Thomas Hobbes was a philosopher in English and is today known for his political philosophical work. His most popular book which created political philosophy foundation for him in the West was Leviathan– published in the year 1651. Hobbes main perspective in the book was social contract theory.
Hobbes lived from1588 to 1679 and during his lifetime created a great impact on people with his political philosophy and views. This paper mainly compares the relationship between Thomas Hobbes as an individual, faith and the society apparent in his two major works from the early 17th century-Human Nature (1650) and Leviathan (1651).
The nature of the individual Thomas Hobbes was born in a poor family with no riches, supremacy or influence. He was the son of village vicar who was disgraced by the world. Hobbes however was lucky enough to go to school by the help of his wealthy uncle who funded his education. Hobbes intellectual abilities were developed and recognized after going through systematic teaching in Latin and Greek classics.
His intellectual talents managed to see him through to Oxford University and later on through the use of common sense and mature personality, Hobbes got the chance to tutor Cavendishes a young man from a noble family in England. Hobbes managed to come close to power because of his practical and intellectual abilities showing clearly the nature of person he was as an individual.
We can say that he was a persistent man who never gave up easily and that is why he managed to reach far. Later on, his hard work enabled him to become a math tutor to King Charles II. This however did not make Hobbes a dominant person, it destined that he was definitely susceptible and aware of power.
Hobbes managed to overcome all the political and social havocs that affected his life and which were the major things that shaped the way he was thinking. These factors did not hinder his intellectual growth. This shows how ordinary Hobbes was, he did not allow the surrounding affect his growth despite the fact that it affected his thoughts.
Being a tutor shaped his writing and reading scope which finally enabled him to become the best publisher in Europe. While he was a tutor, he managed to get in contact with great and noble English intellectuals of his time like Francis Bacon. He also managed to learn a lot in France while he was in exile something he imposed after political and social havocs became great.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hobbes rising reputation as a scholar and as a scientist gave him the chance to also meet chief scholarly figures in Europe during his time such as Gassendi, Mersenne and Descartes. Hobbes managed to find himself in a debate with these notable figures in Europe discussing mathematics, science and sometimes arguing on philosophy. His arguments with these people sometimes cost his intellectual reputation in Europe but that did not worry him.
Hobbes had liberal thoughts whereby he believed that everyone has equal rights; he believed in natural equality for all people. His liberal thoughts later on brought a distinction between the state and civil society (Dietz 1990). This means that Hobbes had a political order character with a justifiable political power view of representative based on the people’s consent. His liberal elucidation of the law was living in a free world whereby everyone had the right to do whatever they liked or wished as long as the law did not forbid it.
Hobbes understood humans as beings with motion and matter (Sorrell
Comparison of Two Papers: Garfinkel, Alan P and Emery, Kitty F Term Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of Animals that are likely to be killed off by Humans
Conditions for Human Caused Extinction to Take Place
Human Caused Extinction or Climate Change
Introduction In this paper what will be examined is the work of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) in terms of their individual findings regarding the impact of intrusive human populations within particular environments and their subsequent contribution towards the depletion and at times extinction of certain animal species. The study of Emery (2007) focused primarily on Mayan society between the years 2000 BC and AD 1697.
Emery (2007) utilized zooarcheological studies and findings as the primary method of evaluation regarding the impact of human civilization on animal species during this specific period of time with a particular emphasis on big game animals such as Odocoileus virginianus and their correlation with the foraging of smaller animal species (Emery 2007: 1-10).
Garfinkel et al. (2010) on the other hand focused on the Numic and Pre-Numic cultures that existed within the Coso Range in eastern California prior to 1500 B.C. The Pre-Numic culture evidently vanished as a result of depletion of the game species within the immediate area, particularly the big horned sheep, which Garfinkel et al. (2010) connects with intense competition for land and resources from the Numic culture that migrated into the valley several hundred years prior ((Garfinkel, et al 2010: 1-12).
Unlike Emery (2007), Garfinkel et al. (2010) utilizes the various examples of rock art within the Coso valley which depicts various animal species and rituals as the studies primary method of examination regarding the impact of the Numic and Pre-Numic civilization on the indegenous animal population.
Differences The main difference between Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) (aside from the cultures they examined) is the method in which they each arrived at their individual conclusions.
Garfinkel et al. (2010) examined the ages of the of animal rock art within the Coso valley and connected their increased proliferation over the years leading up to 1500 B.C. with the subsequent decrease of the big horned sheep population (as well as other key prey species) resulting in the disappearance of the Pre-Numic culture ((Garfinkel, et al 2010: 1-12).
Emery (2007) examined zooarcheological indicating a shift from large animal species towards smaller prey species within the diet of the Mayan civilization as indicative of overharvesting of key species such as Odocoileus virginianus.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarities The main similarity between the work of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) is that both works emphasize on how societal culture played an important role in the decimation of local animal species. As Garfinkel et al. (2010) explains, the increasing proliferation of animal representations prior to 1500 B.C. when the Pre-Numic civilization vanished was an indication of the greater cultural significance of rare kills due to harder to find prey animals.
Despite their inherent cultural tradition of respect for animals, the aboriginal people at the time actually made no systematic efforts whatsoever to conserve the game species that were important aspects of their culture (Garfinkel, et al 2010: 1-2). As certain key species such as the big horned sheep got rarer, the greater the prestige and acclaim given to hunters for such kills due to the communal method of sharing the results of a hunt.
This heightened the subsequent power and leadership roles given to hunters that were successful and as a result dissuaded the subsequent shift towards hunting a different type of prey species that were more plentiful but gave less societal acclaim. This is evidence of the subsequent impact that societal culture had on the decimation of animal species since it shows how the desire for social positions dissuaded hunters from conserving certain species.
Emery (2007) presents an almost similar viewpoint in her study when she points out that as the Mayan civilization grew in size and complexity this led to the development of a form of social stratification with the “elites” on the top and the normal citizens below. Just as the present day “elitist” half of society favors particular types of “rich food” (i.e. lobster, Blue fin tuna, Kobe Beef, caviar etc.) so too did the elite of Mayan civilization prefer particular types of prey species.
This led to hunters concentrating on particular types of large game instead of smaller prey species due to the higher perceived value such species had within their culture at the time. Inevitably this led to the decimation of large prey species such as Odocoileus virginianus (Emery 2007: 1-10).
Types of Animals that are likely to be killed off by Humans Based off the work of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) it can be seen that animal species that have a distinct socio-cultural significance within a particular society (especially for the elite), such as the big horned sheep in Pre-Numic culture, are more likely to be killed off as compared to other types of species.
This is due to the greater degree of demand, prestige and societal acclaim that hunting these particular types of species brings. This can actually still be seen in the present wherein the Japanese have continued to harvest Blue Fin tuna despite the continued warning of various marine biologists and various countries that Japan is hunting the fish to extinction.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Comparison of Two Papers: Garfinkel, Alan P and Emery, Kitty F specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their justification behind such actions is supposedly due to the cultural significance Blue Fin tuna has within their society and that it constitutes a major part of their diet. In reality the price of Blue Fin tuna is so exorbitant that it is usually the elite that consume it which is quite similar to what occurred in the ancient Mayan civilization and their consumption of Odocoileus virginianus.
Conditions for Human Caused Extinction to Take Place From the combined perspective of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007), it can be stated that the conditions by which human caused extinction takes place for particular animal species is based on the following factors occurring:
The continued expansion of a particular society to the point that increasing amounts of land and animal resources are needed to sustain it.
Lack of sufficient societal will to conserve a species by switching to an alternative prey sources despite the obvious depletion of the species.
The development of social stratification within particular societies wherein the hunting/consumption of particular prey species is associated with being in such positions.
Lastly, competition by various societies over one species which can lead to its overconsumption and subsequent extinction.
Human Caused Extinction or Climate Change The best way in order to tell whether a particular species was depleted as a result of human activity or climate change is to examine the zooarcheological findings when examining the various sites of certain societies and correlating it with the importance of a particular species within a culture. The more in demand it was and the greater the number of bones within the sites, the more likely that species was hunted into extinction.
Reference List Emery, Kitty F. 2007 Assessing the impact of ancient Maya animal use. Journal for Nature Conservation 15: 184-195.
Garfinkel, Alan P., et al. 2010 Bighorn hunting, resource depression, and rock art in the Coso
Range, eastern California: a computer simulation model. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 42-51.
Multicultural Supervision for School Counselors Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
School Counselors and Cultural Competence
Abstract The general performance of culturally diverse students is usually low. In this context, school counselors are required to address this phenomenon with precision and articulacy required. However, triumph in the use of counselors to address this issue depends on their cultural competence.
This paper is based on a study that focused on the effects of advanced intervention sessions on schools composed of students from diverse cultures. The results that the study found revealed partiality on the part of counselors. It also provided a way of engaging counselors in discussions addressing viable intervention strategies. Concurrently, this paper includes areas that need more studies. This incorporates intervention methods that counselors employ.
Background Information US society has become more culturally diverse and this has influenced the cultural diversity of most schools. Thus, training and involvement of supervisors is necessary. These counselors must be culturally competent (Sue, 2010). It has been noted that culturally diverse students perform poorly compared to others.
In this regard, school counselors must address this problem (underachievement of the culturally diverse students in academics) with precision and due competence (Erford, 2004). However, a considerable challenge is that many school counselors are not competent enough to effectively tackle the problem.
The belief is that these counselors may simply act as gate keepers thus prevent the culturally diverse students from attaining the best academically. It is crucial to execute multicultural supervision for school counselors in order to enhance their competence in handling culturally diverse students. This is a critical provision when considered critically in the context of cultural diversity.
However, due to the increasing cultural diversity in schools, teachers must be ready for confrontation with culturally diverse classrooms. In the last 10 years, the number of colored children in the public schools has increased. They currently constitute one third of the total number of students in the public schools.
It is estimated that the number of the colored children in the public schools will constitute 40% of the total number of children in the public schools by 2020. Due to these observations and projections, teachers must be thoroughly prepared and trained on how to handle culturally diverse classrooms. This provision will enhance their competency as indicated earlier.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evidently, diversity hardly entails racial implications alone. Composition of families, social and economic statuses of the students, religion and ethnicity of communities, and other considerable factors contribute to the diversity and alleged racial composition. These also influence the expectations of the society and the competence required among teachers.
The other observation is that teachers still reflect majority culture even though students continue to be culturally diverse (Marín
Education policy in America Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Policies determining the placement of a child
State Special Education Finance Issues
The Special Education Process
Abstract One of the similarities between the education policy in England and that in America is their focus on the students who are in the most need of educational assistance, children with disabilities. The United States has distinct policies and legislation that target children with disabilities.
Special education legislation has been a vital part of education policy in the United States since the early 1970s. These policies will be described in this paper, which seeks to explore the first American legislation specifically designed to protect American disabled children in school, namely the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA). This legislation mandated a federal right to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE).
To obtain federal funding, states had to comply with the EAHCA. The EAHCA included specific eligibility criteria for special education services. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) built on the illegal to discriminate against persons because of their disabilities.
Although a civil rights act, “Section 504 is also used to develop education plans for students who meet the section 504 definition of a disability, rather than an IDEA definition.” Section 504 not only prohibits state departments of education and local school districts from developing policies that limit disabled children from participating in assessments, it also prohibits denying these students the benefits accrued from participating in these assessments, namely promotion to the next grade, and ultimately graduation.
Acronyms ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act
EAHCA: Education for All Handicapped Children Act
FAPE: free and appropriate public education
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEE: Independent Educational Evaluation
IEP: Individualized Education Program
LRE: least restrictive environment
NRC: National Research Council
Introduction With the passage in 1975 of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which is now referred to as the Individual with Disabilities Education Act or IDEA, what was previously a collage of programs for students with disabilities began transformation into an actual national system of services.
In the period between 1993 and 1994, there were enrolments of 5.37 million students and an estimated national expenditure in excess of $32 billion for the development and full implementation of special education programs and related services for students with disabilities. This marked the biggest undertaking by K-12 education in over 20 years, since about 40% of the education budget was directed to special education from 1967 to 1991.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Education policy in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although protection for students with disabilities continues to be enhanced through the passage of such legislation as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the substantial student growth and new investments in special education programs have also led to heightened levels of public scrutiny (Parrish, 1996).
The current era of competitive budget slashing whereby governors, federal legislators, and presidential candidates continuously engage in declaration battles of proposed cuts in various programs in the public sector is not new to the fiscal policies in relation to special education were facing increased public attention.
Concerns with the costs and financing of special education have received extensive national publicity over the past several years through prominent outlets such as well known blogs and newspaper columnists.
In addition to issues related to special education costs, other policy issues, such as increased emphasis on placing special education students in general education classrooms and the need for greater fiscal flexibility in relation to local program design, have resulted in exceptional fiscal reform activity in special education. This paper aims at providing a brief overview of the special education programs, with particular interest in the effect of IDEA on children with autism (Chaikind, Danielson,
Critique and Instructional Design Model Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Instruction design model is a systematic goal based mode of instruction delivery. It is systematic since the system follows specific steps to achieve the intended goals. The design involves activities, objectives, presentations, materials, feedback, and guidance. The goal of each and every design is to ensure effective, efficient and quality delivery of instructions to the intended groups.
There are numerous instruction design models, consequently, their uses depends on the course needs. Despite their differences, instruction designs goal are to maximize development of learners knowledge. This paper analyses ADDIE instruction design model.
The increasing demand of information in all the fields including learning and entertainment has brought with it the need of content. The value of information content has been identified as vital tool in instruction delivery in any setting.
The mode of instruction delivery is vital for societal and economic development. As a result, selection of any mode of instruction delivery hence needs to be critically considered to meet the intended function (Elizabeth
Policy, Team, and Information Technology Differences Essay college application essay help
Research carried out shows that internet use contributes greatly to the success of an organization. It connects employees hence enhancing the success of an organization, for instance, survey carried on the department of labor showed that use of internet contributed 65% of the annual hires. However, with availability of the internet, majority of the employees alongside with numerous contractors need appropriate controls over the use of the internet to prevent cases of improper use of the internet in the department or an organization.
Internet guidelines The internet use guidelines at the departmental level need to have some similarity with the guidelines used at the organizational level. This is because; departments as well as organizations have one goal in common, success. Therefore, application of organizational guidelines in the running of a department will enhance its success, this is because many organizations’ success is entitled to the following of their set guidelines.
Employee’s responsibility However, it is the responsibility of the employees and other staff members within the department to ensure that they have followed the internet guidelines to the latter. This is because; they are the ones who get access to the daily occurrences within the department that dictate for accuracy and validity.
In addition to employees and the staff members contributing to the success of the department, their right decisions enhance accuracy of the exchanges that take place within the department. On the other hand, failure of the employees and the staff members in complying with the set guidelines may lead to regrettable disciplinary action.
Factors to consider when forecasting the value of a new-networked system In order for an effective implementation of a networking system in a department to be accomplished within a two-year budget, four key factors have to be given priority, and they include having careful planning, effectual configuration of the network, regular maintenance of computers, and installing impenetrable security.
In carrying out careful planning, a competitive individual will ensure that all requirements for networking are available and in effective conditions to enhance the success of departmental networking. (McLaughlin, 2008).
It is also essential for an individual to employ effective configuration when linking computers to avoid communication problems among computers, this because incorrect configuration of the routers and hubs in connecting the computers cause communication problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regular maintenance of the networking system is also appropriate in order to have the computers run effectively and for long. Implementation of maintenance tools, for instance antivirus and back up apparatus, aid keep the computers in good condition. In addition, carrying regular maintenance on the computers aid in solving the issue of loses of money on networking failures.
Importance of networking installation Computers running under networking are prone to a variety of attacks. The attacks may invade the computers in the form of worms or viruses and spread to all computers through the network connecting the computers. Occasionally, the attacks lead to loss of data and time spent in preparing the computers. Therefore, it is essential to install security measures to help keep the computers free from attacks.
However, the cost of installing the networking system varies greatly as per the materials used in the installation; it may be higher than the value of the networking process. For instance, the cost of hardware, software and other telecommunication tools is very high, and this contributes to the increase of the cost of the installation of the networking system. In addition, continuous business management consultations also digs dip in the capital required for networking installation. (Laudon, K. C.,
Southwest AirLine Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Southwest Air Line is an American company with its head quarters in San Diego, California. The company was established by Herb Kelleher and Rollin King in 1971.
Questions Determine how Southwest Airlines’ corporate culture differs from other airlines
Corporate culture refers to an organization’s standards, values and ideology. It is reflected through manager’s style of leadership, ways of communication and the pattern of work. In many organizations, the corporate culture is usually introduced and maintained by founders of the organization and those who take over from them.
Southwest Airline has a unique culture which is shaped by its founding leaders. The company has a reputation of suitable schedules, affordable fare, true concern for its passengers and joyful service. Unlike other companies who take every opportunity to increase there fares even when economic circumstances do demand such increments, Southwest Airline never executes unnecessary fare increments.
For example, it refused to charge customers who travelled with their checkered baggage. Instead they encouraged their clients to come with them by sarcastically having a poster in their premise which read, “We love your checkered baggage”.
These standards, values and ideology of South West Airline trickle out to its clients. This is because the company endeavors to make its customers happy. By motivating their workers, employees develop a feeling of belonging. Employee happiness is converted to customer happiness.
The driving principle for South West Air Line states that, happy workers leads to satisfied customers. One of the ways the company uses to motivate a team of over 32,000 employees is by involving them in decision making. When employees are involved in decision making, they easily implement solutions reached at in decision making forums (Boone
The role of young people in Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction While analyzing the role of young people in Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, some basic ideas of the book must be revealed. First of all, it is necessary to point out that the novel belongs to the postmodern crime story. Larsson’s novel covers a variety of themes, which most important are serial murder, contemporary Swedish society, feminism, right-wing extremism, and the darkest sides of human nature. Generally, the role of young people is mostly associated with the last listed theme.
Family upbringing in Larsson’s novel As far as abuse of young girls and women is considered to be one of the key events the author highlights, one can probably conclude that family upbringing is the burning problem of the society Larsson depicts in his work. The author gives readers an opportunity to trace back how sexual assault spoils people’s mind and distorts the way they accept the reality.
Thus, the protagonist of the story Lisbeth Salander is one of the young girls who has been subjected to violence by a man. When reading the novel, it becomes evident that there was not only the protagonist who experienced sexual assault, but almost every woman described in the novel. In order to prevent future abuse, Lisbeth neglects certain “societal norms and rules for politeness” (“Book Review – The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo” par. 5).
The importance of the equality One is to keep in mind that Lisbeth is not depicted as a fighter for justice. When describing abuses of young girls, Larsson shows the importance of the equality between genders. However, it should be noted that the term equality goes beyond its original meaning.
Therefore, the issue of equality should not be regarded in its common sense; equality does not mean seeking for social, economic or any other parity. Lisbeth’s case proves that equality must be regarded as a condition, when a person has no need to look round the corner before he or she takes a step.
Lisbeth Salander and other victims in Larsson’s work Lisbeth Salander is considered to be the character of promise and redemption. Keeping in mind that most of women cannot defend themselves against sexual crime, Salander seems to represent a new response to violence. Of course, the girl’s bitter experience impacted on her mode of life.
Thus, Lisbeth Salander is a girl of spirit: she lacks femininity and some kind of vulnerability. It is no accident that most of women in Larsson’s story were raped and killed. The author wanted to show readers the level of social injustice. Larsson clarifies that sexual abuse is recognized to be the global problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, the victims depicted in the novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo have a symbolical meaning. “Larsson paints Swedish society as a place where financial reporters treated mediocre financial whelps like rock stars and violent crimes against women frequently go almost completely unnoticed and unpunished” (Kyzer par. 5). In other words, one can conclude that there are two major problems Larsson is deeply concerned about: white collar corruption and violence against females.
The issue of morality The issue of morality is also one of the major themes of the novel, which is to be discussed in detail. Thus, it is necessary to notice that sex education plays an important role in people’s life. Most of the young girls and women who were raped in Larsson’s novel were morally deprived. For this reason, their immoral behavior was associated with some biblical quotations.
Violence as one of people’s future determinants
Most of critics agree that the protagonist of the story Lisbeth Salander is mostly associated with a feminist avenger. Thus, the author gives us an opportunity to trace back what other characters of the novel think about Salander: “Armansky wondered whether he might be mistaken or whether Salander really was unsure how to continue.
The Salander he knew was never unsure or hesitant” (Larsson 42). When analyzing the plot of the novel, it becomes obvious that her prickly personality was probably formed on the basis of constant abasement she experienced when was younger. However, it should be noted that most of victims cannot resist violence and make no attempts to stop offenders.
If one divides victims into two categories (those who can resist offenders and those who are ready to suffer), he or she will notice how violence frustrates people’s future. Stronger people will probably start to lead a secluded life, in order to avoid future abuse; the perspectives for those who have been cracked because of violence are of wide range: some victims can ruin themselves with alcohol, drugs, etc.; others can go off their heat.
Larsson gives his readers an opportunity to understand how violence changes people’s values, expectations and beliefs. Moreover, he shows the way people’s bright hopes are replaced by certain worthless expectations.
The author reflects how violence impacts on the young girls’ worldview; he gives us a chance to compare two personalities of those who have been abused– the so-called personalities before and after: on the one hand, he describes the girls who believe in future, who have a lot of opportunities, who enjoy life; on the other hand, he shows the way sexual abuse transforms people’s desires: he depicts how violence destroys people’s faith, and outlines people’s existence.
We will write a custom Essay on The role of young people in Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo reveals the importance of gender and social justice. Nobody will deny the fact that there are new generations who determine a country’s future. It depends upon young people whether the society will be civilized or no. However, grown-ups are to think about security of their children.
The society is to take security measures, in order to protect individuals from domestic violence, rape and other sexual assault. Lisbeth Salander as one of the young girls who experienced violence is considered to be a powerful person who shows readers the roots of feminism. “Haunted, resilient, savvy, dark, unpredictable, and endlessly resourceful, she delivers ingeniously planned and colorful acts of vigilante justice to the irredeemable criminals who have the misfortune or poor judgment to cross her path” (Lyubansky and Shpungin 1).
Despite the fact that Lisbeth withstood sexual abuse, one can notice that her life is gloomy and she is alone. Lisbeth has no friends, she is unhappy and morose. Such traits in her character can be regarded as the so-called consequences of violence she faced. The protagonist of the novel is considered to be the author’s personal angel of justice. Keeping in mind certain symbolical interpretations of Larsson’s work, one can state that the main character is the only appropriate tool of doing fairness.
Conclusion Finally, it should be pointed out that the young people in Larsson’s novel symbolize the most important problems the modern society faces. Showing violence the young girls and women have been subjected to, the author highlights the importance of equality and social justice.
Works Cited: “Book Review – The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo.” Seattle Pacific University. Web.
Kyzer, Larissa. “Three Percent Review.” Rochester.edu. n.d. Web.
Larsson, Stieg. The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2008. Print.
Lyubansky, Mikhail and Elaine, Shpungin. “The Cost of Justice.” Illinois.edu. 2011. Web.
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Social Criticism Work in the Scandinavian Crime Fiction Novels Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Social criticism refers to a situation where malicious conditions are revisited with reference on how they have been entrenched in the social structures. Social criticism is geared towards getting practical solutions by applying certain measures to reform the society. Social criticism has permeated the academic arena, specifically in literature. Fictional literature has been used widely to expose social vices in societies. The Scandinavian fiction has been used largely in the crime novel to portray social criticism (Stieg, 6).
Notably, when Scandinavian crime fiction is mentioned, novels like “The Girl with a Dragon Tattoo” and “Silence of the Grave” come into play. The fiction novels have been rated, and their content has achieved a widespread acknowledgement. The novel “The Girl with the dragon Tattoo” uses a woman as the leading character whereby all events in the novel are centered on her. The novel opens with the introduction of Mikael Blomkivist who has lost a defamation case under doubtful circumstances.
Mikael is set to start investigations of his niece who disappeared forty years ago. As the story unfolds, and Henrik, who has hired Blomkvist to carry out the investigation, is convinced that the disappearance of Harriet was engineered by family members. The investigations take a different turn when Blomkvist meets Lisbeth who proves to have a good memory, bad temper and intimacy issues (Stieg, 24).The two team up to unfold the mystery behind Harriet’s disappearance (Stieg, 7).
During the investigations progress, it is discovered that Harriet’s death forms part of a series of murders that took place in 1950s and 1960s. The novel depicts men as violent among the Swedish society. This is evidenced by the fact that, with the exception of Blomkvist, every male character in the novel is violent. In the process of the investigation, Blomkvist’s relationship with the daughter and a co-worker deteriorates considerably (Stieg, 8).
The novel presents a morally questionable cycle where a rape revenge fantasy is presented. The empowered woman in the novel stops at nothing to revenge. The nature of the violence that she goes through depicts a crime dominated society. The novel builds a society based on violence against violence.
The society is not represented as depending on the due process of the law. The leaning towards reactionary violence stems from lack of trust in the established institutions. The issue of revenge being a better option in the Swedish society is evident when, at the end of the novel, Blomkvists makes efforts to bring down the executive who worn the lawsuit mentioned at the beginning of the novel (Stieg, 12).
The violence on Lisbeth in the novel portrays the society as working against a woman since rape is the norm of the day. Lisbeth turned into a hacker and planned to take revenge on her abusers by letting out all the dirty secrets about the wealthy. Her revenge is not confined to what has been done against her, but she takes revenge on behalf of women in general. The novel presents a situation whereby women are viewed as sex objects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, raping cannot be ruled out from such a society. A reader is shocked by the treatment that Swedish men give to their women. In addition, the book presents other crimes such as murder and suicide. The novel has a slight criticism on the Swedish welfare state. Bureaucracy is evidenced by the police investigations and the role of such bureaucracies in showing how investigations are obstructed.
The tradition of employing the use of technicalities to deny people justice is what Lisbeth and Mikael are aiming to eliminate. A different way of carrying out investigation based on learning and knowing that seems immune to obstruction is introduced by Lisbeth. This method of investigation mainly centers on investigation through hacking that cannot be obstructed (Stieg, 26).
The novel introduces the reader to the vengeance and violence in the Scandinavian society. The novel portrays the Swedish society as that which is not ready to depart from the Norse legal system that advocated for personal revenge. The parallelism between the ancient justice system and the modern legal system is clearly depicted in the novel when Lisbeth decides to take revenge.
The writer tries to cast blame on the failure of institutions such as the police to offer excellent investigations. He also considers the weaknesses of the justice system to awaken an alarming desire to take personal revenge. The renewed nationalism and contemporary violence are evident in Sweden at a time when justice is left in the hands of individuals. In the culture of violence, the writer strives to differentiate between men and female violence. The novelist shows that women are greatly affected by violence (Stieg, 22).
Genders comparison of violence in the novel shows that men are more violent than women. Cultural setting shows that many men are violent, and they consider women as objects upon which they can perpetuate their violence. The rape scene shows the state of crime in the Swedish society. The writer further paints justice as influenced and not free to everyone.
Though the story opens as pro-feminist, many believe that the writer departs from this notion when he portrays Lisbeth as subordinate to men. The complexity of her character and skills in her hacking, which are mainly meant to achieve revenge, leaves many unanswered questions regarding the pain of the women in the society and the determination to take revenge. The writer builds on the character of the woman as strong when she opts to take revenge.
This shows celebration rather than sympathy in revenge. A reader can possibly avoid the temptation of celebrating Lisbeth’s actions when she is taking revenge. At the end of the novel, the reader wonders whether the writer wanted to portray revenge as necessary or was trying to show how revenge has consumed the community.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Criticism Work in the Scandinavian Crime Fiction Novels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the writer seems to agree with the notion that revenge is unavoidable in Swedish society, and only a strong woman takes revenge. In the societal context, the writer used the stereotypical male impulse to build the character of Lisbeth (Stieg, 32).
In the novel, “Silence of the grave”, the author applies the crime epic story telling with a unique sociological complexity. The author opens the story with a thrilling narration of discovery of a skeleton on the estate located at the outskirts of Reykjavik. The excavation of the place leads to a discovery of red bushes surrounding the place.
Therefore, the reader is introduced to a twist of suspense in making a guess on who may have planted the bushes on the hillside. The archeologists were left to undertake their work, but the detective ordered the place to be investigated. The investigation on the area around the hillside points to the small farms where there was a military base. This base was manned by the British army at the time of the World War II. The detective makes interviews on the residents of the district, and the history becomes clear to him (Stieg, 24).
The place is surrounded by mysterious stories. The shocking part of the author is employing thrill in his work evidenced when he invites a voice from the grave to have a conversation. The story is sad, and it is narrated by an abused wife who lived in the hill before. The narration takes a portrayal of the society as being violent to women and purely patriarchal.
The connection between the story and the buried skeleton is left as food for thought on the parts of the reader. The writer does not make the skeleton voice mean that the woman and children were killed by the sadistic laborer who worked on the hillside. However, evidence points to the notion that the two are related.
The use of the parallel narrative leaves many questions that the reader gets answers as the story continues. The writer unveils the history and makes and exposes the history of Swedish community that has reached the new age. The attachment of the society to the historical past has gradually affected today’s Swedish, living styles (Arnaldur, 12).
There is breakdown of social values. The narration shows a situation whereby the society’s social values have completely broken down. The discovery of the skeleton was accompanied by a parallel voice of an abused woman and neglected children. The author portrays the society as being very ignorant about the weak. According to Elrendur’s work, there are cases of spousal abandonment and neglected children.
There is despair that surrounds the society, which does not seem to care. The detective experiences cases of neglect in his day to day duties. He encounters the worst experiences of a society that has lost touch with the observance of moral and social obligations. The introduction of the book is closely related to the conclusion whereby the detective becomes very compassionate after meeting gloomy men in his line of duty.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Criticism Work in the Scandinavian Crime Fiction Novels by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the detective is taking an interest in investigating the presence of the bones, he is faced with a strange encounter that makes him leave immediately. His daughter is taken to hospital. It is discovered that she has comatose. He is instructed by the doctor to talk to her (Arnaldur, 13).
The novels “The Girl with A tattoo,” “Silence Of The grave” and “Blind Goddess” has been viewed like a mirror hence helping readers to have a glimpse of the Scandinavian society. The mentioned novels carry themes of violence, revenge and crime. It has been established that the vengeance justice is still rooted in the living styles of the Swedish people.
In the novel, a woman is treated like a sex object and violence is more pronounced amongst men than women. The second novel centers on neglect and abuse of spouse. It becomes hard for a situation to go unnoticed since the community’s social values are greatly ignored. The detective investigating the human bones experiences similar social breakdown in his family. This makes it easy to get a real picture of the entire society (Holt
Sara Lee in 2011: Retrenchment Strategy Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Background information
Strategy identification for Sara Lee
Analysis of performance of the retrenchment strategy of Sara Lee
Recommendations for future decisions for the company
Background information Business companies operate in a very volatile and competitive environment. In such an environment, there are many forces that may work for or against the business company. More often, the forces generated from the environment have a negative effect on the business firm (Thompson, 2011).
Therefore, firms have to respond and mitigate these forces so that they can continue to thrive in the market. Firms adopt different strategies that seem suitable to the situation. This depends on the nature of effect that the changes have on the internal and external business environment. These strategies are referred to as competitive strategies (Katz, 2010).
Firms can either opt to focus on a single strategy or choose to employ different strategies in what is referred to as integration and differentiation of strategies. The firm has to be very sensitive when choosing a strategy. This is because the strategy chosen can have long term implications on the operation of the firm.
Strategic choices are made depending on what other firms have adopted. This is because the activities of other firms often have an impact on the performance hence contributing to the competitive advantage of the firm. Strategies aim to raise the competitiveness of a given firm in a certain industry (Katz, 2010).
Sara Lee is a fairly old company that has been in operation since the year 1939. It began as a small business and kept creating opportunities for growth. The company underwent a transformation with different strategies including the change of business name on several occasions.
The changes also included merger and acquisitions as part of the divestitures. Divestitures, as adopted by the management, were aimed at sharpening the business focus of the company. It was aimed at putting the company in a significantly strategic position within the market (Thompson, 2012).
Sara Lee Corporation, which is a company that is dealing in food, beverage and household products, got a new management in the year 2005. This indicated that changes were needed to transform the corporation. The Corporation appointed a new president, Brenda Barnes, who came up with a strategic plan that was ambitious. The plan was aimed at transforming the Corporation into a focused firm dealing in beverage, food and household products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new president noted that the firm was running many units of product categories that were not strong enough for the collective performance outcome of the company. Therefore, the firm had to reduce the number of units. Though the strategy would result in the reduction of revenues to the company by about $7 billion, it was seen as the best option.
Strategic plans will in most cases result to the disruption of the normal activities and functioning of a company. However, this is supposed to have a short-term effect, owing to the vision and objectives of the strategies used in effecting the plan. The retrenchment plan was expected to result into an increase in the after sales tax proceeds (Thompson, 2012).
The strategic plan aimed at positioning the selected segments that would strengthen the financial outcomes from the segments and the financial performance of the company. The company was to venture into market segments that were brighter and promising for the products of the company.
The retrenchment initiatives rolled out by the company were to be implemented in a systemic manner. This would see the company improve its sales activities, market share, and growth in profits resulting from the selected brands. The company selected brands that showed prospective signs of improvement in marketing for each of the product units (Daft, Murphy
Andragogy Reflection Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Andragogy has gained a lot of relevance in the last two centuries. Traditionally, education was perceived as a general process of imparting knowledge to student irrespective of their ages. Later, researcher came to realize that adult education had some differences from that of children. An adult who is undertaking education would be motivated by different factors from those that would a child. An adult can be self-motivated, unlike a child who would have the feeling that they are being forced to learn.
A child may not understand the consequences of education. It would go to school because it has been told to do so. As Neary (2002) says, an adult appreciates practicality in education. They want to be taught what can be applied in a practical context. On the other hand, most children fear practical subjects. They want theories that they can easily memorize. This has lead researchers in this field to believe that there is a difference between adult education and that of children.
Although many scholars have come to appreciate this difference, there are those who still believe that there are some similarities between adult education and that of children. There are those children who are self-motivated, just like the adults. Some children also like practical learning that can be applied in the real life context. On the other hand, some adults go to school in order achieve some set goals and as a result, they would want things that are easy to memorize and pass easily.
Therefore, there has been a belief that the concepts of Andragogy, though they are dominantly applicable to adults are also applicable to children. It is important for a teacher to understand andragogy in order to be in a position to know how to handle students. A learner should also be in a position to understand the concepts of andragogy in order to appreciate the importance of the learning process.
This study seeks to analyze the concepts of andragogy, how it is applicable in a learning set-up and its relevance to educators and the learners of all ages.
Traditional Learning Context Traditional learning context has always been based on a set up where the teacher is an adult and the learner is a child. In such set ups, the teacher would have the supreme powers as the age difference makes him or her take both the role of a teacher and a parent.
Tannehill (2011) notes that this may not be the case in adult learning where in some cases, the teacher might be younger that the learner. As such, the teacher must be in a position to assume the role of a teacher and not a parent. The learning process should be more of a dialogue than an instructive kind of learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I remember being part of a class in a conference that was organized by the company. The topic chosen was good and very interesting, but the type of lecture was very boring. The lecturer took the approach of traditional education. We as adults, who had experience in life as we had been in the job market, expected a consultative forum where we would be allowed to share our experience and the lecturer would try to fit them into the existing theories and explain them to us to expand the knowledge we had gained through experience.
The purpose of the lecturer was to bring to perspective, the effects of environmental degradation to the changing weather patterns. Instead of the lecturer taking the practical approach, the lecturer took the traditional concept of learning where he completely dominated the process, bringing theories related to environmental degradation and the consequences of the same. Most of the participants, I included, got extremely bored with the process.
Andragogy Reflection The recent researches have revealed that adult education has a completely different approach from that of children. The lifelong education where an adult takes education (at whichever level) to enhance his or her knowledge has a different approach from that where a child goes to school because the parent demands so or the circumstances that are prevailing forces one to be in school. Most of the traditional learning contexts do not consider adults.
Knowles argued that classroom climate should be a reflection of conditions that are amenable to the qualities of an adult. As stated in the section above, the lecture got boring because the concerned teacher failed to appreciate the fact that the involved learners were adults who had a lot of experience in matters of the environment. Instead of taking a consultative approach, the lecturer based the learning process on existing theories, making the process so plain for the participants.
Adult education demands that when learning, the educator should try as much as possible to ensure that the process is based on the experience of the participants. It is important to make the process a solution to the daily problems they face. This would demand that the process be explorative and consultative.
As Vodde (2009) notes, the educator should ensure that learning is student focused, trying to make practical some of the commonly held beliefs and theories. The lesson should not be meant to be memorized and it should not be exam centric. In order to bring more understanding to the concepts of andragogy, the following six assumptions of Knowles are very important.
One of the most defining characteristic of adult learners is that they have the ability to direct themselves without the guidance of the teacher. They know what they want from school.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Andragogy Reflection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, would not wait for the teacher to come and give them the direction. They would arrange their work accordingly and conduct further reading as might be necessary without any instructions. In the above, case, the teacher forgot to appreciate this fact and dealt with his students as people who need total direction and guidance in every step of leaning. Instead of bringing satisfaction, it led to student dissatisfaction.
Experience is another very important factor in adult learning. An adult learner always has the experience gained from various workplaces or life in general.
As such, when learning, it is very critical that this experience is taken into consideration. Knowles says that unlike children who have very little knowledge in life, adults have amassed a lot of experience, which an educator should always make an effort to turn into classroom knowledge (Knowles, Elwood,
Necessity of Understanding the Historical Roots of Psychological testing Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction It is quite interesting to note that methods of psychological testing have evolved over the years to incorporate a variety of new practices, methods of evaluation and even treatment in regards to mental illness (Matarazzo, 1992). For example, what is known today as post traumatic stress disorder was largely undiagnosed in the past and had been primarily thought of us as being isolated to individuals who went to war.
Today, it is generally attributed to instances involving a sufficiently traumatic event that can result in a “mental scar” so to speak that would require successive methods of psychological testing and evaluation to diagnose and treat. By understanding the historical underpinnings of psychological testing, we are able to come to the realization that as a field of medicine, psychology has experienced a considerable degree of trial and error due to complexities of the human mind (Yanovski,
Concepts and practices in local government finance Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Local governments have various policies that they establish and implement to manage their areas of jurisdiction. Public policies addressing the environmental aspects are among the common local government policies. They seek to minimize environmental impacts. Concurrently, they promote life quality in the concerned areas. Precisely, environmental policies enhance management of activities executed by residents.
The general aims of environmental policies incorporate monitoring the environment, creation of environmental awareness, and controlling human activities (Anderson, 2011). The environmental policies usually touch on environmental issues such as air, water, management of waste, and ecosystem preservation among others. Once the local government develops a policy, it has to find ways of funding and sustaining the implementation of the policy for the benefit of the community.
This paper focuses on a public policy regarding waste management and environmental protection, sources of the local authority’s revenues, and the funding options for the implementation of the policy.
In addition to this, it discusses the effects of public policy on revenue collection, the economic conditions that affect the revenue projections and the ways of formulating public policies that are in agreement with community’s values. The overall objective of the paper is to display the operations of the local governments in relation to policy and revenue collection and use.
Sources of Revenue Usually, local governments have to fund the establishment and implementation of public policies. Thus, it is necessary to understand sources of their revenues. Expenditures of the local government are divided into two categories (capital and current expenditures). The capital expenditures are mainly financed by the central government. The current expenditure is that which involve the daily operations of the authority and is financed from various sources.
The charges that local governments make for goods and services that they provide is one source of their revenue. The local governments usually provide a variety of services such as waste collection, water provision, housing and parking space for vehicles. They have powers to levy charges for these goods and services even though the national government may at times set the price (Ebel
Type of performance appraisals Essay essay help online free
Introduction The function of performance appraisal is to provide feedback on performance of employees during evaluation. Feedback is valuable to both the employees being appraised as well as the management of the company. Some of the most critical resolutions of an organization, including transfers, salary reviews, firing of employees and promotions, depend on the way the employees perform in their jobs. Organizational resources allocations are also based on performance appraisal.
As such, an ideal assessment format enhances organizational development, analysis and flow of communication. This report discusses three performance appraisal formats, including, self-assessment, 360-degree feedback and management by objective. Also, discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of these performance appraisal formats.
The 360-degree feedback method The 360-degree feedback provides a very ideal way of assessing the employee’s strengths and weaknesses. Its main aim is to help the employees improve on their performance. According to Edwards and Ewin, feedback from multiple and respected sources such as superiors, peers and subordinates tend to have more impact on people than a single source (215).
Many employees view performance information, from this approach, as fair, credible, accurate and motivating. Employees are likely to be motivated to change their habits to reach the standards of their co-workers than comply with what is imposed by their seniors (Edwards and Ewin 216).
In industrial psychology and Human Resources, 360-degree feedback is a feedback system that originates from the employee’s closest workmates. It is sometimes referred to as multisource assessment, multisource feedback or multi-rater feedback. This feedback relies on superiors, peers and subordinates, who help in issuing direct information regarding the employees’ performance.
In some situations, this can be concerned with feedback from vendors, customer and other parties that are involved in an organization. A 360-degree response is different from an upward response, which involves strict use of reports, or the conventional performance assessment where only the managers and supervisors are charged with assessment of employees’ performance.
The supervisor-only performance appraisal relies on the supervisor’s judgment and, therefore, it is subjective. They consume a lot of time, and they are disliked by those giving and receiving them. They are done once a year and they assess the employee’s performance and give the management the information it needs when promoting or increasing payment for the hardworking employees (Edwards and Ewen 253).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 360-degree Feedback system also helps improve the quality of employees and performance measures by using multi-raters, hence providing a more comprehensive and balanced view. According to Edwards and Ewen, the information provided is more credible, valid and reliable since the sources interact frequently with the employee while at work (213).
Single source appraisals do not give accurate information; they tend to give inflated evaluations that give every employer a high performance rating. This results into an environment where employees feel that they are entitled for promotions or salary increase without giving them the much-needed information for growth and development. This creates a tense atmosphere, between managers and the employees, since the managers find it hard to provide critical and specific feedback.
The 360-degree appraisal (or multisource assessment or full circle feedback) collects information from close workmates of the employee under evaluation, regardless of the position. The intelligence that these people disclose helps in determining the strengths of the employee and areas that need improvement (Edwards and Ewen 250).
Different researches (Rao 125) reveal that the 360-degree feedback system helps in the development and improvement of employees since it helps them know the perspective of their performance.
According to a five-year study (Walker and Smith 26), it was found that there was no improvement in the ratings between the first and second years, but higher scores were realized between the second, third and fourth years. According to Edwards and Ewen, the employee performance increased between the first and the second year and administrators kept this improvement two years later (215).
Advantages of 360-degree appraisal
The main advantage of a 360-degree feedback is that it provides a comprehensive view of an employee’s performance. In addition to providing feedback from various viewpoints, it helps minimize the biases inherent in evaluations. Many appraisers are likely to cancel out the various biases of different raters, and their different perspectives combines to give a more accurate, complete and honest picture.
The feedback that cuts across multiple aspects individually assists the employees decide whether their performance appraisal is done consistently. Individuals are able to acquire information on how other workmates thinks of them.
We will write a custom Essay on Type of performance appraisals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research shows that some employees do not like managers who analyze them when they do not directly interact with them. The employees can also be helped to agree to information through acquisition of direct information from colleagues and customers – this should be done anonymously to make sure no one is victimized.
Disadvantage of 360-degree appraisal
One notable disadvantage of 360-degree feedback system is that employees find it difficult and uncomfortable to offer honest feedback to their managers. This can also happen between employee-employee evaluations. To avoid criticism and retaliations, the system should not reveal the names of the contributors – this will also encourage employees to provide information without fear of victimization.
However, a question comes to mind. Since different raters observe different behaviors, what is the basis upon which these ratings are observed? It has been found that subordinate can easily witness various characters of their seniors, as opposed to the colleagues at the same level with them. In addition, various clients are able to understand the employees that serve them. It is, however, difficult to give consistent, positive and negative information on an employee despite the gain of the insights of the perceptions of the employee.
Management by Objectives (MBO) MBO is a modern method of performance appraisal. This method requires an agreement between the employees and managers on specific objectives within a deadline. For instance, a company may instruct a sales manager to increase his taxes by 25 percent within a period of 3 months. Once the goal is set, it is now up to the sales manager to plan how to achieve the objective. This technique helps identify success or failure much easier.
Management by objectives (MBO) system helps the management set achievable goals. It also helps the management achieve the best results from the available resources. MBO aligns objectives and subordinates objectives to the firm; therefore, it helps enhance the organizational performance.
According to Ducker, MOB operates if the objectives are known for 90% of the period not known. However, many critics argue that Peter Ducker’s MBO concepts are hard to implement. Nevertheless, when every employee understands and comprehends the aims of an organization, then their development and effectiveness will be helpful in attaining the goals that the management seeks.
Advantages of MBO
If the employees can be able to meet the set goals or even exceed them, then they are considered to have performed acceptably well (Rao 125). Management by objective format provides that the performance of an employee is noticeable; however, the behavior of those employees can only be deduced.
This observation result from the fact that this approach assumes that it is extremely difficult to break down the components that shape the employees’ performance. This method provides that the aspects of employees’ performance should not be differentiated. Alternatively, harmonization of the different aspects is recommended, so that the behaviors of the employees can be observed more effectively and directly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Type of performance appraisals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MBO principle involves all the personnel at all levels in framing the objectives of the organization. They are delegated with certain powers and freedom, and then made to involve themselves toward achieving the objectives of the company. Ducker points out that involvement towards a common goal as an enterprise is build by true and committed team that wields individual’s efforts towards a common effort.
Their contributions may differ, but they should all be pointing to one direction; achieving the goal of the organization (Dannemiller 214). The efforts of the employees should all be directed towards one direction and their contribution must come together to produce a complete goal, without gaps, fiction or unnecessary duplication of efforts.
According to Peter Ducker, the possibility of managers to control their performance is one of the greatest advantages of an MBO approach (Dannemiller 214). Self-control helps motivate the employees, hence making them desire to do the best. This helps widen the vision and paves way for high performance objectives.
Self-control motivates the managers to act, not because somebody demands or talks into doing it, but because the objectives of the organization demands it. The manager acts, not because somebody demands or requires him to, but because he decides to act, as a free man.
Disadvantages of MBO
Since there is an assumption that the behaviors and performance of the employees can be successfully measured by management by objective format, there are some challenges that arise. Management by objective performance appraisal motivates the employees since they are accorded some autonomy, and they feel that they have contributed towards achievement of the organizational goals. Nonetheless, this scenario could cause unworkable prospects regarding what is achievable.
The employees together with the managers should be able to check practicability of different situations when applying management by objective. Nonetheless, this is a source of flaw because it is clear that, currently, firms should uphold high level of flexibility so they can endure their challenges. However, flexibility leads to loss of clarity. Failure of performance can also be experienced when flexible objectives are circumvented.
Employee Self-Assessment In employee self-assessment approach, employees are given the opportunity to evaluate themselves. In this system, both employees and the managers receive forms that contain the performance standards. The performance standards in question are the levels of training, job proficiency, written communication, development efforts and other interpersonal skills.
Since both the evaluation forms are similar, both the manager and the employee address them line by line. In case a substantial difference appears between the employee’s self-assessment and the manager’s assessment, they both discuss the reason for the difference. The employer and manager eventually agree on a common overall evaluation, which is used to determine salary or wage increase.
Self-assessment helps the employees think and give critical considerations about their performance in meeting their performance expectations. Supervisors and managers have recently shunned away from providing employees the opportunity to conduct their self-assessment for the PAMP (Performance Assessment and Management Process).
These individual assessment methods allow employees to give important feedback and involve them actively in the final performance review session. Whether the manager and the employee agree or not, regarding the performance, self-assessment opens channels of communication that lead to a successful PAMP outcome.
Advantages of self-assessment
Self-assessment ensures that the employees are actively involved in the assessment process – this also means that they have an active role to play in the course of assessing their performance. As such, employees are able to monitor their own performance as opposed to merely receiving feedbacks from their seniors.
This kind of empowerment gives them an opportunity to become more engaged in both the review process and their performance generally. This approach gives the mangers an opportunity to understand their employees in a wider view, hence having a better position to improve their perception and performance.
However, depending on how close managers are to the employees, it is always challenging to comprehend the factors that affect the employee’s performance. Self-assessment helps managers to view performance in their own perspectives and get the employees’ side of assessment. It also helps the manager realize the strengths and weaknesses of different employees and their respective training needs.
Since managers and employees cannot have the same impression on the employee’s performance, employee self-assessment helps to avoid differences in perceptions before the review meeting is convened. There is a lot of information that the managers do not know, and it will be damaging if the employees speak out the differences in a performance review meeting.
At times, managers have very different information that affects employee ratings and; therefore, it will be unfair to judge them using that information only. Furthermore, this method helps in pointing out the variations that are not easily observable, therefore, according the managers an opportunity to plan for their review congregations. It also ensures fair performance ratings and fruitful discussion.
Self-assessment appraisal also promotes more effective discussions about priorities, performance, challenges and other factors affecting the employees. Research shows that when a subject touches or affects people, they tend to provide their side of the bargain and then listen to opinions from others (Dannemiller 250). With this technique, the employees can assess their own back ground information and performance, and then sit back and wait to hear the opinion of their managers.
One tool, which determines the effectiveness of management, is the way the employees and the managers conduct their discussions. A two-way communication; that is, between the employees and their managers is an evidence that issues such as performance, challenges and priorities can be discussed and resolved amicably.
The two-way discussion can be enhanced by a performance management plan, which tries to evade domination by the mangers during the evaluations – this could put off the employees. It also inculcates a culture of a two-way communication in the entire organization, hence making it more successful.
Disadvantages of Self-assessment
Self-assessment appraisal is subjective and hence limited. Although the method helps the employees to assess their own performance, usually, the accuracy and effectiveness of this assessment is hampered by personal bias, communication breakdown, and self-perception. Employee self-assessment also tends to bring the aspect of non-accountability to employees. After the assessment is over, employees often find limited motivation for change.
Nevertheless, involvement of other parties in this process could inculcate accountability because the employees will be compelled to act in a certain manner. Although the extrinsic motivational methods influence the employees’ performance, they cannot be relied upon to produce long-term goals.
This is partly because they are bound to transform with the adjustments in the operating environment. Also, they do not provide an environment of sharing ideas through teamwork as each person competes to be the best individually rather than as an organization.
Conclusion Some of the most important resolutions of an organization, such as transfers, salary reviews, firing of employees and promotions, depend on the way the employees perform in their jobs. MBO method requires an agreement between the employees and managers on specific objectives within a deadline.
The 360-degree feedback provides a very ideal way of assessing the employee’s strengths and weaknesses. In employee self-assessment approach, employees are given the opportunity to evaluate themselves. Organizational resources allocations are also based on performance appraisal.
As such, an ideal assessment format enhances organizational development, analysis and flow of communication. The three methods of performance appraisal discussed in this report have been found to be very essential, not only to help managers execute their duties, but also for employees’ assessment and motivation
Works Cited Dannemiller, Kathleen. Management by objectives (MBO) in student services. Michigan: University of Michigan, 1960. Print.
Edwards, Borman and Jade Ewen. 360-Degree Feedback: The Powerful New model For Assessment And Performance Improvement. New York: AMACOM, 1996. Print.
Rao, Raju. 360 Degree Feedback and Performance Management System. New York: Excel Books, 2009. Print.
Walker, Dimmock and John Smither. “A five-year study of upward feedback”, what managers do with their results matters? Personnel Psychology 52.2 (1999): 393–423.Print.
Hershey’s Sweet Mission Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Redesigning Hershey’s performance administration method
Mentoring and integrating values
Introduction The purpose of this paper will be that of determining the stages Hershey has to implement in revamping its performance administration framework to appeal to its more and more varied workers. The paper will also establish how a worker will interpret Hershey’s culture and value based on his or her function.
This paper will utilize established trends in Human Resources Management and explain which one may influence Hershey the most. Finally, the paper will explain the impacts that mentoring could have on adopting virtues into the Hershey way of doing business.
Redesigning Hershey’s performance administration method Hershey’s firm focuses chiefly on confectionary goods. Hershey’s goods comprise chiefly of candies and the chocolates. The company has remained in the marketplace since 1900’s.
It markets its goods globally. My suggestion to the revamp of the company’s performance administration would be in keeping its existing performance administration model. The company has a redesign model that provides for diverse age groups and more precise to two. Such age groups may comprise the younger and the baby boomer age group (Noe et al., 2011, p. 55).
Based on these models, they encompass an event where the baby boomers coach or mentor the fresh hires to the organization. The principal purpose of training or mentoring is to establish an everlasting heritage with advancement of the entire universe. This specific model has been understood to be specifically passionate to mentor the younger workmates with a view of coping with Hershey’s guidelines (Noe et al., 2011).
The company gains from the baby boomer as the reference model, trainer and in addition to its promoter in the corporate and business world.
As far as younger recruits are concerned, the organization has developed their management systems with a view of attracting the younger recruits. This is presumed to provide the newly recruited employees with loads of enthusiasm for challenge, self-independent, and attain results in the business world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Hershey’s revamp assumes the bottom-up concept. Individuals throughout the organization were permitted to identify a goal and monitor the likely growth on programs. The implementation of the management method is assumed to be successful to measure business outcomes. This system is in addition applied in checking whether the outcomes are attained in accordance to the company’s major values (Noe et al., 2011, p. 56).
Interpreting values Hershey strives to offer an active and challenging work station that gives an individual the chance of developing his or her knowledge and talents. The company’s sustained performance depends on engaged employees that are capable of meeting the challenges of a quickly expanding international market.
Hershey’s special legacy, established key values and heritage to live up to the possible acceptable levels enable the company to engage and retain greatly talented individuals (Bowen
The Genocide of East Timor Essay best essay help
Introduction While analysing genocide in East Timor, it is necessary to consider some fundamentals concerning the issue of discussion. First of all, it should be pointed out that genocide is recognised to be one of the most terrible crimes a government can commit in relation to its people. As far as genocide was proclaimed an international crime, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (UHCG) was established.
Generally, there is a wide range of definitions genocide involves. Social definitions are of particular importance, as they reveal the type of government a country is controlled by. Thus, on the one hand, genocide can be regarded as government’s intentions to commit crime against its citizens on the basis of their group membership.
On the other hand, genocide can be regarded as government’s intentions to abolish population on the basis of any reasons. One is to keep in mind that genocide is mostly associated with certain internal disruptions, war, etc.; so, one can conclude that if government is in danger, democide commitment provides excuse for the worst moral crime1.
East Timor’s genocidal grounds Some of the historians are of the opinion that genocidal grounds were basically pre-planned. In the 17th century, the territory of East Timor was colonised by the Portuguese; in times of the Second World War, there were the Japanese, who controlled the territory.
In the early seventies, the Portuguese decided to reestablish their control over the country, and the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor (Fretilin) took a decision to form an independent community. In the mid of the seventies, Fretilin political force got the majority of voices in the local elections; so, the Indonesian government started its military actions and soon declared East Timor’s annexation2.
Keeping in mind a brief overview, one can probably conclude that the Indonesian government’s intentions to murder East Timor’s population involved political reasons; although a deep analysis of further actions the Indonesians followed give us an opportunity to suppose that both social definitions of genocide can be applied to the current case study.
The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (CPPCG) and its relation to the case study According to the CPPCG, genocide is considered to be any act, which main purpose is to destroy certain groups. Such events in the case study as a) killing representatives of a national group (the population of East Timor), b) causing bodily and mental harm to representatives of a national group, c) “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part”3, d) imposing certain procedures to stop births within a national group (gendercidal massacres of men), and e) transferring children to another groups can be all applied to genocide according to the Convention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A critical overview of the Article II of the CPPCG Some alternative definitions, however, cannot be neglected too. Thus, taking into account the acts of genocide the Convention includes, it becomes evident that the acts can be divided into two major groups. The points of the Convention from a) to c) belong to the so-called physical genocide. As far as Timorese population experienced starvation and suffered a severe lack of any medical services, one can state that the kind of genocide goes beyond descriptions that are pointed out in the CPPCG.
Therefore, killing representatives of a certain national group can be regarded whether as a simplified definition or as a definition that cannot fit for genocide atrocities, which occurred in East Timor. In other words, the Article II of The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide involves some general definitions of one of the worst moral crimes a government commits against humanity.
The points of the Convention from d) to e) belong to the biological genocide. So, preventing births seems to be an exhaustive definition; although the original Convention contained no data on violence targeting women4. Gendercide in East Timor, in its turn, covered horrible spectacles with the execution of females. In our days, the execution of women is recognized to be one of the legal definitions of genocide.
Other acts not covered by The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide involve cultural genocide and political genocide. Lawrence Davidson is of the opinion that when people are unfamiliar with the culture outside of their national group, “they are unable to accurately assess the alleged threat of others around them. Throughout history, dominant populations have often dealt with these fears through mass murder”5. East Timorese population was forced to study a new Indonesian language, which was formed on the basis of the Malayan language. Keeping in mind that the Indonesian government wanted to impose linguistic restrictions on the population of East Timor, one can probably notice that the Timorese also experienced cultural genocide.
Of course, political genocide in East Timor cannot be ignored. It was mentioned that the reasons of the conflict between the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor and the Indonesian party Apodeti were of political origin. Thus, Apodeti was mostly interested in East Timor’s annexation by Indonesia. Therefore, political genocide was unavoidable6.
Conclusion It seems to be obvious that the Article II of The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide does not depict the issue of genocide in detail. For this reason, one can state that the general definitions the Convention involves are to be expanded. The most generic definition of genocide was given by Israel W. Charny. He pointed out that the worst international crime in its common sense is considered to be the mass annihilation of human beings7.
As far as genocide is regarded rather ambiguously, some important points on an international crime are to be clarified. So, it must be noted that not only a government, but also various military and international organisations can be also considered as the perpetrators of genocide.
We will write a custom Essay on The Genocide of East Timor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most widespread motives of genocide include:
the annihilation of those, who are hated,
the destruction of those, who are regarded as the threat to a political regime,
the desire to establish a new order,
Bibliography Charny, I. Encyclopedia of Genocide, Santa Barbara, California, 1999.
Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Hrweb.org, 1997. Web.
Cribb, R. The Indonesian Killings, Clayton, Australia: Monash Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990. Print.
Davidson, L. Cultural Genocide, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2012. Print.
Jones, A. Case Study: East Timor (1975-99). Gendercide.org, 2002. Web.
Kiernan, B. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
Melson, R. Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Genocide of East Timor by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rummel, R. Genocide. Hawaii.edu, n.d. Web.
Footnotes 1 R Rummel, Genocide. Hawaii.edu, n.d.
2 A Jones, Case Study: East Timor (1975-99). Gendercide.org, 2002.
3 Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Hrweb.org, January 1997.
4 B Kiernan, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
5 L Davidson, Cultural Genocide. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2012. Print.
6 R Cribb, The Indonesian Killings. Clayton, Australia: Monash Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990. Print.
7 I Charny, Encyclopedia of Genocide. Santa Barbara, California, 1999.
8 R Melson, Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide. UK: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Internal and external analysis of Apple Company Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Company Description Apple organization was established by Steve Jobs and Steve Wojniak in the year 1976 and integrated in February 1977. The company’s head office is located at Cupertino. The present CEO is Tim Cook. Apple Company chiefly engaged in sector associated with computer accessories and consumer electronic appliances. Apple Inc.
Chiefly develops, fabricates and promotes products that vary from handy digital entertainment systems, mobile communication gadgets, personal computers and diverse associated software, service, secondary, and social network systems. The major distribution avenues are the Apple’s electronic shops, direct selling, and others. In addition, the clients vary from users, organizations, small and medium enterprise, trade, education, government and innovative consumers.
The company presently has more than 35,000 workers and expansion of approximately 63%. Based on financial period ending report of August 2011, the organization had generated total income of $32.5 million, gross income of $11.1 million, net profit of $4.8 million, total asset amount of $41 million and indicates expansion of about 35% for 12 month expansion and approximately 38% of revenue increase (Hunger
Coca Cola Company Marketing Report online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Coca Cola Company is the leading beverage firm in the world. Started in 1886, this firm has managed to become one of the America’s most profitable companies. Its trademark was officially registered in the United States in 1944. Kline (2010) reports that the firm has experienced a consistent growth in its market share in the local market. The firm is currently operational in over 200 countries across the world.
The brand ‘Coca Cola’ has been rated as one of the best brand in the world. In the year 2008, it was rated the most valuable brand in America and the world at large, beating some of the renowned brands like Apple, General Electric and Amazon.com.
The firm has been experiencing consistent growth even in the face of the economic slowdown in the United States and other major world markets. According to Biswas (2011), it has been in a position to withstand some of the external challenges posed by various factors in the environment. In order to bring to focus the environmental factors that have influenced this firm, a SWOT analysis will be used.
SWOT Analysis The strength of this company lies in various factors. One of the major strengths of this firm is its brand name (Grossman, 2011). As Stated above, the brand Coca Cola is one of the strongest brands in the world. This has made it be able to maintain its market share in the face of an increasingly competitive market.
This firm also has financial strength. It has been in operation for over 100 years, amassing huge wealth in the process. As such, this firm is in a position to implement its projects, including those of research and extension. The firm also operates in various countries outside the home market. As such, it has been able to balance its production when one section of its market is experiencing economic growth while the other has recession.
Despite the above strengths of this firm, Lippman (2004) says that there are some weaknesses that it has, a fact that has seen some of its competitors like Pepsi Cola eat up a section of its market share. One of the weaknesses that many environmentalists have repeatedly talked about is environmental degradation.
The plastic bottles that this firm uses in packing its drinks are causing havoc to the environment. It is apparent that this firm is yet to develop solution to this problem because as Tanke (2000) notes, Coca Cola Company is yet to replace the plastic bottles with better alternatives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the environment that this firm operates are some opportunities that have made it experience massive growth in its market share. According to Panagariya (2008), Coca Cola Company has exploited vacuum that existed in many countries in the world, especially in the developing countries. Weiss (2011) says that there was no competition for this firm in the overseas markets and this Company was able to make the most out of it.
Technological advancements have also enabled the firm to conduct trade much easily due to improved means of communication and transport means. The economic boom that America experienced soon after the Second World War was another opportunity that helped this firm to expand its market.
The threats that this firm has had to deal with include competition. The market has gotten increasingly competitive. Charantimath (2006) notes that many firms like Pepsi Cola have come up with products, which are close substitutes of those that are offered by Coca Cola. They have eaten into the markets of Coca Cola.
Political instability in some countries is another threat that this firm has had to deal with. When there is an internal strife, like the one experienced in Egypt and Libya in the recent past, this firm would lose millions of dollars due to the destruction of its assert in those countries. During such periods, the firm would also lose the profits they get from the country, while yet they will have to pay the employees. This would hurt the firm financially.
Competitor Analysis Although there many competitors of Coca Cola in this industry, the main competitor that has been able to keep it at close watch is Pepsi Cola. Just like Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola is also an American firm. According to Clinton (2011), it has a considerably huge market share in the American market and other countries overseas.
This firm has been in a position to understand the emerging market trends and respond to them as appropriate, making it develop a niche in the market. As a result of this, it has been in a position to emerge as the main competitor of Coca Cola Company. The firm has diversified its production lines as a way of ensuring that it is not affected by the failure in one of the lines.
The brand of this firm is also strong. Pepsi Cola is known in various countries beyond America. It has managed to outsmart Coca Cola in South Africa, one of the most promising emerging markets in the third world countries (Clement
Steve Jobs biography Essay essay help
Introduction The phrase “a failure is a man who blundered, but is not able to cash in on the experience” by Elbert Hubbard lingers in many minds as far as finding its implication is concerned. Just like many other quotes associated with Hubbard, it remains immortal due to its relevance over time, beyond many generations in the past and even in the future. This quote in particular, has become synonymous with lives of people.
The essence of the above phrase lies on the fact that a failure is not a failure until one learns from it to avoid failure in the future. It, therefore, implies that we should learn from our mistakes and strive to look at past inefficiencies so that we are able to mitigate any repeat in the future. The author acknowledges that it is in human nature to ‘fall’ but be caution, to learn from the past mistakes and to benefit in building a formidable future as a result of the experience gained from the past.
In this regard, this essay seeks to link between the phrase by this great American philosopher and the life and times of the great entrepreneur, Steve Jobs. Spector (1985) interrogates the inadequacies that Jobs faced in his life and how he took them positively trying to improve his lifestyle and his commitment towards making a positive contribution to the society. (Stross, 1993)
Throughout his life he was able to face hurdles which were some kind of a stepping stone towards success, manifested through the empire and legacy that he built with the aim of improving the life standard of this generation and the generations to come. The adoption of the above phrase enabled Steve Jobs to be immortal even with his passing on.
Steve Jobs was born in an ordinary family and led an ordinary life, nonetheless, he managed to climb the ladder of life by doing ordinary things in an ordinary way. In such a simple way he became one of the most celebrated people of all times in the electronics field. (Young, 1988)
He lived with his parents (adopted) and was frequently engaged in working on electronics with his father who taught him determination and resilience, requisite virtues for success. He practiced diligence and innovative approach in his work as far as creativity was concerned. His elementary school life was not flowery as he had difficulty to communicate with his peers and occasionally had to bribed his elementary school teacher because of his studying (Butcher,1987).
In spite the challenges Steve Jobs encountered in elementary school, he was able to forge ahead not loosing focus in life and not giving up his interests. The quote by Hubbard applied in his life to the latter. His life in high school entailed spending free time at computer related work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He would go to Hewlett-Packard, where he encountered a valuable friendship with Steve Wozniak, a computer wizard. They blended well and had mutual friendship that was close to admiration. Time after high school was full of intrigues as he dropped from Reed College after attending for only half a year.
The rest of the year he inconsistently attended creative lessons only to find something interesting in typography. Determination was a virtue he would not have identified both his interests and his talent with. He did not look at the challenges he was facing at school but fought hard for a place in life. Being in constant search for spiritual fulfillment, he visited India where he used psychedelic drugs and later rejoined his friend Wozniak to cofound what is today a brand name Apple (Alison, 1996).
They started it on a humble background by selling Jobs’ vehicle (Volkswagen bus), while a friend of his patted with his calculator. Challenges and hardships they experienced couldn’t stop their desire to succeed in life. In spite of the turbulent tides, they fought and did their best to remain focused building a worldwide venture. Notwithstanding his unique school life, Jobs offered a complementary hand to his friend and they became business partners.
The two friends, Wozniak and Jobs, introduced a new edge to the computer world by diverging a new approach in the industry. They used a different technological approach that was focused on production of relatively smaller components that were affordable and competitive in the market (Levy, 1994). Their models were easy to use in comparison with the products the market offered at that moment. There initial model was Apple1.
It made a fortune and brought a lot of rewards. Within three-year-time they were working harder to introduce another product Apple11. Their income increased by over seven hundred percent. Within one decade of their existence in the market, they had made a brand name that was the best in the world of computers.
The phrase, “a failure is a man who blundered, but is not able to cash in on the experience” by Hubbard is applicable here. They have used their chance and improved the first Apple model rather than neglected it. In a spun of three years they had used their previous experience to make Apple11. This enabled Steve Jobs and his colleague to bank seven hundred folds much.
Apple as a company had misdoings especially on the subsequent models. That resulted in reducing sale rates of the product. Some of them were even recalled due to the consumer complaints. Other brands like IBM gave them a run for their money. In middle 80s they introduced the Macintosh approach that did little to edge out IBM, a key competitor, from the market. Then the board developed squabbles with Steve Jobs forcing his resignation in the year 1985.
We will write a custom Essay on Steve Jobs biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Just like our guiding quote has it, he did not tire, he started another firm by the name NeXT, Inc instead. That followed with acquisition of an Imation company with a subsequent great deal of resilience and determination putting forth focus to excel (Wozniak, Jobs, 2006). He renamed it Pixar Studios.
Steve Jobs did not major on the challenges that had become of his former work place. He came back and managed to make a formidable force to reckon with the animation world. His new venture was successful but could not permeate the American market forcing it to merge with Apple where Steve Jobs got back his leadership role (CEO) back (Duncan, 2004).
Banking on lessons of the past failures, Steve Jobs reinvented Apple by use of innovative ways bringing some changes to the management. They were able to meet the customer demands by working different models that came with a stylish touch. Today Apple is a brand name that has cut a niche in the American market and the world at large.
This has seen its competitors struggling to match its revolutionary products that are hard to match especially due to customer loyalty (Bently, 2011). They have created i-Phones that cannot be matched in the market, this is not to forget the i-Pods and programs like i-Tunes that is amongst the leading American music gadgets. The success attributed to the Founder and CEO, Steve Jobs has made the company earn an accolade as the most respected company in the world.
This is fundamental because of the shape focus that Steve Jobs managed to put not being discouraged by past failures but forging on with an attempt geared towards improving those failures so that success was reached. The company became so successful to the point of having no debt liability, something not very easy to attain in the business world. (Linzmayer, 2004)
Steve Jobs’ personal life is also a manifestation of improvement of the past mistakes. Starting with his days at the elementary school where he had difficulties coping with the school system to the extent of taking bribes so as to read. (O’Grady, 2008) That reflected on the challenges he experienced.
And looking at his days at high school, it’s seen that his weakness in following school curriculum was evident. (Harper, 2011) He struggled to remain successful in the school setup and he struggled to be successful in life. His health life especially on his last days depicts him as a person who did not want to face reality because he postponed a surgery to remove cancer. He instead opted for other types of medication. He later accepted to undergo the surgery and that was another success. (Simon, 2005)
Conclusion It is self evident that the quote, “a failure is a man who blundered, but is not able to cash in on the experience” is relevant and applicable in analysis of the life and times of Steve Jobs. His path was a life of ups and downs and he did very little to make history and touch the lives of many people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Steve Jobs biography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He was born and adopted, the fact he learned when he was 27 years old. He became positive in life and lived peacefully and happily with his foster parents. He went to school and had some challenges in schooling starting with elementary level where he had problems coping with curriculum and making friends.
This followed high school years where he frequently dropped on and off from school until such a time that he identified an area, typography, his interests were concentrated at. In starting the Apple Company, he encountered financial challenges that made him sell his valuable vehicle. To him attaining his dream overshadowed all other challenges. This was followed with being locked out of Apple as the CEO (Bilton, 2011).
He did not take the challenges negatively, instead of that he went and built another company that excelled in all respects to an extent of merging with the Disney and later becoming the greatest share holder. (Bob, 2007) His successful venture enabled him return to Apple and continue being the CEO on a position he held until his demise. Truly his path was a life well lived, he rectified his mistakes to improve his future life.
References Alison, M. 1996. Building a Bulging War chest, The New York Times. 26August 2011
Bently, P. 2011. Steve Job’s biological mother doesn’t know he is dead. London daily
Bilton, N., 2011.Apple is the most valuable company. New York times.9 August 2011
Bob, E, 2007.Appeal court says Jobs can’t raze Woodside mansion. San Francisco Chronicles10 January 2007. Retrieved
Butcher, L, 1987. Accidental Millionaire: The rise and fall of Steve Jobs at Apple. Paragon House.
Duncan, C, 2004. The guardian profile: Steve Jobs. The Guardian (UK). 31 March2006
Harper, C, Q 2011.Steve jobs: a relentless rise in graphs and charts
Levy, S., 1994. Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything. Penguin Books.
Linzmayer, O, W., 2004. Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World’s Most Colorful Company. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-01
O’Grady, J. (2008). Apple Inc. Greenwood Press.
Simon, W, L, Young, J, S, 2005. Icon: Steve Jobs, The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. John Wiley
Western Casualty Case analysis Essay best essay help: best essay help
Problem Identification The major problem in this case is that the recovery attained by the company (presently $55 million) should be equal to the total casual activity recovery in the market (presently $550-$600 million).
This includes 20,000 unresolved recovery cases with values averaging $7500 each; this meant that Western Casualty was behind in its recovery process and that it was supposed to increase its speed in order to hit the target. There was also a concern of Casualty’s legal department and lawyers about bring MCG onboard. In the beginning of the contracting phase, MCG planned to remain onsite for 18 months, to see more on organization culture and know day-to-day operations.
Beginning the restructuring, the consultant selected the method of collaborate role with the clients. Collaborative relationship promises maximum people resources – both the consultants and the clients. They stated cleared that the consultants are not there for helping downsizing of OPL but they are helping to apply their technical skill to make it more productive in the future.
Discovery phase begins; they started of layer of analysis on initial problem
They found fear of employees over workload in the capacity of current workforce and downsizing of OPL. There is no benchmarking in the department. This reduces the morale that would have otherwise. Employees felt that they had to do everything and they don’t have time to do anything well.
Identify the Causes of the Problem Western Casualty specialized in processing of casualty and properties. Western Casualty was in the early 1980’s the dominant company in the western region. By early 1990’s casualty’s market share dropped significantly to below 20% from above 65%. This was as national property/ casualty insurers threatened to take over.
Perhaps the greatest test for western casualty was during the catastrophe that rocked California which rendered business in the state unattainable to most of the insurance companies. However, western casualty viewed this as an opportunity to advance itself in the market by being more aggressive and taking over the market in a bid to increase revenue and therefore widen the profit margin. This sat well for the company as it was viewed as the remaining reliable insurance company in the region.
However that was until national property/ casualty insurers came into the picture and technological advancement or lack of it almost brought western casualty to its knees. The early 1990’s was characterized with technological development and sprouting of insurance companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Western casualty didn’t embrace technology in processing of claims as fast as its competitors had. During this paradigm shift, western casualty sat comfortably without interest in the developing means. This was until the figures began dwindling prompting a restructuring program.
Alternative Solutions An alternative solution is important in the ensuring of a well analyzed case. For this, the department will need to be divided. Four task-base teams: Negotiation, Telephone, Written Correspondence and Recovery.
Employees will no longer be doing dozen of things; they will focus on certain parts of the process an idea which leads to specialization and development of acute skills in the respective area in which the employee is responsible for. The employee tends to be faster and more effective at their responsibilities. They can then focus more time on each department: the more time focused on the department is got from the specialized activity on the departments activities.
More time to improve managerial skills. The employees are left with more time to work on their managerial skills. These managerial skills are essential in helping the employees to hold themselves responsible and do all in their powers to getting things done.
Developing skills “Think outside the box.” The employees are left to do whatever they have to in helping the department achieve its goals. This in turn horns the employees skills in such a manner that they tend to be responsible in their own respective areas and develop a sense of ownership of the company.
The MCG shifted away for their individual functions to the department’s ultimate objectives as a team. The pre-organization structure meant that one would follow the same case until it ends while the new structured required the employees to only focus on particular parts of the whole process. This meant that employees could no longer be gauged by the number of cases they solved but rather by the achievement of the departmental overall goals.
Foster projects by newsletter, social events and others that motivate within human capital. This is to motivate both the clients and the employees making their work easier.
We will write a custom Essay on Western Casualty Case analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technology, the embracement of technology meant faster and more efficient means and ways of achieving departmental goals. Having technology ensures that time is on your side and efficiency too.
Best Alternative Communication strategy within organization, the organization’s communication with its clients should be improved and should enable convenience in communication. Clients should not feel as though reaching the company to process claims is more difficult than getting them to compensate you in case of a claim of any other consultations.
The telephone and the written units were not very impressed with their new responsibilities in the company. They felt as though the company had reduced their responsibilities and hence their morale for the jobs. Those in the telephone unit preferred the older structure where they were to follow a single case to the point where they could determine or get to know the progress of the cases they were handling.
This is contrary to the new structure where they just handle phone calls for all the cases without knowing the eventuality of any of the cases. The employees in the two units also felt that their departments tend to receive more problems than other units in the organization.
The management and the consultants should emphasize that however much personal pride and accomplishment are important; they should not be put before the departments’ goals. The employees should be reminded of the department’s goals and that the same should form their primary objective in the company’s activities. However, employees’ views on how this could be changed to make it better should be welcomed.
Implementation Steps Four task-base teams: Negotiation, Telephone, Written Correspondence and Recovery. The restructuring of the department ensures that time is saved as employees of the different departments concentrate on specific aspects of the whole process.
Selecting team leaders responsible for the different units and ensuring that the teams adhere to the set departmental goals.
Improvement of the communication between departments and between the employees and their supervisors improves the effectiveness of the employees. They tend to have similar agendas and goals that are propagated by the department heads thus ensuring a common goal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Western Casualty Case analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Strategic Change Management KPMG Company Case Study college admission essay help
Executive Summary Strategic Change Management has become a strategic role of the management. Various business organizations have come to appreciate the need for change and have designed various methods and approaches of managing change. KPMG is one such organization. It has downed on the management that the market competition requires one to embrace change and ensure that it is creative in order to be in a position to manage market competition.
The firm has brought in all the stakeholders into one community and each given its role to play in the process of change management and implementation strategies. The model that this firm would use in implementing change is Kurt Lewin Model of unfreeze, change and then freeze. Value based organization is the approach to monitor the implementation of change. The strategies must be implemented within appropriate time to yield good results.
Introduction Change is one of the most important factors that an organization must take into consideration when drawing their strategic goals and objectives. Daft (2009, p. 37) simply says that Change is constant. This statement is intriguing yet it is the best definition of change from a philosophical point of view.
Change and constant are two extremes under a normal dictionary definition. However, from an analytical perspective, change is constant. This scholar argues that change brings nothing new. It only enhances what is already in existence. McCarthy and Eastman (2010, p. 23) say, “The overarching purpose of change management is to accelerate the speed at which people move successfully through the change process so that anticipated benefits are achieved faster.”
As such, change should not be viewed as a shift from what is the norm. The only issue is that it brings new methodologies of handing the daily activities. In his book, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, Henry Mintzberg (1994), the former leader of the Strategic Management Society, reprimanded himself and others for their sightless adherence to the strategic forecast practice.
His disputation rests with the exploration of the authoritative, scientific explanation to the future. He demonstrates how planning can asphyxiate obligation, constrict an organization’s dream, make change unfeasible, and lead to the politicization of an organization.
His point is based on the principle that “… analysis is not synthesis [and therefore], strategic planning is not strategy formulation” (p. 321). According to this scholar, many managers would agree that change is one of the defining external factors that have huge impact on the organization. The management is always faced with various factors that would demand change in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a starting point, Griffin (2000) classifies the word management as: “A set of activities (including planning and decision-making, organizing, leading, and controlling) directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial, physical, and informational) with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner” (p. 6).
In the definition, several key concepts are used. Foremost, it is comprehended that management applies “uniformly to public, private, nonprofit, and religious organizations.” Murphy (2002) was of the view that “… management is an organizational phenomenon and not exclusive to the world of profit organizations” (p. 7).
KPMG is one of the leading consulting firms in the world. This American firm has grown and it currently covers several countries in North and South America, Asia, Europe and Africa. The recent entry into Africa, which is considered as the emerging markets, and some parts of Asia, was motivated by the increasing need for consulting firms as many of the businesses in these regions required guidance in a market that has increasingly gotten competitive.
Change is one of the major reasons that are making firms in the corporate world seek guidance. KPMG as a firm has change as one of the factors it has to deal with in order to ensure that it remains relevant in this industry. It must be in a position to demonstrate to the corporate world that it is the master of what it teaches.
Strategic change management to KPMG is not just important to demonstrate to others its prowess, but also to help it beat the market competition and increase its market share both at home and international markets. The need for strategic change management at KPMG has been fanned by the unpredictability of the market.
The market is so unpredictably and change is the agent for this. Because of this, the management of KPMG has come to realize that it may not be in a position to survive in this market if it fails to adopt changes that are brought about by the environmental forces.
Stakeholders of KPMG who are Involved in Change Management DeAnne, Gary, Hyde, and Tipping, (2004, p. 1) note, “Any transformation of significance will create people issues.” KPMG is an American firm that was a culmination of a merger of different consulting firms in 1987. These firms merged upon the realization of the fact that they had a common goal, which could best be achieved by coming together as a unit. Stakeholders of this firm are the agents of change.
We will write a custom Case Study on Strategic Change Management KPMG Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their positions in the firm would define their role in the strategic change management within this firm. In a given firm such as KPMG, there are always three categories of people when it comes to change management. The first category is the initiators of change. These individuals would come up with creative ideas of how to approach some issues within the firm that would result in change. The second group is the implementers of change.
They take instruction on the change strategies as defined by the initiators. This scholar defines the last group in as “the recipients of change.” This group has no role in the initiation or implementation of change. However, they feel the effect of change, either positively or negatively depending on the prevailing circumstances. KPMG has all the three categories of people among its stakeholders. The stakeholders of this firm in the above-mentioned groups can be analyzed as followers.
Initiators of Change
These people are the agents of change. They come up with creative ideas that can be transformed into new strategies. Some of the initiators of change at KPMG are the following categories of office holders.
The Top Management
The top management of KPMG has the biggest role to play in the strategic change management. Goolnik (2006, p. 10) observes that, “a clear vision should be in place at the most senior level(s) so that staff can gain understanding of why change is important and necessary.” They are the most important individuals in the firm in as far as policy generation and implementation is concerned. They are expected to understand the prevailing market forces and determine when change may be needed in the organization.
They are in a better position to understand some of the changing policies in the external business environment of this firm and initiate the same within the firm. As Wilson (1992, p. 14) notes, it is not necessary that every change that a firm implements must be original to it. A firm may borrow some changes from other firms that have successfully implemented them. The top management of this firm therefore has the role of identifying these new strategies and initiating their implementation within the firm.
They are therefore the first initiators of change. The Human Resource Management has the greatest role to play in this regard. Modern Human Resource Management (HRM) is radically different from the human relations movement in the 1920s or from the personnel management practiced decades ago (Carell, Elbert, Hatfield, 1995, p. 12). Today HRM is used to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the management of people within an organization (French, 1998). French continues by stating that:
It is now generally accepted that human resources management encompasses a dynamic, organization-wide perspective that is action oriented and based on theory and research from many disciplines and is necessarily interrelated with strategic planning. More and more it is recognized that HRM must be an integral part of the strategic planning of the top executive team of the organization (p. 5).
Research and Development Unit
This is the most important unit when it comes to creativity and innovativeness of the firm. They have the responsibility of scanning the business environment and understanding the forces that are prevailing in the market. They then would determine which of the strategies would best suite the firm in managing market competition.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Change Management KPMG Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are expected to come up with creative ideas of how KPMG as a consulting firm can reach out to its customers with better services in the increasingly competitive business environment. They would advise the top management accordingly on how the firm should approach strategic change management issues.
General employees of KPMG are also important agents of change. KPMG has been keen to allow all the team members, irrespective of the position they hold, to contribute to factors that affect the organization. The firm recognizes their role in the normal running of this firm and therefore appreciates the need to incorporate them on strategic management plans of the firm.
They can therefore make their contribution on how they feel some issue should be addressed within the firm, which may pass as a change strategy. The shift of the office from the farm to the industrial unit floor can be appreciated in the model of Toffler’s, The Third Wave (Toffler, 1991).
In The Third Wave, Toffler notes if you stride back and look at the main activities of the global societies, there are three major classes or effects in the proceedings of societies. “… flexible manufacturing, niche markets, the spread of part-time work, and the degasification of the media” (Toffler, 1990) Fayol’s points that “all organizations, regardless of mission or culture, are joined to one another by the universal process that is designed to focus the energy of an organization in order to accomplish a common purpose”.
The government plays a very important role in strategic change management of any firm within the country. According to Taborda (2011, p. 78), although the government may not be seen to be playing direct roles in the process of defining the path taken by the firm, it always has a great impact on the same.
A firm like KPMG cannot operate in a vacuum. It operates within a country with a government, which has its policies of how such firms should operate. These government policies change with the changing environmental factors. When the government changes its policies and such changes have effect on KPMG, then this firm would have very little but to implement the changes as specified by the government.
For a long time, customers have always been on the receiving end of change. They would always wait to be presented with products, some of which were not suiting their needs. However, the current marketplace is very different. Customers are more knowledgeable and more demanding.
Marketing has moved from the traditional inward out approach to outward in. firm must therefore develop products that have the capacity to meet the changing needs of customers. Customers have therefore moved from the recipients of change to initiators of the same.
Implementers of Change These individuals would affect the changes as suggested by the initiators of change. As Anderson (2011, p. 16) says, in most companies, KPMG included, the initiators of change are always part of the implementers of the same.
McGregor (1957) in his typical book, The Human Side of Enterprise, stated:
“Management is severely hampered today in its attempts to innovate with respect to the human side of enterprise by the inadequacy of conventional organization theory (p. 245). The management plays a very important role in the implementation of change within the organization.
Given their role of co-coordinating and controlling, this unit has the duty of explaining change to the employees and directing them on how these change strategies should be addressed. As such, they have the responsibility of understanding the strategies before explaining them to the employees. They are also the financiers of the policies of the organization. They have a role of ensuring that proper finance is allocated to the implementation of the strategies.
Sharma (2008, p. 26) says that the employees have the greatest role to play in the implementation of change strategies. They are the implementers of the firm’s strategies.
They have a duty to ensure that they understand the organizational objectives. They should therefore know how to intertwine the change strategies and the general goals and objectives of the firm. They would receive the policies from the management and implement them in a manner that would generate maximum benefits to the firm’s customers and shareholders.
The Recipient of Change
As explained above, these individuals are neither the initiators nor implementers of change. Recipients of change may not necessarily involve those individuals that have no role in the initiation or implementation of change. According to this scholar, both the initiators and implementers of change may also pass as the recipients of the same if they are affected by this change, which is always the case. As such, all the above stakeholders may be considered as recipients of change under different contexts.
The management would be the recipient of change if the same affects the general growth of the firm either positively or negatively. The employees would be recipients if the process would result in benefit increment or change of position held in the firm. Customers would definitely be the recipients through the benefits they would receive from the changed strategies of the firm.
The competitors would be recipients if the change would also force them to redefine their own strategies. The government would be the recipient if the change would result in a downward or upward adjustment of the tax they receive from the firm. The organization as a whole would also be considered a recipient of change. This is because the organization would be subject to change in the production levels and styles and the general new product proposition it would assume in the market.
The structures would also feel the effect of change. In every organization, there are various structures that are always put in place to serve various tasks, for instance, the structures put in place at the sales unit. The structures may need to be restricted to reflect new picture of the firm. Generally, the entire system would have to be restructured. The new design would have to redefine the relationship of the stakeholders in the organization and the new roles that they would play.
In the implementation process however, care should be taken to avoid chaos at all the stages. Chaos can be the most destructive factor in change management. Chaos as defined in an older dictionary is “A condition of utter disorder and confusion, as the unformed primal state of the universe” (Funk and Wagnalls, 1940, p. 208).
In a more recent attempt to define the concept, Coveney and Highfield term it as “Unpredictable and apparently random behavior in dynamic systems” (1995, p. 425). In the latter definition, we can see a loosening of the fixed order of the world that was embedded in the first definition. Such scientists laid the foundation as Newton who accepted a fixed-order world as the ideal of objective knowledge (Prigogine, 1996, p.2).
A tenet of the Industrial Age was that some grand design of the universe that needed to be discovered existed. However, current writers and thinkers in the area of systems thinking and Chaos Theory argue that no such fixed design exists.
In fact, writers like Prigogine (1996) now define chaos as “the behavior of systems in which close trajectories separate exponentially in time” (p. 201). It is therefore the roles of everyone to understand the need for change, and cooperate in the process of its implementation. This would ensure smooth process of implementation.
Strategies Available for Change Management
Government Office for the South West (2004, p. 43) states, “It is worth recalling what we are trying to achieve.” It should be clear to the team why change is important and what the same would achieve.
There are giant American companies that were brought to their feet either due to the failure to adopt changes that were needed, or implemented the same, but in a wrong way. Whichever the case, the underlying fact is that change is fixed factor in any organization whose implementation should be done in a conscious manner that would make the firm remain competitive in the market. Rogers Adopters Theory provides the best available strategies that are available for change management. The categories are as follows:
This strategy requires individuals who have great desires for new ideas. It requires audacity and the willingness to pay for the consequences of the change. When implemented, the firm would implement changes as soon as they are availed in the business environment. This strategy would be the best for KPMG, but the consequences may outweigh the benefits. As such, many firms shy away from it because of the possible negative consequences. The popularity of this strategy is rated at 2.5 percent.
Early adoption theory would involve embracing change early enough to be able to reap maximally from it, but after analyzing the consequences that are involved. Early adoption is good, but as innovators, a firm may not have reference to other firms which had implemented the strategy before. As such, many firms would shy away from it for the fear of the unknown. However, given the nature of KPMG, this would be the best strategy that should be employed by this firm in the process of managing change.
The early majority would adopt change before the average members have, but will take precautions by keenly monitoring how the innovators and early adapters were affected by the change. Although very popular, this strategy is dangerous to an innovative company like KPMG because by the time it would be implementing the change, it might be too late to be competitive in the market.
Late majority are individuals who appreciate that change is necessary, but would want to evade any negative consequences of the same. They would therefore wait for others to implement change and confirm that the consequences are positive. They prefer going through the trodden path. This strategy may not work for KPMG because this industry is very dynamic and by taking this approach, it would always be several steps behind market standards.
Kratschmer (2011, p. 19) describe this category of individuals as tradition keepers. They would want to maintain status quo, and because of this, they would fight any change in the organization. This may not be considered a strategy for change management, but passes as one because it seeks to fight the same. Those who hold this strategy would always be suspicious of change and all the change agents. This is the worst of the strategies of change management.
Stakeholders Role in the Implementation of Change Management Strategy Sirkin, Keenan, and Jackson (2005 p. 2) say, “Managing change is tough, but part of the problem is that there is little agreement on what factors most influence transformation initiatives.” As stated above, the best strategy would be the early adoption. Various stakeholders would have different roles in this strategy. The management has the duty to understand the concept put forth in the specific change item in order to create awareness of the same among employees.
The management is also responsible for funding the entire process of the implementation of the change. The employees should be flexible enough to adjust to issues concerning change management. They have the responsibility of positively responding to change and ensuring that the policies of change are well taken and are appropriately implemented. The government, though may not have direct responsibility to the firm, should ensure that the business environment is kept safe.
System of Involving the Stakeholders in Planning of Strategic Change A system refers to a collection of different units or subsystems, which work as a unit to accomplish a given objective. KPMG as an organization is a system made up of different stakeholders each with different duties all aimed at ensuring the firm’s strategic goals and objectives are achieved. The diagram below shows the stakeholders in this system, as well as how they are related.
As shown in the above diagram, the system involves all the members of the organization in their various capacities. In this system, change would be effected from the top management, and the lower cadre employees would be doing the implementation activities. The system should be well coordinated in a way that no unit will clash with the other in the process of implementation of change strategies. The management of KPMG must clearly set the overall goals and objectives of the firm.
This should be made known to all members of the organization. The overall objective would be to create a positive differential change to customers. The management would therefore create a system that would act as a wheel.
The management (both top and mid level management) would form systems, while the junior employees would form subsystems. In this wheel, the management should transfer a desirable rotation to the employees that would make them (the employees) rotate the customers in favor of the organization. This is demonstrated in the diagram below.
All members would share the new objectives, which would redefine the mission of the firm, in the firm. As seen in the case study, the last and very important part is the implementation of the shared mission. The management should identify various teams and assign them different roles that would help accomplish the objective of the organization.
The management should consider developing units within the firm, with each unit having their own specific duties. The stakeholders should fit into the units, with each unit having specified role to play in the overall policy implementation process. The management can also consider having each specific stakeholder assigned his or her own role within the firm to be achieved within a specified period.
Resistance to Change In many occasions, change would meet a lot of resistance from those who want to maintain status quo. They would ensure that all efforts are directed towards derailing change. Change can be resisted in a number of ways. The first type of resistance to change may involve adoption of the laggard approach to change. Such an individual would try to cling to the traditional ways of operation as much as is possible.
Another approach may involve refusal to cooperate in the process of working as a system to implement change. The management can also resist change by failing to advocate for the same to the employees. They can also resist change by failing to allocate enough finance for the same.
The best way to manage any form of resistance is to make every member of the organization understand the need for, and the urgency with which change is needed. The management should ensure that all stakeholders are brought on board in the process of implementing change. They should be allowed to share their views and fears about change so that the concerned authorities may address it.
Plans for Implementation of Change Management Strategies Appropriate Model for Change
A number of models for change that are used by various organizations, given different scenarios exist. Some of the most popular models of change include ADKAR Model for change, Stephen Covey Seven Habits Model, Kubler Ross Stages of Change and Kurt Lewin’s Strategy of Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze.
These strategies are suitable in different scenario. They have their own advantages and disadvantages that makes each most suitable in different applications. Given the scenario of KPM, the best model would be Kurt Lewin’s three staged Model of Change Management of Unfreeze, Change, and then Freeze.
Unfreeze is the first stage where the firm would need to appreciate that given the current market forces, there is need for change. As such, every member of the organization prepares psychologically for a possible change. After unfreezing, the next step is change. The members, having accepted the need for change, would embrace the same and adopt new strategies brought about by change.
The freezing stage, also known as refreezing, involves establishing stability after the adoption of change.
Plan for the Implementation of the Model
KPMG has a healthy business environment. It must choose the best strategy that would best suit all the stakeholders in the implementation of the above-mentioned model of change. Value Based organization would be the best strategy for this firm. The first principle in this strategy is to embrace community spirit.
All the stakeholders should view themselves as members of a larger community. The community should embrace open and honest communication and there should be agreement in the values of the organization. The organizational structure should be flexible to allow for adjustments in the process of implementation.
Measures for the Implementation of Change Model
There are measures that should be put in place to ensure that the implementation of change model is successful. The first measure is that there should be a clear procedure of monitoring change. Baekdal, Hansen, Todbjerg and Mikkelsen (2006, p. 7) say, “All models are guidelines.
You should always evaluate the relevance of each individual step vs. your situation and your project. Large projects often demands detailed analysis and documentation, while small projects can be finished with much lesser work.” The concerned individuals should know the basis of objectives and goals of the organization. With this, they should assess the effect of change against what was expected.
The second measure is that the implementing parties should have a clear timeline set for the achievement of various objectives. There should be regular meetings to review the success of the organization. Another measure is that the management should set short-term manageable objectives to be achieved within a given timeline.
A mechanism through which objectives would be measured should exist. This way, it would be easy for the management to determine if the implementation process is effective, or if some changes might be necessary. Above all, the stakeholders should all be made to appreciate the need for change and the potential benefits that may accrue from the same.
Conclusion In a business set up, the top management is always under a constant challenge of planning how to manage change. Strategic change management has become one of the strategic duties of a firm. It is considered strategic because it affects the entire firm from the top management to the junior most employees, and all the departments of the firm.
Change management is considered as strategic because, just like strategic goals and objectives, change should be initiated by the top management of the organization and channeled to other employees of the organization. Older members of the society, especially those that have already gotten used to a certain way of doing things may not find it easy to shed their normal ways of approaching their duties.
They are used to the normal methods and fear that they may not be in a position to adapt to these changes fast enough and as such would be seen as incompetent. KPMG has the duty to implement change management strategies that would help it manage market competition. Change must involve all the stakeholders in the organization for success to be achieved. KPMG must incorporate all its stakeholders and assign them different roles in the process of implementing change.
Kurt Lewin’s three staged Model of Change Management of Unfreeze, Change, and then Freeze is the best strategy of implementing change in this organization. With a positive attitude towards change management among the stakeholders, KPMG will always be a step ahead of competition in the market.
List of References Anderson, M 2011, Bottom-Line Organization Development: Implementing and Evaluating Strategic Change for Lasting Value, Elsevier, Burlington.
Baekdal, T, Hansen, K, Todbjerg L
Capital budgeting projects Essay college application essay help
Introduction Capital budgeting is the process assumed by a firm to make long-term decisions, which have a direct effect on the investment of the company or business for that matter. It determines whether an organization’s long-term objectives are worth pursuing and budgets on the substantial capital investment of a business and the expenditures.
Capital budgeting projects generate the cash flows for years. Any capital budgeting project can be accepted or rejected depending on its effect on the net value and internal rate of return method (Good pasture, 2004). Some characteristics of capital budgeting projects may cause the net present value and the rate of return method to the ranking of the projects to be extremely differently.
Characteristics of mutually exclusive capital budgeting projects In mutually exclusive budgeting projects, only one of the projects is chosen. The selection is in accordance to the effect on Net Present value and internal rate of return. However, these characteristics do not consider the future cash flows of the business in the future. As a result, the flow of cash, if discounted comparing with the cost of capital, is not effective. This event is extraordinarily dangerous because the project may not last for a long time (Brigham
Fiscal Policy in an Economic Downturn Since 2008 Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Economic Stimulus Plan
Classical and Keynesian Approaches
Economic Stimulus Plan The world has been experiencing an economic recession since 2008. As a result, the economies of many countries around the world were affected in a negative way. To respond to this recession, the United States government came up with an economic stimulus plan that aimed at controlling inflation.
However, the expectations of this fiscal policy were not realized since the level of unemployment and inflation are relatively high. To resolve this problem, the government in conjunction with the congress has proposed a new stimulus plan worth $200 billion. Just like the predecessor, this fiscal policy will aim at reducing the unemployment rate and maintaining an affordable price level for the goods and services offered within the country.
The 2008 recession was characterized by massive employee lay-offs especially in the private sector (Patil, 2012). Firms within the private sector sought to lay-off their employees as a means of cutting down operating costs. Some of these companies filed for bankruptcy due to massive debts.
This left millions of US citizens unemployed. Thus, to stabilize this situation, the government should make direct investment to rejuvenate the operations of these companies. This would increase the level of employment and the economic situation as a whole. This plan should also focus on cutting down bank lending rates. Increment of bank lending rates is one of the monetary measures that is use to curb inflation (Patil, 2012).
However, this reduces the disposable income available for investments. Thus, by reducing the lending rates, individuals can take loans to start small and medium sized enterprises. This will not only reduce the level of unemployment but it will also improve the status of the economy.
Finally, a fair proportion of the money should be used to reduce taxation rates and on tax rebates. This should mainly focus on loans and mortgages offered by public institutions. This will increase the disposable income of individuals encouraging investments and savings.
With this economic stimulus plan in operation, the government shall be able to increase the aggregate demand of the US economy. Increase in the employment rates shall be one of the results of this plan. Additionally, the government shall be able to stabilize the prices of goods and services within the nation. This will encourage expenditure thus increasing the amount of money in circulation. In the long run, the economic growth rate shall increase and stabilize at an optimum level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Classical and Keynesian Approaches According to the classical theory, economic imbalance is the main cause of recession. The theory further states that the economy is a self-sustaining unit and in case of an imbalance, it will automatically adjust itself to an equilibrium (Patil, 2012). Thus, according to classical economists, the current high unemployment rate is as a result of a low number of people who are willing to work at the current price level.
Thus, to reduce this rate, the government should increase the wage rate that will in turn increase the number of people who are willing to work. This will in turn increase the demand for employees hence reducing unemployment. Keynesian theory on the other hand is slightly different. According to this theory, the best way a government can control inflation is by increasing the level of spending and reducing tax levels (Patil, 2012). This will increase the disposable income of individuals hence increasing the aggregate demand.
Conclusion Given the Classical and Keynesian approaches, it is evident that the Keynesian approach is more practical. This is because the price levels of an economy are rigid unlike the Classical approach assumptions of flexibility. Thus, to control the recession, the government needs to come up with measures and policies that will have impact on the entire economy and not specific sectors only. Therefore, this stimulus plan should focus on reducing taxes and encourage of spending.
Reference Patil, S. (2012). Classical Economics vs. Keynesian Economics. Retrieved from https://wealthhow.com/classical-economics-vs-keynesian-economics
Telecommunication and Computer Networking in Healthcare Research Paper essay help
Overview of the healthcare and security systems Information security as well as well as privacy in the health sector is an issue whose prominence has been swelling day by day. Healthcare sectors have been called to adopt information technology systems to aid in speeding activities and securing records. Efforts to adopt information technology in healthcare have been practiced for a long time. Several developments point to the need for better security systems in healthcare.
These developments include the use of patient records that are digitalized, the consolidation of healthcare providers and the rise in healthcare regulation. Also, there has been an increasing need for the exchange of healthcare information between healthcare providers, patients and healthcare institutions. All these developments are strongly bonded on security thus making security a paramount issue in healthcare (Symantec, 2009).
Information systems are seen as the available and efficient options of improving the quality of services and security of information transfer and exchange in the healthcare sector. Many countries, including the United States, have created strategies to adopt automated systems in healthcare. Therefore, a lot of research has been done about how best information systems can be incorporated to improve information exchange and security (Appari
Business layout for manufacturing organizations Essay college essay help: college essay help
Layout is important to a number of manufacturing organizations as every business yearns to reduce duration in the flow of materials and staff. Layout decisions are critical to management as it dictates production environment, capacity, material handling and information flow within the organization. Some of the layout methods include; fixed position, office, retail, process oriented, warehouse and product oriented layout. To reach optimality within organizations, it is important to have proper communications within the facility.
Wheeled coach ambulance applies a combination of assembly line and work layout supported by skilled personnel and tools. The assembly begins with the identification of the clients and every relevant department ensures that the vehicle is given work orders in time.
The aluminum manufacturing department ensures that it avails the necessary materials within five days, and subsequently passes it to paint department which takes approximately three days. During this time the upholstery department begins stitching process as the Plexiglas department makes the interior cabinet, doors and metal frames.
The carpentry department prepares the timber and the countertop material besides building the cabinet that goes into the vehicle. The electrical department assembles the wire harness with the connection of medical, electrical and ventilators. After all the installation is done in a sequential manner, a thorough check follows to ensure that the right product is presented to the client.
As Palmer hospital was approaching almost 90,000 deliverables per year, there was a need for expansion of the premises to accommodate their clients and minimizing the distances covered by the staff. The management therefore designed a radical work cell that organizes people into small groupings to ensure that effort is concentrated.
The designed pod which incorporates strong patient centered service gate has computerized systems and elevators used in service delivery. Though it was perceived as a radical project and staffs were skeptical about it, they later appreciated the efficiency it brought.
Aero maintenance is small aircraft Maintenance Company in Wichita. The company uses layout method which entails, summing up all the trips between the departments. Aero maintenance has 8 departments which include; entrance, receiving, parts, metallurgy, break down, assembly, inspection and test. It also has 8 work areas with each department assigned to each work area, characterized by high materials flow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a great need to minimize the material flow in all these departments and get an optimum flow. To achieve optimality, the company can establish aero current layout flow, and then compute the material movement using the flow within the departments. The aero flow distance can be reduced by switching departments without interfering with quality which will give a better solution to the company.
People working in assembly line includes; those making athletic shoes in China, hamburgers in New York city and those making Boeing Aircraft planes in Seattle. When producing any product it is necessary to recognize time constraints before balancing. The solution adopted here involves dividing the overall time taken with the duration required to complete production so as to get the required number of work stations.
This should be done without violating the work relationships. The solution proposes that all the designed stations must be situated in such a way that they categorically follow another. The method ensures efficiency which is obtained by dividing total task time by the number of work stations multiplied by the largest time taken during production.
An Exploration of Structural Changes in the Economy And Labour Market Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Anthias (2007) and Griffith (1998) argue that, post-industrialization marks the transition where service sector offers more revenue than the manufacturing sector in specific nations. In the 19th century during the industrial age, Britain was the leading nation in industrialization. Britain had founded its empire on the mercantilism era where it emphasized on in-side trading and suppressed any rival empires.
The mercantile economic theory was founded on the principle of ensuring collaboration between the merchants and the Britain in order to enhance private wealth and political power by segregation of other empires. In order to enforce the mercantile theory, the British government sheltered its merchants and segregated others through regulations, trade barriers, and subsidiaries of local industries. These measures favoured local industries and suppressed foreign industries.
However, as time elapsed there was a need to collaborate in trading. The emergence and propagation of globalization favoured other nations that were more recipient to the changing economic evolvement. Nations such as Germany, United States and Japan overtook Britain in the international trading.
This happened during the Fordism period where many industries evolved from large static organisations with stable markets to small dynamic firms with specialized markets. The shift-attracted mass production and economy of scale became the competing factor.
According to Held (1999) and Herman (1999), the continuous proliferations of globalization lead to an increased competition because of consumers’ access of many varieties of products/services. Of late, there has been a great evolvement of the trade policy pursued by the EU.
The EU has continuous loosened their tight regulations by tariffs and quotas to embrace non-tariffs barriers to trade, as well as single market. The EU trading policy are known for being committed towards specific policy issues that entail gender relations, social policy, labour protection and environmental sustainability that greatly curtail free trade international.
The demand for high quality, low costs and shorter period for production because of globalization and market liberalization has called for outsourcing of some services as well as high participation of women in the labour market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whereas Herman (1997) associate American firms in opting for outsourcing most of their services in response to the current stiff global competition, Hurrell (2000) argue that firms in Europe and particularly the UK respond by attracting young and educated personnel from foreign countries to come and boost their slow economy.
The Europe economy is slow because of low birth rate associated with high level of older working population, which is too slow to support the inactive group. Nonetheless, there has been great trade integration worldwide despite the EU reluctant participation (See appendix 15)
Identifying and discussing features of UK economy and how structural changes have affected the labour market and HR policies
According to Boeri
Emirates Airline: The Secrets of the Legends Success Proposal best essay help
Executive Summary This proposal outlines the secret of the Emirates Airlines’ success. The first part provides information on how the airline has managed to reach out to six continents using global integration and local responsiveness strategies. The paper also points out how the global strategy has poised the Dubai based airline for international success.
Finally, the proposal paints the success picture of Emirates Airlines with respect to several factors. These factors include profitability, environmental and social responsibility, and the “Hello Tomorrow” marketing initiative. The latter is considered to be one of the most creative promotion campaigns in the market.
Introduction Emirates Airlines is one of the fastest growing corporations in the world today (Roberts 2012). The airline is part of the larger Dubai based Emirates Group of companies. The group is composed of four companies which include Emirates SkyCargo and Emirates Airlines (Datamonitor 2012).
The other two companies are Dnata and Emirates Holiday (Datamonitor 2012). The Emirates Group was started in 1985 and has expanded over the years. It is noted that today, Emirates Airlines flies to over 120 destinations in six continents (Datamonitor 2012).
On May 2011, one of the largest airlines in the world (Air France- KLM) announced losses that have never been recorded in the aviation industry before. At the same time, Emirates Airlines had just placed an order for 32 Airbus 380 jumbo jets in addition to 2,000 new crew members to support the operations and growth of the company in the same year.
Between March 2010 and May 2011, Emirates had increased its total number of planes from 146 to 165. These are some of the indications of the successful performance of the company in a market that is very unpredictable. The company has some of the youngest planes operating in the industry today. It has received more than 310 awards for its exemplary performance in the industry.
This proposal aims at outlining the secrets of this success. In the proposed study, the researcher will analyse the factors behind the success of the company. This is especially so given the fact that the aviation industry is one of the most unpredictable and volatile industries in the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of these challenges, the company has continued to record positive growth in profits. It is also one of the most competitive industries in the world. The proposed study will also try to analyse the factors that differentiates the company from the competitors in such a competitive environment.
Local Responsiveness and Global Integration Large companies like Emirates Airlines are charged with the responsibility of striking a balance between local responsiveness and global integration in order to attain the kind of success that has been witnessed in the company. Local responsiveness is the ability of a global corporation to efficiently respond to certain needs in host countries it is operating from.
At the same time, the corporation should have global subsidiaries that are differentiated to confront the different business practices, markets and cultures abroad. Globalization has created both opportunities and tensions for global corporations. Emirates Airlines has taken full advantage of the opportunities while managing the tensions effectively (Underhill
Future of Low Cost Carriers in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Abstract It is axiomatic to argue that the future of Low Cost Carriers (LCC) in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has been a concern to the business community in the recent past. The need to deregulate the air transport within the cooperation is one of the major steps towards improving the operations of LCCs.
Being one of the market leaders; GCC has in the past adopted all the possible mechanisms to liberate the market to enhance quality and affordable services. Through this research, some of the questions which come up when discussing low cost carriers are tackled and they include; the probability of deregulation of air industry coming to GCC and how long it will take.
The impact of integration and how it will change competition between airlines, Role of International community particularly AACO in deregulating the GCC, The development plans of airports in the region and how it supports the growth of LCC, competition strategy, product strategy, marketing and network amongst leading LCCs within GCC carriers, just to mention a few.
These areas of scrutiny lead to a number of findings which are discussed in the discussion area in relation to literature. The paper also presents a number of recommendations in relation to the findings of the research.
Introduction Low cost carriers are considered by many investors as a key variable in improving economic growth and subsequent development in the development. (Jan
Toby diagnosed: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Issues faced by the student
Strategies to be used to assist the child
Summary and conclusion
Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that occurs during the early development of children. It is whereby an individual has both attentional issues and experiences hyperactivity. Both of these behaviours occur separately and infrequently. They may start to occur earlier than seven years of age.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most studied psychiatric disorders in children. It is believed to affect approximately five percent of children around the world. This disorder may be chronic as it extends to the victim’s adulthood.
The symptoms of the disorder are usually similar to those of other disorder and this increases the risks of misdiagnosing it or missing it all together. The treatment of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder requires proper training. Many clinicians have not received formal training for treating the adults suffering from the disorder and this is one of the drawbacks.
Adults and adolescents suffering from this disorder normally develop compensation mechanisms (accommodations) for their problems. A large number of populations around the world live successfully with the disorder. Some studies suggested that boys are more frequently diagnosed with the disorder than girls are.
However, it is disputable that this irregularity is caused by the subjective biasness of the teachers. ADHD may be managed using a combination of interventions. They range from medicine administration, lifestyle changes, counselling and behavioural modifications.
Toby has been diagnosed with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, behaviour disorder and lack of decoding skills. This has caused him to have disruptive behaviour in class. He also has problems learning and does not complete assignments. Some of the other social problems that Toby experiences include being teased for being a short boy and wearing large glasses.
He is also over active and this makes students laugh at him and tease him even more. It is important that he receives help from the teachers and parents so that some of his behaviours (disruptive and inappropriate behaviour) can be minimized. This would also be important in order to ensure that he is able to learn and complete the assigned class work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues faced by the student Toby has been determined to have issues with decoding (lack of decoding skills). This is common in people suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This is because the disorder is associated with major deficits in executive functions. The student lacks the ability to perform cognitive functions that are necessary to perform problem solving.
Research suggests that children suffering from the disorder are slow and experience more varied response speeds when it comes to performing tasks that require reasoning (decoding skills) (Shanahan, Yerys,