Thanks to the Great Geographic Discoveries, Europeans began to explore new lands, establishing trade relations with remote corners of the earth. But the process was not always peaceful. The traditional societies of Asia, Africa, and the Americas could not resist the military might of Europeans. The establishment of a trade monopoly and political dominance and the creation of a colonial administrative apparatus to serve European interests became the hallmarks of European policy, known as the policy of colonialism.
Analysis of Frants Fanon’s Framework
Frantz Fanon (1967) observed Mannoni’s proposed objective position on the central thesis of his study, which presents the view that the complex in the lives of the colonized people was present even before colonization began (p. 85). In contrast to Mannoni, Fanon (1967) expresses his position, which speaks of a society’s understanding of racism, that society is either racist or not (p. 86). The question of collective dynamics would address the problem of colonized people’s response with an inferiority and dependency complexes as reflections of the colonizers’ sense of superiority, even if they were in the minority. The chapter also addresses that colonial racism is somehow different from other manifestations of racism; colonization was a form of coercion, enslavement, and inculcation of feelings of inferiority based on race.
The psychological consequences seem much more severe than they might seem at first sight; colonized people lose their sense of security and stability, which is critical. I want to add that the moment your home ceases to be a safe place for you, it is almost impossible to regain stability. Fanon (1967) also notes the possibility of psychological traumas, which have an interconnection between the individual consciousness and the social context (p. 97).
As for the parsing of dreams, this raises the question of their ubiquity and the relation of the analysis to the time of what is happening to people at that very moment. Fanon (1967) discusses the possible errors associated with the displacement of the true ways and purposes of colonized people, whose dreams reflect the real needs and primal instincts associated with the situation in which they find themselves (p. 106).
Analysis of Tayyab Mahmud’s Bullet Points
Tayyab Mahmud (1998) argues that the introduction of the system of racial categorization was conditioned by the rejection of the colonization system as such, by the granting of biologically conditioned rights and abilities to be free to the natives in a similar manner and by the demands of colonial rule the principles and fallacies of racial difference were created to explain and enact systems of control and legislation (p. 1219).
In my view, the terms ”history” and ”Europe” in this paper express a negative context of positioned superiority. Europe presents itself as a bastion of enlightenment and knowledge, which is righteous and undeniable. It is Europe that makes the so-called History and stands on it for its further development and existence. Accordingly, those countries which fall outside the mainstream of History have no such rights and freedoms.
Mahmud (1998) identifies four premises as the basis of modern racial differences: the global difference between Europeans and other races, the existence of a racial hierarchy with Europeans at the top, Europe as the dominant subject of history with the right to rule other races, and that the only salvation of the lower races is to be enslaved by Europe (p. 1223). Deployments of racial stereotypes examined in this paper parse such theories as martial race theory, criminal tribes, meek Hindu, discontents of race -nations (Mahmud, 1998, p. 1231). Some of them are related to broader processes occurring in modern history, such as today’s political parties that promote these and similar theories.
European colonialism in Asia and Africa had far-reaching consequences. On the one hand, it made it much easier for Europeans to establish the material basis for the development of capitalist relations. On the other hand, the policy of colonialism was often accompanied by the destruction of the local population, the expansion of the slave trade, and the loss of independence of the states of the East.
Fanon, F. (1967). Black Skin, White Masks. New York, NY: Grove Press.
Mahmud, T. (1998). Colonialism and Modern Constructions of Race: A Preliminary Inquiry. U. Miami (53), p.1219-46.