking opportunities and have the motivation to stand up and face new days even in the wake of challenges. Bill Gates the owner of Microsoft did not only accept negative criticism but also stayed energetic in the course of establishing his world renowned firm.

A final trait for this purpose that is possessed by entrepreneurs is that of accepting criticism that is constructive and rejection in the course of their ventures. They do not chicken out and shy away from their undertakings simply because they have faced some discouragement in life. Roman Abramovic the Russian owner of several oil wells stood firm in the wake of criticism.


Thomas Paine, Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence Term Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Response to Questions


Works Cited

Introduction In the American history, there are individuals who stand out conspicuously due to the influence that they had in society during the colonial era. It is amazing how some individuals would stir the society to wake up and claim independence from the Great Britain. One of these men is Thomas Paine.

Though a mere resident, Thomas brought awakening call to millions of Americans when he wrote Common Sense. What baffles even contemporary scholars is the fact that within a very short time, probably months, there were over 120,000 printed copies of this masterpiece. The most intriguing part of it is that during this short time, thousands of people had read Common Sense and gotten the message clearly.

The other significant figure in American history is the famous Thomas Jefferson, the man who supposedly drafted the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson, a president, political philosopher, a writer and a reformist, valued independence that he would do anything to see it happen. One of his popular lines were, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson).

Response to Questions Thomas Paine was very tactful in writing Common Sense and used different ways to justify rebellion. He employs literal imagery and creates arguments to show that Monarchy was of no use and that England was of no help to the colonies. The first literal imagery is painting monarchy as a sin from the beginning of creation. According to Paine, there were no kings in the world not until Jews decided to go against the will of God and demanded a natural king that they would see.

The argument here is that, monarchy owes its roots to sin. He goes ahead to insinuate that even if kings were to be allowed in society, their children should never be allowed to succeed them because this is unpalatable practice that nurtures incompetence, corruption and to some extent, civil wars. “The first King should have been appointed either by lot, by election, or by usurpation” (Paine 119). The subsequent kings should follow the same process; hence, rendering monarchy null.

Paine creates imagery when he paints a picture of a minute group of individuals finding themselves in an island, isolated from the mainstream society completely. As these people get to know each other, they realize that they would need laws to facilitate their living on that island.

According to Paine, these laws would benefit its subjects only if they are fully involved in the law making process. The argument her is that, the British laws were retrogressive and never benefited the colonised people. Paine argues that people would be happier if they make their own laws. The insinuation here is that, England’s form of governance was inconsequential for it did not represent the interests of its subjects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, Paine likens the dependability of America to Britain to that of a baby thriving under milk. He says that simply because a child is healthy by feeding on milk, this does not mean that it will not do equally well or better when fed on meat. The issue is, America should break ties with Britain, and stop feeding on that “milk”, and mature to feed on “meat” and this would make it even stronger.

The conditions of English colonies as by January 1776 were so intolerable and Paine does not exaggerate them. Being a revolutionary, Paine may seem to have exaggerated his claims; however, taking a closer look into the events that happened during this period, there was a dire need to call for change. One of the thorny issues is taxation without representation.

Paying taxes is duty of every loyal citizen; however, there has to be full representation to account the use of these taxes. Paine puts it clear that Americans had to cater for colonial defence. This was unpalatable given the fact that the Americans were not supporting the Britain through freewill.

Anything that would bring down the Britain would probably be antidote to Americans’ woes of colonial rule. Now, saying that citizens had to fund defence of what they loathed was tantamount to committing homicide. The conditions were unpalatable. Think of “the Quartering Act” which indicated that residents had to canton British soldiers. Massachusetts Government Act gagged the Americans invading their freedom of expression.

People could not meet in towns at their pleasure and they were under some curfew to some extent. Injustice was all over and Britain soldiers who committed human atrocities were to be tried in their home country according to “Administration of Justice Act.” This was justice perversion and the Americans could not take it no more. Paine only expressed what was happening and he did not inflate the charges to justify calls for independence.

Paine Thomas proposed a republican form of government. On his part, Thomas Jefferson seemed to echo his namesake, Thomas Paine by rallying for the same form of governance, Republicanism. These people rallied for formation of such governments because they were champions of human rights and this form of governance would provide that. For instance, Paine states that, “The nearer any government approaches to a Republic, the less business there is for a king.

For ’tis the republican and not the monarchical part of the Constitution of England which Englishmen glory in, viz. the liberty of choosing an House of Commons from out of their own body–and it is easy to see that when republican virtues fail, slavery ensue” (Paine 116). These people were against the monarchical way of leadership and republicanism offered the way out.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Thomas Paine, Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is natural that man will react against what irritates him strongly. This case happened with these two people. As Paine started writing his work, he knew exactly what he wanted to say and he spoke plainly.

Monarchy was inconsequential and with this mindset, Paine could not find solace in any other form of governance other than that which would root out monarchy. Jefferson on his side had the same thoughts. “…that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson). This underlines why he chose republican form of governance.

The two self-evident truths by Jefferson come from this statement, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson).

The attributes of these self-evident truths is that men naturally no man should be superior to another and if this happens, then it should be on basis of what is rightfully deserved but not through crooked means like colonization and intimidation. The second part emphasizes on some of the elements that Jefferson cherished most and that is freedom and liberty.

Jefferson’s message in these statements was clear. One, the Americans had the right to have a sovereign country by virtue of their creator, God. For heavens sake, Britain had no right to continue subjecting Americans to their barbaric rule. Americans needed life and freedom to pursue their dreams and live happily thereafter. This could never have happened under the rule of the Britain and Jefferson’s message was that clear.

Jefferson expressed a number of grievances, which lie under the following two categories; those that address what the King of Great Britain have done to the Americans especially at governance level and those that have affected people directly. The first category is characterised by the use of, “he has” for instance, “He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation.

Have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good” (Jefferson). The other category is characterised by, “For…” This category points out some of the things affecting people directly.

For instance, “For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences” (Jefferson). These grievances address the King of Great Britain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Paine, Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Americans nowadays react with contempt towards people with rebellious ideologies. People trying to voice their concerns concerning some things that they feel are not working right are always faced with opposition even from fellow citizens. The United States of America has grown over time in nearly all dimensions such that its citizens feel secure under the prevailing conditions. Anyone with rebellious ideas is seen as someone out to disturb a rather self-sustaining environment and he or she is not always welcome.

There is no longer a common enemy to fight. It is unfortunate that the only common enemy that Americans had to fight was Britain and after that, the cohesiveness disintegrated and everyone supports his or her ideologies. Jefferson and Paine’s words are irrelevant in today’s world. Complacency has taken the better part of many Americans today and they are more than willing to maintain the status quo.

Conclusion It is impossible for any scholar to go through America’s history exhaustively without Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine coming to the picture. These two great men contributed largely towards declaration of independence and the incidences that predated this important time in America’s history.

With his strong and persuasive language coupled with strong writing style and skills, Thomas Paine stirred up Americans to wake up and claim what was rightfully theirs. This did not come through mere empty words; no, Paine went back to history and even used the bible to discredit monarchy and colonialism. On his part, Thomas Jefferson did not fail his fellow people when he was called to draft a document detailing the need to declare independence in America.

He opened his draft by strong words insinuating that it is God’s will that people be free and enjoy their God-given rights. He went ahead to detail the specific reasons why America needed independence at that time more than any other time in history or in future. Unfortunately, the zeal to rebel against bad policies seems to have died a natural death with many Americans withdrawing to complacency and seeking to maintain status quo in all events.

Works Cited Jefferson, Thomas. “The Declaration of Independence.” The Want, Will, and Hopes of The People. 1776. Web.

Paine, Thomas. “Common Sense.” Republican Government. New Rochelle, N.Y: Thomas Paine National Historical Association, 1925.


The Pros and Cons of Selected Financial Derivatives Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Introduction The nature and essence of financial derivatives has continued to affect and influence the world’s economic scene for centuries now. Presently, the estimated market size for derivatives is in excess of $200 trillion globally, based on the speculative value of contracts outstanding (Bells, n.d.). By definition, derivatives are products that allow individual and corporate entities to lessen their exposure to market moves that are inexorably beyond their control (Hunt


Memory System Theories Essay argumentative essay help

The brain is by far the most sophisticated yet complex organ possessed by man. Its ability to receive, decipher, and store massive amounts of information is to say the least amazing. Over the years scientists and other medical practitioners have dedicated their time and resources into trying to understand how it works, what makes it work and how it relates and function with other organs in the human physiology. As such, they have developed theories that indeed help divide it according to various parts and their functionality.

As a result, in depth research has ensued as pertaining to how the brain processes our thoughts, assist in locomotion and most importantly how it helps us learn and actually retain that knowledge; memory. In this paper, we shall focus on the creation of memory as one of the core functions of the brain. Using documented proof, the discussion shall set to ascertain the fact that the human memory does indeed comprise of multiple cognitive systems as regarding to the different types of memory.

Every field of research must always have a main focus through which questions and answers for that particular study are structured and provided. This having being said, memory research evolves around the belief that there are different types of memory systems that are interconnected and interact with each other to provide a particular outcome (Nyberg and Tulving, 1997).

Additionally, these systems are sub divided into those that handle long- term memories and those that are in charge of short- term memories. The fact that there are separate memory systems seems to be agreed upon by many scholars.

However, theories have been developed that dispute this statement and back the idea that some of these multiple cognitive memory systems function on independent levels depending on the current action or event. In terms of the long term memories, four systems have been irrefutably established over the years whose main aims are to provide insight on how the long term memory works and the situations that institute to its usage.

These systems include the episodic memory system, the semantic, procedural and finally, the Perceptual Representation System (PRS). Over the years, a criterion known as the converging dissociations have been implemented to shed some light on how these different memory systems are totally separate especially in the handling of tasks that use or are affected by any of these systems.

Maine de Biran wrote in 1804 that the brain does indeed consist of multiple memory systems. Among those that he focused on were the mechanical memory which deals with the skeletal coordination, sensitive memory which is in charge of the emotions and other feelings and representative memory which deals with our perception to the facts and events of the external world and influences the decision making structures that govern the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In relation to this, Squire acclaims that the different memory systems are developed and function according to the activities and tasks that the brain perceives and our bodies perform. He further describes these memory systems as distinguished by the various tasks that we often carry out (2004). For example reading, walking talking and so forth. To prove this, medical practitioners and memory research experts set an experiment based on the mirror drawing theory to further explain the existence of multiple memory systems.

The experiment was performed to patients who exhibited amnesic tendencies therefore making them perfect candidates. The finding later showed that the eye-hand coordination was not affected by the fact that the patients were amnesic. The patients were able to learn how to draw without any prior recollection of doing this in the past. This example showcased the use of the periodic memory system which focuses on recalling short term memories in relation to repetition of a given task.

The various memory systems are often distinguished through the different ways that they process received information to the brain and the standards through which they operate. As a result of this, new and clearer theories pertaining to memory systems have been established under which the earlier mentioned systems fall under. The theory assumes that memory is defined under two categories which are the declarative memories and the non declarative memories.

Declarative memories are what are referred to in layman’s language as memories. The guiding principle under this type of memory is its ability to identify and simulate the unique attributes that occur at a given place or time. However the term goes deeper than what we remember and term as a memory.

The system focuses on why we remember things or even store information while we discard or forget other memories. This memory generally refers to mans capacity to recollect facts and events on a conscious level. In addition to this, declarative memory allows man to compare and contrast what they remember and it helps in establishing a relationship between these memories and the events that lead to their creation.

On the same note, declarative memory is representational in nature. This means that it is responsible for the way we remember things in our surrounding and consequently how we base their validity through our own experiences. However, this is the memory system that is affected or impaired by amnesia and old age in some cases. It therefore contributes to our performance in various conditions depending on how we perceive the situations.

The semantic and episodic memories consequently fall under the declarative memory system. The semantic memory is described as the memory that is responsible for processing information and facts received about external world.

We will write a custom Essay on Memory System Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the episodic memory caters for and supports our ability to perform an action in context to how we did it during its original occurrence. This includes our motor functionalities and coordination. For the episodic memory to be fully effective, it has to depend on other brain systems and the support of the semantic memory, for example the use of the frontal lobe of the brain.

The best example used to show the relationship between these two memory systems would be the case study of K.C. After being in a motorcycle accident, he incurred multiple and severe brain damage and up to date suffers from acute amnesic tendencies. However after a series of tests, it was declared that his brain functionalities were on most cases normal.

He could remember most of the important things in his past and was able to learn new things slowly but surely. However he could not remember his personal involvement in these tests or even in other events that had happened to him. In addition to this, he lacked the ability to project his thoughts into the future or even think about the past no matter the designated duration (Tulving, 2002).

Evidence derived from this case point to the fact that his episodic memory was somewhat impaired after the accident while his semantic memory system was amazingly left intact. That is probably why he could only remember the things and actions that he had over learned or rehearsed in his day to day activities but could not remember things that happened to him less often in his life.

The non-declarative memory system is in total contrast to the declarative systems. In this category, the memories are dispositional and are manifested through the performance of actions rather than recollections of the same. The factors that influence this type of memory systems include perceptual learning, emotional and skeletal responses (classical conditioning) and non associative learning.

As such, the procedural memory system falls under this category. The memories in this category are revealed when the systems within which an event originally occurred are reactivated. This system of memory is unique through its ability to systematically extract common attributes from a series of differentiated occurrences (Squire, 2004). This can best be illustrated by the inclusion of applied knowledge throughout the learning process.

It should be noted that the memory systems used by the brain to some extent operate in parallel to aid behaviors exhibited by human beings. For example, in a case scenario where a child is knocked down by a bicycle this may lead to a permanent declarative memory of the event and at the same time the child may develop a non-declarative memory subjected to the fear of bicycles.

This example shows how the different cognitive memory systems work together in simulating this event. Another illustration that best describes the presence of multiple memory systems would be during child birth whereby the mothers exert fears of what would be and even the process itself.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Memory System Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition to this statement, there are situations where one memory system may act as a substitute for another. What we learn, store or retrieve from the brain differs from one person to the other depending on the memory system applied. This is why performance and reception through the learning process differs from one person to another.

In a recent study where the participants were given three-word sentences to memorize and later asked to recall them; the learning occurred rapidly and majority of the participants were able to remember the sentences even in absence of some words. Those that could not recall showed less use of the short term memory which is used to remember things or events within a short period of time.

Consequently, more research has been performed in a bid to improve the usage of both the long and the short term memory for both normal and amnesic patients. On the same note, theories have been created through which the human race can be taught or guided to effectively utilize the various multiple cognitive memory systems while exercising a balanced functionality of the same.

The semantic episodic, periodic and perceptual representation system (PRS) has been put under scrutiny. Three articles have been analyzed so as to further assist in proving that there are multiple cognitive memory systems at work in the human physiology.

As a result, the various systems that have been developed have been discussed at length and illustrations and examples that may provide deeper insight on the memory systems have also been provided. It is clear that the choice as to what we remember or forget depends on the memory system that we implement accompanied by the events or facts that we are involved in.

Further research needs to be conducted in order to give more information about how the memory works. In addition to this, clearer methods need to be established through which those that suffer from various brain and memory disorders get assisted to cope and manage their conditions. Also training techniques should be developed to further assist in the full utilization of all the multiple cognitive memory systems.

References Nyberg, L


Changing Notion of Nuclear Family as Portrayed in Television Shows Term Paper online essay help

This paper explores the changing notion of the nuclear family. The understanding and operations of a nuclear family have changed over time. This is well exemplified in the way the nuclear family has been portrayed in television shows over time.

The nuclear family is at the centre of children’s growth and development (Hansen 5). Apart form parents and siblings; other people are also involved in the growing up or every stage of the children’s life. The mother alone cannot be able to take care of the children all alone without the help of the nuclear family even though she is culturally preferred to take care to the children.

Relatives often have to help in taking care of their children when the mother and father are not available; this is where the help of the extended family is needed and is preferred by most parents. When there help is not available parents seek other options like schools, after school programs, child care centers etc (Hansen 6).

Hegemonic ideology of the nuclear family is clearly exposed in the Simpson show, which is popular among adults and the children alike. The show portrays the middle class nuclear family in America: father is Homer; mother is Marge, and the three children who are Bart, Lisa and little Maggie who live in town of Springfield, U.S.A.

Most of the family television shows portrayed a family as happy and perfect but Simpson had a different way of portraying a family by showing how a true family is because it’s not always happy and perfect. By using comedy Simpson looks at popular culture.

It reflects the true color of a nuclear family and the constant quarrels among family members. The Simpson displays frustrations and irritations in a family and how sometimes it suffers lack of money and other important effects and it portrays nuclear family which is a very important image of the family.

In the Simpson the father is not displayed as the only one who can make decisions or who knows everything but as a rebellious one and also a failure (Bowler 1). Though the show has been blamed for portraying bad role models for children and parents and for the declining family values in America, it ends with celebration and appreciation of the nuclear family as a very important part of the family which has been assumed by many other family television shows (Cantor 70).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mother and daughter are good role models as Marge Simpson is a mother who is dutiful and a good housekeeper as shown in the episode where she goes off for an outing. She has a talent in painting and she tries to nurture it in different episodes of the show, e.g. the “Brush with Greatness” where she made and painted a portrait of Ringo Starr.

Lisa on the other hand is a model of a perfect child in a modern nuclear family. She performs and achieves great in school and is also a vegetarian and an environmentalist, she is always right and all she does is correct. She portrays her integrity when she refuses to smoke in the episode “Lisa the beauty queen” (Cantor 74).

The father “Homer” is portrayed as a dumb, illiterate, weak character and morally wrong. He has all these bad characters but he plays well his role of a father by being there for his family. He lacks many qualities we expect in a perfect father as he is often selfish putting his own interests first (Cantor 70).

Bart is the only son of Homer and Merge and he’s the first born in the family. He is portrayed as a mischievous, rebellious and disobedient to his parents.

Simpson portrays the most important image of the family which is the nuclear family (Cantor 70). Although some of the characters are not good role models making the Simpson to be viewed by many critics as not a model of a perfect family they care for one another and they bring out the roles of each and every member of a nuclear family.

Homer as the father is the breadwinner and he works in a nuclear power plant. Merge Simpson continues to play her role of taking care of baby Maggie and home keeper while Bart and Lisa attend school (Martin 74).

Religion also features well in the Simpson family. The family and majority of the town as well attend church service at the First Church of the Springfield which is a non denominational church. Many of the characters are religious and there is also a Sunday school for children where many attend but they are mostly forced and Bart Simpson also doesn’t like attending Sunday school but he seems to enjoy some of the theological teachings they receive.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Changing Notion of Nuclear Family as Portrayed in Television Shows specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the Simpson family, religious difference is also displayed. Marge and Lisa display family’s good morals while Homer and Bart represent family’s lack of good morals. But at the end the good morals always triumph (Bowler 3). The mother, Merge, holds the family together by her sense of morality and her commitment to them. This has helped the family from falling. She is devoted to God and always looks to Him for strength to keep her family strong (Kisken 1).

Lisa is the smartest girl in Springfield and also intelligent. She looks at religion a combination of morals and tradition and not just faith. She believes in everything there is a cause and consequence and this is why she cannot watch stolen cable because she believes she will go to hell if she does. Her strong sense of morality helps her live a good life and be a good example and influence her family positively so that they can live good lives as well.

Bart is a rebellious 10 year old boy who is rebellious to every authority he is under, his parents, school, God etc. But he always turns to the authority he rebels about for control and at the end things turn out good for him (Bowler 27). It is through Bart that the others’ good character is brought into the open.

This is seen where he lies about ruining Christmas for the family, they loose everything to the angry people of the town. This experience teaches the family to stick together and appreciate one another and also learn that there is more to Christmas than material possession (Bowler 15).

Homer seems to be confused and doesn’t understand religion well. He doesn’t seem to understand the Bible and often misquotes it. Example is when he was telling Lisa how the Bible says gambling is not wrong yet Marge kept saying it is wrong. When Lisa asked him where in the Bible he answers that it is somewhere in the back. Though Homer constantly falls into sin due to his confusion his total dedication to his family makes him to always choose good over evil after all (Kisken 3).

When trouble comes, the Simpson’s always turn to God by praying. This can be seen where Bart lost his soul, he turned to God and prayed and God answered his prayer. This shows that God answers prayer which is believed by many nuclear Christian families. The show recognizes that families are not perfect and it focuses on the realism of life and that people don’t have all the answers of life but there is always somewhere we can turn to when looking for answers.

There are several examples that show Merge as the feminist she is. Politically and socially, she is a wife as well as a mother. In high school she burned her bra and this is a typical behavior of a feminist. In another episode, “she goes off on a jaunt al Thelma and Louise” (Cantor 74).

Lisa also shows her feminist characteristics just like her mother, she is a vegetarian, political and an environmentalist. There is this episode where Lisa decides to be a vegetarian and later in the episode we see her trying to change the rest of the family by convincing them to be vegetarian like her. Later while discussing about vegetarianism with her friends who are also vegetarians, Lisa decides that it is not good to push her own values on other people but to appreciate other people’s values and live diplomatically mutually.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Changing Notion of Nuclear Family as Portrayed in Television Shows by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Simpson’s often travel around the world and in another episode Bart is banned from traveling to France for bad behavior. “The Simpson effectively portrays globalization in America in the 1990s (Cantor 91). They are aware of the rich kind of life outside their country America.

The Simpson portrays Globalization in Springfield. There are many foreign people living in this town for example their local store is run by an immigrant from India known as Apu Nahasapeemapetilon. We see foreign celebrities like John Elton visiting the Simpson family.

This shows the way television brings celebrities from allover the world inside the homes of middle class nuclear families and makes them seem their actual neighbors. Politically the Simpson show portrays a typical and traditional American nuclear family. And the way we view the show has changed over the years, it doesn’t just show cartoon characters but the realism of life. The Simpson family is seen as part of a local community and in this way we learn that a family can be sustained by a small community.

Status quo is also reflected in the town where the Simpson’s live. We see Monty Burns who is the richest man in the town; he lives in a big mansion and owns most of the town. Being rich he enjoys the good things of life because he has a lot of money to buy anything he wants.

Homer is a working class who wakes up every morning to go to work which is typical of a working father in a middle class nuclear family. Thus Homer plays an important role in the building of the community. The Simpsons also advocate free market and capitalism; this we see where Homer was complaining about the American donuts.

With its rich style of comedy, the Simpson has many examples which make it be able to maintain its status quo. Monty Burns who is the richest man in the town is also the man with least morals. Homer is working and the audience sees him go to work everyday but is rarely seen working, often he is stealing donuts or has his feet up and eyes closed.

The consuming culture of television is reflected by the characters in the Simpson. The characters in the show consume culture just as audience consumes them. Simpson is a show about consumption and many people can identify with it. An unusual tension concerning consumption is reflected here, viewers are influenced as they are always looking forward to the pleasure they will feel in the shows continuous consumption while others learn to be cautious of such actions.

The Simpson is a postmodern content of popular culture and it gives its viewers identity. Homer is a victim of excessive consumption. He publicly embarrasses himself but through him, viewers are able to identify their wrongs and cautioned to consume with care and to make good use of the culture’s industry (Lehr 72).

The Simpson is just a show just like any other family TV show and it’s a story of everyday life of a typical middle class nuclear family. It is able to look into the moral belief, the roles of the genders and what audience expects from the show’s model of a family. In addition to this, parent teenager relationship is clearly reflected in the show and it portrays the best model of a modern nuclear family.

The family has gone through challenges which normal nuclear family goes through. Homer works in a nuclear power industry while Marge is a stay at home mother. She has to neglect her intellectual potential so as to be a mother and a housewife and in several occasions we see her trying to get a job outside home.

The Simpson family is a representation of a traditional nuclear family because it is composed of a father, mother, 3 children which is considered above average, pets and they have a grandparent who lives outside the family home. Traditionally or originally, nuclear family is expected to provide a good environment for family unity and happiness.

The Simpson family is not put in any category of category because they are yellow skinned but it is a working class. This is a significant blend of cartoon realism which is created by the show’s animated format. Their racial category can only be identified to be white based on culture rather than visual. This allows a great deal of cross racial viewing groups.

The Simpson portrays an example of conflict and resolution. In “The last temptation” Homer almost begins an affair with Mindy who is a new colleague; this makes him to almost become unfaithful to his wife Merge. In the related episode “Life on the First Lane”, Merge almost got tempted into a fling with her bowling coach.

Merge calls a local radio station complaining her Homer’s neglect and this humiliates him so much at work because all the workers had about it and laughed at him. Merge is able to resist the temptation of infidelity and finally she and her husband are united again at Homer’s place of work.

Homers working and family life is always a cause and solution to many oh his difficulties. In “Homers Odyssey”, Homer loses his job when Bart visits him at work and distracts him from working. However he is motivational and in his new role as a safety crusader and as he tries to find new meaning in life, he protects his family from danger.

He protects them from being hit by a speeding van by catching them and this makes him campaign for a stop sign in this part of town. When it is revealed that Marge is expectant, Homer is forced to go back to his former job at the nuclear power plant. Photographs of Maggie decorating his father’s desk at the plant are seen at the end of the episode. This shows support through necessity and inspiration from his nuclear family for him to continue working in the nuclear industry.

The Simpson portrays nuclear family power plant as an essential part of American suburbia because it retains the hegemonic dominance of such industries tycoons like Monty Burns, who is the owner of the industry.

The nuclear power plant represents the cultural politics and social awareness of the traditional and true American culture – the suburban American community and in this show the town of Springfield represents this culture. The value of nuclear family and nuclear power as social issue is seen in the town of Springfield. The Simpson family represents these two social issues.

The Simpson is a show that represents how a typical nuclear family runs in its day to day life. It challenges the model of a happy and perfect family which is always portrayed on television. It displays dysfunctions in a family because at times family is faced with problems and challenges. This is why the Simpson offers the best representation of a nuclear family.

The Simpson is a show in which the importance of family model, suburban values and day to day life in typical American culture is clearly represented (Kisken 2). In addition to this political attitude, citizenship attitude and also attitude towards the nuclear industry in the typical American culture is represented. The Simpson culturally identified with all groups of people.

Being an animated show, children, adolescents and even adults enjoy viewing and they are able to learn from the characters in the show. It’s also a comedy and this makes it enjoyable and it provides an environment for everyone to learn and enjoy. Hegemonic ideology of a nuclear family is clearly portrayed in the Simpson’s family where every member plays his or her role and through this the audience is able to learn and appreciate one another.

Though it’s not a perfect family, it portrays how a true and typical middle class nuclear family is. It is sometimes dysfunctional and broken but through the love and care they have for one another, they are able to face the challenges and maintain their relationship and love and they always remain united as a family.

In the typical nuclear family, both mother and father help their children to grow up well and if they go wrong, they bring them back in love (Lehr 29). Children especially teenagers are rebellious but the Simpson shows us how parents are important in our lives. A family should stick together through it all.

Works Cited Bowler, Gerry. God and the Simpsons: The religious life of an animated sitcom. The Simpson’s Archive. 1996. Web.

Cantor, A., Paul. Gilligan Unbound: Pop Culture in the Age of Globalization. Plymouth: Rowan and Littlefield, 2003.

Hansen, V. Karen. Not-So-Nuclear Families: Class, Gender, and Networks of Care. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2005.

Kisken, Tom. The Gospel of Homer: Sarcastic Cartoon show is not without its Spiritual Moment. Ventura Country Star. 4th September, 1999. Web.

Lehr, Valerie. Queer Family Values: Debunking the Myth of the Nuclear Family. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

Martin, Adrian. Phantasms. Carlton: McPhee Gribble, 1994.


Management Techniques of Innovating Globally Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Managers all around the world are always looking for ways of improving their businesses through innovation, but most of the time are frustrated by poor results. Stuart Crainer’s interview with the innovation guru, Costas Markides, in “Innovation Globally” (Business Strategy Review 21.1 (2010): 24-27. Web) provides managers with techniques of innovating globally.

This article has two main purposes: first, is to provide guidelines on how established companies can respond to the invasion of a disruptive business model in their industries; secondly, is how managers can apply ideas to non-business situations to find solutions for some global problems. In this article, the author addresses the following key question: “can the techniques used by managers to create innovation inside organizations work with global change?” (Crainer, 25).

The most important information in this article is on how to disrupt the disrupter in the marketplace. Markides points out that the most successful way of responding to competitive challenges is by disrupting the disrupter. This strategy involves observing the business challenger and developing techniques of outdoing it in the market.

The challenger most of the time comes up with products that correspond to the ones of the established business and adds more weight on the different product characteristics. Therefore, managers of established companies should find new ways of disrupting the strategies of the competitors.

Markides also maintains that it is better for a company to make changes when it is booming rather than when it is having trouble on its growth. Innovation and continued success depends on the manager of an organization capability of taking drastic action, even when the business is on top of the marketplace. Introducing change at this stage gives managers the luxury and the credibility of rejuvenating the organization.

The main inference in this article is that managers can apply sound ideas to non-business situations to find amicable solutions to a number of global issues. Management, as the art of bringing individuals together for a common objective, can be used to solve societal problems such as crime and prostitution.

The article illustrates this point by giving a scenario of a research professor, called David Kennedy, who found a successful way of dealing with the drug problem among teenagers. He videotaped teenagers in the streets distributing and selling drugs and instead of the police prosecuting them, they had to follow an action plan for rebuilding their lives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The key concept that we need to understand from this article is that we need to spread innovative ideas globally, not just in one city or in one country. By this concept, the author means that since new ideas already exist on how to get solutions for societal problems, our aim should be on mechanisms of incorporating the innovative ideas on an increased scale. However, he asserts that this is not happening because individuals often think that they are different, that another person’s innovative idea will not be applicable in their “special” case.

The article asserts that for innovation to succeed in any environment, individuals must be ready to take the initiative of developing it. Even in the business environment, there are many ideas, but most of them are not accomplished because nobody ever cares to take ownership of them to ensure they spread and become successful. The main assumption underlying the author’s thinking is that the readers are aware of the issue at stake: global innovation.

He assumes that every reader knows all about the topic; therefore, he does not give some credible background information about the issue. As much as individuals like to be treated as equals and not being talked down to; however, does not imply that he should make an assumption that everyone is equipped with enough information to fully grasp the topic.

In answer to Crainer’s question on the ways that a company can function as a model for innovative change, Markides maintains that the position that a company plays in the society is not to maximize shareholder value, but to develop products and services that increase value to the society.

This is because maximizing shareholder value comes automatically as the business seeks to meet the needs and requirements of the customers. Therefore, if this is the aim of any organization, it implies that the managers of the organization are not going to engage in illegal or unethical things to maximize shareholder value.

If we take this line of reasoning seriously, the implication is that businesses would cease to deal only with marketplace competition, but also focus on the importance of underlying values as the moral compass that should guide behavior.

However, if we fail to take this line of reasoning seriously, the implication is that we would experience severe economic recession and most companies going under because of too much self-indulgence and fraud. Many people would suffer from lack of jobs, crime rate would increase, and more people would be poor simply because of not upholding these values in business. In conclusion, the main point of view presented in this article is that innovation can be used globally both to solve business and societal problems.

We will write a custom Essay on Management Techniques of Innovating Globally specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Crainer, Stuart. “Innovation Globally.” Business Strategy Review 21.1 (2010): 24-27. Web.


War and the Meaning of Home Research Paper essay help

Wendell Berry, an American author and farmer, was a devoted countryman as well as a person of place. Being the first son in a huge family, Berry realized that the attention and respect to the land you live in is important. He realized that love to land and native home is integral for many people, and he truly believed that his devotion to his roots could make him more humane. Wendell was greatly inspired by the land where he lived in and decided to stick to the old farming methods of using horses to plough instead of modern tractors.

At age thirty, he acquired a farm in his indigenous Henry County where he became a full time farmer and improved his teaching and writing (Kramer, A Farmer’s Gift, para. 1). In his works, Berry makes a wonderful attempt to compare a soldier’s attitude before and after war, analyze what aspects of war are able to change a soldier’s mind and principles, and explain why war has to be accepted as the merciless disperser only that negatively influence the current state of affairs.

According to Wendell Berry, war plays a crucial role in the life of everybody involved. If a soldier leaves home for war, he has to consider whether or not he will survive, and how he will be welcomed upon his return. War has a significant characteristic to influence everything around and inside a person: his mind, his home, his relationships, and his existence.

Berry has written approximately twenty-five poetry books, sixteen essays, and eleven novels along with a collection of short narratives. Berry devoted about fifty-five years of his life to the improvement of his publishing career, and as a result, he has become quite admired in the American publishing sphere.

One of Berry’s more popular literary works is a short story called “Making It Home”, which is from a book called “Fidelity: Five Stories”. This particular story expresses many of the War related problems a soldier is faced with upon returning home. The essay that follows will clearly attempt to demonstrate how war and home are two things that cannot be separated from a soldier’s mind.

Berry clearly explains himself by stating, “War is the great scatterer, the merciless disperser” (Peters, Wendell Berry: Life and Work, 17). From this, we can conclude that war has the drastic effect of devastating the homes that were left behind by the soldiers just as much as it has agonizing and devastating effects in the battlefield.

Berry introduces the main causality of war as the death of a country because truth usually perishes during the process of diplomacy; however, the country remains to suffer the devastating consequences of the war long after it has ended. The aftermath of war on both the opposing and the attacking side is usually what brings out this relationship between war and home for the soldier.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Did we win? If we lost, how it is possible to return home? How do we as a nation pick up the pieces? Wendell Berry explores ways in which war and its considerable aftereffects feature the countryside in its quest for transition for the desirable land that is usually found in urbanized areas. War has the drastic effect of devastating the homes that were left behind by the soldiers just as much as it has agonizing and devastating effects in the battlefield.

Soldiers usually have an assignment of going into a battlefield with predestined effects in their lives. Within a short period of time, soldier’s thoughts demonstrate how dramatic the changes can be and make him believe that “I am not a stranger, but I am changed. Now I know a mighty power” (Berry, Making It Home, 97). A person is changed, and it is useless to think over possible reasons for such changes as it can be summed up with war only.

War may change human life or even take it away, but Berry suggests considering the details of what may happen when a person comes back home after war, when almost all living principles are changed, and when the desire to continue living under after-war conditions disappears. After all the fighting and war is done, where does the soldier expect to go back?

Moreover, this coming back is only applicable in the case of a draftee who has been lucky enough to survive these deracinating forces. In retrospect, what does this soldier hope to return to? Do they hope to return to a land that has been stripped bare by the great exodus that occurred during the war by the migration of people shifting to the opportunities that the war presented in the industrial cities?

It is known that “war devastates the home front as surely as it does the killing fields” (Peters, Wendell Berry: Life and Work, 17). So then, in a soldier’s mind the following question surfaces: whether there is any purpose at all in re-uniting with people at home? Will they even be there and will it be the same as it was?

The devastating and undesirable consequences of war and the impossibility to forecast what happens after the war and to be sure about personal understanding of the events is one more peculiar feature of war outcomes. World War II made many people chose to be urban dwellers instead of living in the countryside that had once had the potential of being lucrative.

Many dwellers instead eclipsed the lush countryside that had once had the potential of being lucrative. Berry feels that “War… in the outer darkness beyond the reach of love, where people do not know one another kill one another and there is weeping and gnashing of teeth, where nothing is allowed to be real enough to be spread” (Peters, Wendell Berry: Life and Work, 19).

We will write a custom Research Paper on War and the Meaning of Home specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This proved to be a constant issue Berry wrote about in his fictitious work. The Second World War was a representation of destruction, mechanization, and depopulation. Thus, many lost their loved ones in the war (Wendell, A Citizen’s Response to the National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 436). This therefore exemplifies the anxiety in a soldier’s mind about the fear of coming back to drastic changes, which seem to have no place for him/ her anymore.

The cultural aspect of war makes it possible to nationalize a nation and develop another force that can retain or even change considerably the features which cannot belong to the existed requirements. The traditional neutrality of the American culture would be abandoned in the course of the two world wars.

The school was approached as a repository for collective memories as a bodily expression of community culture (Peters, Wendell Berry: Life and Work, 22). Again, the effects of war become a reason to unify a nation’s interests and purpose giving a soldier a sense of purpose. On the flipside though, this creates an uncomfortable and unsettling feeling of obsoleteness upon the return home. A home is the place that remains to be a common ground where a good life can be achieved even after a war.

In Making It Home, Berry demonstrates one of the happiest moments in the life of every soldier, the moment when he “has his place to which he can return” (Peters, Wendell Berry: Life and Work, 22). Art qualifies to be one of the lucky soldiers who survive the war. He has a place to which he can return – a utopia or reality.

After three years of operating as an expendable cog, Art finally makes it and is able to come back home. Art travels by way of bus towards home. On his way home, he cannot even realize that now he is one of those who know nothing about his surroundings. Before he reaches his place, he is only separated by several creeks that he once knew by name:

“It pleased Art to think that the government owed him nothing, and that he needed nothing from it, and he was on his own. Nonetheless, the government thought it owed him tribute. It wanted to praise him and the rest for their acts that it considered heroic as well as glorious. This is because the war was ending and their victory was glorious.” (Berry, Making It Home, 87)

With the help of this quote, Berry tries to explain how the government accepts the idea of victory and compares it to the thoughts and attitudes of the soldier. Though government is an evident participant in the war, its representatives never fight the battle on the front lines. They may support soldiers and promise them many things; however, when the war is over, a soldier returns home. He is going home, and nothing can distract him except the idea of what is waiting for him.

It is difficult to imagine how mane problems may bother a person when war is over, and Berry makes an attempt to define the most burning aspects; one of them is capital punishment with its possibility to infringe upon moral justice and disappear during times of war. He describes this so perfectly in Berry’s poem “The Morning’s News.”

Not sure if you can write a paper on War and the Meaning of Home by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this work, Berry makes one more attempt to evaluate the impact of war and its aftereffects. He tries to compare death by its design and introduces the tragic nature of war using the innocence of the nature and of the child. “I look at my son, whose eyes are like a young god’s,/ they are so open to the world” (Berry, The Morning’s News, 88).

Berry is sickened by the killing that is done to human beings and he explains further “and I am sickened by the complicity in my race” (Berry, The Morning’s News, 87). In addition, he argues the following: “to kill or be killed in hot savagery like a beast is understandable. It is forgivable and curable. But to kill, by design, deliberately, without wrath, that is the sullen labor that perfects Hell.” (Berry, The Morning’s News, 87)

This ideas disturbs him to think how cruel a human being can be and has a connection to the fact that a soldier and, in some cases, a prisoner of war convicted of heinous crimes are sentenced to capital punishment. Berry critically wonders when peace will settle in the world for both him and his family. He ends up finding solace in how wild things conduct their lives:

“When despair for the world grows in me/ and I wake in the night at the least sound/ in fear of what my life and my children’s lives may be…/ I come into the peace of wild things…/ I enjoy the light of the stars.” (Berry, The Peace of Wild Things, 85)

Berry feels some kind of freedom when he forgets the constant “war” he has to face with his conscience about the difficulties that are found in life.

Christians were certainly confused about the writings in the scripture, and Wendell Berry brought understanding of the scripture and a definite guidance that sought to show environmental ethics that were brought out in the scriptures.

Berry’s works “have revealed significant shifts in his religious thought and important intensifications of his commitment to religious foundations for an ethical life, his fiction invariably remains firmly secular with none of his main characters espousing strong religious beliefs” (Murphy, The Unforeseen Self in the Works of Wendell Berry para.1).

The works of poetry that he has written best demonstrate what it actually means to inhabit a holy community where creation is forever taking place. His opinion about Christian ecology can be best obtained by interpretations of his poetry.

The motivation that drives Wendell to write this poetry is to bring about emancipation to Christians from “failures and errors of Christian practice”. His purpose is to bring Christians to view divinity as something that exists in all features of the earthly population. People need to have something to believe in, and Berry finds Christianity as a powerful means to rely on. In an essay written by Berry, he brings out what the nature poems bring out.

“It seeks to give us a sense of our proper place in the scheme of things…. Man, it keeps reminding us, is the center of the universe only in the sense that wherever he is, it seems to him that he is at the center of his own horizon; the truth is that he is only a part of a vast complex of life, on the totality and order of which he is blindly dependent.

Since that totality and order have never yet come within the rational competence of our race … the natural effect of such poetry is the religious one of humility and awe.” (McKibben, Wendell Berry and the Cultivation of Life: A Reader’s Guide para. 12)

This attitude helps to explain why a soldier continues to serve their country zealously and protect his home wishing for the day when such senseless conflicts can resolved without resorting to such drastic measures.

Wendell Berry clearly explains how war and home are directly linked in a soldier’s mind. His desire to evaluate the details of the event makes him more interesting and more intriguing. He makes a good attempt to focus on war times and the outcomes which are inalienable for people.

According to him, war is a devastating event that ought to be avoided altogether. There are numerous reasons why wars begin, but the consequences it brings are far worse compared to the reasons why the war was fought in the first place. We must avoid these situations altogether. Such people like Berry show some possible ways to advocate peace in order to solve things and take measures to prevent the occurrence of wars.

Works Cited Berry, Wendell. “The Hurt Man.” Hudson Review 56.3 (2003): 431-438. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Berry, Wendell. “A Citizen’s Response to the National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” Orion. 2003. Web.

Berry, Wendell. “Making It Home.” Fidelity Five Stories. New York and San Francisco: Pantheon Books, 1992: 83-105.

Berry, Wendell. “The Morning’s News.” In David Impastato Upholding Mystery: An Anthology of Contemporary Christian Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Berry, Wendell. The Peace of Wild Things. 2010. Web.

Brockman, Holly. Personal Interview. January/February 2006. Berry, Wendell. Interview. How Can a Family ‘Live at the Center of its own Attention?. The Southerner.

Fearnside, Jefferson. Personal interview. Jul 2008. Berry, Wendell. Interview. Digging In. The Sun.

Kramer, Kyle T. “A Farmer’s Gift.” America 200.13 (2009): 17-19. Web.

McKibben, Bill. “Wendell Berry and the Cultivation of Life: A Reader’s Guide.” Christianity Toda 53.3 (2009): 63. Web.

Murphy, Patrick D. “The Unforeseen Self in the Works of Wendell Berry.” Christianity and Literature 52.4 (2003): 580. Web.

Peters, Jason. Wendell Berry: Life and Work. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. 2007.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Definition, Types and Causes Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Humanity has experienced numerous types of psychiatric disorders for a very long time now. In the United States, for instance, some of the infamous disorders include, but not limited to, depression, schizophrenia, panic, tic, and maniac disorders.

Efforts to raise people’s awareness about OCD have been on the rise since the late 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century. The International OCD Foundation in America has been on the forefront to publicize OCD awareness campaign. OCD is one of the commonest mental disorders especially in the United States.

This anxiety disorder is characterized by obsessions and compulsive or repetitive behaviors that are an exaggeration of what a normal person would do. The research paper will define OCD, and discuss some of the common types of OCD. It will then elaborate on the major causes of OCD especially the genetically predisposing factors.

The existing therapeutic treatment approaches for this disorder like the use of medication or the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) will also be discussed. The paper will offer an epidemiological overview and then conclude that there is need for further research into the understanding of OCD in order to reduce its prevalence and possibly find the cure.

Definition Attempts to offer a comprehensive definition for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has helped in differentiating it from other related anxiety disorders. Researchers have framed a number of working definitions in their quest to understand the disorder but all have common basis.

According to American Psychiatric Association (2004), it is a chronic illness characterized by a waxing waning course which has the potential of interfering with the normal functioning of the victim. Pedrick and Hyman (2005) define OCD as a psychiatric disorder that manifests itself through obsessions and compulsions.

They define obsessions as the persistent impulses, thoughts, images, or ideas that strike an individual’s mind resulting in intensified anxiety and distress. The person acknowledges that the obsessive thoughts are not appropriate and are almost senseless, yet it is difficult to ignore them due to their persistence. Moreover, the individual knows that the thoughts are his or her mind’s creation and not imposed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Compulsions, on the other hand, have been defined by the two authors as the repetitive behaviors or cognitive acts which are performed in an attempt to reduce the anxiety arising from the obsessive thoughts and ideas. Such repetitive mental acts include; praying, counting, word repetition and continuous review of past or anticipated events. Repetitive behaviors include; redoing actions, ordering, checking, cleaning, and hand washing to avoid germs.

National Institute of Mental Health defines OCD as a type of anxiety disorder which is characterized by repeated, annoying thoughts called obsessions resulting in repeated behaviors known as compulsions (2009).

We can therefore provide a general definition of OCD as a kind of mental disorder which is characterized by unprecedented thoughts that leads to a sufferer having anxious feelings, by repetitive mental actions aimed at minimizing anxiety, or even a combination of obsessions and compulsions. Usually, such actions can be distinguished from the normal acts by considering the amount time of spent. OCD can be so alienating since the person feels insecure as long as the obsessions are not dealt with or eradicated.

Types of OCD Research findings reveal that virtually everyone naturally experiences anxious feelings, uncertainty, dread, or general worry (Dombeck, 2001). These have been regarded as normal emotional responses that can help persons in promoting their security and solve puzzles in life. Normally, the feelings do not last for a long period of time and are not experienced quite often. However, people with OCD have extremely high levels of these feelings that are otherwise regarded as being normal.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder sufferers experience overwhelming anxious feelings that in most cases are considered difficult to overcome. They are bombarded with unregulated bad thoughts that stretch every feeling of worry beyond the limits. These obsessions and compulsions become part of life without which their daily life would be interfered. According to Pedrick and Hyman, obsessions and compulsions are closely related. OCD patients can either have both or compulsive thoughts may come to mind to counter the obsessions.

Therefore, compulsions are not necessarily outwardly manifested. Most psychiatric researchers have categorized obsessions and compulsions into six major types depending on the associated compulsions. According to research findings, 90% of OCD sufferers have both obsessions as well as compulsions (Mayo Clinic staff, 2008). It is important to note that a person may experience more than one type of OCD. The onset of most types of OCD occur at childhood or teenage.


The first type of OCD is that of checkers. Researchers have described such people as having irrational worries of potential catastrophic events on them or others due to their actions or lack of doing something. Such people are compelled to repeatedly check on doors, padlocks, or household appliances in order to evade potential disasters if anything goes wrong.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Definition, Types and Causes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For students with OCD, they constantly check their homework, or test questions just to ensure they are right and they may end up rubbing the correct answers or failing to complete assignments. Other people may repeatedly check on the well-being of others due to their exaggerated worries. There is an inexhaustible list of things that an OCD sufferer would want to check.

Washers and cleaners

This type is associated with the fear of contamination by germs or dirt in general. In order to wade off this obsession, the sufferer resorts to washing the hands, taking a bath, or constantly cleaning the surrounding and disinfecting it. The actions temporarily relieve the fear but in a short while the worries come back. This results to repeated behavior of washing and cleaning.


The sufferers are characterized by the need for “perfection” through constantly trying to put everything in order. They may be compelled to produce neat handwriting or the strict ordering of things like books, papers and other belongings. This trend can also be to the ‘watchman-like’ habit where the sufferer keeps watch on the environment just to make sure they are in order unlike under normal situations where general arrangement is done.

Pure Obsessionals

This category of people is worried by unsolicited, intrusive, horrifying thoughts and visual images of harming other people. For instance, the sufferer experiences violent thoughts of hurting their loved ones, or being caught in immoral behavior like an embarrassing sexual action.

Since these are purely obsessive thoughts, the persons resort to repetitive compulsive thoughts like constantly praying, counting, or word repetition. Moreover, a compulsive mental reviewing of bad situations may be used to bring reassurance. The obsessions would not cease to come and soon the compulsive thoughts become the order of the day. This type is also called OCD without overt compulsions.


This category of people involves those who attach a lot of value on things that would normally be junk or trash. They fear that discarding some items would bring evil or bad lack and would thus be compelled to hoard them. The sufferers, however, are not able to explain why they actually feel the urge to collect and store the things.

People with Scrupulosity

The people suffering from such are usually worried about religious issues and have moral concerns. The obsessions trigger compulsive prayer or other religious or ritual services. They constantly seek reassurance about what they believe in as far as religion or moral beliefs are concerned.

Causes of OCD For a long period of time now, OCD has proved to be a difficult puzzle to the researchers and they are constantly on the run to fully comprehend it. It has also been found that Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is not a contagious disease since it is a mental disorder and hence it is a state of mind.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Definition, Types and Causes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One cannot catch OCD the same way as cold. Scientists are yet to identify the exact causes of OCD. However, research findings by psychiatric researchers have established some basis for understanding the causes of OCD (Fenske


Managing Across Cultures Report best essay help: best essay help

The South Korean Culture The South Korean culture is deeply rooted in a wide range of theologies that shapes the lifestyles of the people. In the South Korean meeting etiquette, greetings adhere to stringent rules of protocol. South Koreans usually shake hands with foreigners after bowing, since this practice brings together both divergent cultures. An individual of lower status bows to his or her senior; however, the individual of higher status kicks off the handshake after saying “pleased to meet you.”

In a social gathering, an expatriate should wait to be introduced and say good-bye as well as bow to every person individually before departing from the meeting. Business cards are treated with a lot of carefulness and are often exchanged after the first meeting in a highly ritualized manner. One side of the business card should be in the Korean language, placed neatly in a business card portfolio, and should never be written in the other person’s presence.

The business dress code is conservative and both men and women should avoid putting on ostentatious accessories. Gifts in the Korean culture are appreciated and should be nicely presented in royal colours, which denote happiness.

Gifts are not opened when received and should be given in multiples of seven, since it is considered a lucky number; as opposed to four. When a guest is invited for a meal to a South Korean’s home, he or she should wait to be given a place to sit, wait for the oldest person to start the eating process, use chopsticks accordingly, and observe table manners during the eating process.

South Koreans like to engage in transactions with individuals they know well; therefore, relationships are built informally. One should maintain direct communication and avoid criticizing others. Punctuality in meetings is indicative of the respect accorded to the other person. One should maintain protocol in meetings and send notifications of the meeting as early as possible.

German culture The German culture is very much different from the South Korean culture. Its rich culture started long before the emergence of Germany as a state. In the country’s meeting etiquette, greetings are done formally. One should use titles appropriately when addressing another person, give a fast, firm handshake, wait to be introduced, and greet every person when entering a room.

Gifts, especially chocolates or flowers, are appreciated by the Germans, and are usually opened when received. However, one is to avoid giving red roses, carnations, or lilies as gifts. The Germans observe continental table manners; the fork and the knife are used properly. A guest should not start eating until given the go-ahead and he or she should observe the proper use of the fork and knife. A guest usually returns a toast only after being initiated by the host.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As opposed to the South Koreans, Germans do not require a close association before engaging in transactions. They take note of a person’s academic credentials and experience in the particular industry. Germans are usually direct to the point of bluntness, respect people in authority, communicate formally, follow established protocol, and value written documentation to back up evidence. In Germany, notifications for meetings are sent early enough and punctuality is imperative.

Meetings follow strict bureaucratic rules and one is obliged to maintain eye contact when speaking. One should consider hiring an interpreter if conflicts may arise due to misunderstandings. The most senior person usually enters a room first. The top management of an organization usually makes the final unchangeable decisions. The Germans prefer understated, formal and conservative business dresses; for example, men prefer wearing dark colored conservative dresses. The dressing is kept simple but neat.


Song Dynasty and Two Poems for Analysis Essay essay help free

Chinese poetry is one of the most popular literature genres in China. The variety of dynasties, their unique and unpredictable approaches to the representation of their ideas, their unbelievable passion to writing – all this seems to be amazing in the world of Chinese literature.

The Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, or Yuan and Ming Dynasty – each of them adds more captivating details to poetry and makes this genre more and more popular. Right now, among all Chinese dynasties known, I want to single out the Song Dynasty and its magnificent poetry. Though this poetry is originated from the Tang Dynasty, there are so many differences which are worthy of attention.

The Song Dynasty has many famous writers who have made considerable contribution to the development of poetry and the role of Chinese literature in the whole world. Such writers like Du Fu, Liu Zongyuan, Li SHangyin, Tao Qian, Su Shi, and Mei Yao-ch’-en introduce the works which help to connect normal everyday routine to some large issues and to analyze people’s ordinary actions from the philosophical perspective.

During the Song Dynasty, Chinese poetry gained true and worthwhile recognition as the poetry of the ci form. This form is characterized by the deep expression of feelings such as desire, passion, and care. However, it is not the only issue that makes ci form poetry recognizable. To understand deeper the ideas which are introduced in the Song Dynasty poetry, it is better to pick out several poems and try to evaluate the messages represented by the authors.

In this paper, such poems like Writing of My Sorrow by Mei Yao-ch’-en and The Immortal by the River by Su Shi will be analyzed because they help to feel what may improve this life, what are the most crucial aspects of this life, and what people have to be the most important in this life.

Writing of My Sorrow by Mei Yao-ch’-en Writing of My Sorrow is the poem written by Mei Yao-ch’-en from the Song Dynasty. This author is known as one of those Chinese writers who introduce a new style of poetry that is characterized by numerous descriptions of ordinary life’s aspects. His personal experience influences considerably his poetry and his writing style. Even the title of this poem shows that this author relies a lot on his personal emotions, his personal pain, and his sorrow. “My two eyes are still not dry,/ my heart desires only death” (Yao-ch’-en 578).

The emotional state of the author makes the reader think about the events that happened to this man. He lost his wife and his son. He cannot imagine what may improve his situation. He is in the trap that is created by this life. It is useless to fight against the destiny; it is wrong to be mad on someone; and it is too late to admit the fact that family is the only thing that makes this life fulfill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author makes numerous attempts to answer the questions “to whom now can I turn?/ Emaciated, a ghost in the mirror” (Yao-ch’-en 578). Is it possible to get the necessary answer from the ghost? Is it correct to believe that the other world exists and hides those who are already dead from those who are still on the earth and waiting for their time?

Mei Yao-ch’-en demonstrates one of the most captivating and appropriate ways of how to unite everyday life and personal experience to larger and more important ideas. His words influence considerably human state of mind and attitude to this life. Though death of close relatives should not be a normal experience for people, this event is hard to overcome or prevent.

Death will never cooperate with people; death comes, takes someone’s soul, and disappears. It becomes clear that the main philosophical aspect of this novel is the issue of death and its significant impact on human lives. “Rain falls and soaks into the earth,/ a pearl sinks into the ocean’s depths” (Yao-ch’-en 578).

Can it be that the author chooses water by chance or in order to underline the connection between death and water? It is possible to give different questions, and in my opinion, the idea to united water and the issue of death is one of the most brilliant steps in this poem. People spend much time to subjugate oceans and seas, however, they are not sure of their victories and success.

I think that one of those philosophical messages which the author wants to send to the reader is the necessity to comprehend that life is too short, and it is impossible to be sure to “return to the source below” (Yao-ch’-en 578). This is why it is better to enjoy what you have now and try to help the other do the same. Life is complex and unpredictable, and people have no other way but accept it as it is without attempts to resist.

The Immortal by the River by Su Shi Su Shi is one of the brightest representatives of the Song Dynasty whose poetry attracts the attention of many readers. The style of this writer perfectly suits the requirements offered by the Song Dynasty period: he makes use of the ci form in order to underline the joys of this life and explain how people can relax and get pleasure.

However, his Immortal by the River is not about all those joys of life but about the turmoil that the author wants to escape (Shi 690). This poem introduces a bit grievous picture of the events the author has to face. It is impossible to prevent everything; it is hard to live this life day by day; and it is very difficult to be good for everybody around and lie to oneself.

We will write a custom Essay on Song Dynasty and Two Poems for Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The style of life described by the author makes it possible to enjoy and even be drunk of the walk through East Slope (Shi 690). If we talk about ordinary things in this life and their interpretations from the philosophical perspective, this poem by Su Shi may be used as the most appropriate example. With the help of several lines, the author shares his personal disappointments concerning this life and his role in it.

He returns home to his “house-boy” who “snores like thunder” and thinks about one thing that his “body belonged to someone else” (Shi 690). No, he is not tired of his family and his house. He gets tired with the idea of living in the same way. This is why he decides to address and trust to the sea and its calm. Su Shi is another author who finds a kind of relief in water. Water is calm; water makes people free; water is able to relax and relief.

It is possible to become immortal in the river and admire all those amenities of this life. When a person is close to water, he/she is able to feel something that has never been felt before. It is not painful, scared, or difficult. It is just another way out; the solution that is in so demand by the author and the reader who tries to get the lessons from this poem. Does this poem have philosophical roots? Of course, it does! Even more its educative side is able to heel the reader who is sick and tired of this life and the character of the poem.

These two poems become a kind of Grail in the Chinese literature. Mei Yao-ch’-en and Su Shi represent unbelievable picture that teaches, impresses, and makes the reader think about the essence of this life and the issues that fulfill this life.

It does not take much time to read the poems of the Song Dynasty and enjoy the way authors use to share their ideas, their hope, and dreams. There are so many troubles which worsen this life, and it becomes possible to get the necessary solutions and answers in poetry, in water, in the air. The only thing that is required is the desire to observe, think, and evaluate everything around.

To get an opportunity and become immortal because of the river or to be able to survive after the death of dear people – these are the main lessons which may be got after the reading Yao-ch’-en’s Writing of My Sorrow and Shi’s Immortal by the River. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible; and on the other hand, it opens a new world that helps to re-evaluate this life and our role in it.

Works Cited Shi, Su. “The Immortal by the River.” In Stephen Owen An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911. New York: Norton, 1996.

Yao-ch’-en, Mei. “Writing of My Sorrow.” In Stephen Owen An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911. New York: Norton, 1996.

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Enslavement and the Modern Society Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction This paper answers to questions based on readings on modern day enslavement. Ten questions are answered in the three major parts of this paper. The first part, is a bout early forms of colonialism and how it changed the way of live, it looks into the meaning of micro-level form of slavery and expounds on micro-level debt of peonage.

Further, the first part concisely articulates how contemporary debt peonage has been coined into racial form of slavery and it explains how unfree and free labor is interlinked politically. The second part of the paper explores the meaning of space of flow as used in selected book. Moreover, the paper in the second part, further explains why space of places constitute a challenge to a basic lever of the new power system.

The third part of this paper looks into what the author meant when he used the word self-programmable labor and generic labor. It also explains what is meant by individualization of labor and a personal implication about the impact of a new economy has in movements and trade unions. Finally a conclusion sums it all.

Slave trade and slavery was a major form of revolution that sprang across the globe some centuries ago. This was a phenomenon that was influenced by shortage of labor in the western world to work in various sectors of their economy (Winant 181). Massive form of human labor was urgently needed at this time to increase production.

Slaves were sought after to work in industries and agricultural plantations because they provided cheap form of labor and decreased production costs (Winant 185). This was a major practice exercised by the world’s most exploitative nations who wanted to conquer the world.

New Type of Enslavement Despite this form of enslavement being abolished, slavery has taken a different tune in our modern society; Micro – level kind of slavery has emerged. A bureaucratic nation has embraced this form of enslavement to perpetrate their vice (Winant 192).

Due to abolition of slavery, there has been scarce and shortage of cheap labour in their agricultural and industrial sectors and hence micro- level slavery. In this form of slavery, the peasants and poor people are subjected to peonage; immigrants have been taken advantage of in big cities around the world (Winant 193). This new form of slavery is most practiced when work to be done needs less skills or no skills at all.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mass of poor immigrants especially from rural areas have been put under subjection of their masters because of their large immigration numbers and scarcity of salaried jobs to be done. The Immigrants are subjected to exploitation and sub employment is a major phenomenon not only in the developed countries but also commonly witnessed in developing countries. The informal sector has adversely been affected by micro level slavery (Winant 193).

What Winant means by Micro- level form of Debt Peonage Massive forms of exploitation, over time, affected some nations adversely. The super rich nations plundered the economies of the developing nations by taking what they needed most e.g. minerals, labor, agricultural products. Apart from exploitation of natural resources to exhaustion, they affected locals psychologically; leaving them torn asunder.

Due to imbalanced distribution of resources, developing nations turned to developed nations for loans. Consequently, the developed nations have kept other nations under debt of peonage despite taking all the resources from them (Winant 197). Modern debt peonage exercised by world super rich economies has emerged as a stumbling block for most struggling economies and especially the third countries: their territories of their peonage during the colonial rule (Winant 199).

They have taken no interest to share what they once took because they heavily benefited form the third world economies to stabilize their own. Contrarily, they have made the developing nations to pay much wealthy, more times than the expected compensations. This is evidently seen in how they are handling International indebtedness, so they regard this as paying back because of the abolition of slavery.

Contemporary Debt Peonage: a Racialized Form of Slavery Many poor countries have been forced to pay the super rich countries double or even triple the amount they borrowed from rich nations (Winant 202). The debt payment sometimes is increased compared to the original debt to be repaid, and when paid there is more money paid in form of interest.

But for them, they are never confronted to repay for example Germany when it was defeated in the WWII (Winant 188). They decide who to get more finance and there terms of repayment. This has made many nations especially from developing world to associate this to racial slavery because of the way the aid is administered basing on the nations capability and association to the west (Winant 196).

Financial systems have been used to further create a huge line between the poor nations and the super rich. After exploitation and exhausting their resources, and human force to work in their corporate plantation, they have come up with another strategy of exploiting their financial systems (Winant 206). They introduce another form of subjection of selling their agricultural goods of which the poor nations have planted by themselves.

We will write a custom Essay on Enslavement and the Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They want to sell weapons acquired by their corrupt governments to developed nations that they can fight their neighbor or other ethnicity. International lending organizations like IMF have imposed strict lending policies in its reimbursement to poor nations, it’s not only through debts but they have crippled other ways of development which would have been a major boost to struggling economies (Winant 220).

There is restriction in immigration, education systems are not getting better, social programs to help poor nations are no where Aids medicines are untraceable, and there is no incentive for foreign and domestic investors; a situation, which leaves poor nations to suffer financially (Winant 223).

Need to End Split between “Free” and “Un-free” Labor We need a system which can balance a gap between the super rich nations and the developing world so that this form of micro – level slavery can end in the world. A space to fully maximize and create equality uniformity has to be sustained (Winant 189). Forced labor created unfree kind of labor because labor was easily available but since the abolition of slave trade more changes has been evolved to have an alternative for the developed nations for there sectors of economies.

Renting of labor and having some in form of peonage has been widely explored and is on the rise, this has been seen has a source of inducement to those enslaved and to make them happy and work harder, but in the really sense, the slave didn’t realize he was selling his time and skills and owing to the fact that he was doing a peonage job (Winant 228). It was widely used this way for the worker to feel happy that he was free and was enjoying freedom but it wasn’t the case. This was industrial capitalism in developed countries.

The issue is nations rely on free or unfree labor. There was a fight in recognition and distinction, there were free workers who supplied major big cities raw materials like Cotton and sugar among others so they were regarded as free because they could not be tied down under close monitoring (Winant 224).

After the abolition of slavery free workers have made attempts to remain visible and get recognition from their unfree counterparts, of which freedom to unfree is explicit even though it’s not long lived. This has been a result of racism which is evident here.

The emergence of world trade bodies like WTO and NAFTA has yet to narrow down the gap between the developed and the developing world by elaborately having systems in place to check exploitation and dominion over the balance of trade between world nations (Winant 234). It’s seen to counter the bureaucracy that was established during slavery and transform it to the world of today by fostering unity between world countries. This will create a politically harmonious world between world nations

Space of Flows The space of flow can be defined as material or organization of time which shares a social precise and its working is centered through flows (Castells, “the Power of Identity”167). Flows have various sequences which are recurrent and repetitive in nature and there are interactions among the flows which are physically scattered over a wide area or in a political structure in the society (Castells, “the Power of Identity”168).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Enslavement and the Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The arrangements sometimes can be institutionally base or in major organizations, but whose inner systems has a central role in defining the social and consciousness of the society as a whole. There exist different types of flow in the society (Castells, “the Power of Identity”178). Information flow is made up of constituted electronic circuits i.e. telecommunication, broadcasting systems and others which facilitate communication. In this flow, it’s physically tangible and hence they play an important role in the world network society.

Its partial and it happens within our selves, it makes it possible for the society to interact and communicate by using enhanced information technology hardware (Castells, “the Power of Identity”189). Because it’s physically connected, place does not exist because the positions occurs by the exchange that is within the network. It’s in this that communication is fundamental configuration although the space remains the logic flow within.

The network only facilitates efficient information transfer (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 283). space of flow is made up of nodes and hubs; these nodes play special roles because they link a distant station to one another, the hub and node link sparsely distributed networks relaying information to a central point in the society (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 245). The linked places are with constituted and well defined as social or physical functions.

Space has an important aspect in the society rather than defining the immediate surrounding, it enhances the influence of the social settings to the immediate situation (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 218). In major cities around the world, space has been transformed in a variety of ways for the society to fit regardless of the status they befall. The elites and the cosmopolitans and how they project their influence among the poor and the immigrants in big cities have been redefined by space.

The space of Power has been adversely been affected the way people and nations relate and has been the struggle of the elite to accumulate more through many forms (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 286). and this has been the persistence of the elites to search and accumulate more wealthy for their sustainability Power and Wealthy doesn’t make a life, People’s life has been known to be deeply rooted in places, the culture they come or inherited and in the history they have used to since they were born (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 389). All this has shaped the space in which we live and defined our place in the society.

The society exists with different types of classes in the society and one class cannot manage to have social flow by its own. For the need of cohesion preservation and further enhancing flow, they need to have a guiding principals and rules to have a clear boundary of both their social and political community (Castells, “The network society” 189).

When the society democratizes its flow then the elites become distinguishable from the rest of the society and the whole population. This allows curtailing political infiltration and representation in a centered globe of strategic decision making (Castells, “The network society”190). The elites have a luxury form of executing nodes flows, they does it in serene and expensive leisure spaces or residential while emulating a social settings.

A place is a setting whose form, function and meaning are self contained within the scope of physical continuity (Castells, “The network society” 239). Places have contributed to development and strengthening of communities.

Although this has been tremendous for the society growth but the lifestyle of the inhabitants has been unpredictable because of the judgment approach that comes with it. Some places have been known to preserve the rich cultural experience creating beauty this sometimes qualifies them as unique places with a different flow (Castells, “the Power of Identity”240).

Immigrants shaped and brought renewal in urban centers where they had gone to search for better life (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 150). For those were welcomed and given shelter by already established. This altered and reconditioned the aspect of urban renewal in most cities in some parts of the world.

For over years the cities have grown and has developed into Place of places because of architectural designs (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 167). This has been a result of urban renewal waves which swept across these cities by flows and immigrations (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 189). A new way of life which is harmonious has been created.

This has in turn influenced the establishments of new power systems coiled around this big urban city. And great physical outlook has been rediscovered and redesigned. Nevertheless, of being superb and rich culture, a number of them have enjoyed economical support from their own nation because of the power they posses (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 194). But the new modernization has brought a new harmonic and coexistence between societies this has dispelled fears and tension between many communities around the world.

There has been intermingling of class and a social cohesion. Middle class and the poor immigrants lives together in major neighbourhoods fostering urban vitality and they have a created a culture of survival while preserving the aspects of their culture and their past histories about the urban life (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 199). Both have interacted with space and hence finding its real meaning in flows.

Space of Places Space of Places refers to social forms of time that is not reducible to what have been perceptions to date (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 181). This has been based on the abstract of social and technical which existed and have been challenged by modern historical happenings.

Time has shaped and influenced space since immemorial and this in contradictory has influenced how the time and space has been organized in the society. Space of flow has impacted its influence in already existing information’s systems that already exists and are operable (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 207).

The information in the global economy has been well laid with efficient control monitors to enable innovation and coordination of interlinked firms’ i.e. in finance, insurance firms, and many other companies which depend on information highway. The modern economies of these companies rely to knowledgeably generated information and its flow (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 210). They have well organized and reliable telecommunication infrastructures which make it easier to reach their nodes around the globe.

Part two: Question 3: space of places a challenge to lever in New power System

Most reliable sources have indicated that there is a pattern of dispersion of organizations around the world. This has been attribute to the fact of searching new markets and expanding their grasp in every sphere of the globe, they does this to increase there Financial aspect whereas opening job opportunities for many other people in big cities (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 215). This further has attracted huge investments not only in the intended sectors but other developments have come along with their involvements in this big urban city (Stalder 29). some of this companies have been biased the way they organized and set up their investment, they skip investing in marginalized or developing cities and concentrate in investing in more Large cities of developed world (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 234). They concentrate in this city because of their higher functionality of power and availability of skilled manpower, e.g. New York is regarded as a centre of most international Finance (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 238).

The global integration has revolutionarised major roles of this cities around the world their traditional roles have been modernized. And creation of new power systems established.

These centers act as spheres of authority to the world economies and control a number of vital firms around the globe (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 240). They do also serve as innovation command centers where new products are produced. In addition they benefit from the already telecommunication and air transport that’s already efficient and well coordinate (Castells, “the Power of Identity” 245).

They do this so that they can remain at competitive edge and strengthen their grip in their approach in investment. When they are financially sound they proceed and set up more real estate businesses in order to plough back what they have got over the times. Smaller world economies have been subjected to these new centers of power in how they formulate their policies and working guidelines (Castells, “the Power of Identity”248).

Self Programmable Labor Self programmable labor describes the growing labor force that is the reduction of the proportion of the labor force (Castells, “The network society” 200). This is characterized with long tenure employment and promising career path.

When new employees are hired for their flexibility they replace the old labor force entitled to job security in large scale firms. In generic labor, the definition is slightly different (Castells, “The network society”201). It’s where a parallel growth of highly educated occupations and low skill jobs with very different bargaining power in the labor market.

Individualization of Labor As new economies grow and expand each single day and competition is witnessed every day with a general emphasis on increased productivity, labor individualization becomes a necessity. Individualized labor has been created where by most professional have shifted their skills to match the new trend that is taking place in the corporate world (Castells, “The network society” 209).

Most professionals have individualized there form of professionalism where there is more focus on in flexibility and look for more bargaining power to enhance there expertise. They have defined as clear path for there educational needs to target particular career path and opt for jobs which offers security and promotes there welfare (Castells, “The network society” 215).

Impact of Individualization of labor on Trade Unions The transformation that has shaped the world economy and how business tend to cope up has had effects on major trade unions and movements a cross the world (Smith 16). In industrials sectors, the trade unions and movements have to adapt timely to recessions and embrace structural approach to its changes. Trade unions have been transformed in more developed countries to contribute and enhance the success and development of free and fair structures (Smith 18).

This has been in form of creating peaceful and democratic nations, establishing markets and ensuring healthy competitions and helping to reduce the negative effects of debts being levied to most third world countries (Smith 24). New formulations and developments to create a just and fair trade between countries have been strengthened through unity. Trade barriers and restrictions have been lowered to facilitate trade balance between countries.

Conclusion In conclusion, the enslavement of the human population across the world had some positive and negative advantages all together. For instance, economies of the super rich countries, in western world, thrived agriculturally and industrially because of cheap labor and raw materials from the third world countries. Most of the nations where this happened, especially the third world countries, remained very poor. Furthermore, the human populations which were forced into the slavery were psychologically affected.

After its abolishment, there arises a different form of enslavement peonage. Subtly racism continues to be exercised. A good indicator of the same is in the way the wealthy nations treat developing countries with an air of superiority not just economically but intellectually and racially.

Wealthy nations contribute their share to international aids agency and financial institutions like IMF but also control them in every way. Through the established international institutions offer aid and loans but with stringed rules that make recipient countries mere puppets in the whole scheme undermining national sovereignty.

Well the space of flow has allowed and shaped many aspects of many businesses in the societies. The revolution in the space flow has been occasioned by changes in communication around the world towards what is referred to as the information age.

The information age is characterized by improved communication strategy that ensures information transfer around the globe in micro seconds. This has led to the establishment of networks which has enabled closer interlinking of associated societies and developed new social dimensions in today’s world.

Work Cited Castells, Manuel. The network society: a cross-cultural perspective. Northampton: Edward Elgar Pub, 2004.

Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture: New Jersey; John Wiley and Sons, 2009.

Smith, M. K. Rhona. Textbook on International Human Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Stalder, Felix. Manuel Castells: the theory of the network society. Cambridge: Polity, 2006.

Winant, Howard. The New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.


Would Macimilien De Robespierre have Supported America’s War with Iraq? Essay cheap essay help

Throughout history, the human civilization has been engaged in warfare against each other. The reasons for war have ranged from ideological differences, territory expansion and competition for resources to name but a few. In most of these wars there exist different views concerning the war among the common citizens and the politicians.

In the recent past, the U.S government has waged war against the Iraqi nation and subsequently occupied the land. There has been as much support as there has been opposition for this U.S. led invasion on Iraq. In the 1790s, one of the famous French leaders Maximilien Robespierre faced similar circumstances following the historical French Revolution and the following calls for war against Austria by the new French government.

Robespierre took a stand against the war and it is in my opinion that he would have opposed America’s war against Iraq as well. An in depth analysis of the reasons for Robespierre’s opposition to the war against Austria will demonstrate that he would not have supported America’s war with Iraq.

While Robespierre was no stranger to violence as can be demonstrated by his horrific reign of terror, he feared that an attack on Austria would result to the militarization of the country and this could turn to be advantageous to the enemies of the newly formed republic. Following the great French Revolution, the then French king Louis the XVI was ousted and subsequently forced to flee with his household.

Later on, Louis was captured and executed by the radical revolutionaries sparking widespread fear and panic among the nobles. These monarchs and nobles who were viewed as “enemies of the republic” were persecuted by the radical Jacobins and many of them had fled the country in fear for their lives. A war with Austria which was ruled by a monarch could result in the neighboring countries trying to restore the monarch in France with the help of Frenchmen who were sympathetic to the monarchy.

A state of war with Austria would help the sympathizers amass weapons with which to fight the revolutionary forces. Robespierre therefore saw the risk of insurgency that war with Austria presented to the new French republic. The America war with Iraq also presented an opportunity for sympathizers of Hussein to amass weapons and stage terror attacks.

Robespierre was doubtful of the local Austrian population supporting France’s war efforts and therefore advised against the confrontation. In Robespierre’s time the members of the radical Jacobin government who were advocating war with Austria were banking on the local population’s support of their war efforts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The war with Austria was sparked by ideological differences since Austria was still ruled by a monarch while France had done away with this system by use of a revolution. The Jacobin’s were convinced that if they waged war against Austria, they would advance their revolutionary ideologies beyond France’s borders thus toppling the traditional Austrian monarchy and replacing it with a democratic government.

Robespierre argued that the ideology they sort to advance would not necessarily be embraced by the masses as it had been in France. True to Robespierre’s claims, France lost the war to Austria. As such, Robespierre would have rejected going to war with Iraq since he would have argued that banking on the local population’s support would have been a miscalculation.

Another consideration by Robespierre concerning going to war with Austria was that this would lead to the destabilization of the country. According to him, maintaining internal stability was more important than any other benefit that might have been achieved by the war. After the French Revolution, the life of the general population can be described as relatively stable.

The revolution had witnessed the open rebellion by French citizens against the king’s troops and in some cases fully fledged violence. Following the success of the revolution, a new assembly was formed and this tried to restore some semblance of order to France. Robespierre felt that these efforts at stabilization would be negated by going to war since reprisal would follow and the country would probably go back to its turbulent past.

Before the invasion by the allied forces, Iraq was a stable and somewhat affluent country despite the multiple allegations of human rights abuses and atrocities perpetuated by the president. On being invaded, the country became turbulent with numerous incidents of suicide bombers and random attacks. Robespierre would therefore have foreseen such destabilizing effects of war and advised against the American led war against Iraq.

This paper set out to argue that the French politician, Maximilien de Robespierre would not have supported America’s war with Iraq. To reinforce this assertion, the paper has demonstrated the reasoning behind Robespierre’s opposition to France going to war with Austria. An analysis has been made of the various reasons for Robespierre’s opposition and a deduction on how Robespierre would have reacted in light of the Iraqi war has been made.

From the discussions presented in this paper, there is overwhelming evidence that the French politician Maximilien de Robespierre would not have supported the American war with Iraq. While it is plausible that Robespierre would have agreed with the need for violence as is evident from his reign of terror, he would have objected to the actual implementation of a war owing to the multiple pitfalls that the mission presented.

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Strategy Formulation in Start Ups Essay essay help online free

Strategy designing and management is a process through which organizations, at whatsoever level of growth, guarantee desired results in the future. It provides long term goals and defines ways of attaining the desired. Proper strategy designing and implementation ensures start ups break even and compete favorable as they grow to maturity. Failure to plan is recipe of failure. To succeed in the long run, long term plans and strategies or tactics have to be instituted or put in place.

The strategy process is standard whether the business in question is a start up or an established entity. Business strategy begins environmental scanning and then business modeling so as to suit into and control the business environment (Dess


Management Consulting Report essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Strategic commercial challenges and possible solutions


Reference List

Introduction British Petroleum (BP plc) was initially called The British Petroleum Company, and after a merger with Amoco became the BP Amoco plc, and currently, BP plc. As the third largest global energy company, the British global energy company is also categorized as world’s 4th largest company. Being a major oil company, the multinational oil company BP is the largest corporation in UK. In addition to the oil exploration, the company also deals in natural gas and marketing of petroleum products (Buono, 2009).

BP’s global presence was promoted by the merger with Amoco in 1998 making it BPAmoco, which changed to BP in 2000 to date. However, Condon (2002) believes that in the US the grade BP gasoline is available as Amoco Ultimate. Most of the other gasoline centres in the US were faced with a number of challenges caused BP to exit the Southern market. Instead, BP has targeted its oil exploration activities in the Soviet such as the Russian TNK-BP that provides for BP’s 20 percent of its global reserves (Burgess, 2002).

Strategic commercial challenges and possible solutions As a global producer, BP has to contend with the strategic commercial challenges such as fierce competition for markets and talent; investors’ expectations and market demands for sustained competitive performance; and scrutiny and in some cases public doubt.

Additionally, changes in the global economy present a cadre of new challenges, which include the absence of a framework of global rules; the organization and management of companies; cultural diversity; and the question of corporate responsibility for the externalities linked with business activity (Cox, Clegg and Grazia, 1993).

According to Daft (2009) the global environment is a threat to a company’s survival especially in foreign countries. Therefore, BP just like any other player in the market has to wrestle with its weaknesses and threats while capitalizing on the strengths and opportunities.

As such, firstly, the absence of the framework of global rules becomes a disadvantage to businesses that normally operate under regulation and legal clarity. The absence of this legal umbrella is associated with the fact that the international companies are basically established for a different age (DePalma, 2002).

In business, trade issues are mostly based on agreements with the exception of investment protection, environmental issues and the aspect of intellectual property, which are yet to be incorporated. In this context, the unforeseeable consequences of climatic changes result in lack of agreements on most aspects of trade.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The operation at a level of integration devoid of the law means that a company established in a given country is required to obey the jurisdiction rules while at the same time abiding by the law of every place it is operating in. in the process of staying up to date with the policy requirements, certain companies will be forced to adopt own rules prior to the formulated regulatory standards.

Because there will be need for a global company to keep understanding and interacting with new policies in every country of operation, companies ought to ready themselves by creating mutual advantages and not only pursing their interests. BP should therefore encourage its workforce in the various countries to watch out for likely mutual interests in addition to the primary interests in the country of operation (Doh, 2005).

Secondly, the problem of how companies are organized and managed is pegged on to the fact that competition on the international scale requires a widespread design of operations. BP for instance has the distribution scale with its spread in over 24 time zones and 110 national jurisdictions.

In the case of BP’s distribution scale, Dunning, (1997) asserts that the commonly used command and control model would not work effectively. Instead, efficiency can be achieved by the use of delegation of authority, thus establishing what a given manager is tasked with. There is also the need for the managers at different levels to understand the framework that dictates how their jobs will be conducted (Dunning, 2002).

Consequently, with BP’s more than 100 countries of operation, there will be unforeseen from one place to the other; especially, with the diversity in the cultural differences and cultural orientation. Unfortunately, unpredictable circumstances that call for urgent reaction might also cast more doubt in the quality of judgement of local managers and team leaders.

Away from the mistrust for the judgement of local managers, most situations often suffer the urgency and the limited time to get the concerned manager to respond immediately. In this case, the presence of a localised managerial team at the various establishments will help hasten decision making and resolving of unexpected circumstances (Grabinski, 2007).

Therefore, the command and control model of management will be replaced by a new combination of corporate culture, standards and values that present a universal ground over which people can confidently make decisions and judgements as expected of them. With the understanding of such a management model, the company’s growth and expansion in the global scale is highly assured (Hitt, Ireland,


Bach and Vivaldi Essay custom essay help

The music of the Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741) and the German genius Johan Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) is perhaps most representative of Baroque epoch. This period, spanning from approximately 1600s to the middle of the eighteenth century, is characterized by especial pompousness and ingeniousness in all kinds of art.

Architecture and music are the two branches of Baroque art most demonstrative of the contemporary cultural trends. In music, composers explored and developed new genres and performance principles and techniques entailed by them. Among the typical genres of Baroque music is instrumental concerto, which involves the principle of artistic competition between the performing instruments.

This genre was developed by Italian masters and became widespread in the whole Europe due to its grandeur and broad scope of imagery and emotion that attracted audiences of all nationalities. This report focuses on two works that are representative of the genre and have astonished me with the beauty of melodies and the wide range of rendered emotions: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (ca. 1721) by Johann Sebastian Bach and The Four Seasons (ca. 1723) by Antonio Vivaldi.

The set of six Brandenburg Concertos was created by Johan Sebastian Bach in the period around 1720, when due to change of working place he had more time for composing not primarily church music but more secular instrumental genres. Searching for new perspectives, Bach sent his concertos as a musical offering to a possible employer, Margrave of Brandenburg (Steinberg 12). Although the margrave never accepted the composer’s services, he still kept the manuscript and allowed the future generations to enjoy their special charm.

Among the six concertos, the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto is singled out for its developed part of the harpsichord, which acts not only as a usual accompanying basso continuo instrument but rather performs extensive solo fragments and demonstrates a virtuosic playing technique in the big cadenza that ends the first movement of the concerto.

This cadenza, apart from demonstrating the performer’s technical mastery, also serves as an embodiment of the Baroque improvisational principle. When it was performed by the harpsichordist, I had the feeling that he was pouring out his splendid virtuosity as if impromptu. The other solo instruments, the flute and the violin, also receive space for self-expression, especially in the second movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, where they merge with the harpsichord in a lyrical meditation.

When listening, I managed to trace some genre allusions to the dances of Baroque suite: the dotted-note tread of the second movement reminds of the solemn sarabanda procession, and the three-beat lively motion of the final movement resembles the traditional gigue dance. Throughout the first and the last movement, the solo instruments seem to compete among each other as well as with the accompanying strings for thematic prevalence, which reflects the competitive nature of concert.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the genre of instrumental concerto there were no rivals for the Italian master Antonio Vivaldi. Under the conditions of his employment with Ospedale della Pietà he was supposed to write two concertos per month: from here, inter alia, stems the enormous quantity of the works in this genre written by Vivaldi (“Antonio Vivaldi”). At times employing the method of descriptive, or program music, Vivaldi created concertos that were dedicated to rendering a certain event or phenomenon, often reflecting scenes of nature.

Among those program concertos, The Four Seasons gained especial popularity already in the eighteenth century with such prominent people as the French King Louis XV and the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (“Antonio Vivaldi”). This popularity is not surprising, since the concertos provide a vivid and expressive musical rendition of their literary program that is based on four sonnets probably written by the composer himself (“Antonio Vivaldi”).

The text of the sonnets is closely followed by the musical material reflecting all the changes in the scenery, the weather, and the atmosphere of the situation (Cunningam and Reich 382). Due to this outstanding descriptiveness of musical language, The Four Seasons were especially exciting for me to listen to and to track the change of time, place, weather, and mood that correspond to each season.

The first movement of Spring, inspired by the feeling of the nature’s awakening, bursts in the energetic movement of trills and staccatos of singing birds and the smooth passages of streaming water. The following movement, through its peaceful melody, illustrates a sleeping shepherd; the quiet scene is interrupted only by a barking dog, rendered by a violin.

Next, the peasants celebrate the beginning of year in an exciting folk dance that reminds of traditional Italian tarantella. Summer is all about heat and thunderstorms: the heat is depicted in the slow, as if lazy, phrases of the violin. The thunderstorm approaches throughout the two first movements in far-away roars of thunder (sudden loud bangs of the whole orchestra) and bursts through in the last part in the streaming passages that depict flowing water.

Autumn is yet another fest: the peasants celebrate harvest and again dance to a melody that reminds of the opening movement of Spring. Tired and drunk after their party, they fall asleep in the second movement, where only rarely the quietness is disrupted by occasional reminiscences of the festive melody (obviously some joyful revelers) — an especially comical effect that nearly made me laugh.

Finally, Autumn is concluded by a stylized scene of hunt, with horns blowing the attack on the wild. Winter sets in with a series of trills and repetitive motion, as if howling cold wind sets teeth chattering. After a peaceful second movement, which warmed me up with its placid melody of violin against a soft orchestra accompaniment, the chills return, reminding me of the inevitability of the nature’s events.

We will write a custom Essay on Bach and Vivaldi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited “Antonio Vivaldi; The Four Seasons.” 13 March 2009. Web.

Cunningham, Lawrence S., and John J. Reich. Culture and Values, Volume II: A Survey of the Humanities with Readings, 7th edition. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 2009. Print.

Steinberg, Michael. The Concerto: A Listener’s Guide. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.


Current Commercial Challenges Facing British Airways Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Abstract After an extensive study on pertinent issues on British airways, the report brought to book strategic commercial challenges facing the BA Company particularly after profits started plummeting after 11 September attacks. commercial challenges facing the giant BA company include, turbulent global economic times, competition from cheaper Asian airlines, unpredictably rising fuel prices, environmental, mass industrial actions by employees as envisaged in a BBC news report(2010), strategic management plans, and threats from other cheaper alternatives such as railway transport.

It was reportedly determined and recommended that company employees be treated fairly and be included in decision-making according to (Marketing plan strategy and objectives,1997).

Elimination of wastes, was recommended and that management strike a balance between sustainability and environmental issues, improved strategic planning for sustainability, employee productivity, and sustainability and increased performance as coined by (David, 1989). In addition, the report presents a SWOT analysis of the company to help determine the diagnosis for problems plaguing the company especially on employee unrests (Thinking Managers, 2010).

Introduction Synonymous with air travel, British Airways is a strong international brand that has been in the air travel business since its inception in 1947. The company, a key player in the industry has undergone radical changes, made high profile decisions at managerial levels deemed controversial and at times attracted mass industrial actions by its employees.

In addition, it has had to go through periods of dispute resolution in the industry. The company faces diverse strategic challenges that the report evaluates and provides a diagnostic approach to the challenges, and reports on how decisions made affects the company, employees, the environment, and as a player in the transport industry.

In addition, the report analyses the key strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the company and looks at ways to address these issues while maintaining a strong customer base, a large market share, and market lead. It analyses the company’s corporate social responsibilities, and emphasizes on the worth of these issues in relation to the global economic and environmental challenges as determined by (Bazerman and Moore, 2009).

Problem Statement Commercial challenges facing the British Airway company including turbulent economic times, rising fuel costs, environmental issues, substitutes, and employee strikes calls has caused it to experience reduced customer base, employee dissatisfaction, and plummeting profits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluation of the Challenges and Practical Solutions Challenges

The British Airways is a company that has been in business for a long time since its inception in 1947. With innovative business minded executives, the company has undergone changes both at management and employee levels.

The company’s strategic business interests are global. Despite that, it faces a host of internal and external commercial challenges related to its operations, market position, employee retention, fading customer numbers, cheaper Asian competitors, stringent landing rules in other countries, and environmental issues; all these challenges translating to reduced profitability and market share.

Quinn (1980) determined that these challenges call upon management to make radical decisions to steer the giant company to a realize profits, stay in the market and maintain the lead it has enjoyed over the years. According to Gincell (2004), external challenges faced by the company include alternative and cheaper means of transportation, such as the railroad, and road travel, and turbulent economic times.

For the company to remain successful in the market and continue raking in profits, it has to integrate a strategic plan for that purpose (Plan Your Marketing Strategy, 2010). A strategic plan would make the company win in the current economic times. Quinn (1998) asserts that a well-formulated strategy helps a company win against economic challenges such as plummeting profits, a reduced customer base, and unnecessary costs.

A well-formulated strategy entails certain elements that steer a company to win. BA is resource intensive. Quinn (1998) asserted that a good strategy must be extensively formulated and opponents do a lot of strategizing. In addition, if the management of BA formulates strategies relevant and realistic to the global down turn of many economies and reduced household incomes. It would enable the company utilize its resources efficiently without incurring wastes, according to Baker (2008).

Strategies and Policy goals

Quinn(1998) identifies five levels of strategies, including policy goals, which require that a statement of what the management wishes to achieve both in the short term and long term be laid out. In this case, besides profitability, the airliner has to competitively stay in the market despite the turbulent global economic times.

In addition, the company should formulate policies regarding reduced extravagance on the available resources generated from profits, and adds that a link of strategy and performance was vital (Prescott, 1990). BA is a company that has been in business for many years, to determine whether the new strategies formulated can be measured against profitability of previous years and identify whether they have eliminated wastes or not as explained in the Strategic Management of British Airways Company (2008).

We will write a custom Report on Current Commercial Challenges Facing British Airways specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Non-executive directors of the company should also contribute constructively challenge the current strategies and constructively contribute to the development of new and well-formulated strategies.

Quinn (1998) concludes that by implementing well-formulated strategies at the five levels in the company, challenges of economic down turn could be combated to allow the airline stay in the market. These levels of strategy include, policy goals, overall goals of the business concern in line with the global economic down turn where each strategy should work towards achieving the laid down objectives, and that the goals of the BA company be well spelt both at management and employee levels.

According to Dibb, Simkin, Pride and Ferrell (2008), goals and objectives of the company should be specific, well formulated, achievable, within a properly laid down period, while keeping the interests of the company at heart according to (Marketing plan strategy and objectives, 1997).

Measurable objectives

In addition, the objectives set should be measurable to eliminate waste and induce profitability at this difficulty economic times. It was also noted that the goals set by the company be measurable and attract all employee participation to elicit quick response from the management down to employee levels, then to the community.

This done, the management should look at those policies that cannot be compromised and those that cannot be compromised. The paper, Marketing plan strategy and objectives (1997) asserts that managers should be keen about when to implement those policies, strategies put in place to test the strategies if they have worked, where they need adjustments as noted by (Prescott,1990).

BA management should decide on the cost of implementing cost-cutting policies and determine to what extent they have to be implemented and the level, to which they have to be implemented. Some policy decisions are place a business at an awkward position, particularly the decision to cut on salaries or lay off employees.

The management, faced with that cost cutting strategy, at times is in a dilemma. The impact of those decisions have implications of poor decisions on the brand name of the company which translates to reduced profitability, a bad image, consequently leading to a reduced market share and profitability which in the end translates to reduced profits. One decision sparks a chain of events in a business organization.

It is vital for management to make long-term projections of their strategies, and integrate logistical support for their implementations. Despite the economic down turn, there is growth potential for the company. This could result from appropriately formulated strategies, use of efficiently skilled work force to implement the company’s strategies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Current Commercial Challenges Facing British Airways by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strategic planning

According to Edward and Heller (2006), to steer the company and vigorously make it a leader in the market, a strategic plan could enable it develop a large overall ambition for the company. According to Investor relations (2010), Management at the same time should come up with operational plans that answer the question on how the company should win while operating is an economic environment that is pushing profits down, so uncertain, and facing other competitors in the market.

According to the article, Corporate planning case (1996), the report affirms that the company should endeavor to determine how it will be organized resourcefully to stay afloat, how to respond to challenges such as reduced passenger bookings by initiating intensive marketing campaigns to attract more customers, how to face competitors in the business.

SWOT analysis

According to article on Strategic Management (2002), the company should develop and conduct an internal and external analysis of the company. In addition, the Value Based Management (2009) asserts that despite the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by a company, it should positively and effectively and analyze its internal and external SWOT.

The management of BA should embrace the five stages as asserted by the Value Based Management (2009), including setting long-term performance targets for the company, form the right product matrix, which includes, the suppliers of fuel, and a right marketing mix. By investing on the activities correctly, the company may realize an upper hand against its competitors in the market as is determined in Marketing Plan Now (1997).

It determines that management has to invest in those activities that steer and crest a good reputation for the company. In addition, the company needs outsource other activities that are not core to the business of carrying passengers in the global scenario.

Challenges of employee treat met also play a role in negating on the BA business activities. Management should reduce employee discrimination and grant them equal opportunities. Reducing employee discrimination could reduce largely to which employee find them demoralized, but rather motivate them.


Despite British airways (BA) being a key player in the air travel industry, it has had to undergo a series of problem that eventually escalated to mass industrial action by its employees. BA has faced internal and external challenges over time.

Some of the problems are self-inflicted while others stem from the environment. One of the self-inflicted problems included the decision to scale down employee salaries. This reduced to low employee morale and attracted mass industrial actions with disastrous consequences. It had adverse effects on customer retention. The company lost many customers who opted for alternative and cheaper means of transportation.

The company is capital intensive. Its operations are expensive in the current economic turbulent times. Fuel for the fleet of its aircrafts comes from an unstable Middle East region. In addition, profit realization depends on the ever-changing prices of fuel in the oil market. In the recent past, fuel prices have soared, causing increased transport costs. This too influenced the number of customers travelling by BA. This could reflect on administrative activities of the company as defined on the article (What is Business Administration, 2008)

Well-implemented practical innovative solutions remain the key to maintaining the position of the Airways Company. Employee satisfaction contributes to a successful business organization. Satisfied employees remain motivated as the worries and anxieties associated with retrenchment, salary reduction, and other forms of lay offs, be they temporary or long term influence employee productivity.

A satisfied and fear free employee may be expected to give the best to the employer by way of productivity and innovation. Dissatisfied employee in business organizations may undermine organizational activities that lead to loss in profitability consequently negating any gains made by the business organization.

Resolutions of worker’s grievances need timely attention. Management may engage employees in speedy grievance resolutions that would curb scenarios like mass industrial action that translates to loss of income in the way of profits. In addition, the brand name of an organization whose employees settle their disputes in the way of mass industrial actions and other forms of boycotts suffers reputation.

BA management has to make deliberate efforts to listen to employee disputes and create excellent channels of communicating their grievances to the management in a timely manner to avoid disputes spiraling out of control (Strategic Management of British Airways Company, 2008).

Alternative Measures

Another challenge facing BA are the alternative low cost airways and the global economic crisis. Profits have ever been plummeting as passengers search for alternative low cost means of travelling. To help address these, the airline could opt for a merger with other air transport companies.

As Sekaran (2004) argues, this universal approach coupled with cost cutting approaches such as using smaller aircrafts on shorter routes could address the threat from substitutes. The report call for a radical shift in its external environment policies could revive its profit margins and make the airline more profitable. Policy formulation could provide a framework on a balanced implementation of its strategies (Policy Formulation


Baroque Music: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 by J.S.Bach and The Four Seasons by A.Vivaldi Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

In music history, the fifteen-decade long Baroque (from the early 1600s to the mid-eighteenth century) was perhaps the first period when professional music started to enjoy great popularity.

Professionalism was seen, inter alia, in such aspects as writing according to certain genre standards of form and melody, as well as developing a virtuosic performance technique on various instruments. On the one hand, composers experimented with combinations of instruments and timbres, opposing and merging them: that was how the genre of concerto appeared.

On the other hand, the connection of music with real life was not lost, and whole series of dance-like pieces appeared crystallizing into the genre of suite. Among the most prominent composers of the age were the German Johann Sebastian Bach and his Italian colleague Antonio Vivaldi. Two of their works, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (1721) and The Four Seasons (1723) are in the focus of the present report on baroque music.

Initially, the originators of the instrumental concerto were Italians: their natural bright character favoured the development of this playful genre that involved the key idea of competition between the soloists and the accompanying orchestra.

From Italy the genre of instrumental concerto travelled onwards to the rest of Europe where it “became one of the defining forms of Baroque music attracting composers and audiences of all nationalities” (Buelow 524). The genius of Bach could not overlook the curious genre since the latter concealed vast opportunities for composer’s self-expression.

Bach experimented with concertos and his tests of the genre resulted in a series of six Brandenburg Concertos. Among them, researchers single out the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto for its untypical instrumental cast: written for violin, flute, harpsichord, and strings, “it is only when it is played on the correct instruments, and with a single instrument to each part, that its intimate, undemonstrative textures make their effect” (Boyd 91).

And indeed, it appears that the intricate dialogues between the individual instruments would only be lost in the massive sound should the concert be played by a bigger cast. The solo instruments — the violin, flute, and harpsichord — as if play hide-and-seek with the accompanying strings, now stepping forward in obviously solo fragments, now merging with the other instruments in a melodic development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the most prominent solo fragments of the concert are the virtuosic harpsichord cadenza of the first movement, and the whole second movement where the accompanying strings are silent, letting the three soloists develop a lyrical conversation. After the reserved intimacy of the second movement that in its motion reminds of a solemn procession, the final bursts out in a graceful three-beat dance that involves both the soloists and the accompanying strings.

As it has been mentioned, the originators of the instrumental concerto genre were Italians, and in this sphere Antonio Vivaldi has no match. Among his works, an extreme popularity was and is enjoyed by his violin concertos The Four Seasons. Vivaldi employs the tactics of the so-called program music that is aimed at portrayal of certain events which are announced in the title or the literary commentary to the music (Booth 79).

For the four violin concertos, Vivaldi chose a theme connected with the natural cycle of the seasons and reflected in poetic sonnets supposedly written by the composer himself (Booth 79). In addition to the title and the poems that clarify the contents of music, Vivaldi also left detailed prescriptions in the musical text that instruct the performers of the necessary sound effect: for example, in Spring he ascribes the role of “the sleeping goatherd” to the solo violin and of the “barking dog” to the second violin (Booth 79).

Each dedicated to a certain time of year, the four concertos consist of three movements in a traditional tempo scheme fast-slow-fast. By means of musical representation, Vivaldi reflects the soft murmuring of the spring waters and the cheerful singing of birds in the opening movement of Spring by writing a violin part full of light staccatos, repetitions, and trills.

The last movement of the season is a folk festival that proceeds in a swirling three-beat movement of Italian folk dance, tarantella. Summer is all concentrated around the central image of thunderstorm, which is predicted in two first movements by sudden tutti strikes and passages that imitate the peals of far-away thunder.

Streams of rainstorm that breaks through in the final movement are rendered through endless descending passages and gammas against a sharp harmonic background. Autumn reminds of Spring in its initial scene of another folk festival: but this time the old thematic material is re-tinted into minor keys, as if nature has withered and is not as fresh and luxuriant as at the start of the year.

After the festival follows a period of rest, interrupted by fragments of the festive songs, and the final movement illustrates a scene of hunt with blaring sounds reminding of the hunters’ horns.

We will write a custom Essay on Baroque Music: Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 by J.S.Bach and The Four Seasons by A.Vivaldi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The chills of Winter enter with the howling passages of the violin and the trembling repetitions or the orchestra. This cold unfriendly picture gives place to a scene of homely coziness inside a house — the warmth of the hearth is rendered through a calm, placid melody of the violin. But winter reminds about itself in the final movement, with return of rhythmic repetitions in the orchestra.

Works Cited Booth, John. Vivaldi. Townbridge, Wiltshire: Redwood Books Ltd, 1989. Print.

Boyd, Malcolm. Bach, the Brandenburg Concertos. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.

Buelow, George J. A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004. Print.


Why Julius Caesar Was Assassinated Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Why Assassination



Introduction Gaius Julius Caesar remains one of the most important figures for his prolific conquests that he made during his life as an emperor and probably his untimely-preplanned death. This was a genius in making, combating with not only the minute Egypt but also with world giants like Germany, Gaul, and Britain (Appian 1949, 115).

Nevertheless, his ingenuity did not save him from death in the hands of his enemies in disguise as friends, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinu, when they descended on him on Ides of March. These two men, in company of a pack of others, carefully designed the death of Caesar behind his back. However, why would they want to kill their friend?

It is important to note that, Caesar’s leadership or tyrannical rule policies had nothing to do with his death. Despite his leadership skills, all seemed to be well with Romans. All the indicators of a thriving economy were prevalent in Rome.

From creation of thousands of employment opportunities to economic stimulation through export and import, confidence levels amongst Romans were rising by the day and every one seemed to be happy save for some leadership flaws here and there, which are common in any leadership. These leadership flaws could not move anyone to rebel against and plot assassination of the emperor.

Even though there are many schools of thought giving different reasons as to why Caesar was assassinated, the most compelling school of thought is the one stating that, Caesar was assassinated because his assassins wanted power. All other malicious claims directed to Caesar were only to cover the truth. Brutus and Cassius were formerly enemies to Caesar and after he defeated Pompey, they swore allegiance to him but their initial rebellion did not go away and this is evident from the assassination they carried out.

Why Assassination The fact that the men that assassinated Caesar wanted some grounds to accuse him and justify their assassination, implies that they had to plot how to win other people’s hearts and allegiance. Unfortunately, Caesar made many gullible mistakes exposing him to the wiles of these assassins. Many a times he failed to read signs that would signify impeding danger. In the opinion of the writer of this paper, nothing Caesar would say or do that would avert his inevitable death.

Brutus and Cicero were very much aware of the damage they would cause to Caesar once they managed to brand him a tyrant (Yavetz 1983, 186). Therefore, the only thing that these two men needed was to come up with a strategy that would subject Caesar to public ridicule and then attack him after gaining enough support. To do this, they had to convince other senators to get into their scheme; fortunately, they got huge backing from senators, who joined them for different reasons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Nicholas of Damascus (1964), the chief principals of this plot were men who knew for sure that if Caesar were dead, then they would gain power to run the nation. This persuaded many senators to consent to the plot of killing their emperor. Other people agreed to the plot because they were still angry because of losing their relatives and friends in the civil war. Therefore, to end such impunity, they wanted to be led through democracy, not despotism.

However, Nicholas of Damascus (1964) notes that these were mere cover-ups, the fact is that these people were hypnotized by the promise of ascending to power and they would find any excuse to assent to the plot. Moreover, some people joined the plot not because they had anything against Caesar, but because they loved the pioneers of the plot. Interestingly, men who had been genuine friends to Caesar also took part in the plot. How did this happen?

After Caesar forgave the likes of Brutus and Cassius who had been his enemies and gave them powers in his authority, the men who had remained loyal felt betrayed. They could not understand this form of kindness. When Cassius approached them to take part in the plot, they gave in easily for they wanted to revenge what Caesar had done to them.

It is unfortunate that these loyal Caesar friends could not enjoy the good reaps from the war and by joining the plot; they knew they would access power and finally enjoy what they had labored for all that long. Finally, after spurring people from all lifestyles into rebellion, Brutus and Cassius had to fool Caesar into stupid acts that would leave him exposed (Taylor 1949, 173). This opens up the next element of this conspiracy; that is, the plot.

In the Greek culture, no man was to become a king as long as he lived (Yavetz 1983, 193). Wittingly, these assassins painted Caesar as a king by offering him several honors. Unfortunately, Caesar gave in to the ill plans of these brutes and as time went on, he started acting against the law, something that would cost him life.

The disregard for the law would give the assassins a foothold to censure him. The conspirators started by voting on how Caesar would appear in public. According to the vote passed, Caesar was to appear in all public places wearing exultant attire and sit in the chair of state. The aim of this vote was to make bring him close to people who would easily fault him as he mingled with them often.

Additionally, they bestowed on him the power and right to “offer the so-called spolia opima at the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, as if he had slain some hostile general with his own hand. To have lectors that always carried the laurel and after the Feriae Latinae, to ride from Albanum to the city mounted on a charger” (Cassius Dio 1949, 12). This meant that his status was elevated almost to a state of a king. This was just but the beginning of the honors Caesar received.

We will write a custom Essay on Why Julius Caesar Was Assassinated specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To hypnotize Caesar completely, the conspirators named him the father of the nation. This was followed by inscribing his image in all the coins used in Rome around that time. Additionally, they passed a vote that Caesar’s birthday was to be celebrated by offering public sacrifice and his statue was to stand in all cities.

Two of Caesar’s statues were to stand in all temples one signifying him as a savior of people and the other as a savoir of the city under siege. A temple was to be built in his honor to symbolize peace. To cap it all, they appointed him the high priest and conferred powers to censure life to him alone.

Mistakenly, Caesar accepted all these accolades with unfathomed gullibility. This saw the passing of the law that required prayers be made to him and he accepted the garbs worn by kings. Finally, after a series of honors that Caesar accepted readily, they “addressed him outright as Julian Jupiter and ordered a temple to be consecrated to him and to his Clemency” (Cassius Dio 1949, 16).

The motive behind all these awards was to paint Caesar as a king or a god, something that would attract disapproval readily, hence justifying their assassination.

Actions of these people spoke loudly and it was evident that they did not have any good faith in what they were doing. “Others, and the majority, followed the courses mentioned because they wished to make him envied and disliked as quickly as possible, that he might the sooner perish” (Renard 1987, 568). This explains clearly the motive behind these accolades. However, this was not the only reason why these senators gave Caesar all these honors.

Going back to Caesar’s life as an emperor, he was always under the watch of a guard. This meant that the senators could not meet him whatsoever; hence, they would not get chance to carry out the assassination. After receiving many honors, Caesar was convinced that these people would never try to eliminate him (Taylor 1949, 175).

Therefore, he let his guard leave for he was now comfortable in the presence of the senators, who had apparently become his friends. As time went by, he dismissed all other guards and now he would remain under the watch of knights and senators. Caesar’s gullibility continued to portray itself as he consistently became mesmerized by the “kindness” of his subjects. However, it did not take long for these power-hungry assassinators to find a loophole in what they would easily exploit at the expense of this gullible emperor.

One evening these conspirators approached Caesar to explain why they would carry some of the house businesses in his absence to show that they worked involuntarily as opposed to compulsory duty (Suetonius 1913, 77). However, Caesar did not wake up from his seat and this dismayed many of them. Sympathizers of Caesar tried to explain that he could not walk because he had a bout of diarrhea; nevertheless, they could not justify these claims because he eventually stood up and walked without support.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Julius Caesar Was Assassinated by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These assassins pretended to be dismayed by this act of pride; however, this is all they wanted from the beginning; a foothold to accuse Caesar. Well, they got it fully later when Caesar accepted to be made a dictator for life. Nevertheless, the end was yet to come. Some of the people still supported Caesar and the conspirators had to look for a way to embitter them. The next course of action was well plotted.

As aforementioned, among the Romans, there could not be a king for this was outright scorn to the tribunes. Then the time came, and the senators tried to brand Caesar a king but he refused vehemently. However, after scrutinizing the events, it appears that Caesar wanted the title. Firstly, it would be expected of him to rebuke such people, put them into prison, or worse kill them (Adcock 1951, 693). However, he did not do anything to them.

This showed that he was pleased by the title; something that caused many people to disdain him. To cover up his behavior, Caesar told people that he was not a king but only a Caesar. Even though he took some actions against the first people to call him a king, the measures were not severe as expected for he only relieved them of their duties as tribunes and banned them from public speaking. He went ahead to rub their names from tribune-ship; however, this did not quell the mounting disapproval among citizens. Did he really dissent the title?

The answer to this question is no! If Caesar were totally, against the title, he would come out clearly and refuse it. However;

Antony with his fellow priests saluted him as king and surrounding his brows with a diadem said: “The people give this to you through my hands.” He answered that Jupiter alone was king of the Romans and sent the diadem to him to the Capitol, yet he was not angry and caused it to be inscribed in the records that the royalty presented to him by the people through the consul he had refused to receive.

It was accordingly suspected that this had been done by some prearranged plan and that he was anxious for the name but wished to be somehow compelled to take it, and the consequent hatred against him was intense (Cassius Dio 1949, 17).

This shows that he somehow accepted the title “king”; hence, making him a tyrant. Thus, the assassination would not be branded as such, but it would be called tyrannicide. However, Caesar was still popular amongst middle and lower classes and they vowed to fight Brutus and his team. The fact that Brutus went to organize troops in Greece to topple Antony is a clear indication that all he wanted was power.

Conclusion Despite his ingenuity in conquering his enemies, Caesar could not deal with his closest enemies who disguised as friends. They led him into believing that they liked and honored him by awarding him with several accolades until they won his trust. First, they had to win his trust to a point of him letting go of his guards.

This would ensure that the senators gained access to Caesar and have the opportunity to kill him. Luckily, this worked well for them as they accomplished it. Secondly, they had to paint Caesar as a tyrant in the eyes of the citizens to justify their assassination, which in effect it would be termed as tyrannicide. They also accomplished this by branding him a ‘king”, a title that he was not supposed to hold. Their craftiness was aided in part by Caesar’s gullibility and failure to read the two sided of the coin.

There is clear indication that Caesar wanted to be called a king and this was the biggest mistake that he made. However, this assassination was inevitable and nothing he would have done to prevent it. It was a political attack where the assassinators were power hungry and the only way they could gain it was through assassination. However, they failed in their bid to rule Rome as opposition mounted against them leading to a series of wars.

Bibliography Adcock, F. 1951. Caesar’s Dictatorship. Cook, S.


Islamic Society and beliefs Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Islam and its Scriptures

The Five Pillars

Practicing Islam


Works Cited

Introduction The human civilization is characterized by its high levels of diversity. These variations which are as a result of our cultural diversity and socialization are not only evident in our ways of life but also in the religious tenets that guide us. Religion is a system of faith that is based on the belief in a god(s) and the subsequent worship of the god(s). People practicing a religion follow practices that are believed to be agreeable to their deity.

Holy Scriptures may also exist which are used for worship. While there is no scientific evidence that proves the existence of the gods on whom religion is based on, there is agreement by general consensus that religion plays a key role in our lives. This paper shall give a detailed discussion of one of the world’s major religion, Islam. An in-depth look at the Islamic society and beliefs shall be provided so as to provide a deeper understanding of the Islamic religion.

Islam and its Scriptures Islam is the religion practiced by Muslims and the name Islam means “peace through willing submission to Allah” (Gerner 5). The BBC records that the Islam faith has over a billion followers making it the second largest religion in the world only surpassed by Christianity. Islam is based on the teachings in the seventh century of the revered Prophet Muhammad. Muslims are monotheistic (believe in one god) and their core beliefs can be summed up as “believe in one god, Allah, and that Muhammad is the last prophet” (Gerner 6).

While many people view Islam as being inherently contradictory to the Christian faith, it is interesting to note that Islam embraces most of the Biblical teachings including the Bible’s Old testament prophets such as Moses, Elijah and Joshua to name but a few.

However, Islam believes that Jesus was but a prophet and his message was for people to surrender to the will of Allah and not follow him as Christianity teaches (Ammenah). The Prophet Muhammad is believed to have been the last and greatest prophet of Allah and it is through him that the Quran was manifested to man.

The Quran is the Islamic Holy book and it is believed to be the exact word of God. This Holy Book is regarded as one of the few legitimate sources of Islam and its authenticity and originality are utterly unquestionable in the eyes of a practicing Muslim (Real Islam). The Quran forms the basis for Muslim laws and code of conduct.

The Quran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in its original Arabic language over a period of 23 years. In the early years, the faithful committed the Quran to memory both out of reverence to the Holy text and for its preservations since few copies of the Holy Book existed

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to the Quran, there are other sources of religious material that are held as sacred by Muslims. One of these sources is the Sunnahs which are practices that the Prophet Muhammad carried out in his lifetime and how he acted in his everyday life (Real Islam). These were written by the followers of Muhammad about his life and they provide daily living examples for all Muslims since they tell the story of the great Prophets life history.

Another equally important source of religious material in Islam is the Hadith. Hadith has been the lens through which the words of the Quran have been seen, interpreted and acted upon (Cornel 5). For the non-Muslim, the Hadith contains an introductory into the world of Islam. The Hadith are documentations of what the prophet Muhammad said and approved off in his life as reported by his followers. The Hadith was codified as a source of legal guidance for the Muslim Faithful.

The Five Pillars The Islam faith consists of the Five Pillars which consist of the most important practices in Islam. The First pillar is the Shahada which is the creed that expressed verbally once commitment to the basic ideals of the Islamic Faith. Gerner articulates that the Shahada consists of reciting “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger” (15). Only by reciting this in earnest can one become a fully fledged Muslim.

The next pillar in the Islamic faith is the Salat which is the mandatory Muslim prayers that are offered by the followers of Islam five times a day (Cornell 11). The prayers are offered from dawn just before the sun is up and at intervals through the day and the last prayer is offered between sunset and midnight. The Salat is one of the unifying universally embraced Muslim ritual and even Muslim children as young as 7 years old are encouraged to practice it.

Zakat is the third Pillar in Islam and it is concerned with being charitable by giving alms to the poor and needy in the society (Ameenah). This practice hinges on the Islamic belief of brotherhood and that it is the responsibility of those who are well off to share with the needy in the society. Zakat obtained by annually taxing the property of a Muslim and distributing the proceeds to the poor.

Fasting (Sawm) is the fourth Pillar of Islam and it required one to maintain a fast during the Holy month of Ramadan. All adults are obligated to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking or sexual activity during the fasting hours. The main reason for Sawm is to strengthen one spiritually as well as teach self discipline.

The last pillar of Islam is the Hajj which the annual pilgrim to Mecca. It is desirable that a Muslim faithful undertakes the journey to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they can afford to. Mecca is the Holy city of Muslims and the first pilgrimage to Mecca was done by the Prophet Muhammad with his followers in the year 628 AD (islamworld). This practice has been carried out from that time to date. This ritual strengthens the bond between Muslims and as such, the ritual is of great significance.

We will write a custom Essay on Islamic Society and beliefs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Practicing Islam As Islam is based on peace, a Muslim faithful is supposed to be at peace with all mankind. The character of a Muslim should closely emulate that of the Prophet Muhammad as recorded in the Sunnah and Hadith. Muslims are supposed to exercise justice to all and treat everyone as an equal since everyone is equal in the eyes of Allah. Islam dictates that sex outside the confines of marriage is unlawful (Haram) and is therefore forbidden (Ameenah).

Sex is only allowed for married people and it plays the role of procreation thus ensuring the continuity of the human race as well as creating a bond between a husband and wife. Family life in Islam is mostly patriarchal and the man is the head of the family. Islam accepts the practice of Polygamy and a man can have a maximum of four wives if he so wishes and can provide for them. The man is obligated to protect and provide for his wife/wives and children.

Muslims have two Holy festivals which are Eid ul Fitr and Eid Ul Adha. Eid ul Firt marks the end of Ramadan and the festival begins when the new moon is sighted in the skies (Cornell 21). Eid ul Adha which is marked by a four day holiday in most Islamic Nations remembers the prophets Ibrahim’s devotion to Allah by his willingness to sacrifice Isaac.

Conclusion Religion is a very important aspect to us as human beings. It has been known to instill virtues and values to all and help man cope with the hardships that come with life. This paper set out to give a detailed discussion of the Islamic Faith. To this end, the religious texts used in Islam have been identified and elaborated on.

The practices that make up the pillars of the religion have also been stated and the character of a Muslim faithful highlighted. It is hoped that an understanding of Islam as a religion will led to a deeper appreciation of Muslims leading to a more harmonic coexistence among the various religions in the world.

Works Cited Ameenah, A. “The True Religion.” 2006. Web.

BBC. “Religions, Islam at a glance” 30 June 2009 Web.

Cornel, J. C. “Voices of Islam: Voices of tradition.” Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic Society and beliefs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gerner, K. “Islam.” Marshall Cavendish, 2008. Print.

Real Islam. “Muslim Belief”. 2009 Web. Web.


Gender argumentative essay help

Basing on Michel Foucault’s view on the body as that controlled in terms of space and time, Sandra Lee Bartky in her article “Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power” reviews the way female bodies are controlled in terms of space and appearance and emphasizes that in modern conditions women are more than ever restricted by those factors (22).

On the one hand, standards of feminine behavior presuppose that woman demonstrates submissiveness and deference, which is done through taking more humble poses than men and smiling much more often (Bartky 22–23).

On the other hand, demands to appearance result in women considering their bodies as enemies that should be monitored through diets, exercise, and cosmetic procedures to keep up to feminine standards (Bartky 22, 23–24). In this monitoring there remains no place for self-expression since every procedure corresponds to standardized rules.

The especial tragedy of this constant monitoring situation is seen by Bartky in the fact that in their attempt to control and monitor their feminine compliance, women become objects of male ridicule (Bartky 24). Male society pretends to keep away from giving any standards or prescriptions as to female standards, and only scoffs at the typically female attention to fashion and make-up trends.

The disciplinarians of women appear to be “everywhere and nowhere”: whereas ideas and standards of female ideal saturate everyday environment at work, school, in the street or mass media, nobody takes the responsibility for intrusion of female standards (Bartky 24).

Women actually carry out constant self-monitoring and self-surveillance, and in this respect turn out to be their own disciplinarians (Bartky 26). Such situation results partially from the “revision of femininity” when not female duties and obligations characterize a woman as belonging to female society but her appearance outward behavior is the crucial factor defining her ‘membership’ (Bartky 25).

The issue of whether women display compliance with social standards of femininity or engage in self-expression by following the fashion trends is quite a debatable one. It cannot be justly claimed that such interest for the outward appearance is only a recent phenomenon: women have taken care of their appearance throughout history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, men are nowadays doing it no less than women, attending spa salons and tracing trends in clothing. The art of dressing and applying appropriate make up indicates the taste of the woman, her sense of beauty and measure. It is true that certain part of female population is obsessed with copying some conventional standards; but that does not mean women do not express themselves through clothing or make-up. Following a standard means lacking in personal fantasy but not limiting it in any case.

Involving in the modern feminist-political debate, Rose Weitz in her article “A History of Women’s Bodies” characterizes the historically dominant attitude to female body as an object constituting men’s property (4). Seen as defective and even dangerous already from the ancient times, female body, together with its frailer constitution, was vested with such degrading qualities as “less developed brain and emotional and moral weaknesses that could endanger any man who came under their spell” (Weitz 4).

In the Middle Ages this view of female body resulted in witch-hunt, with the situation changing but a little in the eighteenth century when women still have no civil rights and fully belonged to their husbands. As a counter reaction to women increased access to education or employment, nineteen-century men proclaimed them too frail to be involved in any men-equal activity, and this degrading treatment lasted till 1970s (Weitz 6–8).

As feminists emancipation movement activated in the second half of the twentieth century, there has been observed a series of backlashes to the changing of social view on female body (Weitz 9). Firstly, women are held in great pressure as to maintaining the “acceptable appearances”: large amount of exercise, cosmetic surgery, and dieting have become essential for keeping up to the standards (Weitz 10).

Secondly, PMS condition is by large controlled via medical services since it is considered an illness to be treated. Thirdly, abortion rights are debated as contrasted to “fetal rights”: abortive mothers are often prejudiced in society as baby-killers (Weitz 10–11). Such social attitudes to appearance, PMS, and abortion issues actually limits the woman’s right to fully control her own body.

In the long run, it appears that feminist struggle for recognition of equality or even superiority of female body over the male one has led to a double result. On the one hand, women have attained opportunities to involve in activities that were previously considered typically male, such as politics or large-scale business.

Nobody is supposed to make an allowance for gender when deadlines project have to be met or important decisions taken: women take equal responsibility as men for the result of their professional activities. On the other hand, the male society still executes control over the female body by prescribing certain hardly achievable standards of appearance and by treating the monthly PMS as an unhealthy state. Those are the prejudices to be yet overcome.

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Maya Angelou’s “Champion of the World” Essay essay help online free

The story has a home setting, which is a good depiction that most people throb for; a better, safe place to embark on after the long day activities. The author utilizes the power of narration to bring out an extremely interesting diction just as Martin Luther King did in his “I have a dream” speech as written by Eidenmuller (2008).

They both make a common theme of racial differences come out lively. Using descriptive strategy for the events, Maya is able to capture the readers, drawing them to feel as part of the action. She takes a perspective of an outsider to analyze the white Americans life in relation to Africa Americans. This is a concept that assists her to avoid describing personal inner feelings and capture the reader’s implicitly to experience the events.

The author uses the narration of a fight as a literal symbolism of struggle against racial injustice. It also and gives a faster style of unfolding the events to trigger emotions. The most important aspect of the narration is its emphasis over the power of having a personal reflection and the importance of sharing. (Angelou, 4, 1993)

Sharing makes one stronger and as the author makes the narration, she drains her emotions in the writing; therefore, the process is a therapeutic experience of confronting racial oppression. The aspect of equity is evident today especially in leadership, people share experiences orally with friends and thus enhance the bond and common factors, consequently triggering the aspect of equality. People belong to a common human race and thus should enjoy bonded lives through shared events.

The irony at the end of Maya’s narration is the way she brings forth the aspect of happiness. People feel and know better than they had. They feel spiritually and morally motivated than they did in the beginning. Her ending is equally triumph because logically as she hints, the fight is merely a diminutive victory because the problems the people have are still there and will still be present in their lives until they fight to feel morally uplifted.

Like the poem “Dream Deferred” by Langston Hughes, Maya’s narration is ironic because it utilizes the negative aspects to oppress racial injustice and violation of rights. The outcome is an absolute change of events while the racial perception comes slowly.

An act may be very hidden or isolated but if it is a hurting one, it continuously reverberates within in an immeasurable manner until people address the matter. I her narrations (4, 1993), Angelou references defeat to the historical injustice but these are however small events that cannot champion the victory over obstacles licked to the racial backgrounds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Angelou has an oppressing feeing as a white young African-American woman fighting racial discrimination and segregation, in a white society especially before the establishment of the civil rights movements. One would expect a caged bird to sing a song of powerlessness or defeat but it is still as vibrant as before with a strong hope of freedom. Her narration provides hope for the oppressed but still emphasizes the need for struggle.

In his poem “Dream Deferred” (1996), Langston Hughes takes in hand the query over the outcome of a destroyed dream. A strong imagery depicts the impact, which has a negative and vicious ending for that person who is not able to dream any more. In comparison to “I have dream” Speech by Martin Luther King, Jn, Langston Hughes writes of African Americans struggle for equity.

By pondering the outcome from a destroyed dream, like Maya Angelous in the “champion of the world” he illustrates many negative possible outcomes such as “a raisin in the sun,” symbolizing hardening of the heart. Second symbolism shows infection to the mind and thirdly, the rotten meat image. All this aspects describes incomplete dreams.

These are the various outcomes a dream has for driving people to accomplishments. Jeopardizing the dream gives negative results. All the three writers lived racial lifestyles thus the call for people to face racism. Allowing personal dreams to explode gives different thoughts thus making life better. The three writing “I Know Why the Caged Bird sings,” “Dream Deferred,” and the “I Have a Dream” speech, have a similarity in encouraging people to find equality by fighting injustice.

Work Cited Angelou, M. “Champion of the World,” I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. 1993. Bantam Books publishers.

Eidenmuller, Michael E. Martin Luther King, Jr.: “I Have a Dream.”Delivered 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C. McGraw-Hill. 2008. Retrieved from

Langston Hughes: A Dream Deferred. 1996. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Maya Angelou’s “Champion of the World” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


How can we detect life on extrasolar planets? Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


The habitable zone

Methods of Detecting Extrasolar Life and Their Limitations

Proposed solutions for extrasolar life detection


Works Cited

Abstract Extrasolar planets are planets that are found outside the solar system. Mathematical probability shows that some of these planets may contain life. However, this needs to be proven using credible scientific evidence. The current scientific methods to search for extrasolar life heavily depend on telescopes. The available telescopes however are not big enough to provide the necessary precision needed to detect signs of life on extrasolar planets. By February 2010, no signs of extrasolar life had been detected.

Introduction The increased detection of extrasolar planets has led to a lot of optimism on the existence of extrasolar life (Bekwith, pp 1). It has acted as an incentive to search for life in other galaxies. Extrasolar planets are planets found outside the earth’s solar system and extrasolar life is therefore the life found on such planets.

The possibility of having extrasolar life is just hypothetical and no scientifically credible proof has been put forward. In fiction, life on other planets is shown to exist and this has led to a lot speculation from majority of human beings. Stories of disappearances, unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and mysterious green organisms find their way into public media.

Detecting life on extrasolar planets is not an easy task. It has many limitations and major technological advancements are still required. This research shows that the current techniques and available equipment cannot detect extrasolar life. However, plans by space exploration bodies are promising to shed more light on the issue in the coming few decades. This will revolutionize the current scientific and religious believes.

The habitable zone Searching for signs of life cannot be done haphazardly; a target approach must be employed. A home for the life must be detected (which is the planet) and signs of life on that home are searched.The planets are commonly detected using indirect methods (astrometry, radial velocity or Doppler method, circumstellar disks, pulsar timing, eclipsing binary, and gravitational microlensing) and direct imaging (“Space science”).

Life in these planets can take many different guises and this makes the basis of their detection quite complex. It is therefore logical to first search for signs of life that are similar to those on earth. The habitable zone is the region occupied by a planet that is similar to that occupied by earth in relation to the sun.

Searching for signs of life on all detected planets is not feasible. A criterion is needed to determine the candidates that can possibly support life. Life as we know it can only occur within a certain zone around the mother star (a main sequence star), the habitable zone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important because around this region, the temperatures are around 273K and 373K (Beckwith), which is necessary but not sufficient for the support of earth like life. At these temperatures, water is in a liquid phase. The temperatures are determined by the distance of the planet from the star, which gives the planet warmth. After detection of the planet, it is analyzed for signs of life.

Methods of Detecting Extrasolar Life and Their Limitations In the solar system, scientists detect life using direct and indirect methods. In the direct methods, the scientists search for forms of life on the planet by direct imaging. Direct observation of the extrasolar planets is difficult due to their low light reflection and proximity to their stars, which are brighter than the planets (Beckwith, pp 2).

The star light therefore creates a glare that washes out the planets light. Another direct method is the monitoring of radio frequencies in space by organizations such as SETI (search for extra-terrestrial intelligence). This method has been used in the search for intelligent life.

Monitoring for radio signals from other extraterrestrial civilizations is not a very promising method due to the great distances between earth and the extrasolar planets. The nearest extrasolar planet is 10.5 light-years from earth. Radio communications between such distances would take too long. This is further limited by the fact that the life on such planets must be intelligent life that is using the same radio signals for communication.

Therefore, these direct methods are more productive for planets that are in the earth’s solar system such as Jupiter, mars and Venus. For planets outside the solar system, they are not very efficient and application of indirect methods is necessitated.

The most productive indirect methods involve telescopic analysis of the extrasolar planets’ atmospheres for the basic molecules of life (methane, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water). These compounds were detected in the atmospheres of two extrasolar planets. However, the physical conditions of the planets cannot support life for they are hot gases. In the current search for life on extrasolar planets, ‘life’ refers to carbon based organic life whose survival depends on water (Beckwith).

For a planet to support this kind of life, it must meet two main conditions: it must lie within the habitable zone of its solar system (where the water is in liquid form) and it must retain an atmosphere (it is rocky). Mathematically, there is a high probability of existence of such planets within the habitable zone but detecting them remains to be done (Bell, para 6). This is because, the resolution of the current generation of telescopes is not high enough to detect and analyze planets near a star and those similar to earth in size.

We will write a custom Report on How can we detect life on extrasolar planets? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many extrasolar planets have been detected with Doppler method being the most productive technique. However, the extrasolar planets detected using Doppler method do not fall within the habitable region of the main sequence stars.

They are mainly large gaseous planets that cannot support life although two of them were found to contain compounds that are some of the ‘markers’ of life; these were water, methane and carbon dioxide. All these planets apart from twenty-five of them are 10 times the size of earth with most of them being larger than Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system. This further clarifies that technologies developed so far are unable to detect smaller planets.

Large planets are most likely to be gaseous and therefore their surface temperatures are too high to support life, as we know it (Kleefman). Apart from the Doppler method, other indirect methods have also detected huge planets with the same characteristics; they are not rocky and therefore cannot support life.

The slightly more than twenty-five Earth like masses and solids already detected are not within a habitable zone of their stars. They were detected when using pulsar-timing method and they have been found to be orbiting pulsars. Pulsars provide even more extreme conditions for life. They are radio sources that regularly emit very short bursts of signals; they are highly magnetic and there is no likelihood of a habitable zone (Kleefman).

The other planets of smaller sizes that have been detected are known as ‘brown dwarfs’. They are of low temperatures and luminosity and do not become hot enough in the core to cause thermonuclear reactions. They therefore are not actual planets but stars that were not completely formed. These objects cannot support life. Even if chemicals needed for life are detected in these planets, life cannot exist on them and they probably were formed from other processes.

Even if a planet within the habitable zone were detected, detection of life on it would still be constrained. The actual methods for detecting signs of life in extrasolar planets have limitations too. The most promising method involves analysis of the atmosphere of the planets for signatures of chemicals necessary for life (Beckwith).

It is based on the fact that on earth, the chemical components of its atmosphere have been altered by life; therefore, the proof of life on earth can be detected from afar in the spectral signatures of molecules such as oxygen, water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide. By employing this fact, the atmospheres of extrasolar planets are analyzed for spectral signatures of the above-mentioned molecules. The analysis is done using large telescopes.

The limitation of this method is that the planet must be abundant in life forms for the molecules to be detected by the current telescopes. The large number of life forms would be able to cause detectable changes in the atmospheric composition. This is especially possible for higher forms of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How can we detect life on extrasolar planets? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If low numbers of simple life forms exist, changes in the atmospheric composition would be minimal and therefore, detection would be minimal too. The precision of the current detection methods needs to be improved a great deal before such forms of life can be detected.

Microlensing is a more accurate method for detecting planets that may fall within the habitable zone, but it also has limitations. The occurrence of micro-lensing events is very rare and for that reason, detection of such planets may never be achieved (Kerins, para.3). Another problem is that even if the micro-lensing event occurs, there is only one chance for recording data. If the chance is lost, data is never recorded.

Proposed solutions for extrasolar life detection It has been proposed that the use of direct methods may also be possible to detect signs of life on extrasolar. This may be achieved by use of well-designed searches for life forms of microbial nature (Knuckle).

This could be based on remote sensing techniques to search for signatures of compounds associated with life such as chlorophyll and other photosynthetic compounds; conversely, such observations would require to be done through strong, interfering absorptions and scattering radiances. The precision of such observations would be low due to the current resolution and signal to noise ratio constraints. This means that direct observation of extrasolar planets is still impossible at the current generation of telescopes.

The current propositions to build huge telescopes for space exploration are promising to eliminate such constraints. The building of a huge telescope named OWL (OverWhelmingly Large) is expected to revolutionize astronomy (“OWL”). It is proposed to have a diameter of between 60 and 100 meters.

This gigantic telescope will be able to detect an object that is 1500 times fainter than the faintest object observed currently. The telescope and others proposed to have 8 meters diameter will make it possible to characterize more extrasolar planets but until then, extrasolar life remains a mystery.

Conclusion The search for life beyond earth started over 50 years ago. It has been marred by controversies from scientists, religious leaders, media and the common person. It is important therefore to review critically the available information to determine what the truth is about life in the extrasolar planets.

This paper looked at the current techniques employed in detecting life on extrasolar planets. Their productivity so far and possible future improvements was also reviewed. The detection of life on extrasolar planets depends on ability to detect extrasolar planets themselves so techniques to detect these planets were briefly discussed.

Not all extrasolar planets can support life. In fact, only a small proportion of extrasolar planets can support life, as we know it. These planets must lie within the habitable zones of their stars and must also be rocky. So far, no such planets have been detected and therefore, no extrasolar life has ever been detected.

Although compounds necessary for life (methane, carbon dioxide and water were found on two extrasolar planets, no life form can exist on the planets’ conditions. Scientists have discovered that these compounds were probably formed through other processes.

The available techniques of detecting life on planets beyond the solar system are not up to the test. The distance between Earth and those planets is too great for the available equipment. The technologies are also not able to remove interferences that increase the signal to noise ratio in life detection processes.

The precision of our current detection technologies need to be increased a great deal before we can detect extrasolar life. However, if telescopes like OWL are built, useful data may be obtained in the near future. Until then, likelihood of life outside our solar system remains an open question.

Works Cited Beckwith, Steven W. Detecting life bearing extrasolar planets with space telescopes 2nd Ed. California: university of California press. 2008.

Kerins, Eamonn. “Microlensing.” The university of Manchester. 2008. Web.

Kleefman, Mark. “Could life exist on discovered extrasolar planets?” Life on other planets. 1997. Web.

Knuckle, Roger “Possibilities of detection of microbial life on extrasolar planets”. Pubmed new and noteworthy. U.S. national library of medicine. 2003. Web.

“Owl- a future milestone in astronomy”. Eso telescopes division. European southern observatory. 2006. Web.

“Space science-how to find an extrasolar planet.” Feature. European space agency. 2007. Web.


Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Is there evidence of life on Martian meteorites?


Is (was) there life in Mars?


Works Cited

Abstract The acceptable reality for now is that no research has managed to conclusively show or document that there is life or no life in Mars. This research paper is of the opinion that the argument about life or lack of it in Mars should seize, until such a time when conclusive evidence to support arguments on either side will be attained. Until then, researchers need to do the hard work of verifying or refuting existing theories and counterchecking any new evidence that could be contained in the Martian meteorites

Is there evidence of life on Martian meteorites? According to Buseck et al, Nanocrystals of Magnetite(Fe3O4) compounds in meteorites found from mars are the strongest, yet the most controversial indicators that there is extraterrestrial life in Mars(13490). The allegation attached to the Fe3O4 is that they resemble crystals found in Meteorite ALH84001, which are formed by specific terrestrial bacteria. The ALH84001 was found in the Antarctica and later recognized as meteorite whose origin was Mars(Mckay et al 924).

McKay Et al authored startling report based on chemical and structural features of ALH84001 (295).The report indicates that there was indeed life in mars. McKay Et al based their arguments on four chemical and structural features of the meteorite and although they admitted that the individual features could not prove their allegation, they sought to convince the general public as well as scientists that the four features taken collectively were evidence enough that there was indeed life in Mars(Friedmann et al 562).

The first basis for their conclusion was the “igneous Mars Rock”. According to their report, the rock was of unidentified geologic context and had pores and fractured spaces that were permeated by a fluid. Their second reason was that the igneous rock was older than the carbon globules found there in. The third reason was that the TEM and SEM images captured of the carbon globules had features that resemble microfossils, terrestrial-biogenic-carbonate structures, and terrestrial micro organisms.

Fourth, the Fe-sulfide and magnetite particles indicated that the oxidation and other reductions reaction had occurred on the compound, thus indicating the presence of microbial systems and finally, there were Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs)on the compound thus indicating that its original surface(Mars)had carbonate globules(McKay et al 930).

Buseck et al, notes that although the McKay et al theory has been criticized and largely questioned, no one scientist or researcher has been able to disapprove it(13490).The report starts by acknowledging the fact that the 1975 Viking lander experiments managed to negate the possibility that there was life on Mars.

However, the report states that the conclusion from the tests cannot be meant to conclude that there was absolutely no life in Mars. This was especially because the Viking experiments were too localized to offer a conclusive report regarding life or lack of it in Mars(McKay et al 924).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deduction by McKay Et al that meteorite ALH84001 has enough evidence regarding life in Mars has been criticized by many scientists with Thomas-Keprta et al(2164) saying that the evidence offered was based on “presumptive bio-signatures”. In their own research, Thomas-Keprta et al classified Fe3O4 crystals and identified them to be similar to the intracellular magnetite released by MV-1(a magnetotactic bacteria-strain).

In the research, Thomas Keprta et al states that the magnetite populations are chemically pure and from a single-domain(2164). They also observe a “unique” crystal habit, which they define as truncated hexaoctahedral(2164). They argue that since there are no known reports which could explain the truncated hexaoctahedral observations, the presence of the MV-1 strain of bacteria was most likely as a result of Natural selection rather than organic activity.

They however argue that the only possibility where the magnetite crystals could be used to indicate that there is life in Mars, is if there are “unexplained inorganic processes on Mars that are absent on Earth and hence forms the truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite” (2165). Overall, Thomas-Keprta et al manages to support rather disapprove the McKay et al deduction that the ALH84001 is an indicator that there is life in Mars.

Their argument does not however go unchallenged. Buseck at al, states that the “Truncated hexa-octahedral” crystals they refer to are not as unique as they make people to believe (13494).Buseck et al argues that the term means that the crystals of ALH84001 have a combination of octahedron, dodecahedron and cube faces. These according to them had been observed in other meteorites and hence were not a unique aspect at all.

Buseck et al(13490) criticizes both studies done by Mckay Et al(929)and Thomas-Keprta et al(2165) saying that the two arguments are flawed. He claims that without the micro structural or chemical evidence to back the allegation that the features in the ALH84001 are indeed magnetite crystals, then any evidence produced thereafter is inadmissible.

He further argues that magnototactic bacteria are ever-present on the Earth, despite the fact that intact chains of the nano-sized magnetite crystals from such bacteria are hard to find in earthly geological samples.

As such the intact chains as found by McKay et al(925)would be hard to find because it would be unlikely that they would survive biological processes. Friedman et al acknowledges that it is quite difficult to understand how the magnetite chains hypothesized by McKay et al survived in their intact form(2176).This only serves to cast further doubt on the allegation of McKay et al and subsequent research conducted and documented by other authors like Friedman et al and Thomas-Keprta Et al(2164-2169).

We will write a custom Essay on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Golden et al neither refute nor support the allegation by McKay et al(370-375).They however proved that just as much as the formation of carbonates, sulfides and magnetite on ALH84001 could be attained in temperatures that support life, the same can be formed inorganically. Golden et al through a combination of precipitation and heating processes developed simple inorganic process, which they claim can offer an alternative explanation to the carbonate, Fe-sulfide and magnetite found in the meteorite ALH84001(370).

The acceptable reality for now is that no research has managed to conclusively show or document that there is life or no life in Mars. This research paper is of the opinion that the argument about life or lack of it in Mars should seize, until such a time when conclusive evidence to support arguments on either side will be attained. Until then, researchers need to do the hard work of verifying or refuting existing theories and counterchecking any new evidence that could be contained in the Martian meteorites.

Discussion By2007, there were 12 meteorites that had been studied or still were being studied for ingredients that would suggest life on Mars. The meteorites were thought to have originated from Mars due to their unique(often peculiar) chemistry (Kimball 1). Of all the 12, the ALH84001 has been the single most meteorites subjected to extensive study.

The three most cited ingredients in the ALH84001 that suggest that there could be indeed life processes in Mars are the presence of PAHs. However, scientists note that PAHs are not unique to meteorites from Mars only. According to Kimball, meteorites from other places in the solar systems are known to have PAHs too even though it has been established that there are no traces of life there(1).

The mineral within the meteorite(magnetite, carbon and Fe-sulfide)is the other indicator that some scientists use to suggest the presence of life activities in Mars. However, as seen above, some researchers have proven that it is quite possible to generate the minerals without biological processes.

The time that the minerals were deposited in the meteorite is also suspect because as Kimball(1)indicates, the minerals seems to have been deposited in the specific rock later in its history, which raises the question, is it possible that the rock picked the minerals on earth rather from its origin? Stephan et al notes that the rock had fusion crusts, and mineralogical and well as chemical differences(113).

These differences could have led to the contamination of the inner rock through the cracks, which could have happened during handling or in the Antarctic environment before the rock was discovered.

An answer to this question is provided by Stephan et al, who after a study concluded that it was highly unlikely that the PAHs in the ALH84001 had an extraterrestrial origin(113). The study further provided evidence that the meteorite was contaminated by lead, which is evidently a terrestrial material. Studies by Golden et al also allude that ALH84001 continues to be contaminated with terrestrial microbial materials hence suggesting that ‘maybe’ the PAHs had been picked in its Antarctica location (374).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is there evidence of life on martian meteorites? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third reason that some researchers like McKay et al (924) and Thomas-Keprta et al(2164)suggests indicates some signs of life are the objects that resemble fossils in tiny micro-organisms when observed under a microscope.

This argument is however discredited by Kimball, who argues that the fact that the largest of the “nano-fossils” got from the rock had a diameter of 100 nanometers, is evidence enough that it does not have the necessary volume to support life(1).The Smallest microorganism on earth is the Mycloplasmas and has 300 nanometer diameter. Scientists indicate that a micro-organism would need at least a 200 nanometer diameter in order to support life (Kimball 1).

In addition to the ALH 84001 meteorite, other meteorites of Martian origin include “Shergotty, Nkakhla and Chassigny”. Nakhla was the first meteorite of Martian origin to be found on earth(Glavin et al 8835), and just like the LAH84001, the meteorite contained carbonates and some hydrous minerals. Research on Nakhla indicated that the rock had been exposed to some aqueous solutions after its formation, and this was the first indication that researchers need to conclude that in deed there were aqueous processes on Mars.

The length of time that such processes persisted however remains a pertinent question to this day. As opposed to ALH84001 meteorite which had an estimated terrestrial age of almost 13,000 years, the Nakhla meteorite fell on 9 am 40 kilometers to the East of Alexandria in Egypt in 1911. The fall was observed and most of the specimen rocks were collected within days of the fall (Glavin 8834).

On observation, Nakhla was found to contain d-amino acids, which were not present in the ALH84001 meteorite. According to Glavin et al, the d-amino acids were not extraterrestrial in nature and had been deposited into the rock when it hit the ground in the Nile region (8836).

This conclusion was reached because in addition to finding similar d-amino- acids around the Nile soil, the amino acids would have been racemic if they were formed on Mars(Glavin 8836). The D/L ratios, which could have determined the amino-acids of Martian origin in the rock, were not possible due to the low concentration of the same.

Another meteorite EETA79001 was found to contain l-enantiomers components of amino-acids (Mcdonald


The US and Japanese Constitutions Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The contribution Americans in the making and enactment of the 1947 Japanese constitution, which is still in use to date, has been an issue for debate since the adoption of the constitution.

Of special significance is Article 9 of the constitution which renounces war by stating that “… the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes…”[1] For this to happen, Japan had to give up its military on land, air and sea. It also gave up the right or need to develop or keep military weapons. More to this, article 9 states that “the right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized”[2]

Article 9 is an issue of civil rights concerns because of several reasons: first, there were and still are concerns about America’s involvement in changing the military constitution that were present in the Meiji Constitution coming soon after World War II. Secondly, there were concerns about the haste through which the United States through its Supreme Commander McArthur proceeded to enact the Potsdam Declaration and demilitarize Japan.[3]

In a statement sent to General MacArthur by the US government, it is clear that there was clear comparison between the provisions of the Japanese constitution that did not match the US constitution. In the statement titled “ reform of the Japanese System SWNCC 228” and classified as top secret, the US government stated that her forces would not leave Japan until a ‘peaceful and responsible government” had been put in place [4].

However, for this to happen, the statement clearly stated that some of the Japanese institutions and practices had to be eliminated. The statement insisted that the “allies” (referring to the Supreme Command for the Allied Powers led by MacArthur) in accordance to provisions in the Potsdam treaty were at liberty to insist that the basic law in Japan be altered in order to make the Japanese government responsible to its people.

The statement highlighted the lack of an effective system through which the Japanese government could be responsible to its people. Comparing the Japanese system to the US one, the statement noted that while the executive government in the US was answerable to the president, who was in turn answerable to the people who elected him, and had to work within a judiciary- enforced constitution, the Japanese system lacked such accountability measures[5].

Citing the Meiji constitution the statement by the US government to MacArthur stated that the constitution in Japan then had been framed with the intention of “stilling popular clamor for representative institutions” and “fortifying and perpetuating the centralized and autocratic government structures”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the constitutions contained some of the trapping contained in the US constitution such as the three branches of government (judiciary, legislature and the executive), the checks and balances that would have made Japan a democracy were lacking because the constitution granted too much power to the Emperor thus making the country an absolute Monarchy[6].

The Meiji Constitution reaffirmed the inviolable and sacred status of the emperor, and vested powers such as supreme command of the navy and the army on him. He also had the powers to determine the military and civil salaries in the country[7].

While this was of concern to the American people, the question among civil right activists remains- did the United State have a right to impose its believes and democratic concepts to Japan, especially seeing that Japan was a sovereign country? Of more concern is the argument that Gen MacArthur and SCAP imposed a constitution on Japan instead of letting the country goes through its own sovereign process of constitution making[8].

Of special concern to opponents of the provisions of article 9 is the right for Japan to have self defense forces. The argument by such groups is that Japan had a right to a military because military forces by countries are mainly used for defense rather for perpetuating aggressive acts[9].

A review of literature on article 9 indicates that opinions on whether Japan should have a military are divided into two groups both inside Japan and outside her bonders. One group holds that the article prohibits Japan from having armed forces for any reason. The other group holds that Japan has a self-defense right and hence a recourse to have a military when necessary.

This study is intended to evaluate the controversies surrounding article 9 of the Japanese constitution and evaluate whether there is the necessary political will needed to revise or amend the same. The study will also look at the effect of article 9 and the impact it has had and continues to have on the US-Japan relations.

The study concludes that even though the international community, especially the UN and the US would prefer a more military-independent Japan, the article which was initially put in the constitution by the American framers has been adopted by the Japanese and is now viewed by a significant population to be their only assurance that Japan will not revert to its notorious military past.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The US and Japanese Constitutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, amending the same especially considering that it needs two thirds political support in Japans legislature (Diet, House of Councilors and House of Representatives) is a near impossible task.

Discussion The Japanese people have “learnt to ‘Japanize’ the constitution” through localized interpretations when applying it to the local context even though it was originally framed by the Americans[10]. Overtime, the Japanese have found a way to go about even the most controversial article 9 and have since developed and expanded a significant military force that is seen by some as a contravention of the constitution[11].

The American framers of the Japanese constitution placed enormous hurdles for the revision of amendment of the constitution. Among them is article 96 of the constitution, which states “amendments to this constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring of two-thirds or more of all the members of each house and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification, which shall requires the affirmative vote of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum or at such elections as the Diet shall specify”[12]. This provision is seen as making amendments to the constitution as a near impossible task[13].

It however must be noted that the Japanese people had a chance to change everything the American Framers had put in the constitution before enactment in the period between 1948 and 1949. The Japanese people however did not lay much emphasis on the constitution and even the review commission that was set up by the government only introduced some few and minor revisions[14]. This therefore nullifies the claim that the constitution was imposed to the Japanese.

Later in 2000, amid raised concerns over the need to review article 9, the Diet created two research commissions in the House of Councilors and the House of Representatives to consider the possibility of revising article 9 [15]. By 2006, the two houses had made recommendations to the house, but it was expected that as stipulated in the constitution, the recommendations would then be discussed by the diet, and if found favorable by a majority members, would be subjected to a national referendum.

The framers of the Japanese constitution seems to have had a clear intention of making sure that Japan would in future pose threats to other countries. In the constitution preamble, one notes that the language used is similar to the same language in article 9.

The preamble states that the Japanese people “shall secure for themselves and the posterity the fruits of cooperation with all nations” and resolves to never again to “be visited with horrors of war through the action of government…” The preamble also states that the “the people of Japan have determined to preserve their security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of peace-loving peoples of the world.”[16]

Controversies surrounding article 9 The right to use force as a defense mechanism

Although Japan does not have a military, at least in theory, article 9 has been interpreted to mean that Japan has the right to have a self-defense form[17]. Right after the attack of South Korea by North Korea in 1950, Japan put together a National Police Reserve. This was later renamed to National Safety Force two years later and the Security Defense Force in 1954[18].

Not sure if you can write a paper on The US and Japanese Constitutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The constitutionality of the SDF can be argued either way. While establishing the SDF in 1954, the Japanese government at that time argued that article 9 does not prohibit self defense forces just as long as they are not used for aggression to other countries. The argument was that although the first paragraph of article 9 prohibited aggressive “acts of war”, it did not prevent them from having self-defense forces.

Research into the constitution making indicates that the phrase “in order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph…” was deliberately included by a committee formed to discuss the draft constitution, deliberately with future purposes in mind, whereby the Japanese would be able to maintain a self defense force[19]. A different school of though states that the SDF is completely unconstitutional and lack the legal backing and should thus be disbanded and replaced with a civilian force.

Japan-US relations

The relations between the US and Japan largely rely on the provisions of the Mutual Security Treaty, which was enacted in 1951 and later revised in 1960. The treaty has an understanding that just as long as Japan does not have a military of its own, it would be under the security Umbrella of the United States[20].

Under the treaty, Japan is obligated the troops with Military bases and under the “Host Nation provision”, it is supposed to defray costs emanating from stationing the US troops in Japan. In the wake of missile technology and nuclear development in North Korea and the risk that this poses to Japan, the Japan-US relationship has strengthened over the years.

China’s growth in both economic and military capabilities also gave rise to a need for better strategic positioning of Japan security wise.[21] This is despite the fact that the end of the cold War had marked a re-evaluation phase of the relationship by Japan.

Japan also sent an approximated 600 troops to assist US forces in Iraq and is also known to have cooperated with the United States in the development of a defense system largely thought to be ballistic missile in nature[22].

Notably, Japan declined a UN request to send troops to the Persian Gulf War in 1991, but after the 9/11 terrorism attack the country announced its support to the US efforts to fight terrorism[23]. It even dispatched naval forces ostensibly to aid the US with logistical support during the former’s offensive against Afghanistan[24]. Although the support offered to the US so far is logistical in nature, one gets the impression that Japan is achieving through the United States what is prohibited by article 9.

Under George Bush administration, Japan and the US held meetings relating to their security cooperation and resolved the need for Japan to take up more active responsibilities in global stability. This would however be pegged on the US military. The meetings also resolved that there would be a reduction of US troops in Japan.

More to this, Japan agreed for an X-band radar system deployed to the country, as well as a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier[25]. Japan however has to foot the bills associated with US troops based in the country. Among critics of the US-Japan relationship is a group of thought that argues that the relationship favors the United States, and need to be revised in order to address the concerns of the Japanese people more comprehensively[26].

This study notes that Japan’s relations towards the United States are probably based on the fact that without a military provision in the constitution, Japan knows that the United States is the best bet for providing it with the security it needs against aggression, while the US knows that its relations with Japan has a central role to play in ensuring its interests in the Far East.[27]

This however does not mean that Japan agrees with everything that the US does. For all intents and purpose, this study surmises that the Japan-US relationship is strengthened by the culpability placed on the latter by article 9. If the country had a military however, may be the relationship would not be as strong.

Post war Japan has relied on the United States to provide it with security within and outside its borders. The United States’ troops in Japan alone for example are approximately 53,000[28].

Considering that Japan is a strategic economic contributor to the US economy ( Japan is the second largest export market for the US, the second-largest imports source and the second-largest foreign Domestic investment source) one wonders if contravening article 9 would have any significant reaction for the United States especially considering the need to protect the economic interests of the country.

Collectively, Japan and the United States represent about 40 percent of the world’s Gross Domestic product[29]. This means that the two have a mutual relationship that impacts not only them, but the entire world. Their interconnectedness stretches from trade in merchandise, services, and foreign direct investments (FDI). It is therefore highly unlikely that the United States would sever its relationship with Japan based on the revision or amendment of article 9.

Considering Japan’s strategic position in Asia, article 9 appears like a prohibiting factor more to the US interests in the region than it is a concern for the Japanese. Since the enactment of the 1949 constitution, Japan has lacked both the political and civil will to change article 9[30]. Constitution interpreters argue that Japan has interpreted the article to suit their position by allowing the establishment of the SDF, but prohibiting the country’s involvement in outside war or peace interventions even as a third party country.

The United States is especially constrained by the same Article 9 that its framers put in the Japanese constitution because it cannot develop a closer defense cooperation with Japan as it would like, especially in light of the rising threats posed by North Korea’s and China’s emergency as military and economic powers.

Japan’s role in international security

Being a member of the United Nations, Japan cannot comply with article 51 as stipulated in the UN’s charter, which gives UN member countries a mandate to intervene where another country is being attacked even though the country itself may not be under attack. Justifying their resolve about non-intervention, Japan cites paragraph 1 of article 9 and argues that its constitution prohibits it from interfering with international disputes unless deliberation, negotiations and diplomacy are the only tools in use[31].

The argument by the government is that although the country is permitted by the international law to engage in “collective self-defense”, its constitution does not permit it to engfage in activities that flout the “minimum necessary level for the defense of the nation”, which is only applicable when; 1) Japan faces an illegitimate and imminent aggression against it, 2)when every other mean of dealing with the aggression has been tried without success and 3) when only the minimum necessary level of armed strength is to be used by Japan[32].

With rising global security concerns, Japan has in the past engaged in a series of bilateral security agreements, which among other things pledges the country’s cooperation in disaster relief, peace-keeping, maritime security and counterterrorism. The first was an agreement with Australia, closely followed by another agreement with India in 2008[33]. Though not military alliances, the pacts establishes a framework that allows Japan to cooperate with Australia and India.

The United States however is an ever present force in these pacts and one gets the impression that Japan would not have signed these pacts if they did not serve the US interests well. This is especially so because the United States was at the time of the bilateral agreement signing spearheading a campaign that sought to strengthen strategic alliances among its democratic allies in hopes of countering the ever growing military power emanating from China.

Japan has however been accused of using the provisions of article 9 to stay off collective-defensive exercise and only intervening where the situation suits them such as when helping out the US, which is a strategic partner in both trade and security[34] .

Those who counter-argue this assertion state that article 5 of the security treaty between US and Japan allows the two countries to aid each other when either faces external aggression[35]. Article 5 of the treaty reads “Each party recognizes that an armed attack against either party in the territories under the administration of Japan would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional provisions and processes”[36].

Critics of Japans involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq argue that this article allows Japan to act only within areas within its borders or near its borders. In both Afghanistan and Iraq cases, this was far from the criteria observed by Japan. Supporters of Japans decisions to send troops to Afghanistan and Iraq argue that what the constitution prohibits is the dispatch of “armed forces to foreign territorial land, sea and airspace for the purpose of using force”[37].

With rising pressure from the international community especially after it failure to send troops to the UN operations in Congo; Japan’s Diet formulated a provision that allowed the country to send peacekeeping troops in UN missions in future[38]

Is it a good or bad idea to change article 9

The debate on whether to revise or amend article 9 of the Japanese constitution in order to at least Japan re-arm in the height of increased international aggression seems to be favored more by international players rather than the Japanese. In a survey by the BBC, 64 percent of students in Universities in Japan favored that Article 9 be retained just as it is in the constitution[39].

It is however notable that there are at least four distinct opinions regarding the amendment or revision of article 9 in the Japanese constitution[40]. The pro-revisionists have been advocating for the revision of article 9 arguing that Japan should have a fully-fledged military that is able to protect the country against external aggressors. This argument is supported by people who view Japan’s geographic location especially next to North Korea and China as something that needs the country to take some armament measures.

The pro-revisionists also argue that being a member of the UN, Japan should have the ability to send troops to the UN whenever the need arises. A different group of pro-revisionists are against the militarization of the country, but argues that article 9 should be revised to legalize the SDF and give it some more mandate. This school of thought argues that the SDF‘s mandate should be restricted to defense and disaster relief.

The anti-revisionists are divided in to two groups: 1) those that prefer the status quo and 2) those who argue that the SDF is unconstitutional. The first group states that the present interpretation of the constitution is enough and any revision would only serve to create more room for broad interpretations, which would in turn lead to an escalation and expansion of Japan’s military power.

The second group argues that the SDF should be banned because it’s not only unconstitutional, but its mere existence threatens neighboring nations. They propose that the SDF should be dissolved into a “disaster relief operation force”[41].

The study opinionates that Japan should revise article 9 to support the first pro-revisionist position because, Japan no doubts needs some military power in order to contend with the rising risks posed by its Asian neighbors. The fact that the United States, which is responsible for framing the constitution, is encouraging the country to revise the article is a clear indication that time is ripe for the country to reconsider its position regarding re-armament.

As noted elsewhere in this study, there have been complaints within the Japanese government about the money that the country spends in order to maintain the US military forces in the Japanese archipelago. This alone is a testament that though Japan may deny the need for a military, it is getting the same through a second country, and is paying dearly for the same. The expansion of the SDF mandate over the years is also a testament that Japan has realized the need for self-defense although article 9 remains a prohibitory factor.

The study however acknowledges the sentiments expressed in the reality that de-militarization of countries through provisions such as article 9 would result in a peaceful nation. However, the reality of the world today is that giving up arms cannot be a consideration that stands being given any considerable thought by military powers who perceive their military capacity as an assurance against external aggression.

Conclusion It is no doubt that MacArthur and other Japanese constitutional framers gave Japan a pacifist constitution. Over the years however a significant percentage of Japanese have grown accustomed to the constitution and “made it their own”. Having learnt vital lessons about aggression and the effect that the same can have on the country especially in the Second World War and other wars preceding WWII, analysts argue that Japan chose to concentrate on economic expansion rather than military power.

Taro Kano, a lawmaker in Japan was quoted by the BBC saying that the bureaucrats who translated the constitution from English to Japanese left a lot of room for interpretation maneuvers thus explaining why Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi justified sending troops to Iraq, yet an earlier Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru had always maintained that the constitution of Japan has no provisions for the government to have any Soldiers[42].

The ambiguities in the constitution thus emanate from the different interpretations that the politicians are able to associate with the passages and the meanings they attach to the same.

The reality on the ground regarding article 9 and other controversial sections of the Japanese constitution is the fact that the American Framers made it absolutely hard for the Japanese to enact any alterations unless the change had a majority backing in the Diet, the house of Councilors and the House of Representatives. The two thirds majority is especially a near-impossible tasks especially considering that the Japanese people are divided over the need to change the article.

As such, the only remaining actions that respective government can take lies with individual interpretations, which for example allowed the formation of SDF, and the sending of soldiers to Afghanistan and Iraq.

The probability that the Japanese people will review article 9 cannot however be overruled especially considering the geographical position of the country and the increasing military powers from the N. Korea and China, increasing international pressure and the need for the Japanese people to possess a sovereign right to collective security.

References Berlin, Noah. “Imperial Role: Accession, Yasukuni Shrine, and Obligatory Reformation.” Journal of Constitutional Law. 1(2). (2006): 383-413.

Chanlett-Avery, Emma, Cooper, William,H., Manyin, Mark E.,


Relating to International Business Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Taxation and fiscal policy



Government support

Internet Connectivity

Support for the Industry

Government regulation and laws


Reference List

Introduction The political economy refers to the relationship that politics, the legal systems and the economy have and the effect of this relationship on the overall economy of a country. Political institutions can determine the stability of an economy by putting in place certain economic policies (Jensen, 2006).

Foreign direct investments into a country can be affected by the policies in the domestic market. The policies instituted by the government and other governing bodies have an effect on foreign firms and thus affect their operations (Ferguson


The American Dream in The Great Gatsby Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Story



Works Cited

Introduction In 1925, Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby after many years of academic problems and indifference that prevented him from graduating from college.

The Story The Great Gatsby is told by Nick Carraway, who comes to settle in New York from Minnesota to learn the bond business. These events are happening during the summertime of 1922. Nick rents an apartment in Long Island, in the district of West Egg. Nick’s neighbor is Jay Gatsby, a rich and mysterious man who loves giving spendthrift parties to his friends.

After spending some time in this neighborhood, Nick finally attends Gatsby’s exuberant parties only to realize that Gatsby organizes these parties to impress Daisy, Nick’s cousin, and wife to Tom. Gatsby had met Daisy in Louisville, and they had a relationship, but it broke later. Gatsby pleads with Nick to mediate his reunion with Daisy, although he is not sure of the repercussions.

Nick finally invites Daisy to a coffee where she meets with Gatsby, and they reignite their affair. Unfortunately, Tom finds out about Daisy’s affair and confronts Gatsby. He reveals Gatsby’s dirty dealings as an alcohol bootlegger, after which Daisy swears she loves Tom.

Further Research When and Why Did Gatsby Change His Name? 4.4 817 Why Did Daisy Marry Tom in The Great Gatsby? 5 214 What Does Gatsby Want from Daisy in Chapter 6? 5 48 Is Nick from The Great Gatsby a Trustworthy Narrator? 5 98 How Does Nick Describe Himself at the Beginning of The Great Gatsby? 5 68 Who Attended Gatsby’s Funeral? 5 92 Ironically, Tom is cheating on Daisy, for he is in another clandestine affair with Myrtle, George Wilson’s wife. In a turn of events, as they drive through the valley of ashes, Nick and Tom realize Myrtle has been run over by Gatsby’s car. Nick finds out that Daisy hit Myrtle; however, Tom is ready to take that responsibility. Tom rushes to George, tells him that Gatsby was driving the car when it hit Myrtle.

George hurriedly concludes Gatsby had an affair with Myrtle and vows to kill him. George shoots Gatsby as he relaxes in his mansion by the pool. George then shoots himself dead. Nick buries Gatsby; however, he moves from East Coast. He concludes that Gatsby’s dream to have Daisy was perverted by money and knavery. Nick equates Gatsby’s vision of the American dream. He, however, notices that both dreams have decayed into the quest for riches. These dreams are dead, marking the end of the power of imagination.

Message The author is trying to say that the American dream is dead. “There must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams – not through her own fault but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He had thrown himself into it with a creative passion” (Fitzgerald 69). Daisy stands for ordinary Americans going after riches. They are lost in this compelling desire to have more money, and these riches are delusional.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gatsby stands for those who are already in riches. They have “thrown” themselves into these riches without thinking hence killing the American dream. Americas lack creative passion in pursuing riches. This passion is supposed to bring happiness; unfortunately, as Fitzgerald observes, this passion is no more. Therefore, the characteristics of the American dream, like happiness, are nowhere to be found in the lives of Americans.

Conclusion The Great Gatsby is about the dead American dream. Fitzgerald is concerned about the newfound wealth that seems to drive people crazy, especially on the East Coast. The American dream was about innovation, laissez-faire, and the quest for felicity; unfortunately, this dream is dead.

The slow death of the American Dream started immediately after World War I, and now it is dead and decomposed. Unfortunately, some people are still dreaming; however, the writer concurs with Fitzgerald that the time for dreaming is gone. The closest American dream can come to reality now is that; dream.

Works Cited Fitzgerald, Scott. “The Great Gatsby.” Prigozy, Ruth. Ed. New York; Oxford University Press, 1998.


Marine conservation and coastal development Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Building on Singapore’s existing track record of balancing terrestrial conservation with development, Singapore can, with additional effort, position herself to become a global example of sustainable development in the coastal and marine environment. We can, thus show the absence of mutual exclusivity between marine conservation and coastal development.

A holistic approach to conservation including studies, research and best practices related to ecosystem preservation should be adopted. Biological, economic and social objectives should also be balanced in the effort to conserve natural heritage for future generations in Singapore (Chee 2008, p. 1). The social objectives are being achieved by Singapore’s relentless effort in the sustainable establishment of world-class living conditions with sensitivity to the existing ecosystems.

This will, in turn lead to attraction of valuable clients across the globe. Conservation is our responsibility in order to preserve biodiversity for our future generations. The coral reefs, like our natural, cultural and national heritage-has to be kept alive. This will enable future Singaporeans to enjoy the biodiversity beauty of their country and give them a chance to make a difference in conservation (Goh 2009, p. 1). Let us have a look at more detailed conservation recommendations.

The following are some recommendations for balancing coastal development and marine conservation in Singapore. First of all, a government agency should be identified to be reviewing coastal development plans (Helvarg 2006, p. 32). It should establish a carefully developed policy for EIAs (Environmental Impact Assessments) to be conducted on all coastal projects as well as significant inland projects with potential effects on coral reefs and marine life.

The government agency should also have an independent committee for coordination of reviews on coastal development plans. The committee should comprise of a balanced membership for holistic review of the coastal development projects (Knoell 2005, p. 17). It should have representation from state bodies, academic institutions, businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGO).

NGO membership is to ensure that ideas of corporate social responsibility are implemented in development projects in an effort to conserve marine life. The central government agency should institute a monitoring programme aimed at implementing preventive measures against marine interference (McKenzie 2007, p. 1). The monitoring agency should have prosecuting powers in order to perform its duties effectively.

Reduction of land reclamation and maximization of the use of existing land could also help in preserving marine life (Onn 2007, p. 1). This may be achieved by development of biodiversity rich areas to discourage environmental degradation through eco-tourism. This will also have financial gains to the stakeholders. There should also be a regulatory board whose objective is the limiting of recreational activities of corporations to check their effects on the environment (Chou 1997, p. 21).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government agency should also implement appropriate measures to reduce siltation levels. This can be achieved by setting up of silt screens during reclamation and avoiding careless deposition of silt during drenching. The last recommendation is the identification of islands with commendable biodiversity and making them MBAs (Marine Biodiversity Areas) through implementation of thorough protective measures (Ray 2004, p. 23).

From the discussion above, it is evident that an integrated conservation system is desirable for marine protection. However, the establishment of such a system faces a myriad of limitations. Firstly, the activities of the government agency require highly skilled personnel. This translates to more capital for the implementation of these recommendations (Chou 2008, p. 1). The lack of legislation related to marine conservation is also a major setback.

Lastly, coral translocation does not have guarantee of success due to problems of manpower, technique and time (Lim 2009, p. p. 1). It is therefore important for the government and other stakeholders to put these limitations into consideration before implementing these recommendations in order to achieve the positive impacts that the recommendations are designed to have.

Reference List Chee, D. (2008). “Conservation Activities in Singapore.” Web.

Chou, L. (1997). Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation in Singapore. U.K. Bell


The Characteristics of the Fashion Industry and How They Influence Supply Chain Report essay help

Executive Summary The fashion industry has been the latest to adopt the use of the internet as a marketing platform for its products. This is associated to the nature of the products in the industry.

People buying apparel products would probably want to feel the texture of the material, try it on to confirm the size, check the color of the material before making a decision (White, 2000, p. 95). These buying characteristics can not be carried out online. It has taken time to change this mentality and create the possibility of online shopping of apparel products among customers.

This paper examines the characteristics of the fashion industry and how these characteristics influence management of the supply chain. The paper also discuses the application of information technology in the collection of data on sales and how the data can be used to predict demand shifts. A further focus is on how information technology can be used to augment the effectiveness of an order form.

The Characteristics of the Fashion Industry and How They Influence Supply Chain Management The fashion industry thrives on the efforts of retailers who mostly take up the role of supply, sales and merchandising of products to the consumers. The retail process of the fashion products heavily relies on the spending power of the consumers. When the consumer purchasing power is high, the sales volumes go up.

The sales consequently reduce when the consumer purchasing power reduces. Fashion markets are unpredictable i.e. the market experiences frequent shifts depending on the fashion tastes of the consumers (White, 2000, p. 87). In order for the retailers to keep up with the market dynamics, they need to be keen and master the fashion trends. They also have to develop a good management system for their inventories in tandem with the needs of their.

The fashion industry is more about designs and quality. Fashion designers spend time and resources to develop and come up with fascinating fashion designs. The law has not been structured well to protect designers from piracy. After a long time laboring and struggling to come up with a striking fashion design, photographs and drawings of the same are quickly taken and whisked to china where they are reproduced at a much cheaper cost than what the original producer would want to sell it at (Fernie


Bernard Williams The Self and the Future and Psychological Continuity Theory of Personal Identity Essay online essay help

The vast majority of philosophers have already made many considerable contributions in the field that discusses the psychological continuity theory of personal identity. The idea of personal identity is closely connected to the idea of personal survival under certain conditions.

Personal identity comes from two different conditions and their connection to each other: pre-mortal condition when a person’s survival is under a question and post-mortal condition when a person’s survival is already the desirable answer. Some psychological continuity theorists are eager to argue about the type of continuation, physical or psychological, is more appropriate to this case.

The researches and ideas of Bernard Williams are focused on the necessity of personal awareness about the experiment; “they [Person A and Person B] may even have been impressed by philosophical arguments to the effect that bodily continuity is at least a necessary condition of personal identity” (Williams 80).

Williams makes a wonderful attempt to demonstrate how the idea of body-switching works and what the role of personal identity is if “one’s fears can extend to future pain whatever psychological changes precede it” (Williams 91); he also follows Locke’s example and tries to clear up how psychological continuity theory defines personal identity and what factors are considered to be influential in the chosen case.

Psychological continuity theory is one of those theories which may be aimed to explain the idea of personal identity taking into consideration both event memory as it is demonstrated in Williams’ work and some additional psychological traits as it was proved by means of behavior of the person A during the experiments.

The value of this theory turns out to be evident when Williams tries to compare the conditions of person A and person B. The case of amnesia makes a person A forget about his personal interests, traits, and awareness about what is happening to him right now. However, the peculiar feature of this case is this person’s awareness about this amnesia and its predictable outcomes. Of course, it is impossible to feel comfortable about the expected processes.

A person is told about the ongoing case of amnesia. He is also informed that all these tortures and memories will be forgotten after the experiment is over. Though Williams admits that such information could hardly alleviate person’s fear but still this awareness provides a person with a chance to wake up and not remember who you are, what you are, and what kind of torture happens to you if any.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Does this fact increase person’s fear? Sure, it does. However, it is also necessary to define whether person’s level of fear is identical in all cases. Foe example, the person is informed about such torture as amnesia and about the following tortures that will happen to him. In my opinion, person’s fear before the first operation is regarded to be as the most serious.

And then, A should fear the following tortures because each torture is not as serious and comprehensible as the first one was. It is also possible to draw a principle line between the case (i) and other cases because only this case distinguished person’s past life (pre-mortal condition) from his future life (post-mortal condition). As a result, the cases (ii) – (vi) are considered to be that distance that promotes personal identity, where psychological continuity (fear) does not play that crucial role.

Personal identity has many definitions, offered by different philosophers. However, the main idea of personal identity is to provide a person with a chance to identify him/herself through time. Personal identity usually deals with such questions that arise about people: what I am, who I am, what I am doing here, etc.

When we talk about the case of psychological continuity, it is necessary to admit that personal identity is regarded as transitive but memory continuity cannot take the same traits. Psychological continuity theorists face some problems with defining personal identity. They cannot come to the same conclusion whether identity is the relations of all or nothing and whether the relations between person stages can or cannot exhibit this continuity.

Bernard Williams’ experiment is aimed to evaluate the situation when two persons A and B undergo memory and personality switch. These people are informed about the torture and about their future financial reward. One of Williams’ main purposes is to focus on persons’ behavior before and after the experiment that consists of 6 stages.

The results of this experiment help to comprehend that personal identity is somehow bound up with the psychological continuity that is inherent to these people’s respective memories. The psychological entity is certainly sustained by physical processes: brain of one person and brain of the other person are interchanged, “putting the information into A from the brain of B, by a method which leaves B the same as he was before” (Williams 84).

This is why during these experiments, it becomes clear that psychological continuity theory of personal identity is not that important as physical (phenomenal) one, and the possibility of body-switching serves as the best and the most powerful evident. Psychological criteria is considered to be rather subjective, and the superiority of bodily (physical) continuity becomes evident.

We will write a custom Essay on Bernard Williams The Self and the Future and Psychological Continuity Theory of Personal Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Williams shows that physical continuity plays an important role for personal identity that is possible through time. He tries to reject the necessity of psychological criterion by means of evaluation of person’s memories. In becomes possible that several person are able to have the same memories and truly believe that their memories are also identical in the past. And identical relations have to be one-to-one but not one-to-many.

In his experiment, Williams demonstrates that it is possible to transmit the memories of one person’s mind to another person’s mind and not to omit some important facts and events. Psychological continuity theory aims at incorporating what material has been learnt by means of inconsistency and insufficiency objection. And the cases, offered by Bernard Williams, are all about bodies and the possibility to interchange their minds and memories by means of amnesia.

In general, Bernard Williams offers to evaluate personal identity and the idea of body-switching from two perspectives: the relations between mental states and body-possession and the relations between mental states of a person and his internal state of the organism (his brain state). With the help of body exchange, the idea of personal identity should not be defined as something purely mental only.

Peron’s mind has to be associated with person’s body because their behavior and demands also depend on physical condition. Embodiment of behavior is crucial for determination of identity. This is why psychological continuity concept of personal identity cannot be regarded as the most powerful one in Williams’ experiments, and his evaluation of person’s state of mind helps to define when personal identity takes place through time.

Works Cited Williams, Bernard. “The Self and the Future.” In Raymond Martin and John Barresi Personal Identity. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 75-91.


The Success of Dell Company Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Scope and brands



Introduction Dell inc. is a corporation that deals in and supplies information technology products and services. Their main products include personal computers; servers and other assorted computer hardware. They have been a major player in the industry for decades.

High definition TVs, printers, cameras and mobile music players are among new products at Dell inc. Dell inc. was largest seller of personal computers in the 1980s and 1990s and in 2009 was ranked third in computer sales with only Hewlett-Packard and Acer Inc doing better than Dell. Dell inc. was in 2006 ranked by Fortune magazine as one of the best companies in the United States.

Dell has also been recognized as one of the few companies that have done better than their main competitors in the industry for years (Economic Times, 2010).

Scope and brands Dell inc. has a marketing strategy that entails marketing particular brands for specific market segments. It has different classes for these markets; Business/Corporate class, Home Office/Consumer class, Peripherals class and service and support brands are the main classes. The Business/Corporate class targets large clients like corporations. Long life cycles, reliability and serviceability are where most focus is laid upon in this package.

The products under this class include OptiPlex, Vostro Latitude, n Series, PowerEdge, PowerVault, PowerConnect and EqualLogic. OptiPlex handles desktop computers while Vostro is designed for small business computer solutions and mini computers. N series on the other hand are desk top and notebook computers delivered with Linux or freeDOS (Menchaca, 2008). Latitude covers business focused notebooks. PowerEdge are business servers and PowerConnect for network switches.

The Home Office/Consumer class targets the ordinary PC (personal computer) users. Good value, excellent performance and expandability are emphasized in this class to ensure customer loyalty. The brands in this class include Inspiron, Studio, Studio XPS, XPS, Alienware and Adamo.

Inspiron are budget PCs and mini computers, Studio brand is for mainstream PCs and portable computers, XPS are top notch desktop and mini computers, Studio XPS are PCs designed to meet top notch multimedia requirements, Alienware was dedicated to bringing the gaming experience to a whole new level by allowing excellent gaming options. Adamo on the other hand is a brand of laptops designed for the sophisticated class of clients as a luxury laptop computer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The peripheral class includes the accessories department that produces USB drives, plasma TVs, and output display screens. Dell also has a brand of high end monitors under ultrashap.

Dell like any company has plenty of competition. Other major market players include HP, IBM, Apple, Samsung, Gateway, Acer, Sony and Toshiba. They compete mainly for the PC and server market. Dell has about 18 percent of the market share. Hewlett Packard on the other hand has 15 percent of the market.

In the year 2006 Hewlett Packard took the lead in the PC business from Dell. Dell grew by 3.6% in 2006 in while HP went by 15% during the 2006 period. Gartner and IDC in 2006 indicated that HP had exported a lot more units around the globe than Dell. In the fourth quarter of 2006, Gartner again estimated that Dell exports had gone down 8.9% while HP’s had grown by 39.9%. By the end of the year Dell’s market share was at 13.9 % in comparison to HPs 17.4 % (Bert


Alfred Lord Tennyson – ULYSSES Essay essay help online

Introduction Ulysses is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson expressing dramatic soliloquy. In this poem, Ulysses, addressing himself, declares that he cannot afford to stay at home for it is of little profit. He says that, “I cannot rest from travel” (Tennyson Line 6). He feels obliged to get out and face the world maximizing every moment. This paper looks into the structure and form of this poem from a critical point of view.

Structure This poem consists of four sections-like paragraphs and each section contains a discrete theme. The lines are unrhymed probably to enable flow of the speech. Most of the lines end midway in what Shapiro calls “enjambment” (20). “Once the structure of this epic is revealed, the meaning of the episodes become intelligible as part of the narrative structure” (Shapiro 23). For instance, lying to the natural divinities amounts to lying to the “civilized traveler.” Each section as aforementioned tackles a different idea.

Lines 1 – 5

The poem opens with Ulysses coming back home from after a thirty-year adventure which saw him take part in the Trojan War. The narrator comes out clearly with his discontent towards everything around him. It starts by “It little profits that an idle king /By this still hearth, among these barren crags” (Tennyson Line 1-2). This king rules “barren crags” the wife is old and nothing seems positive around this place.

The description here fits animal behavior. “The only thing they do that might require human thought, the capacity to see beyond the immediate moment, is the greedy act of hoarding (Shapiro 25). Towards the end however, it becomes apparent that neither the king nor his subjects are responsible for these shortcomings. On contrary, this emanates from the fact that these two parties cannot match mentally, because “they know not me” (Tennyson Line 5).

Lines 6 – 21

The enjambment of this poem comes out clearly in this section. Here Ulysses idolizes his travels condemning the act of staying in one place for a long time. He says, “I cannot rest from travel” (Tennyson Line 6). This travel; as aforementioned, included fighting in the Trojan War.

This experience seems to have shaped Ulysses’ character greatly for he says, “I am a part of all that I have met” (Tennyson Line 8). Going back to line 6, the semicolon in “…travel; “, is a structure that shows that Ulysses has more to say. This form of structure is repeated in lines 11, 15, 17 and 18. In line 7, the “lees’ refer to deposits found in the bottom of a wine glass. “Drink life to the lees” (Tennyson Line 7).

The implication here is Ulysses is ready to “experience all things, good and bad” (Shapiro 26). There is unusual diction in line eleven when he says, “I am become a name” (Tennyson Line 11). To this, Shapiro posits that, “it grants Ulysses the glory of the legend that is associated with his name but it also reduces his existence to just one word” (26).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Line 22 – 32

To this point, Ulysses decides to leave Ithaca and resume his adventures. Life is ‘dull’ as per line 22; however, in line 23 there is imagery of unpolished sword. The implication here is that Ulysses’ life is not only boring, but also useless as unsharpened sword. Therefore, staying in this place will only add pity to his useless and unproductive life. Ulysses cannot afford to just “breathe’ and pass through life quietly, he will, “follow knowledge like a sinking star / Beyond the utmost bond of human thought” (Tennyson Line 32).

Line 33 – 53

Ulysses starts addressing some audience concerning his son Telemachus. He says, “This is my son, mine own Telemachus, to whom I leave the scepter and the isle” (Tennyson Line 33-34). There is no compromise here and Ulysses has to leave his throne and hand it over to his son. He praises his son’s qualities of leadership. After all, Telemachus has to lead the island, while on the other side, Ulysses sojourn in the seas, “He works his work, I mine” (Tennyson Line 43).

However, ambiguity sets in this poem. Ulysses uses words like “gloom’ in line 45 and he does not address a particular audience. “Some critics have identified his apparent inconsistency in the narrative voice as a flaw in Tennyson’s presentation” (Shapiro 27). However, this is unrhymed iambic pentameter full of blank verses makes Tennyson’s writings peculiar.

Line 54 – 70

Ulysses finally leaves the island to “seek a newer world” (Tennyson Line 61). Going nowhere in particular, they head west, “beyond the sunset, and the baths / Of all the western stars” (Tennyson Line 65).

This reverberates with line 31 where Ulysses is ready to pursue knowledge to the end. Finally, Ulysses reaches Happy Isles, the destiny of all the blessed after they die. Ulysses “feels he is a victim of his fate that he and the mariners who sail with him must go through” (Shapiro 29). This poem is about “Braving the struggle of life” (SparkNotes Para. 23).

Form of the Poem The entire 70 lines are a dramatic soliloquy whereby Ulysses addresses himself. It is hard to tell the location of the narration and to what audience. However, ambiguity of the poem sets in when in section three; Ulysses introduces his son Telemachus. The way he puts the first line, “this is…” indicates clearly that he is not addressing himself there has to be an audience; however, Tennyson does not come out clearly to state the audience.

The issue of audience arises again when Ulysses moves to the seashore and starts addressing his fellow mariners. “In this interpretation, the comparatively direct and honest language of the first movement is set against the more politically minded tone of the last two movements. For example, the second paragraph (33–43) about Telemachus, in which Ulysses muses again about domestic life, is a revised version [of lines 1–5] for public consumption’ a ‘savage race’ is revised to a “rugged people” (Shapiro 31).

We will write a custom Essay on Alfred Lord Tennyson – ULYSSES specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, other critics think otherwise. “Ulysses is a dialectic in which the speaker weighs the virtues of a contemplative and an active approach to life…beginning with his rejection of the barren life to which he has returned in Ithaca, he then fondly recalls his heroic past, recognizes the validity of Telemachus’ method of governing, and with these thoughts plans another journey” (Culler 277).

Conclusion Ulysses is a dramatic soliloquy where the narrator starts by addressing himself. However, as the events unfold, there appears to be an audience. The structure of this poem entails four sections with enjambment in every line.

Most of lines terminate midway as opposed to general poems where lines terminate at the end to rhyme with each other. This explains the form of the poem, which is unrhymed verse, composed of sections that cannot qualify to be stanzas. However, there are different opinions about this poem with some people suggesting that it is a soliloquy while others say it is dialectic.

Works Cited Culler, Dwight. “The Poetry of Tennyson.” London: Yale University Press, 1977.

Shapiro, Michael. “Politicizing Ulysses: Rationalistic, Critical, and Genealogical Commentaries.” Political Theory. 17(1); 9-32, 1989. Web.

Spark Notes. “Tennyson’s Poetry.” 2010. Web.

Tennyson, Alfred. “Ulysses.” The Victorian Web.


A 3000-Year-Old Artifact Discovered Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Since the major catastrophe of 2009, little has been known of previous civilizations, and archeologists have been lost in guesses at what the previous civilizations could have looked like. However, last Friday the veil was lifted by a group of children who discovered a completely intact lodgment that once obviously belonged to the pre-2009 population. Now we have finally obtained at least some clues to what life used to be like before.

To start with, it appears that people used to live separately, in small detached abodes divided into even smaller fragments that performed certain functions. One of the cells contains a horizontal piece of furniture that could have been used for sleeping.

Since it is covered with a down-filled piece of cloth, the guess that it used to be a bedroom seems to be right. The special intimacy of the room is emphasized by several half-burnt candles in shape of heart around the sleeping place. Even then, people would have barely used those for making light since they already had electrical lights all over their place.

Another specialized cell contains a set of three ceramic tanks, all of different shapes. Their construction suggests that they could have been used for water treatment; this assumption is bolstered by a number of bottles that contain washing agents. Yet another cell, all filled with containers and cutting devices of all kinds, was obviously utilized for food processing: remnants of food-like substances have been discovered in the multiple drawers and cabinets.

Finally, the purpose of the biggest cell was the hardest to define, since it contains too many variegated objects: a big screen in the wall, a device for sitting, an abstract image in oil on canvas, an upright cupboard with white and black keys and two pedals — this list gives something to think about. There have been suggestions that the latter device could have been used as an ancient computer, but no evidence of its connection to the big screen has been discovered yet.

As for the inhabitants of the lodgment, there appear to be at least two of them: a male and a female. This conclusion was possible on the basis of the cloth items found inside the big storage in the sleeping area.

The shape of the clothing reminds of male and female anatomy, and the amount of clothing for both sexes suggests that females were the dominant sex, since female clothes are countless. One of the most revealing clues as to the ancient civilization was a collection of printed images that probably represent the inhabitants of the lodgment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same male and female appear in almost every image, which suggests they formed a stable couple. They were still young, and obviously fertile, as the female kept a pack of contraception pills in the sleeping area. The fact that the couple had a common dwelling evidences that neither of them was each other’s slave; perhaps, slavery did not exist in that society at all, since there are no images of slaves anywhere on the printed images.

The same images suggest that the couple had a diversified social life, since the locations depicted vary from dark crowded caves enlightened by occasional colored flashes to natural landscapes including plentiful water and sand. The couple in the images are accompanied either by creatures of their age or older, which leaves unsolved the issue of whether they had younger generations at all.

Further investigation is carried on by the archeologists who still have more questions than answers about the remote civilizations. A huge amount of strange devices that were obviously used by the people of the past are a mystery for the modern generations. In addition, nothing of the past religious practices can be concluded yet, since the ancient books are written in unknown language. The results of in-depth research shall be reported in the coming issues.


A Review on Religious Viewpoints Essay essay help: essay help

Diverse analytical methods can be applied in populations study. Population appraisals are practical information gathering mechanisms in research. Reviews, as research techniques, are generally preferred in psychology studies. Individual self-reported information is gathered from surveyed respondents. Targeted information depends on the research objectives. A review might be centered on an individual’s details or be based on personal attitudes.

Appraisals can be prepared by applying comprehensive techniques. Prearranged quizzes are developed and the studied populace queried. Alternatively, a set of questions may be issued, in the form of a questionnaire, to the surveyed population. The two survey methods are acceptable in population research. However, the investigator is required to select the most suitable technique for the intended study.

Study reviews are usually regulated to establish research dependability and legitimacy. Controlled surveys have significance and their outcomes are realistic in a bigger populace. Enormous information quantities can be gathered in a modest interval. Review exercises are inexpensive compared to alternative information gathering methods. Appraisals can be developed rapidly and operated without difficulty.

Population assessment methods are applied in various subject areas. Individual details, opinions, historical conducts, and viewpoints are researched by reviews. On the other hand, inappropriate management of reviews can weaken research outcomes. Individual responses might lack precision and have biases. Reviews may be conducted in varied ways. Most commonly applied techniques include correspondence, phone, internet, or door to door visits. Whichever survey method applied a successful outcome can be expected.

Global human populations have a tendency of judging life aspects based on religious beliefs. Fundamental spiritual opinions have been incorporated across cultures that guide a member’s judgment. Religion has influenced various human social attributes. World attitudes towards life have greatly been directed by religious teachings and practices.

Scientific surveys ought to be conducted with exactness. Well-designed reviews are astute, edified, and largely relevant in development. Selected survey method for a study is dependant on the desired outcome. Internet-based reviews have extensively been applied in psychology studies.

Online survey techniques are advantageous compared to conventional methods. However, challenges with the methodology have been noted. Data accuracy, internet accessibility, and inferior answer speeds are obvious setbacks experienced in online surveys.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, various aspects have improved data collection outcomes. Individualized email correspondence, summarized prompts, preannounced assessment aim, and uncomplicated designs are some major steps taken in the improved survey structures. Although the method might be attractive, prudent steps should be adhered to as partiality might arise (Solomon, 2001). Respondents in an online survey might not portray seriousness in their answers. Skewed responses might have consequences of false information.

A specific study question was required for a survey on religious attitudes. The reviewed subject and aims were determined based on historical scientific data. A justification statement was formulated that validated the study. Support data was collected and compiled from examined texts.

The information gathered was relevant to extent of spiritual mind-sets among specified populations. Study question and purpose were planned and approved by the researcher. Other study techniques were considered in the selection of a research method (Draugalis et al, 2008). A definite study question was critical for the religious attitude research. The religious attitudes survey was a significant study.

Most of the global populations have diverse spiritual opinions. The existing dissimilarity on religions has impacted societies across the world. Humans are opinionated over certain religious beliefs. A review of public outlook on religion can be utilized to perhaps investigate the cause and effects of society upshots. A common cause of study failures have been attributed to ambiguity in the study questions.

Data on religious attitudes among populations was gathered by use of questionnaires. Techniques applied in the questionnaire plan incorporated three investigation descriptions and strategies. Information included in the questionnaire stemmed from the reviewed study text.

Literature searched was centered on world population’s spiritual outlook. The reviewed information widened the extent of the survey document plan (Spencer et al, 2009). A survey document can determine if the study objectives are realized or missed. A well crafted questionnaire facilitated the study of the spiritual mind-sets of populations. The questions were specific to reviewed articles and intended objectives.

Items were formulated for insertion into the survey document. The topics addressed were based on the spiritual mind-set study question. Underlined cluster meetings were convened and items for the spiritual mind-sets review created (Burns et al, 2008). Specific study subjects were formulated from the focus groups. The meetings provided avenues for primary data on which the research survey document was based upon.

We will write a custom Essay on A Review on Religious Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The religious attitude review population structure was chosen based on the study aims. Availability of resources had an effect on the type of sampling technique applied. A cluster sampling method was set up to investigate the population’s attitude towards religion. The populace was divided into mixed clusters.

Respondents in the research groups had diverse backgrounds of race, age, and gender. Grand speedy answers guaranteed a universal application of the study (Burns et al, 2008). Sampling technique chosen for a survey study required a large representative population. Group sampling secured a varied population structure that could possibly represent most members of the populations. Religious affiliations are usually varied among populations. Therefore, a large sample has increased chances of representation.

The survey document consisted of a graded against scaled answers. Graded answers assisted the surveyed population to attach precedence scores. Scaled rejoinders enabled the population to range their specific likings (Spencer et al, 2009). Statistical scores assisted the researcher in quantifying the responses.

A score range of 1-10 specified the respondent’s viewpoint on a question. Alphabetical letters from A-D were applied in the extent of a respondent’s preference. The questionnaire was simple and could be filled accurately in the shortest time possible.

Conclusion Survey oriented studies require precision from the methodology applied and targeted objectives. Careful interpretation of the study objectives must be carried out. A systematic run down of similarity from the reviewed texts, the research question, objectives, and sampling procedures require consideration. Survey protocols have to be adhered to for a formidable outcome. Psychology researchers have attributed failure of studies to poor choices of research techniques.

References List Burns, K. E. A et al. (2008). A guide for the design and conduct of self administered surveys for clinicians. Web.

Draugalis, R. J. et al. (2008). Best Practices for Survey Research Reports: A Synopsis for Authors and Reviewers. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2008. Vol. 72 (1). Web.

Solomon, D. J. (2001). Conducting Web-Based Surveys. Practical Assessment, Research


City Government System paper: Perris California Essay essay help

The city of Perris is situated in California, 90 miles south east of Los Angeles. The Perris local government is structured according to the Laws of the Californian state. Under the Californian constitution, Perris city falls under the municipal governments. Majority of the cities in California have plenary powers which are outlined in the California constitution.

Plenary powers are powers which enable a state function independently from the influence of the federal government hence, Perris city has original jurisdiction powers and what it decides remain bidding to all (Eclock, 1968).

The municipal government of Perris is constituted to reflect the population size of the residents of Perris city. Thus the administration of the city is constituted to represent the number of inhabitants it serves. There are several functions that the local government is mandated to provide to the city inhabitants.

They are responsible for the transportation and provision of security services in the city. In addition they construct and maintain the city’s infrastructure while creating recreational zones in the city. The local government also employs city workers as well as provision of dwelling units to cater for the residents (Eclock, 1994).

The city was named in honour of Fred T. Perris who was an engineer of California railroad. The city’s social and economical growth was brought about by the construction of the rail road in the region that resulted in new economic activities thus migration of people into the region from other towns during the 19th century. In addition the discovery of coal and gold in the region boosted the local economy of the region resulting in development of the city’s infrastructure (Hawthorne, 2007).

The city is managed by a council that operates like a form of government. The city manager is directly appointed by the council whose mandate is to run the operations of the city. In addition to the city manager the council appoints the city attorney whose role is to advice the council on the legal matters that affect the administration of the city.

The council members consist of five residents of Perris who apart from making council appointments also oversees the running of two city commissions, planning commission and public safety commission. The city runs as a closed system of administration, whereby the decisions are only made by the council members and not subject to public opinion, therefore the Perris residents do not take part in decisions that the city administration makes (Chalouist, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although cities are free from the control and influence of politics and the federal government, they are not entirely absolutely free though the state constitution indicates so. Perris city relies on money from the Federal government to run its operations.

This money is given to Perris city in form of grants, in order for grants to be awarded, there are certain conditions that must be fulfilled by the council of Perris, and therefore the Federal government dictates the terms for those conditions to be fulfilled. The Federal government is run by politicians who oversee the implementations of those conditions and therefore in order for Perris to receive grants, they should fulfil the conditions set by the politicians hence the city of Perris is not entirely autonomous.

Through the influence of politics and the Federal government they promote the development of projects without bias and encourage the residents of Perris to engage in government decision making and implementation process thus overlapping the functions of the Perris local authority with that of the Federal government authority ( wood


How Data Analysis Can Benefit Marketing And Marketing Research Process In Apple Corporation Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Data collection tools


Works Cited

Introduction Data analysis applied in marketing and marketing research process can greatly benefit the Apple Corporation to increase sales and reach in a wider consumer base. Currently, Microsoft Corporation is Apple’s biggest competitor controlling about 72% of the market share (Kunkel 36).

Marketing is the process through which organizations determine the products or services which may be of interest to the consumer hence verifies the strategy to be used in the sale of the product, communication to the consumer and overall business growth. Marketing is therefore an important fundamental process through which an organization can generate value for the consumer as well as create strong customer relationships so as to seize value from the consumer.

Marketing research on the other hand is the methodical collection, documentation and analysis of all the data that is of importance to the marketing of given products and services (Mohan 56).

The Apple Corporation manufactures its own computers known as the Macintosh also known as Mac and also creates the operating systems that run on Macs, for instance the Mac OS X. in addition, Apple autonomously develops Mac compatible software which is bundled with the Mac computers hence the organization basically locks in its market share (Kunkel 36).

Microsoft on the other hand develops operating systems for almost all brands of computers the main one being the Windows operating system. Most computer brands like Toshiba, dell, Compaq and Panasonic are compatible with the Windows operating system for instance the latest Windows 7 unlike the Mac Os which is only compatible to the Mac brand of computers (Mohan 61). Consequently, Microsoft controls a large portion of the operating systems market when compared to Apple.

Furthermore, software created by Microsoft is compatible to the Windows operating system making it common among most computer users hence Mac users have to purchase Mac compatible Microsoft software for example in 1997, Apple partnered with Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, hence Apple was buying part of Microsoft’s products which consequently benefited Microsoft to the sum of $150 million worth of non-voting Apple stock (Kunkel 39). There is therefore a need for Apple to widely market its products in order to lock in a wider market range and compete on the same level as Microsoft.

Data collection tools In-Home product testing is an excellent way to market a product and at the same time carry out marketing research. This method could be used by Apple in order to obtain fast responses in the form of consumer opinion data based on in-home product trial and evaluation (Lewis 94).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apple could for example offer an individual a Mac computer to a Microsoft user and ask the individual to compare the two operating systems (Veryard 90). The organization can also place a number of individuals in an office environment and instruct them to complete specific tasks using the Mac computers and afterwards answer a series of questions or fill in a questionnaire to determine the performance of the product in the market (Kunkel 48).

Focus groups are another potent way through which Apple can learn more about the performance of an impending product. Through focus groups, the organization gets in person interaction with consumers for dynamic, qualitative marketing research (Mohan 58). Apple for example can set up a marketing research team at every Apple store and the role of the team would be to engage the customers in conversations about and existing product or a sample product yet to be launched (Mohan 59).

For instance if the organization has a new operating system or needs to market a given system the marketing research team should have an active space where consumers can talk about the operating system as they point out the strong and weak points of the operating system(Lewis 98). The marketing research team should be trained on how to approach the customers and how to interactively engage them in order to extract honest answers (Mohan 68).

New product promotional and testing social gatherings are another way that Apple can present new products for public scrutiny in a controlled environment before the product is officially launched. Recruited group leaders are required to host a social gathering where they present a product to a limited number of individuals who are required to spend a given amount of time with a given product then give responses at the end of the social gathering (Veryard 92).

This a good way for marketing research on portable products such as the iPhone and the iPod since the research group can easily interact with the users and offer assistance where necessary(Veryard 95). This method incorporates the elasticity of Internet based marketing research to a friendly and familiar in-home or in-office environment for group product testing hence precipitating a wide variety of opinions which are vital in marketing(Lewis 102).

Conclusion There are several ways in which Apple can benefit from the data analysis of information collected through market research. However, the marketing process needs a number of veto points laid out between the overall processes. The first step would be to analyze the data regarding a product immediately a prototype is released.

Once the model of a new product is unveiled, Apple should have a team of technical and creative analysts within the organization to separately scrutinize the product and make independent observations regarding the product (Mohan 63).

We will write a custom Research Paper on How Data Analysis Can Benefit Marketing And Marketing Research Process In Apple Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The data collected from the analysts can then be analyzed and the necessary adjustments made (Veryard 97). Once the adjusted model is complete, a sample model should then be distributed to the marketing research teams in all Apple stores for further analysis (Kunkel 79).

The teams should inspect the products independently and make objective observations regarding the product, and the information collected from the teams together with the sample models should then be sent back to the department responsible for production for analysis (Veryard 99). Necessary adjustments can be made depending on the majority of recommendations and new samples then dispatched to the Apple stores.

The new samples can then be introduced to a few members of the public through In-Home product testing, focus groups and product promotional and testing social gatherings where further data regarding the product is collected (Lewis 102). The data is then sent back to the production department for analysis and adjustments made according to the recommendations obtained (Veryard 98).

Marketing research teams can also hold sample models with them and introduce them to random members of the public like friends and family. After the individuals have carefully studied the product, the researchers can then ask a series of questions or offer a questionnaire through which data regarding the product can be collected. Consequently, the final product to be released has a much greater potential to impact the market since the overall make up is based on the consumer’s opinion.

Works Cited Kunkel, Paul. Apple Design: The Work of the Apple Industrial Design Group. New York: Macmillan Press. 1997. Print.

Lewis, Michael. Data Analysis: an Introduction. London: Sage Publications Inc, 1995. Print.

Mohan, Joshi. International Marketing. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

Veryard, Richard. Pragmatic data analysis. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1984. Print.

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SWOT analysis: Air Arabia Company and IKEA Report argumentative essay help

SWOT analysis This is the abbreviation that stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is a tool that is used in determining the core areas of competencies in a business organization at a given time. It is used in the process of auditing market situation hence helps in identifying key issues that requires attention. Swot is one of the fast analytical approaches that reveal various issues that need intelligent approach.

It involves scrutinizing the marketing structure that surrounds the organization. Valentin (2001) said that the SWOT analysis involves searching for insights into ways of realizing the desired solutions. The SWOT analysis is no doubt a valuable tool in the field of business strategy because it makes it possible for decision makers to consider important aspects of their organization’s environment and helps them organize their thoughts (Valentin, 2001, pp 54-68).

The main objective of SWOT analysis is that it helps in identifying the internal and external factors that are core to the performance of the company. The internal factors are the strengths and weaknesses while the external factors are the opportunities and threats from the external environment.

Internal factors focuses on the organization itself, the employees, capital structure, assets, how the market is organized, core competencies, the product lines, what the company manufactures and is capable of doing. The external factors on the other hand comprises of both direct and indirect forces. The direct forces are the competitors, suppliers and the clients while the indirect forces comprise the economic, social and political factors (Matt, 2010, pp 1-36).

Introduction Air Arabia was set up in 2003 and is one of the airline company’s operating from Sharjah airport in Saudi Arabia. It has nine planes that fly to different destinations across the Middle East, South and Central Asia and some parts of Africa. It is one of low cost carriers which offer only economy travel cabins. The company recorded a revenue growth of 27.4% between 2007 and 2010 which produced a net income of 22.8%. The company has extended its operations to meet the local needs by distributing tickets through their sale shops alongside currency exchange bureaus (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).


The airline boast of some key strength that is rare with most of the companies, its management structure is not that big and comprises of experienced team, it has a well established tie with the base where it operates which is Sharjah Airport. The airport is located close to Dubai which is a good business centre.

The company enjoys first mover advantage because of its low cost and hence faces low competition. They offer online bookings and no-frill services at low costs, the low prices is what makes clients from different sectors to use Arab Air, they also offer complementary services such as air cargo services (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opportunities

The opportunities that the company enjoys are the extension of its Sharjah hub by purchasing new aircraft. There is also the plan to develop some operations that supports the airline like the hanger for maintenance and constructing a hotel to accommodate the clients. The rapid economic and population growth offers a good customer base in the Air travel, there is also tremendous growth in the tourism sector which is a further boost to Air travel (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).


Arab Air has low number of aircrafts that do not fully satisfy the huge customer base it commands. It is currently operating on nine aircrafts but has since planned to increase the number to thirty four by the year 2015. This puts the company in a low situation when it comes to dynamic response.

The company still depends on the short haul routes and uses a single type of Air craft, airbus A320. This means that any small interference to its operations could adversely affect its income. This is contrary to other air lines that offer multiple aircraft types with classes of travel of the passenger’s choice. The air line still do not own any ground handling service, but as per now is planning to enter into a joint venture with Sharjah Airport Authority to improve on these services (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).


The company faces some threats that it must contend with, one of them is more rapid development that is expected on the market sector that has not been utilized for quite long. This comes as a result of the expected higher economic growth. There is also the global economic downturn that might affect its operations due to increase in fuel prices.

The company faces very stiff competition from other airlines, the delivery of the airplanes it hopes to acquire might delay, not forgetting the challenge it might get during the roll-out of the company’s brand. The Middle East records the lowest rates of e-ticket usage despite the region being at the fore front in the air travel growth; this presents Air Arabia with some instances of low potential in travel (EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).


Both companies have a plan to utilize the website to improve on their services. IKEA is building online help to guide customers on how to maintain a more sustainable life. Their program offers customers tips and ideas through the website on how to reduce their effects on the surroundings.

Arab airlines on the other hand plan to improve on their e-ticket sales to customers. This will offer the customers cheaper means since they will not need to travel long distances to obtain air tickets or make hotel reservations (Faculty of Business Studies, 2010; EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).

We will write a custom Report on SWOT analysis: Air Arabia Company and IKEA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both companies offer low prices to their services and products. This helps them to counter the wave of other competitors who still value high pricing of products and services in the market. The low prices attract most customers especially during difficult financial times. In order to improve its performance, IKEA has established a good brand name that is recognized globally, this has helped in maintaining the strong growth it requires in order to have a strong market identity amongst the clients.

Air Arabia being the first low cost air company in the Middle East, utilized this opportunity to create a strong brand name that secured it favour amongst the travellers in the market (Faculty of Business Studies, 2010; EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).


Air Arabia is working in partnership with other companies in order to strengthen its acquisition of some essential assets like the ground handling venture which is a partnership between Air Arabia and Sharja Airport Authority.

On the issue of catering services it plans to partner with Alfa Overseas Holdings. IKEA on the other hand despite being a home furnishing retailer, supplements its income through its constituent stores which are the restaurants, cafes and food shops (Faculty of Business Studies, 2010; EFG-Hermes UAE, 2007, pp 2-39).

References EFG-Hermes UAE. 2007. Air Arabia. Accessed at . Dubai- UAE pp 2-39

Faculty of Business Studies. 2010. Undestanding Business Functions I: IKEA case study. Arab Open University. Web.

Matt, E. 2010. Competitive Intelligence; Excellence in Financial management. Accessed at pp 1-36

Valentin K. 2001. SWOT analysis from a resource-based view. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. 9(2): 54-68.

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