The Importance Of Referencing In University Assignments Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

Referencing entails recording or citing all the information sources used in both academic and technical writing relative to applicable referencing conventions (Birrell at al., 2010, p. 49; Rizvi, 2005, p. 308). Here, note that the ideas and the work developed by the primary authors are used to inform the position and opinions of the secondary authors.

As a result, there is the paramount need for university students to acknowledge instances whereby they have used another author’s ideas, statistics, drawings, tables, diagrams, pictures, and direct quotations to develop their own academic pieces of writing (Birrell et al., 2010).

Furthermore, instances whereby the secondary authors fail to acknowledge that they have used another author’s work may compromise the academic integrity of the secondary authors including facing lawsuits. This phenomenon is known as academic plagiarism, and it is punishable by learning institutions and law enforcers (Anyanwu, 2004).

Therefore, the importance of referencing in both academic and technical assignments cannot be overstated. There are different ways of recording and citing primary information sources in academic papers.

Here, the sources can be recorded in form of references (all the sources cited in the text or passage) or a bibliographic list (all the sources used to develop the whole academic passage or text) relative to the applicable referencing principles, the nature of academic sources, the frequency of citing, and the acceptable documentation styles (Rizvi, 2005, p. 309).

Additionally, referencing takes the form of endnotes, parentheses, and footnotes. In this essay, we will explore the importance of referencing in both academic and technical writing at the university or tertiary level.

The importance of academic referencing In view of the foregoing discussions, it is obvious that referencing forms an integral part of the study skills, which should be made available to all students at a university and other tertiary levels of learning. Conversely, academic referencing is important in both academic and technical writing because it enables the student to record all the information sources used in a text or passage (Rizvi, 2005, p.309). In so doing, the author makes the sources available for future references just in case the student would need to expand on the ideas presented in the text or passage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, recording all the sources used in a text or passage enables the reader particularly the instructor to gain access to additional information from the primary source if need be. Furthermore, a record of the primary sources used in a text or passage enables other researchers who are using the same text or passage to contact the primary sources in order to retrieve additional data or to take note of the strengths and the limitations of the academic text or passage (Rizvi, 2005).

Moreover, referencing gives the students the opportunity to avoid instances of plagiarism in their academic and technical writing. As discussed in the foregoing paragraphs, plagiarism arises when one author uses another author’s ideas, pictures, diagrams, and quotations without proper acknowledgement relative to applicable referencing conventions. In so doing, the author runs the risk of compromising one’s academic integrity and facing tough lawsuits (Anyanwu, 2004).

Consequently, plagiarism has many negative implications particularly for university students because in many academic institutions, plagiarism in academic assignments leads to failed grades, academic warnings, academic suspensions, and in some cases, a student’s enrollment may be reviewed. However, students can avert the consequences associated with plagiarism through observing all the referencing conventions applicable at the university level in their academic assignments (Rizvi, 2005).

Furthermore, academic referencing reinforces one’s academic integrity and competencies in studying. From the discussions above, it is notable that there are many skills in different academic disciplines, which should be learnt in the course of a student’s life in the university.

For instance, studying at the university or tertiary level entails academic writing, using different referencing styles, carrying out research on various topics, and preparing presentations (Fry et al., 2009, p. 119). On the other hand, referencing informs different aspects of studying at the university or tertiary level.

As a result, referencing enables the students to appreciate the importance of acknowledging that not all ideas presented in academic writings are original, and thus, there is the need for students to use information from different sources to develop a coherent text or passage while maintaining their academic integrity.

Furthermore, studies note that through referencing, students get the opportunity to expand their own meta-cognition and self-efficacy in terms of reflecting on what they know, and what they can do to maintain their success in writing (Fry et al., 2009).

We will write a custom Essay on The importance of referencing in university assignments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusions This essay explores the importance of referencing in academic assignments and writing. From the discussions above, it is worth noting that referencing entails the logical process of recording and citing all the information sources used in academic assignments and writing relative to the applicable referencing conventions.

Here, referencing can take the form of references or a bibliographic list. Additionally, referencing includes footnotes, parentheses, and endnotes that are used in academic and technical writing. On the other hand, academic referencing has many important purposes in academic assignments.

For instance, academic referencing enables a student to take note of all the sources used in a text or passage for future uses. In addition, referencing allows the students to avert instances of plagiarism in their academic assignments. Lastly, referencing is important to students because it enables them to expand their meta-cognition and self-efficacy in academic writing.

Reference List Anyanwu, R., 2004. Lessons on plagiarism: issues for teachers and learners.

International Education Journal, 4(4), pp. 178-187.

Birrell, G., Taylor, H.


The Moose and the Sparrow Essay (Article) writing essay help: writing essay help

The Moose and the Sparrow is like a mini-murder-mystery. It throws the reader right into the middle of a logging camp experience, with all sorts of special vocabulary that only lumbermen (and they are all men!) would know. It is also a tale of the effects of bullying on a bully, his victim, and those around them. The bully, Maddon, is described as a failed student, and filled with anger. Mr. Anderson, the narrator, tries to explain his behavior to the Sparrow by telling him that; men like Moose “are so twisted inside that they want to take it out on the world.

They feel that most other men have had better breaks than they’ve had, and it rankles inside them. They try to get rid of this feeling by working it out on somebody who’s even weaker than they are. Once they pick on you there’s no way of stopping them short of getting out of their way or beating it out of their hide.” We hear all around us now that bullies are often people who have been bullied themselves. Some of them have been mistreated at home, perhaps even to the point where it could be called child abuse.

They have pain, and have no strategies to deal with it, or get rid of it. Hurting others can be a distraction from this pain. To see this in action, watch a kid come home from a day of being bullied at school and beat up on or yell at a younger, vulnerable sibling! Moose may indeed feel jealous of Sparrow’s academic achievements and promise for his future, as Mr. Anderson suggests, and he may feel stupid, unloved, ungainly, or any of many other negative adjectives.

Although anyone can be a bully, the ones we think of are the kids who are big and maybe were held back because of poor academic performance, and who are probably embarrassed about being the oldest kids in the class. Sparrow does not start out being characterized as violent or unbalanced. In fact, he is remarkably tolerant of the mistreatment, perhaps too tolerant! However, he is so outbalanced in strength and experience by Moose that his options are severely limited.

Sparrow, once he is seriously injured by the burning saw trick, really believes that his physical survival is at risk. He may be right. Moose, after all, has shown himself to not be the brightest bulb. Moose’s effort to dunk Sparrow could have ended in tragedy if Sparrow had not been able to swim, or gotten caught under the water. There are all sorts of examples of deaths by hazing in the military, the fraternities, and even some sports teams.

These activities are merely organized bullying. When young people and alcohol are involved, good sense is often absent, and the danger of a fatal accident is significant. Sparrow, in the face of what he believes to be the threat of maiming or death, is eventually pushed to engage in violence himself, or so we are asked to infer. This pattern is reminiscent of some of the student school shootings of the last decade. The news stories about some of these tragedies suggest that the kids definitely felt that they were mistreated.

Perhaps the bullying was only verbal; the news stories always seem to mention the internet. However, the revenge that the bullied person takes on their persecutors is much, much more violent and final. So what happens to Moose? Sparrow responds to the roughing up by causing his death, although it is significant that he finds a way to let Moose actually kill himself by lunging across the bridge after Sparrow.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This, by the way, seems to be the first time Sparrow actually insults Moose, and the reader does not know what was said. What does this murder or manslaughter do to Sparrow over the long run? We see him viewing the airlift of Moose’s corpse with no outward emotion. This suggests that he is scarred emotionally himself , and cannot express his feelings appropriately. How could he not be scarred? He will carry the knowledge that he killed someone the rest of his life.

In the traditions of the First Nations, when someone kills another, even if it was justified by it happening during a battle, or in self-defense, they feel the need to perform rituals to avoid spiritual damage and restore the balance of creation. How will Sparrow relate to others in the future? How can he ever have a sincere relationship with someone? He will have to lie, by omission, for the rest of his days.

Mr. Anderson, a witness to bullying, is affected for the rest of his life. He is reminded constantly of the violence he witnessed, and the retaliation at which he has guessed. He will always wonder whether he could have prevented it, or whether he should have reported his suspicions. This holds a lesson for us in school. When any of us sees bullying, we should not keep silence. There is too much danger that someone will be hurt, permanently.

If we talk to an adult, and get help, we may be able to prevent something awful happening. What this story tells us is that bullying has impact on the doer, the victim, and those around them. None of the impact is good.


The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide Report essay help free

Table of Contents The author and the purpose of the book

Historical context

The target audience

The significance of the book

What readers can learn

Recommendations for reading

Reference List

The author and the purpose of the book The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide deals with one of the most debatable issues of the history of the twentieth century, i.e. Holocaust. In this book Benz depicts facts telling the “story with exactness and absolute candor” (ix). The uniqueness of the book is that it is one of the first books on “Jewish issue” written by a German scholar.

Thus, there is no biased perception of the historical facts, since “Benz seeks only to provide the basic and incontrovertible facts” (ix). Of course, Benz pertains to the nation which was involved in this conflict of humaneness and common sense.

Nevertheless, being German Benz has an opportunity to make a deeper analysis of those distant events. He does not try to acquit Nazis or hush up some of their horrors. The book provides many facts which took place and had an impact on the history of two nations (Germans and Jewish people) and the whole world.

Historical context Benz wrote his book more than 50 years after the events took place. This can be good evidence that the book uses only reliable and unbiased data. The book concisely reveals all the events which led to the “unique crime in the history of mankind” (p.152). For instance, Benz starts with depicting Wannsee Conference when Nazis revealed the first plans and inclinations concerning the “Jewish problem”. After this Benz considers the beginning of discrimination of the Jews which grew into anti-Semitism, massacre and genocide.

Interestingly, the book tackles various issues which others did not highlight. For instance, Benz dwells upon emigration of Jews. Admittedly, many people think that the most appropriate solution for Jews living in Germany in 1930-40s was to leave the country.

Moreover, many people (especially youth) suppose that there could be no genocide if the Jews simply abandoned their homeland. Nevertheless, Benz gives quite substantial explanation why Jewish people had to stay in Germany and other countries in constant danger and fear. Benz mentions major factors which prevented Jews from emigration, one of which is as follows: “the confiscation of assets and the crippling fees limited the possibilities for emigration” since no “country accepting immigrants is interested in impoverished newcomers” (p. 34).

Apart from highlighting difficult and controversial issues the book reveals many details which make the picture complete. Thus, Benz points out some facts which are known to Germans and those who live in Germany (or lived there in 1930-40s). Creating such atmosphere Benz manages to make his narrative more illustrative and more persuasive. The reader can not only find out some facts but can understand how this or that could happen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The target audience The book in question is great historical narrative which can be a valuable source of knowledge on the issue. Nevertheless, I would like to point out that although the book contains bibliography where many reliable sources are mentioned, there are not footnotes in the text.

Although there are many citations the reader cannot know the source of those quotations. This peculiarity makes the book quite inappropriate for using as a source for some substantial academic writing. However, the book can be used in schools sine it is very informative and illustrative. The book can be a really good source for young people since there are many precise facts and explanations of the most difficult issues. Moreover, the language of the book is not too sophisticated and will be understandable for many students.

The significance of the book Of course, there are many different books about Holocaust. However, the exclusive significance of the book in question is that it does not reconsider the issue, but it simply provides comprehensive information about the events of that period. According to Hertzberg (1999) there are many “revisionist historians” who try to prove that there was no Holocaust and that “the gas ovens in Auschwitz were disposal units for the bodies of those who died in the cam from disease” (vii-viii).

So, books like The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide are very important since they reveal the real history without any “amendments”. The book makes the reader know the past of humanity which an enable people to build up their future without making the same mistakes. Apart from this, the book makes people think of many important or even essential issues. Many people can learn not only some historic facts but the basic values of humaneness.

What readers can learn Thus, the reader can learn many details which became a basis for the obscure page of the human history. The reader will understand why many solutions which seem obvious now were inappropriate for people living in that period. What is more important, the reader will remember about the horrors which took place some decades ago.

They will see that those massacres grew from quite abstract ideas. Initially, those abstract ideas could seem quite positive and patriotic but in some time they transformed into a plan of genocide. After reading the book, people will be able to feel the danger of some “positive ideas” emerging nowadays. Apart from this the reader will be able to learn that all people are equal and no nation or individual should decide who deserves to live and who does not.

Finally, the reader can learn that Germans accept their past with its mistakes but they are ready to move on. They do not want to covert the deeds of their predecessors, but on the contrary, they want to reveal real historic facts which enable all people of the world know exactly what was happening in that difficult period.

We will write a custom Report on The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommendations for reading I would like to recommend the book to teachers and students. In the first place, teachers should know that there is such a book concerning Holocaust written by a German scholar. They should know that there is that particular viewpoint on the events of 1930-40s. This will definitely enlarge teachers’ horizons and enable them to provide their students with more comprehensive and at the same time more precise information.

On the other hand, students should read the book since they need to know this part of the world history. They should be aware of those terrible things which took place in the world in the twentieth century so that they could never repeat those mistakes. Young people should read the book which will make them remember what can happen to the world if certain ideas win.

In conclusion, I would like to stress that unbiased and comprehensive data provided in the book makes it one of the most valuable sources for students to learn about the Holocaust which took place in the twentieth century.

Reference List Benz, W. The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide. (Sydenham-Kwiet, J., Trans.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1999.


Generation 2010: Education Plans, Health, Habits college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Education plans


Habits or Beliefs



Works Cited

The essay critically examines the concepts surrounding generation 2010. To do this successfully, th paper analyzes the differences of this generation in terms of educational plans, habits/beliefs they old, hobbies and health as compared to the other types of generations such as the lost generation, greatest generation, silent generation, baby boom generation, generation X, generation, Y and Generation Z (1990-2010)

It is worth noting from the onset that this kind of generation is also known as Net Generation and were born between 1990s and 2010. They are kids of parents from generation X, there are instances that some of them have parents from young baby boomers and older constituents of generation Y (Clemow 126). this generation is characterized by intensive social networking, advanced personal entertainment solutions always by their side, are very receptive to marketing information and are more at risk to suffer from poor management of finances.

Education plans Unlike their counter parts in the previous generation, individuals in this generation are usually exposed pretty much earlier to technological innovation. For this reason, they have been termed students of today. Considering the fact that technological innovation changes within a blink of a second, these individuals to not think much of their education in future as compared let say to generation Y.

Generally speaking they lack the ambition exhibited by the previous generation (Palfrey


A Closer Look at the History of the Colonial America Reflective Essay college essay help

Learning history is essential for understanding of the better world and structure of the society we live in. A lesson in history is a great journey to the past. One can learn many interesting things about the history of his/her country, famous people and events.

It is a chance to learn from others’ experience and a great opportunity to share your opinion with other students. There are hundred topics that one can be interested in during the course of study. As for me, the period of the colonial history of the United States is one of the most interesting and thought provoking.

Before learning this topic, I did not pay attention to that “page” in the history of the USA. However, the information I heard in class was really a starting point for my exploration of this topic. After these classes, I began searching for more information in order to learn more about the topic.

So, there are several reasons why I find this topic interesting. First of all, it is very important to know the history of your country. The second reason is that learning of this period helped me better understand the structure of the modern society and obtain general understanding of national traditions. I know that a New World was a mixture of different European nations that lived close to each other and learned from each other.

It is always interesting to observe the process of assimilation of different cultures and it is very useful for understanding of your own culture. Where did you come from? Who were your ancestors? How traditions of your family were formed? And why we live in such society? The exploration of this period provides answers for all these questions. And it gives “a critical understanding of the nation’s past” (Brinkley 2).

As I have already mentioned, I became very interested in the topic of the colonial America. So, it is no wonder that I learned many new things and interesting facts. For example, I learned more about the Mayflower Compact. I learned that it is often considered to be one of the foundations of the Constitution of the United States.

I leaned about culture of the first colonists and I found out how they survived in the new world. One more interesting thing that I learned is that the majority of new colonists were escaping from the religious persecution. Those were simple people who wanted to find a better place to live.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Obviously, it is not very interesting to learn history form textbooks only. The additional materials should be used at the lessons. They really attract students’ attention to the study material. It is always more interesting to watch a historical movie or clip than simply read the information. When students are involved in different types of activities, their motivation raises and their ability to memorize information is better.

So, listening to the teacher’s lection, we train our aural memory, watching movie, we train our aural and visual memory. The same thing concerning the use of pictures and music… I believe that additional materials play a great role. When students see that the teacher is energetic and is also interested in the topic, they are encouraged and motivated to work during the lesson and during the year as well.

So, the teaching style is a very important condition for the students’ successful performance. Moreover, if students are encouraged to participate in discussions, they develop their critical and analytical thinking, practice their speaking skills and have a great opportunity to share their opinions.

I think that history classes are the best ones for such activity. Finally, during history classes we are often asked to read additional information on the particular topic. It is very useful for broadening of our intellectual horizons and acquiring new knowledge.

So, these classes really influenced on my views about history. I have already mentioned that I learned a lot of new and interesting information. I learned how to work with the textbook and how use additional materials in order to broaden my knowledge. Furthermore, I changed my vision of the history. Now I now that one should not believe everything wrote in the book. The point is that history is made by people and interpreted by people.

Different factors, including political ones, influence on the historical interpretation of a particular event. The task for every student is to learn the material, discuss it with other students and create personal opinion about the issue. I really thought that first colonists lived happily in the “New World”, however, there is nothing perfect in our life and they faced many challenges as adaptation to new environment, confrontations with other nations and civil wars.

Everything that our ancestors survived provided a basis for the modern society and we should appreciate everything they did for us, a future generation. So, history classes are valuable not only in terms of learning a new material, but in terms of philosophical and independent evaluation of the better world.

We will write a custom Essay on A Closer Look at the History of the Colonial America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Brinkley, Alan. American History, A Survey, Vol.I, 13th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, 2008.


External Influences Affecting the Tesco Company and Its Activities Cause and Effect Essay essay help online

“British Chambers of Commerce Get Gloomier about Growth” by Phillip Inman and Michael Carolan The main focus of this article is the eurozone debt crisis and how it affects Tesco, the UK largest supermarket chain. The problems in Europe connected with the mentioned problem managed to influence the company activities in the following way, the sales of the company are on the low level. Moreover, the same problem has affected the BCC Company, which has to cut forecast from 2.2% to 1.9% in 2011. The British Chambers of Commerce warnings “of fragility in household finances and tepid consumer spending as the coalition’s austerity measures begin to bite” (Inman


US Proposed Plan for Reducing Security Threat by Mexican Drug Cartels Problem Solution Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Terrorism in the modern world has become a big threat to the security of the world and especially the US citizens which is the largest economy in the world. Mexico is a major loophole that can be used by these terrorists because of its border with the US which is very porous. There are several means through which terrorist activities are being carried out around the world.

One of the ways is Cyber warfare, which has been said to be causing a lot of tension in the US. For instance by stealing intellectual property or commercial espionage are carried out by use computers and information technology. However, the Mexican cartels have not been noted to extensively use cyber warfare to terrorize people.

Nevertheless Cyber warfare is still a security risk to US as a nation. This is because there are increased incidences of cyber terror, cyber espionage, hacking and cybercrime in the modern world. The risk that the cyber crime presents is hard to assess therefore its very dreadful as a time bomb waiting to explode.

There are more frightful security threats that are posed by Mexican drug cartels. For years now, Mexico has come to be associated with distribution of largest volumes of drugs to the US. This is done by groups of organized crime gangs called cartels. They usually dominate large regions where they base their main operations and they cause unlawfulness in these areas because of their crime activities.

They mostly engage in violent activities, drug abuse, and even manipulation of political support. There are a number of cartels that operate in Mexico and their activities often spill into the US. The major cartels include Sinaloa Federation, Gulf Cartel, Los Zetas, Juarez cartel, Tijuana, and Beltran Leyva (Oscar, 2004, p. 67). Most of the conflicts being experienced across Mexico are attributed to the operations of these cartels.

They basically cause such conflicts so that they can exploit the unstable conditions of lawlessness to do their businesses because in such a condition, they are able to transport and distribute their merchandise without police interference. They can evade police tracking and they control their own trafficking routes when there is no policing structure in place.

Mexican drug cartels pose the greatest security threat to US because the two countries border each other and the even on instability in one of them, it’s likely to spills to the neighbor. Furthermore the border has been very porous with many drug cartels operations being done across these areas. The cartels are very dangerous and a reason to be scared because they accept firearms and other weapons in exchange of their drugs (Oscar, 2004, p. 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cartels train their recruits in rigorous military skills especially use of the weapons that they purchase both legitimate and those illegitimately acquired. Furthermore the cartels are able to attract the best talent and brains into their gangs because of the handsome salaries that they offer including other luxury goods like gold jewelry and cars. The drug cartel business is so lucrative that some military personnel even quit their jobs to join the cartels. From statistics, it’s been estimated that about 2.5% of the defense person have joined and continue to join these cartels.

Besides the sale of the drugs like marijuana, heroin, methamphetamine and cocaine, they also smuggle a great number of weapons into Mexico since for them to be able counter the police and their rivals, they require the best weapons and very sophisticated arms. given that the most heinous crimes take place in area controlled by the cartels, these organized gangs are able to smuggle weapons through to the US ranging from small arms to very large shipment of armory (Oscar 2004, p. 69).

This means that since terrorists are looking to the slightest chance to smuggle their weapons to the US, they can work together with these drug barons to sneak deadly weapons to the US like nuclear war materials.

By enhancing their relationships with prisons and the police, the cartels have increased their network in the US to a point where they can easily move or ship their products to distribute them to a very large area. South-western areas of the US are such risky areas that even the National Drug intelligence centre has revealed extensive business deals of gangs like Mara Salvatrutha and Latin King.

Comprehensive Strategy for Fighting Background

It’s now clear that the drug cartels in Mexico are causing serious mayhem in the country and the war between them and the government has gradually trickled into the US through the porous south-western border. The consequences of this have been that, there are increased murders in these regions sometime of innocent people and kidnapping of the US citizens. Among the notable incidences was the death of Robert N. Krentz who was just killed by a drug peddler while on his farm in Arizona.

The US president was forced to 1,200 American National Guard troops to the areas to intensify security. This was a good indication that the US is yet to implement a proper plan of combating such crimes across its border with Mexico, though it was a good reaction for that incidence (United Nation, 2010, para. 3).

The dreaded war between Mexican government and the drug cartels will remain to be a threat to the US security for a long time unless the US law makers take up an all-inclusive approach to deal with the violence. These means the US government should step up the effort to secure its borders, crackdown cartel operation in the vulnerable areas and also to assist Mexico in strengthening its domestic capacity to fight the cartels, convict the gangs and imprison the drug cartel members (United Nation, 2010, para. 3).

We will write a custom Essay on US Proposed Plan for Reducing Security Threat by Mexican Drug Cartels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The escalating drug trade is extracting a terrible toll on the US citizens (Chu


Concepts of Corruption as threat of Security Argumentative Essay college application essay help

Corruption is one of the biggest menaces that have faced the current world. It is vice that has robed many if not all nations a lion share of the resources that would otherwise been placed in capital projects. Across the globe political corruption has manifested in the manner that public officers have used their de jure powers for illegitimate benefits.

The political officers who are charged with the core obligation of discharging their mandate with the cardinal objective of protecting the interest of the public have gone astray and turned a threat to the welfare of their employers, the citizens who pay taxes hoping better delivery of public goods.

“Corruption manifests itself in varied forms that range from bribery, nepotism, misappropriation of resources, graft and patronage,” Ades,A


course: Emerging Threats college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

It’s important that understand the threats posed by cryptographic attacks to minimize the risks to your network systems.
Identify one cryptographic attack and how you can protect against it. 
Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topic
Answer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructor
Provide extensive additional information on the topic
Explain, define, or analyze the topic in detail
Share an applicable personal experience
Provide an outside source that applies to the topic, along with additional information about the topic or the source (please cite properly in APA 7)
Make an argument concerning the topic.
At least one scholarly source should be used in the initial discussion thread. Be sure to use information from your readings and other sources. Use proper citations and references in your post.


Latin American Society Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Philosophy always influenced on the development of the society and its cultural development. In different times, different philosophical views dominated peoples’ lives and beliefs. The philosophy of Latin America was formed under the influence of European philosophy that had a great impact on the development of the New World.

Latin American philosophy begins long before the 1492, in other words, before it was discovered. “Autochthonous cultures, particularly the Aztecs, Mayas, Incas and Tupi-Guarani, produced sophisticated thought systems centuries before the arrival of Europeans in America” (Oliver, 1998, During these times, the philosophy of tribes that inhabited the territory advocated “the harmony between human and nature” (Sanchez, 2008, p. 299).

A new period in the Latin American philosophy began in the 16th with the colonization of the New World. At this time, Catholic churches established schools, monasteries and seminaries. The philosophy of colonial period was inspired by medieval European philosophy. According to Guttorm Floistad (2003), “Latin America philosophy has no originality. This is simply a sequence of the mentality of the colonial power”. (p. 2).

In general, philosophy of the New World can be divided into four periods: colonial (starting with the 16th century), independentist, positivist and contemporary. Each of these periods had a great influence on the development of Latin society and culture.

However, the leading idea of every period was independence of Latin people and consecration of the native cultural heritage. During the colonial period, many authors were influenced by humanistic movement. The most famous Latin American humanist was a folk caudillo Bartolomé de las Casas who saw the first person to fight for the freedoms of native Latin Americans. He claimed that European culture should not be trusted on cultural values of people.

The independestist period began with the interest to modern European philosophers and prepared ground for the “emergence of radical and conservative political movements and parties” (Floistad, 2003, p. 12). However, before the wave of revolutions that occurred in Latin America (Cuba in particular), another period of philosophical development influenced on the culture of Native Americans. Positivism was a respond to the political, economic and social changes in the countries.

The main figures that promoted positivism theories in the country were Juan Bautista Alberdi and Andrés Bello who emphasizes that Latin philosophy should be independent of the European one. In the 19th and 20th century, there were many revolutions based on the Marxist theories, “the philosophical and pedagogical theories of liberalism were intimately related to the historical situation” (Floistad, 2003, p. 14).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A contemporary period in the Latin American philosophy begins with the reduction of positivism. The main interest was focused on the development of the “philosophical anthropology based on a spiritual conception of human beings” (Honderich, 2005, p. 595). This philosophical movement was established after Ortega y Gasset brought into Latin American culture the ideas of Max Scheler and other philosophers.

Between 1930th and 1940th, Latin American philosophy was subordinate to European ideas. “After the Spanish Civil War, many peninsular philosophers settled in Latin America” (Honderich, 2005, p. 595) and reform the philosophy that soon became independent and was established as a reputable discipline.

Thus, European philosophical traditions had a great influence on its social and cultural development. Inspired by European philosophers, Latin American philosophers provides their idea of the independence and freedom of Native Americans. These ideas were reflected in works of many literary and political activists.

References Floistad, G. (2003). Philosophy of Latin America. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Honderich, T. (2005). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Oliver, A. A. (1998). Latin America, philosophy in. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge. Retrieved from

Sánchez, G. (2008). Security in Latin American Philosophy, Ethics, and History of Ideas. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, 3 (III), p. 299-310, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-75977-5_20.

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Native Americans: The Sad Aftereffect of Decentering Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

Since the Native Americans and their culture don’t seem to play any role in the modern world, it is still peculiar to find out what has driven such great culture to a complete collapse. An idea which has been suggested by Sayre is that the process of decentering of the culture has taken place, which led to the decay of the culture.

Tracking the reasons for civilizations to disappear or their culture to vanish, the researcher found out the phenomenon of decentering, which is in fact the merging of two cultures and the final domination of the leading culture. The challenges that the nations had to meet to preserve their national and cultural identities wee far too hard for the peoples to handle. They disappeared without a trace, and the knowledge of hundreds of years was gone.

As the people whose culture has been buried under a thick layer of the brutality of the invaders, they had no other chance but to submit to the lifestyle that was foreign and unnatural to them. One of the wisest nations which has ever existed, they dissolved in the puddle spilt on the terra incognita by a European passer-by.

Although the great civilizations of the past were both wise and powerful, they still did not manage to survive through the years. The reasons for their decay can be different, yet there is something that embraces them all, explaining what had led the great people s of the past to fall into ashes and cease to exist. One of those that have been most recently suggested is the reason of decentralization, explained by Sayre (1999, 419). According to the idea of the scientist, there were some other reasons that led the ancient people to their disappearing.

Sayre provides the idea of decentering as the reason for the Native American culture to come to decay and finally dissolve in the melting pot of the Europeans coming to the continent and taking control over everything that was there within their reach, along with the culture of the Native Americans. Since the latter were of no interest to the newcomers, the Europeans simply tossed the culture that had been handed to them away.

Considered now as an act of savage attitude nowadays, it was a common thing to do with the conquistadores that came to discover the brave new world. Even though the Indians tried to resist and protect their culture, there was hardly anything that they could do, since the effect of decentralization could not be turned back or stopped. The culture of the Indians was doomed to be long forgotten and neglected for several hundred years.

Beginning with the early nineteenth century, when the expansion began to grow and the presence of the foreigners was seen more clearly than ever, the Native Americans began to feel that their culture is slipping through their fingers, while they are slowly dissolving in the crowd of foreigners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They spoke different concepts of life values and suggested another lifestyle, which could not be accepted by the native population. The point of crucial importance was the European Americans’ attitude towards the nature which the Native Americans worshipped so much. Conflicts were rising constantly, and there seemed no end to this continuous argument. As Warren says,

Contrary to the perceptions of the invalid European Americans, indigenous Americans saw humans as part of a natural world of communities, communities made up of extended families, unlike the European concept of a city of people who are strangers to one another and came together only in defiance of nature. (155)

With such perception of the environment and wildlife the Native Americans could not resist the savage culture of the Europeans who came to concur and to enjoy the victory. Thus, a very important element, which was a touch with the earth and the natural resources, was lost for good for the Native Americans.

It is clear now that merging with the European culture has led the Native Americans to the decay and the further disappearance. In fact, they did not have any other choice but to submit to the environment that was grasping them in attempt to take over their culture, traditions and land.

However hard it is to acknowledge this fact, the Native Americans were wiped from the face of the Earth due to the European conquerors who came to discover the new lands. Not taking into account that these lands already belong to someone else, they mixed their culture with the one of the American Indians, leaving the latter no other choice but to swallow what the new culture suggested.

Naturally, the natives could not take such attitude for long time. Escaping the savages that came from the Old World, the Indians were to keep close to each other and preserve their culture as long as they could. However, the last attempts were of very little use.

The abovementioned case is a clear-cut example of culture decentering. Once there was the influence of another ethnic group, it will inevitably lead to the merging of the cultures, and in case the new culture is implanted forcefully, the result is always lamentable. However, it must be noticed that the Native Americans were not about to cry – on the contrary, they decided to face the sudden trouble with a chuckle of laughter. Perhaps, that was a wise tactic.

We will write a custom Essay on Native Americans: The Sad Aftereffect of Decentering specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “They have found a humorous side of nearly every problem and the experience of life have generally been so well defined through jokes and stories that they have finally become a thing in themselves” (Quennet 108)

Actually, he people who can laugh at their own troubles are worth respect. Nevertheless, the ability to laugh did not help the Native Americans to prevent their culture from decentralization described by Sayre (419).

The problem described above is in fact close to the one that the modern American population, which makes the descendants of the European invaders, often encounters. However strange that might sound, they feel the urge to visit England, the country which they have never seen but where their real, historical home actually is. Gienow-Hecht describes this problem rather vividly:

Every native-born American wants to visit Europe, and the first place that he wants to visit is England, so that he can see for himself all that he has read of, heard of, thought and dreamed. We can meet that ambition half-way by selling England to him on screen. (39)

However hard a man could resist to the influence of the foreign culture or the culture that has become foreign to him or her, sooner or later this person will get tired of constant battles with him- or herself, and the prize will go to the prevailing culture. Unfortunately, there is nothing that can be changed about that. This is what can be defined as the natural selection process in the cultural sphere. Although this might sound a bit cruel, the cultures that prove weaker than the others are bound to die.

Naturally, the idea of the Native Americans being wiped off the continent by the people who came from Europe to explore the new land can be argued, just the way Hsu does it:

These explanations dissimulated the fact that Native Americans were actually hastened to extinction – educated about firearms in far more violent ways than Brown here suggests. Historians have highlighted “the effect of the Indian frontier as a consolidating agent in our history”, nothing that wars and treaties with Native Americans “accounted fro five-sixth of all federal expenses between the years 1790 and 1796” (29)

In spite of the fact that such actions cannot be called chivalrous and decent, the abovementioned fact cannot excuse the extinction of the culture that was the essence of an entire nation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Native Americans: The Sad Aftereffect of Decentering by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Europeans were savage enough to intrude into the sphere of cultural life of the aborigines, and the latter did not have enough force and desire to save their heritage from the conquistadors. Although the culture that has vanished was vast and embracing such spheres of life which the Europeans had never heard of, it was crushed mercilessly.

Nowadays one of the greatest regrets of the entire mankind, the decentering of American Indian culture was nothing to be worried about three hundred years ago. Such twists of fate make people think of the consequences that are triggered by every step that a person makes. Even a glance cast upon another culture or civilization can lead t unpredictable consequences, and the decentering of the American Indian culture is a sad but convincing proof for this.

References Gienow-Hecht, J. C. E. (2007) Decentering America. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books. Print.

Hsu, L. H. (2010) Geography and the Production of Space in Nineteenth

Century American Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Print.

Quennet, F. C. (2001) Where “Indians” Fear to Tread: A Postmodern Reading of Louise Erdrich’s North Dakota Quartet. Munster: Lit. Verlag Munster. Print.

Sayre, R. F. (1999) Recovering the Prairie. Madison, WS: University of Wisconsin Press. Print.

Warren, C. A., Vavrus, M. D. (2002) American Cultural Studies. Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press. Print.


Punishing an innocent person Essay online essay help: online essay help

All societies around the world have adopted a set of laws that have been precisely designed to create an environment of peace, order and respect for universal human rights like the right to life.

It has therefore been necessary to create institutions such as the police force and courts of law; which have been given a responsibility of detecting, arresting and punishing individuals that fail to live by established laws in a society.

Generally, we have been intuited by our consciousness and our societies to approve punishments for the guilty (Those that have trudged on other’s rights or broken set laws). However, as we have often observed, our societies are so complex that it is hardly possible to establish a comprehensive system of appreciating the just and punishing the guilty.

Just like the guilty, the innocent have and will continue to be punished. A number of philosophical thoughts have therefore been presented on the morality of punishing the innocent intentionally. These philosophical thoughts have tried to justify the punishment of an innocent person in some specific circumstances.

It is useful here to evaluate the meaning of innocence. According to Murphy (2007), it is much easier to define innocence from the legal perspective as compared to doing the same from a moral perspective.

From a legal perspective, someone can be judged to be guilty (the reverse of innocent) if he/she has engaged in an act or behavior that is not allowed by a set of rules governing a society where he/she comes from (Murphy, 2007).

Moving to the moral field, the threshold moves to the grey scale as one is obliged to apply theories on morality, which often contradict each other, in order to define innocence (Murphy, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The utilitarian moral theory is oftentimes applied to justify the punishment of an innocent individual (Murphy, 2007). According to the utilitarian theory, an action or behavior can be evaluated to be morally acceptable or not depending on the effects that it will bring to the greatest number of people (Kay, 1997).

When an action brings about happiness and pleasure to an extensive portion of a population that it will affect, then, such an action is morally acceptable in the eyes of a utilitarian (Kay, 1997). However, when an action brings about suffering and pain to an extensive segment of a population that it will affect, then, such an action is judged to be morally wrong in the eyes of a utilitarian (Kay, 1997).

Considering that the process of punishing any person will automatically bring about pain to the one undergoing punishment, such a process will be morally acceptable to a utilitarian if it brings about joy to the most extensive segment of a population (Kay, 1997). The action of punishing a person for breaking a law/laws cannot therefore be acceptable to a utilitarian if the action will fail to contribute in bringing joy to many (Kay, 1997).

The innocence of an individual as it pertains to punishment is therefore of less importance here. What matters however is the effect of the punishment on the largest section of a populace-whether it will be able to bring them pleasure or pain (Kay, 1997).

It is therefore possible to picture some complex scenarios that may justify the intentional punishment of an innocent person as it pertains to the utilitarian theory. For example, let’s imagine that a rioting and destructive mob capable of destroying properties as well as killing and injuring thousands of lives is demanding that a certain individual be killed (Newman, 1995).

In this case, releasing the person whose life has been demanded by the destructive mob will definitely lead to many killings and pain; bringing about suffering and pain to many (Newman, 1995). On the other hand, killing the person whose life has been demanded by the destructive mob will deter the mob, and therefore save many lives and property, preventing pain for many (Newman, 1995).

In this case, although the concerned person may be innocent; at least in legal terms, an individual or party that is guided by utilitarian principles will not hesitate to punish him (the person whose life has been demanded by the destructive mob) even if it means murdering him, because such an action will be deemed to have prevented suffering for the largest segment of a population (Newman, 1995).

We will write a custom Essay on Punishing an innocent person specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What about a person that has not been confirmed to be guilty and is held by the police for the reason that releasing such a person will lead to a series of crimes like murder that will immediately be done by the person in custody from the moment he is released (Newman, 1995).

The person in custody, although innocent, can therefore be subjected to punishment as he is held in a prison where he endures limited freedom and deplorable living conditions in order to prevent him from bringing about harm to a portion of a society where he operates from (Newman, 1995). On the other hand, the person in custody can be given freedom by releasing him from custody, something that will precede a series of sufferings to a portion of a society where he operates from (Newman, 1995).

The preferable action in the eyes of a utilitarian will therefore involve keeping the innocent person in custody, since this will prevent suffering to many. The person in custody is therefore sacrificed in order to save the largest portion of the society from pain (Newman, 1995).

It may also be necessary for a government to design and implement a policy tailored to combat a wrong that has been done to a population segment and bring the level of that segment to that of others in a society, as it pertains to their economic wellbeing among other parameters (Kay, 1997). Such a process will involve establishing policies like affirmative action to specifically favor minorities and the powerless in a society.

Implementing affirmative action means that individuals living in a society where such a policy is implemented will be compelled to sacrifice some of their rights that they would otherwise have enjoyed; such as the access to employment and education, in order for such rights to be distributed to minorities (Kay, 1997).

Although members of such a society may be innocent from oppressing minorities, they have been obliged to endure some form of punishment: when they sacrifice part of their rights (Kay, 1997). Such a price and sacrifice is of necessity in order for a government to accommodate every citizen and for the promotion of equality within a society.

For the purpose of preserving an important moral value that has been threatened in a society, say the value of freedom, a process that may involve punishing the innocent may become a necessity (Newman, 1995). In such a case, it may be necessary for a nation to go to war.

To defeat the enemy, it may be impossible to avoid injuries and casualties including those that are in no way involved in combat (Newman, 1995). It therefore becomes necessary to punish innocent segments of a population residing in an environment that is controlled by an enemy, during combat (Newman, 1995).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Punishing an innocent person by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the principles of morality are hardly counted before embarking in combat, it may become morally right to consider the pain and suffering of populations affected by the war as a necessity required to protect and uphold a valuable moral right such as the right to freedom (Newman, 1995). The threat of terrorism for example has inspired fear and strived to limit our right to freedom (Newman, 1995).

Although the exercise of wisdom and control is of necessity to prevent unnecessary suffering during the war on terror, it may become unavoidable at times for a nation to participate in combat- in the endeavor of mitigating terrorism and preserving societal rights (Newman, 1995).

Conclusion As has been seen, it becomes necessary in certain circumstances to subject innocent individuals to punishment to achieve certain moral purposes. The utilitarian theory justifies the punishment of a person whether guilty or not on the criteria that such a punishment will inevitably lead to the wellbeing of the most extensive population segment in a society.

Besides, policies like the affirmative action that emphasize on equality oblige government to compel some society members to sacrifice part of their rights for distribution to minorities. It may also become necessary to punish innocent members of communities in an environment controlled by an enemy by a nation that has gone to war to preserve important moral values like the right to freedom.

Reference List Kay, D., January 20, 1997.Utilitarianism. [Online] New York: Wofford.

Murphy, G.J, 1990. The killing of the innocent. The Monist, 57 (4), p. 527-550.

Newman, G., 1995. Just and painful. New York: McMillan.


Racial Relations and Color Blindness Analytical Essay essay help online

Every country has some rules and legislation that provides its citizens with certain security and regulations that guarantee a normal life. However, the real situation appears to be quite the opposite from what should the government provide its population with.

In this respect, we can see cases of discrimination though it is claimed to have been fought in the same time when Martin Luther King delivered his speech about the necessity of being more tolerant and patient and not treating people of other races as minorities. The history made the United States of America a multinational state where different languages and religious beliefs are brought from all over the world to contribute to the overall image of the country and enrich its culture.

Time passed and people were still coming to the United States to find some appropriate conditions for their families, education for their children, and more advantageous job opportunities. However, the real situation happened to be not as bright and prosperous as people believed.

Status of Minorities The Civil Rights Act was aimed at outlawing racial discrimination which still persists in the form of racial inequality.


Many people that live in the United States of America experience racial inequality regardless of the claims that this phenomenon was claimed to have been removed from the theory and practice. However, many people face difficulties related to their housing opportunities and educational problems. This does not mean that children of immigrants do not want to receive education – racial discrimination results in much more complicated issues such as lack of educational institutions on the territory of the neighborhoods inhabited by immigrants. Is not this inequality?

I believe that this can be considered the most vivid example of racial inequality when people are doomed to live in neighborhoods chosen for them on the bases of racial discrimination principles. As reported in the documentary series Unnatural Causes, the rate of uneducated children that experience violence or become witnesses of violence in the street is very high due to the neighborhood and inability of authorities to provide all people with appropriate living conditions making no exceptions.

Children are not educated, they lack self-esteem and self-confidence, and they have no plans for future. As experts explain about such children, they make plans concerning what to wear for their funerals instead of thinking about their graduation and more perspective outcomes (“Unnatural Causes” n.p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, there is no chance for these children to become good loving parents for their own children as the rate of violence and other external factors are not encouraging at all; hence, people do not make plans to be ready for losses. The situation in society would not permit them to realize their plans to any degree.


Health is one of the most burning issues of the contemporary society. The global community makes attempts to consolidate people all over the world and fight the danger of fatal illnesses and viruses. However, the cases that take place in the racially marked neighborhoods of the united states of American such as “Richmond, California, a predominantly Black city in the San Francisco Bay Area” (“Unnatural Causes” n.p.) demonstrate lack of attempts to improve the health of the population.

Besides, it is unclear whether the authorities do nothing with the health of the population due to the race inequality or they have simply failed to provide certain areas with adequate health care services. In this respect, health policies and programs aimed at improvement of health care services provided to the population of another race and ethnicity than white non-Hispanics seem to have failed.

As reported in the documentary series Unnatural Causes, “Segregation and lack of access to jobs, nutritious foods, and safe, affordable housing” (n.p.) can be considered the major factor that contribute negatively to the overall situation with the health of people including residents that have been living in inappropriate neighborhoods for years and even decades and new-comers who experience the pressure of this negative environment.

Health of these people reduces their lives. The major reason for shorter life period of people from disadvantaged neighborhoods is the conditions that reduce their lives. People think about the lack of job opportunities, inappropriate health care services, and lack of educational institutions which causes constant stress and worsens their health.

Sociocultural factors

Though sociocultural issues can be considered the main aspect of the cultural diversity that can be used for benefit of the society and organizations, people often fail to understand this concept adequately and treat it in the same way they treat their own cultural cues. In this respect, sometimes people lack tolerance and patience to learn differences and comprehend the relations between cultural cues typical of one ethnic group and their actions in a certain setting.

When we do not understand something, we try either to learn it better to know how to treat it. At the same time, people may fail to express sufficient understanding; they can express animosity instead.

We will write a custom Essay on Racial Relations and Color Blindness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The situation in disadvantaged neighborhoods is difficult to change though people can make efforts such as performed by the people in the High Point in West Seattle where “Community members, local government and developers took a radical approach in rebuilding this neighborhood – using federal funding to create a mixed-income community with health as its focus” (“Unnatural Causes” n.p.).

In this respect, race matters only for those who got used to stereotypes and biases instead of establishment of new unbiased relations with other community members.

So, the definition of racism is instructive because it marks people of other colors of skin than white and other ethnicities than non-Hispanic as those considered victims of this phenomenon in society. However, any expression of preference or discrimination can be considered racism in contemporary society due to multiculturalism spread all over the globe.

Colorblindness in California Though California can be considered one of the most multicultural areas on the territory of the United States of America, it can also be treated as the place where people suffer from open discrimination regardless of political claims about tolerance and integrity.

Civil rights

People are discriminated due to their racial belonging in all parts of the world. This can be considered one of the burning issues of contemporary society with regard to a number of factors that contribute to the overall situation in every separate state and the global community in general.

The book Racial Propositions: Ballot Initiatives and the Making of Postwar California written by Daniel Martinez HoSang helps people to understand the problem of racial inequality to the extent of its essence because authorities try to make things look better than they appear to be in the real life. In this respect, people in California are treated with regard to their race taking into account numerous acts, policies, and programs aimed at development of clear and unbiased social relations.

All attempts to cover or even reduce the open demonstrations of discrimination were made in order to lull the vigilance of active opponents and make the country more attractive for immigrants who did not even think about possibility of being discriminated in one of the most democratic countries in the world. HoSang in his book about the history of race in California describes speeches and public claims made to reduce the opposition:

Bowron’s pronouncement echoed the calls of dozens of other civic unity, “human relations,” and “fair play” organizations across the state and around the country during this period; Los Angeles alone was home to twelve such organizations or coalitions by 1944. (ch. 1)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Racial Relations and Color Blindness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Every such pronouncement reduced the efforts of opposition and made people believe that everything would become better than it was and discrimination would not exist anymore. Though Brown has indicated that “we have no master race” (HoSang ch.1), there are still numerous instances of discrimination and racial inequality in California as well as all over the world.


Such notions as colorblindness were supposed to make people free from discrimination and society free from biases and racial inequality. However, some people consider this to be one of the major obstacles on the way to multicultural society with specific needs and traditions. In this respect, the “…key signifiers [such as] rights, freedom, opportunity, progress, etc….” (HoSang ch.1) can be considered the greatest concepts of liberalism while people failed to implement those theoretical issues into practice.

Often people fail to perform the commitments they have toward their families and communities; the same happens when politicians say certain things and promise to do something whereas the real situation shows their real actions and intentions that stand behind those actions.

Though “Murphy warned of the ‘exaltation of any race, or nationality as superior to all others’,” (HoSang ch.1), people persist to do things claimed to be negative and inappropriate. This means that there is no color blindness in California as well as in every other area of the earth due to certain peculiar features of human being exercised toward each other.

Every person is free to choose what attitude to express toward other people regardless of their being opponents or members of the same community. This can be considered one of the drawbacks of the liberalism and its major keys.

With regard to all facts mentioned above it is necessary to ask if people are ready to enjoy the freedoms of liberalism that is supposed to ensure freedom though should not restrict people in their desires and beliefs. It is natural that some people can experience biases against representatives of other ethnic groups though this should not be the reason to deprive them of their democratic freedom to choose whom to make friends with.

Real motives of political decisions

The racial hierarchy of people in California is the main issue that should be solved. In spite of positive connotations of the language of the latest propositions made concerning the racial inequality policies, these acts are aimed at development and support of already flourishing racial discrimination typical of this area. Racial liberalism can be treated as an attempt to regulate the situation that has become obvious in California.

Though the concept of racial blindness is urgent for the population of California that suffers from disadvantaged position, the policies are aimed at stronger restriction of rights and freedoms of people so that they could not oppose the conditions and limitations imposed o them by authorities.

Thus, white supremacy can be still observed in terms of hierarchy of races in California. Every claim made against the racial inequality that is supposed to defend the rights of discriminated people can be potentially aimed at bringing racially supreme people to the top.

Conclusion People all over the world suffer from hunger and diseases whereas the problem of discrimination that should have been solved many years ago is still urgent for population of one of the most liberal countries of the globe. In this respect, people claim that the racial inequality should be reduced and eliminated from the community. However, the actual claims made by politicians and other representatives of political and social power prove to be aimed at changing the racial hierarchy in California in negative sense.

Every person can become color blind in terms of racial biases and discrimination though people cannot be deprived of their liberal powers given to them by political regime of democracy that is known for freedoms and rights imposed on population. The categories of people that have to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods suffer from the liberties and freedoms because they do not have sufficient resources and power to fight the situation; so, their children have to breathe toxic air and go to schools full of violence.

Works Cited Hosang, Daniel. Racial Propositions: Ballot Initiatives and the Making of Postwar California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010.

“Unnatural Causes.” California Newsreel, 2008. Web.


The History of U.S. Banking Crises: Cause and Effect Report best college essay help

According to economists a banking crisis can only be considered a banking crisis if there is a systematic panic (Calomiris, 2008, p.1). This simply means that the panic is widespread and affects national banks and a great number of people. A bank in the rural United States, failing due to problems in agriculture and the farmers unable to pay their loans is a financial problem but cannot be considered a banking crisis.

In order for an event to be considered it has to create an impact as widespread the current financial crisis of the first decade of the 21st century. In this case the systematic panic came as the mismanagement of the U.S. subprime lending sector and it has something to do with the unique structure of the U.S. banking industry.

The problem with bank losses and the ensuing panic that it creates is nothing new. Financial crisis has been documented as far back as ancient times in the financial industry of Greece and even in Rome in 33 A.D. (Calomiris, 2008, p.2). Even in other parts of Europe and in the United States banks losing money and depositors dismayed by the insolvency of banks are common occurrences. These problems may occur regularly but oftentimes these are isolated cases and its effects not given the chance to consolidate to create widespread panic.

Experts even agree that for most of modern history, banks were perceived to be stable and that large losses from failed banks are uncommon (Calomiris, 2008, p.2). But the unique structure of the U.S. banking industry is the reason why banks are now being perceived as unstable. In the past a central bank and a few policies were enough to prevent a meltdown but the American experience proves that more stringent measures should be in place.

There is also a need to point out that major financial crisis in the United States appears to be a replay of past events. The details may not be the same but there similarities such as the link between the decline of the stock prices and the panic that resulted from news that several businesses are failing.

In other words the U.S. banking industry is easily undermined by panic and there seems to be no system in place that prevents the general public from pulling down the banking sector with bank runs and other actions that multiplies the fears of the people and investors.

There is indeed a pattern that can be observed starting from the early 1900s to the 1930s and now in the 21st century. There is a replay of familiar historical phenomena (Calomiris, 2008, p.1) This means that the problem is not with the economy and U.S. industries per se but the system that was created to manage the U.S. market, banking sector and overall economy that created the opportunity for speculation, confusion, and panic.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A background history of the formation of the United States will reveal the uniqueness of the U.S. Federal Government. As a result, U.S. laws are different from those that can be found in other countries. A deeper understanding of this issue can be achieved if one will compare the U.S. banking industry and the Canadian banking industry.

Before going any further it is important to point out that Canada did not experience any form of systematic panic (Calomiris, 2008, p.3). In fact, the Canadians did not see the need to establish a central bank up until 1935 (Calomiris, 2008, p.3).

The key difference is that the United States government did not allow branch banking throughout the country (Calomiris, 2008, p.3). This is not the same case with Canada. By allowing branch banking throughout the nation, the Canadian government ensured that there is geographical diversity and made it close to impossible for a negative chain-reaction of events that will trigger a system-wide panic.

There is a good explanation why the Canadians were able to create this structure and why the Americans failed to mimic an effective system of banking governance. First of all it was relatively cheaper for Canadians to establish branches nationwide. Secondly, the Canadian government was able to establish a system that made it easier for banks to coordinate with each other in times of confusion.

It has to be understood that confusion is one of the most potent force that creates fear and bank runs among depositors. Finally, the Canadian banking system encouraged the establishment of smaller-sized banks and the assets of these banks were highly concentrated in several nationwide institutions (Calomiris, 2008, p.3).

Thus, the Bank of Montreal can coordinate activities by large banks so that financial crises can be addressed without the knowledge of the general public and therefore preventing panic (Calomiris, 2008, p.3). The situation is far different in the United States.

The most significant flaw in the U.S. banking industry is that it does not allow nationwide branching of banks and this resulted in an undiversified industry compartmentalized within each state and created a system that is insulated from competition. This is the reason why it is prone to shocks.

We will write a custom Report on The History of U.S. Banking Crises: Cause and Effect specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whenever there is a decline in stock prices and there is news of a increase in the liabilities of failed businesses then confusion and panics will ensue (Calomiris, 2008, p.3). Although this should be expected as a regular feature of business the United States has no effective means to reduce the occurrence of a systematic panic and the negative impact that it creates.

All of the above-mentioned factors played a major role in the creation of the financial crisis of the 21st century that did not only come to impact America but the whole world. Aside from the structure of the banking industry there is another major factor that resulted in the current crisis.

It is none other than the policies that were enacted to supposedly safeguard the economy but in light of recent events it may had backfired. The most significant policy according to financial experts is the significant government protection of banks, specifically the U.S. federal deposit insurance (Calomiris, 2008, p.4). In theory the idea of having deposit insurance assuages the fears of depositors and should reduce the occurrence of bank runs. However, there are unexpected results.

There are those who argue that deposit insurance created another set of problems. Since there is the assurance that deposits are insured to certain degree then depositors will not be as vigilant as they are before when it comes to their savings. There is less incentive to monitor their banks and a result the banks will find it easier to take risks.

They know that there is a safety net that promises to lessen the impact of their fall and therefore this goads them to take bold steps to increase revenue with little regard to the impact of small mistakes that can eventually grow into something unmanageable such as what happened to the subprime lending sector.

The deposit insurance law does not encourage discipline anymore within the U.S. banking industry and therefore imprudent behavior is rewarded and no one will be held accountable. As a result there is a steady increase in the number of incompetent bankers that have tremendous capabilities to play around with funds of other people.

One small problem led to another until the banks could not hide anymore the problem with their loans and insolvency. Due to the lax environment created by the deposit insurance scheme the depositors and U.S. citizens were unable to detect the seriousness of the problem until it was already too late.

It is important to determine the impact of the deposit insurance law and why it contributed much to the failure of many American financial institutions. However, it must also be pointed out that this piece of legislature was considered of utmost necessity after the Great Depression when depositors became wary of banks. Confidence must be restored and this is the main reason why in spite of various oppositions this policy pushed through.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of U.S. Banking Crises: Cause and Effect by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to determine the possible negative consequences of the removal of deposit insurance. This is because experts are only able to identify one major reason why it must be cancelled. They are saying that it encourages the lack of accountability.

This implies that the removal of deposit insurance will automatically create the opposite attitude which is to force depositors to take a more active role in monitoring banks. Well, this is just an assumption. There is a need to determine if this will be the case or it will reproduce the dreaded financial crisis of the previous century.

Personal Inferences It is important to be familiar with the history of the U.S. banking industry and the history of financial crises that hit the country from 19th century up to the 21st century. In this manner it is possible to determine a pattern and if the pattern of negative thinking and failed actions resulted from a preceding event or policy then it is easier to pinpoint the flawed directive or piece of legislation and correct it to mitigate risks and prevent another major financial breakdown.

A historical approach will yield better results if this is achieved using comparative studies with other countries. In the study of financial crises that occurred in U.S. mainland, many insights were gleaned from comparing its financial history with that of England and Canada.

It was a revelation to know that Canada was spared from the global financial crisis that ignited from the United States and spread like wildfire to the whole world of finance. This has prompted economists to take a closer look at the explanation for Canadian stability as opposed to its neighbor.

The most glaring difference is the absence of diversity and the fact that the U.S. banking industry was set-up in such a way that it is insulated from competition and also the fact that there is no coordination between national banks to help them weather a financial storm or to become more proactive in putting out fires before even the general public even knows that a potential threat is looming.

This will prevent them from panicking that usually results in the chain-reaction of events that in turn blow-up a small problem into crisis proportions.

Decision-makers and policymakers must take heed to the fact that there seems to be a constant replay of events. There is a pattern that is easy to see if they are only willing to take a long hard look at what transpired in the U.S. banking industry from the 19th century up to the present.

It was indeed the uniqueness of the structure of the U.S. banking industry that allowed for these things to happen. If this is the case then policymakers must make increment steps to slowly but surely educate people and educate bankers on how to be more imprudent when it comes to investments as well as how to be more accountable to stakeholders.

It is also important to allow the government to make more deliberate steps in managing the banking sector. There is the assumption that if policies like deposit insurance will be removed then the general public will go out of their way to monitor banks. This is a mere assumption; the data used were the behavior of American in the early part of the 19th century.

There is no assurance that by rescinding the deposit insurance law that everyone will suddenly become more responsible citizens and more responsible bankers. It must be pointed out that banks will continually find a way to make money and it is also common knowledge that the general public is prone to fear and panic.

The federal government must find a way to balance the need for more control and the need to allow the forces of a free enterprise to dictate where the economy is heading. It is not good to have absolute control but history also tells Americans that it is not prudent to cast out all forms of monitoring and government intervention.

The best thing to do is to educate people on how the banking industry works. It is also imperative for bankers and businessmen to understand the impact of the policies of yesteryears and if there is a need to overhaul those laws considering the pattern of financial crises and the panics that occurred in two centuries of American financing.

Conclusion A historical approach to the study of the U.S. banking industry will reveal the flaws in the system. This is because a pattern is easily recognizable if one is able to see the big picture and trace the impact of policies made between the 1900s and the 21st century. It is crucial to understand that the United States continuous to suffer from a recurring problem of financial instability and systematic panics.

It has something to do with policies that were enacted in the past. There is therefore a need to review these policies and to evaluate more stringently the way the Federal government sets up the financial sector of this country. There is also a need to find the balance between close government supervision and the principles of a free enterprise.

It has been pointed out that control measure oftentimes backfire because there is no set of rules that can be created that will anticipate all future events and changes in the market and even the world. On the other hand if bankers are allowed to do their own thing then a collapse will be inevitable because they are focused on making profit not necessarily to safeguard the money entrusted to them.

References Calomiris, C. (2008) Banking Crises. The National Bureau of Economic Research.

Retrieved from


The Future of Music Production Analytical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

From the early 20th century, people have listened to music using a record player device, i.e. the music is recorded first. Improvements in technology led to the design of the cassette tape, followed by vinyl discs and finally Compact Disc (CD). Modern technology has made it possible to store music in flash memory devices.

Advancements in technology in the music industry have led to a corresponding improvement in technology used for producing music. The switch from traditional to modern technology has led to a debate on whether the quality of music that record players had has been lost.

Pundits argue that the music, like all other aspects of our daily life, must keep pace with technology while others argue that this has led to loss of quality that used to be available in analogue music systems. This debate is not likely to be resolved in the near future.

It is more important for a producer today to know technology than music Advancements in technology have led man to invent music production techniques that require technical knowhow, a producer must first learn about these techniques in order to be successful. Success here means selling millions of copies of music and coping with cutthroat competition that has characterized today’s music industry.

However, in order to determine whether quality in music is lost in using modern technology, we need to compare analogue and digital music production systems that many claim to be the cause of the deterioration in music quality over the years.

Analogue vs. Digital Production Tools In analogue systems, the sound waves are cut out into a vinyl surface, to retrieve audio from the record player, a needle off the player vibrates, and the sound enlarged by the speakers. Therefore, the sound produces is associated with the original sound recorded and every sound is generated wholly.

In digital systems, the sound is translated into a series of numbers. The lens on a disc player reads the numbers and converts then into sound. The sound produced is not the actual representation of the music (Hatschek, para. 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology vs. Quality As we have seen, modern technology has led to the distortion of music, unfortunately, markets are in demand of music produced using modern technology. In the earlier days, we used to listen to music using record players, but we swapped better sound for expediency for both recording and listening.

Technology in music production definitely has its merits. For example, it is possible to rectify any minor error by selecting the bad portion and correcting it. However, if the mistake came from the artist, the producer would not have to repeat the whole record, he could just record over the audio.

However, Robert DiFazio, a music producer, explains that this procedure lowers the artists’ capabilities (DiFazio, para. 3). A good producer will want to go over the whole recording process, similar to the analogue era, while a producer who banks on technology will only repair the sections with mistakes.

Trends in listening to music have changed over time. In the earlier days, people used to listen not only to music, but also to the percussions and any other accompaniments. It was easy to distinguish the different sounds coming out of a music record, such as the bass guitar or a piano (Ward, para. 4).

Today’s generation does not take care of any of these; rather, we dwell so much on technologies such as the vocoder and synthesized sounds at the expense of quality. Therefore, music producers are only responding to the market demands, i.e. market needs dictate how producers make their music, failure of which they will lack a competitive advantage and could cease operations.

In short, the music market no longer takes into consideration matters of quality in music, and with albums being released every day, nobody really stops to consider other elements of music other than the most audible components.

As we have seen, technology is more important than music in today’s music production industry. In fact, producers use technology to make corrections on pieces of music that do not come out as required rather than look at the origin of the fault. DiFazio concludes by saying, “people don’t care what it sounds like, the average audience doesn’t care what it sounds like. It’s been proved…” (DiFazio, para. 7)

We will write a custom Essay on The Future of Music Production specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Effects on music now and in the Future One of the negative sides of technology in music production is the loss of quality. besides, there is the aspect of loss of live music. Knowledge of music demands that a producer be conversant with most musical instruments in use, however, technology has made it possible to produce synthetic beats from computer programs and this has reduced our interaction with live music.

Just recently, we made our own music, whether in the church, cultural functions, or in social events, this has disappeared with the rise of the digital technology. I can boldly add, merely 50 years ago, a far superior fraction of the populace played a musical instrument unlike in our day.

Works Cited DiFazio, Robert. How Analog and Digital Recording Techniques Influence the Recording Process. 2007. Web.

Hatschek, Keith. Are Dynamics dead in popular music? 2009. Web.

Ward, Dick. As Technology Advances, Demand for Quality Sound Decreases. 2010. Web.


Argument essay on graduates college essay help online

Strike organized by the institutions of higher learning in San Francisco lacked foundation, both in size and organizational style. According to Barlow and Sharpio, what began as a simple anxiety by a few students interfered with the whole education section.

It is vital to emphasize that five student organizations from developing countries also joined the strike (Barlow


Frank Lloyd Wright Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online: essay help online

Frank Lloyd Wright is an American architect who remains one of the most famous designers of the world due to his original ideas and unusual for ordinary Americans vision.

Still, considering the buildings and interior design Wright had created, it is possible to say that the buildings designed by this person remind Japanese architecture. This relation may be easily proved if to consider two examples of architecture, one of which is the Japanese building, another one is designed by Wright.

This picture is an example of Japanese architectural design. Looking at it, it is easy to see two levels of roof with fascinating design. Moreover, if one is familiar with the Japanese traditions and culture, he/she may easily conclude that Japanese houses full of space. It is natural to see a big room in Japanese architectural design which may be divided into different areas by means of screens.

The same tendency is seen in the buildings designed by Frank Wright. Looking at the picture, it is possible to say that it is created in the same tendency as Japanese buildings are. The roof has several levels, the materials are preliminary wooden. Looking at the building designed by Frank Wright it is possible to predict that the interior design of the building is full of space and light.

Japanese people respect nature and the Frank Wright’s building created as the part of this nature may be one more proof that eastern tendencies influenced the architect. Adding to the space discussion, it is possible to state that looking at the skyscrapers the designer did not see the space, there was just height which was dictated by the human desire to be in the center of the city.

The natural tendencies of the Japanese culture are absolutely different. Nature presupposes space and freedom. That is why these tendencies are so close to Frank Wright and his buildings.

Relating Frank Wright’s buildings to Japanese architectural design, it is impossible to omit the fact that geometry plays important role in far eastern culture. It seems that Japanese architects try to hide the reality under the symbolic nature of geometrical forms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Frank Wright’s works have captured some tendencies of cubism which may be easily seen from the exterior view of the building. The structure of the house is extremely important as it enhances its beauty. Looking at the works completed by Frank Wright it is impossible to disagree with the statement.

It is impossible to say that Frank Wright copied the traditional Japanese architecture as the buildings have different aesthetic look, still, the tendencies are seen. It is obvious that Frank Lloyd Wright took the ideas from the cultural heritage of Japan and considered those in a new way, tried to give those absolutely new vision.

Thus, it may be concluded that the Frank Lloyd Wright was inspired by the traditional Japanese architectural design. A deep look at the architecture of Japanese designers makes it possible to state that some specific features of exterior and interior design Frank Wright used while building his pieces of art were borrowed from Japanese architectural tradition.

At the same time, it is necessary to state that Japanese design is not just the modern tendency, but the honor for the tradition rooted to ancient times, while the buildings designed by Wright are unexpected decisions supported with original ideas.


Saatchi Gallery: My Perception of Art Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Every member of the global community should learn about history and arts to be able to reflect the vision of the contemporary world. I have decided to visit an art gallery to enrich my experience and knowledge about contemporary arts and other interesting items that can be encountered in such a place. The Saatchi Gallery was the first place that came to my mind when I thought about necessity of spiritual enrichment.

A Visit To The Art Gallery Overall impression. The overall impression of visiting this gallery can be compared to the first pictures (images) perceived by a little baby when he/she can see something but does not know what it means or did that. The first thing I saw was the entrance that did not presuppose any of the items I saw inside. There were walls painted with light pink; pictures hung on the walls.

The pictures varied in terms of topics and genres; glass walls that were used in the construction helped to keep in the outer world because there were a lot of different pictures and other items that can bring one to another world. Though some items were really interesting, their meaning is still unclear and ambiguous for me.

Themes and pieces. Every room or, to be more exact, a hall was dedicated to a specific theme or genre. However, I did not manage to find similarities in most pieces of art presented in the Saatchi Gallery. Some rooms were full of garbage that appeared to be full of artistic expression whereas other rooms were cramped with plates, vases, and other items decorated with original ornaments. Though some pictures were brighter than others, they were created to convey an absurd meaning.

On the contrary, pictures with darker colour use seemed to be more appealing than those aimed at attracting attention of the audience. The Saatchi Gallery contains pieces of art that present the history of arts during the last twenty-five years being one of the most valuable collections of items on various themes and genres.

“Pink Cher” by Scott King. There was one piece, a painting that attracted my attention and made me learn more about it. This was the picture called “Pink Cher” created by Scott King. The first aspect that grabbed my attention was the bright scarlet colour of it. The second thing was the format as I remembered to have seen something similar before. Moreover, I came closer and saw the portrait of Cher, a singer.

This was an unexpected decision as I knew that Che Guevera was depicted in this manner. So, the image of this rebellion leader was applied to a woman. I do not know the reasons for making Cher look like a rebellion leader; either do I know the reasons for the colour choice because scarlet is obviously too powerful and attention-grabbing; this colour should be used to provoke thoughts and encourage people for some actions while the image of Cher does not seem to be provoking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The visit to the Saatchi Gallery made me learn more about contemporary arts and different applications and forms that contribute to the overall impression created with the help of certain colours, shapes, textures, light and shadow use. Each piece of art can be considered unique due to the space given to every item. Though the meaning of some pieces seems to be ambiguous, I saw a lot of beautiful attention-grabbing pieces.


Jacques Le Goff: the Terms “Intellectual” and “Labor” Essay college admission essay help

The term “intellectual” The term “intellectual” in the Middle Ages

We have seen the term “intellectual” itself as a word representing a certain kind of a person, a member of a special class. “Intellectual” is also a modern term. How do we historicize this modern category? We study its relations taking into account past examples of intellectual work and professional status. This is a key question for modern study of medieval learning.

The term “intellectual” had no meaning during the Middle Ages, as various scholars applying the term to the history of medieval schools and universities have acknowledged. There is no medieval term that would understand the social and ideological component of the meaning which the modern word “intellectual” has. (Rubin, 1997)

Le Goff’s meaning of the term “intellectual”

On the other hand, the history of applying the term “intellectual” to the Middle Ages has been well established since the appearance, in 1957, of Jacques Le Goff’s Intellectuals au moyenâge. Le Goff used the term in the meaning which was similar to the meaning used in Gramscian analysis. But he did not use the term to define some historical concept, instead he used the term to name a specific historical moment.

For Le Goff, intellectuals formed a group since they practiced a particular activity, the profession of thinking and sharing their thoughts which characterized intellectuals: the “alliance between personal reflection” and its spread with the help of instruction. (Le Goff, 1992) Yet, despite the success of Le Goff’s historical re-evaluation of the concept, the term “intellectual” is still not accepted or used comfortably by medievalists in all cases. The term has found a more restricted use among French and other continental historians of the middle Ages than among Anglo-American historians of medieval Irish universities. (Classen 2006)

The term “intellectual” in the university

If we look through bibliographies used in the medieval university of France, we will see that the terms appear quite commonly; such would not be the case in bibliographies of British scholarship on medieval Oxford and Cambridge (and here American scholarship tends to resemble its British counterpart).

We will not find the terms, as nouns, used with any confidence or freedom in, for example, the History of the University of Oxford to characterize university schoolmen and their professional associates in the surroundings of the universities as a group of people who share the same viewpoints.

Obviously this is a question of national, cultural factors that shape particular historio-graphical traditions. As noted earlier, the concept of an intellectual class that would cross academic, political, and professional lines has had a mixed reception in English history and social thought from the late eighteenth century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such ideological doubt of this broad concept may be reflected in traditions of the history of the university that resist such a large concept which could replace a positivist model of academic professionalism with other model which did not have such definite socio-cultural background. This resistance to the term “intellectuals” as outdated when applied to pre-modern academic culture may be used for the specialist role that British and American historical scholars see themselves occupying as academic professionals.

Whatever their success in changing various national historio-graphical traditions, are the terms “intellectual” and “intellectuals” applied to the later Middle Ages necessarily outdated? (Le Goff, Jacques, Lloyd, Janet, 2005)

The meaning of the term labor Money landing

In the Middle Ages particular controversy surrounded the question, a controversy that Jacques Le Goff describes as the “labor pains of capitalism” (Le Goff 1980). He traces the long Christian tradition accusing the lending of money at interest, a practice banned to ministers around A.D. 300 and to Christian laymen in A.D. 626. (Le Goff 1980). During the profitable revolution of the 12th and 13th centuries, when a developing money economy was frightening the usual values and beliefs taught by the Church, there was growing criticize of usury in both worldly law and standard law.

Thus English law, for example, does not allow citizens from establishing themselves in business as private moneylenders. In contrast, prior to their removal in 1290 by Edward I, Jews were expelled from all professions except money lending; they became servants of the king and acted as his bankers.

Jews were not officially readmitted to England until 1656. The removal of Jews from France in 1306, however, was short-lived. They were readmitted in 1315 after appeals against the excessive interest rates of Christian moneylenders. But for Christian’s usury was not only a crime, it was a sin, a form of greed or meanness. (Kaplan 1984)

The usurer

The usurer, described by Le Goff as a “pre-capitalist Dracula,” had an image that makes the modern loan crook look humane. He is the one who lends money at very high interest rates. Unfriendliness to usurers often spread to merchants usually, mainly merchant bankers.

The legal and moral prohibitions and restrictions on usury gave banking a dishonest image in medieval times. One of the penalties of Christianity’s opposition to commerce in general and money lending in particular was that trading and banking was often left to non-Christians.

We will write a custom Essay on Jacques Le Goff: the Terms “Intellectual” and “Labor” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, Jews and Lombards controlled banking developments. Indeed, as Leon Poliakov (1977) demonstrated, the Jewish community enjoyed special protection from the Church, a protection that had both economic and theological foundations. (Bak 1990) Talmudic tradition took a much more useful view of banking and money lending. Trading in money was not judged a good or evil, but, rather, looked at in terms of its penalty for Judaism and the Jewish community. (Petkov 2003)

The Church’s attitude towards usurers Le Goff’s work shows how an ideological obstacle such as the Church’s teachings about usury “can fetter or delay the development of a new economic system” (Le Goff 1980). It also demonstrates the slowness of the changeover from one economic system reflected in social relationships to another.

Le Goff in addition examines how the Christian Church adapted its knowledge in reply to the new economic realities of a market economy.

He suggests that three complementary forces led to the greater acceptance of the Christian usurer. One was the appearance of new values in the empire of economic activities, particularly ideas related to risk and uncertainty. This divided completely forms of lawful profit making and usury, a form of risk less profit. Profit from lending at interest was authorized if it provided a reasonable income for risk and effort.

A second development was in the practices of money lending, particularly in control of interest rates. Thus usury came more and more to mean extreme profit making, an illegal and criminal activity. Finally, and most importantly in Le Goff’s view, the Church changed its religion to criticize the usurer to make them realize so that they may go to heaven rather than to hell.

This allowed some hope that the usurer’s soul could be saved from a very bad afterlife and that with suitable repayment of his property, and prayers, offerings and negotiation on his behalf by his loved ones after his death, his soul could finally enter paradise. However, it was not until 1830 that the Catholic Church formally reversed its opposition to usury and conceded that the charging and taking of interest did not necessarily imperil the soul’s salvation. (Platt, Peter G, 1999)

The Church’s attitude towards labor Le Goff argued that the middle Ages saw a reversal of the traditional attitude of the church toward “labor”, whereas once it had been defined as a form of blame or regret, from the twelfth century on a positive image of labor appeared, so that by A.D. 1200 the image of working saint was replaced by the image of the saintly worker.

Le Goff also pointed out that at the very point the church was giving way to social pressure for a review of worldly activity, the rise in trade, credit, and monetary payment posed new challenges to this spirituality.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Jacques Le Goff: the Terms “Intellectual” and “Labor” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Adjusting the older idea of labor as toil, as suffering; the church effectively disagreed that in these new social relations on markets, payment was necessary only if labor had been given. Although the modern idea of an economic task performed for others existed in practice in the markets that were rapidly developing, the church could not use this idea.

But the meaning of labor as suffering helped reconsider the meaning of labor. Several centuries later people gave a new meaning to labor: that people should work and become a member of ruling class of workers. This was, maybe, the last example of discussion in which there were groups that did not accept the greatness of pain. (Lynch, Patricia A. Fischer, Joachim,Coates, Brian, 2006)

Reference List Bak,János M. (1990) Coronations: medieval and early modern monarchic ritual By University of California Press. Web.

Classen,Albrecht (2006) Childhood in the middle Ages and the Renaissance: the results of a paradigm. Hubert and Company. Web.

Kaplan,Steven L. (1984) Understanding popular culture: Europe from the middle Ages to the nineteenth. Walter De Gruyter and Co. Web.

Le Goff, Jacques (1980). Time, Work and Culture in the middle Ages, Translated by A. Goldhammer, Chicago. Web.

Le Goff, Jacques (1992) The Medieval Imagination By 1992 University of Chicago Press.

Le Goff, Jacques, Lloyd, Janet (2005) The Birth of Europe: 400-1500 Black well publishing. Web.

Lynch, Patricia A. Fischer, Joachim,Coates, Brian (2006) Back to the present, forward to the past: Irish writing and …, Volume 2 Radopi B. V. Web.

Petkov, Kiril (2003) The kiss of peace: ritual, self, and society in the high and late medieval West. Brill NV. Web.

Platt, Peter G. (1999) Wonders, marvels, and monsters in early modern culture. Associated university Press. Web.

Rubin, Miri. (1997) The work of Jacques Le Goff and the challenges of medieval history. The Boydell Press. Web.


How can Teachers Teach Critical Thinking? Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Given the fact that, during the course of recent decades, the course of socio-political and scientific progress in Western countries had attained clearly defined exponential subtleties, it comes as no particular surprise that, as time goes by, the learning techniques, utilized in academic curricula, appear to place ever-heavier emphasis onto helping students to develop the skills of critical thinking.

According to Walters (1990): “The training of students in critical thinking, analytic skills, and problem solving has become a top educational priority in recent years.

Courses in critical thinking are now standard in institutions of higher learning” (p. 450). The reason for this is simple – it is namely those students that posses such skills, who would be more likely to succeed in attaining social prominence, as it would increase the extent of their professionally related adaptability.

Therefore, it represents the matter of foremost importance for educators to have a cohesive understanding as to what accounts for facilitation of critical thinking-related skills in the classroom.

In our paper, we will aim to substantiate the validity of this hypothesis at length, while referring to namely Experiential and Problem-Based (Independent) Learning Theories, as we believe that it is namely these two theories that provide teachers with most advanced theoretical framework for helping students to develop proficiency in critical thinking.

Nevertheless, before addressing the subject matter through the conceptual lenses of these two theories, we will need define the essence of critical thinking as ‘thing in itself’ and the role it plays within the discursive matrix of modern education. In the next part of this paper, we are going to do just that.

Despite the fact that, as we have mentioned earlier, the growing number of educators come to realize the indispensability of providing students with a stimulus to develop critical thinking, only few of them seem to understand the theoretical implications of such thinking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason for this appears to be the fact that traditional concept of education implies the notions of ‘knowledge’ and ‘understanding’ being essentially synonymous, even though the post-industrial realities of today’s living render such an implication largely outdated. Whereas; the concept of ‘knowledge’ connotes memorization, the concept of ‘understanding’ connotes interaction.

And, up until comparatively recent times, the whole system of Western education was based upon the assumption that it is perfectly appropriate to expect theoretical knowledge, obtained in class, to correlate with surrounding realities, as if something rather statically defined.

As it was rightly pointed out by Sommer (1974): “The school emphasizes memorization and formal exercises, it emphasizes general relationships and abstract principles… It is obliged to certify the amount of learning that has taken place and relies on formal examinations for this purpose” (p. 10).

Nevertheless, such approach to education cannot be considered suitable, simply because, even the most abstract knowledge that can be obtained in the place of learning derives out of currently predominant socio-political and scientific discourses.

For example, whereas, throughout the course of 20th century, students specializing in political sciences were taught to think of 1868 Peace of Westphalia as the foundation of international law, the NATO’s bombing of Yugoslavia in 1991 had rendered such theoretical approach utterly outdated.

Whereas, it has been traditionally assumed that it is namely governments that can indulge in unilateral spying on citizens, the most recent scandal with WikiLeaks had proven that private citizens are being just as capable of spying on the government.

Whereas, up until recently, the rate of people’s IQ was assumed to be environmentally predetermined, the most latest discoveries in the field of biology point out at the rate of people’s IQ as something rather genetically predetermined.

We will write a custom Essay on How can Teachers Teach Critical Thinking? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it represents the matter of foremost importance for students to remain intellectually flexible (often by the mean of challenging the validity of conventional scientific theories), while pursuing with their studies, because it is only then that they will be able to take practical advantage of what it being learnt.

In her article, Tsui (2002) states: “By instilling critical thinking in students we groom individuals to become independent lifelong learners—thus fulfilling one of the long-term goals of the educational enterprise” (p. 740).

Apparently, one’s ability to indulge in critical thinking is the pathway towards such intellectual flexibility. And, one’s intellectual flexibility is the key to realization of his or her full existential potential, because only intellectually flexible individual would be able to adapt to highly dynamic realities of today’s living.

Nowadays, the origins of Experiential Learning Theory are being traced to the works of one of founders of American Pragmatism, John Dewey. In his now famous book Democracy and education, Dewey stated: “Knowledge is the tool for managing experience – no such thing as genuine knowledge and fruitful understanding except as the offspring of doing” (1924, p. 322).

According to Dewey, the validity of just about any abstract concept, learnt in schools, colleges or universities, is being reflected by the extent of this concept’s practical applicability.

The reason for this is simple – given the fact that, as representatives of Homo Sapiens specie, we are not mere spectators of a surrounding environment but its active agents, the possession of knowledge, on our part, does not only allow us to appear ‘sophisticate’, but it actually increases the degree of our existential competitiveness.

As Hytten (2000) had put it: “He (Dewey) argues that it (education) should help men and women deal with the problems of their day and create a more harmonious and fulfilling future.

For him, education provides the arena in which to test out the value of philosophical ideas” (p. 455). Therefore, students’ theoretical studies must always be followed by field exercises, during the course of which students will be able to test the strengths and weaknesses of what they had learnt in the classroom, on their own.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How can Teachers Teach Critical Thinking? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More David Kolb utilized Dewey’s theoretical insights, in regards to education, while developing his model of Experiential Learning, which consists of four stages: Abstract Conceptualization, Active Experimentation, Concrete Experience, and Reflective Observation.

According to Kolb, it is namely while being taken through the last three stages of a learning process, that students attain critical thinking skills, as it is only then that they learn how to apply independent practice-related judgments to theoretical knowledge, obtained in the classroom. At the end of a learning process: “They (learners) must be able to reflect on and observe their experiences from many perspectives” (1984, p. 30).

In her article, where she discusses different aspects of an internship practice, Tovey (2001) points out to the fact that facilitation of students’ critical thinking should be considered as one of experiential learning’ most important benefits: “Being part of a workplace involves more than simply learning the job skills… it involves the enhancement of students’ analytical abilities” (p. 282).

By being prompted to learn from experience, students get to realize how their previously obtained theoretical knowledge applies in practice, which in its turn, helps them to adopt a critical perspective on professionally related tasks.

It is needless to mention, of course, that this would aid them rather substantially in attaining professional adequacy, because it is specifically those employees that do not address their professional duties strictly ‘by the book’ that are being valued the most.

Therefore, we can only agree with Maudsley and Strivens (2000), who provide us with a better understanding of how facilitation of critical thinking is being perceived through the lenses of Kolb’s Experiential Model: “The critical thinking process is person-specific, emotion-centered, and both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated, and often leads to critical insight unexpectedly” (p. 540).

Upon being prompted to reflect on how their theoretical knowledge correlates with their experiential knowledge, students get to be automatically presented with an opportunity to foster their critical thinking skills.

Another learning theory, the application of which is believed to result in enhancing students’ critical thinking skills, is being commonly referred to as Problem-Based or Independent.

The proponents of this theory suggest that, in order for students to be able to benefit from studying a particular theoretical discipline, they must be left on their own, while tackling learning-related challenges.

In their article, Belton and Scott (1998) provide us with the insight onto the conceptual premise of this theory: “Independent Learning (IL) is used here to emphasize independence in the processes of learning or attainment of knowledge; students taking responsibility for their own learning… The teacher’s role is more of a learning manager and resource person; a co-learner whose experience in acquiring appropriate knowledge is more important than their knowledge acquire” (p. 899).

The origins of this theory can be traced back to sixties, when medical students at McMaster University in Canada were provided with a number of educational liberties, such as showing up at certain lectures if they only considered it necessary.

Nevertheless, even though the emergence of this theory has never been associated with the individuals of a great social or scientific prominence, as opposed to what it is being the case with Experiential Theory, it continues to grow ever more popular with educators.

This can be explained by the fact that, as time goes by, the very notion of professional excellence is being increasingly perceived within essentially problem-solving context. For example, as of today, 65% of Microsoft’s software designers consist of naturalized citizens from Russia, India and China.

Even though that the bulk of these employees do not even hold a formal degree in IT-related fields and even though many of them have a criminal record, due to their hacking activities in the countries where they were born, it nevertheless did not prevent them from being hired.

The reason for this is simple – as time goes by, one’s formal possession of a university diploma becomes increasingly irrelevant, when it comes to defining his or her chances to get a job. This appears to be especially the case in Western countries where a so-called ‘affirmative action’ educational policy had attained an official status.

Nowadays, more and more corporate employers seek to hire those who, due to their possession of high IQ, are being able to adapt to the challenges of a highly dynamic professional environment.

And, it is specifically the application of Problem-Based (Independent) learning strategy in the classroom, which is expected to endow students with problem-solving skills, and consequently – to improve their critical thinking abilities.

In their article, Hmelo-Silver and Barrows (2006) state: “For experts, teaching is a problem-solving context in which they must come to understand the meaning of students’ ideas rather than just correct them.

This is especially true when teachers and students co-construct the instructional agenda in a student-centered environment such as problem-based learning (PBL)” (p. 21). When being exposed to Problem-Based (Independent) learning strategies, students learn how to utilize their own sense of rationale, while addressing a particular academic or practical challenge.

It is now became a commonplace practice for the teaching affiliates of this theory to provide students with a few possible clues as to how a particular academically-related challenge should be tackled, and then to simply leave students alone for a while, so that they would be able to choose in a favor of a proper solution on their own.

Such practice, of course, contributes rather substantially to the process of students acquiring essential skills in critical thinking, because, while being presented with a challenge to solve a particular problem, students get to realize that they have no option but to rely on their personal rationale-based judgments.

As it was rightly pointed out by Semerci (2006): “For a student who has assumed responsibility for his/her own learning, the necessity to display the behaviors of attaining knowledge and using it makes thinking and problem solving important skills… Problem-based learning (PBL) supports critical thinking and problem-solving skills” (p. 1127).

Thus, just as it being the case with Experiential Learning Theory, the utilization of Problem-Based (Independent) Learning Theory in the classroom creates the set of objective preconditions for students to indulge in critical thinking, as an integral part of the process of acquiring knowledge.

The earlier articulated ideas as to how Experiential Learning Theory and Problem-Based (Independent) Learning Theory address the issue of facilitating critical thinking, allow us to formulate the set of recommendations for fostering this type of thinking in the classroom:

1) Teachers should encourage students to come up with their own interpretation of the concepts and ideas that they are being taught about in the place of learning. This should especially be the case when the acquired knowledge is being concerned with liberal sciences.

According to Spinks (2001): “There is a widespread perception that Western society is undergoing a profound transformation in its relation to the political dimension of human experience” (23). Therefore, no topics should be made a ‘taboo’ to discuss, regardless of how controversial they might be.

For example, instead of making students to believe that the beneficence of ‘multiculturalism’ cannot even be doubted, as it is usually the case in today’s Western schools, colleges and universities, teachers should be providing them with an alternative perspective onto the subject matter – hence, prompting them to indulge in critical thinking.

2) Teachers should never skip an opportunity to allow students to validate the objectiveness of theoretical knowledge, they acquire in the class, independently.

And, the best way to assure that, is encouraging students to go on a field trips, during the course of which they would be able to test the strengths and weaknesses of a theory in practice, and to persuade them to enroll into externship and internship programs.

While referring to the specifics of how internship programs at Purdue University help students to improve their analytical abilities, Bay (2006) states: Students write a weekly internship log or journal of about two to three pages, in which they not only record their experiences but must also analyze them from a number of different perspectives” (p. 136).

It is specifically by interacting and by socializing in professionally related environment that students will be able to gain a better understanding of classroom-based knowledge’s practical relevance.

3) Teachers should consider making it possible for students to indulge in project-based learning activities, as one of the pathways towards facilitating their critical thinking skills. While being asked to work on completing a particular project, related to theoretical knowledge, students would be prompted to assess the extent of such knowledge’s practical applicability.

In its turn, this would enhance their skills of critical thinking rather extensively.

In their article, Lime et al. (2007) provide us with the insight onto project-based learning’ possible objectives: “Project-based learning can be aimed at applying knowledge and techniques that are already acquired (usually limited to one subject).

It can also include interdisciplinary projects that are related to existing professional issues” (p. 338). After having completed a particular field-project, students would be less likely to think of purely theoretical recommendations, as to such project’s completion, as representing an undeniable truth-value.

4) Teachers should create preconditions for students to choose in favor of participating in team-based brainwashing sessions as the ultimate tool of addressing educational tasks and challenges.

By taking part in these sessions, students will not only be able to improve their skills of critical thinking, but they will also learn how to defend their critical perspectives, in regards to a particular issue, against the critical perspectives of others. In their article, Kaplan and Kies (1995) state: “Critical thinking requires that students are taught the thinking skills process along with the content area.

The thinking skills process requires instruction and practice. The practice can be either deductive approach and/or by an inductive approach. Brainstorming is the part of deductive approach” (p. 186). While partaking in brainstorming sessions, students will also learn how to assess the objective value of their critical opinions. And, this will come as a great asset later in their lives.

We believe that the earlier provided line of argumentation, in regards to the significance of facilitation of critical thinking in the classroom, and also in regards to the implications of such facilitation, substantiate the validity of paper’s initial hypothesis.

By encouraging students to act as critical thinkers, while studying, teachers will help them greatly in the process of attaining self-actualization. As individuals capable of critically assessing the information that is being conveyed to them in classrooms, students will eventually cease to think of themselves as the mere recipients of knowledge.

Instead, they will grow to think of their role in the learning process as such knowledge’s co-creators. In its turn, this will result in endowing students with a completely new perspective on learning, which would be consistent with post-industrial realities of living in Globalized world.

References Bay, J. (2006). Preparing undergraduates for careers: An argument for the internship practicum. College English, 69(2), 134-141.

Belton, V.


Outstanding Photographers: Irving Penn and Jan Groover Essay essay help online

Every area of human activity is divided into certain periods with regard to the technological development, changes in social behavior, shifts in political regimes, and distribution of power. Photography is a branch of contemporary arts that is influenced by a great number of internal and external factors.

Different types of films and filters were used for many years to produce the image visible for human eyes but impossible to reproduce in photographs. All difficulties and obstacles advanced technological innovations and enabled photographers to take pictures without necessity to wait for printed pictures to come in a week.

However, outstanding photographers of their time took the challenges and invented their own methods to make the invisible visible and vice versa. Thus, it is necessary to analyze some works made by Irving Penn and Jan Groover who managed to benefit from use of black and white in their still life photographs and while shooting models and objects for fashion magazines.

Irving Penn And Jan Groover Both these photographers are known for their talent and attention to details. Arrangement of the objects for a photograph is very important and this importance can be understood while looking at pictures taken by Irving Penn and Jan Groover. Use of color images is contrasted to black and white though both authors used different patterns while taking pictures of models for fashion magazines and still life pictures, some aspects of their work are different while others are similar.

Images of nude people and kitchen utensils were depicted in the most unexpected ways using specific arrangement of objects, certain color choice, light and shadow techniques and other special approaches that enabled a photographer to convey his/her message and show the things and people in the way he/she saw those.

Every decade brought something new to the world in terms of technological advancement; photography was not an exception. New techniques and brighter colors shifted the priority though did not change the talent and approach used by Irving Penn and Jan Groover.

Involvement. The involvement in terms of photography presupposes that an author is involved into a certain area, genre, or a single technique. This aspect is very important for contemporary authors as it enables us to trace the changes in the involvement of these two great photographers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Irving Penn is known for several large involvements each being a theme of n exhibition as well as Jan Groover who had also established her style; certain themes and genres prevailed in the photographs of both authors depending on the period of their development. The involvement can be seen in the series of still life and nudes made with the help of certain techniques.

Thus, Irving Penn used silver and platinum prints while creating a series of photographs “Earthly Bodies” in 1949-1950. This technique enabled the author to present human bodies in the most unexpected angles and poses. In this respect, the pictures seem to reflect the real meaning imposed by the author concerning the beauty of bodies regardless of their imperfectness. He arranged the compositions so that all these people looked attractive.

We can assume that these bodies would not look attractive if they were not arranged and printed with the help of palladium and platinum. For instance, the picture “Nude No. 70” (see Fig. 1) is a part of the “Earthly Bodies” (1949-1950) series was acknowledged as well as other photographs from this series only when a few decades passed because they were avant-garde for their time.

Another major involvement of Irving Penn was the portraits and people from the real life and famous people that often appeared on the covers of magazines such as Vogue. For instance, his wife, Lisa Fonssagrives married him in 1950 after a picture taken for Vogue depicting models that could have been seen on the cover of Vogue in different issues and volumes (“Penn’s People” 103).

As you can see from the Figure 2, the author managed to depict beautiful women without making attempts to single out one person and make her a center of the composition. Irving Penn made wonderful portraits that were treated as masterpieces due to the perfect arrangement of things and people in the pictures. Every object could look appealing when appropriately arranged – this was the major idea of the author.

Jan Groover was more involved in taking still life pictures. While Irving Penn thoroughly arranged the objects to depict them in his works (Inc Icon Group International 86), Jan Groover said about the arrangement: “With photography I didn’t have to make things up. Everything was already there” (“Photography” 76). In this respect, Jan Groover claims that all objects were not intentionally arranged. However, this cannot be truth for the picture “Untitled” created in 1983 (see Fig. 3).

This shows us the main involvement of this author as she seems to be obsessed with different fruits, vegetables, knives, forks, and other objects that present still life. Triptychs and diptychs can be considered another involvement of Jan Groover as she uses this technique of depicting the same theme in three different ways and presenting these as a single unit.

We will write a custom Essay on Outstanding Photographers: Irving Penn and Jan Groover specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the common involvement of these two artists was the depiction of still life whereas nudes and household utensils can be considered the most obvious difference. Moreover, both author used white and black as well as color photographs to show how these objects can be understood, instead of showing just objects as everybody can see those in the day-to-day life. Still life was the major involvement of Jan Groover whereas portraits were the major involvements of Irving Penn.

Formal approach. The formal approach to depiction of different objects and arrangement of the things can be considered typical of works created by Irving Penn. The author managed to organize the things in the way they would look more appealing and benefit from this angle, filter, color use, and other aspects of every photograph.

Every picture can be taken as it appears; however, the author tried to show the things and people as they should be perceived instead of making things obvious. Thus, the meaning of the things can be better understood while looking at pictures by Irving Penn.

Jan Groover uses another formal approach by depicting some areas and objects with the help of the method that presupposes depiction of different objects or people with regard to a single topic of these pictures making a single unit that should be perceived as a single piece of arts. Thus, she uses triptychs and diptychs to show the same things with a specific vision.

For instance, the picture “Untitled” created in 1977 contains flower pots with flowers; the use of color can be considered one of the prominent characteristics of this diptych and the idea that unites these two parts of the whole unit.

However, the formal approach taken by Jan Groover can be called the method of taking pictures in the way they can be found in the real life as the author manages to show us her vision of those arrangement that were not arranged intentionally.

Photographic syntax. As every sentence in human speech consists of certain parts, a picture consists of a frame, light, shadow, gloss, mat surface, or other aspects that may positively contribute to the overall comprehension of what was meant by the author.

As every author uses some techniques and methods typical for his/her works, it is necessary to take into account the periods in the work of different photographers and their formal approach to taking pictures and arrangement of objects. In this respect, the pictures created by Irving Penn and Jan Groover are absolutely different because these two authors use different structures to create their masterpieces hence making the works more recognizable and appealing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Outstanding Photographers: Irving Penn and Jan Groover by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the picture “Members of The Ballet Society” created in 1948 by Irving Penn can be considered one of the strongest evidences of the outstanding photographic syntax used by this photographer. The most prominent aspect of this masterpiece is the arrangement of people as the girl appears to be in the center whereas she is also standing in the corner. This can be considered an allegory because the corner is used to reflect the real nature of these people. The author made them attractive and mysterious in a way.

Though all the four do not look tired or exhausted, three of them, the men, are sitting on the floor creating in this way a ground of the picture whereas the upper corners of it are intentionally left blank with the help of white color imposed and blurring as the technique that helps to make obvious things less clear and more ambiguous so that every viewer could invent his/her own meaning for this picture.

The pictures created by Jan Groover have their own unique photographic syntax as they are composed using the household utensils and vegetables. The pepper could not be depicted in a more appealing way that it was by Jan Groover. Thus, the author uses different colors, experiments with lights and shadows, implements black and white objects and applies other techniques to her photographs.

One of the characteristics typical for a great number of her works is that the main objects are not always depicted in the center of the composition. This aspect makes the composition look more natural and real instead of making it more glamorous and artificial. Thought the objects and people are arranged perfectly in the pictures created by Irving Penn, they do not look artificial or unnatural.

Art and technological determinism. As the technological advancement means a lot for photography, we should analyze the impact of technological determinism on the photographs created by Irving Penn and Jan Groover. Though most of their pictures were in avant-garde of their time and were acknowledged only some decades after their creation and presentation, this can be explained by technological determinism and other factors that influenced the photography greatly.

One of the aspects that influenced all areas of human lives in all times was the scope of changes that took place in the political, economic, and social life all over the world, in specific countries and areas, and in a certain neighborhood. Thus, nudes were popular in the period when every photographer thought it necessary to present his/her vision of human body through the images of naked people.

Though every author used specific colors, he/she could create something different from his/her usual works after being inspired with the contemporary tendencies. However, the range of topics should not be identified as one of the aspects that determined the use of technological equipment because the films and filters were the basic technological determiners for Irving Penn and Jan Groover as the author that managed to create outstanding pictures without technologically advanced materials.

The most typical of all pictures can be considered the use of platinum and palladium that were applied to the pictures to make them more glossy and three-dimensional.

Another technique that was used for color pictures were the chromogens used alternatively to the use of silver halide pigments to produce the image. Moreover, the work of chemical laboratories was one of the obstacles that made the production of images more time-consuming and reduced the scope for experiments.

While most pictures created by Irving Penn were produced with the use of platinum and palladium as the main compounds, Jan Groover implemented the use of chromogenic pigments. This fact can be explained with regard to the color of pictures prevailing in the works produced by both authors.

As Jan Groover used a limited tonal range and combined different tonal ranges in one picture including muted colors though fewer black and white pictures, Irving Penn used mostly black and white pictures to convey his message to the viewers. In this respect, the technological determinism can be viewed in the works by both authors contrasted to the color choice that was varied by both.

True subject. The true subject can be usually noticed after thorough examination of the work. Sometimes, there seems to be no meaning at all whereas other works are full of hidden meanings that can be changed in accordance with the context in which the story reveled in the picture appears. In this respect, the work “Untitled” created in 1979 by Jan Groover can be considered one of the most vivid and brightest pictures in terms of the theme (see Fig. 7).

This idea enables us to analyze this picture assuming that every little object has its own story that contributed to the overall meaning of the picture. In other words, vegetables, kitchen utensils and shells look very natural though it is unlikely for these objects to appear in this combination naturally. However, the composition presupposes that the mess created artificially was aimed at becoming the ground for the picture.

This picture shows how the simplest things can be arranged in the most harmonious manner and that even the objects that seem difficult to combine can be used in the most unexpected settings as well as peaceful negotiations can be held between countries that have been in war for years.

The pictures created by Irving Penn are marvelous due to the use of mostly black and white colors and perfect arrangement of the photographic syntax. Thus, his works seem to be full of hidden meaning making the viewers admire the depth of depiction and integrity of all objects presented in the picture. The same concerns the photograph created by Irving Penn in 1947 “Still Life with Watermelon” (see Fig. 8) where the author suggests his vision of a still life picture.

This image combines fresh fruits and a loaf of bread that was tried by a person. These objects are perfectly combined so that a viewer can experience hunger while looking at this picture. In other words, the real subject of this picture can be considered the hunger. Moreover, there can be a hidden message about the help that should be provided to those nations that suffer from famine.

Conclusion To conclude, it is necessary to say that both authors can be considered genii of their time because they managed to create outstanding pictures regardless of technological determinism and lack of appropriate materials to produce images and catch the most gentle and lightest movements and details. Every picture is arranged perfectly in the works by Irving Penn whereas Jan Groover claims her pictures to be taken almost spontaneously as she took them when everything was naturally arranged by a mess or a situation.

In this respect, use of colors, the photographic syntax and other aspects related to the works of both authors determine the main difference and similarities of their photographs. Lack of materials did not prevent them from taking pictures that are acknowledged by contemporary audience as the most outstanding pictures of all times.

Works Cited Begleiter, Steven. The Art of Color Infrared Photography. Buffalo, NY: Amherst Media, Inc, 2001. Print.

Inc Icon Group International. Penn: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases. San Diego, CA: ICON Group International, 2008. Print.

“Penn’s People.” Life 14 Nov. 1960: 103-109. Web.

“Photography.” New York Magazine 12 Sep. 1988: 76-78. Web.


Organizational Behavior and Theory Essay scholarship essay help

Basic Human Processes Coping with Organizational Life: Emotions and Stress

Sometimes it is difficult to achieve something in this world – a world which is simply called a global village. Actually the phrase global village is an oxymoron. It is nicknamed ‘village’ because it has been made simple by computers, the internet, and the globalized world – we are connected. But in this so-called simplicity, humans have to live in a most complicated way. Computers have made our lives complicated, if not miserable.

We have to cope, adjust, and change day in and day out with our organizational life. There are many things to cope with; change is one of them. And it is complicated because one phenomenon appears after another, and so on and so forth.

Most of us belong to an organization, which maybe a particular business, or a group with humanitarian goals. Many of the people who started these organizations would say that they formed the groups to make life easier and to make the world a better place to live in. But we know that these organizations have complicated goals, beginnings, and outcomes. They haven’t made life a better place to live. They have made our lives difficult, although there is an exception to some. There are organizations out there which have noble intentions, although (again this word) these organizations are victims themselves of the changes brought about by many factors.

An organization with a business background and objective – or simply said, a business organization – can never offer simple lives for its members. This complicated world of the managers, employees and ordinary workers makes life so harsh, difficult and uncompromising.

We have to cope because global organizations operate in a most complicated way, not to mention that organizations are composed of peoples of diverse cultures. Multinational corporations and multinational enterprises are global organizations composed of people of diverse cultures. Living with peoples of different cultures can make the lives of ordinary employees, and even managers, very unbalanced. Work and life balance is difficult to achieve.

We have to cope, adjust and modify our lives through these experiences. Our emotions, feelings, personal lives have never been so affected by organizational activities that we tend to look at the office or the organization headquarters as our home away from home. We spend and dedicate our time, efforts, and knowledge to the organization. We look at the office as more than a place. Family life plays second fiddle. We believe that if we are happy in the organization, we are happy at home. The organization comes first.

Moreover, the organization’s strategic operation is very different than it was a few years ago. Employees have to give up, sometimes. Businesses and organizations are manned or controlled by humans, not by machines – machines are there to follow our commands. But humans commit mistakes or errors, and succumb to the changes and ambiguities in organizational life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In our dealings with fellow employees, we commit errors. Our errors and inadequacies, faults, perceptions are in many ways what make us human and make us unique. The world has been interpreted by theorists, thinkers and researchers who made sense of things in very different ways. Many of these issues are perceptions but are essential to handling the nearly infinite stimulus our mind receives. The more the organization has become complicated to our own perception, the more we commit errors and mistakes; and the more our lives become miserable.

Management is in a period of decline, and this is particularly in the middle management (Scarbrough and Burrel, 1996, cited in Brocklehurst et al., 2009, p. 7). The decline can be due to many factors, like personality and relationship. Our relationship with people is affected by our unique personality – because we are humans.

Like the organization, human nature is complicated – it is filled with emotions and feelings. In an organization, there are complexities, errors, and successes, because organizations are manned by humans like us. We are not governed by theories but we formulate these theories out of our experiences and continued socialization. In the course of time, these theories seem to rule over our behavior and activities.

Schemas are constructs that contain information about our values, how we perceive ourselves and others, and how we adjust to things and changes in the environment. Schemas are components of cognitive-behavioral therapy and are powerful tools in interpersonal relationships. (Clegg et al., 2005, p. 56)

In our socializing activities, we commit errors which are a part of our behavior in making judgments, interpretations, assumptions, and beliefs about our social world, the people within it, and our place in it. Examples of these errors are stereotyping, self-fulfilling prophecies, the ‘halo’ effect, attribution error, cognitive dissonance, and so forth. These affect our relationships with managers and co-employees.

This should be minimized, if not avoided, because this is one way of judging people; instead of managing, we divert from the right path. Instead of motivating, we discourage employees. Stereotyping is not always negative. Self-fulfilling prophecies and the ‘halo’ effect are a result of our own fulfilling dreams – a result of looking at one’s self as something greater, or holier-than-thou attitude.

The most common issues concerning stereotyping center on culture and race. People have been asked to suppress their stereotyping behavior. Another of the errors in managing people is ‘self-fulfilling prophecies’ which affects how we perceive others and how we act when we interact with them, but it also affects how we perceive and act ourselves. If we look at others the way we think of them, they may act the way we perceive of them.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Behavior and Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Within attribution we are prone to two key errors. The first is the fundamental attribution error. When we see someone fail or behave in certain ways we believe it is due to their personality, attitude, or disposition.

When we think of work as a mere tool for us to live, we can hardly be motivated. We will continue working for the sake of the salary we get from the company we work for. But we have to cope with our organizational life, the same way we cope with family life. This has to go together. Work and life have to balance. Organizations which promote work-life balance will have productive workers because these workers are well motivated. Success in work and happiness in the family always go together.

Individual Processes Motivation in Organizations

It has always been a common belief that when people are motivated, they accomplish goals. Workers become productive when they feel they are a part of a team, or part-owner of the organization. They feel this sense of belongingness and so they strive for the organization’s improvement.

Organizations have been trying ways to help employees adjust their family life with work. Ways of motivation include benefits and higher salaries, which can further result into increased productivity, lower rates of absenteeism and a motivated and satisfied workforce. (McIntosh, 2003, p. 185)

Studies have found that successful managers have stronger power motives than less successful managers. The human need theory asserts that people have urges relative to the three needs which are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power. The role of team leaders is to coach, that of the facilitator, not someone to play as superman (Armstrong, 1998, p. 8).

People always connect work with life’s fulfilment, and connect their satisfaction at work with their feelings and satisfaction of life, and happiness with their family. Satisfaction in the workplace means happiness at home and fulfilment in life. Work and life balance suggests a balance for life and what people do. There has to be a blending equality that includes work, family, pleasure, fulfilment, and satisfaction.

Part of good and productive management is to motivate employees to become productive and to work for the fulfilment of the organization’s objectives. Motivation is an important factor in determining performance of people in an organization. It is the heart of performance management.

Theories of motivation include those expounded by Frederick Taylor who is known as the father of scientific management. He defined work in terms of the specified tasks designed for the workers to follow, and with no chance of freedom or judgment left on the part of the workers. There is no motivation during those early years of industrialization, which is the basis of Taylor’s theory. (Luecke


World Literature Syllabus Argumentative Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The syllabus for world literature should be composed so that the studying of certain works of literature provide students with the understanding of literary, cultural and historic context of the period when they were written. Moreover, the earning of these works should develop students’ critical and analytical thinking.

The study of every work of literature should start with the introduction in the époque when the work was written and its peculiarities. Students should be aware of the greatest writers who worked during this period and, if necessary, with manifests that give general idea about the aims and beliefs that the writers followed.

The next step is to get acquainted with the biography of the author and what historical and cultural events influenced on the formation of his/her literary style. The final step is to focus on the textual study of a particular work of literature.

The syllabus that includes such works as Ambrose Bierce “Chickamauga”, Tadeusz Borowski “Ladies and Gentlemen to the Gas Chamber”, Henrik Ibsen “Hedda Gabler”, and Anton Chekhov “The Lady with the Dog.” Should be aimed at providing students with understanding of different styles of writing of the 19th century literature.

Each of the writers is originated from different countries and each work is written in definite historical and cultural context. Thus, students will have a profound understanding of the literature of the 19th century period from different perspectives.

Ambrose Bierce “Chickamauga.” This work is devoted to the horrors of war and its psychological effect on the human soul. The work is important in context of developing pupils’ understanding of good and evil. It provides real information about personal drama that was not rare during was. It is important in psychological, cultural, historical and philosophical context.

Tadeusz Borowski’s “Ladies and Gentlemen to the Gas Chamber” is another work of literature recognized as a masterpiece of world literature. It is one of the best works devoted to war. The story is passed on the author’s personal experience of living in the concentration camp. It presents real pictures of violence that took place at that time. The work is the exploration of people’s values.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also very important in the historical context, as it is a record of true events. Students will be able to learn more about World War II, and the events that occurred in different countries. The author presents his own vision of the war and, in their turn, students will be able to formulate their personal opinion as well.

Anton Chekhov’s “The Lady with the Dog.” Is one of his most famous works. It shows the relations between two people. However, it has a deep social context and perfectly shows the Russian society with its norms and beliefs. The work is a profound analysis of the human soul and contradictions of a person and society.

Henrik Ibsen “Hedda Gabler”. It is a famous and most controversial play by a Norwegian writer. The author used the best dramatic techniques in order to explore the characters of man and woman. The major focus of Ibsen’s works was on the exploration of the woman in the society.

This work is another example of such analysis. From the critical point of view, this work is about one’s unwillingness to resist the social norms applied to our gender. The work is valuable in the context of learning social norms of the 19th century period, as well as it is very important for understanding of the authors main themes and techniques of writing.


Freud’s View On Human Nature. Research on Sigmund Freud’s Theory argumentative essay help

According to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic investigation, human nature comprises some deep characteristics which yearn to satisfy particular needs and impulses such as aggression, the ego that drives him towards pleasurable experiences, the need for love and avoidance of pain in all areas of life. The impulses are considered to lead either towards good or evil, according to the nature of satisfaction they bring to an individual and the community at large. This research paper shall analyze Freud’s view of human nature that became a considerable contribution to psychology.

Freud’s View On Human Nature: Main Points The nature of the society, either civilized or barbaric, is a result of the personality type of people inhabiting the environment. It is also a function of the degree of moral standards set by society, which forms continuous suppression of human instinct, leading to the need for either reaction or compensation (Ziegler, 2002).

Freud, on his psychoanalytic perspective, argued that personality development is one of the significant characteristics of human nature that leads to a deeper understanding of the uniqueness of each person’s life. Movement of individuals from one stage of life to another results in conflict between social and biological drive found within human nature. Freud’s drive theory assumes that the ability of any individual to cope with his/her environment is determined by the individual’s ability to deal with the forces within the society and learn from them.

His argument on psychosexuality was that the management of a child’s sexual and aggression drives by the parents within the early stages of life contributes more significant percentage on a healthy personality development which comprises of three parts; id which forms the source for primary and biological needs and forms substantial rate of the mind.

Then there is the ego that forms the conscious part of human nature and is driven by survival and contributes towards the directing of id’s impulses as appropriate. Then there is the superego that forms part of social conscience and develops as a result of relationships and interactions with parents who teach the children to accept and conform to the society’s values and norms (Ziegler, 2002).

Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis Freud in his books continues to argue that human nature finds it difficult to accept anything less than excellence. According to Sigmund Freud’s theory, the instinct that drives them towards this contributes towards intellectualism and more of ethical sublimation, which makes a human crave for a superiority complex. Freud argued that there is a significant relationship existing between man and society, which makes him/her naturally antisocial based on the level of evil nature within each individual.

He believed that the function of the society was to check on the human antisocial instincts. According to his psychodynamic view of human nature, the level to which a human being becomes civilized is purely dependent on the process of sublimation. This brings about the inverse relationship between human nature’s urge to satisfy his drives and societal cultural practices. The degree to which an individual is subjected to suppression determines the level of his civilized lifestyle (Ziegler, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sigmund Freud’s human nature view is seen as being more pessimistic since he placed so much emphasis on the traditional belief that there is a significant relationship between human behaviors and the society from which an individual grows. This makes the roots from which individual originates to be eviler and at times, leads to destruction. Freud believed that the superiority of the majority determines the way society is led and driven.

He argued that the main essence of human nature comprises a more significant percentage of id, which yearns to satisfy only the antisocial instincts that bring about an imbalanced society. Human nature theory by Sigmund Freud led to the question of whether it would be possible for human nature to contain the principles that drive towards pleasure (Ziegler, 2002).

In the study of human personality, Freud believed that the central part of human nature is as a result of id and the control of human decisions by the superego. He argued that childhood behaviors and experiences influenced a significant percentage of adult characteristics.

According to his discovery, neuroses were a result of powerful emotional forces brought about by traumatic and harsh experiences at the childhood stage. According to Freud, childhood experiences shape up the adult life stage to the extent where infantile character shapes the formation of characters into adulthood.

Sigmund Freud’s Theory: Is Humanity Disposed of More Towards Granting Mercy or Towards Aggression? Freud discovered that the general behavior of an individual was much driven by motivations arising from the emotional forces built on the unconscious part of the mind, and free will is only an illusion. According to Freud’s theory of personality, human actions are as a result of mental and neurotic conflicts. It is in human nature, according to Freud, to be more inclined towards aggression, which demands the satisfaction of more antisocial instincts that drive towards the attainment of an individual’s pleasure.

This leads to more conflict between individuals and society and, ultimately, the destruction of humanity. Freud argues that humanity cannot be inclined towards granting mercy since there was no much emphasis on the constructive human nature forces. There was no clear indication of human creativity and productivity in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of human development (Freud, 1930).

The urge to the immediate satisfaction of human instincts results in conflict. According to Freud, the aggression is produced by the id, which is considered as the little devil from within that urges individuals to indulge in pleasurable activities irrespective of the consequent results provided that some satisfaction is guaranteed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Freud’s View On Human Nature. Research on Sigmund Freud’s Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The superego, on the other hand, operates on ideal principles that tend to push individuals away from trouble. Human aggression can well be seen in the behaviors of a growing child who cares less about the inconveniences his/her demands cause to other people, including the parents (Freud, 1930).

How Do We Progress in a Moral Sense? There was a belief in Sigmund Freud’s theory that love, as a virtue, was a result of sexual sublimation. Human behaviors are regarded differently depending on the culture of the society from which it emanates. The culture, within which an individual functions, determines to a greater extent the abnormality or normality of specific actions and behaviors. Morality brings clear differentiation on what is considered good or bad within the societies. Moral behaviors are believed to be a result of shared values within the community.

According to Freud, morals are developed to provide means by which humanity can live together in peace and unity. These codes of morals are formed as a result of social and societal dictates. The general society contributes to a significant percentage of an individual’s morality since individuals know no moral boundaries (Freud, 1930, 49).

This is because people are so much concerned about their own persona good as opposed to others within the same environment, there is no reliance on others as long as an individual is at peace with himself. Based on individual drives and egos, moral restrictions are not of importance so long as there is security within.

The creation of communities led to the introduction of morality since individuals saw the need for healthy interactions and the realization of strength in unity of purpose. Greater strength calls for sole restrictions on individual behaviors and actions. This, according to Freud, sets up the power of the community as being superior to an individual’s power, which at times turns brutal. The power of the community is only eminent after dealing with the egocentric nature of human beings.

Individual actions require regulations by the moral codes for stability to be maintained within the societies. Freud argued that all negative behaviors must be dealt with in order to guarantee safety to other members of society. This is only possible when the concept of empathy is enforced upon individuals dwelling within the same community.

This is summed up in the golden rule principle, which states that we should do unto others what we expect them to do unto us. The moral code based on this principle ensures that individuals treat one another in a more cautious and less violent manner (Freud, 1930).

Freudian perception of morality is based upon the concept of empathy, such that any behavior associated with social evil is condemned by every society. According to Freud’s view on human nature, most individuals within the society accept the adoption of the principles and rules that guards against inflicting harm on others since no one desires evil behaviors against him or his family. The morality of an individual is majorly based on the behavioral actions which guarantee continuity within societies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Freud’s View On Human Nature. Research on Sigmund Freud’s Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Morality is less associated with one’s thoughts since it is more revealed in an individual’s actions. Freud argued that what prevents an individual from inflicting harm on others is the fear of consequent results of community actions against him rather than empathy (Carpendale and Krebs, 1995).

References Carpendale, J.,


Global Conflict Likelihood Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The world is changing rapidly and the changes are likely to lead to a global conflict in the future. The world population is increasing at an alarming rate especially in the developing world. The high population needs more resources to meet their basic needs yet the resources are scarce. Therefore, people have to scramble for the scarce resources. Eventually conflicts arise as people try to get a piece of the resources.

The poor will get into violence as they try to get resources from the rich. The high levels of poverty will continue to increase with the social inequality that is prevalent in many countries. Just as Karl Marx urged the proletarians will stage an uprising and overthrow the capitalist class. Thus, the likelihood of future global conflict is high.

Globalisation will also lead to conflicts in the future. The trend has brought countries closer through trade, commerce and communication and at the same time the world is falling apart. The world has become one and with it nationalism is disappearing as people become global citizens thus it will be difficult to identify people according to culture or religion. The American culture has spread across the globe rapidly through films and television programs.

The loss of an identity will create a problem as some countries try to resist getting lost in the larger world and maintain their identity or avoid influences from other countries. This will lead to small wars that will put tribes against tribes as people seek to redraw boundaries in a world that has become increasing borderless. In other worlds old rivalries that existed will be renewed.

The clash of civilizations will also lead to conflicts in the future. Civilizations are at the highest kinds of grouping and share things like language, religion and customs among others.

People use civilizations to define identities and over time the identities go through redefinition. Today the world has become a global village due to the improved interactions between people from different civilizations.

Consequently, the interactions have led to an increase in civilization consciousness. People are more aware of their civilization similarities and differences. The awareness will rekindle the animosities that existed between the civilizations in the past and each will seek to become dominant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eventually wars might breakout between civilizations as they fight to maintain their identity and avoid domination by the others. Civilizations that are seen as a threat will face hostility from the threatened ones hence creating animosity instead of peace and togetherness.

The animosity between the west and the Arab world will continue to exist. The reason for this is that civilizations call upon people and states with similar perspectives to join hands and work together. An attack on one member of a civilization is taken as an attack on the whole civilization.

For example America’s Iraq occupation has been taken as an attack on the Islam civilization and that is why we have tension between Arab nations and the west. The fact that the western civilization dominates the world economically it is seeks to control other aspects such as weapon acquisition of other countries because it seeks to protect its welfare.

A conflict will arise because the non-western countries feel they have a right to acquire whichever weapons they deem fit for their security. For instance Iran is at loggerheads with the west for its nuclear enrichment plan and it has vowed to carry on despite of the sanctions.

Moreover, the Arab world has been reluctant to embrace globalization because it has been equated with Americanization. Religion has also been used to spread hatred against the west and the two civilizations will conflict in the future due to their different ideologies unless something is done to remove the animosity between the two by helping them to understand one another and maybe work together.

Finally, the world was safer twenty five years ago than it is now due to the fore mentioned challenges facing the world in the 21st century. Twenty five years ago, the world population was lower but with the current trends in fertility, rates especially in the developing world are very high.

The available resources cannot sustain the population with the challenge of global warming. Furthermore, many people are becoming radicalized by some religious affiliations and would not hesitate to commit crimes in the name of religion. Consequently, with low levels of safety in the world today, future global conflicts are inevitable.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Conflict Likelihood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The world security is at a threat today. The threat of terrorism remains great in many countries across the world as groups seek to kill or instil fear in others in order to fulfil their ideological or political goals.

For instance, some people have been intercepted carrying bombs in aeroplanes like the Nigerian man on an American plane. Not long ago a parcel carrying a bomb was incepted in Dubai in a plane from Yemen. Osama bin Laden still issues threats and the last one was against Europe.

The insecurity in the world today is further promoted by globalization and advancement in technology. For example, people can hack into security databases making countries vulnerable to attacks. Furthermore, sensitive information can be spreads across the world in a flash through the World Wide Web.

I have learnt that the more things change the more they remain the same. This is because in the past, the world was insecure and conflicts led to deaths of many people in conflicts such as the first and second world wars then came the era of cold war.

Today, the world is interconnected and countries dependent on one another however, this has not reduced the threat of conflicts because the countries are still weary of one another. More needs to be done to ensure world peace by addressing the reasons that are likely to lead to future global conflicts.


Mike’s Express Carwash Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help

1. How was Mike’s Express Carwash utilized the Nordstrom method as an approach to customer service and satisfaction?

The company was able to utilize the Nordstrom method through application of its principles. First of all the company offers customers a variety of choices. There are three different kinds of carwash service being offered. The first package includes a wash, Mike’s Clear Coat and Wheel Bright (Spector, p.4). The second package includes a wash, Mike’s Clear Coat and an underbody wash (Spector, p.4). The third package is called the deluxe package and it includes everything in the second and first package.

The company also makes sure that they had created an inviting place. The facility sits on “on an acre-plus of highly landscaped property” and the well-designed building itself is made immaculately clean, that first time customers thought that they were driving into a restaurant and not a carwash (Spector, p.4). Aside from that the company made a commitment to only hire those who are fit to work in a service-oriented workplace. It is common practice to interview 20 applicants for one job opening.

The company is also committed not only to sell a service, they also sell a relationship and this simply means that they want each customer to keep coming back. They really take care of their customers and if one is not satisfied with the wash they ask the customer to let them repeat the process.

This is done using another Nordstrom principle which is to empower employees to take ownership of the business. Thus, an employee no matter how new or how long he or she has been working there can approach a customer and say that Mike’s Express Carwash is not happy with their performance and would love to wash their car once more.

The employees feel comfortable working there because they believe in disregarding the rules or creating rules that forces them to be stiff rather than to be happy serving the customers. But this does not mean that that employees simply do what they feel, in order to maintain a high work rate the company promotes friendly competition between teams and between branches. Each employee is also rated by customers they label as “mystery shoppers” (Spector, p.5). This means that employees always find the motivation to exceed expectations.

Finally, this company is committed to follow the Nordstrom way because the leaders and the people are 100% committed to customer service. For instance, Mike Dahm reads customer comment cards every time there is an employee meeting (Spector, p.5). The company also makes sure to promote only those who deserve promotion and this ensures that they always have managers that do their job well and a dedicated workforce ready to serve.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 2. How are the products that Mike’s Express Carwash provides for its customers classified?

The company does not manufacture and sell a particular product. They sell a specialized service using specialized products. For instance they use soap to clean the body and the underboy but they also use a coating that protects the paint of the car. At this point there is no need to change the kind of service they offered. But they can probably experiment with interior detailing or a new type of service where they would clean the inside of the car while their customer wait in an area where they sell coffee and other kinds of beverages.

3. What features distinguish this particular carwash brand.

As mentioned earlier the facility does not look like a carwash building. It resembled something like a big restaurant because of the handsomely designed architecture. Aside from the building, what was striking to the customers was the kind of clothes that the attendants are wearing.

They have hats on and they are wearing white shirts but on top of that they also have a tie with a cartoon character design. One can also see stuffed toys in many areas of the facility that makes it fun for kids and makes them less intimidated with the sound of the big machines that do the washing.

As a result there is brand loyalty as attested by one happy customer who happened to be a writer and proceeded to make a glowing commentary about this carwash company. If they continue with what they are doing then they will always have loyal customers who will keep coming back. But there is room for improvement.

The company must continually make investments especially when it comes to new technology that can make the process go faster. If it will take say seven minutes to complete one cycle then they must experiment with technology that can do it faster, say under five minutes. This will make the customers extremely happy.

We will write a custom Assessment on Mike’s Express Carwash specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 4. How does Mike’s Express Carwash price and promote its products so that customers will continue to purchase them and they will continue to make a profit?

As mentioned earlier there are three different packages. These three different packages anticipates that customers have different needs. This will make the customers feel that they are getting their money’s worth because they are not being forced to buy somethng that they do not need.

It also allows the customers to choose a service that fits their budget. The basic package costs $6 and the most expensive one costs $12. If they find the high-end service too expensive then they can opt for the cheaper one. There are customers who are only interested in a clean body and does not care much about their tires so they will feel like the service is affordable.

Aside from the different packages offered the company also uses smart promotion to entice first time customers. For instance they have promo that says the first try is free but they get $12 worth of carwash and underbody wash. But on their second try they get the same at half the price.

This is an irresistible offer because the prospective customer can check out the facility and the service without spending anything, and if they like it then they form a relationship with the customer because of the superior service rendered.

5. Why has Mike’s Express Carwash been recognized so many times for providing world class customer service?

The company is serious in providing excellent service and once a customer tries their service they would exclaim that satisfaction is guaranteed at Mike’s Express Carwash. They will do everything to make even an old car looks so good that the owner is pleased with the result.

This is the reason why the customers are so happy because most of them are intent to keep the cars for a long time and if they can find a service that allows them to maintain the beautiful look of their cars then they wold continue to use their service and even provide word-of-mouth advertising for them. I would definitely go back to this carwash.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mike’s Express Carwash by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are only a few carwash facilities in this nation that offers this kind of service. As a customer you feel good the moment you enter and you feel even better when you come out. This is a good example of how to create a successful company, one that is built on the idea that the customer is boss.

Works Cited Spector, Robert. Mike’s Carwash’s Approach to Customer Service.


“The Miller’s Tale.” Critical Analysis Of Jealousy Theme Critical Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Synopsis

Critique of The Miller’s tale

Godly Jealousy


Work Cited

The Miller’s Tale is the second story in the medieval collection written by Geoffrey Chaucer. Eleven pilgrims tell the stories to each other as they travel on their way to Canterbury. The first story is told by a knight, about two princes who fall in love with Emelye at first sight. Next, the miller gets his turn.

It has been argued that the Miller’s tale reflects a fall in social status a from the noble intentions of the characters in the Knight’s Tale, and their noble standing as well, in contrast to the commoners in the latter’s tale: a carpenter, a scientist interested in astrology, and a poet.

This paper will give a critical analysis of “The Miller’s Tale” focusing on the theme of jealousy as portrayed by the major characters. The article by Charles Smith on the subject of jealousy in Chaucer’s stories will be used to elaborate this theme better as it is presented in the Miller’s Tale.

It has been noted that there is a striking resemblance between the Miller’s Tale and another poem which appeared at around the same time as Chaucer’s story did. The anonymous poem is also about a married woman Alison who is desired by two men. It is debatable whether Chaucer’s story is based on the anonymous poem.

Synopsis In the Canterbury Tales, after the knight has finished telling his story, it is the miller’s turn. The miller tells the story of a carpenter by the name of John, who lives with his newly married wife, Alison, and a scientist Nicholas who is interested in astrology.

John in “The Miller’s Tale” is very protective of his young wife; he fears that because of the difference in their ages and her beauty, he might lose her to another man. Nicholas, the clerk, is enamored by Alison, and the situation is not helped after he comes upon her inflagrante delicto when her husband is away.

As is clear from the summary, Nicholas decides that he will woo Alison into becoming his lover and develops the habit of flirting with her in her husband’s absence. At the same time, there is Absolom, the poet and clerk, who is just as enamored. He, on the other hand, woos Alison the proper way; by standing outside her window and serenading her after dark.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, Alison prefers Nicholas and makes a mockery of Absolom’s courtship and agrees to be Nicholas’ lover, which is the act of betrayal. They hatch an elaborate plot in which they deceive the carpenter into thinking there is a great flood coming, and he needs to put wooden tubs in the attic where they will spend the night on the day the wave is to commence so that they can be safe.

Nicholas and Alison take the chance on the night preceding the flood to creep downstairs and spend the night in each other’s arms. At dawn, when Absolom comes to do his serenade, Alison comes to the window, and out of mischief lets him kiss her ass.

Furious, he goes to the blacksmith from where he gets a hot hoe and brands Nicholas ass with it. The commotion rouses John, who falls from the attic into the cellar breaking an arm. When other people come to investigate what the problem might be, the two lovers accuse the carpenter of being mad. And there ends The Miller’s Tale.

How Does “The Miller’s Tale” Reflect the Miller? Charles Smith, writing in the Chaucer Review, picks the theme of jealousy on which to elaborate upon. He starts by pointing out that the miller wants to tell a tale that will mock a jealous husband. Smith on the kind of jealousy that the miller understands the sort of jealousy that is inspired by envy and selfishness, not that which stems from the need to uphold the purity of one’s wife.

The former kind is the one which the miller mocks. The author goes ahead to state that the miller sets out to ridicule the carpenter and the Reeve because of the results of their jealous actions. However, he might just as well be mocking himself because of the way he talks openly about his marital concerns relay underlying insecurity.

Godly Jealousy To better understand the context of jealousy as it is played out in the Miller’s Tale, Charles Smith begins by explaining Biblical jealousy of the Old Testament. He states that the God of the Old Testament is very possessive, with constant demands of faithfulness to Him and Him alone.

Whenever His adherents went astray, He visited His wrath upon them. He illustrates this with the example of God talking to Moses on the Mount, reaffirming that he should not worship any other God other than Yahweh, and with Paul in the New Testament. Paul passes on the message that the commitment required of God’s believers is as that of a virgin to her husband upon marriage.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Miller’s Tale.” Critical Analysis Of Jealousy Theme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this point, he expounds that in religious medieval times, such as that in which the Miller’s Tale is set, it was to be expected for a husband to be outraged upon the spouse’s indiscretion. So much so that he may even resort to violence. In some cases, the husband would proceed to a court of law and file for a divorce.

Smith further elaborates that in medieval times, a husband’s love had to have an aspect of godly jealousy because the husband was interested in maintaining the ‘spiritual well-being’ (Smith n.p) of the spouse. This kind of jealousy had wrathful vindictiveness that dictated punishment for going astray.

Quoting Berchorius, who says that God’s love for the human soul is a jealous type of love and that when a man tries to go astray, then God brings him back to the fold but punishes him so that he may not stray again. Jealousy is taken as a sign of love because if a husband is not jealous of his wife, it means that he is indifferent and thus cannot have deep-seated feelings for her.

This background information provided by Charles Smith helps us to gain a better understanding of John the Carpenter’s insecurity about his wife’s infidelity, not eased by the fact that he was way older than her, and she was beautiful. He was mortified by the thought of being the cuckolded husband.

However, Smith points out that the miller Robin is a victim of jealousy without showing much concern for his wife’s soul (Smith n.p). The conclusion can then be drawn that though the miller is outraged by his wife’s actions, he is not jealous, and thus it cannot be that he loves her.

Charles Smith further elaborates on how the theme of jealousy was regarded in popular medieval literature. He says that there were understood to be two categories of jealousy: the jealousy of true and lasting love, where the two lovers have earned each others’ trust, and their jealousy is driven by a need to safeguard the other’s soul.

The other kind of jealousy is the one that is inspired by the lack of trust in the other, picking on a negative trait to accuse them of what they are capable of doing, even if they have not done so (Smith n.p).

Geoffrey Chaucer in the Miller’s Tale, explains Smith, expounds on these two different types of jealousies. The first kind is the one that arouses baseless suspicion and brings shame upon the couple and the second kind, which ensures that a woman does not commit adultery against her husband (Smith n.p).

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Miller’s Tale.” Critical Analysis Of Jealousy Theme by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is apparent that the jealousy felt by the carpenter towards his wife is the right kind of jealousy. He understands that the wife is young and beautiful, and her head may be swayed by charming men her age, such as Nicholas. Hence, he illustrates a deep concern for her spiritual well-being by keeping close guard over her. It is his love for her that drives him to hold her so closely watched.

The miller, on the other hand, is driven by a baser type of jealousy; by exposing his wife’s shame in public, he makes it apparent that what bothers him is not her fall from grace but rather, how the deed reflects on him. By not having a grasp on the concept of godly jealousy, the miller ends up being the one who looks the fool instead of the carpenter as he intended.

Absolom, upon discovering the two lovers and being disgraced further by the act of kissing Alison, is engulfed in a jealous rage. His cannot be the right kind of jealousy that Chaucer exalts.

One, he is not married to Alison and thus has no right to be jealous of her actions. Secondly, he should not even be pursuing her, for she is a married woman. His shame for being rejected drives his jealousy, and the shame of being made for kissing Alison’s behind.

As is evident from “The Miller’s Tale” essay, his jealousy is self-righteous, like the miller’s feeling towards his wife, Absolom the clerk experiences jealousy that is self-serving. The last thought he has in mind is how to preserve Alison’s virtue. If this had been the case, he might never have pursued her in the first place.

It is interesting to note that while Charles Smith points out that jealousy in Christianity as was expected of love in medieval times demanded retribution, Alison gets off scot-free for her infidelity. It was the husband’s role to guard his wife’s virtue, as John attempts to do with Alison.

However, when she takes on Nicholas as her lover, then his anger and his wrath should have been so great that she should have felt it. Either he should have resorted to physical violence or ‘divorcement’ (Smith n.p) in the natural course of things.

But neither of these things happens. She gets away with the act unpunished; it is her husband who comes away from the worse for wear, with a broken arm and certified mad for believing in Nicholas’ apocalyptic prophecy of end-time floods.

The fact that John believes Nicholas false prophesies, as what crosses his mind first upon hearing them is his wife and her safety, that he is willing to go to the extent of hanging three wooden tubs in the attic goes to reinforce his genuine love for her. Indeed, his fierce protection of her stems from a sincere adoration, and miller’s jealousy dictates him to guard her virtue so carefully.

Conclusion The Miller’s tale is an engaging read with an important moral lesson. It is much shorter than the Knight’s Tale, not exhibiting the lengthy dialogues that are the trademark of the Knight’s Tale.

It takes a lighter tone as well, with the events turning out quite contrary to how such medieval tales would have at the time. The cuckolding wife who gets away without criticism, the brazen and uncouth Nicholas whose advances are not snubbed, but instead he gets the girl, the romantic Absolom who should have been rewarded is made the fool.

Jealousy is a theme in “The Miller’s Tale” that recurs between the miller and his wife, and the subject of the miller’s tale- John the carpenter and his wife, Alison.

The miller sets out to tell a story that will subvert the virtues of love as portrayed by the knight, as being noble and chivalrous, and worth dying for. He describes love as callous, fickle, ridiculous, and leading to shame and disgrace. Part of the miller’s attitude arises from his troubled relations with his wife.

In attempting to make the carpenter look the fool, the joke is turned upon him for whereas the carpenter guards his wife’s virtue against a righteous sort of jealousy and love. As the critical analysis of “The Miller’s Tale” shows, the same cannot be said about the miller. In the end, he turns out to be the butt of his own joke.

Work Cited Smith, R. Charles: “Jealousy: Chaucer’s Miller and the Tradition” The Chaucer Review 43 (1) 2008: 16-47. Web.


Groups and Communities and Their Effect on Individuality Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Effect of groups and communities on individuality




Individuality has always been thought to be an essential part of the creative process and art in general. However, what is often forgotten is that individuality does not occur on its own; it is often shaped and influenced by external influences either directly or indirectly

Effect of groups and communities on individuality With regard to art and ceramics, sometimes communities can be perceived as a negative influence on individuality. This is because communities tend to create mass cultures and popular opinions. Therefore, any behaviour that contravenes tradition may be shunned. Art, by its very nature propagates the notion of experimentation and enrichment.

It opposes the notion of tradition because this sometimes reduces man to nothing more than a machine or a slave of custom. The concept of freedom is very necessary in order to make individuality a reality. Therefore, any external factor that restricts that freedom – such as government or the community – can be seen as an interference in the creative process[1].

For example, a sculptor would need to look within himself in order to work on a piece of marble. He would need to ask himself what the real form of that marble is and then bring it out through a piece of sculpture. In other words, he is able to first seek true beauty within himself and then think and feel through the type of art that he creates. Communities or groups would interfere with this process and can therefore be regarded as a negative force.

On the other hand, individuality is sometimes dependent on groups and the community. This is because all individualistic persons strive to reproduce and perpetuate themselves. They still seek to share their opinions and views with other artists who are like minded. At the end of a process of artistic creation, the producer must seek consumers.

Art and ceramics only derive their complete meaning when they have been consumed. Sometimes this can be done practically by the use of ceramics and other practical objects. Conversely, this can be done through appreciation of the aesthetics inherent in a certain piece.

Although individuality may be expressed in each piece, it is the ability of the artistic piece to attract the attention of art lovers or other groups who understand the concept that will lead to its ultimate usability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the end, artists cannot simply operate in isolation. If they did so, then their work would not be reproduced or carried on from generation to generation. They would not be able to leave a legacy and their art would only be limited to their lifetimes.

As much as individuality seeks to defy collectivism, it still requires communal approval in order to ensure that it is perpetuated. It should be noted here that sometimes that consumption may come from only a small portion of the population but this still does not undermine the fact that it comes from a combination of persons[2].

The community or groups may sometimes enrich the individual and thus contribute towards better artwork and the like. For instance, some artists may sometimes come together and share ideas. Usually, they may discuss the creation process and this may bring in deeper insights hence better work. Usually, individuality requires artists to work in isolation but the problem is that sometimes one’s methodology may possess certain flaws.

Consequently, it would be better if one was able to learn about new or different ways of the artistic creation process. One would be challenged to become a better artist simply through sharing one’s ideas with a group or receiving them from others who share the same experience.

Additionally, groups and communities may affect individuality positively by expanding the resources and the opportunities that an artist may be exposed to. The problem with working alone is that it is quite difficult to accumulate resources needed in the production process.

One may also have a hard time knowing about the opportunities to exhibit or sell one’s products. Groups can offer this information to individuals and thus make them better at getting their work out to the public. Therefore, activity can be backed up by appreciation and hence usability.

Culture is an essential part of the artistic process because artists do not live in islands by themselves; they live, interact and work with other members of society. Therefore, even though individualists may be self reliant and independent, they still operate within an institutional framework.

We will write a custom Essay on Groups and Communities and Their Effect on Individuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They have families and societies that have certain norms and expectations. These norms are not too rigid because they allow for manipulation and the expression of self through art. This is the reason why certain forms of art are unique to a certain part of the world. In the Asian countries, art was often unique to the culture of the people even as far back as the eighteenth century.

Similarly, certain kinds of art are peculiar to western societies and may not necessarily reach out to people in another part of the world such as Africa[3]. In essence, culture defines one’s artistic inclinations but it still leaves room for self expression. It can be thought of as the template against which artists exercise their own interests and creations. Therefore, individuality is intertwined with culture which is derived from communities.

Conclusion Artistic work can sometimes be hampered by communities because it restricts the freedom of self expression. Communities have norms and traditions that are in direct contravention to self reliance and individuality. On the other hand, groups and communities may enrich artistic work through sharing ideas and also through culture identities.

References Josephs, W.


The Vietnam War Outcomes Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction The Vietnam War was and is still considered the longest deployment of the U.S military in the history of U.S wars. It took place when John F. Kennedy was in power in the 1960’s. Over two thousand military soldiers were deployed to the South Vietnam where the number increased gradually over time.

President John Kennedy’s intention was to preserve an independent as well as a non communist state in South Vietnam but failed to do so due to the harsh resistance that he faced. The U.S, headed by president Dwight D. Eisenhower was unable to neither contain nor regulate small unit and terrorist attacks that were being carried out by troops popularly known as Vietcong (Brocheux, 2007).

A diplomatic negotiation is a term used to describe the process where different countries carry out a dialogue with the aim of generating a consensus. During the talks that preceded the Vietnam War, an agreement appeared to have been reached by the negotiating parties, or so it seemed. The sham peace deals and fabricated diplomatic dialogues bore no fruit but resulted to false results and hope. The war took a turn for the worse when U.S. reinforced its military grip and they dug their claws deeper into North Vietnam.

It was the year 1967 that beckoned the birth of the failed negotiations that would result in massive losses to both parties involved in the Vietnam War. However, the real trouble begun brewing two years earlier. In 1965, the year that the last of the rational diplomatic negotiations appeared to have taken place, Premier Pham Van Dong established the four point program that sought to weaken the hold of the U.S on Vietnam (Palmer, 1978).

The recommendations appeared to bring bad taste in the mouths of those in U.S., and they did not let the moment slip right through their fingers. They retaliated by saying that the recommendations were undemocratic as they insinuated that the National Liberation Force was the only representative of the Vietnamese People. At this point, no agreement could be reached and both parties resorted to taking matters into their own hands (Herring, 1979).

The Vietnam War seemed to have begun with the ‘honorable’ intentions of serving the American people’s interests but as is the case with any war, its brutal aftermath brought about both cultural and social devastation among people. It brought about social unrest among students and the young activists who frantically campaigned for the end of the killing of innocent persons in Vietnam (Moss, 2010).

In the U.S., the deep hatred for the way the war had been conducted and the way it had ended caused the people to give a cold welcome to their troops as they came back from the war. The war also caused the American people to lose faith in their leaders when they learned that Lyndon Johnson had lied to them regarding the war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Back in Vietnam, the war had catalyzed the defeat of the South and its subsequent absorption by the North which had been persistently seeking to impose its will on the South. Millions of Vietnamese were killed, displaced and some were even completely disabled as a result of the war.

To date, vast acres of land still remain wasted as they were destroyed by the poisonous herbicides that were used during the war and the government of Vietnam still struggles to cope with the needs of its people (Moss, 2010). In a nut shell, the Vietnam War brought more harm than good both to the people of America as well as the Vietnamese.

Presidential leadership during the Vietnam War can be explained in ways such as the ethics and efforts that were put to ensure that peace was restored.

President Kennedy had been advised by France president Charles de Gaulle that he would not succeed even if he injected more funds and soldiers into North Vietnam. In the period between 1961 and 1963 his military advisors had requested him to send combat divisions instead of the so called advisors to aid the Diem government.

President Kennedy was in support of a coup where Diem together with his brother died. However, he did not last long in the war as he was assassinated three weeks later. Lyndon Johnson took over and was in power when the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution took place. He sent the first combat troops to Vietnam with hope that North Vietnam would give up and surrender to peace talks.

Richard Nixon succeeded Johnson by claiming he had a secret plan to the war. He intended to train South Vietnamese and slowly pulling out American troops (Neale, 2001). Vietnam was headed by Eisenhower who reigned from 1953 to 1961. He did not support the Geneva Accords that were between Vietnam and France thus, led to the division of the country into two, North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

South Vietnam was ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem who won the elections and later on claimed that his country was under communist attack. This marked the beginning of the Vietnam War in 1957 and Diem imprisoned all those who were suspected to belong to the communist and this led to demonstrations and protests (Brocheux, 2007).

We will write a custom Essay on The Vietnam War Outcomes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, both the U.S. and the Vietnam governments have a lot to ponder regarding the outcome of the Vietnam War. Years have gone, but people are still agonizing from the effects of the war. Proper negotiations and good governance should be embraced before any war is embarked on, in order to avoid a repeat of what was witnessed during the Vietnam War.

References Brocheux, P. (2007). Ho Chi Minh: a biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Herring, C. (1979). America’s longest war: the United States and Vietnam 1950–1975 New York: Wiley publishers.

Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal (6th Ed). Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall.

Neale, J. (2001). The American War. London: Bookmarks.

Palmer, D. (1978). Summons of the Trumpet: U.S.-Vietnam in Perspective. Novato: Presidio Press.


Philosophy and Curriculum Essay essay help online free

Admittedly, education is always affected by the contemporary philosophy. For example, any teacher plans the curriculum in accordance with his/her opinion as for the main points and less important issues. Since teachers are brought up in a certain culture based on a particular philosophy they form their curricula in terms of this large context.

Moreover, teachers tend to develop not only their students’ mental activity, but they strive to foster people characterized by the major values of the culture they pertain to. Of course, it is not the most important for teacher to teach students to do sums or know where human’s heart is.

Teachers develop learners’ ethical qualities so that students become worthy members of the society. Thus, teachers try to shape their curricula so that not only student’s mind and brain but student’s soul and heart could be developed (Brummelen 2). Many educators pay much attention to the correlation between philosophy and curriculum.

For instance, Brummelen provides many effective approaches to plan the curriculum in accordance with contemporary philosophy. To my mind, he helps not only teachers but students as well since he articulates many useful points which teachers can implement. As far as students are concerned they also benefit from reading such books since they start understanding the importance of this approach. Moreover, the book enables learners to focus on what is really important.

What impressed me most was the attitude towards religion and its place in the curriculum. For instance, it is suggested that all disciplines can and should be integrated with major principles of religion (Brummelen 229).

Of course, it is not surprising when religious issues are considered during History or Literature classes. However, I was a bit startled while reading about using such principles during Biology or Physics, for example. I used to think that science and religion are in different camps since sciences always tried to debunk certain points promulgated by religion.

In its turn religious people often denied some major findings of scientists or condemned them for interfering in some divine activities. Besides, I often disliked when teachers started moralizing, so I thought that any deviations from curriculum was useless waste of time. I thought that school should provide students with pure science. However, the book impressed me greatly and made me change my mind.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I used to think that philosophical, religious and cultural principles should be learned at home, but I think that teachers can do it better since they know how to educate young people. Moreover, to my mind some ethical norms are acquired better when they come within some particular discipline.

Thus, now I admit that such integration is possible and even preferable. Whereas, nowadays teachers explain that people’s longing to knowledge and, in fact, ability to learn and perceive is given by our God. It goes without saying that contemporary students can benefit from knowledge which is accompanied by “guiding principle for life” (Anthony and Benson 375). To my mind, curriculum is only strengthened by philosophical (religious) principles.

It is very important to make young people see what is right and what is wrong since they are exposed to so much information at present that they can easily get lost and make many mistakes. Thus, I gather that curriculum is, in any case, influenced by curriculum, so it is better if teachers know how to make students benefit from it.

Works Cited Anthony, Michael J. and Warren S. Benson. Exploring the History and Philosophy of Christian Education: Principles for the Twenty-First Century. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2003.

Van Brummelen, Harro. Steppingstones to Curriculum: A Biblical Path. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design Publications, 2002.


Corporate Crisis Management Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Corporate Crisis Management

Effective Communication

The Tylenol Crisis

Communication about the crisis

Re-introduction strategies

Tylenol’s Victory


Works Cited

Introduction Every company is faced with some sort of crises from time to time. How a company decides to respond to these crises determines whether it will collapse or it will succeed. This is called crises management. There are some emergency situations that occur in a company that needs urgent measures to ensure that they do not affect the company negatively.

In today’s business environment, crisis is almost inevitable and will occur from time to time. However, this does not mean that business have to collapse when faced by a crisis because with an effective communication plan, a company can be able to overcome any crisis. The management of a major corporate crisis requires a well structured process.

This involves prevention, planning, evaluation, and mitigating the crisis as well as minimizing its consequences. The method that a company adopts in managing a crisis determines the outcome of the affected individuals. A crisis can occur naturally or can be caused by negligence of the personnel or any other stakeholder. Effects of a crisis include but not limited to injuries, disabilities, death, destruction to property, and threats to a company reputation or its future performance.

This paper looks at the meaning of corporate crisis management, and effective communication as a critical strategy in managing crisis. It also gives in-depth analysis of the strategies adopted by Johnson and Johnson to deal with a crisis that occurred to itsTylenol product in 1982.

Corporate Crisis Management Corporate crisis management can be defined as the process through which a company deals with emergencies by using effective communication strategies or channels. This involves the incorporation of both the internal and external parties involved and the steps taken to address the issue. Crisis management is part of every day life. It is normal that a company will have to respond to an emergency at some time (Nelson 1).

An emergency can range from a mistake done by one of its stake holders, a personnel related problem, or a volition of one of the rules. If these problems are not addressed properly, they can negatively affect the reputation of a company which results in lack of consumer loyalty. Consumer confidence is related to a company’s social responsibility. If a company does not address the issues affecting customers, then its reputation is at stake.

For instance, if two or more consumers complain about the quality of a company’s products, and the company does nothing to address the issue, then its reputation is threatened. Every organization has a social responsibility not only to its personnel but the entire public.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective Communication Effective communication is composed of two major aspects: transparency and timeliness (Nelson 5). In the event of a crisis, a company has to issue a prompt response before it catches the attention of the general public. This is for the reason that once the public learn about the problem, it may be disastrous to a company which may put its reputation at stake.

It is vital that every company is able to acknowledge a problem when it emerges so that it is able to take the necessary precautions to prevent it from advancing, and at the same time, take appropriate actions to deal with the problem. This is what is referred to as timeliness. On the other hand, the messages issued by the company or an organization have to be clear. This means that the company has to go after all the promises made to the public or employees and the goals set to ensure that they are met.

A company is able to gain credibility from the public only if it remains true to its words. For instance, if a company promises to take remedial measures to ensure that a certain situation does not present itself again in the future but does not do any structural changes to prevent the occurrence of such a situation, then its reputation will be severely affected and it may diminish.

Many companies have the habit of making false promises in order to retain their consumers forgetting that the long term effects may be worse than their present benefits. Transparent information also means that a company is able to respond to its crisis within the stipulated time. Not all consumers are patient and if a company prolongs its response time, it may loss a significant number of potential consumers.

The Tylenol Crisis Every medical practice at one time or another is confronted with a breaking news story that can have a major impact on its patients. Not uncommonly patients learn form the media about a medical development that was described in a journal or at a national meeting before their doctors have had the chance to see the relevant paper. Often medical news stories will scare or even produce panic in patients. They will call for comments, suggestions, and answers, or simply for reassurance.

There are ways to manage these all too-common situations, reduce anxiety for the existing patients, and encourage potential patients to seek treatment. One example of truly skilled crisis management was the Tylenol tragedy. Johnson and Johnson, the manufacturer of Tylenol, did a wonderful job of taking a potential disaster and turning it into a marketing advantage. It was a good example of how to cope with a media crisis.

Towards the end of 1982 (October to be precise), Johnson


Human Factor in Global Warming Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Human Link

Effect of Global Warming on Human Beings

The Way Forward


Works Cited

Introduction In the last two centuries, there has been a significant rise in the average global temperature. Scientists estimate the increase to have ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 degrees within the said time. In the next one century, this rate is expected to increase to about 3.0 degrees. If this becomes the case, then this will be the highest temperature increase to be recorded in history. Scientists are worried that the world in its current form will not be able to cope with the high rise in temperatures.

Due to the harm that global warming is believed to bring to human beings, scientists are calling for the participation of each one to put an end to this crisis. What is worrying most is that while human factors are known to be the biggest causes of global warming, people are doing very little to address the problem. If this problem is to be addressed once and for all, everyone needs to come together and look for a lasting solution. (Michael


Infernal Affairs Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Plot

The characters

The Film


Works Cited

Introduction Infernal Affairs is a crime film produced by Nansu Shi and John Chong. Yan (Tony Leung), an undercover police officer, tired of his current life and desires to go back to his former life. He finds it difficult to call himself a police officer as most of his undercover lifestyle has already changed him to a gangster. Yan works as a spy for the police force, to the knowledge of his boss only, in the Triad Society since graduating from the police academy.

He does his best to fix this problem, something that eventually drives him to meet Ming (Andy Lau). Being in the police force for many years, Ming transforms into a law-abiding citizen, even though he is a mole in the force, trading information for Sam, the major antagonist of the movie.

Their discovery of each other sparks suspense in the movie as each one of them tries to hunt down the other. The two meet at the beginning of the movie not knowing each other, a contrast to their confrontation at the end of the movie. Infernal Affairs explores secrecy, conspiracy and betrayal in both police force and the underworld.

The Plot Infernal affairs is a Basic Pictures action-packed thriller released in 2002. Andrew Lau and Alan Mak are the directors of this film. As the scenes opens, Sam (Eric Tsang), the leader of the Triad Society, trains and releases a group of young men to join the police force as spies. Out of all his trainees, Ming is the most successful and lives up to his obligation as Sam’s informant. He successfully rises up the ranks and wins the respect of many in the police force.

Yan, on the other hand, shows potency as a young recruit in the police force only to be expelled in his early years in the force. This happens only as a cover-up for him to work as Wong’s informant in the Triad Society. Wong (Anthony Wong), the police superintendent, and Yip, the police-training academy principal, remain to be the masterminds behind Yan’s undercover job and they are the only people he reports to. Yip later dies and Wang becomes the only person aware of Yan’s undercover job.

All seems to go well until an incident happens that raises suspicion of moles on either side. The police led by Wang, cuts short a meeting between Sam and a Thai drug dealer. Sam is however well informed of the interruption and his men cover-up any kind of evidence of the drug deal. Both Sam and Wang come to a common conclusion; there are spies working among them.

Ming follows up a secret meeting between Yan and Wang, and sends Sam’s gangsters to confront them. Inspector B (Gordon Lam), Ming’s subordinate, also follows up the meeting and sends a Hong Kong Police squad to his rescue, but Wang dies in the confrontation. Yan escapes unhurt but Ming tracks him through Wang’s cell phone. They arrange a meeting and agree to set Sam up through a drug deal. Their plan is successful leading to Sam’s death and the arrest of most of his gang members.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yan goes back to the police department, a fulfillment of his desires, while Ming assumes a normal life. For Ming, this is a great achievement but another problem arises; Yan discovers he was a mole working for Sam in the police department (Infernal Affairs). His desire is to erase any evidence that he worked for Sam, and all other illegal activities connected to him from the pastor. He wants to be clean. Yan’s discovery comes in as an obstacle to achieve his goals hence, plans to eliminate him.

They both agree to meet on the same building Wang was killed. They finally meet, and after Yan disarm Ming and hold a gun on his head; Inspector B comes to his rescue by unexpectedly shoots and kills Yan. He then informs Ming that he is also Sam’s spy. It becomes clear to Ming that Yan is not the only person aware of his state; he therefore kills Inspector B to clean all traces of evidence about his past life.

The characters Yan has sleeping problems forcing him to seek the help of a psychotherapist named Lee (Kelly Chen), whom he founds to be very beautiful and attractive. They seem to get along well but Yan takes time before making any commitments. Ming has a taste of lifestyle as he lives in a magnificent apartment with his girlfriend, Mary (Sammi Cheng).

She is writing a novel whose main character fits the descriptions of Ming. He is very charming and confident though arrogant at some time. He remains faithful to his boss, Sam, something he comes to regret later and commits the greatest betrayals of his life. He selfishly sells his boss to pursue his objective of erasing any previous criminal records.

Yan and Ming have a hunger to live a good life, the former wanting to leave his current lifestyle, while the latter wishing he could be who he was pretending to be. Infernal Affair is a classic example of an undercover life can be. The two main action leaders are in a trap, a lifestyle that is not their own, to such an extent that it changes their personal characters.

The Film The cinematography, directed by Andrew Lau is excellent, displaying the magnificence of Hong Kong architecture. Some scenes are shot on the rooftops, like the one where Wong is killed, giving beautiful sceneries that almost grasp the viewers attention from following the story. One is left to judge and differentiates between the good and the bad character. Yan is a nice person one hand, but his profession leads him into a ditch he cannot get himself out of.

He is working for the good of the society through the police force, but the way he does it questions his responsibilities as a police officer. Ming initially works for a Triad society, but the standards of his current job condemn him of his criminal record. The story is properly scripted, with the actors perfectly fitting their roles to produce this suspense-gripping thriller.

We will write a custom Essay on Infernal Affairs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Infernal Affairs’ success in the Hong Kong film industry was not expected, but it is now one of the best selling movies not just in Hong Kong, but also in Hollywood for the last decade.

It is certain that it “does a wonderful job at building tension for the scenes of cat-and-mouse where Yan and Lau try to carry out their official duties while at the same time trying to keep their unofficial bosses apprised of what’s going on” (Desmond 1). As the story unfolds, events occur contrary to the viewer’s expectations, having some big surprises in between scenes. It is until the last scene that the viewer connects all the pieces from the different scenes to get a comprehensive picture.

It is not the kind of movie to watch while doing other things for it requires a lot of attention to get the flow of the story. Martin Scorsese’s fascination with the movie led to his redoing of the same as The Departed, where the flow is almost the same but he uses a different approach. Many critics may have made negative comments on Infernal Affairs, but whether they were genuine or not, it is certainly a film worth watching.

Works Cited Desmond, Norman. Review: Infernal Affairs, 10 Nov. 2010. Web.

Infernal Affairs. Dir. Lau, Wai-keung


Othello and Oedipus Rex Characters’ Traits Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Works Cited

Introduction At the time of contrasting and comparing the traits of Shakespeare’s Othello and Sophocles’ Oedipus, it is vital to recognize that it has to be through the means of varied theatrical activities. It has to be noted that many productions and interpretations have been issued concerning there plays as they look similar.

Even if two different writers wrote them, both Oedipus and Othello are great people; they end up meeting their downfall. They also have tragic traits as they eventually kill someone they love. This essay compares and contrasts Othello and Oedipus Rex characters(Shakespeare 16).

Prominence The two actors, Othello and Oedipus, are presented with prominent character traits. Othello, in his rein, was highly respected general, whose service record could be regarded as impeccable in the Venetian troop. On the other hand, Oedipus was just a new appointed king in his community of Thebes, guided by Tiresias within the plot.

The two leaders in the two poems were all valued and honored by their subjects in their different territories, as is clear from the settings. The two characters had to overcome several obstacles in a manner that led many of their followers to respect and honor them, and their royal positions (Shakespeare 24


Most Influential People – My Uncle Jack Essay essay help online free

Over the years in our lives, we get to interact with many people some of who make little or no impact on our lives while others leave a lasting impression. One of the people who fall under the category of “most influential people” in my life is my uncle Jack. While most people may contend that it is almost typical for one’s uncle to be an influential figure in a person’s life, I believe that my uncle Jack stands out from the stereotypical uncles in more than one count.

While my parents and my other relatives thought that Jack was unusual, I found in him a fascinating as well as complex man who was always a source of intrigue and inspiration.

Physically, my uncle was a tall person with the physique of a body builder. His impressive physical attributes made him conspicuous and to a stranger, his domineering figure was bound to elicit a second glance. However, his build was not intimidating as one might expect. Quite on the contrary, one could almost immediately sense the warmth and kindness that radiated from this giant.

Uncle Jack dressing was unique and I always thought that he was something of a fashion maverick. His rebellious style made him very popular with me and my siblings despite my parent’s discomfort. While his hair was silky and always well cut and his clothes fashionable enough, he did not conform to the traditional “adult” attires and he dressed in a manner that distinguished him from the rest of the adults.

At one time he wore an extravagantly slashed green doublet that was more suited for a man in the 17th century to my cousin’s wedding. This made him the center of attention, a fact that greatly annoyed the bride and the groom!

Jack’s ways were unlike those of any other uncle that I have heard of or seen. Typically, uncles act as proxy parents and they guide children in as much the same way as a parent would; Jack was the complete opposite of this. He acted more like an elder brother and hardly ever tried to control my life.

His cool and “hip” manner meant that I could have him take me to the parks or even my friend’s parties without fearing that he would chaperone me or worse still, embarrass me in front my friends by saying or doing something inappropriate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My friends were visibly jealous of me because of him and for this reason I took every opportunity to flaunt my cool uncle to my friends. In living up to his cool personality, Uncle Jack never at any time complained of being overwhelmed by my requests though I am sure they must have been overwhelming at the least.

In terms of his personality, Jack was like no other person that I have ever encountered. Most people act in a predictable manner and with enough time and exposure to a person, I can almost accurately predict their next move. This was not the case with my uncle Jack. He always seemed to gravitate between absolute ecstasy and raging anger and I never quite figured what triggered either of this moods.

In retrospective, I can speculate that this more than anything else is what made my parents, relatives and other adults around me perceive Jack as weird and someone to keep away from. While for the better part Jack played the role of a “simpleton”, every now and then he would let out a stream of well articulated powerful and eloquent statements which would reveal the brilliant mind that lay dormant beneath the nondescript exterior.

One of the characteristic habits of my uncle was his love for books. His reading taste was wide; ranging from fictional books to huge formidable looking books on philosophy that were bound to dissuade all but the seasoned readers.

I can hardly remember a time when my uncle was not sporting a book and most members of the family wrongly mistook him for being unsociable since he would at times carry on reading during family meetings, totally oblivious of the activities that were taking place around him. His strange compulsion to read was contagious and I took up the habit of reading mostly as a result of his influence.

While I am nowhere near being the compulsive reader that Uncle Jack was, I have over the years developed a taste for a wide variety of books. I credit my love for reading almost entirely to the influence of my Uncle Jack.

It has been almost five years since I last saw my uncle Jack and while my frequent inquiries as to his whereabouts from my parents have not yielded any results, I believe that he is fairing well wherever he is. I have no doubts that wherever he made his new home, Jack continues to be an influential figure to some other persons just as he was to me.

We will write a custom Essay on Most Influential People – My Uncle Jack specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More My only regret with regard to Uncle Jack is that I did not get the chance to tell him how important a person he was and what a great role model he was to me. Hopefully, I will also get to be as big an influence in somebody’s life when I am older.


Marketing the Human Microchip Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Current Marketing Situation Current marketing situation is characterized by rising demand for the microchip particularly in the medical industry. The demand for the product is exponential given a statistical demand analysis for the product. However, it’s worth noting that most of the products are produced by well positioned companies in the market and the ability to penetrate the market may be met with such intense rivalry that it may be difficult to penetrate the market (Douglas,


Effects of Physical Education on Brain Report college essay help online

There are some differences between a male and a female brain. Females are known to be excellent in solving problems involving languages. On the other hand, males are fair well in tasks involving arithmetic analysis. These are just some of the differences between a boy and a girl. Sometimes these differences, whether knowingly or not, can result in discrimination when teaching (Ratey, 2008).

There are various ways a teacher can overcome these differences. For example during a physical education lesson, boys would generally perform better than girls. Therefore, the teacher must be careful not to protect the girls, since the objective of the lesson might not be met. In a language lesson, girls would generally perform better than boys. In this case, the teacher should give group assignments, so that they can learn from each other. Both boys and girls should be in each group (Ratey, 2008).

Physical movement increases a child’s performance in subjects like mathematics, science and languages. Other benefits that come from physical movement include improved reading skills, positive attitude towards education and improved intelligence. Other than academic benefits, exercise strengthens muscles as well as some vital parts of the brain such as cerebellum and basal ganglia. Physical movement assist in the circulation of oxygen to the brain, thus enhancing development of neurons (Ratey, 2008).

Throughout America, many schools have reduced hours and resources allocated to physical education. This is because, some schools have the notion that students would be better prepared, if they dedicate most of their time in the curriculum. In other schools, importance of physical education has not been well emphasized. Instead, a lot of attention has been given to major sports such as football and basketball. Since not all students are good in these sports, they are usually left out (Villaire, 2000).

Exercise has been known to cure depression and enhance memory. To be precise, it causes the discharge of some neurotransmitters that ease mental and bodily pain. The inner ear system and sensory-motor system are among the first body systems to mature once a person is born. During exercise, impulses go back and forth from vestibular and motor sensory. This type of interaction is vital for learning since it helps students maintain balance and improve coordination in movements.

The kind of exercise encouraged here is spinning, which can be achieved in a merry go round. A chemical known as Brian-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is released by brain during a physical activity. This chemical produces and safeguards new neurons. These neurons are usually created in a place called the hippocampus, which happens to be the section of the brain involved in learning and storage of memory (Stevens, 2008).

The functioning of anterior cingulate suggests the existence of a connection between learning and movement. Studies have shown that lack of movement causes poor ties between various sections of brain and cerebellum. Cerebellum is part of the brain involved with emotional cleverness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People move because the brain sends signals to various muscles of the brain. These movements are controlled by cerebellum or ganglia. However, when a person engages in a completely new type of movement, the prefrontal cortex is stimulated. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for solving problems and analysing. This area is stimulated because the brain has no record of the new movement. Continuous stimulation of this part will eventually lead to improved learning capabilities (Stevens, 2008).

Long working hours, misuse of drugs and bad diet have all been blamed for the increasing cases of depression. During depression, the pre-frontal cortex is usually inactive. When these conditions continue for a long time, it can lead to aggression, poor eyesight, nervousness, abuse of drugs and difficulty in learning. One of the most effective ways of treating depression is by exercising on a regular basis (Johnsgard, 2004).

When some neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin are few, depression might occur. Serotonin and BDNF have a mutual kind of relationship. The level of one chemical influences the level of the other one. Presence of BDNF increases the production rate of serotonin. Regular exercise elevates the level of such neurotransmitters in the body, by exciting the sympathetic nervous system.

It has been found out that when exercise is combined with antidepressants, the stress level is reduced significantly. The combination of BDNF produced while exercising and antidepressants, quickens recovery (Johnsgard, 2004). It has been observed that depressed people have a smaller hippocampus.

The smaller the hippocampus, the more the person is depressed. This situation can be reversed by exercise. Exercise generates BDNF which in turn stimulates the growth of neurons, the numerous neurons formed increase the size of the hippocampus, thereby reducing depression (Johnsgard, 2004).

In conclusion, physical education is as important as any other lesson in the school. Many schools have realized the importance of movement, and they are bringing it back to their programme. Apart from the many benefits, exercising is fun. People laugh and talk a lot during physical movement. This creates strong bonds between people, and most importantly, it gives an opportunity to improve social skills.

References Johnsgard, K. (2004). Conquering Depression and Anxiety Through Exercise. New York: Prometheus Books.

We will write a custom Report on Effects of Physical Education on Brain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ratey, J. J. (2008). Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Stevens, T. A. (2008). The importance of physical activity and physical education in the prediction of academic achievement. Journal of Sport Behavior 3(2), 36-50.

Villaire, T. (2000, May 15). Decline of Physical Activity. Retrieved from National PTA:


Pros and Cons of Abortion to the Society Argumentative Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Pros of abortion

Cons of abortion

Relationship between abortion and the course on religion


Works Cited

Introduction For a very long time now the issue of abortion has been one of the most controversial and problems on the planet pitying two major sides. On one side pro-lifers insist that it is immoral and amounts to murdering an innocent child while pro-abortionists argue that is just a form of birth control and there is absolutely nothing wrong with it as all children should be born when they are wanted.

The numerous legislations, policies by governments and even hard-line stands by some organizations like the church have over time made this subject more controversial instead of offering solutions, and at one point one may argue that there would never be a consensus on the abortion issue.

The debate on abortion is likely to go on for several years unless the sturdy stands taken by both pro-lifers and anti-abortionists are softened. Those for or against abortion have to find ways of accommodating the views of each other regarding the issue. This paper will evaluate the issues surrounding the abortion debate while at the same time seek to find solutions to the conflicting ideas.

Pros of abortion There are several arguments that one forward in support of abortion. First of all, any birth of a child should occur when the parents want and not by chance (Potts et al. 229). This way it would go a long way in assisting the world to have an environment where all children that are born in this world have an environment conducive for proper development.

There is no need for inflating the world with many children who cannot have access to basic needs like adequate clothing, food, shelter, and education. It should also be noted that when a person decides to carry out an abortion it is not out of her dislike for children but because she feels that it would not be a wise decision to proceed with the pregnancy as it is still not yet the right time to have a baby (Potts et al. 229).

In the case of rape or incest, keeping a pregnancy is very traumatizing to the person raped as no one would wish to keep a child that is a result of this, and the best solution to this problem would be to abort the unborn child.

For the case of rape, the emotional effects of the occurrence are too traumatizing and take time to heal, and some rape victims do not recover at all. Adding a child to the rape victim is like adding more salt to a wound and would be a constant reminder that is likely to add more emotional trauma to the victim (Khoster 35).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many studies on the morality or immoralities of abortion have found that some of those against the morality of abortion tend to agree that it is acceptable to abort a pregnancy that is a result of rape.

For instance, the gulp poll carried out in Canada found only 13% of the respondents were against the practice completely while interestingly a whopping 65% were of the view that it is acceptable to abort an unwanted pregnancy in certain conditions like if it is a result of rape (Flanagan 130)

There has also been an unending debate on the exact time that a fetus acquires life and becomes a person with rights and ability to have feelings (Sather 159). Sather further argues that before the 24th– 28th week, the fetus has not yet acquired human features and it does not amount to murder if you perform an abortion before this time.

Pro-lifers led by the Catholic Church insist that life begins at conception and anyone who is found guilty of having performed an abortion could be excommunicated from the church because of committing murder (Kohmescher 137). That is not all several studies when life stars in the case of an unborn child have resulted in conflicting dates.

The impending standoff as to, when a person can and cannot have an abortion, have left it possible for anyone to conduct an abortion. It is not clear as to when life begins, and as so long as a woman feels that she cannot have a baby, she has the freedom to do it since it is not yet clear when the life of a person begins.

Sometimes complications can occur to a pregnancy that may put the life of the mother or unborn child in danger and even at times all of them. In this case, abortion ought to be permitted to save the physical health of the mother although some of those advocating for abortion have often argued that the mental health of the mother ought to be included when talking about health (white


Case of Ski Pro Corporation Quantitative Research Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Many times firms engaged in manufacturing operations are confronted with a buy or make decision. Such a decision revolves around whether to manufacture each input required for the finished product, they produce or to buy them from the market. A number of factors, such as input costs and sales volumes influence this decision.

Analysis of the cost workings of the Ski Corporation reveals that buying the bindings will result in an increase in the variable costs per pair of skis, of 50 cents than the costs of producing the bindings, within the factory. Therefore, the decision is to make the bindings in-house.

When a sales volume of 10,000 units per year is considered, Ski Corporation may produce its own bindings, as own manufacture will result in break-even sales. On the other hand, buying the bindings will lead to a loss of $5,000 to the company.

Considering a sales volume at 12,500 units per year, Ski Corporation may buy the bindings instead of manufacturing them in-house. This is because making the additional volume of bindings will need new investment from Ski Corporation to purchase new equipment. Therefore, it will make sense for Ski Corporation to buy the bindings incurring the increased variable costs.

In this case, the company can avoid the additional investment of $10,000 in fixed costs, which is required to manufacture the bindings in-house. Buying bindings at a sales volume of 12,500 units will make the company earn a profit of $18,750, whereas producing them in house will result in a profit of only $15,000, which is lower by $ 3,750.

When the company hits a sales volume of 30,000 units, it is advisable for Ski Corporation to invest the additional $10,000 for manufacturing the bindings in- house. With a high sales volume of 30,000 units, it is prudent to make the additional investment, as the 50 cents of savings per pair of skis will make good the additional investment cost.

At a sales volume of 30,000 units, Ski Corporation will be able to make a profit of $190,000 by making its own bindings, as against $185,000 if the corporation purchases the bindings. In addition, the additional facility created will lead to more profits, when the company increases its sales volume above 30,000 units.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the company decides to manufacture the inputs at its own facilities in-house or to procure them in the market from different vendors, the company has to consider a number of qualitative factors, which have an impact on such a decision.

When the company decides to produce in-house, there can be better quality control of the inputs, and the company can avoid the risk of delays in deliveries. On the other hand, by procuring the inputs from a vendor in the market, the company is at an advantageous position with respect to the flexibility of production quantities.

Moreover, the company can focus on the manufacture of its core products. However, there is the potential risk of lower quality and delayed deliveries, which depends largely on the reliability of the supplier. Finally, the firm must consider costs as well as other pros and cons, while deciding to make or buy manufacturing inputs for completion of its products.


Human 215 Unit 3 DB: Early Periods Essay essay help site:edu

Researchers in early days found it difficult to date the events that happened in the past because by then man had not invented writing. They therefore studied the artifacts and fossils that were excavated by archeologists to estimate the period when an event occurred (Clisson et al., 2002).

Archeological studies state that the ancient inhabitants of Amazon were hunters and gatherers. They were called Scythians and they were livestock farmers. There herds-men used to ride on a horse back. This has been proved by the artifacts that have been excavated in the recent which include spears and arrows. These societies shifted from one area to another in pursuit of water and pastures for their animals.

Hathaway (2003) argues that these people did not grow crops thus they obtained food by trading their livestock products with crops produce from their neighbors. Due to their lifestyle they had the best archers who were renowned for their excellence in arching skills. These archers used to be hired by their neighbors to provide security. What we don’t know is how they were paid for their services because by then currency had not been invented.

Archeological studies have established that the Scythians wore clothing purely made from animal hides and skins. Both men and women used to wear caps that were made in various shapes. Men and particularly warriors used to put on tunics that were decorated with metallic plates of gold.

These tunics were fastened by a belt that was also used to hold the weapons of a warrior such as club and axe. The society was defended by both female and male warriors who made the defense system of these communities to stand out from the rest. Women cut their right breast because they believed it was abstracting them when they wanted to use bows and arrows (Hathaway, 2003). This act explains how the name Amazon came into being.

Clisson (2002) argues that Europe managed to control the new world because it was the pioneer of industrialization. It relied on other regions such as Africa to produce raw materials for its industries. This was done by creating colonies in this states and assigning them to governors who served the interests of Europe.

Africans were evicted from their lands which were then given out to European farmers. Africans were then forced to work in these plantations. Industrialization improved the livelihood of most Europeans and that’s what motivated Europe to expand her territory beyond the big water bodies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Ricaut et al (2004), Europe was the first region to be civilized because Greece had many scholars who moved out of Europe when the region was faced with many battles. In fact, the first system of government was established in Europe. This government was very stable and that’s what enabled Britain to dominate the rest of the world.

The ancient inhabitants of Amazon were eliminated gradually. This was caused by the decrease in food because they had exhausted the hunting fields and the little that was left could hardly sustain them. Industrialization and urbanization also contributed to their extinction because the habitats of world animals were destroyed to create room for human dwelling places.

The few inhabitants of Amazon could have intermarried with early explorers of Amazon hence they were absorbed by other tribes. The frequent battles that are believed to have been staged in Amazon could have led to deaths of the original inhabitants of Amazon.

Some of the original inhabitants of Amazon could have been sold to slave traders in order to provide labor force in European farms. Once they arrived there they could have mingled with other slaves from other regions thus became extinguished (Ricaut et al., 2004).

References Clisson,I. et al. (2002).”Genetic analysis of human remains from a double inhumation in a frozen kurgan in Kazakhstan” (Berelsite, early 3rd century BC).International Journal of Legal Medicine.116:304-308

Hathaway, J. (2003).A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen. Albany: Sunny Press.

Ricaut, al. (2004).”Genetic analysis and Ethnic Affinities From Two Scytho-siberian skeletons”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology.123:351-360

We will write a custom Essay on Human 215 Unit 3 DB: Early Periods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Syncretism in the American Culture Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

These days, there is hardly a nation that avoided the world tendency for globalization and preserved its “pure” culture. The process of globalization is closely related to the term “syncretism”. According to Dave Miller (2003), “syncretism is the fusion of differing systems of belief, as opposed to remaining individualistic”.

In other words, it is an attempt to unite several different cultures or studies. This term was generally related to religion, however, today, it is closely related to anthropology and different cultural studies. It is a characteristic feature of a country with a big inflow of immigrants from different countries of the world. One of such countries is the United States of America. It is the best example of how different cultures, religions and traditions create a single unity.

History and development of the country favored to a high level of syncretism in the country. However, if syncretism had not occurred in the Americas, modern culture could be different in several ways. First of all, it would interfere the development of the country and it could probably lead to the emergence of several independent states on the territory of the United States.

According to Charles Stuart (1999):

“Contemporary social theory has turned to focus on phenomena such as globalization, transnational nationalism, and the situation of Diaspora communities. The word syncretism has begun to appear alongside such related concepts as hybridization and creolization as a means of portraying the dynamics of global social development” (p. 40).

This tendency appeared in the Unites States from the very moment of its appearance, as it was a home for people from different countries and with different cultural backgrounds. Syncretism is a process that assists a successful development of the country and society. It is a positive process and suggests that all people with their moral, religion and spiritual believes are equal.

Inevitable, that syncretism may be regarded as a compromise among cultures. Moreover, it is a valuable symbiosis of these cultures that promote their mutually advantageous co-existence. So, “studies of New World syncretic phenomena by American anthropologists were colored by an optimism born in the heyday of America’s melting pot ideology” (Stewart and Shaw, 1994, p. 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What consequences there could be if cultural syncretism did not appear? And how might modern culture be different from what we have used to see nowadays? It is rather hard to imagine that there is no a “mutually advantageous co-existence of different cultures”. Moreover, taking into consideration the fact that syncretism deals with almost every aspect of modern life, it is quite impossible to avoid it.

At any rate, if it happens, there can be distressing results. First of all, it would be impossible for people from different countries to create families. Second, there could be constant regional conflict on the cultural basis. Third, the development of the country could cease or become much slower.

In addition, it would influence greatly on policy and law. Education would be much more difficult as there could appear misunderstanding and misconceptions. In general, it would bring much tension in the society and its structure. Finally, a cultural development of the society could be almost impossible.

Syncretism is a mixture of cultural and religious beliefs that promotes a successful development of the society. Failure to create it would influence greatly on the lives of people and their interaction. Lack of syncretism would bring much tension to society.

References List Miller, D. (2003). Pluralism, Multiculturalism, Syncretism, and America. Apologetics Press: Scripturally Speaking. Retrieved from


Ocean Policy Change Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help

The issue of value of life whether on dry land or in water is unquestionable. Life is precious and should be cared for at whatever cost because no one can give life, therefore, no one should take it. The debate on ocean dumping still rages.

Critics and adherents alike have valid points concerning ocean dumping; nevertheless, this issue calls for serious investigations to separate facts from propaganda. Regrettably, oceans bear an almost unavoidable exposure to waste materials due to its expansive and open nature. This forms the basis of argument for those who support the issue. However, the long-term repercussions of such a shortsighted argument are far-reaching.

For instance, oceans support the lives of a vast number of species, majority of which provide food for other species and human beings alike. Moreover, virtually all industries rely on ocean waters for their continued running coupled with provision of the cheapest and safest mode of transport, with people exporting and/or importing tons of goods via the water transport.

If ocean dumping continues then, there would be massive obstruction of numerous activities that take place in the oceans. Therefore, based on these negative effects, ocean dumping is wrong and stern measures against the practice need to be established.

Changes are ever happening, either for the better or for the worse. Policies addressing the issue of ocean dumping and the need to curb it have been in place. In fact, the establishment of strategies as ‘ocean protection,’ came into place in 1970s.

Brewer and Peter (1983) posit that, “The first concerted effort to control ocean dumping began in the early 1970s, when many environmental protection laws were passed” (p. 45). However, the period thereafter was marked by a change of these laws. This change, to a greater extend, loosened the prevailing policies thus allowing ocean dumping.

Several factors fueled the change; for instance, change in the information concerning the effect of ocean dumping to the ocean environment. Statisticians claimed that the effect was insignificant and for some countries like America, ocean dumping became a routine. Nevertheless, one would wonder what fueled the nullification of some policies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Policy change marks the beginning of its termination. Most of the changes render the policies useless, hence terminating their applications. These terminations vary in terms of policy redirections, program adjustments, and fiscal retrenchments among other factors.

These terminations play a vital role in the study of policies for they remove obsolete policies, giving a room for the establishment of new others. However, the establishment of new policies to replace the existing ones does not always pave way fro better conditions. People have devised reasons as to why termination of a policy can pass as the only solution to a given problem.

For instance, Stewart, Hedge, and Lester (2008) assert, “Political considerations, rather than evaluative elegance, are at the root of most termination decisions” (p. 158). In most cases, politics do not seek solve a problem amicably; politicians pursue personal ends and this cripples any attempt to offer a lasting solution. Economic crises also play a major part when making termination decisions.

In conclusion, policy-making stands out as an unavoidable practice. Though applied virtually everywhere, a lot of attention ought to be availed when changing or terminating policies. Policy review and amendments has given way to some policies that favor the dumping of wastes into the ocean. Following the already realized effects on the aquatic life as well as some other predicted long-term water transport problems caused by this malpractice, it suffices to infer that ocean dumping is wrong.

Reference List Brewer, G.,


Filippo Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto Critical Essay best college essay help

Every time art movements replace each other, a new, “fresh” tendency rebuts and refutes the old one with enthusiasm and categoricity. However, there is hardly any movement in the history of art that demonstrated as strong aspiration for destroying the “old” and bring the “new” as Futurism.

Having emerged in the early 20th century, Futurism absorbed the tense and contradictive spirit hovering in the air of progressive Western European capitals. One of the first artistic personalities who managed to grasp this spirit was Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, an Italian poet who is today considered one of the “fathers” of Futurism.

In his Futurist Manifesto published in 1909 in Paris (Marinetti 1909), Marinetti formulated the essence and the purpose of the Futurist movement and thus outlined the “ethical code” of a New Artist, a Futurist. Playing on the contrast of new and old, courage and cowardice, a human and nature, freedom and captivity, Marinetti not only expressed the spirit of his epoch, but also gave direction to it.

The contrast of “old” and “new” is the core of the Futurist movement. The term “Futurism” itself carries a certain paradox: on the one hand, its name includes the allusion to the future; on the other hand, this term was used in the beginning of the 20th century to denote not the art of the “future”, but the art of “today”.

Probably, this paradox was the issue that pleased Futurist poets and artists of that time who had opportunity to claim that they had overthrown the past and overstepped the present. We may notice this when familiarizing ourselves with numerous works of visual art, cinema, literature, music and architecture of that period.

Futurists do not mourn over the glory of antiquity or Renaissance; they look at the world around them with excitement: cars, airplanes, huge buildings constructed of concrete and glass become the objects of panegyric and poetical description. Thus, together with the contrast “old/new”, Futurists create the contrast of “human” and “nature” where a human is in the superior position. Instead of admiring the scenery with a bird flying in the sky, a human of the new epoch soars with his metal wings.

This message and this rhetoric take their origin in Futurist Manifesto. “Why should we look back, when what we want is to break down the mysterious doors of the Impossible: Time and Space died yesterday”, says Marinetti (1909), and a reader may even imagine the passion and enthusiasm put by the author in his words.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marinetti outlines the new notion of beauty that has come to replace its old “version”, “…the world’s magnificence has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed” (ibid.); he says, it is time to free Italy from the heritage of the past that burdens it, from those “professors, archaeologists, ciceroni and antiquarians” (ibid.).

Marinetti is against stagnation, stability and tradition, but for a breakthrough, experiment and innovation. Thus, a modern person cannot enjoy the beauty “preserved” in museums; the beauty of a “roaring car” is more comprehensive and dear to a human of the beginning of the 20th century.

This is what we can see in the Futurists’ paintings: experiments with textures, techniques and shapes help to express the spirit of the time and thus help the “new” overthrow the “old” and “ascend the throne”. Painters try to depict speed and energy, light and sound; composition seems not harmonious and well-balanced, but unsteady, disturbing.

Particularly, we may allude to the paintings by Umberto Boccioni, Marinetti’s compatriot and “confederate” in the artistic movement. Boccioni’s The Street Enters the House (1911) is the bright illustration for the statements of Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto: the author depicts speed, energy and noise my means of colors, composition and numerous details, blurring and overlapping.

Futurist poets tend to experiment with a word, a sound, a sentence. Their desire is to break the rules that exist in the traditional, “ordinary” language. Below, the fragment of Marinetti’s poem Aeropoem for Agello: 700 Km an Hour (1939) illustrates these tendencies (in Bohn 2005, 14):

Suddenly far from the earthly feminine tic-toc Agello Castoldi and I gulp down the beautiful misty lake at 200-300 metres triumphantly joining those illustrious fliers who have flown 700 kilometres an hour Uuuaaaa Uuuuaaaaa Uuaaaaaaaa

However, in Futurist Manifest, the notion of the new beauty is inseparable from the notion of struggle, “Except in struggle, there is no more beauty” (ibid.).

We will write a custom Essay on Filippo Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marinetti operates one more contrast: “freedom” versus “slavery”; freedom should be brought to the society, which implies to overcome “every opportunistic or utilitarian cowardice” (ibid.), and to art where the museums, libraries and other “vestiges of the past” should be destroyed (ibid.). To free the society from the state of sleep and constraint, Futurists need to come with courage and violence.

“Art, in fact, can be nothing but violence, cruelty, and injustice”, say Marinetti (ibid.). This spirit was impregnated Futurist works of literature and art. The above mentioned painting by Boccioni “radiates” the energy of riot, anxiety, violence, penetration and destruction. In Luigi Russolo’s paintings, we may also see violence and aggression (for example, Impressions of Bombardment (Shrapnels and Grenades), 1926).

Not accidentally, Futurism is to some extent considered one of the forerunners of Fascism. Promotion of changes brought by means of destruction and violence is neighboring with nationalism. Yet in Futurist Manifesto, we see the nationalistic tint in the author’s narration, “It is from Italy that we launch through the world this violently upsetting incendiary manifesto of ours… For too long has Italy been a dealer in second-hand clothes” (Marinetti, 1909).

Thus, besides seeing Futurism as a solid, integrated movement in art, we also may notice its connection with the tendencies that existed in politics and society of that time. The ideas declared in Futurist Manifesto found their development during the next decades and had crucial impact on the history of the mankind. We see one more illustration of how art and the real life are always connected.

References Boccioni, Umberto. The Street Enters the House. 1911. Sprengel-Museum, Hannover.

Bohn, Willard. 2005. Italian Futurist Poetry: Edited and Translated by Willard Bohn. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Marinetti, Filippo T. 1909. Futurist Manifesto. Le Figaro 20 February 1909. CSCS.Umich.Edu. Web.

Russolo, Luigi. Impressions of Bombardment (Shrapnels and Grenades). 1926. Collection of the Comune di Portogruaro.

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Renato Poggioli: The Concept of a Movement: The Theory of the Avant-Garde Definition Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The subtleties of language are not lost on Renato Poggioli. In his mind, “language is our greatest historical revealer” [p. 17].

The Concept of a Movement is the chapter that Poggioli devotes to defining avant garde art. Herein, the author details a crucial distinction between the avant garde and other historical periods of artistic practice, not only in terms of old versus new, but also how the artists named their practice.

Artists that align themselves to a school, in Poggioli’s mind, comprise an altogether different breed than those that identify with a movement. Most significantly, how the artists thought about their practice, for Poggioli, reveals their category.

Art that derives from a school owes its origin to some form of official endorsement or affirmation, which it requires as a necessary element of its creation. School art must be sanctioned, and depends more or less on historical as well as mainstream acceptance. For Poggioli, “the school notion presupposes a master and a method, the criterion of tradition, and the principle of authority” [p. 20].

Conversely, “the followers of a movement always work in terms of an end immanent in the movement itself” [p. 20]. Said end need not be sanctioned, accepted, affirmed, valued, or even understood, by those outside the movement.

Where the school presupposes disciples consecrated to a transcendent end, Poggioli believes, the movement holds multiple paths for multiple participants who may or may not arrive in the same location [p. 20].

Art based in the school form also has a qualitatively different energy than that which originates as part of a movement. “The school [art] is preeminently static and classical, while the movement is essentially dynamic and romantic” [p.20].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Innovation remains muted in the school, since it carries the weight of historical precedence, and its proponents produce work in a somewhat limited field, hamstrung by the need for permission. Movements, on the other hand, remain free of precedent, thus, its participants remain free to germinate and generate based on the present moment and their own experience.

Poggioli also points to the conceptual difference between the two camps, with an emphasis on diverging views in the artists’ understanding of culture.

The school is inconceivable outside the humanistic ideal, the idea of culture as a thesaurus. The movement, instead, conceives of culture not as increment but as creation – or, at least, as a center of activity and energy [p. 20].

This distinction in thought bears scrutiny. Particularly, Poggioli’s use of the term “thesaurus” to describe culture produces a lightning rod [p. 20]. Essentially, artists belonging to a school will always be creating synonyms of the work of their forbearers, in Poggioli’s mind; thus, the work looks backward, and endlessly repeats, reinvents, and rehashes. Artists in the school therefore do not experience time in the present moment, but continually live and create in the past.

Artists who adhere to a movement, on the other hand, not only live in the present moment, but understand culture as a social agreement, one that is constantly in flux. Culture endlessly transforms according to individual epoch and contemporary events.

Thus, these artists create work that reflects their own selves in their own times, times that always change. Therefore the artists of a movement, and their artistic products, more closely resemble the actual experience of life and art: dynamic, fluid, and live.

Poggioli moves on to discuss the difference in purpose between reviews of work that comes from the school and those that emanate from the movement.

We will write a custom Essay on Renato Poggioli: The Concept of a Movement: The Theory of the Avant-Garde specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The school does not aim to discuss; it intends only to teach [p. 24]. [T]he school prefers to create new variants of traditional poetics and rhetoric, normative or didactic simply by nature [p. 25].

Reviews of avant garde work, conversely, engage in the vital task of

affirm[ing] in words the uniqueness, particularity, or exceptionality of its own theoretical and practical achievements. [Avant garde reviews and reviewers] more faithfully bear witness to divergence and exception: they operate in closer proximity to the sources of the work, closer to the creative process and the experimental phases [p. 25].

Ostensibly, Poggioli challenges avant garde reviews and reviewers to disseminate the conceptual framework of the movement, and become artists themselves in the process.

For Poggioli, the avant garde movement breaks down into four discrete aspects or moments: activism, antagonism, nihilism, and agonism [p. 25-26].

Activism refers to the movement’s propensity to take shape and agitate for no other end than its own self, out of the sheer joy of dynamism, a taste for action, a sportive enthusiasm, and the emotional fascination of adventure [p. 26].

Antagonism names the movement’s tendency to rail against something, be it the school, tradition, or authority [p. 26]. Nihilism labels the urge of the movement to indulge in wholesale destruction, and advocate a cultural fire sale of sorts.

Agonism, finally, describes the element of the movement that produces artistic martyrs, participants who “accept self-ruin as an obscure or unknown sacrifice to the success of future movements” [p. 26]. Poggioli delineates further within the four aspects to attach activism and antagonism to rational pursuits, and nihilism and agonism to the irrational.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Renato Poggioli: The Concept of a Movement: The Theory of the Avant-Garde by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The avant garde, as defined by Poggioli, exists as a social force, as well as an artistic one. It differs from the art formed by a school in that it seeks to live in the present moment, and express itself to the public from a shared psychological, physical, and emotional space, indicative of a particular time, culture, and zeitgeist.

The avant garde movement hunts large scale engagement and involvement, both from its members as well as the public, and creates its own end. The school, on the other hand, seeks to teach, and wishes only to reveal its teachings to a select group of converts who will in turn learn, and eventually continue the tradition and teach. Art from a school therefore can remain isolated from the public, and may or may not choose to engage with it.

Reference List Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Concept of a Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Assessment Description It is essential to have a basic understanding of network defense topologies in order to properly comprehend the defensive strategies deployed by companies to protect their infor best college essay help

Use the Cisco Packet Tracer application to create a network diagram that makes use of the following devices listed below, which belong to Company X. The diagram should illustrate your knowledge of network defense by placing network assets in their proper location, so as to ensure their protection. Include, within the diagram, any small office/home office (SOHO) solutions that will be used to protect either the infrastructure or end-user devices.
Within the diagram make sure to include at a minimum:
10 mobile devices (phones/laptops/tablets)
Five desktop/stationary computers
Two servers (file/email)
One printer
One router/firewall
One WAN/gateway connection
One switch
One corresponding backup/replication asset for disaster recovery (local or remote storage/server)
Note: Any IP addresses used should be labeled next to the corresponding device.
Then, create a report outlining the abilities of the network topology in reference to securing network devices and other information assets used by Company X. Make sure to address the following within the report:
A detailed explanation of the topology design addressing the “why” and “how” of the topology defenses solution and design, specifically threat models, motivations (such as insider threat), and ideologies
Network defense solution list (i.e., software/hardware used to protect information assets)
Encryption policies used by the network and end-users
Disaster plan recovery, including restoration plans
When completing the report for this assignment, refer to the “Report Template.” 
APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.
This assignment uses a basic scoring guide, provided by your instructor. Please review the scoring guide prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.