Introduction Lifespan development is a progressive process of development in a human being involving an increase in age, which begins at conception and ends with death (Sugarman, 2000, p. 56). In addition, lifespan development can be divided into four levels depicting advanced functionality and character changes as an individual moves from one level to another.
These levels include childhood and adolescence; early adulthood; middle adulthood; and late adulthood (Sugarman, 2000, p. 56). This paper presents discussions on the lifespan perspective of development and two major theories of lifespan development. In addition, the impact of the interaction between genes and the environment on the process of human development is also discussed.
The lifespan perspective of development The lifespan perspective examines the changes that take place at each level of human development relative to the environmental (Society and culture) factors that influence these changes (Sigelman
Opening a New Business in Brazil Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
MERCOSUR and its impact on coffee production industry.
Fair trade production of coffee
Fair Trade Production and Millennium Developmental Goals
Introduction This paper aims to show how coffee industry in Brazil has been affected by the adoption of free trade agreements, in particular, MERCOSUR. Furthermore, we need to discuss the challenges, connected with fair trade production of coffee and its differences from free trade production. Finally, it is necessary to examine those obstacles and opportunities, faced by people, who want to start a coffee production business in Brazil.
MERCOSUR and its impact on coffee production industry. First of all, it should be noted that in 1991 such countries as Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asuncion. Its key objective was to facilitate free trade on the territory of these countries. This treaty resulted in the creation of a common market called MERCOSUR.
This agreement contributed to the free movement of products and labor force. It goes without saying that this treaty has impacted virtually every industry, and coffee production was not the exception from this rule. We should point out that Brazilian farmers had to compete with their Argentinean counterparts, whose productivity level was much higher at that moment (Alimonda, p 38).
Therefore, in order to survive in this sphere of business, one had to raise production level. Such approach is based on the expansion of the enterprise rather than improvement the quality of its products (Azevedo et al, p 31). In addition to that, we should mention that at that moment, Brazilian market is dominated such US-based companies as Kraft Foods and Sara Lee, which acted as mediators between farmers and the producers of instant coffee (Azevedo et al, p 31).
Therefore, the key difficulty, faced by many representatives of coffee industry was the necessity to launch a scale production in order to be competitive. Moreover, under such circumstances, a newcomer can enter the market, only he/she has a considerable starting capital. As far as Gonzalo Gomes is concerned, we can say that he will be able to withstand rivalry of already-existing firms, if he runs the company in an efficient manner.
Yet, there are also some opportunities: a new-comer can obtain competitive advantage over others by paying more attention to the quality of the product. Again, we need to emphasize the idea that the adoption of the Asuncion Treaty forced many companies to compete by increasing the volumes of production rather than through diligent quality control. This is why Gonzalo can find a niche in this industry if he establishes high quality control standards.
Fair trade production of coffee In recent years, such concept as fair trade production has become increasingly popular. It is particularly relevant to developing countries, which export coffee, sugar, cocoa and other provisions to the US, Australia, or the UK. The main purpose of this approach is to ensure that people, working in agricultural sphere, receive adequate compensation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, it aims to improve their work conditions. To a great extent, this policy came into being because many people in the United States or Western Europe began to pay more attention to ethical aspects of consumption. It became evident that people living in Brazil or any other country, exporting coffee do not receive sufficient compensation for their work (Mann, unpaged).
People, often tend to contrast free trade and fair trade production, but these notions are quite compatible with one another as both of them rely on the unlimited movement of products and labor force. The only difference between them is that the supporters of fair trade try to make sure that people, working on coffee plantations, receive remuneration which is proportionate to their hard labor (Fridell, p 6). As a rule, it is argued that the notion of fair trade production entails setting fixed prices on coffee.
Furthermore, it is believed that fair trade production is possible only with help of governmental intervention into the private businesses. Still, this goal can be achieved without governmental support. It can be done by excluding numerous middlemen, who take almost half the world price for coffee (Mann, unpaged). As a matter of fact, the presence of such mediators may be the key reason why a significant part of Brazilian population lives beyond poverty line.
One should take it into account that a company requires a certificate from independent organizations, in order to style itself as fair trade manufacturer. The companies, which call themselves fair trade manufactures, are closely monitored by many Fair Trade Labeling organizations, which help to promote their products on the market. On the whole, if I had been in Gonzalo’s position, I would have advocated fair trade production.
It is not connected only with ethical considerations, though they are also important. The thing is that the share of fair trade products increases each year almost at twenty percent (Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, unpaged). This means that in the near future, a company without fair trade certificate may not be able to compete with others and its products will no longer enjoy demand. This is why Gonzalo should take a fair trade approach to the production of coffee.
Fair Trade Production and Millennium Developmental Goals The concept of fair trade production is closely related with Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs) that focus on the needs of low-income people, living in developing countries. Namely, we need to speak about the eradication of extreme poverty and development of global partnership.
As it has been mentioned before, fair trade production of coffee will ensure that Brazilian farmers would receive decent wages for their work. Given the fact that a large portion of Brazilian population work in this sphere, we can say that that the adoption of fair trade principles can significantly raise the standards of living in this country.
We will write a custom Essay on Opening a New Business in Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, this policy will enable producers from developing countries to penetrate American and Western European markets. Yet, it can be done only under the condition that their products are of high quality and that they are able to promote their goods to the market without the assistance of middlemen. Such exclusion of mediators lies at the core of fair trade production.
Conclusion The ratification of such free trade agreement as MERCOSUR has strongly influenced coffee production industry in Brazil: first, it became much more competitive, and inefficient enterprises were forced out of business. Secondly, the majority of companies began to place emphasis on the volume of output rather than the quality of the products.
This was a marked shift to a scale economy. However, in recent years, consumers throughout the world have become much more sensitive about ethical aspects of consumption and this has given rise to such economic concept as fair trade production.
The adherents of this policy argue that people living in developing countries such as Brazil do not get adequate compensation for their labor. Those entrepreneurs, who intend to open a coffee production business in Brazil, should adopt a fair trade approach to the management of their company, as this policy will distinguish them in American and European markets.
Works Cited Alimonda Hector. Brazilian Society and Regional Integration. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 6, 2000, pp. 27-44.
Azevedo Paolo. Chaddad Fabio
Netflix and Blockbuster Battle for Market Leadership Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Organizations have from time to time; carry out a thorough evaluation of their practices so as to be able to gain insight in ways of streamlining their organizational processes and improvement of revenue and high profit making potential. Both the internal and external aspects are analyzed and it must also be a wide-ranging and all inclusive activity so as to be able to gain proper strategic approach. The model of corporation management examination is derived from the unpredictable economic settings in which companies function.
Investors usually want assurance in a corporation’s wellbeing before they engage in investing in public owned companies, this shows that they want to be provided with reports showing the businesses strength, comprehend how a business bounced back from a plunge in returns or whether its cash flow is hampered by its clientele who don’t meet their obligations. Reports and analysis done to investigate all this always give potential investors with specifics they require to make knowledgeable choices.
With precise tabulations of inward bound returns and reliable evaluation of market tests, company analysis has turned out to be nearly requisite to many market-watchers. To a certain extent business owners and top management opt to use company analysis to assess procedures and boost their companies’ practices and revenue earnings, instead of refusing to go along with change and resolving for business as usual.
Key Focuses Case study 1: Netflix
Netflix being one of the world’s largest online providers of movie rentals serves over ten million clients/ subscribers who have access to more than 100,000 DVD titles plus a variety of over five thousand selections that its subscribers can view instantly in real time on their computers.
Netflix has transformed the way movies are rented by delivering them directly to their clients. With today’s demanding way of life, and clients demanding extra value and control, it’s no doubt that Netflix has turned out to be the most favored online source of home entertainment. Netflix has since then developed to be the world’s leading online movie rental provider with it being named the top internet movie retail site for client contentment in 10 out of 11 reviews since 2005 carried out by ForeSee Results.
In the same year Fast Company declared it the winner of its yearly Customers First Award. Among other achievements of Netflix include, Retail Innovator of the Year(2007), number one online retailer by Nielsen Online(December 2007), Netflix Player ranked top 10 device of the year by time magazine(December 2008), and 2010 number one e-commerce corporation by the American Customer Satisfaction Index.
NetFlix.com, Inc. was founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph. Netflix manages an online-based limitless movie rental service for digital video disc (DVD) formatted movies. The DVD has made available a new technology for storing and playing movies with image and sound quality exceeding that of traditional videocassettes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A DVD is same in size to an audio compact disc and is capable of storing an entire film, as well as added material such as subtitles in different languages, additional shorter videos about the making of the film or other related subject matter, and information about the actors, director, and producers. With its high quality and additional features, the new DVD technology provided an attractive alternative to traditional videocassettes for the home video market.
A key aspect of the Netflix business model is the “Marquee Queue” concept. The “Marquee Queue” allow subscribers to rent several movies at once for viewing. This is simply a subscriber’s queue where a list of all the movies that the subscriber had selected, but which had not yet been sent to the subscriber is presented.
After logging on to the Netflix Web site, a new subscriber browses the virtual aisles and select movies that he or she desires to watch. These movies are then used to build the subscriber’s queue. The website makes it easy for subscribers to edit the queue, such that the list can be arranged in the desired order. The company then ships the DVDs at the top of the queue to subscribers.
Netflix is plagued with technological concerns as far as its ability to move to offering online video from DVDs, this leads to a loss in subscribers. Netflix still has indications of a cash flow Achilles’ heel as compared to its competitors (Blockbuster, Comcast). They also experience high cost on product acquisition.
It experiences competition from about every part of the entertainment industry from cable, digital, and satellite services, including the pay-per-view option and movie channels such as HBO, and Showtime. Due to this an extensive choice of substitutes is offered as a result from the diverse competition. (Marks, 2005).
Case study 2: Blockbuster
Blockbuster Entertainment Corporation is an adjustable company that notices prospects and is conscious of the challenges that come with every business venture. In so doing it has to be conscious of forthcoming corporations that provide same kind of services for example Hollywood Video. Blockbuster has seized the opening to spread out their services from providing just movies to offering new movies and video games. A main element of Blockbuster’s products is made up of video games.
Blockbuster has expanded its operations to include products such as the console games which have further increased its market share by the acquisition of American Satellite and Video Inc. “American Satellite operates Rhino Video Games, which is a games retail chain. Rhino Video buys, sells, and trades video games. Rhino has 40 retail stores in the Southeast, including Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina” (Leon, 2009).
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Blockbuster seized the opportunity to expand to different countries and will continue to spread to other countries. Blockbuster has greatly expanded internationally and is currently in 27 countries across North America, Central America, South America, Asia, and Europe. Blockbuster went from 1500 stores in 1990 to over 8000 stores worldwide in 2002; this expansion is the key to Blockbuster’s success.
They have used this expansion to penetrate the market and capture market share. In 2001, Blockbuster’s worldwide revenues surpassed $5 billion, and 20 percent of that was generated outside the U.S. Blockbuster will continue to expand as it is doing in Central America to capture more and more market share (Lamb
Information Retrieval Methods Report college essay help online
Introduction The people attic trust is a complex storage and retrieval project featuring widely varying forms of media spanning several decades’ worth of information embedded in different forms of technological media.
Some of them feature single modes of data storage while some contain many forms of media. Some of it is text, while a lot of it falls under the multimedia category. The challenge of organising it into retrievable formats and subsequently availing the information to a wide audience through an Information Retrieval mechanism is daunting.
Fortunately, several tools already exist to tackle this kind of challenge. The primary goal of the project is to document the existence of the media, to describe them adequately and to make their future retrieval possible. This report focuses on the retrieval issues of the project. It presents the range of options available for organising the retrieval system and, evaluates them, and finally recommends the most appropriate configuration for the system.
Different types of IR systems Components of an Information Retrieval (IR) system
An Information Retrieval system has four basic components. They are a database, a search mechanism, a language, and an interface to provide interaction between the user and the system. According to Chu (2005, p.15), databases “comprise information represented and organised in a certain manner”.
In other words, a database is an organised storage system that allows for the searching of items in it using preset criteria. The search mechanism is the system that allows for the searching of the database for the retrieval of the information stored in it. The degrees of complexity of query methods applied vary depending on the technical capacity of the user accessing the database. The third component of an Information Retrieval system is language, which can be either the “natural language or a controlled vocabulary” (Chu, 2005, p.16).
Chu (2005, p.16) notes that, “information relies on language, spoken or written, when being processed, transferred, or communicated”. The final component of an Information Retrieval system is the user interface. This is the point of interaction between the user and the system. Its user friendliness will determine in many cases the propensity of users to apply it. More than anything else, it determines the usefulness and eventual success of an Information Retrieval system.
Categorisation of items in attic
Items in the attic are of various forms, which fall into four categories. There are text-based items, image based media, streamed media applications and multimedia applications. Text-based items use words as the basic mode of information storage. Text based media in this collection include poems, manuscripts for performance art, and newspaper clippings. Image based applications rely on picture elements to store information.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each picture element, called a pixel, has a different identity describing its color and its intensity, which when collectively combined with other pixels, describes a given image. Image based applications in the collection include, photographic materials held in CD-ROMs and hard drives, and 35mm film negatives.
Others are paintings and old maps. These will require digitisation if they will be retrieved from a computerized Information Retrieval system. Streamed media applications are those that have a time component, necessary for the correct interpretation of the data. Distorting the timeline distorts the information in them. Streamed media applications available in the collection include the audio recordings like the music and sound clips in .wav and .mp3 format.
Speech and music on audio cassettes and vinyl records also exist in the collection. These forms will require digitisation if they are to be made available to a wide audience. Finally, multimedia applications use a combination of media to present information. In the collection, multimedia applications include video in digital format, and on tape, and the reels of film.
Text Based Retrieval Systems
A text-based retrieval system will aid the retrieval of the text-based media in the collection. Some of the media rely on analogue technologies, which complicate storage in the media storage available to the public, who are intended beneficiaries of the project. The text-based materials found in the collection will require digitisation.
The key advantage of text-based retrieval is that the technology is mature, and hence enjoys a great degree of format standardisation. It presents fewer compatibility problems between different types of software. Where this problem arises, numerous options for conversion exist to allow retrieval in a desired format. Its weakness lays in its use of letters and words as the basic data storage and retrieval unit.
So far, many of the retrieval methods available for text retrieval do not take into account the semantic elements of a query. They rely on word match, and hence most search systems may not return relevant content based on their meaning, but will return content that closely matches the phrase used as search query. Advanced systems allow for contextual search, which employ thesauri to identify words with closely related meanings, thereby improving the semantic elements of a search.
Figure 1: Multimedia information retrieval system architecture
We will write a custom Report on Information Retrieval Methods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Multimedia Retrieval Systems
On the other hand, multimedia retrieval systems use different means of identifying information that match a search query. A multimedia Information Retrieval system will comfortably handle search queries for image-based applications and for streamed media applications. Multimedia search queries employ elements usable for each of the image-based applications and streamed media applications.
Multimedia Information Retrieval is still relatively young. It has many compatibility problems owing to the different formats used for presentation of media type of the same nature. For instance in the collection, there are .wav and .mp3 files, which are all audio formats. The reason for this is that there is greater functionality derived from each type of new format. The newer formats regularly lack backward compatibility.
They main constraints that drive the use of different formats include maximisation of storage space, or preservation of media quality. However, the design of many media players for streamed media applications and for image-based applications takes into account these constraints. They regularly include capacity to handle different media types and a format inter-conversion facility. The crux remains having the latest version of a media player, which will be able to present the latest file formats.
Requirements for an IR system Comparison of Requirements for Text Based IR Systems and Multimedia IR Systems
Retrieval systems require a means to identify the information source, which a search mechanism can latch on to in order to identify the media from a database. This is about as far as the similarity between the two types of retrieval systems go. Text based Information Retrieval system rely on matching the text in the files to the search query in the database to identify a document, while multimedia Information Retrieval systems rely on a range of elements to identify relevant media carrying the required information. This includes text elements such as an assigned name for the media in the database. It is possible to search for a film from a database using the film name, on condition that the name is on the file carrying the film. Other locators for multimedia files include duration of media and file format of the media. These are useful in narrowing down a search query.
Main Solutions Available to Designers of IR System
The availability of searchable information from the attic trust is dependent on the digitisation of all records currently in the collection, and to some degree, the standardisation of formats to ease retrieval. There will be need to either type or by using scanning software, to digitise the text-based items in the collection.
Typing will allow for a greater degree of freedom in the presentation of the information because it will make formatting possible to achieve the best possible output for users. It will however lead to a loss of authenticity since the items are antiques, and their appeal remains in appearing in their original format. For users seeking information for semantic purposes, reformatted presentation will meet their needs best because of better presentation.
Those who are seeking the information for sentimental purposes will best appreciate the original presentation. To retain the original look, a digitised image of the text will provide the best option. The quickest way to achieve this is through scanning without text recognition. This will actually transform the material into an ‘image’ presenting text, and not pictures. The implication is that text retrieval methods will not apply.
Preservation of the rest of the information will also require digitisation. The most crucial factor is the format to use in the process. Conversion technologies from tape to digital data exist for both audio and video tapes. The storage of physical artifacts like the sculptures for mass presentation will require the taking digital pictures for storage in the database.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Information Retrieval Methods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another option is the presentation of three-dimensional representations through animation of the photos, or making short films of the objects, which adds the possibility of adding sound clips. Animation allows for greater user interaction while filming allows for the addition of details through voice, enriching the experience. Again, the format to apply depends on the nature of user. For the arts lover, an animated clip over which he can exercise control over the image to get desired views will be suitable.
For the inquisitive semantic user, a video clip with a sound clip giving background information on the artifact will be ideal. As Jalal (2001, p.6) observes, “Speech can introduce, give summary, stimulate, and tell”. Audio data presents the fewest presentation challenges since the auditory experience does not vary much between users. Provided the data presentation takes on a widely accessible format, there should be no major technical challenges.
Different Methods of Representation
There are two key types of Information Retrieval systems. Belkin (n.d.) identifies them as, “retrospective or ad-hoc” and, the second type, “Information filtering or routing”. Retrospective systems fulfill one time information needs which taper off after meeting the need. These include information from e-books, news articles, online magazines, or information websites.
Information filtering includes those accessed regularly because they have high utility levels. These include websites with changing information such as weather patterns, stock prices and maps services. There are some key issues to consider when setting up the database based on the methods available for representation.
The issue of what language to use across the database is critical. Two ways of approaching language exist. One of them is to use natural language of the users, which forms the basis for the search queries, while the second approach is to use a controlled vocabulary. If the trust adopts natural language for the Information Retrieval system, then users will have an easier time interacting with the database since they do not have to learn the controlled vocabulary of the database.
They will however be faced with ambiguity and irrelevance problems. If the trust adopts a controlled vocabulary, users will first have to learn the language after which they will have better results for their search queries. Tedd et al. (2005 p.39) stresses that, “it is necessary for users to have the requisite skills to obtain relevant information quickly and effectively”.
There will be need to use indexing across the database. This involves assigning words or specific phrases to each item in the database. The trust may use descriptors of free indexing depending on whether the language adopted is the natural language of the users, or a controlled vocabulary.
Categorisation will involve developing categories for all the items in the collection. Chu (2005) proposes that useful categories must be “exhaustive” (p.29) and “mutually exclusive” (p. 29). This means that all items in the collection must have an assigned category and that no two categories should have an area of overlap.
Techniques for summarisation improve the query function for text-based applications. It involves providing a user with brief information relating to a body of text. The techniques include the use of abstracts, summaries, or extracts. Abstracts provide the readers with a broad view of the text and can act as a substitute for the text. It only lacks in detail.
A summary assumes that the reader will read the whole document so it excludes portions such as background, the methodology, and purpose. An extract on the other hand is an actual piece of the document, cut out to provide a snapshot of an actual portion of the document. Each of these methods has their advantages and their challenges and applies in different circumstances.
Querying refers to the interrogation of a database using a language. Nordbotten (2008) says, “Query language will always provide specification of the selection criteria for the desired information for the remaining processes” in the information retrieval process. The key aspect for designing a query system is to determine the degree of semantic querying necessary for ideal user experience.
Challenges include the management of synonyms, which might require processing of the query, hence reducing speed of the system, and increasing the design and management costs. A simplified query system that matches input to metadata and similar phrases provides large volumes of output giving the user a more difficult time in sifting through the data, which may compromise user experience. Use of metadata, can potentially improve search results as it expands the possible ways of accessing a document.
Implications of Using IR systems
The most appropriate system for the project will include two sections. One of them is preservation of the physical artifacts that contain the information that requires preservation in a museum. The second section is the development of a digital library or digital museum that will enable users from different parts of the world interested in the trust’s activities to interact with the materials.
Arms (2001, p.4) points out that, “a digital library brings the information to the user’s desk, either at work or at home”. The most appropriate Information Retrieval system will be one that uses natural language, since the trust targets a worldwide audience, as opposed to a limited vocabulary system. Keywords in the process assist in refining queries. The trust should also prefer to use methods of storage that will present the artifacts in their natural condition since this is the main appeal in viewing artifacts.
Later on, the trust may consider storage methods applicable to semantic users who are seeking meaning, especially for educational purposes out of the information. In particular, the trust needs to digitise its entire collection. This involves conversion of audio files to multiple digital formats.mp3 format will be useful if the objective is to conserve storage space. It is also widely playable on most media players.
Figure 2: Accessing a Digital library (Techweb, n.d).
Discretion will be required for text-based media. Some of them will require preservation in digital format by scanning with text recognition, to allow formatting. This will apply to manuscripts and poems. Others may be stored as images though scanning without text recognition. These include the newspaper clippings and poems.
Digital photographs of physical artifacts such as sculptures will aid the development of animated collections. This is easier to handle compared to multimedia items. The multimedia items in the collection will require widely varying file formats for effective retrieval. The option of developing a unique media player for the trust requires consideration. This will solve the compatibility problems in the interim because it will use a single format and will potentially reduce administration costs.
Reference List Arms, W. Y., 2000. Digital Libraries. USA: MIT Press.
Belkin, J. N., n.d. User Modeling in Information Retrieval. New Jersey: Rutgers University. Web.
Chu, H., 2003. Information Retrieval and Presentation in the Digital Age. NewJersey: Information Today, Inc.
Jalal S.K., 2001. “Multimedia Database: content and structure”. Workshop on Multimedia and Internet Technologies. Documentation Research and Training Centre, Bangalore. Web.
Kang, K., 1999. Development of a Multimedia Information Retrieval Architecture with Integrated Image Information Retrieval Technique, digital image, Multimedia Technical lab, Korea Telecom. Web.
Nordbotten, J. C. 2008. Multimedia Information Retrieval Systems. Web.
Techweb. n.d. Accessing a digital library. Digital image, R.V. College of Engineering. Web.
Tedd L.A., Large A.,
The Issue of Images and Perceptions in Corporate Environment Report college essay help online: college essay help online
In today’s corporate environment the issue of images and perceptions are becoming more and more important. The top most executives have to perform their organization leadership tacks with a high degree of integrity.
Over the past few years we have seen the public and investor confidence fall due to poor leadership styles that don’t take the issue of ethics seriously. Some of the corporate debacles include Enron, Adelphia, WorldCom and Tyco just to mention a few. According Hackmam
Messages about Race in the Media Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Racism is perception that traits and capabilities can be linked to people from a particular race. This can also be used to depict a situation where people from one racial affiliation are seen to be more important than others are.
Prejudice and segregation have for a long time been used as potent weapons promoting apprehension or disgust of other people in times of civil unrest, and even during financial depressions. In America, the issue of racism is a thorny issue for many people. To some people, uttering a racial sentiment against someone should be categorized as free speech that most Americans believe in. on the other hand, some other people point out that uttering such kind of words can bring about serious ramifications.
In America, race is seen as a dominant idea and a persevering conception, coined by the society. Race is also seen as having fostered inequity and segregation for many years, as well as determined how we associate with other people. Although the U.S. has taken key and important steps to ensure that all people are treated equally regardless of their race, it is still sad to notice that there are many instances of racist utterances in our country. (Snyder, 2010)
The saddest thing is that these utterances are being carried out from the most unlikely quarter- the media. Over the last one year, I have noted numerous messages carried out by the American media that had explicit messages about race. These were carried out through magazines, sitcoms, advertisements, movies, among others. Although the messages could have been unintentional, they nonetheless contained racial elements in them. (Shah, 2010)
One form of media that has been used to convey racial messages has been sitcoms. For a long time, sitcoms have been used to entertain the whole family regardless of age. Despite sitcoms making us laugh, they have a knack for portraying ideas in a racial manner. The worst thing is that this is done by showing black people to be lesser than their white counterparts. One sitcom that has elements of racism is Lopez Tonight.
The sitcom by George Lopez that premiered on TBS on November 9, 2009 contains nothing but racial insinuations all through. Lopez’s creation that the people who came out for the opening night were like “a rainbow of people” who had a common goal of bringing change into late night TV is catchy but cynical. A rainbow as we know it is supposed to have colors that are both appealing and equal to the viewer. (Casares, 2009)
Immediately after the opening remarks, Lopez follows up by claiming that no matter how long one is married, their spouses will always be ‘black in bed’. As though this is not bad enough, he aggravates the matter further by claiming that the ‘longer one is married, the darker that the room will get’. (Casares, 2009) Although this is supposed to be funny, one does not fail to notice that it has an element of racism to it. Today, it is evident that the marriage institution is not as smooth as it used to be.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, couples who have been married for long are experiencing numerous problems in their marriages. When Lopez claims that people who have been married for long get black in bed, it is a simple way of saying that all black people are bad just like an old marriage. Lopez aggravates the matter further when he claims that rooms occupied by married people get darker with age. Referring wearing out as getting darker is an outright racial utterance. (Casares, 2009)
Another part of the media that still contains racism is the advertisement segment. Despite almost everyone trying to appear politically correct, the advertisement segment is still lagging behind.
Today, most companies take advantage of minorities and women in their advertisements. Billboards no longer display goods, but rather contain publicity stunts meant to attract the masses. One such advert is the one by Black
How the Events of the 1960’s Made a Difference for Me Today Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Martin Luther and the civil rights movements
Vietnam War and impact on the American foreign policy
Cultural Revolution of 1960s
Key lessons from this period
Introduction The 1960s period is very significant to the American history. Most of the contemporary practices and norms in society can claim to have been born from the events that took place during that period. For instance, the social movement, hippie revolution, Vietnam war and some other events were witnessed, giving way to democracy, end of minority segregation and emergence of modern culture. This paper will discuss the events of the 1960s that have significantly influenced modern society.
Martin Luther and the civil rights movements Although the issue of rights for the African American and other minority groups had become a thorny topic in America for many years, it was until 1960 when the momentum of this agitation became enormous (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1). An event occurs at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College where four African American students are segregated at Woolworth lunch counter and as reaction to that, the students start a sit-in at the premise (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1).
The event results into non-violent protests in major parts of the South, leading to partial removal of segregation policies in areas like “parks, swimming pools, libraries and other public facilities” (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1). The non-violent protests continue in many parts of the country especially with eloquence of Martin Luther King urging the people to protest without using violence. In 1962, Martin Luther is arrested but remains unshaken, urging the people to be disobedient in order to unjust the laws (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1).
Martin Luther continues to organize public forums and nationwide protests in demanding for granting and respect for the rights of the minority. In 1963, the government starts to initiate key changes by first making the 24th Amendment by banning poll tax in eleven Southern States that earlier had prevented the blacks from voting (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1).
In 1964, the administration of president Johnson boost the civil rights efforts by making it into a law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that came to be regarded as the major civil rights legislation to be undertaken by the American society (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1). The Act criminalizes all forms of discriminations based on “race, color, religion or national origin” (Brunner and Haney, n.d, p.1).
Today, the results and fruits of civil rights movements of 1960s have seen the American society embrace economic equality, racial justice, and even international peace, making the society equal and easier in pursuing and attaining the ‘American Dream’.
With evidence from the election of Barrack Obama as the first African America president, it can be noted that the 1960s as a period of heightened activities of civil rights movements broadened and opened the political environment of the United States to all groups to participate without discrimination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vietnam War and impact on the American foreign policy According to Holsti and Rosenau (1984),”the war in Vietnam represented a major landmark in American history comparable to what students of domestic politics call ‘watershed’ elections” (cited in Rosati, Hagan and Sampson, 1994, p.248).
Taking place in 1960s, the Vietnam acted as the forum that represented the first major political-military failure in the entire history of America (Rosati, Hagan and Sampson, 1994, p.248). The country invested a lot in the war and estimates show that around $30 billion and over 500,000 troops were deployed to Vietnam every year during the American involvement in the war (Rosati, Hagan and Sampson, 1994, p.248).
America lost greatly in the war and studies have shown that the country was largely unsuccessful in its strategy of containment and building back Vietnam. The events of failed war in Vietnam coupled with social and political turmoil at home; American society was subjected to a prolonged period of agony originating from poor American foreign policy (Rosati, Hagan and Sampson, 1994, p.248).
Americans could not come to terms as the American soldiers had not lost any major battle during their entire course of war and as a resulted they associated Vietnam loss to wider failure of political policies and the national morale (Wiest, 2002, p.88). The argument was that the foreign policy had been misguided and the government commitment was questionable.
The Vietnam defeat “caused a painful, national catharsis in American society, which represented a sea change in American cultural history” (Wiest, 2002, p.88). Before the Vietnam War, American exceptionalism was alive and well, and Americans saw themselves as people who mean well to others.
As Americans had been known to provide help to other European nations in banning and discouraging tyranny, Vietnam case was different, Americans had lost, the political leaders had lied and the soldiers have participated in gross human rights violation (Wiest, 2002). The larger American society imploded leading to what came to be known as, “Vietnam Syndrome” as the larger national mistrust increased. American public contented the fact that its government could also make mistakes in a very confusing world (Wiest, 2002).
The “Vietnam Syndrome” became firmly implanted in the American society and this is evident from the foreign policies the country undertook with regard to Gulf War, Iraq War and Afghanistan War. The “Vietnam Syndrome” is today reflected in public opinion concerning American foreign policy which has greatly changed since the Vietnam War.
We will write a custom Essay on How the Events of the 1960’s Made a Difference for Me Today specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cultural Revolution of 1960s The 1960s was a period described by Bob Dylan as, “The Times They Are a-Changing” (Grant, 2008, p.2). This song clearly shows how the society was being subjected to social changes that were taking place and the musician warned that, “awash in this sea-change, you better start swimming or you will sink like a stone” (Grant, 2008, p.2).
No perfects words like those of French philosopher, Alain Finkielkraut captures the role of 1960s period to the general culture of the society when he wrote in his book, ‘The Undoing of Thought’ that, there was, “the eclipse and triumph of babydom over thought” (Kimball, 2001, p.10). Further, the philosopher observed that,
“Two decades have been enough for deviance to become the norm…and for the adolescent life-style to set the pace for society as a whole; youth is fashionable; the cinema and advertising focus primarily on a public of fifteen to twenty year olds; thousands of portable radios sing, almost all to the same guitar strains, of our good fortune to be done with conversion; and the drive against growing old is quite open…today youth is the categorical imperative of all the generations….people in their forties are teenagers who have not grown up…..it is no longer the case that adolescents take refuge in their collective identity, in order to get away from the world; rather it is an infatuated world which pursues adolescence…..the long process of conversion to hedonism and consumerism of Western societies has culminated today in the worship of juvenile values; the bourgeois is dead, long live the adolescent” (Kimball, 2001, pp.10-11)
American society at that time was seen to be fragmenting, as numerous challenges to state were met with accelerating and violent resistance. The generation gap between parents and their youngsters broadened and generally there was almost resistance to any social established value or norm (Grant, 2008, p.2). The impacts of this period to the American culture have remained up to date. Many writers have noted both the positive and negative effects especially with regard to glorification and degradation of the popular culture.
Pop culture in form of rock music, comic, television sit-coms and more became ‘stapple food’ to many youth. There was both social and generational resistance as more youth defied the established social norms and values and engaged in creating new ones. John Lennon, Paul McCartney and The Beatles pioneered a new sophistication and inventiveness to the rock music. Generally, this was a period that witnessed the ‘hippie generation’ culminating into a hippie movement.
As their name suggest, hippie became a generation of setting trends from consumption, to fashion and to values and norms. The movement became more involved in politics especially after the Vietnam war where the generation expressed their dissatisfaction to continued use of violence and military in solving disputes but rather advocated for “world peace and believed in peaceful way of solving conflicts with solution-methods like dialogue, co-operation and negotiation” (Jensen, 2005, p.1).
The theme of the hippie movement was for the youth to be and live ‘themselves’ and in the process transform the society to a place full of peace and safe to live with others (Jensen, 2005, p.1). Much transformation by this group became evident in how society’s conservative ideas and norms got changed. For instance, they changed the traditional sex morals of the society, and sexual experimentation became a norm with belief that it was the truest ingredient to guarantee happy life (Jensen, 2005, p.1).
In music, artists like Dylan and the Beatles invented and revolutionalized music to a level that could not be resisted. The music became a tool of championing and communicating social issues the youth and the larger society faced. And inventing a new and unique dressing style, the hippies style came to be regarded as ‘eccentric’ where it was full of many dazzling colors and numerous decorations, big in size and the youth would define it, “very comfortable to wear” (Jensen, 2005, p.1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on How the Events of the 1960’s Made a Difference for Me Today by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Key lessons from this period As outlined and demonstrated, the 1960s period became important in transformation of the political, social, and cultural landscape of America. Today, democracy is vibrant and political space has increased and matured. Civil rights of minority in society have been legalized and institutionalized through affirmative actions policies in economic, health, political, employment and administration.
Discrimination, though not totally eradicated in society, is slowly becoming invisible indicating that there is recognition of equal rights of all individuals. Election of president Obama acted as the final signature to civil rights agitations for political participation by the minority.
On the other hand, cultural and social revolution of the period has resulted into remarkable changes in society in terms of music, literature, family life, freedom of individuals and consumerism and fashion (Mombille, 207).
Today, capitalism production is manifested in cultural orientation of the youth in terms of fashion, foods products, entertainment, and even education. Society has greatly changed leading to dismantlement of conservative sexual morals and now sex orientation and adventure is no longer punishable or frowned upon than before.
In terms of politics and America’s international relations, the ‘Vietnam Syndrome’ has refused to die among many people and the public no longer trust or full support the government’s foreign policy. This can be evidenced from many public polls that largely show total disapproval of the public for the unilateral foreign policy the government may want to pursue. For instance, Iraq and Afghanistan wars were largely disapproved by the American public.
Conclusion Although numerous periods have been influential to the American society, I tend to believe that the 1960s was a unique one that for ages to come will continue to modify the American society and the world at all. Political developments in future will draw decisive lessons from the events of the period, capitalistic world and production cannot ignore the period for it has transformed their fortune forever almost at every level of the society.
The family structure will forever remain transformed, music industry has and will continue to flourish on pop hits and songs and societal value about education, sex, religion and even leadership will for a long time remain fluid. Therefore, the conclusion is that the American society permanently changed as a result of the 1960s events.
References Brunner, B. and Haney, E. Civil Rights Timeline: Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Web.
Grant, B. K. (2008). American cinema of the 1960s: themes and variations. NJ, Rutgers University Press. Web.
Jensen, R. (2005). The age of hippies and the term “flower power.” Web.
Kimball, R. (2001). The Long March: How the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s Changed America. Encounter Books. Web.
Mombille, T. (2007). Activism: The Legacy of the Hippie Movement in the Sixties. Web.
Rosati, J. A., Hagan, J. D, and Sampson, M. W. (1994). Foreign policy restructuring: how governments respond to global change. University of South Carolina Press. Web.
Wiest, A. A. (2002). The Vietnam War, 1956-1975. Osprey Publishing. Web.
The Problem of Customer Service in Companies Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Customer service is a key issue of concerns especially among companies. A company’s customer policies and the general way in which its employees treat customers highly influence the consumer preference. This determines the amount of sales made by the company consequently determining profits.
Many corporations spend a lot of resources on policies that promote consumer satisfaction as well as extensive education and promotion of customer care values among the employees. Excellent customer care practices are essential for a business to survive in its industry as the modern market is characterized by competition and differentiated products which provide the consumer with a wide variety to choose from.
Background Information The Home Depot is an American retail company for home appliances established in 1978 by Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank. Over the years, the company has transformed consumer’s perspectives on home improvement and designing and it is presently the world’s leading home improvement specialty retailer with over two thousand retail outlets spread across the United states, Canada, Mexico and China (Home Depot, 2010).
One of the major concerns of the company is maintaining the existing customers as well as acquiring new customers. This calls for the need to promote effective customer service in the company.
Customer service is a tough standard in most organizations but in Home Depot, the founders of the company ensured that they lived up to it (Roush, 1999). Marcus and Arthur sought grass root opinions on the effectiveness of the services provided by the company.
Their commitment to effective customer service is demonstrated as they enquire from associates and customers on the company’s weak and strong points as well as recommendations to the problems. In fact, one of the founders noted how customer service greatly impact on the products that the company sells and highlighted the very important part of their policy which is allowing the customer to provide a yellow brick to success of the company (Roush, 2009).
The company ensures that they respond to the customer’s needs and improve the stores as deemed appropriate. However, it is difficult to convince some of the employees to uphold customer service as they are the most crucial determinants for the success of the business. This is because when a customer leaves a store in dissatisfaction, the store will not only lose a customer, but the customer may spread negative information to other customers leading to reduction of sales in that store and the entire company at large.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s founders Marcus and Blank invested countless hours in training sessions throughout the outlets emphasizing on customer care as well as employees knowledge of products being sold. (Roush, 2009) Marcus, a founder acknowledged that the customer is the source of everything that he has and attributed his life to the customers. He further urged the Home Depot employees to embrace the same attitude (Roush, 2009).
Even before the company commenced its operations, its founders considered customer service to be the company’s focal point strategy aiming at eight million annual sales for each store which was double the industry’s output (Roush, 2009). By the end of 1983, the company registered more than a quarter billion in sales and made a profit of ten million.
This growth can be attributed to the strategy of low pricing which was enabled by purchasing goods directly from manufacturers and provision of wide selection of goods. This helped the company to overcome competitions from other companies (Roush, 2009). Increased volumes of customers led to crowding and long queues which called for the need for establishment of new stores. Currently, the company operates an online shopping site where consumers can order products right from their homes.
However, a lot of complaints are recently being raised regarding the customer service in some of Home depot stores. Customer complaints range from bad credit facilities to lack of attention from the employees. This is likely to negatively impact on the performance of company especially because of the prevailing economic conditions in US where the highest percentage of stores is situated.
The graphical representation displays the downward trend of consumer confidence index in the United States which consequently affects the amount of sales resulting from consumer’s reluctance from making purchases.
Conclusion Home Depot is a service industry and its overall performance is rated according to the amount of sales made over time. The customer is the major determinant of the amount of sales achieved by the company. It is therefore important for the company to ensure that its customer service is maintained at the highest standards in order to realize high profit margins.
This is primarily due to the fact that consumers respond actively to the services they obtain in the Home depot stores which impact either negatively or positively on the company’s returns depending on the level of consumer satisfaction.
We will write a custom Report on The Problem of Customer Service in Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommendations Due to technological advancements in the modern society, the company should continually promote its e retail trading. The company should also extensively educate the employees on customer values service and take disciplinary action against employees who do not uphold these values. The company should also have an established customer care department to regulate customer service.
References Home Depot, official website (2010). Our history. Web.
Roush, C. (1999). Inside home depot: how one company revolutionized an industry through the relentless pursuit of growth. New York: McGraw-Hill Professionals.
Ethnic Concentration in Cabramatta Essay custom essay help
The concept of ethnic concentration can be defined as the one of landscape diversity meaning the social landscape. In this respect, it is necessary to note on the example of northern and southern cities of the United States of America, as suggested by Lewis (1979, p.16), that the difference is likely to disappear. The same concept can be applied to Cabramatta as a suburb of Sydney where an urban social landscape dominates over the rural one which can be explained as one of the preconditions of a faster convergence.
The study by Dunn (1998) suggests an overview of the concept of ethnic concentration as it appears in Cabramatta, Sydney. Different theories dwell on the principles of ethnic diversity and ethnic concentration whereas it is necessary to focus on the benefits of such social and territorial division of the population and their application in the contemporary society and other sectors including commerce, education, tourism, and others.
For instance, Ardrey (1967 cited in Dunn, 1998, p.505) emphasises the importance of socio-biological roots of ethnic concentration and a desire of the ethnic minority to protect its gene pool.
Another theory is the one that dwells on the four-stage principle of relations between ethnic groups and races highlighting “process of contact, conflict, accommodation, and assimilation” (Park, 1950 cited in Dunn, 1998, p.506). Defence, preservation, attack, and social support are defined as the basic functions of the ethnic concentration by Boal (1976 cited in Dunn, 1998, p.508) who represents the Weberian school of urban studies and tries to apply the concepts of closure to ethnic concentrations that face a conflict.
Cabramatta has become a centre of Vietnamese-Chinese born population that comes to the suburbs of Sydney as residents. This fact can be considered a bit controversial because every coin has two sides and each theory has its supporters and opponents. It is necessary to point out various factors on ethnic concentration in this area that seem to be either beneficial or disadvantageous.
Thus, Birrell (1993) addresses the territory of Cabramatta as the one inhabited with the ethnically diverse population. So, it is necessary to emphasise that the territory has been already had populated with representatives of various ethnic minorities and the arrival of Chinese and Vietnamese born population is not likely to affect the situation dramatically.
The problems of ethnic concentrations in Cabramatta appear due to the cultural diversity a low financial stability level resulting in other problems. “A specific voucher policy designed to reduce economic residential segregation might also have the effect of increasing opportunities for labour market success” (Clark, 2008, p.516).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though this concept was offered in the study by Clark (2008) concerning the situation faced by American people, it is necessary to agree on the fact that such measures can be rather applicable to the situation faced by Australians and Vietnamese born residents of Cabramatta.
Besides, some psychological impact can be observed in people that live in the areas where poverty concentration has topped the expected level; as suggested by Galster and Zobel (1998 cited in Clark, 2008, p.516), “residence in concentrated poverty neighbourhoods abets socially dysfunctional behaviour”.
The problem of neighbourhoods has also been addressed in the study by Jones-Webb and Wall (2008) who accentuates the danger of neighbourhood of Hispanic and African-American ethnic concentrations.
This concept can be also applied to the situation in Cabramatta where Vietnamese born and Chinese born people live in the neighbourhood on territory of increased ethnic concentration of Indochinese residents without being initially successful in establishing relationships. This may lead to poor education progress and other social disorders such as drug abuse and increase in the crime rate.
One of the advantages of this ethnic concentration typical of Cabramatta is the “development as a ‘focal point’ for ethnic specific institutions” (Birrell, 1993, p.26). In this respect, tourists are attracted with ethnically coloured shopping areas and other appealing peculiarities of ethnically marked areas.
Viviani suggests that the concentration of the Vietnamese born population is not large and can “disperse as the financial capacity of the Vietnamese improves” (1993 cited in Birrell, 1993, p.27). In other words, the situation is not approached as a problem. On the contrary, ethnic concentrations in Cabramatta can be changed with the help of financial improvement whereas some areas that are usually called ghettoes need changes in financial, social, and educational sector.
Besides, the Vietnamese population that arrives to Sydney is provided with certain educational and other types of programmes to ensure that they can acquire language and other peculiarities while living in the area where these institutions are situated hence forming the ethnic concentration in the suburbs of Sydney.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethnic Concentration in Cabramatta specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To conclude, the concept of ethnic concentration can be approached in different ways but it is also necessary to address advantages and disadvantages of this issue respectively. So, the benefits of ethnic concentration in Cabramatta include original cultural diversity and culturally marked shopping areas attracting tourists whereas the increased standard of life is likely to change the situation.
The negative features of ethnic concentrations include poor social rates such as poor educational progress and some growth in crime rates. While authorities argue on the measures to be taken in this situation, the problem can disappear after a convergence of social landscapes that make ethnic concentrations so obvious.
Reference List Birrell, B., 1993. Ethnic concentrations: the Vietnamese experience. People and Place, 1 (3), pp.26-31.
Clark, W. A. V., 2008. Reexamining the moving to opportunity study and its contribution to changing the distribution of poverty and ethnic concentration. Demography, 45 (3), pp.515–35.
Dunn, K. M., 1998. Rethinking ethnic concentration: the case of Cabramatta, Sydney. Urban Studies, 35 (3), pp.503-27.
Jones-Webb, R., and Wall, M., 2008. Neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration, social disadvantage, and homicide risk: an ecological analysis of 10 U.S. cities. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 85 (5), pp.662-76.
Lewis, P. F., 1979. Axioms for reading landscapes. Some guides to the American scene. In: D. W. Meinig, ed. 1979. The interpretation of ordinary landscapes geographical essays. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.11-32.
Lifelong Learning is Necessarily Essential to Globalization Research Paper essay help online free
Lifelong learning occurs when we undertake learning activates all along our lifetime, in the aim of improving our working skills, become competent or improve the acquired knowledge. Learning can occur within social, cultural, personal or employment point of views. I therefore concur that lifelong learning is very necessary for global change and growth, since it is a procedure for upgrading knowledge, abilities, interests, skills or qualifications.
According to Selwyn et al (2006), this form of learning occurs from the pre-school age and goes beyond retirement age. When there is development of competence and knowledge, people become motivated and consequently find ways of adapting to the knowledge-based societies. Global growth depends on the rate at which people actively participate in solving social, cultural and economic challenges. As a result, various form as for lifelong learning provides chance to control major future aspects (Selwyn et al, 2006).
Some of these forms of learning include formal learning. It mainly concern ranked or grading learning for instance, most people ensure they are educated to university level. On the other hand, informal learning is acquisition of vocational skills, mainly utilized by specialized people already in career fields.
Non-formal learning can also be the intergenerational learning where those of the older generations can learn new skills with the purpose of keeping in line with new generation. A good example of this form of upgrading is learning computer related skills to integrate well with the current dynamic technological platforms.
One may also learn to play a new instrument in the market to strengthen interaction with children or friends. Informal learning is thus the highest contributor to global growth.
In line with European Commission (Stephanie et al, 2007), there are many different reasons why one should take on informal learning but eventually, all rationale are in support of global growth. The informal learning opportunities must be available to every willing citizen on an on-going basis, to cater for human interests and economic growth at all stages of livelihood.
Developing and developed countries consider lifelong learning as a key factor of enhancing global change and specifically global growth. Today various international agencies such as UNESCO, Departments of Internal as well as International Developments, United Nations and World Bank are in the forefront of advocating lifelong education systems, in support of integrated economical ideas for people with diverse specialties (Stephanie et al, 2007). Lifelong education supports international interaction between individuals, governments, corporate and countries through investment and trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Existence of information technology greatly supports this form of interaction. Cooperation has seen diversification and flexibility of the education sector to accommodate all willing parties. According to Stephanie et al (2007), globalization affects, “the environment, culture, political systems, economic development, financial prosperity, and human physical well-being in various societies around the world.”
The world is today an enhanced place due to community service especially on issues regarding lifelong learning; older learners reschedule efforts for communal and global growth through quality interaction and advice. What was leant is always a utility if we use new translating mechanisms to improve on the quality or value.
The society is better due to the enhancements on existing wisdom. In accordance with Stephanie et al writing (2007), people are only able to adapt to societal changes when they sway with the technological flux. Lifelong learning is therefore an important procedure to keep up with required technological and educational changes.
Today it is evident that most adults are willing to further their knowledge and improve skills, but this requires an enhanced learning environment. In line with Stephanie et al (2007), globalization requires “acceleration of scientific and technological progress, which means that knowledge and skills acquired during formal education are usually not sufficient enough for a professional career spanning three or four decades.”
References Selwyn, N,. Gorard, S and Furlong, J (2006) Adult Learning in the Digital Age. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge Publishers. Print.
Stephanie, L, Mason, R and Pegler, C (2007) The Educational Potential of E- Portfolios. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge Publishers. Print.
Why Motivate Employees in workplace? Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Production of Quality Results
Retention of Employees
Introduction It is the dream of every organization to attain success in all its undertakings. To achieve this, organizations have to realize that success stems from the people employed to work for it. If these people are not motivated, they lack the morale to work hard. It is the responsibility of senior managers to ensure that employee’s needs are met as they strive to meet the organization’s needs. It is normal for one to feel discouraged if his/her contributions are not recognized and rewarded appropriately.
One cannot be able to achieve the goals of an organization if he feels that, he is being exploited. Motivation does not mean giving huge salaries but a simple word of mouth, for instance “well done”, can play a great deal. This paper looks at the benefits of employee motivation to an organization. How it helps in the production of quality results, achievement of goals, employee retention, and improvement performance.
Production of Quality Results According to Pfeffer
Excess Use of Technology and Motor Development Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction Thinking about childhood is a memory journey that deserves ones precious time, as it aids the appreciation of the challenges encountered by children in the present day world. A few years back, it was common sight to see children playing outside all through the day. As masters of their craft, children in those days created various games for their consumption, which had little or no financial implication, and required no parental guidance.
This forms of play traditionally provided avenues for the children to move and make contact with their world, and what they saw and heard from their immediate environment was basically natural and simple. Shortly before the advent of technology, one will be right to categorically state that the sensory stimulation of the child was in equilibrium, giving room for sufficient development and incorporation of all the senses. An integration of all the sensory organs is necessary for a child to garner the basic skills for schooling.
Adequate growth of the sense organs plays a significant role in the ability of a child to be attentive. The invasion of technology in the present day world has given rise to a sensory world that is different from what was obtainable in the years past. The most important factors necessary for child development and growth such as mobility and human relationship have now been relegated to the back seat, giving way for technology, which in no small measure has overwhelming consequences.
The purpose of this research proposal is to ascertain the relationship between the ability of the sense organs to process information and the excessive use of technology. This research proposal is attempting at answering the following questions.
What is the impact of excessive use of technology on a Childs sensory processing?
How can technological use, be balanced to improve the wellbeing and educational performance of a child?
Background of Study
Some few years back, family time was often observed while doing chores, and it was expected of every child to meet up with the work assigned to him or her, this in a way contributed greatly in motivating a child’s drive to excel. After the day’s work families retired to the dining room, where food was served and discussions about the day’s activities done. There is a total change from what use to be to what is obtainable now.
The television screens have taken the place of the dining tables. The widespread excessive use of technology is destroying the family institution and our educational systems, and resulting to a fall in values that held these institutions together. Years back for one to survive, he or she needed to move in order to accomplish this, but today man feels all that he needs to make it in life is technology. Simon, reported in his work that
“Studies in 2004 by the Kaiser Foundation, and in 2008 by Active Healthy Kids Canada, showed that elementary aged children use on average eight hours per day of combined technology use, with 65% of these children having television’s in their bedrooms, and 50% of North American homes having the television on all day (3-5). “Baby TV” now occupies 2.2 hours per day for the 0-2 year old population, and 4.5 hours per day for 3-5 year olds and is causally linked to developmental delays ”(87).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These findings made France to place a ban on all its broadcasting co-operations from hosting programs for children under the age of four. Instead of parents playing around the house with their children, they now prefer leaving their children glued to the TV screens, while they go out and on returning purchase the latest computer games as gift and no book to read. This aside its negative impact on the child’s health and academics, is creating a big gap between the children and their parents.
Technology Overuse: Effects on Child Development
In today’s world children depend on technological gadgets for their leisure, thus limiting the opportunity of exploring their creative imaginations, and the possibility of encountering challenges that would have enhanced motor development. Sitting in one place and savoring violent and extreme sensory stimulation are slowing down the chances of child development, with consequent effects on acquiring the fundamental skills for literacy. Simon reported in his work that
“14% of Canadian children have diagnosed mental health disorders (11). Between 1991 and 1995, prescriptions for psychotropic medications in the 2 – 4 year old toddler population, as well as in children and youth tripled (12-14). 80% of this medication was prescribed by family physicians and pediatricians (15). 15% of Canadian children are developmentally delayed (16), and 15% are obese (17).
Media violence has recently been classified as a public health risk due to causal links to child aggression (18). 25% of elementary children have been cyber bullied, and youth who reported being harassed online were eight times more likely to carry a weapon to school in the past 30 days ”(39).
The excessive utilization of technology for leisure has negative impacts on a child’s motor development, self identity, and interaction with others. As more and more children are getting glued to the televisions screens and other technological inventions, there is a possibility that the society will experience a disconnection from self, from the spirits and from nature. Msughter, stated that “ “you are what you do”. If all a child “does” is watch television and play video games, then this experience is truly what they become”(45).
H1: If children are constantly attached to Technology, then optimal sensory and motor development will be inhibited.
We will write a custom Essay on Excess Use of Technology and Motor Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Methods
The primary methods that will be utilized in caring out this research work will be,
An observation will be made on a select group of adults who were exposed to traditional form of play, by moving, making contact and relating to fellow human beings and the environment. And an observation will also be carried out on another group of adults who were not exposed to the traditional form of play but were dependent on technology for play. Deductions will then be made as regards their self identification, relationship to others and the environment in general.
The experience and knowledge of experts and professionals will also be used in ascertaining the impact of technological overuse on the sensory and motor development of children.
Questionnaires will be issued out, and the target group will be the elderly and basically grandparents, who will be required to answer questions regarding their experience with their children and grand children at various stages of development. This method will make available first hand information from parents who have raised children both traditionally and with technology.
Predictions and Conclusions
It will be worthy to note that if the use of technology by children is not properly managed or balanced, one or more of the following will likely occur.
The child will be disconnected from self and the environment.
The basic foundational skill for learning may not be developed adequately.
There will be the likelihood that the child might develop physical and psychological disorders.
Attention deficit might occur.
Conclusion There is evidence that technology will continue to grow, and as such its negative effects also will continually keep growing. Occupational therapists are equipped with the necessary knowledge regarding the adverse effects of technology.
Precautionary measures taken to balance the utilization of technology with mobility, touch and human relationship, will go a long way in supporting children together with their families and learning environments. No one can doubt the importance of technology in our world today, but a total dependence or connection to technology has resulted to a disconnection of today’s children from good health and excellence in academic endeavor.
Works Cited Msughter, Ipirakwagh. Child Growth and Motor Development. Cairo: Asawa, 2002.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Excess Use of Technology and Motor Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Simon, Tondo. Sensory and Motor Development. Durban: Havi Press,2009.
Partnering of Suppliers and Customers Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Partnering is the development of good and effective strategic relationships (Loraine 1993, p. 13). This is mostly between suppliers and customers. The main aim of partnering is to have a sustainable competitive advantage. In partnering, various stakeholders are supposed to transform their businesses while embracing various relationships and processes. They can also embrace leadership and better ways of communication through good business practices.
Transformation in partnering should be done as a joint activity (Loraine 1993, p. 15). Framework contracting on the other hand is an agreement with different suppliers. The main aim of framework contracting is to establish different terms that will be used to govern contracts (Schein 1985, p. 9). These contracts can be awarded over a given period of time. The terms that govern these contracts are normally established in regard to quantity and price. In a broad perspective, framework contracting sets out the terms and conditions that will guide the agreement.
Partnering and framework contracting complement each other in a broad way. This is because they are used to come up with good conditions under which more collaborative ways can be enhanced between contractors and their clients (Schein 1985, p. 9). Framework contracting and partnering can encourage a close correspondence in business dealings.
This therefore yields a scale of improvements. In addition, they are inclusive and imprecise concepts that capture a wide range of attitudes. Partnering captures the spirit of cooperation that is needed for a successful contract. Framework contracting and partnering are used when stakeholders want to develop a good strategic partnership (Child 1984, p. 11). Partnering and framework contracting come up with broad based contractual commitments that can be used for long term strategies.
Discussion A project in construction is an activity that has specific conditions, a budget, responsibilities, goals and a plan. Projects should have a starting date and an end date. There are various parties that are involved in projects. These parties have diverse interests that are supposed to be taken care of. There are various aspects that are involved in project management and enforcement (Child 1984, p. 18). This ensures that activities are carried out in the most effective way.
For a project to be successful, it must have a good plan. This will ensure that things are done in the most efficient manner (Pheysey 1993, p. 17). In a broad perspective, all aspects of the proposed project are supposed to be explored for sustainability. Projects have various advantages and disadvantages. Proper project implementation can improve the quality of a product. This is because projects have a time frame and plan by which they are supposed to be executed.
Projects can bring about an improvement in team productivity because they involve various stakeholders with a common goal (Pheysey 1993, p. 19). This means that various interests will be satisfied as a result of the project. As much as companies should bid for good projects through partnering and framework contracting, management tasks can end up being an overhead to the success of the project.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This therefore means that projects need a lot of attention and commitment. On the other hand, diverse interests and goals can frustrate a project. This will be brought about by distinct missions and objectives.
Strategic partnering can be said to be structured collaborations between organizations. The main aim of strategic partnering is to take advantage of emerging market opportunities (Green 1995, p. 14). Strategic partnering is meant to respond to customers more effectively and efficiently than one could have done in isolation. Apart from sharing skills and resources, partnering can also allow partners to share risks.
There are various advantages of strategic partnering. Strategic partnering can bring about an improvement in a company’s cash flow (Green 1995, p. 18). This can also reduce overhead costs in one way or the other. Strategic partnering can also act as an avenue to access technology and facilities. Through partnering, a company will be able to improve its credibility and capital flow. This strengthens relationships with suppliers and customers and in the long run reduces costs.
There are various disadvantages that come about as a result of strategic partnering. For instance, there might be various barriers to future financing opportunities (Latham 1994, p.9). This can end up with the foreclosure of other important business opportunities. For strategic partnering to be successful, partners should clearly assess themselves. This is because there might be unexpected disappointments and headaches. Strategic partnering can also bring about a lot of distractions because of the commitments that bind partners together.
Framework contracting can be described as an agreement with different suppliers (Latham 1994, p.9). The main aim of framework contracting is to establish different terms that will be used to govern contracts. These contracts can be awarded over a given period of time. The terms that govern contracts are normally established in regard to quantity and price. In a broad perspective, framework contracting sets out the terms and conditions that guide agreements. As a matter of fact, it has various advantages.
Advantages will mostly be seen in the outsourcing of goods and services. In addition, it will be able to develop good strategic relationships that can be used to advance a company’s long term objectives. Framework contracting in a broad way enhances processes within an organization and its partners (Bresnen 1990, p. 14). This means that it can be used as an interesting option for sustainability. In addition, there will be better avenues of evaluating and monitoring initiatives.
Disadvantages arise from the assessment of various outcomes. This means that there will be problems in assessing success (Bresnen 1990, p. 18). Framework contracting can lead to an increase in prices that will be used to compensate for additional costs.
We will write a custom Report on Partnering of Suppliers and Customers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These will likely scare away potential partners and investors. It also has a disadvantage of bringing about additional enforcement mechanisms (Argyris
Corporate Responsibility to the Environment Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Environmental protection activities in the past have mostly been relegated to the society or the community with respective governments taking up the role of ensuring that these communities or societies have managed the environment properly. In the recent past, the government has shifted its focus to corporate organizations and business to participate in environmental management.
They have provided direction to the private sector by creating rules, sanctions and regulations that most companies should follow as they adopt environmentally sound behavior. Many governments and business corporations around the world have begun to realize the critical roles they play in environmental protection as well as their contribution to economic growth.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the environment, also known as green management is the duty that the corporate society has to environmental conservation by ensuring its products, services and business operations do not harm the natural ecosystems. Corporate responsibility to the environment, which is also known as green management is the obligation that most companies have to environmental conservation.
Businesses achieve corporate responsibility by eliminating greenhouse emissions and hazardous wastes as well as maximizing the efficient and productive use of raw materials while at the same time minimizing the adverse effects these resources will have to the environment.
These activities are all geared towards creating a safe environment while at the same time, ensuring that there is economic growth in the market. The purpose of this paper will be to analyze the theories of economic justice and how these theories can be applied to corporate responsibility activities.
Theories of Economic Justice The issue of economic justice and equality emerged during the 20th century with most political theorist’s viewing the two concepts as synonymous. However, libertarians who emerged during this period saw inequality that was balanced to be beneficial to the society.
This was based on the argument for survival of the fittest proposed by Darwin that sent out the message that equality was impossible in the natural context. Most of the political theorists and libertarians have emphasized the importance of inequality but a philosopher known as Robert Nozick has offered a different perspective from these theorists by stating that equalizing resources is immoral (Van der Walt, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Robert Nozick was a philosopher who wrote on political and economic theories that were based on libertarian ideals of justice. He developed an economic model that formed the basis of his entitlement theory on economic justice, which stated that economic justice could only be achieved in a free market that did not have any taxation laws.
Nozick saw government’s that imposed redistributive or equalizing taxation policies on their citizens as being unjust and creating an environment of forced labor. This line of thinking gave Nozick’s economic model more power and authority among economic justice circles as it argued for economic inequality within the society.
Nozick viewed the taxation of an individual’s income or wealth as a way of enslaving that person to a smaller portion of their income while the rest was redistributed to the society. Economic justice was basically a matter of historical entitlement rather than achieving equal harmonization of resources. What people earned basically belonged to them and not the government. The only time they were under obligation to provide was when government resources were near depletion.
Nozick developed his model by first stating that economic wealth should be equally distributed by conducting a series of transactions with willing buyers (Koecke, 2010). Nozick believed the purpose of economic justice was not to achieve commercial distribution but to provide a sense of inequality that would force society members to increase their wealth. The role of the economic justice theory was to set down rules and regulations that would be used in distributing economic goods (LaFollette, 2002).
Nozick proposed an ideal economic justice theory that stated people who acquired commercial goods in a fair and just manner from other people who had justly owned those goods showed demonstrated that there was just economic goods distribution. The distribution of these industrial goods was made just based on the rules that were followed during the distribution process.
Nozick further argued that ideal distribution could only be achieved if an individual’s liberties were interfered with. If people had freedom, through private transfers, they could change the proper economic distribution so that it does not reflect the ideal. Nozick’s views were that economic, social, or civil liberties were equal (LaFollette, 2002).
John Rawls’ views on economic justice differed from those of Nozick because he focused more on the various financial implications of economic justice. He developed two principles to expound on his theory of justice, the first of which is known as the equality principle, which explained the role the government had of guaranteeing its citizen’s civil liberties. Rawls stated that the government had the obligation of protecting the civil rights entitled to each citizen, especially those that were outlined in the U.S. Constitution.
We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Responsibility to the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He noted that these civil liberties which included the freedom to speech, worship, want and fear were essential to the society and could therefore not be sacrificed to achieve economic well being. These liberties could also not be sacrificed to benefit other society’s members at the behest of a single individual. Rawls noted that after these civil liberties were secure for individual members of the society, a system of distributing economic resources could be developed (LaFollette, 2002).
This system of distributive justice could be implemented by incorporating the second principle proposed by Rawls known as the difference principle which states that the government should distribute economic resources so that the least advantaged members of the society can benefit from the economic distribution. This principle allowed some people within the society to have more economic goods than others, but it only worked as long as they promoted the well being of the less advantaged members of the community.
Rawls argument for these two principles has provided theoretical implications as he has provided a practical and moral perspective in choosing economic principles for distributive justice.
He has offered moral reasons for using the two principles as they are able to minimize the influence of luck or fate in determining the amount of wealth people accumulate in their life. He claims circumstances such as one’s social status, and family background are matters of luck/ fate that should not be used in determining the individual’s economic value or wealth (LaFollette, 2002).
Another contributor to the theory of economic justice was Iris Young, who viewed distribution in economic justice to be an unimportant element. Her view’s differed from those of Rawls as she noted that distributive justice was concerned with handing out goods deemed economical in a fair and just manner, but it ignored the crucial element of equality.
She also highlighted the standard measures that were used to determine justice issues which masked the role social institutions played in determining how economic goods were to be distributed amongst society members.
These standards created cases of inequality when it came to determining which individual member was meant to gain more economic goods in the society that the others. Young argued for the abandonment of the distributive paradigm when it came to economic justice and proposed the use of power and domination relationships in commercial distribution. Her theory was referred to as the displacement of the distributive paradigm (LaFollete, 2002).
Rawls Theory of Economic Justice The most outstanding feature of John Rawls theory of economic justice is the reconciliation of the two conflicting demands, which are the demands of equality and inequality. Rawls portrays the conflicts in these two demands when he states that all citizens are entitled to civil liberties that will ensure them economic stability as well as ensure the less disadvantaged members of the society are able to receive economic goods that have been distributed equally.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Responsibility to the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His theory of justice tries to justify the governments’ scope of power in distributing economic wealth to the society’s members. Rawls mostly focuses on social justice by looking at what duties and rights society members have on social institutions that are involved in proper economic distribution (Khawand, 2010).
Rawls theory of justice is stronger than the economic justice theories proposed by Young and Nozick as Rawls argument is based on two principles, which are the equality and difference principle. The equality principle states that every member of the society is entitled to the same liberty that is accorded to other members of the organization while the difference principle deals with rectifying the inequalities that exist in societies or communities so that individual members can benefit from the distribution of economic goods.
These two principles as defined by Rawls form part of a broader framework of conceptual social values which include liberty and opportunity, income and wealth. Rawls arrived at his two principles of economic justice by creating a thought experiment that formed the basis of his original position on economic justice. He developed two premises the first of which was a constraint on social unity and the other being the difference of conceptions that are used to define what is right (Khawand, 2010).
Rawls position on economic justice is based on a contractual view that will create a theory of justice that does not depend on any of the two premises but will depend on a free environment were a society’s members are free to agree reasonably. Social institutions involved in economic distribution activities should therefore not be designed on utilitarianism principles but on principles of justice that would be determined by rationalism. Rawls argues rationalism to be the fair conditions that create the original position of viewing truth as fair. The unique position has characteristics that are necessary for achieving Rawls conclusion on economic justice.
One of these characteristics is that participants in the distribution process seek the guarantee of rights and resources so that they can pursue their understanding of conceptual good.
The other characteristic that is used in explaining the original position is the delineation of critical constraints such as the veil of ignorance which Rawls describes as the lack of knowledge that the participants in the unique position have on conceptual good. Rawls explained the purpose of the veil of ignorance was to prevent people with their self-interests from supporting economic justice principles that were biased and therefore forced them to adopt universal principles.
These made them to be unaware of what economic position they held once they entered the society. This led to a situation where their perspective of the original position was to their advantage rather than their disadvantage. This line of thought led to Rawls position on wealth redistribution where the primary goal of redistributing wealth was distribute economic goods equally amongst the society’s members (Khawand, 2010).
Rawls argued for rationalism when economic actors were faced with uncertainty, a position that was seen as unique by various theorists in economic justice.
This was because he was able to construct it based on individual autonomy instead of conceptual good. Another unique aspect of Rawls theory was that unlike most advocates of distributive justice, he did not conclude his theories with a perspective on conceptual good but on a rational contractarian framework that is used by rational actors to define the rules of social cooperation (Khawand, 2010).
Critics of Rawls theories included Nozick who held the view that inequality had to exist in the economic distribution of goods or wealth in a society. Nozick questioned the validity of Rawls definition of economic justice by stating any theory used to define economic justice should be based on the end result, historical, patterned or unpatterned distribution of economic goods.
Nozick’s theory of entitlement focused on the historical and unpatterned distribution of wealth, which did not necessarily require any conformance to societal patterns and historical information as to how the wealth was acquired.
From his definition of economic justice, Nozick emphasizes the importance of justice in the acquisition and distribution of wealth as opposed to truth in holding the wealth. Nozick’s criticism of Rawls theory of economic justice transcends from his assertion that liberty, be it social, economic or civil, disrupts the justice of holding economic wealth.
Nozick highlighted the critical aspect of holding wealth is the power and freedom it gives to people who transfer the wealth to other people. This meant that economic resources allocated to society members could be changed as long as the individuals felt free when exchanging these possessions. Nozick argued for the use of a patterned system of distributive justice in economic distribution (Khawand, 2010).
Nozick further observed that patterned distributive justice alienated the source of wealth that existed in the society. He noted that an individual’s wealth was something that was taken by the government to be divided equally amongst the society’s members. This was done by taxing the individual’s wealth so that the money could be distributed to the less advantaged members of the community.
Nozick viewed taxation as an unfair and unjust way of distributing economic goods in a society. He viewed taxation as infringing on the economic liberty of society’s members, forcing them to participate in forced labor. He criticized Rawls difference theory which focused on the fact that income tax imposed on an individual’s wealth was not an infringement on their economic liberty as it did not prevent these individuals from participating in legitimate business (University of Waterloo, 2010).
Application of Rawls Theory of Economic Justice in Corporate Responsibility to the environment Theoretical literature that has focused on corporate responsibility activities has mostly addressed two questions which are what drives companies to engage in corporate responsibility and what effects do corporate responsibility activities have on economic growth and distribution of resources.
Numerous explanations have been advanced to explain the recent increase of CSR activities being used by large companies in environmental conservation one of which is to reduce the number of gas emissions being discharged by most companies into the environment.
In a bid to create a greener and safer environment, companies have created products and services that are environmentally safe and fewer gas emissions. Consumers who buy these green products are willing to pay more for these products or services and firms have responded to this shift in the economic market (Lyon
The Adoption of Structuralism and Post-Structuralism Basics in Feminist Cultural Theory Essay college essay help
The feministic cultural theory deals with the essence of woman nature and its role in society. Moreover, the aim of the feministic movement is to improve the lives of women and establish their equality in the society. The cultural feminism developed from the radical feminism that focuses on the differences between man and woman in terms of biology, the issue of the patriarchy.
At the same time, it formed under the influence of the social feminism that focuses the attention on the woman’s private life and uniqueness of every woman. In order to support and explain these ideas, the feministic cultural theory makes use of various methods and concepts. The feministic cultural theory can be discussed from the perspectives of structuralism or post-structuralism.
These theories build the premises of the ideology of feministic culture and present several forms in which the issue can be explained and understood. Structuralism explains it from the point of view of binary opposition (male-female), thus, it deals more with the radical feminism. On the contrary, post structuralism is opposite to such an assumption and uses the concept of deconstruction in order to explain the relations and the position of women in the society.
Consequently, it refers to the social feminism to some extend. These two approaches to the feministic culture theory are used in works of Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex (structuralism approach based on the radical feminism) and Angela McRobbie The Aftermath of Feminism (post-structuralism approach based on the social feminism). These days, the post-structuralism theories are more acceptable in the feministic cultural theory than structuralistic ones.
Post-structuralism denies the structuralistic theories of the structure. It appeals to the terms of “deconstruction” and “rhizoma”. Structuralism is based on the logic of language structure. From the point of view of structuralism, the human society should be analyzed as a system with a “center” around which the components of the structure are organized. Moreover, it suggests the binary opposition in terms of which all the elements of the structure are presented in the opposition.
For example, good/bad, male/female. Such approach does not give a possibility to analyze all aspects of a social system and human relationships inside this system. It leads to a conclusion that the role of a woman in the society cannot be analyzed only from the point of view of “opposition” as there are also several aspects of woman’s life and her responsibilities that should not be compared to the man’s ones. On the contrary, post-structuralism reveals the notions of “multiplicity”, “subject” or “self” and “deconstruction”.
In his lection, Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences Jacques Derrida claims, “it has always been thought that the center, which is by definition unique, constituted that very thing within a structure which while governing the structure, escapes structurality” (2005, p. 352). With these words, he supports the idea that society cannot be analyzed as a structure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support this idea, Deleuze and Guattari explain the notion “multiplicity” in their work A Thousand Plateaus. In chapter One or several wolves?, they write, “ the proper name can be nothing more than an extreme case of the common noun, containing its already domesticated multiplicity within itself and linking it to a being or object posited as unique” (2004, p. 31).
Thus, the society is a multiple phenomenon that should be analyzed using the main principle of post-structuralism, “deconstruction”. The same approach can also be applied to the feminist culture theory and its analysis.
In works of Simone de Beavoir and Angela McRobbie, one can see two different approaches to the feministic culture theory, structuralism and post-structuralism. Simone De Beavoir reveals the principle of binary opposition opposing men to women. She assumes that woman should be free and independent of man.
The author says that woman sometimes abjures her feminity and that the young girl is convinced that she has limited capacities because parents and teachers concede that the girl’s level is lower than the boy’s (de Beaoveur, 1998, p. 699). Thus, the author builds her arguments on opposition of a male and female. It is a major principle of the structuralism. Furthermore, she acclaims that woman in the modern society is still opposed to a man and treated as “the other sex”. The author provides the idea that:
In order to be a complete individual, on an equality with man, woman must have access to the masculine world as does the male to the feminine world, she must have access to the other. (de Beaoveur, 1998, p. 684).
As an opposition to this approach, Angela McRobbei relies on the principles of post-structuralism. She analyses the “post-feministic feminity”. The author does not oppose women to men, on the contrary, she takes a woman as a whole and uses the technique of “deconstruction” to define her position in society. She outlines new basics of feministic culture theory, such as “empowerment”, “choice” and “gender equality”.
The author explores different aspects of woman’s life while exploring glossy magazines, TV shows and famous films, such as “Bridget Jones”. “There is a feminist desire invoked as she is encouraged to take up some freedoms in these images, to be in the city, to be alone, to be self-contained, to be in some emancipated scenario, and this connects with possibilities for gender equality” (McRobbie, 2009, p. 104).
We will write a custom Essay on The Adoption of Structuralism and Post-Structuralism Basics in Feminist Cultural Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, one can see that such an approach to the woman in society is based on the post-structuralism theories. The way the author discusses a woman as an individual who has her own unique treats that should be developed, coincides with the post-structuralistic approach to the exploring of a certain issue.
However, the post-structuralism theories are met with certain skepticism nowadays, we can still assume that such approach to the interpretation of the feminist cultural theory is more relevant than structuralism as it gives a possibility to analyze the position of woman in the society from different perspectives.
Moreover, it is more tolerant and does not reveal opposing of men and women. Consequently, the post-modernism principles as “deconstruction”, for example, provide modern humanists and scientists with new ways of understanding of the feministic culture exploring woman as a central figure and not comparing it with man.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that different principles and approaches are at stake in the structuralist and post-structuralist distinction for the feminist cultural theory. Structuralism reveals the binary opposition and post-structuralism uses the deconstruction as the means of analysis of the feministic culture theory.
Reference List De Beauvoir, Simone, translated by H. M. Parshley. (1998) The Second Sex. New York, Vintage Books.
Deleuze, Gilles and Felix, Guattari. (2004) A Thousand Plateaus : capitalism and schizophrenia. Chippenham, Wiltshire, Antony Rowe.
Derrida, Jacques. (2005) Writing and Differences: Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences. Tailor and Francis e-Library, 2005
McRobbie, Angela. (2009) The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Changes. London, SAGE Publications Ltd.
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The Living Water Inductive Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Facts
Facts The scripture is all about the living water. In this a Samaritan woman meets Christ who is the source of the living water. Jesus is a Jew and according to Jewish culture it was not right for a man to speak with a woman in public. The Samaritan woman questions Jesus why He request water from her. His disciples marveled when they found Him speak to a woman. Salvation is for all and not what is known to be for the Jews, she receives Christ and many others (Alexander
Good Samaritan Interpretation and Application Inductive Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Facts
Facts The verse explains on what one must do to inherit everlasting life. Eternal life can only be achieved through obeying God’s law which is summarized into two: loving God and the neighbor. The emphasis is on doing not just knowing which has been repeated thrice: verse 25, 28, and 37.
The parable given from verse 30 to 35 emphasis on the act of doing in the definition of a neighbor just the way the Good Samaritan helped a man who had been robbed and bitten then left to death, an act that the Priest and the Levite didn’t yet they knew and taught about God’s law on love (Alexander
Nonverbal Communication Carrier Research Paper college essay help online
Kinesics and proxemics are nonverbal communications that may create barriers in intercultural communications. One of the pioneers in the field of Kinesics, Ray Birdwhistell, defines kinesics as the study of observable, isolable and meaningful movements in human communication (Birdwhistell 192).
Proxemics on the other hand is the study of cultural space requirements. Both kinesics and proxemics are not universal and as such, differences are to be expected across cultures. While both would impair communication efforts for a US company operating in Japan for the first time, I believe that kinesics would present the bigger challenge.
There is no universal code for what body language means and for this reason, kinesics are easy to misinterpret. For example, In the US, people are brought up to not only be very comfortable with maintaining eye contact while communicating but also to expect the same from others when communicating.
On the other hand, most Asian countries including Japan view eye contact as particularly rude and disrespectful. In Japanese culture, the bow is an important posture in communication and it signifies the relationship between the communicating members. There are a myriad of kinesics and it will be hard for the US Company to learn all of the applicable kinesics when relating to the Japanese people. Proxemics on the other hand may be relatively easier to adapt since they only involve distance.
Basic Negotiating Steps Negotiation is defined as “communication for the purpose of persuasion (Shamir, 2003; Goldberg, Sander
Types of Communicated Messages Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Considering various different types of communication in a business environment or generally in a work place, these types at times exist in the form that, some are more effective as compared to others. These forms of communication include face-to-face communication, spoken communication, electronically transmitted which includes telephone or voicemail, personally addressed written communication these are personal messages, and impersonal written communication considered as impersonal messages.
Principally, this communication brings about the taste and need to communicate amongst the members of an organization for mutual interactions within the the organization as a whole. There is a need to get to learn proper communication to develop oneself on how to relate with others to sail in the same track in life. More so, the most important thing one has to do in business is to learn how to solve problems and make decisions, maybe personally and with other people.
Informative message Essentially, in the business world, communication is very vital to many as to who should receive the message. This therefore, considers communication as vital in relations and it is thus a very important element, which ought to have more consideration. So considering the approach to which one communicates determines a lot on the density of the message conveyed, which may have positive as well as negative impacts to the recipients.
For example, if there is a need to communicate something that is showing a sign of negative impact, there is a need to employ the use of a positive manner in which the message communicated no alarm to recipient (Guffey
The Ancient Mayan Civilization Research Paper essay help
Introduction While the human race takes great pride in the progressive nature of each subsequent civilization, human beings continue to harbor a keen interest on ancient civilizations. This interest in the past sometimes springs from specific attributes of certain ancient civilizations which are hailed as benchmarks in the civilization process.
Some of the ancient civilizations gain their prominence primarily due to their old age while others are distinct as a result of the great organization that the civilization exhibited. The Mayan civilization falls under the second category and to the present time, modern day man marvels at how the civilization was able to grow in its size given the various environmental and physical constraints that it faced.
This paper shall set out to carry out a concise but informative research into one of the great pre-Hispanic civilizations, the Mayans. The social organization of the civilization as well as its great achievements in terms of architecture and other technology shall also be discussed.
In addition to this, the manner in which the Maya were able to adapt to the environment so as to ensure their survival shall be articulated. Finally, this paper shall advance some of the theories which have been proposed to explain the decline of the once great Maya civilization.
The Ancient Mayan Civilization Historians have always agreed on the fact that there existed ancient civilizations which exhibited great cultural growth and development. One of the great ancient civilizations known to man is that of the Mayan people. The Maya were a Meso-American civilization who occupied the southern part of present day Mexico.
This Mayan Classic period civilization grew between 300BC and 1100AD, at about the same time that Europe was witnessing the disintegration of the great Roman Empire and the rise of the Holy Roman Empire (Vanden and Prevost 19). The Mayan culture was made possible by the agricultural conquest by the people as well as the complex political organization that ensured proper governance to the people.
The political-social organization of the Maya was hierarchical with a king, nobles and priests on top and the common people and slaves on the bottom (Vanden and Prevost 19). Kingship was mostly on a hereditary basis and as such, each king chose an heir among his sons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The king ruled in an authoritarian fashion with the help of the nobles and in his decision making, he did not consult the masses. Despite this, the Mayans had good governance and grew stronger through military conquest. They also went on to develop what was at the time a very sophisticated and expansive civilization consisting of a series of city-states.
Religion Religion played a very important role in Mayan culture and priests were held in high esteem. Maya priesthood drew its members from the elite class and the chief priest was in fact the Maya ruler (Sharer and Traxler 722). The priesthood performed a variety of public ceremonies which were meant to inspire awe and obedience from the people.
These ceremonies typically involved music, dancing, feasting and offerings. The Mayans greatly invested in prestigious temples for their worship. Ruins of these temples are present to date and their designs continue to astound man. One of the bleaker aspects of the Maya was human sacrificing ceremonies which were preceded over by the reverend priests.
Sharer and Traxler reveal that human offerings were at times intended as a means to divine future events since it was believed that the gods would talk to the priests on being offered with human sacrifices (Sharer and Traxler 754). In addition to this, human offerings were believed to nourish and sustain the gods who would in return be benevolent to the people. Most of the offerings for human sacrifices were usually captives who had been obtained from warfare.
The Mayan Calendar The Mayan calendar is one of the most important relics from the Mayan civilization. One of the intriguing aspects of the Maya was that they were the first people in America to keep historical records (Haughton 151). It is widely contended that one of the greatest Mayan accomplishment was the creation of their intricate calendar system. Calendars were based on astronomical events such as the cycles of the sun, moon and planets.
This heavenly body’s movement established the seasons with priest-astronomers pronouncing the advent of each new period. As such, this calendar was the center of the life and culture of the Mayan people. Anderson articulates that the Mayans wrote accurately depicting the Earth’s rotation around the sun in 365.24 and in addition to this documented the movement of planets that were in that age undiscovered (81).
The Mayan people had three calendar systems which had different degrees of complexity and were used for various reasons. Of particular interest is their long count calendar which was based on a cycle of an estimated 5000 years. Ettington asserts that “This calendar is a massive and highly accurate list of astronomical events and seasonal occurrences such as solstices and equinoxes” (36).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Ancient Mayan Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is advanced that the current long count calendar started counting down in the year 3114BC and will end in the year 2012 AD. At the same time that this calendar comes to an abrupt end, it is predicted that the sun will be aligned to the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
The Mayans and Agriculture The greatest achievement that the Mayans made with regard to their environment was their exploitation of the lowland environment to produce food for millions of people for more than a millennium. Sharer and Traxler contrast this early exploitation of the lowlands by the Mayans to the present day scenario whereby the same lowland landscape has been exhausted after only a few years of growing crops (58).
Due to the rapid increase in population, the Mayans had to over cultivate their land so as to cater for the food needs of the people. Invariably, this over cultivation resulted in the decline in soil fertility which necessitated the Mayas had to come up with means of reversing this negative phenomena. Clearing and burning of the forests so as to increase soil fertility was practiced as a means of adapting to the environmental changes.
Marston, Knox and Liverman highlight that the Mayas practiced swidden agriculture which involved the clearing vast areas of forest, burning them so that the crops benefited from the nutrients in the ash and then abandoning the land while the forests regrew (336). This method was effective since the fertility of the land was assured. The cutting down of trees was followed by a season of afforestation efforts therefore negating the negative effects of deforestation.
The wetland areas that the Maya occupied provided major constraints to both settlement and farming. This is because the constant flooding made the land inhabitable and crops could not survive the waters.
However, the Maya developed methods for growing crops in these particular areas by building raised fields which made the crops safe from the flooding while taking advantage of the rich soils that the wetland environment provided (Marston, Knox and Liverman 336). By doing this, the Mayas adapted to their environmental condition favorably and were able to produce enough food to sustain the population.
Writing Technology The development and use of writing by a people is considered to be one of the hall-marks of civilization. Unlike other civilizations of their time, The Mayans had a well developed writing system which made use of phonetics and ideograms. Ancient Maya writing system was somewhat elaborate and some historians hail it as one of the most significant achievements of the Maya people (Sharer and Morley 597).
The Maya were able to keep permanent records which allowed for the transmission as well as the accumulation of knowledge from generation to generation. The most elaborate writings by the ancient Maya were the seasonal and astronomical information which was recorded over long periods of time. However, most of their written works perished with the decline of the civilization and the subsequent invasion by the Spaniards.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ancient Mayan Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Architecture The Maya civilization showed great advancement in their building technology and to date, the ruins of their stone architecture and monuments still continue to amaze us. During the Classic period which was the period when the Mayan civilization was at its peak, the Maya lowland forests were covered with clusters of ancient Maya house groups, villages and centers.
These centers varied in size from minor ceremonial complexes which had few masonry residences and shrines to epicenters which had superimposed temples and palaces (Demarest 89). The major epicenter architectural complexes were the administrative and economic cores of Maya kingdom (95). Goods and produce were therefore exchanged at these centers and the periodic gatherings and rituals also occurred at these architectural complexes.
The temples of the Maya people were especially elaborate, rising to great heights and decorated with stone images of gods and other sacred symbols (Demarest 95). This elegant buildings required craft skills and techniques that could only be provided by skilled artisans.
The specialists who engaged in carving, production of fine plaster from limestone and other crafts were engaged in these projects. Demarest reveals that “archeologists have discovered that the epicenter of ruins of Maya sites had several clusters of architecture connected by plaster coated stone which were used for ritual processions between the temple and the palace complexes” (95).
Decline of the Mayan Civilization While the exact reason for the decline of the Mayan populating remains controversial, Penna advances that major climate shifts from wet to dry that lasted for more than a century were the causes of the decline of this agriculture based civilization (283).
For many centuries, the Mayans were able to use technology and social organization to adapt to the harsh physical environments that their land presented. However, due to an increase in the need for food, the Maya could no longer afford to leave the lands idle as they had done in the past. This led to large-scale deforestation which not only resulted in regional climatic changes but also brought about soil erosion and a marked decline in soil fertility (Marston, Knox and Liverman 336).
The Mayas demand for more resources resulted in the rapid environmental degeneration. Vanden and Prevost out rightly accuse soil exhaustion by the Mayans from over farming as the major factor that led to the rapid decline of the Mayan civilization in 900 (20).
Conclusion The Mayan people were able to build a great civilization as a result of their complex government system, religious practices and agricultural exploits. By adapting to their environment and using technological innovations to enhance their society the Maya were therefore able to survive for hundreds of years on land that would otherwise have been considered hostile and harsh.
The discussions presented in this paper have demonstrated that this civilization was able to flourish for hundreds of years during which they build great architectural sites and built great cities. By adapting to their environment that the Mayas were able to conquer the constraints that natural environmental posed.
However, the Mayas eventually overexploited the environment therefore leading to adverse effects which resulted in their demise. By offsetting the delicate balance that they had created with their environment, the Maya were driven into ruins. From this, we can learn that maintaining an ecological balance is necessary to ensure the survival of the human race in these modern times.
Works Cited Anderson, Nina. Worse Than Global Warming: Wave Technology, The Imminent Threat to Civilization As Told by the Prophecies. USA: Safe Goods, 2007. Print.
Demarest, Arthur. Ancient Maya: the rise and fall of a rainforest civilization. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
Ettington, Martin. Prophecy: A History and How to Guide. USA: Martin Ettington, 2008. Print.
Haughton, Brian. Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries. Career Press, 2006. Print.
Marston, Sallie Knox, Paul and Liverman, Diana. World Regions in a Global Context: People, Places, and Environments. 3rd Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
Sharer, Robert and Morley, Griswold. The Ancient Maya. Stanford University Press, 1994. Print.
Vanden, Harry and Prevost, Gary. Politics of Latin America: The Power Game. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
You are going to write a setting analysis essay. You will follow the MLA format and your essay should not writing essay help: writing essay help
You are going to write a setting analysis essay. You will follow the MLA format and your essay should not be less than four complete pages. Be sure to use the literary terms in your text when analyzing the setting or settings. Be sure to explain the impact of the setting or settings on the short story. Use parenthetical citations, and you may use your text as a source. You may also use outside sources if you choose. Four pages minimum. INCLUDE: -Works Cited Page -Pages numbered in top right corner -1 inch header -Parenthetical citations DO NOT DO THE FOLLOWING: 1- Do not retell the story. 2- Do not define setting . 3-Do not Plagiarize. Doing either of the above will impact the grade of the assignment.
History and Development of X-Rays Expository Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Experiments and methodology that lead to the discovery of X-Ray
Appraisal to Roentgens work
Criticism to Roentgens discovery
Introduction Professor Roentgen’s discovery of X-Ray in 1895 was a very big step in the field of medicine since it was the beginning of a long and interesting journey in the study of radiation. Doctors used to treat on assumption depending on the symptoms, or had to perform surgery without a surelity of what they were looking for. For the first time in history, the medical professionals were able to view the inner operations of the body without having to perform any operation on the flesh.
Roentgen took the first X-ray image on when he first made this discovery as he was trying to measure the ability of lead to block these rays. He held a piece of lead between his thumb and index finger and placed them on the path of X-rays, and instead of blocking the rays, he realized that he could see some numbers which were on the screen and he could also distinguish his bones from the flesh; ideally, Roentgen printed this image on a photographic plate (Frankel, 1996, pg 498).
Roentgen was a professor of physics in Worzburg when he discovered that through electromagnetic radiation, it was possible to create X-rays. At this time, he was exploring the path that electrical rays took through a vacuum of a glass tube from an inducted coil.
In one scenario, he had covered this kind of a glass tube with a black paper and placed it in a completely dark room and he realized some luminous fluorescence light that penetrated several opaque objects including his own hand. He later used a photographic plate and was able to have an image of the human body showing the components clearly (British Library, 2010).
Roentgens discovery was the first of its type and a unique one up to date. It took most researchers into a task of confirmation, and many experiments were carried out throughout the world on this new discovery. Most medical practitioners embraced this new technology with excitement since it was a step forward in their medical field. It came at the peak of World War 1 and Boar war and it was extensively used to locate fractures ad bullets in the soldiers involved in the war.
Dr John Macintyre of Glasgow Royal Infirmary used X-rays in a number of occasions. For instance, he was able to locate a penny in a child’s throat and took an image of a kidney stone. The first medical doctor to use X-ray was Dr Hall-Edwards who located a needle inside a lady’s arm (British library, 2010, Chodos and Ouellette, 2010).
Experiments and methodology that lead to the discovery of X-Ray Professor Roentgen presented his first X-ray photographs in 1895 to the Physical society of Berlin. These photographs were obtained by passing an electrical discharge through a vacuum bulb, a process that lead to the emission of radiation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In one way, this radiation was like light in since it had an effect on the photographic plate but on the other hand, the radiation was invisible unlike light. This radiation could also pass through opaque substances like human body, wood, leather, where light could not pass through (Millikan, 2010, pg 481, The Cathode Ray Tube Site, 2010).
This discovery and the photographs of a living human skeleton stirred up the world at this time since this was beyond the expectation of most scientists since X-ray was a very strange quantity to them. Within a fortnight, almost all scientists halted their ongoing researches and started experimenting on Roentgen’s new discovery.
These experiments showed that when electrical discharges were passed through an exhausted bulb, it emitted X-rays, which were identified by a glowing greenish-yellow, fluorescent light. The results were still ambiguous since for a long time, it was known that there were some natural minerals, which possessed this property. For instance, when electrical discharges were passed through mineral Uranium and its compounds in a vacuum, or when exposed to ultra violet rays of the sun, they emitted the greenish yellow light.
This was another challenge to perform more research and experiments in order to get the concept behind uranium and its compounds. Further experiments showed that uranium had effects on opaque materials just like Roentgens discovery without necessarily exposing it to sunlight (Millikan, 2010, pg 481).
Roentgen performed his experiment that lead to the discovery of X-ray in a vacuum. He completely covered a Lenard tube with cardboard and foil to create a vacuum in order to make sure that no visible light escaped the tube. The Lenard tube had a small screen coated with a fluorescent material called barium platinocyanide. He placed this coated screen close to the window of the tube and passed cathode rays through it. Roentgen noticed that this resulted in to emission of a glowing greenish yellow fluorescent light (Frankel, 1996).
Professor Roentgen had performed many experiments earlier on and he had confirmed that when current was passed through Hittorf and Crookes tubes, they produced light. This made him carry out an experiment with these tubes to find out whether this light could be cathode rays that caused fluorescence in his experiment with Leonard tube.
Hittorf and Crookes tubes were luminous, and this would have obscured the fluorescence during his experiment. To curb this problem and to ensure that no light passed through, he completely covered a Crooke’s tube with cardboard. As he was preparing to pass cathode rays through the barium platinocyanide screen, he realized some faint green light shining on the surface he was working on. This was absurd because this fluorescent light was only because of cathode rays.
We will write a custom Essay on History and Development of X-Rays specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He therefore decided to repeat the experiment and realized that the intensity of green light varied depending on the varying intensity of the electric current. Roentgen discovered that this faint green light was being emitted by the barium platinocyanide coated screen that was lying on the bench regardless of the distance between the screen and the tube. This made him realize that apart from cathode rays, there was another cause of fluorescence (Frankel, 1996).
After that latter experiment, Roentgen was very curious to discover more about this new cause of fluorescence. He therefore extended and diversified his experiments to clarify this discovery. With time, he realized that they were rays because they were moving on a straight line and could create shadows as ordinary rays could do.
The most peculiar thing about these rays was that they could penetrate even opaque materials such as metal and wood apart from a few like lead. He named them X-rays and he took an image of his thumb and index finger using a photographic plate instead of barium pent cyanide coated screen, which was his first X-ray image (Frankel, 1996).
Proffesor Roentgen took a few weeks after his discovery to perfect his work before publicizing it and he later on announced his discovery of a new kind of ray to Physikalisch-Medizinische Gesellschaft in Wurzburg.
Within a week, news were already in the press which appeared this way “The surgeon could then determine the extent of a complicated bone fracture without the manual examination which is so painful to the patient: he could find the position of a foreign body such as a bullet or a piece of shell much more easily than has been possible heretofore and without any painful examinations with a probe.”
Appraisal to Roentgens work Immediately Roentgen publicized his achievement, news spread rapidly and many medical practitioners and patients were happy that their tasks were made easier. Doctors and surgeons started employing this new technology immediately. All over a sudden, Roentgen became an icon, regardless of his humble background and his average education status.
His friends and workmates proposed to call the new ray Roentgen ray but he objected, though the name somehow took root only to be overcome by X-ray (NASA, 2007). Roentgens discovery continues to be celebrated even today, more than century after his work.
Criticism to Roentgens discovery Roentgen discovered X-ray at the age of fifty at a time when he was a senior lecturer in physics. At this time, physicists complacentlyhad settled with the fact that very negligible discoveries had remained in the field of physical science thus, they were trying to improve on the existing discoveries. Roentgen avoided to exposing himself and reacted exaggeratedly to any kind of criticism. Immediately after his celebration, he wrote to some of his friends telling them that he had received some critics but he cared less (Glasser, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on History and Development of X-Rays by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects of X-ray were evident soon after Roentgen discovery and this blame went to him for failing to come up with the economic importance of the same after his discovery. By May 1896, strange symptoms were noted on the people who were first exposed to X-ray. They included, cancer, hair loss, skin toxicity that triggered the need for standardizing use of X-ray (Frankel, 1996, pg 500).
Other reasons for criticism resulted from the fact that other scientists and researcher had made such observation as Roentgen but never had a second thought on the importance of the same. Lenard was among them, and he was at first supportive to Roentgen but withdrew and even opposed his work after Roentgen failed to acknowledge his support. Other critics claimed that Roentgen discovery was accidental and was probably some work of some of his assistants.
Uses of X-ray began immediately after its discovery. An American Physiologist to identify the path of a Barium Sulphate in an animal digestive canal. Doctors applied it to locate fractured bones and objects like needle, bullets in human body, and any kind of malignant growths.
Today it is widely used in Radiotherapy to destroy cancerous cells in human body. X-ray is also used in security checkups at the airport and other places. In education, it is used in biological and physical sciences during experiments, in tire inspection, in cameras, in dentistry among others. X-ray discovery and its application was appreciated and employed immediately due to its efficiency and lowered cost and it is widely used even today (Medical discoveries, 2010, Frankel, 1996).
References British Library. (2010). Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray. British Library Board. Web.
Chodos, A. and Ouellette, J. (2010). This Month in Physics History. American Physical Society. Web.
Frankel, R. (1996). Centennial of Roentgen’s Discovery of X-rays. Hawaii, University of Hawaii. Web.
Glasser, O. (2010). Radiology. The Radiological Society of North America. Web.
Medical discoveries. (2010). X-ray. Web.
Millikan, R. A. (2010). The Popular Science Monthly. CA: University of Chicago. Web.
NASA. (2007). Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen. Web.
The Cathode Ray Tube Site. (2010). X-ray tubes. Web.
The Film “Transporter 3” and Its Narrative Structure Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of the plot
Introduction Film like all other forms of art employs the usage of different elements of narrative to tell a particular story. No two film plots are exactly the same and each director has his/her own way of ensuring that each piece of work he/she is involved in has unique features that link the final product to him/her. This essay seeks to analyze the narrative structure of the film Transporter 3. To this end, a summary of the film story shall be provided and then a well detailed analysis of the structure will follow citing adequate examples of from the film.
Summary of the plot In order to understand the narrative structure of a given film, it is of paramount importance that a clear understanding of the plot be made. In summary, Transporter 3 film is the third installment of the Transporter series in which the services of the lead character Frank Martin are enlisted to transport certain items/people from one corner of the world to another. For this last part of the sequel, Frank is kidnapped by an assassin named Johnson and required to transport a certain young girl, Valentina from Marseille to Budapest.
He is also to deliver a certain package at the said location and he is made to believe that the package is the primary item he is to deliver. Frank and Valenina are handed bracelets laden with explosives and they are set to go off should they veer off from the car. In a slightly different development some Russian agents have been sent to kill Frank before he can complete his mission.
Since Johnson and his men are constantly tracking Frank via GPS, it becomes impossible for the latter to change the course of the journey. Against all odds, though, Frank manages to overcome the challenges that come his way and manages to deliver the girl in Budapest but not before having a romantic session with her.
Narrative structure The action film Transporter 3 follows the three act narrative structure. This basically means that it has a setup that introduces the viewer to a given element of conflict before a resolution is arrived at.
In this particular film, Frank is forced to transport a certain package alongside a young girl (Valentina) who happens to be the daughter of head of the Environmental Protection Agency for Ukraine, Leonid Vasilev. This is the setup part of the narrative where we are introduced to the element of contention that will result in conflict much later in the film.
As the scenes unfold, it becomes clear that Frank had been tricked and that Valentina is the actual “package” that he is supposed to deliver. Part of the setup aspect is the revelation that Frank and Valentina have been tagged with distance triggered explosives which prevent either of the two from going more than 75 meters from the car. This helps the view understand why the two have to contend with each other even though there is initial tension between them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflict aspect of the narrative comes in when Frank has to constantly battle the individuals who hired him to deliver the “package” and officials from the Russian government who are out to intercept him. The non-cooperation from his passenger Valentina is also a challenge that Frank has to contend with. We see Frank getting annoyed with the girl when she intoxicates herself with drugs and alcohol. This is just one of the numerous times that we see some form of conflict arise between the two travelers.
The resolution gradually kicks in when Frank and Valentina develop affection for each other owing to the fact that they have been forced to stay together for an extended period of time.
After outwitting all the assailants that are after him by pulling such physically impossible stunts as outrunning a speeding car and safely crashing over two bridges, he arrives at Budapest with the girl in one piece. This brings the film to a settled conclusion whereby the viewers are not able to clearly understand why some characters in the film had to carry themselves in particular ways.
The film appears to conform to the model of the classical Hollywood cinema where it has two distinct lines of narrative development, with one element leading us to follow Frank and his passenger as they drive across the black sea while avoiding and dodging the Russian. The other line follows the romantic relationship between the two lead actors (Frank and Valentina) and this develops in its own tempo but parallel to the main goal of the story (Pramagiorre and Wallis 2005, 41).
The characters in the narrative generally fall in at least one of the seven spheres of action that have been fronted by the scholar Vladimir Propp (Thury and Devinney 520-521). These seven categories are hero, villain, helper, donor, princess, dispatcher and false hero (Thury and Devinney 520-521).
Frank is the accepted hero of the film owing to the fact that he manages to take down his enemies and safely deliver Valentina to her parents. The individuals who forced him on the mission are the dispatchers and they are also very instrumental in the development of the plot since without them the narrative would not have kicked off.
Valentina is the princess and she doesn’t do much in the story but wait for the hero to save and protect her from all the individuals that are out to harm her. The Russian agents are the villains and their main role in the film is to basically disrupt the sequence of events by constantly diverting the direction that the story is taking. Like in most Hollywood creations, the villains generally end up losing by the time the film ends.
We will write a custom Essay on The Film “Transporter 3” and Its Narrative Structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The narrative of the film is generally omniscient in the sense that the viewer is able to see all the developments as they unfold (Chatman 1980, 212). The viewer is able to track the movement of the lead character, Frank, and at the same time follow the deliberations of the assailants as they craft ways to get to capture and kill him. This supreme overseer element sustains throughout the film as the narration smoothly transitions to connect the chaser and the chase in some form of explosive conflict.
The action in the story is motivated by the fact that like with any other well developed film, there are good and bad guys. The good guy (in this case Frank Martin) is going on with his regular life until things change and he finds himself under the manipulation of the bad guys (Johnson and the Russians). He has to find a way of getting rid of the bad guys hanging over his shoulder once and for all while at the same time protect all the innocent individuals that he comes in contact with (Valentina).
The bad guys on the other hand have their own goals and they take all the necessary steps to ensure that they achieve what they have set to. Their efforts are however not fruitful as the story ends with the good guy having won the challenge and well on his way to his former quiet life. The end of the story however leaves the viewer in a lot of suspense as it is not easy to predict which way the lives of the surviving characters in the story will take.
Since the film is but a work of art, there is a general story and a plot to help develop the same story (Aumont 1992, 91). The story is basically an outlining of the challenges that the transporter has to go through in fulfilling his objective of moving a package from Marseille to Budapest. The plot is kicks in with the gradual revelation of what the package is through the various conflicts that happen in the story. The plot and the story are however intertwined in such a way that the viewer cannot distinctly tell them apart.
The story ends with the package having been delivered and the plot also reaches a genuine finality with the viewer realizing that the package was the girl, Valentina. In general, all the characters from the story have goals and this is the main reason why they act in the ways they do. Frank, the lead character intends to deliver the package in Budapest and get on with his life while his passenger, Valentina, hopes to get out of the mess that she has found herself in safely.
The goal of the Russian agents is to intercept Frank before he gets to his destination and that of the individuals who set him on the mission is to ensure that he delivers the package as instructed. The pursuit of the different goals help drive the story and the regular crossing of the paths of all the characters helps bring out the intended cinematic and dramatic effect.
Like with most other films, the story could easily have been told with the omission of a number of scenes but in order to give the film some mileage, the creators introduce an element of romance to act as some form of comic relief.
The development of romantic relations between Frank and Valentina has been put in the film ostensibly to give that part of the film a different slow-down to counter the rapid pace that the rest of the film has been hitherto taking. This, of course, also results in the final product getting a few extra minutes on the running time to reduce the element of the audience feeling “cheated”.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Film “Transporter 3” and Its Narrative Structure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the maintenance of continuity, the editors of the film have to a large extent employed the technique of cross-cutting whereby the viewer is moved from one scene to another spatially unrelated scene in a series of shots (Dancyger 2007, 451). This method puts the viewer is in a position to understand that the scenes in question are separate but the happenings are parallel and related to each other. The match-on-action technique of continuity editing has also been used particularly in scenes that are heavy with action sequences.
This is a technique that basically requires that a shot picks up immediately where the preceding shot had left (Bordwell 1985, 293). For instance, in the scenes where Frank crashes off bridges, the progression of shots used emphasizes the distance that the car jumps and the general effect of the impact. This technique has also been utilized in the shooting and fight scenes in order to weave the unfolding of evens as one piece of the story.
Conclusion Each film is an independent work of art and it will tend to have unique structure particularly in terms of the narrative element and this will primarily depend on the choices made by the creator.
This essay has analyzed the narrative structure of the film Transporter 3 by providing an assessment of the general narrative, a review of the shot techniques and has also studied elements of characters and characterization that are applicable for this film. Various forms of literature have been used to provide the background for assessment of the movie particularly in explaining the theories behind film narrative structure.
Reference List Aumont, Jacques. 1992. Aesthetics of film. Texas: Texas University Press.
Bordwell, David. 1985. Narration in the fiction film. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
Chatman, Seymour. 1980. Story and discourse: narrative structure in fiction and film. New York: Cornell University Press.
Dancyger, Ken. 2007. The technique of film and video editing: history, theory, and practice. Massachusetts: Focal Press.
Pramagiorre, Maria and Tom Wallis. 2005. Film: a critical introduction. London: Laurence King Publishers.
Thury, Eva and Margaret Devinney. 2005. Introduction to mythology: contemporary approaches to classical and world myths. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Movie Babel by Alejandro Gonzalez Innarritu Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Though people vary from black, white, or whichever, it is worthy noting that their lives are almost the same, regardless of these variations. Directed by Alejandro Gonzalez Innarritu, Babel is a movie, written ahead of its time and meant to prove this fact. It is a piece of work set to address the diverse issues occurring in the U.S.A, Morocco, Japan, and Mexico. As the movie unfolds, these turn out to be four interlacing stories, owing to the one gun that links them as the film nears the end.
According to Innarritu, human life is almost the same across nations and even though people may undergo different situations in life, the bottom line is that, human life is full of suffering and struggles. This movie highlights the widespread social issues like family life, weddings, child abuse, rejection and isolation, and miscommunication, as expounded below.
Analysis Of the many issues brought forward in this movie, the subject of family life is outstanding. Richard and Susan are in Morocco to reconcile their lives after many days of a strained marriage. Richard accuses Susan of running away after their youngest son died from a sexually transmitted disease. They are blaming each other. In fact, in the hotel where they are seated, an argument is evident concerning the father’s decision of escaping following the death of their son.
They do not seem to understand each other and Susan says she want to leave the café. At this point, we understand that, Richard and Susan took this vacation to Morocco to reconcile their strained marriage. Susan starts to cry and this continues as they board a tour bus. Suddenly, a bullet comes through the window and injures Susan critically at the shoulder. Another issue clearly addressed is the issue of wedding.
Wedding comes into the scene as Amelia travels to Mexico to attend her son’s wedding. This highlights how important wedding is in our society today. No one would love to miss such an occasion. In the wedding, everything is set just to make sure that the event goes on as planned.
One of the cherished dreams in any young person’s life is wedding. It such an important social issue that many are not even patient enough to wait for the right time. Whether it is marriage or the wedding that delights people, we cannot tell; however, the fact remains that, wedding is very important in lives of nearly all people. Child abuse is another common social issue addressed in the movie.
The issue of responsibility in childcare also stands out. Amelia decides to take Richard’s children to Mexico without letter of consent from the parents, a factor that brings her problem at the Mexican border. She later abandons the children in the desert before being arrested by the U.S. Border Patrol. Innarritu succeeds in this subject because he clears addresses the most common problems and scenarios encountered in any family. These range from marriage conflicts, through child abuse, to weddings as exposited above.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He shows that marriage, not only that of Richard and Susan is full of pulls back and forth and that until the couple come into terms through reconciliations, with each assuming his/her responsibility in the marriage, the problem may be permanent. In addition, child abandonment is more than a general story in virtually all families. Rejection and isolation also stands out as major collective issue in the movie, as explained in the next paragraph.
Rejection and isolation is the other social issue addressed here. Chieko is rejected after her mother commits suicide. She cannot stand her father together with her age mate boys.
Sexual immorality then sets in; Chieko tries to seduce a dentist into sexual relationship; unfortunately, the dentist turns her away. From frustration, Chieko brings her panties down in front of an attractive young man before striping naked before a police officer. The issue of security speaks volumes. Illegal guns are finding their way into the wrong hands. Susan is shot as a result.
Innarritu aims at highlighting some major consequences of rejection and isolation. For instance, he points out that the isolated can end up contracting some lethal diseases like STDs like Richard’s son. They can also be shot like Susan’s scenario, which the United States of America thinks this is a terrorist attack following the wrong reports from media houses. The movie, through this incident brings out the other social issue of miscommunication as discussed below.
Communication barrier is a very distinguished social issue in this movie. There is a possibility that Alejandro Gonzalez Innarritu uses the title Babel as a symbol of the Tower of Babel in the bible where God brought down language confusion so that the people may not finish their work in constructing the shoot up of Babel. There is lack of responsibility in informing the citizens with authentic information. Richard and Susan cannot communicate effectively with Moroccan natives.
Chieko on the other side cannot speak at all. The movie is full of miscommunication. Starting from family level to international level, there is lack of proper communication. Communication between Susan and Richard has broken down leading to strained relationship. America and Morocco has strained relationship after the shooting incidence and this is due to miscommunication.
Conclusion This movie is an epitome of what happens after proper communication fails starting from family, friends, state, and the world at large. This is a must-watch movie for it informs a lot about different issues that are taking place in the contemporary society. It is such an interesting and informative piece of work.
We will write a custom Essay on Movie Babel by Alejandro Gonzalez Innarritu specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Human Rights in Asia Essay college admission essay help
These are fundamental rights and freedoms accorded to every individual irrespective of his or her gender, religion, color, race, language or ethnic group. Under human rights, there is no discrimination as the rights are mutually dependent, interconnected and undividable. For example, every human being has the right to live and express opinions freely; and right to social and economic rights including food accessibility, the right to labor and the right to acquire education.
In order to ensure these rights and freedoms receive the required recognition, countries have enacted them in their constitutions and many of them are now international laws and treaties. The standard for universality of human rights forms the foundation of global human rights. The debate on human rights started in 1948 during the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Since then, the subject of human rights has been inalienable (Amnesty International USA, 2010, p.1).
Are Human Rights a Western Concept which is imposed on Asia? Depending on one’s culture, human rights can be an imposition concept of the west. For example, inhabitants of South East Asia argue that although the notion of human rights is universal both in ideology and in theory, it has so many obstacles due to socio-economic concerns, cultural dissimilarities and the patriarchal scenery of Asian society.
Premised on ground of morality and ethics, universal human rights focus on creating an equal society without regarding cultural backgrounds. Many Asian countries apply a communitarian ethic that regards societies more than individuals do. Thus, it is difficult to have universal human rights in Asia. In western countries, marriage is a contract, while in Asia marriage is an alliance between lineages.
Thus, it is not possible to accept women rights in Asia. In many western countries, gay marriage is acceptable but polygamy scorned. On the other hand, these countries denounce infanticide but allow abortion terming it human rights. The cultural and religious background in Asia does not allow this hence, making human rights a concept of the west (Shashi, 2002, p.1).
What is globalization and how does it affect Asia? Globalization is the propensity of technologies, businesses and philosophies extending to all parts of the world due to economic integration brought about by the movement of goods, people, resources and ideas. Globalization has affected Asia’s security for example, due to economic integration; Southeast Asia is now in peace.
On the other hand, Asia has witnessed a rise in transnational threats and weakened regional institutions. Due to enhanced economic growth, there have been shifts in balance of power leading to economic stagnation in Japan and China. Moreover, globalization has strengthened national power although previously seen as a threat to sovereignty. In Indonesia and China, globalization has brought political and economic changes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many countries in Asia initially administered under authoritarianism are now democratic courtesy of globalization. Although globalization poses negative effects like migration, food scarcity, growing foreign debts, energy concerns and organized crimes, its benefits outweigh these negative effects (Rakesh, 2002, p.1).
References Aharon, D., 2005. The Caste System Web.
Amnesty International USA., 2010. Human Rights Web.
Keswick, M., 2003. The Chinese garden: history, art and architecture. Harvard University Press.
Nuvich, A., 1998. Dangdut thrives in SE Asia-Malaysia embraces genre. Billboard, 110.
Rakesh, P., 2002. Globalization: Effects in Asia and Beyond Web.
Shashi, T., 2002. Are Human Rights Universal Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Rights in Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Impact of Modern Digital Technologies on Film Industry Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Film Industry in Modern Life
Modern Digital Technologies
Introduction The importance of digital technologies is integral indeed: a number of cultural products, services, and ideas undergo considerable changes within a short period of time due to the possibilities available. With the help of numerous digital technologies, people from different industries are able to make their dreams and ideas come true in order to impress the viewer, amaze the critics, and meet the vast majority of expectations.
The film industry is considered to be one of those spheres that is under the influence of digital technologies, and the development of the technologies determines the development of the movie industry. “Movies challenged political, economic, and social systems for control of popular culture in foreign markets as much as they did at home, prompting attempts to keep American movies from destroying national identities as well as domestic film industries” (Daniel 2003, p. 224)
Digital technologies are defined as the integral driving force for movies between the 1990s and the 2000s. Though independent animations existed since the 1950s, their popularity was dated from the 1990s when animators got an access to digital technologies as well as many movie directors.
In this paper, the evaluation of the film industry and numerous impacts of modern digital technologies on the chosen sphere will be introduced; though the development of digital technologies cannot be constantly integrated with the existed business models in the movie industry, the impact of technologies remain to be considerable for in time identification of threats like competitions, high demands, and viewer’s expectations, there are still some challenges and risks which have to be evaluated and forecasted to achieve the desirable success in the chosen industry.
Film Industry in Modern Life Film industry as it is and business models in the film industry. The film industry is a unity of numerous models which are responsible for various institutions of film making like support of production companies, screenwriting, post production, festivals, actors’ choice, etc. The main purpose of the film industry is to present a movie that “tells the story” and make the viewer conclude the idea (Lehman
History of Teotihuacan Civilization Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Between 1st and 7th century AD, Teotihuacan was one of the largest empires in its time that was even larger than Roman Empire. Incidentally, it was during the same time that the Roman Empire was also a formidable civilization many thousands miles away in Europe; during this period the Teotihuacan Empire area of influence is thought to have stretched between Guatemala all the way up to Texas (Millon, 1988).
It is estimated that it was during the 500 AD that the influence of the Teotihuacan reached its peak before it started gradually declining over the next 150 years or so and was virtually non-existent by 750 AD (Archeology.com, 2010). During it height of civilization in 500 AD, Teotihuacan Empire was ranked as number five on the list of the largest cities in the world at the time and one of the earliest and largest Mesoamerican urban centre with inhabitants above 200, 000 persons (Archeology.com, 2010).
By the time that the Teotihuacan civilization was collapsing around 7th century, its city had became a major economic centre and contained some of the most advanced and impressive architectural structures such as the renowned Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the moon.
Several theories have been advanced by archeologists and historians on possible factors that contributed to the collapse of one of the greatest empires in Mesoamerica and in the history of civilizations. Notable convincing theories that have been advanced as the reasons that contributed to disintegration of the Teotihuacan civilization include disease epidemics, drought, economic collapse and foreign invasion (Tainter, 2003).
While there could have been many varied factors that might have interacted and contributed to the collapse of Teotihuacan, there could only be a handful that was central to the disintegration of this civilization which would appear to have been invasion and economic decline.
These two theories would be the focus of my discussion in the following sections where I would be describing why these were the central theories that directly led to collapse of the Teotihuacan, in fact as I will show later in this paper there is only one major factor that led to fall of the Teotihuacan dynasty.
The actual origin of the rise of Teotihuacan civilization is not yet well known. However, it is estimated that it must have occurred during the Preclassic period in 100 CE, about 100 AD (Sanders, 1976).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was originally found as a religious city and built-in Mexica highlands in a valley called Teotihuacan where it derived its name which is taken to mean the “City of gods” and was probably found by the Otomi, Nahua and totonac tribes that are widely credited for its origin (Sanders, 1976). During their earliest periods of civilization, Teotihuacan appeared to have lived and settled alongside another significant tribe in the region referred as Cuicuilco (Sanders, 1976).
Because Teotihuacan had access to an expanse area of Navaja Mountains that contained obsidian deposits, which was a vital trade commodity, they were able to rapidly increase their influence beyond their original are of settlement. The Mesoamerican agricultural trinity that involved beans, maize and squash served to further spur the growth and development of the Teotihuacan because of the increased trade of this commodities in the region.
From an early stage Teotihuacan was able to control the key commodities that were the backbone of the agriculture and trade industry as well as the obsidian mineral that was used in production of ceramics. Teotihuacan, therefore, became not only a strategic city for trade purposes but a significant centre of obtaining this scarce resource at the time as well (Santley, 1989).
In this new arrangement, the purpose of the Teotihuacan city become a crucial one as a location of batter trade that involved exchange of agriculture commodity that it did not produce, with critical minerals that it directly controlled which were obsidian and Anaranjado ceramic (Santley, 1989).
The choice of Teotihuacan location was also strategically located from where it easily became the centre and an integral player of the Mesoamerican trade; from the north it traded with Altavista, was bordered by Tingambato from the west who were also it trade partners, Matacapan from the Gold coast region and finally Tikal Monte Alban tribes from southeast (Santley, 1989). It is due to this economic leverage and strategic position that enabled Teotihuacan to yield the political and cultural clout that it had in the Mesoamerican region.
The figure below is a map of the region during the height of the Teotihuacan civilization in the Mexican area that presents the extent of the empire in context of other cultures that existed at Mesoamerican during the same period as reconstructed by archeologist based on the historical findings.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Teotihuacan Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Source: Archeological.com, 2010.
Because Teotihuacan was primarily a religious centre and trade city, it happened to become a significant civilization to other tribes in the region due to it religious artifacts that imported to far places like Tikal, Copan, Monte Alban and Kaminaljuyu which were chiefly attracted to it because of its religious themes (Adams, 1977). Indeed the extent and scale of the Teotihuacan in Mesoamerican region reached it far ends and was felt in almost all notable civilizations that existed at the time.
It is from these religious artifacts that had now provided archeologists with crucial information that has enabled them to piece together the true extent of the Teotihuacan Empire, its influence and all the related pieces of the puzzle that made up the Teotihuacan civilization at the time. In the following section of the paper, I am going to describe in detail the rise of the Teotihuacan Empire, structures, culture and factors that made this civilization very influential in Mesoamerica.
This description will provide the foundation from which I will base my theory of the factors that eventually led to its disintegration that I will discuss in another chapter. This because to understand how the Teotihuacan civilization might have possibly collapsed, it is essential to have a working knowledge of their way of life, political structure and economic factors that were central to its power.
There is no doubt that the rise of Teotihuacan Empire was very rapid at a time when other influential civilizations such as the Maya also sought to dominate the Mesoamerican region. It is probably this rapid growth that also made the decline and fall of the Teotihuacan as rapid as it has began; within about 150 years, the empire rapidly declined and was virtually non-existent.
At the time of it collapse Teotihuacan city covered an area of approximately 12 square miles with a maximum possible population of 250,000 inhabitants that provided it with the political and economic relevance that it most relied on for its dominance (Diehl, 1989).
It had impressive architectural structures that included pyramids, temples and palaces that were beautifully decorated with stone carvings. Notable architectural structures that adorned the city include the Butterfly Palace, Palace of the jaguars, Palace of the Quetzalcoatl and the Temple of the Feathered Conches (Diehl, 1989).
This was not the only major elements that made the Teotihuacan city stood out; extensive excavations of the archeological sites also indicate that the city had advanced knowledge in the field of medicine, astronomy and theology which would indicate that it probably served as an essential centre of learning as well (Millon, 1974).
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Teotihuacan Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The interaction of the Teotihuacan Empire with the Maya civilization served an essential function of furthering the empire’s interest in areas of cultural, economic and political influence in far regions that were previously under the control of the Maya. Indeed, there is archeological evidence of religious artifacts, trade routes and architectural structures that indicated Teotihuacan influence on other civilizations, notably in Maya cities such as Copan, Tikal and Kaminaljuyu (Archeology.com, 2010).
Because Maya was an influential and a very expansive empire in its own right in Mesoamerica, it became one of the most critical and influential empires in the whole of that region. Besides cultural and religious influence, Teotihuacan relied on use of colony towns as a strategy of political administration which enabled it to further its establishment and ensure tight control of critical areas of interest that it wished to have a stronghold.
Huapalcalco and Tepeapulco are some examples of the Teotihuacan colony towns that were located in different areas of critical strategic importance; both of these colonies were located along river tributaries and in proximity to valuable minerals such as quartz, obsidian and lime which were the key trade commodities of the Teotihuacan (Santley, 1989).
As we shall establish later in this section, trade was indeed a central aspect of the Teotihuacan Empire having realized early the strategic importance and leverage that could be obtained from controlling significant trade commodities and its movement.
But because Teotihuacan Empire was faced with logistical challenges that involved transportation like all other civilizations of the time, it had to rely on transport that utilized the rivers.
Control of the river tributaries through which a significant volume of trade was undertaken was, therefore, a significant way of controlling the trade routes that also reinforced their dominance.
This approach of controlling crucial trade routes was one of the methods that must have been contained in the Teotihuacan handbook of conquering other civilizations. In the book “The Collapse of Complex Societies” by Tainter, archeological reconstruction of the Teotihuacan Empire indicates that this civilization had three approaches that they used to conquer and dominate other civilizations in the Mesoamerica region (Tainter, 2003).
The first approach required just the use of military might that involved forcefully taking over the strategic towns of interest and setting up an administrative base from where they would literally run the town so to speak (Tainter, 2003). This approach worked for cities that were near the Teotihuacan city since it involved stationing administrators and military personnel that was permanently based on the village but in close proximity to their headquarter to enable constant supplies as well as ensure effective control of the town.
The second approach involved direct military takeover, as was the case in the previous method, but a different administrative strategy was used. In this case, the Teotihuacan Empire imported and set up a sizable colony of its people that were permanently established in the town as observers that also facilitated the administrative of the town (Tainter, 2003). Finally the Teotihuacan opted to seize and control the significant trade commodities and trade routes where military options were not viable (Tainter, 2003).
This is the strategy that Teotihuacan used to reign over the Cholula tribe that could not have been overcome and administrated militarily; to achieve this, the Teotihuacan would usually capture and dominate weak villages that surround the target in order to isolate it from other partners.
This approach served the intention of cutting off the enemy from crucial trade routes that had now been taken over by Teotihuacan, thereby effectively sabotaging their opponent. Throughout the regions that Teotihuacan dominated, a characteristic pattern could be established that involved three areas of dominance; economic dominance, political dominance and cultural dominance, at other times religious influence was also the case.
This was the legacy of the Teotihuacan Empire in the region and represents the A to Z of the extent of strategic activities that Teotihuacan dynasty applied to conquer other civilizations in the region. We can, therefore, conclude that this four areas, i.e. trade, political, cultural and religion, were the centers of power in which the Teotihuacan Empire was founded (Norman, 2001).
This inference is essential since any theories that had been advanced to explain the collapse of the Teotihuacan Empire must be based on the context of this perspective which must consider these centers of influence from which the city was able to flourish.
In our next section, we are now going to analyze how the actual collapse of the Teotihuacan civilization might have taken place based on all the circumstances that we have discussed above and by particularly paying attention to the roles and influence of the Teotihuacan city in the wider Mesoamerican region. But first let us briefly review the process and stages involved in the collapse of civilizations according to one authority in the subject, Joseph Tainter in his book The Collapse of Complex Society.
Discussion of Collapse
Collapse of complex societies refers to a process of rapid disintegration of a society that must flow “from a higher to a lower level of complexity” (Tainter, 2003).
In order for a society disintegration to be described to have “collapsed” two essential characteristics must be present, i.e., it must take place rapidly and must result to a much less complex society (Tainter, 2003). This is the description of Tainter’s idea of society collapse which he aptly summarizes by stating “A society has collapsed when it displays a rapid, significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity” (2003).
The primary characteristics that indicate the process of collapse in a society include reduced specialization in trade and economy by the society members, lack of centralized administrative structure in the society, reduced investment in significant areas of society interest such as in architecture and trade, breakdown in communication channels and overall disintegration of the society system among other factors (Tainter, 2003).
Overall, concept of collapse is described to occur as a result of four major factors; first, because of the inquisitive nature of humans that motivates them to solve problems (Tainter, 2003). Factor number two is because of the nature of the sociopolitical systems of any form of civilization which would require energy by design for its sustainability (Tainter, 2003).
Because of this use of energy required by civilizations, it becomes even more costly when societies expand and become more complex because more energy is required; this is the factor number three (Tainter, 2003).
Finally based on the cost-benefit analysis of the marginal returns that the presence of the civilization is yielding it becomes unnecessary to continue investing in the system anymore which leads to the collapse mainly because of its unsustainability Tainter, 2003). This is what Tainter describes as the “point of diminishing marginal returns”. The essence of this concept is based on the fact that most often collapse of complex societies is usually a factor of the problem-solving abilities of the institutions of the specific empire (2003).
But since the complexity of a civilization is also a factor of the ability of the problem-solving institutions, the results are a cycle whereby problem-solving institutions are used as the driving force of attaining the necessary growth of that the empire requires to expand, what Tainter refers as “complex” (2003).
The downside of this success is the failure of the very problem-solving institutions in addressing the complex phenomenon of the new civilization that they have facilitated, thereby leading to their collapse. The trick therefore according to Tainter’s theory of collapse would be to determine the right point of complexity that a civilization should not seek to surpass lest its problem-solving institutions, which it relies on to function fails, but which he also points it is impossible to achieve (2003).
The gist of Tainter’s theory on collapse is summarized by attributing all forms of social collapse to just one theory of economy; all other factors that are often directly linked to the destruction of a civilization according to him are just side factors that actually emanates from this major factor of economy.
Tainter recognizes that there are indeed limits to economic growth from which point further increase can only lead to increased investment that only realizes marginal returns (2003). To support this theory, Turner provides archeological evidence from bone remains by comparing the nutritional status of Roman subjects before and after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
The point that comparison makes is that Roman subjects appeared malnourished just before the collapse of the empire but improved dramatically thereafter, it collapsed (Turner, 2003).
Closer to our times, Tainter provides a comparative analysis of the cost-benefit analysis in the agricultural sector; “to raise world food production from 1951-1966 by 34%, for example, required increasing expenditures on tractors of 63%, on nitrate fertilizers of 146%, and on pesticides of 300%” (2003). There is no doubt that this figures do not add up because of the sizable energy-deficient that is lost in the process.
Even on matters of environmental pollution control, more energy input in the scale of 520 times would be required for instance, in order to approximately reduce Sulfur dioxide pollution by a factor of just 10 (Turner, 2003). This is probably the reason the US still remains adamant in ratifying the Kyoto protocol in full or committing itself to any long term drastic reductions on environmental pollution.
Theories of Collapse that led to Teotihuacan Fall
Generally, there are seven categories of factors that Tainter acknowledges as causes of collapse in complex societies; this is the consensus that many other experts also advance in their explanation of why civilization has always historically collapsed. These seven theories are resource depletion, catastrophes, inappropriate response, invasion, conflict, mystical factors and economics (Norman, 2001).
Suffice to say that some of these theories hold no water because they are largely not supported by the vast literature of documented historical writings that recorded the rise and fall of notable world civilizations such as the Roman Empire, Cholula civilization or the influential Maya civilization that existed in the 3000 BC (Rosenfield, 2002).
Neither does the archeological evidence that has been unearthed from location of these civilizations appear to support them; a typical example is mystical factors. In this section, I will briefly describe various theories as I seek to relate them to the fall of Teotihuacan civilizations.
We do know for a fact that Teotihuacan Empire mostly relied on a vibrant trade that existed in the larger Mesoamerica region that it exerted its influence. Except for this key sector that Teotihuacan heavily relied on for its survival, there were also other areas of influence that the empire was most notable for which included cultural, political and religion.
Resource depletion theory would, therefore, appear to be a credible reason that would have possibly ended the reign of this dynasty; indeed this is one of the reasons that appear to be a common denominator as a theory of collapse that contributed to the decline of major world civilizations. Resource Depletion theory, in this case, links the collapse of a civilization on lack of crucial resources that a society rely on for its sustainability which could be caused by reduced yields, environmental changes or mismanagement (Tainter, 2003).
If therefore, for some unknown reasons the production of agricultural yield of the three types of farm commodities drastically reduced during the time of Teotihuacan reign, this could explain the fall of the empire. But for this to have happened significant changes in environment must be shown to have occurred continuously during the 150 years that the Teotihuacan Empire was gradually collapsing.
Because there is no form of evidence that indicates any change in climate that could have reduced crop yield for this long duration of time, we can determine that this was not one of the primary reasons that led to the fall of Teotihuacan civilizations.
It is unlikely that the short duration of climatic changes and droughts that are cited to have coincided with the fall of Teotihuacan would significantly have impacted on the might of this empire, nor the archeological evidence of malnourished skeletons. In the latter case, other factors such as war would provide the same evidence since in times of war food and other essentials usually become scarce commodities.
Not even the theory of inappropriate response that attributes the collapse of complex society to inability of an empire to adopt to cultural changes would seem plausible due to lack of evidence to support such claims. Such is also the case with catastrophes, which is only credible if there is evidence of it occurrence that is well documented and collaborated by other events of the time as would be the case of volcanoes, earthquakes and diseases.
This too does not appear to have been the cause that led to the fall of Teotihuacan Empire. It is mostly thought that Teotihuacan collapse is attributed to three fundamental theories; foreign invasion, collapse of trade route and probably internal unrest (Rosenfield, 2002). The latter has been advanced as a theory more recently because of the selective nature of the manner that the city structures were burned down.
It attempts to disapprove the earlier widely held theory that attributed the burning of the city to foreign invasion because it was thought to have been undertaken on the whole town. With this shift of the archeological evidence, it would appear that the city was probably burned down because of internal conflict between the elites and people of lesser classes, primarily because the burning was only undertaken on architectural structures of the elites.
However, I must critique this theory on two fronts; one because history indicates that powerful empires applied tight leash on their subjects using apparatus of power that were often in control of the elites, which would mean that any possibility of an internal coup by lesser members of the societies would have been met and vanquished very firmly.
Two, I would think that the strategy of seizing power has not yet changed even after thousands of years, more so since the present plan of forcefully seizing power are derived from the lessons of history which did not involve burning of palaces and temples by the dissidents.
This leaves us with only two theories and only one very credible theory that must have caused the historical Teotihuacan Empire to collapse. There is no doubt that the collapse of Teotihuacan was attributed to trade, which would, therefore, make the theory of economics as the most credible version of what might have caused Teotihuacan collapse.
If there was foreign invasion in the city, then that must be viewed as the last straw that finally sealed the fate of this once great empire having been severely sabotaged economically and therefore very weak at the time. If new political alliances in the region started taking shape over the long duration that Teotihuacan started declining, it would explain the systematic collapse of the trade routes that the empire had established throughout the Mesoamerican region that finally rendered it irrelevant.
More likely, the Teotihuacan civilization collapsed because it was unable to effectively sustain itself because of its large areas of influence that had become costly, cumbersome and impossible to administrate which would also mean it was becoming increasingly difficult to secure and control the trade corridors.
Conclusion Give that Teotihuacan Empire only relied on trade and had noticeably failed to foresee the need to diversify its sectors of influence; this outcome would not be very surprising.
Even if this was not exactly the case, based on the theory of diminishing marginal returns, it would still appear that the collapse of Teotihuacan was as a result of trade. Because trade was the tenet that Teotihuacan Empire was found, built and sustained, it would stand to reason that any form of adverse attack that indirectly or directly interrupted trade had implications of sabotaging the empire because of its reliance on trade routes and thereby undermine its relevance in the whole of Mesoamerican region.
References Adams, R. (1977). Transformations in Prehistoric Mesoamerica. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Archeology.com. (2010). Teotihuacan: The City of the gods. Web.
Diehl, R. (1989). A Shadow of Its Former Self: Teotihuancan during the Teotihuacan: A.D. 700-900. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Rosenfield, E. (2002). Piecing Together the Fall of Teotihuacan. Web.
Millon, R. (1974). Teotihuacan in New World Archaeology: Theoretical and Cultural Transformations. San Francisco: Freeman and Company.
Millon, R. (1988) The Last Years of Teotihuacan Dominance in the Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
Norman, Y. (2001). Theories of Collapse of States. Web.
Sanders, W. (1976). The Agricultural History of the Basin of Mexico in the Valley of Mexico. Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
Santley, R. (1989). Obsidian Working, Long-Distance Exchange, and the Teotihuacan Presence on the South Gulf Coast in Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Tainter, J. (2003). The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Second Generation Identity and Language Use Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Second generation identity use
Second generation language use
Second generation identity use One of the discussions in the book about second generation, focuses on the issue of identity for the second generation children. According to Portes and Rumbaut the second generation children in America have had some struggles with their identity because they have been the children of two worlds (147).
Many of them, for example, those coming from Korea had parents who had lived in very homogeneous communities. The parents thus tried to maintain the close knit communities for themselves and for their future generations in a heterogeneous society (Portes, and Rumbaut 149).
The author presents the experiences of the Korean community to communicate the common struggles that the children faced and how they tried to solve the problem of identity. One of the ways the author presents is the use of solidarity rallies (Portes, and Rumbaut 149). These rallies cut across different generations with the common goal of perpetuating the history, custom and culture of the Korean community.
Sometimes resistance came like it did for the Cubans who after migrating to Florida found that the local initiated a referendum against their migration from Cuba to Florida (Portes, and Rumbaut 149). These isolated the Cubans who were already in Florida. This brings to mind the question as to whether those who settled in America early should have had so much power in controlling those who immigrated later.
The experiences of these immigrants is contrasted to that of the Early Europeans whose ethnicity projected outward with intermarriages and thinning out. While the early immigrants were accepted without discrimination, the later immigrants already came with ethnic ties that pitted them against the majority of those already settled into America (Portes, and Rumbaut 181).
The question of identity is therefore very relevant when considering legacies. This is because identity greatly influences the activities and orientation of groups as they try to settle in a new world.
Second generation children might not forget their culture easily since even when they are likely to distance themselves from it, the world they live in may always place them in their ethnic groups (Portes, and Rumbaut 181). It is not clear therefore if ethnic discrimination is likely to end in America. If indeed it will end, then the paradox is on what will need to happen to help achieve this goal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second generation language use A discussion of importance in the book is the language as used by the new second generation. Most of the second generation began to use English as they undertook education and jobs. However their English was the bases for much discrimination and mistrust by their American counterparts (Portes, and Rumbaut 115). Many of them were discriminated due to their accent. Sometimes this came with approval from political offices.
Bilingualism was often treated as a handicap even though research reveals one language does not necessarily make a speaker any worse at another. The author refers to studies that proved children who were bilingual had strong cognitive abilities compared to those who spoke one language (Portes, and Rumbaut 116). However schools remain monolingual in America (Portes, and Rumbaut 128). Should languages be offered as part of the core studies of children as they join school?
In contemporary America especially where there is a lot of cultural diversity bilingualism has come to be appreciated even admired. Admiration has also come from first generation and ethnic communities that are closely knit (Portes, and Rumbaut 134). This is because the children can communicate within the family easily without a language barrier between the older and younger generation. The author also reveals that bilingualism has also affected family relationships especially between parents and their children.
Children who are fluent in English and their parent’s native language experience better relationship with their parents (Portes, and Rumbaut 134). The children are also more confident and more proud of their culture when they can speak their parent’s language fluently. However the school system has been poor in propagating the acquisition of a second language (Portes, and Rumbaut 138).
Languages are not offered in many schools and even those who are bilingual find they can only use English. This has created a break where given the languages in America the country does not benefit from the positive effects of bilingualism (Portes, and Rumbaut 135- 140). The statistics in the book reveal difficulties in retention of parent’s language.
The author has presented the issues of the new second generation in a clear manner and challenged the reader to think critically about the effects of immigration especially upon future generation who have to undergo challenging circumstances before they can live the American dream. The question for a society like America could be how the society can best benefit from the linguistic intellectuals of a diverse society with many languages.
Work Cited Portes, Alejandro, and Ruben Rumbaut. The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. 1st ed. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2001. Print.
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Mass cultural phenomenon Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The five elements chosen for analysis are five Lady Gaga videos; these are videos of her most popular songs and they include: ‘Telephone’, ‘Bad Romance’, ‘Paparazzi’, ‘Poker face’ and ‘Just dance’. This pop icon was selected because she is the ideal representation of what Americans look for in pop culture as seen through her videos.
Analysis The first is the Telephone video. Some critics have claimed that this video took pop music to another level. In the video, Lady Gaga shows up in prison attire where she has to enter her cell. A strip search is done and Lady Gaga remains with nothing but pasties. After the prison scene, Lady Gaga along with her co-singer Beyonce Knowles are spotted at a restaurant.
While in the restaurant, famous celebrity Tyrese Gibbons is killed. As this happens, Lady Gaga and her co –singer get onto motorcycles with American flag like attires and appear to ride into the sunset (You Tube). The video goes on and on but these earlier portions are enough to give a reflection of pop culture and hence mass American culture.
First, the ease with which violent scenes are enacted illustrates how American music consumers have become comfortable with such scenes. Also, half nude depictions of the singer indicate an over sexualization of females in pop culture. This video also depicts female strength since Lady gaga and Beyonce appear to ‘handle their own’ when they easily escape from the restaurant after the motorcycle scene (Donnelly, 15).
The second video is Just dance. This video starts when Lady Gaga gets into a dull party. People can be seen sleeping and are visibly bored by the lack of music (MTV). However, Lady Gaga’s acquaintance switches on the stereo and this soon injects life into the party. All the people at the location start to dance.
Most of the scenes in the video involve different dance moves and Lady Gaga herself. This video still propagates the theme of sexualization of women owing to her dressing. However, it also shows that Americans tend to appreciate self expression. The video is about being oneself and simply letting go without caring much about what others think.
In the Paparazzi video, Lady Gaga is first seen with her boyfriend getting intimate; however, some paparazzi appear and try to get shots of them. She soon realizes that this was a trick by her boyfriend and confronts him violently about it (MTV). Eventually, she is thrown over by her boyfriend and then lies in a pool of blood (Saxberg, 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paparazzi capitalize on these moments by taking snapshots of her. In another scene, Gaga walks from her vehicle into an aisle with crutches on and the help of some dancers. She is wearing silver attire that looks metallic like. After this scene one can see pictures of dead models. The latter video shows the inclination of most pop music listeners towards the bizarre.
When Gaga lies around in her own blood, this is a bit wacky and can really disturb those who may be watching. Also the scenes of the dead models are also stomach churning to say the least (Lamb, 13). The video illustrates how freakish scenes seem to attract more attention or how American culture is inclined towards dark scenarios. Even the kind of dressing that she chooses i.e. metallic is testimony to this inclination towards rebellion in music.
Poker face is set in a mansion where Lady Gaga wears a mask made out of mirrors. She then appears in another scene where people are playing strip poker (MTV). The females appear to be loosing and as each of them looses, they are required to keep removing elements of their clothing.
Eventually, these women start to kiss one another. The video then shows other scenes of her doing crazy things but these all relate to the theme in the song which is gambling and sex. The poker face video addressed a rather controversial issue i.e. bisexuality. Women can be seen kissing each other even when they are humoring flirts from their male counterparts. The video appears to endorse freedom of sexuality.
The unconventional choice of theme is what has led to a lot of buzz around this video (Cinquemani, 7). Lady Gaga’s success illustrates that members of the pop culture appear to endorse freedom of choice as seen through the gay scenes in the video. One can assert that American culture promotes free will and lets people decide what they want even in this video.
In the Bad Romance video, lady Gaga is kidnapped by some Russians who then go on to sell her. She has on glasses that have a razor shape and a golden dress. The songs starts and she can be seen in white and knee length boots where she frequently sings while facing the mirror (Lapowsky, 45). At some point, Gaga emerges with a crown and diamond studded outfit. She is auctioned to some men and one of them takes her. In the next scene, she is scene with the same individual on a bed.
A fire starts and burns this man while she continues with her music. At the end of it, she is seated next to a skeleton with a cigarette in hand and the bra she has on appears to give off some sort of sparks (Interscope records). The continual appearance of death in lady Gaga’s videos is testimony to the prevalence of violence in American mass culture. However since Lady Gaga is triumphant on this scene, then it shows that females can take care of themselves and do have the ability to tackle whatever comes their way.
We will write a custom Essay on Mass cultural phenomenon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The Lady Gaga’s continual success in pop charts all over the country shows that she has been received by the public. Consequently, her messages are acceptable and even a reflection of what her supporters are looking for.
Works Cited Lapowsky, Issie. Lady Gaga’s on fire in her new Bad Romance video. New York Times, 2009.
Interscope records. Lady Gaga’s bad romance video. Interscope. 2009. Web.
Lamb, Bill. Lady Gaga: paparazzi. New York Times, 2009.
MTV. Lady Gaga paparazzi music video. Official page. 2009. Web.
Cinquemani, Sal. Lady gaga: the fame review. Slant magazine, 2009.
Saxberg, Lynn. We have seen the future and it looks a lot like Lady Gaga. Ottawa Citizen, 2010.
MTV. Poker face video. 2008. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mass cultural phenomenon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MTV. Lady Gaga Just dance music video. Official page. 2008. Web.
Donnelly, Matt. Lady gaga, Beyonce world premiere their telephone video. Los Angeles Times, 2010.
Youtube. Lady gaga telephone video. 2010. Web.
and answer the question below. Write at least 100 words and no more than 200 words. NO Plagiarism! cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Use your favorite search engine to find 10 daytime high temperatures from where you live(which is 73,75,77,79,81,81,82,82,82,84 Degrees in North Carolina). After obtaining this data, perform the following calculations from Week 9: Mean Median Mode Midrange Note: To earn full credit for your initial post you must show all of the process (i.e. the “math”) on how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and midrange.
How Saudi Banks Deal With Money Laundery Research Paper a level english language essay help
Introduction As the world develops, new challenges are emerging. The 20th century ended with the world facing a number of challenges; for instance poverty reduction and eradication of diseases like polio were the main concern. These challenges were brought together in the 7 millennium development goals in which countries were supposed to tackle by the end of 2015.
Much improvement has been done, though to achieve the goals completely is still a milestone for some of the developing countries. As the world tries to fulfill the millennium development goals there has been advancements in technology with globalization being at its peak. The last two decades has seen countries joining alliances and becoming members of international bodies which aims at making the world a global village; by enhancing free movement of goods and services within countries.
While globalization has advantages disadvantages cannot be missed in that with the advancements in technology, which has made money transfer easier and countries conducting free trade among themselves a new crop of crime has emerged. Money with no legitimate sources such as drugs and extortions can now be deposited in secret accounts throughout the world with the main aim being tax evasion and hiding from the authorities in case the process which the money was obtained through is illegitimate.
These illegal transactions are what amount to money laundering. Money laundering costs governments a lot of money through tax evasion and also due to the fact that when the money is deposited in foreign accounts it helps those countries develop by investing with the money while denying the same opportunity to invest. How the governments are trying to curb money laundering remains an issue. This study will try to cover what the Saudi bank, whether alone or with assistance of the government, is doing to control this crime.
Money laundering can thus be defined as the illegal process of engaging in money transactions in which due to the origin or the function of the money, the identity, source, and the destination is hidden in order to evade questioning or detection. Others define money laundering as the conversion or transfer of illegally acquired assets for example the proceeds from a criminal activity with the main aim being to hide the origin of the money or concealing from the authorities the amount of money one has.
When individuals engage in money laundering not only do they expose their communities or governments to criminal activities but also the integrity of the financial institutions in which the transactions are carried in is lost and most of the time, though not aware, the individual may expose his or her country to security threats as has been happening of late where laundered money has been used to finance terrorism as noted in the Muslim world.
The Process of Money Laundering
For a money launderer to be successful in his activities, the following is the process in which he undertakes to make sure that the source is completely concealed. The first step involves deposition of money in the bank account or any financial institution offering the services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deposition can be done locally or the money may be shipped to international bank accounts where they are deposited. The money can also be used to buy expensive assets such as beaches, vehicles, and precious metals which are subject to reselling at later dates. The second step involves what experts call “layering”. Layering often involves transferring the money into different accounts in order to separate the proceeds from their origins.
The accounts can be given to different people from the family or just coded bank accounts, whereby, incase one wants to withdraw the money a code is required to withdraw the same. The main aim of this step is to cheat or make the audit trail longer if ever detected. The money can also be converted to financial assets such as bonds or shares and be invested for quite a while in order to hide the identity further. The last step involves legitimizing the proceeds.
This step involves using the bought asset as collateral to loans; others go to the extent of producing invoices to non existent organizations this process makes the money appear as if it was gained honestly and it would require the best money laundering detectives to detect any crime from a professional money launderer.
Money laundering activities take place through abuses of both the formal and informal financial channels. The issuance of joint accounts and the latest discovery of money transfer through mobile phones for example the M-Pesa in Kenya can provide a very good platform for money launderers. While the formal institutions pass through the regulatory system, the informal institutions usually operate outside the regulatory system and thus monitoring their activities can be such a hefty and involving procedure.
These informal institutions allow their users to exchange and transfer money or value across borders with minimal or no physical movement of money or paper transactions. Although these systems might be serving for legal and honest purposes, they can be used by money launders as they provide high level of anonymities thus one can escape scrutiny by the financial regulators and other law enforcing agents.
As technology advances, new and efficient methods of detecting money laundering activities have been devised and this has caused the money launderers to transfer their operations to the countries with weak jurisdiction or in countries poorly equipped to detect the crime.
Why not engage in money laundering
According to the available statistics, money laundering is among the largest industries in the world and it is associated with all manners of crime be it cartels, drug trafficking and even extortions. This has in the past forced the US and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to adopt money laundering laws whose main aim has been to try and reduce financial secrecy and promote transparency among the finance industry players.
We will write a custom Research Paper on How Saudi Banks Deal With Money Laundery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But even as these laws continue being enacted more will be needed from the private sector and other financial institutions to take more responsibility in finding ways and measures to eliminate practices that enhance crime, undermine financial systems otherwise they will also damage their own reputations (Zucchi
Singapore’s Advancion in Economy, Tourism and Other Economy Building Sectors Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Singapore is a country in Asia and is known officially the Republic of Singapore. It is an island country which is at the south of Malaysia. Singapore is a small country which has a population of about 5 million people. The population mainly consists of people of Chinese origin, Indians and other Asians of diverse origins.
It is worth noting that Singapore has a busy port, one of the busiest in the world. Due to its small size, Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Her population has a large percentage of foreigners who go there for leisure, business and other activities. Singapore is also a leading financial center in the world.
Singapore has among the best living conditions in Asia. According to the current statistics, the country boasts excellent living conditions in Asia. It has also been ranked as the world’s number 1 in city infrastructure because of how the city is planned (Contact Singapore 2010)
Diet and nutrition
Nutrition in Singapore is complete with proteins, vitamins and starch together with other nutrients. The major source of proteins is pork and chicken meat, calcium is also included in the diet. Crabs and fish are sources of calcium. Vegetables and fruits provide major sources of vitamins in their diet.
Typical Singaporean meals are meat and vegetable recipes. They range from certain traditional foods that are sources of proteins.
Most common food
Most common food in Singapore is meat dish and vegetarian dishes which come in a range of recipes. Crab, Mee Siam, Opor Sotong Bak KutTeh and crisps are among the common traditional Singaporean foods. Smoked spicy chicken, cucumber and Bak Kwa are also common at home and across major hotels in Singapore. Most of the mail meals are usually accompanied with strong chillie. Vegetable dishes of Singapore include, melons and mango salads,
Malnutrition in Singapore is greatly reduced because of implementation of important health policies by the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Housing
The real estate in Singapore is highly developed. The city has houses which it offers for sale or for rental purposes. Management of public housing is usually done by the housing and development board which is involved in building and maintaining public houses. Residential property in this city can generally be categorized into two, public housing and private housing whereby most of the population dwells in the more affordable public housing (Contact Singapore, 2010).
Types of houses available
The types of houses available are mainly apartments, bungalows, condominiums, public housing flats, shophouse, semi-detached terrace house and townhouses.
Shop Houses at Back – Arab Street,
Source: Travel guide
Rent or own
Rental properties are present all over Singapore. Own houses are also provided for by the real estate upon purchase.
Single family/multiple family dwellings
Most people in Singapore who have families usually live in larger houses. The houses may be mainly townhouses. The detached single family house is also common in Singapore. They are mostly found in the affluent areas of the city, in Singapore.
As a comparison houses in America are mainly the Creole cottage, American craftsman house, conch house, cracker house and many others. Multiple family dwelling units are found especially in apartments and in flats. This is because they save on space and money. Single family dwelling units are usually more expensive thus preferred only to the willing and able (Travel guide 2010).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Singapore’s Advancion in Economy, Tourism and Other Economy Building Sectors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clothing
There are both modern and traditional clothing in Singapore. Most clothing in Singapore depends on the weather. In hot sunny weather, lighter clothing is common. However if the weather is emotionally rainy, thick clothing is preferred.
Modern clothing in Singapore
Recreation, sports and others
Singapore has a host of sporting activities. Leisure in Singapore is also highly developed. Horse riding, cycling, bowling, g-max reverse bungy and Cinemania are some of the examples of Singaporean sports.
Social security for retirees in Singapore is provided by the government and the private sector. This is present as a compulsory scheme for any worker in Singapore.
Health care system
The healthcare system in this country is mainly placed under the government. The ministry of health is responsible in implementing health policies in Singapore. The country boasts a universal health care system where access to medical facilities because there are compulsory medical schemes that ensure that saving is a must for its citizens. Public health is much advanced in Singapore. Hospitals and major health centers are well equipped with world class facilities which offer services to the people around.
Singapore has a lot of aesthetics for its citizens. When you visit the city, you will be encounter colorful buildings and scenery. Color is given priority in Singapore. Most street buildings are given a colorful finish such that there is pomp of color along one particular street
Currently there are more than 300 companies that offer the services of visual arts. This industry has been growing day by day such that since time immemorial, European painters and local talented people showcased their talents in Singapore.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Singapore’s Advancion in Economy, Tourism and Other Economy Building Sectors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are many people who are well known all over Singapore for being involved in the development of this industry. Some of them are, Chen Chong Swee and Georgette Chen who were teachers at some of the schools involved in this industry. The artists of Singapore are also well known worldwide. The industry of visual arts in Singapore has also made major global contributions (Flickr, 2010).
Singaporean styles of music range from jazz, rock Indie music across to patriotic songs. Singapore has many religions which include Chinese and Indian religions. Singapore is tolerant with other types of music and cultures from all over the world (Teo et al, 2008). Musicians in Singapore have been involved with other artists to emerge at the top of the global scene. This is attributed to the mixture of cultures all over the country.
The presence of performing arts in Singapore and her neighbors is well known beyond her continental borders. Performing arts is much advanced in this country. It is mainly used as a leisure activity in entertainment and recreation (Flickr, 2010).
Photo of performing arts in Singapore
Source: flickr, Shotorphotography, (2010)
In Singapore, folklore dates back from the years preceding its independence period. The period of colonial Singapore is characterized by the building of some parts of its city center. Since the end of the Second World War, Singapore has been experiencing a glorious growth from strength to strength. Singapore gained independence from Great Britain.
Conclusion Singapore as this study reports is much advanced in economy, tourism and other economy building sectors. It is also a popular place for international visitors who go there for tour or investment. Therefore, life in this city is much favorable for many different cultures.
Reference List Contact Singapore (2010). Living conditions. Web.
ExpatSingapore (2010). Housing in Singapore. Web.
(2010). Clothing in Singapore. Web.
Flickr, Shotorphotography (2010). Performing Arts in Singapore. Web.
Teo , T, Hargreaves, D
Strategic Political Partnerships and New World Essay online essay help
Introduction Asia is one state which presents a very dynamic region in the third-world countries over the past twenty years. The dynamics includes Chinese growth, the coming up of India, regional collaboration, economic, trade and security issues.
A case study of Southeast Asia reveals that its governance has greatly influenced the political, economic and social environment of many states. The Southeast Asian Nations have developed new models of economic collaboration and new political roles which have in effect sculptured international systems of the world (Wurfel and Burton, 1996).
The recent global crisis and the subsequent melt-down of powerful economies is what triggered the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to seek more international cooperation. Other than economic cooperation, this partnership is also being sought in the political arena (in fighting terrorism), knowledge and technology transfer, and support for development projects.
Asia is hopeful of providing a compact economic alternative due to regional integration with powerful economic giants like China and India and Russia. The trend of the rest of the world is in fact towards the Asian Nations (Wurfel and Burton, 1996).
The New World Order
The new World Order refers to the coming together of the world’s most powerful nations to secure and sustain world safety, peace and security. The other terms that can be used interchangeably to mean the new world order include globalization, one world government, and global governance. There are many people who dismiss it as just a mere theory, but a closer investigation into the history, clearly reveals its establishment as a fact. The coming up of the new world order was in fact prophesied in the Bible (Lineman, 2007).
The New World Order’s intention is to create a one world government which will control and regulate all the other nations under an international law.
The setting up of this global government is slowly taking its roots in the political arena and especially in the United Nations. There is a Commission for global governance established in the United Nations which forecasts a world court, a one police force and a global tax.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, there are several organizations that have so far been set up which ascribe to the New World Order philosophy which include: the media personalities, the Club of Rome, the Trilateral Commission, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, the Council of Foreign Affairs, etc. The economy is also affected since there are free trade agreements among nations, International Financiers like the International Monetary Fund, Bank of International Settlements, etc.
The third area of concern is religion, where there are plans to come up with a new world religion. This is evidenced by the existence of such organizations as the World Council of Churches, and the Parliament of World Religions. Moreover, there has been a growing concern over the environment. Moreover, there are talks of global warming, which is an environmental problem, as well as proposals to adopt socialism in order to curb this menace (Johnston, 2008).
Arguments for the New World Order
There are arguments that the New World Order bring about positive ethical changes. For example, nations have embraced the positive normative behaviors and beliefs which create more space for moral interaction and acquisition of desirable concepts. In addition, institutionalization has resulted to articulation of the wrong cultures into better practical and credible practices.
For instance, gradual integration of colonies led to the abolishment of slave trade and forced labour (Crawford, 2002, p. 99). Many non-consented humanitarian interventions by regional organizations have resulted in more effective methods of fighting overwhelming catastrophe (Johnston, 2008).
Arguments against the New World Order
It is viewed that the New World Order will result to socialism/collectivism/Maoism or capitalism. This capitalistic form of governance reserves no rights for an individual thus all rights and powers emanate from the state itself. Socialism is deprives individuals the freedom to expression and instead enslaves them.
The involvement of an international body to fight global warming is viewed as a loophole to taking over ownership and exploitation of resources. Additionally, when it comes to execution of justice, the International court is empowered to deal to deal with the guilty without the interference or protection by the nation (Gjelten, 2009).
Case study: India and China The strategic political partnership in alignment with the New World Order
The New World Order has its affiliation in the political arena which is evidenced by the dynamic changes in the structure and customs of global politics (Grammy and Bragg, 1996).
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Political Partnerships and New World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More China and Japan have not been left out in this, for instance, China actively sought diplomacy towards India, changing Sino-Indian relationship from one that was of distrust to a strategic partnership. It is however seen like China had other hidden intention other than acquisition of a stable bilateral relation. They promised to co-work together to attain a more cohesive International political and economic order.
The integration between the Chinese and the Indians was formed partly in order to reinforce their international matters by tapping the global market opportunities and developing stable and prospering states, and attain an economic order. The two states further agreed to increase activities in their bilateral trade relations. The United States, for instance, has approached the Southeast Asian Nations to reinforce their security concerns so as to take advantage of their international influence (Wolters, 1999).
China also intends to strengthen the security within a given region in order to acquire a more profitable position to disseminate American dominance Additionally, China has always ensured that it actively participate in regional political, security, and economic organizations in anticipation that China’s influence will dissuade multilateral groups from operating.
It is well documented that China has signed two treaties or agreements i.e. ASEAN’s Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in the South China Sea, and the Declaration on the Code of Conduct at the ASEAN-China 2003 meeting. The signing of these two documents, China pledged for non-violence and non-interference and other problem solving machinery that have been sponsored by ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
Additionally, China spearheaded the formation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) which constitutes the’ Shanghai Five’ group. The Shanghai Five group put emphasis on boosting confidence among its members and fighting terrorism. Current findings reveal that SCO has assimilated India, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iran as passive members thus expanding their scope of governance to South Asia and West Asia.
Moreover, the SCO, under the control of China and Russia, has supported for the Shanghai spirit which claims that there should be shared trust, equality, coordination, respect for different civilization, and common development. These principles tend to oppose the traditional measures the United States employs to maintain security hence their culture is eroded (Gjelten, 2009).
There emerged a convergence of both India and China on several critical issues. One, they converged in quest for The Asian nations stability. Secondly, they realized that energy supplies required security. Additionally, the convergence was aimed at eradicating any form of dangerous extremism from neighboring states. Moreover, to gain mutual benefits from economic association involves an amalgamation of different colonies.
In spite of the positive achievements in the established ties among these states, there were already established boundaries to which these relations could occur. These limits were a challenge to the involved people since most are the times when they caused frustrations and circumscription in the already established relationships. Therefore the struggle for cultivation of tight security ties with other nations by the Indians continues up to date.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Political Partnerships and New World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, global war against terrorism has resulted into greater changes, thus leading to more strategic relationships. Furthermore, the relationship between china and other nations is viewed as an instrument for fostering stability to south East Asia as well as other Asian nations. This move is anticipated to be beneficial to all and sundry of the included states, not only in Asia, but the whole world (Chossudovsky, 2003).
Conclusion The formation of cooperative riparian institutions has faced rivalry. There seems to be a conspiracy by the super powers to acquire power advantages over the less dominant nations. This is because security concern is mostly not the priority of the se lobby groups (Volgy, et al, 2009. The active participation of China has raised concerns among nations since it has done diplomatic manipulations in the governance of many states.
The arms control and disarmament efforts of the superpowers have been accused of being inordinately concerned with propagandistic goals while disregarding the primary goal of promoting stability and peace. It is therefore seen like their primary goal is not the pursuit for national security (Inis and Kenneth, 1994). The stability of the Asian nations is of paramount importance to all other countries. For example, the Iran-India agreement of 2003 has fostered peace and stability, though the strategic principles are still underestimated.
It is strategic in that there is no forced cooperation between the involved countries. This move is of great significance in promoting world peace and calmness, thus all nations all over the globe are encouraged to embrace the new move. Current researchers all over have been enthusiastic in finding out possible channels of global assimilations in order to counteract major rivalries among nations. There are several recommendations that have been put forward, which include; all nations should long for peace and unity.
In addition, every nation should embrace the others regardless of their origin and status. More over, trade cooperation should be enhanced with an aim of boosting the economy. Finally, there should be harmony and co-existence in all aspects of life, i.e., social, political, economical and spiritual grounds, which are an excellent, move for promoting peace and unity (Victor, 2003).
Reference List Chossudovsky, M. l., 2003. The globalization of poverty and the new world order. 2nd edition. Global Research.
Crawford, N. C., 2002. Argument and change in World politics: ethics, decolonization, and humanitarian interventions. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Web.
Gjelten, T., 2009. Economic Crisis Poses Threat to Global Stability. Journal of global economics, Vol.12; issue 18, pp 105-156. Web.
Grammy, A. P. and Bragg, K., 1996. United States-Third World Relations in the New World Order. NY, Nova publishers. Web.
Inis, L. C. and Kenneth, W. T., 1994. Community diversity and a new world order. Understanding Political Realism. University Press of America. Web.
Johnston, D. M., 2008. The historic foundations of world order: the Tower and the Arena. London, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Web.
Lineman, W. B., 2007. “In Recession, China Solidifies Its Lead in Global Trade“. The New York Times. Web.
Victor, L. A., 2003. Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Web.
Volgy, T. et al. 2009. Mapping the new world order. John Wiley and Sons publishers. Web.
Wolters, O. W., 1999. History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. NY, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Wurfel, D. J. and Burton, B. L., 1996. Southeast Asia and the New World Order: the political economy of a dynamic region. NY, St. Martin’s Press.
Gun Control in the United States of America Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Argumentative On Gun Control
Reasons people keep guns
Reasons for Gun control laws
Argumentative On Gun Control Gun control refers to the efforts put by the government to regulate or stop gun possession or sale by the public of a given country. Guns fall under firearms, which are classified into three broad categories; Handguns, Riffles and Short guns. They can be either automatic or semiautomatic. The automatic guns operate in such a way that, they “continuously fire bullets as long as the trigger is pulled” (Agresti and Smith, 2010).
Statistics from the United States of America show that out of a population of three hundred and seven million people, three hundred millions possess guns, accounting to around 97% of the population. However, in countries where possession of firearms by the public is illegal, it is very easy to acquire guns when one needs and unlike countries like US where firearms possession is legal, criminals possess the most firearms.
Different people in different parts of the world argue differently on the matter concerning gun possession by the public, which can have either a positive or a negative impact. For instance, people may keep guns for self-defense and protection against crime, hunting, target shooting, and clay bursting among others. The following essay will outline, describe, and weigh the reasons for gun possession and control around the world.
Reasons people keep guns Most people argue that they keep guns for self-defense. They feel that the police may not be present all the time to protect them or their families from situations threatening their lives. In addition, some people feel that, as gun ownership decreases, the incidences of crime also drops since people are able to protect themselves (Chastain, 2010).
For instance, statistics show that in 1993, 0.5% households in the US used guns for defense in a situation where someone would have been killed if he never used a gun. In addition, 3.5% had used a gun in protection of their family and their property, 40% had stopped a planned attack after realizing that the victim had a gun, and 34% had ensnared a criminal using a gun, among others (Agresti and Smith, 2010).
Reports show that in many countries, most guns are owned for criminal purposes regardless of the fact that it is illegal to possess firearms. In addition, anyone who wishes to obtain a gun can easily obtain one in some situations; thus, cases of shootouts, homicide, and robbery are a very common scenario (Crooker, 2003).
This is the case almost everywhere in the world where most criminals use guns to accomplish their mission. In 2008, roughly armed criminal committed 8% of the crimes in the US. Such cases included robberies, rape cases, homicides, and many other kinds of assaults.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many parts of the world, many people keep guns for hunting because traps or bows and arrows cannot hunt some game. Although this may be justified, challenges come in when the hunters use the firearm for the wrong purposes. The primary reason may be hunting but at times, these hunters use the guns to commit violence or to do illegal poaching. However, it is important for the hunter to be well equipped with enough knowledge on how to operate the firearm lest he bladders with the firearm (Kleck, 2005).
In countries where public can possess firearms, children are born, and as they grow up, they buy guns because their parents also owned one. At times, the parents may buy guns for them as gifts, while others find it cool to own a gun and go shooting with friends. In such cases, the gun owners may not be very careful on how they handle the firearms and the result at times is devastating (Valdez, 2003).
Gun control Gun control is an important but very challenging task in every country because the victims always embrace it negatively. When gun control measures are enacted, the criminals find means of strengthening their actions thus endangering the life of people.
According to the statistics from US, legalizing gun possession endangers the life of people because it is not possible to differentiate between criminals and law-abiding citizens. In most cases, countries put gun control laws in place to prevent access by criminals and minors. Therefore, Federal measures should be enacted because this is the only way to regulating gun ownership (Valdez, 2003).
In countries where gun possession is legal, it is important to ensure that people acquire licenses for their firearms so that they may be careful to use them for the right purpose. By registering firearms, it is easier to do investigations incase of a crime. In America, gun control policies have been debated repeatedly in vain.
This is because the citizens in possession of guns outnumber the militia meaning the government will never succeed in getting firearms from the hands of its citizens. The incidences of mass shooting like the Columbine High School scandal are a clear indication that having guns in public hands is not safe (Gettings, 2010).
The second amendment act in the bill of rights reads, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a Free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.” This amendment encouraged people in service of the state to keep arms, which was fine because it was not their personal interest but job requirement.
We will write a custom Essay on Gun Control in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reasons for Gun control laws Gun control laws are the laws that define the situations under which it is right or wrong to own firearms. In Washington DC, murder crimes are low due to strong gun control laws while in Indianapolis, high rates of murder cases are a result of weak gun control measures (Williamson, 1008). Though people may feel secure in possession of firearms, it would be even more secure if no one was in possession since no crime is likely to take place.
In real sense, in a situation where someone uses a firearm for security purposes, he may either injure the victim or be injured. People may also shoot one another unintentionally when they are playing or a person is not having the right skills to use a gun. Moreover, when the public is in possession of guns, it makes it hard for the police to maintain law and order since they can be entangled in a scandal (Liptak, 2009).
Conclusion Gun control policies and possibly abolishment of public possession of guns is the best step that the world can take today. This is because increased case or homicides, and robbery with violence are a result of so many guns in the public hands. Incase of places where abolishment is not possible, strong policies should be enacted in order to ensure guns are in possession of the right people and are serving the right purpose.
References Agresti, J. and Smith, R. (2010). Gun control. Web.
Chastain, R. (2010). Why Own a Gun. Web.
Crooker, C. E. (2003). Gun control and gun rights. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Gettings, J. (2010). Milestones in Federal Gun Control Legislation. Web.
Kleck, G. (2005). Point blank: guns and violence in America. NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gun Control in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liptak, A. (2009). Justices Will Weigh Challenges to Gun Laws. Web.
Valdez, A. (2003). Gun Control. NY: InfoBase Publishing. Web.
Williamsons, M. Reasons for Gun Control. Web.
Traditional Culture no longer is prevalent in Japanese Society Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Traditional Japanese cultural paradigm is no doubt under a serious threat with the arising of Japanese independent mind westerners, who do not claim any inherent trait in being Japanese. If this is not the case, Japanese art history must not have suffered at the hands of cultural politics of Euro-Americans who are most likely prefer to compare Japanese traditional iconography with other cultural groups.
Many scholarly writers and neo-traditional artists support this notion by providing insufficient reasoning of being Japanese or foreigner, they believe it does make no difference to characterize Japanese traditions akin to comparing with Americans or Westerners in general.
I don’t chime in with them and opine that comparing Japanese culture with that of any other is not worth to concern the contemporary modernization in Japan. Unlike others I don’t believe the onus shoulders onto the significance of ‘change’, but it is the technologically driven society that has taken place rapidly and has intervened with intrepid lifestyle of the Japanese, marking the culture towards a panorama, asunder apart from the traditional Japanese shift.
It would not be right to claim that Japan has lost its cultural significance at all, and that all it is left with is the debris of the electronic revolution. Instead, what I have realized is that Japanese post modern societal trends have failed to realize the altruistic striking feature behind Japanese studies on pre-modern art, especially when it comes to Japanese lacquerware products.
Yiengpruksawan suggests the difference between traditional and modern day imagery of Japan, (Yiengpruksawan 2001, 105) as traditional picture presents a grotesque view telling epics of Japanese warfare whereas the modern day Japan contradicts it.
I don’t believe in this stance either, for the reason that traditional urushi art and craft in Japan is itself a memento of pre-war era, which has left its vestiges of the nineteenth-century European template in the segmented art form of painting and sculpture that now is renowned as an amalgamation with the American decorative art, particularly lacquerware.
The process of commercialization in the nineteenth century Japan has made the Japaneseness less viable in the art and crafts, which to this day, have phased out gradually by the modern day masterworks of Japanese art. Withering away traditional Japanese art to contemporary culture governed by the refinement of electronic era is a plight, particularly to those who are engaged in the profession of reuniting traditional art with modern one, and even to those who want to conserve what antique craft history has bestowed on us.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fact not much has been written on the Japanese lacquerware, is itself an answer to the dubious question whether or not the urushi has been retained in the contemporary Japanese society? From the beginning of the naturalization of lacquer implant, as a monument of Japanese art history, the government was supposed to make intricate measures so as to avoid its unnecessary availability to the European countries as well as the United States, which it had not derailed.
However with the phasing of the government policies in to the adoption of the 1870s epoch (Yiengpruksawan 2001, 105), it was aimed to enhance the exports of lacquerware to Western countries. Such a welcoming note and exposure of Japanese handicrafts and monuments kept up with the pace of the economic competition until it was marketed by certain change of ‘modernization’ by the Western countries.
By modernization, it is meant to be enhanced, economically available to Westerners as a result of vying with one another, and ultimately lost its value in the Occidental world. The buyers manifested a line of what today can be called as distinction between the old art and the new one. And so the Japanese lacquerware lost its traditional heritage that once it had over the world.
Another reason of phasing out lacquer products goes with the chronicles of Hayashi who in 1980s used his apartments as galleries and shops to display and sell his bronze and lacquer ware products to Paris (Merritt 1990, 13), but as soon as it dawned upon him that his clients had more interest in prints than in lacquerware, he started merging and derailed a coalition of prints with other lacquerware products.
In all the process, Japanese authorities helped to sell out the best of prints to foreign collectors, and never showed up any enthusiasm in marketing the oriental lacquerware.
The manufacturers and the retailers of such traditional art are now use to what we see as a new attitude of pluralism. This attitude has its own significance in the sense it markets whatever it feels can be blended with the recent globalization trend. Diverse cultures, inheriting art and crafts, and countless heritages, all are blended well with the global cultures of mix and match traits.
All this inherited from the West has brought along with it unique repercussions that add up to the loss of original Japanese lacquerware and handicrafts. McCausland mentions “There are now museum collections and university departments of world art that are better redefined as ‘the universal museums’” (McCausland 2005, 688). By universal museums, what I perceive McCausland wants to point out is the contemporary plight of our generations at the hands of our heritage destruction.
We will write a custom Essay on Traditional Culture no longer is prevalent in Japanese Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Of course, the word ‘blending’ that I have used above best goes by ‘destruction’ because any change, addition, or subtraction to a heritage memento, that even fulfils the criteria against which contemporary society is lured to the market is indirect destruction caused by the people of the society. Further it is marked by dignity by the government, when such heritage is placed in museums in collaboration and coalition with the globalized trends.
The metaphor with which original heritage of oriental lacquerware was once considered no longer attracts the countrymen, and why would they do so? When no attempts have been made by the Japanese government to restore their ancestral heritage, often which the nations wonder as priceless have really gone so ‘priceless’, that no Japanese either inspires or admires it.
So for the foreigners, why would they like the classical Japanese monuments, though depicting true stance of elegance when at the same time Japan is producing the finest quality electronic goods and equipment? This is not to say that globalization is the culprit here, but to some extent it must be held responsible for petering out the traditional Japanese culture that once was admired throughout the globe.
Manga/ Anime Characterization Essay college application essay help
Introduction The quest to develop and identify one’s individual identity is very dominant in the manga/ anime characterization. Narrative driven structures that combine visual art forms are used to depict a broad range of phenomena that deals with the search for individual identity (Bryce n.d). Twins can be characterized in manga/anime presentations to try and show the inner struggles they go through in defining their identity, otherness, inner conflict, sexual maturity and the view of human goodness or evil.
Twins in manga/anime characters are therefore created to embody the personal, psychological struggles of an individual twin, independent from the other his/her half. Psychological issues that represent twins struggles with the real self against the expected self, the split and fragmented self and the internal conflict between the ego and the super ego. The narratives in manga/anime therefore seek to bring out the anxieties and uncertainty about individual identity among twins.
Twins Offsprings developed from the same zygote and produced in the same pregnancy are referred to as twins. The scientific process involved in the development of twins is widely understood by medical experts. However their psychology that deals with how they relate in different aspects of life is quite puzzling. Even twins themselves have not been able to clearly articulate what they go through life in relation with people who are not twins. In the twins’ world, there are fraternal and identical twins.
Identical twins share far more features and genetic make up than fraternal twins. As a result they are likely to have a stronger bond and in some cases, their likeness goes beyond physical features to include their intelligent quotients (Perry 2002). Twins make up approximately 2% of the world population, a significant number that makes them an interesting constituency for study.
Twins can be looked at from the Manga/anime characters perspective; these are different characters but of the same kind and they form interesting subjects of study in terms of identity. Identity in this case will be explained through the otherness, self acceptance, inner conflict, sexual maturity, and change of or perception of human goodness or evil by the twins.
The pattern of twinship that twins share creates some sort of identity struggles that they find hard to overcome (Klein 2003). Many twins share a bond that goes beyond that of ordinary siblings. While the majority of people are born separate and learns intimacy as they grow up, twins are born intimate and learn to find separation (Rajamanickam 2007).
The bond and the emotional connection that accompanies it forms an interesting psychological study work. However, there are studies that have been conducted on the effect of nature versus nurture in twins.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Klein, where twins were left to stay and grow up together, the bond grew with time and their identities were more a like, but in cases where they were separated, they developed different identities but stuck to their childhood identities as either bad or good kids (Rajamanickam 2007). In manga/ anime characterization twins are characterized by identical male or female twins who look similar and exhibit strong bonds especially in western culture and/or jealousy or rivalry especially in Japanese manga characterizations.
It is important to note that representation of twins in Manga/anime characterization comes in narratives told in the form of animations, caricatures and tales are used to show the characterization of twins. Intersubjective relationships between the self and the other are therefore used in portraying the double in twins (Bryce n.d).
The philosophical principle where one person changes his perspective for the other is referred to as otherness. Otherness of a person in psychology represents the self. It involves the study of the cognitive or affective study of someone’s identity. The self that makes the otherness in human beings therefore plays an important role in human motivation, identity and cognition. Identity here will be the most important factor as far as twins’ otherness is concerned.
Twins comprise to the group of individuals struggling to find the true sense of self. The otherness is a position of outsideness that is needed by a twin to complete the self (Bryce n.d). Depiction of the outsideness is normally achieved by creation of caricatures like cartoons that play roles of the other twin and how he/she thinks. The caricatures also behave in a completely individualistic way reflecting the thinking of one or both twins in their quest to attain independence.
According to (Klein 1995), twins have unique struggles of identity. The reality of twinship more often than not overwhelms the push for development of self identity in twins. The struggles breed conflict struggle in terms of competition and sharing and separations that are always stressful and traumatic (Klein 1995). These conflicts best captured by animations e. g cartoons which are better placed to capture the situation compared to narratives.
Some psychologists have argued that it is possible for twins to have separate identities. This because they owe allegiance to their twinship, and it’s a reality they cannot escape. They also need to develop the self as a separate human being. The difficult and sometime impossible to choose, situation leads them to having double identities.
In the quest to develop their identities through the self, twins have many obstacles, especially the fact that they live in world where most people do not understand what it means to be a twin. The lack of understanding of twins comes out in the various anime/Manga characterizations that producers have developed.
We will write a custom Essay on Manga/ Anime Characterization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stereotyping is common in such tales, and caricature presentations that seek to explain the self in twins. The bond that exists between them and whatever they do to cope with their predicament is only understood by themselves and close people like husbands, wives and siblings.
In building a blended identity, twins often feel isolated due to the lack of understanding from people, and only find reprieve from the close people who can stand their close relationship. They have difficulty in relating with other people and surviving alone. For the twins who are never separated in early childhood, the shared identity bond lasts through out their lifetime. It is made up of shared thoughts and emotions that make their functioning away from each other difficult (McMahon 1999).
However in cases where separation takes place in childhood and nature shapes their identity, twins will develop like other human beings who were born single. Medical observers are quick to point some exceptions do exists where even twins separated at birth exhibit similar development of the self, hence identity. Despite efforts by parents or guardians to nurture separate identities, they always remain attached to their twins hence achievement of a complete self is difficult.
According to Newman and Newman, self acceptance comes from positive feelings that someone feels come from the acceptance he receives from other people (2008 p 410).
Stereotypes people have toward Chinese Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Stereotypes are considered as the pictures formed in the mind of individuals looking into their social worlds. Individuals hold different views concerning other people’s way of life and what the society expects of them.
They also exist from the point of view of the person who is being stereotyped. The society is made up of different social groups living in diverse geographical areas. Each group perceives itself as being superior and all other groups are regarded to be inferior to it. For example the Americans white perceive the black Americans to be lazy and ignorant thereby denying them employment opportunities.
The effects of stereotypes are much more than the simple perceptions in peoples mind. Certainly, the discriminating individuals have negative beliefs about the targets of their discrimination. The stereotyped individual’s self esteem and worth are lowered as they struggle to fit in the society. When stereotypes are consensually shared within a society, their consequences become much more destructive, because they affect entire groups of people in a common way.
The individual approach to stereotyping has primarily been associated with the prevailing social cognitive tradition. The basic assumption of this approach is that, over time, people develop beliefs about the characteristics of the important social groups in their environment, and this knowledge influences their responses toward subsequently encountered individual members of those groups.
We can therefore say the stereotypes develop as the individual perceives his or her environment. The perceived information about social groups is interpreted, programmed in memory, and then retrieved for use in directing responses. This paper looks into some of the stereotypes held about the Chinese people, how Chinese students respond to these stereotypes,
Problem Statement Several researches have been conducted on Chinese stereotypes and each of these studies comes up with different stereotypes. Most of these studies focus on the major stereotypes held about the Chinese but forget to address the effects of these stereotypes to the Chinese students especially the ones studying in other countries. It is not clear why people have so many stereotypes towards the Chinese but most people believe that, Chinese have a strong relationship to their culture.
Research Questions This paper seeks to answer the following research questions
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What are the major stereotypes people have towards the Chinese?
How do Chinese students feel about being stereotypes?
Do these stereotypes affect the social lives of the Chinese students?
What is the relationship between culture and Chinese stereotypes?
Literature Review There are so many perspectives held about the Chinese. According to Rand, et al (2007), “The Chinese are quiet, peaceable tractable, free from drunkedness, and they are industrious as the day is long. A disorderly Chinaman is rare, and a lazy one does not exist.” However, there are some American students who hold that, Chinese are cold, distrustful, and cunning.
They perceive Chinese as people who are like taking advantage. These stereotypes seem to be based more on hatred than the general perspective of many people (Walkey, 2010). Other people believe that, the Chinese are smart people and are born to be leaders. In the classroom, they are perceived to be good in mathematics and science subjects and like helping other students although they rarely participate in group discussions.
Most of the Chinese hold some of these stereotypes to be true although they strongly disagree with others. For instance, they do not believe they are terrible drivers, or that they are bananas as some people call them. There is a strong relationship between the stereotypes held towards the Chinese and their cultural heritage (Nikolas, 2006).
It may look absurd that, cultural teachings are still going on in China consideration the rapid changes that are taking place in the global world. Many radicals have tried to give China new ideologies although they have not succeeded. It was because many Chinese strongly hold to their cultural tradition to a point that it has become almost impossible for them to shake it off completely (Ward, et al. 2001). This shows how significant the Chinese culture is to the Chinese people.
It has managed to persist in the world of western civilization and seems to persist until the end of time. However, the significant of culture and cultural identity in the age of globalization remains a question that is yet to be answered. Some radicals hold that, culture will soon become a museum piece to which they are only ironic references possible, while others claim that, it looks absurd to talk about national cultures in this age of globalization. Walzer (1994), observes that,
Societies are necessarily particular because they have members and memories, members with memories not only of their own but also of their common life. Humanity, by contrast, has members, but no memory, and so it has no history and no culture, no customary practices, no familiar life-ways, no festivals, no shared understanding of social good (p25).
Then, another question emerges, does culture and cultural identity apply to other parts of the globe or is it only applied in China? Do people in other communities share the modern or post-modern Western perspective and anxieties about culture? Walzer only address the issue of shared understanding of the social good but does not address the shared understanding of art and or aesthetics (Witzell
Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis Essay essay help: essay help
An ethical awareness inventory is an instrument that is used to identify an individual’s central ethical style by demonstrating their prevalent ethical philosophies used to make ethical and moral decisions.
The inventory descriptions are then used in analyzing individual’s perspective on ethics and determining their consequent basis for ethical decision making. Although the general perspective presented by the inventory may not exactly fit an individual’s perspectives, the instrument results provide crucial insights into an individual’s general approaches and views with regard to ethical issues.
The ethical awareness inventory indicated that my profile was more strongly aligned with an obligation ethical philosophy and least aligned to a results based ethical philosophy.
An obligation oriented ethical style indicates that such individual generally tend to base their ethical perspectives on obligation or duty to perform moral acts or make moral decisions. Ethical conduct in this case appeals strongly to the conscience. Making ethical judgments thus entails examining the person’s intent in carrying out their actions rather than the results of their actions.
Emphasizing on intent and conscious in obligation oriented style opens the style to risks of individual’s egocentrism and conformity to group thinking, which may distort individuals conscious and intent (Paul and Elder, 2006). Nonetheless, an obligation oriented philosophy results to a perspective that regards ethical principles as universal, and as intended at promoting individual autonomy and freedom besides laying an emphasis on respect for human dignity.
Understanding your ethical perspective and ethical decision making driving forces is a crucial step in preventing misunderstandings between an individual’s ethical perspective and an organizations’ perspective. Individuals should select career options or work for organizations that hold similar ethical perspectives to their own.
Ensuring there is no mismatch between the individual’s ethical perspectives and organizations dominant perspectives would also aid an individual in career development as few ethical based conflicts are likely to be present. Fewer conflicts would give the employees better opportunities for career development, promotions and reduce employee’s chances of terminations and demotions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One other way of reducing the mismatch is through formal educational experience and educational training. Potential conflicts may occur where a mismatch exists between individuals in their ethical philosophies and perspective.
For example, a superior who may hold results philosophy may opt for the most beneficial choice to be undertaken especially where a cost benefit analysis clearly indicate that it is the right choice. However, an individual with an obligation oriented philosophy may still desire for a choice based on a moral duty or obligation.
An obligation oriented individual who believes that use of cost benefit analysis is not the best method to deal with ethical issues may thus find themselves in conflict with most organizations that use a cost benefit analysis to make ethical decisions. Education experience may impart a person with various reasoning skills that will further aid in decision making and more so in ethical decision making (Paul and Elder, 2003).
An ethical inventory is thus clearly an important tool in identifying individual’s general prevalent ethical perspectives, philosophies and style and their consequent underlying ethical decision making criteria. Using of the tool for both an individual and the employees may aid to reduce a mismatch between an organizations ethics framework and the individuals and also reduce ethical conflicts amongst employees.
Individuals can also use the instrument to understand the way they make ethical decisions and thus reduce conflicts by selecting to work for those organizations that they most agree. Still, use of various concepts to aid in ethical decision making can further aid individuals in ethical decision making.
References Paul, R.,
The Salem Witch Trial Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Witchcraft operations in Salem
Cause and trial of the witchdoctors
In the courtroom
Defense of the accused
Challenges of the trials
Introduction Salem is a village in Massachusetts, which is a state in the New England region, in the North East of the United States of America. In the year 1692, it was afflicted by a certain kind of mysticism that drove some of the villagers into hysteria.
The hysteria manifested first in young girls whereby the girls exploded into bizarre behavior whose natural cause could not be traced. The young girls could be seized with convulsions, blasphemous screaming and melodramatic behaviors which were not normal. Since the physical source could not be traced, the community was led to believe that witches had invaded Salem.
The term witch should be understood and used in caution here. This is necessary in order for one to understand the trials of the witch in Salem. During the 17th century it was believed that a witch is a person who had made a treaty with the devil so that there will be an exchange of a soul for evil powers which the witch can use to torment human beings (MacBain, 4). It is quite normal for victims of these powers to claim to have experienced horrible dreams and illusions.
They would also experience physical pain and exhibit bizarre habits which could be alarming to the community. The perpetrators of this evil act would be identified by the villagers, investigated, tried and then condemned if found guilty. In a village such as Salem, a person found guilty of performing witchcraft would be hanged. Thus the word witch is a strong word used as an accusation of Satan’s treaties. If someone were found involved in this pact, it would lead to death. Salem villagers were religious.
Thus religiously speaking, a witch is a follower of an ancient pagan belief system (MacBain, 4). The discovery of this fact led to a series of activities aimed at flushing out all the witchdoctors who had run amok with their evil activities. Since Sale was a religious village, its inhabitants began praying and fasting in order to get rid of this satanic evil (Sutter 5).
Witchcraft operations in Salem Witchcraft in operation could manifest in several ways. All of these ways alter the normal and natural ways things operate and cause abnormal things to happen (Sutter 7). The effects were usually seen in human beings, animals and plants. Salem was not an exemption. Witchcraft would go as far as killing infants and adults (Fradin
Post Colonial Literature Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Central Themes in the Two Poems
Criticism of the Two Poems
Comparison of the Two Poems
Introduction In the modern times, a hot debate has emanated on colonialism and post colonialism and what they stand for. It is an area that has attracted so many writers with a lot of criticism based on different opinions. In their poetry, Judith Wright and Bhatt explicitly bring out post colonialism and modernism as major themes albeit in different ways. This has been achieved through their use of discourses on rhetoric questions, imagery and metaphor (Bery and Murray 2000).
The two writers embrace irony and symbolism to forward their discussions concerning the oppression brought about by the colonialists on the natives. This paper is a review of the these two poems; Judith Wright’s Two Dreamtimes and Sujata Bhatt’s A different History where it is going to primarily compare and criticize sentiments postulated by the poets in their literary work.
Central Themes in the Two Poems In her poem Two Dreamtimes, Judith Wright presents the Aborigines as poetic symbols to represent the entire historical oppression and injustice that instilled fear and guilt. Judith’s observation concerning the aggression and instability of the Aboriginal post conquest past extends to stand for the entire human race.
On post colonialism, Judith Wight talks of how both the whites and the black natives have lost in terms of culture and property then she proposes forgiveness and unity of the two groups as the only solution tom their problems (Wright 2002).
On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt in her poem A different History, talks of the environment and cultural degradation that is rampant in the modern post colonial era. She also elaborates on political oppression meted against the once colonized nations by their former colonial masters (Bhatt 1995). Sujata symbolically uses India to represent all those countries that are still experiencing these effects of post colonial oppression.
Both writers have dwelt so much on emphasizing the importance of culture as a sense of belonging. Judith Wright shows how the whites looked upon the blacks as minorities and never wanted to associate themselves with the black race. From her poem, we see the persona explaining how his parents warned him not to play with the black children. The white settlers grabbed all that belonged to the native Aborigines and left them piteous without anything to cling on.
However, with time, the two groups ended up loosing to their colonial masters due to their disunity. Sujata talks of the oppression directed towards the minorities and how everything had become oppressive in all dimensions. She admires the native Indian culture. This meant to arouse a sense of belonging and also show how much is lost when a country loses its cultural background due to modernism and post colonialism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both writers embrace culture as an important aspect of every community and individual. They have also vividly shown how modernism has brought about multiculturalism and erosion of cultures (McLeod 2000). The two poems pose intellectual questions to the reader and stimulate critical thinking and analysis of the entire theme of post colonialism and modernism.
Criticism of the Two Poems From her work, it is very true that Judith Wright was both an environmentalist and a social activist. The writer uses her childhood and lifetime experiences to vividly point out on various contemporary but fundamental issues affecting the society. For instance in her poem
Wright points out on post colonialism and racial segregation which she says was ‘eating up’ the society which was a hindrance to development. Also, she is keen to highlight cultural alienation versus modernity as another key issue of major concern but what she fails to indicate is how effective her notions and perceptions were practically applicable in during the times in which her poem is set.
Harsher criticism has been leveled on her work asserting that she does not present herself a person who lived in the contemporary society she writes about since she does not appreciate the fact that the issue of racial segregation was a lot more complicated than simply a given race being oppressed. There was the reality of where these segregated persons came from and their social standing both economically and politically at that time.
On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt uses her multicultural experience to clearly air her criticisms on matters she thinks are of concern. In her poem, she succeeds in bringing to understanding vital concerns like culture, oppression and post-colonialism. With all the traces of a bard and postcolonial uniqueness, she demonstrates her passion for the local traditions and linguistic communication. In this poem, Sujata Bhatt shows the significance of culture and language to any particular individual and how they help define someone.
In her dual multicultural milieu, she freely uses language as a tool to further her ideologies through writing that is drawn from her vast experience after having lived in three continents (McLeod 2000). This notwithstanding however, Bhatt’s work can be criticized in the way she leans so much on her multicultural experience to present her surmises. Over reliance of personal perceptions and beliefs bereaves her work scientific and universal acclaim since it may be dismissed as lacking empirical facts and realities.
Comparison of the Two Poems Looking at the poem, ‘Two dreamtimes,’ there is an aspect racial segregation that is very evident in the first two stanzas, “You were one of the dark children I wasn’t allowed to play with-riverbank campers, the wrong color, (I couldn’t turn you white)” (Wright 2002, p.35). White children were not allowed to mingle with the black children. This was a form of oppression that the writer brings to light in her work. The stanza also states that black was a wrong color.
We will write a custom Essay on Post Colonial Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This literally means that blacks were treated with a lot of contempt by the whites who looked upon them as an inferior race. This was extended even to their children who were warned never to associate with the black children. The writer’s criticism of this vice is depicted when she refers the black as, ‘riverbank campers, the wrong color’ and finally says, ‘(I couldn’t turn you white).’ Here, the writer is being sarcastic of the descriptions given to the blacks by her parents.
Scramble for property that belonged to the natives was a common phenomenon as evident in the poem, “late I began to know they hadn’t told me the land I loved was taken out of your hands” (Wright 2002, p.35). When the colonialists arrived in ‘their colonies,’ the white settlers grabbed all that belonged to the natives including land and went ahead to sell most of it for their own lavish interests (Bery and Murray 2000).
This left the natives with nothing but a state of hopelessness while the white settlers continued extravagantly enjoying what was not theirs. This is shown when the persona in the poem says, “The sullen looks of the men who sold them for rum to forget the selling the hard rational white faces with eyes that forget the past” (Wright 2002, p.35).
The writer uses irony when she says that the white settlers traded the land they had grabbed from the natives for rum. This brings out the contemptuous attitude of the writer towards the imperialists. Her criticism is furthered when she negatively describes the whites and assigns innocence to the blacks in her description (Dohra 2007).
There is an aspect of cultural degradation that was as a result of colonization from the same poem. The oppression the natives were subjected to caused them to remain hopeless and their traditions and practices faded away with time. There was no time since even what used to be their own had been snatched away fro the leaving them as piteous beings struggling for existence leave alone survival.
From the poem it is said, “Over the rum your voice sang the tales of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming” (Wright 2002, p.35). The once happy and beautiful culture was lost and people were mixed in the multi-culture without any identity. This led to a feeling of withdrawal among the colonized (Afzal-Khan 1993).
The writer goes ahead to highlight how the Aborigines are oppressed by the colonial laws when she openly critics these tyrannical laws as, ”Raped by rum and an alien law, progress and economics” (Wright 2002, p.35).The use of the word ‘raped’ shows how these laws and regulations were evil and also reveals the writer’s negative attitude towards (Moore-Gilbert 1997). This negated perspective of the law is almost a direct opposite of what Bhatt surmises in her poem where she presents a similar case but rather using more benign terms.
There is violation of human rights especially against women who are viewed as weak beings that deserve no right a case that is brought out by both poets in their work. Women were double colonized by the colonial rule and also by the entire society. This is shown in the poem, “Telling sad tales of women (black or white at a different price) meant much and little to us” (Wright 2002, p.35).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Post Colonial Literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This explicitly illustrate that all these exploits were offensive but no one had the right and courage to stand and fight against them. People were so oppressed that they had given up in life and just took life as circumstances dictated to them (Bill, Gareth and Helen 1998).
In addition to this, the two authors tend to share common views and both tend to critic the outcomes of colonialism and post-colonialism. They both accentuate the importance of culture but are disparagative of colonialism and post-colonialism consequences (Elmer 1995). Concerning culture, Sujata Bhatt says uses the first stanza to create a culturally entrusted society where the set norms are respected by everyone. She says, “Here, the gods roam freely…every tree is sacred and it is a sin to be rude to a book” (Wright 2002, p.35).
Judith Wright on the other hand talks of cultural dilapidation as a result of colonialism when she says; “Over the rum your voice sang the tales of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming” (Wright 2002, p.35).
The two poems also criticize both colonization and post-colonialism effects through the use of language techniques. Sujata Bhatt employs the use of rhetoric questions to forward her criticism (Kerwin 1997). This helps infuse critical thinking in the reader’s mind and hence make him or her think alongside the writer throughout the poem. For example she says, “Whose language has not been the oppressor’s tongue?” (Wright 2002, p.35).
This statement engages anyone reading it to pause and think broadly concerning the subject matter. Conversely, Judith Wright capitalises on the uses of satire, sarcasm and irony to surface her criticism. She also uses imagery when she says, “We the robbers robbed in turn” (Wright 2002, p.35). She directly refers to the white settlers as robbers and thus, she succeeds in delivering her denigration.
Conclusion In summing up, in my own view, Judith’s work is a picture of what is happening in the modern post-colonial era. Despite getting freedom from colonialism, there is still indirect oppression in terms of leadership, trade and resource exploitation imposed by the once colonial masters on their former colonies (Greg 2004).
These countries still receive unfair terms of trade in the world market and do not really benefit from their products and services (Childs and Williams 1997). This sentiment that is central in her poem has been articulated better than Bhatt has presented her central theme of societal injustices in post-colonial times.
References Afzal-Khan, F., 1993. Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R. K. Narayan: The Realm of Mythic Realism. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP.
Bery, A. and Murray, P., 2000. ‘Introduction’ in Comparing Postcolonial Literatures: Dislocations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bhatt, S., 1995. A Different History. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bill, A., Gareth, G. and Helen, T., 1998. Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge.
Childs, P. and Williams, P., 1997. An Introduction to Post-colonial Theory. London: Prentice Hall.
Dohra, A., 2007. “Introduction: ‘This Is Ma Trooth,’” in Rotten English: A Literary Anthology, ed. Ahmad. New York: W. W. Norton.
Elmer, A., 1995. The Art of Brian Friel. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Greg, G., 2004. Ecocriticism. New York: Routledge.
McLeod, J., 2000. Beginning Postcolonialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Moore-Gilbert, B., 1997. Postcolonial Theory: Contexts, Practices, Politics. London: Verso.
Wright, J., 2002. Collected Poems. Sydney: Angus
Code switching and millennial generation Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The millennial generation is extensively influenced by technology. This generation has had access to mobile phones, digital equipments and the internet. The Millennials prefer text messaging, IMing, and social networking sites rather than conventional forms of communication such as phone conversations (Godwin-Jones 13).
Consequently, technologically-inflected version of English has evolved. There has been fear that the technologically-inflected version of English is having effects on standard written English. Although the Millennial generation has learnt to code switch between the two versions of English depending on audience, it is unquestionable that technologically- inflected version of English is affecting standard written English.
Discussion Code switching is a common practice in the multilingual world. Individuals have to switch from one language to another in order to communicate effectively. In most cases code switching is common in minority linguistic groups while in a dominant language (Auer 78). The practice is also common in bilingual or multilingual individuals. Individuals who code switch tend to choose the language to use automatically depending on their audience.
Technology has led to unmistakable two versions of English. The millennial generation’s version of English does not adhere to standard words and rules in Standard English. Words such as ‘wassup’ ‘gd ngt’ ‘gr8’ ‘luv u’ have evolved because of need to write shorten words and phrases when text-messaging and IMing.
The millennial generation has perfected in use of the technologically-inflected version of English considering that they have been brought up during the era of technology (Godwin-Jones 19). However, the Millennials have to communicate with other individual in the society. In school, they have to communicate with their educators, write academic essays and make presentations. In such situations, they have to use Standard English rather than the technologically-inflected version of English.
Code switching between technologically-inflected version of English and Standard English has become necessary for millennial generation. At school, students use technologically- inflected version of English when communicating with their peers on social issues. For example, students are unlikely to use Standard Written English when updating their status on social networking sites like Facebook, when text-messaging their peers or when using Instant Message applications.
However, they switch to Standard English when writing to their instructors on academic issues, when writing academic papers or when writing a formal letter. It is clear that the students choose the version of English to use depending on their audience and subject. For instance, students are likely to use Standard Written English when responding to discussion topics on academic discussion boards, but use technologically-inflected version of English in a sports blog.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of technologically-inflected version of English has effect on standard written English despite of code switching between the two. Text messaging, blogging, IMing, social networking sites and other modern forms communication have become common and frequent (Godwin-Jones 17).
The language used in the new forms of communication is likely to find its way to Standard Written English. For example, frequent use of abbreviations such as HR, HRD, HOD, and ALT in Standard English can be attributed to frequent use of technologically-inflected version of English.
Summary Among other reasons, code switching is motivated by the need to show social solidarity among members of the millennial generation. Technologically-inflected version of English is not just a communication tool but also a social identity for the millennial generation. In school, the main challenge for English trainers is how they take code- switching as a tool for communication rather than viewing it as threat to Standard English.
Works Cited Auer, Peter. Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Godwin-Jones, Robert. Emerging Technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing Language Learning Strategies