Table of Contents Introduction
Consumer price index (CPI)
Introduction Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that looks at how the economy of a country performs (Gwartney 3). According to McEachern (187), it considers factors such as inflations, unemployment and employment issues, a country’s trade with others and to a further extend the success and failures of a government’s economic policies.
All these and other more unmentioned variables always have an impact on a county’s economic performances. A case study of the UK and US will be used to illustrate how these variables have an impact on the real exchange markets
Consumer price index (CPI) According to Consumer Price Index (CPA) can be used as a direct measure of people’s living standards which is based on the total cost of goods and services relative to the same amount of goods and services in a base year. It is always the percentage change from the base year. By considering a large pool of goods and services, CPI can obtain a relative measure of the standards of living in the country (Turvey 33).
Prior to financial crisis, most of the residential and commercial premises in UK and US were run by local investors for a long period of years (Dijkman 23). The impact of CPI is hypothesized to be negative because, in the years 2000, 2001 due to need for money, these premises were sold to foreigners at a higher price (Frumkin 315).
This led the market into a standstill position due to the fact that the potential sellers were not ready to trade with the local investors. Consequently, the locals did not involve in any investment as they waited for the prices to lower.
Due to the inflations experienced in the markets over the last recent years, especially with the basic commodities such as food crops and cash crops, oil and others, real market exchange has been affected leading to a very unbalanced living condition more so with the countries previously known to be the supper powers such as the US and UK (Free 354).
Deflation rates has continued to be experienced in UK discouraging consumer spending and investments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interest rate Gottfried (196) defines interest rate as the fraction of the total amount of money charged for its use. It can either be fixed or flexible depending on the amount. Banks are highly known for offering loans which are expected back after a given grace period. Usually the borrower doesn’t return the same amount as borrowed; he returns it with a profit that is cumulatively relative to the grace period e.g. a month or a year.
Before the financial crisis, the two countries invested heavily on such kind of business which bore many profits. Compared to pre-crisis era, credit conditions have continuously tightened, world economy has experienced a downturn much more with the inflation rates, and this has led to inventions of policies that allow the reduction of interest rates so as to continue in the market place (Kolb 25).
The impact of interest rate is hypothesized to be negative because there has been fear of engaging in such investments that involve lots of cash.After recesion, interest’s rates in the US and UK was quickly and sharply cut down leading to a reduction in the made by banks.
Money supply According to Owen and Clark (185), money supply is the total amount of money both coins and banknotes that is available at a particular time that is used in buying goods and services. It is the money in circulation. Two supply measures are use by the federal the Federal Reserve; M1 and M2.Money supply is usually inversely proportional to interest rate where by the interest rate increases with decrease in money supply and vice versa.
When there is a lot of money or very little in supply, a country’s economy is negatively affected (Owen
Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The education enables people to gain new skills in a formal and governmentally controlled way which then benefits the individual’s professional training and promotional ladder movement. Though some people think education to be a rudiment of the renaissance age when this was a concept available to rich people only, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of education on different levels and in different ages.
The age groups of learners vary regarding the essence of learning. For instance, elementary and secondary education is obligatory aspect of ordinary life in most countries of the world whereas ESL learning is the area available to people who want to learn English and master it to the degree of native speaking.
At the same time, many nations acknowledge necessity of learning other languages than the native one in the context of the globalisation and developing cultural diversity issues. The syllabus will include vocabulary, language focus, listening, and speaking sections that consist of specific topics necessary for adequate development of language skills in whole.
The present learning syllabus in Taiwan elementary schools was introduced to make the learning-teaching process more effective. Along with the new syllabus, a new assessment scale was introduced to functions as the following:
understanding the strengths and weaknesses of students’ learning ability,
assisting teachers in monitoring student learning progress,
evaluating students’ learning,
placing students in learning groups based on given institutional standards (Chan, 2006, p. 37).
So, the syllabus for the primary school in Taiwan includes interventions for reading (phonemic awareness), writing, listening, and speaking.
Reforms can be considered another important aspect of many sectors of human activity including education that should be adjusted to changing needs and preferences of the population with regard to the expansion of businesses into the global market, development of new areas in new fields of industry with the help of foreign partners or involvement of foreign investors.
In this respect, ESL learners in Taiwan are facing the necessity of introducing new English literature learning syllabus in accordance with the importance of being in the mainstream of the language learning. Besides, a combination of the most effective approaches to design of the literature learning syllabi can be more effective than the application of a single approach or in-turn application of different approaches.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, ESL learners can benefit from introduction of the new approach that is aimed at using the task-based and topic-based learning syllabi. The present project is designed in order to outline an English literature learning syllabus for ESL learners of 8-12 years old in Taiwan.
The subject will include reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation interventions for ESL students that would contribute positively to the development of language skills necessary for adequate academic development which is impossible without good reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.
Background The English literature learning syllabus should include the features of the topic-based and task-based approaches because ESL students should benefit more from the introduction of new instructions. The syllabus should include clear instructions and be more oriented on gaining the knowledge on a specific topic rather than on a definite text that is aimed at developing knowledge in a concrete area.
General aims of the course include design of a new English learning syllabus or ESL learners in Taiwan. The social, cultural, and educational environments are under the influence of the political and economical ones because of the emerging tendencies in the economy and growth of globalisation.
Participants of this syllabus are ESL learners in Taiwan and well-qualified teachers who have experience in primary teaching and ESL teaching as well. The English literature learning syllabus is introduced for the primary EFL students in Taiwan to enable them to gain knowledge in English language and understand the peculiarities of culture better.
Theoretical Framework The globalization and the development of an international perspective have pushed English to become an international language or global communication language. Many countries see English as a basic educational requirement (Maurais and Morris, 2003). The motivation and environment have been examined as factors that influence the language acquisition progress by many researchers.
As reported in the study by Gunderson (2008), “Cummins argued that learning occurs in different contexts [that] provide substantial cues to the learner” (p. 41). Corson (1999) reviews the methods that can be applied to increase the language and literature learning efficiency in the ESL class.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, increase of motivation, reduce the level of anxiety, and increase the level of pupils’ self-confidence and others (p. 199). This means that environment and motivation are of great importance for the ESL students’ effectiveness in learning.
The current situation is such as the ESL learning syllabus is mostly based on the insufficient teacher training resources, content-based or topic-based approach to the presentation of new learning material in class, cooperative learning, and learning in groups when students are divided into smaller groups than the class usually comprises for better acquisition of the presented material.
In addition, the current situation with ESL students in primary school in Taiwan is such that students start learning English as a second language in a younger age than they used to before; so, students may experience difficulties related to associations built in the native and the foreign language. Moreover, students are taught to build analogies and simplify more complicated terms and concepts using new vocabulary.
Qualification of teachers plays one of the major roles in effectiveness of instructions and the expected outcomes of the teaching process. “Students who are not isolated in ESL programs are thrust into mainstream classrooms with teachers little prepared to accommodate them” (Flood, International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, 2003, p. 430).
As suggested by Carder (2007), “ESL teachers for primary (ages 6-11 or 12) should be well-qualified teachers of this age group, with additional training in second language teaching” (p. 38). Besides, the student teacher ratio should not exceed 8:1 (eight students per one teacher) if the ESL syllabus concerns the primary school (Carder, 2007, p. 40).
The history of ESL reading instructions was reviewed by Gunderson (2008) who analysed the approaches and reading programmes used by different scholars and practicing teachers of ESL learners with regard to effectiveness of each approach and benefits gained by learners.
The first approach includes a bottom-up model of teaching according to which “most teachers appear to believe students should be taught skills such as phonics and letter-sound relationship” (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36). The second model, in this case, concerns the top-down approach when students are “asked to read meaningful material” which excludes teaching the letter-sound correspondence directly (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36).
The compromise between these two models is reached in the third one called interactive which is supposed to combine the designs of both the top-down and the bottom-up models (Gunderson, 2008, pp. 36-37). Combination of different learning syllabi is welcomed in the educational system in order to promote educational level of ESL learners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Variety of views and approaches makes it easier for teachers to use and combine the most effective educational models for ESL students to benefit from them.
Ferris and Hedgcock (2005) report about the variety of views developed in terms of the ESL composition writing, namely the opinion of expressivists who think that expressing oneself in the process of writing is the most important part of writing and cognitivists who consider problem-solving and analysis the main components of the writing process (pp. 5-6).
Task-based learning can be useful in addressing conditions related to ESL students’ writing practice (Cumming, 2006, p. 163). Hinkel (2004a) reports about the varieties of instructions for writing classes and importance of writing skills for ESL students.
As such, opinion-based reports and essays are aimed at reflecting personal thoughts and vision of a student (Hinkel, 2004a, p. 10) whereas the fact-based exemplification allows the instructor to assess the cognitive concept and the knowledge gained by the ESL student (p. 24).
Topic- or content-based approach to the learning syllabus which was introduced in the late 1970s in Australia to cope with the problem of ESL students that should have been included into mainstream school curriculum became a real innovation (Evans, 1996, pp. 179-180).
As suggested by Evans (1996), the structure of the lesson was based on a topic, its visual presentation, building of a reading passage, analysis of the passage, and the final writing (pp. 180-182).
Besides, careful structuring of the task has been identified as the primary factor for effective teaching-learning process using the task-based approach (Clegg, 1996, p. 17). In addition, the pace of language and inter-language development should be increased to ensure that an ESL student succeeds in learning (Clegg, 1996, p. 18).
Different approaches used with ESL students enable the teacher to perform the teaching-learning process more effectively. The study by Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy (2004) enables the readers to understand the benefits of different models of learning.
For instance, ESL students are claimed to benefit more from lessons if they find the tasks a bit difficult and challenging and the instructions do not take the most part of the lesson (Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy, 2004, p. 2). A literature learning syllabus for ESL primary learners may focus more on topics and vocabulary rather than on specific works of literature (Carder, 2007, p. 55).
The process of reading is not only a part of the English literature learning syllabus but also an important element of second language acquisition that has a number of benefits (Carder, 2007, p. 59).
Language learning syllabus should be aimed at developing such skills as recognition and identification of definite “sounds, letters, lexicogrammar, sentence…”, “awareness of language”, and other useful components that would be applied during the entire learning course (Carder, 2007, p. 58).
Mississippi Department of Education (1998) insisted on the importance of instructing students how to read; so, clear instructions facilitate learning. Grade books may appear to be too difficult and easier variants can be used. The book by Barchers (1991) is structured in an interesting way including texts and explanations and clear instructions to each of them making it really simple:
Read the book aloud. Allow the students to fill in words as they listen. During the second reading, list a variety of examples of alliteration on the board. Find the 60 objects in the book that begin with the letter “f”. Then list all the foods mentioned in the story (Barchers, 1991, p.146).
The study by Honig (2001) advocates the importance of associating the typed text with the speech heard by students. Larkin (2003) insists on the importance of reading words correctly; this method “… helps students to improve their reading comprehension, increase their vocabulary, and work cooperatively with peers” (p.156).
Assessment of the ESL learners enables the teachers to thrust them into mainstream curriculum school so that they became an integral part of the learning process paying no attention to their previous achievement and gaining knowledge in other subjects as well as mastering their language skills.
The skills gained by ESL learners are assessed by the teachers in order to identify whether they are ready to enter the mainstream of the curriculum with other students whose native language is English; assessment includes measurement of listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills and pronunciation (McKay, 2006).
At the same time, some learners may feel anxiety while being assessed and demonstrate poorer skills and knowledge than was previously seen in ordinary classes without introducing tests and assessment scales.
The task-based curriculum requires students to be capable of fulfilling various tasks that are claimed to become useful for future learning; topic-based curriculum is supposed to be limited to specific topics taught through various visual aids and instructions to facilitate understanding of the topic and build bridges between the native language and second language.
Literature-based approach in teaching-learning is isolated in terms of the definite number of literary sources in accordance to which the ESL students are expected to acquire knowledge about the environment and cultural peculiarities of the second language.
Competency-based syllabus is designed in a way that makes the ESL students gain knowledge and experience in the areas that are believed to be of primary importance; for instance, students are taught to identify letter-sound relations in order to pas the text on this activity later.
Context Analysis The effectiveness of every model that has been in operation should not be questioned because it appeared to be effective for the period in which it operated. At the same time, the model or design is updated as soon as it becomes inappropriate for the audience, other methodologies applied to it, and the results anticipated from its work.
In this respect, the effect of the communicative language teaching model has been analysed by Hinkel (2011b), “The communicative competence model proved highly successful in broadening the scope of classroom teaching and applied linguistics” (p. 348). In this case, this model is worth being used for design of a new English literature learning syllabus for ESL students in Taiwan.
Needs analysis can be fulfilled using the needs assessment tool introduced in the study by Nunan (1992, p. 248), can be seen in the Appendices section. According to this tool, students should be surveyed with the help of simple questions that concern their language skills and language difficulties experienced in their ordinary environment.
So, this survey enables the teacher to identify without any stressful tests how a student feels about his/her progress in English, communication in different levels, listening skills, and other areas that might require more attention in the process of teaching-learning.
Material and visual resources should contain word cards and pictures where all the objects and most situations in different topics are depicted. In this respect, a teacher would not need to write down the words on the blackboard every time. Besides, it would be interesting for children to draw pictures on different topics by themselves to put those up when the teacher asks them in English.
Visual perception of the text as well association of words with specific objects is very important. Preparation for every lesson will take a lot of time if a teacher is going to provide every; time limitation would not be a problem in case of clear organization of the lesson with comprehensive instructions.
The use of vocabulary and other tools to enrich the students’ understanding of the language structure and meaning and develop ESL students’ desire to learn the language further are the primary tasks of the course.
Course Rationale, Organisation, And Approach Aims of the course include a variety of assignments aimed at developing listening and reading skills, writing and speaking skills, and pronunciation.
Besides, comprehension of the read material should be an integral part of the expected results of the learning syllabus because lack of understanding contributes negatively to the further learning achievements and influences the entire concept of language learning as it includes many aspects. The course is designed for the ESL learners in Taiwan taking into account the primary school aged 8-12 years.
Instructional language with a prevailing number of infinitive constructions will be used to provide instructions in the classroom. The lexical range of verbs will be developed as the class progresses including adequate translations as soon as the verb is introduced for the first time and repetition of the verb accompanied by specific actions.
For instance, if a teacher tells “take your books”, he/she should do what he/she says to show pupils, repeat the same phrase in their native language and repeat it in English again. The assessment of achievement will be performed right after the class (using a 5-10 minute period to find out what pupils got to know). In addition, every class should start with a brainstorming activity to recollect what was said and learn at the previous class.
The learning-teaching context will concern an ordinary classroom that will be steadily filled in with words and pictures on the walls referring to the topics studied in the language acquisition, in literature, and grammar. This course strives to help students to gain more abilities for reading, writing and speaking.
The following areas will be components of the syllabus analysis and justification: description of entry level to course, description of intended exit level, description of assessment, course description, and course goals.
Description of entry level to course
The entry level to the course will include needs analysis using the model offered in the appendices section and evaluation of the gaps students may have in terms of the English language acquisition and use in everyday life and activities requiring the use of English language. At this stage, it is necessary to recognise that a student has or might have problems and he/she needs help in coping with those issues.
Dividing the class into groups should not be fulfilled in accordance with the language competence level but on the basis of the types of information perception. For instance, some students may read and remember the typed text better while others are better listeners and understand the speech on the TV and on the radio better than their classmates.
Description of intended exit level
The exit level for ESL students that are going to finish this course include achievement of the goals enumerated below.
Description of Assessment
The assessment of the preliminary stage was already discussed while assessment of each student’s achievement in terms of language acquisition concerns the tests and quizzes aimed at analysis of the speaking, reading, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.
The course includes information on topics to improve the ESL students’ speaking, writing, listing, reading, and pronunciation skills.
Course Goals Improve listing and comprehension skills
Develop students’ basic English communication abilities (speaking including formulation of their thoughts)
Raise students’ interest in learning English
Broaden students’ cross-culture awareness
The importance of grammar cannot be excluded from the learning syllabus. The study by Gordon (2007) contains analysis of different approaches used to teach grammar as a part of the language learning syllabus.
However, everything can be arranged in the following way: the first phase of teaching-learning should concern noun phrases (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, noun clauses, and infinitives) (Lester, 2008, pp. 3-119). The next phase of learning should enable ESL students to acquire verb phrases using basic forms of the verbs, special verbs, adverbs, and vary tenses of the verbs (Lester, 2008, pp. 119-273).
Finally, active and passive sentences including affirmative and interrogative statements should be introduced to the ESL students so that they could find the application of their knowledge on parts of speech in practice (Lester, 2008, pp. 273-334). In this respect, grammar can be arranged in the way that meets the topic of the speaking and reading parts of the syllabus.
The vocabulary should include the topics indicated in the appendices section in order to make the learning process more well-organized and structured for better understanding of the foreign culture by ESL students in Taiwan.
Speaking: The topics for speaking include the same as those for development of ESL students’ vocabulary because the topics should coincide in order to be effective in the learning syllabus. As such, the topics are the same as for vocabulary area:
Listening: The same as the speaking and vocabulary areas concerns the listening area because it is important to develop different skills using the topic-based approach.
Writing: This area of the learning syllabus should combine the grammar and vocabulary/speaking/listening topics in order to be effective. Nouns and pronouns should be introduced with the topic about ‘myself’ and family while the adjectives would be better used with such topics as weather and appearance.
Adverbs can be introduced together with the topic of directions and geography while differences between direct and indirect speech should be learnt in the framework of the discussion of literary sources.
Pronunciation: This area should include the same sources as for other areas such as speaking and vocabulary.
Writing Assignments 30%
Class Participation 20%
Anticipated Problems And Limitations Limitation of the course includes the number of teacher necessary to accomplish every lesson because the learning groups should consist of 8-10 students and no more. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the amount of materials necessary for every topic and importance of variety of assignments so that students were not bored.
Approach To Course Evaluation The assessment of the needs was already offered in the Appendices section while the evaluation of the outcomes should be performed after every class and after every topic using standard tests and evaluation sheets. For instance, Hedge (2000), uses 2 stages of textbook selecting process.
The syllabus is designed in the way suggested in this paper using specific topics for instruction and clear explanation of assignments for students. The further gaps of the syllabus can be identified in the process of operation and indicated by the teacher and survey aimed at analysing the students’ opinion and their satisfaction level.
Other limitations of the syllabus include the previous experience of the students in English language acquisition and their achievements. The course evaluation should comprise at least two approaches aimed at analysis of the achievements before and after the implementation of the new syllabus.
As such, it is possible to introduce a test based on multiple-choice questions for students of 8-12 age group so that a teacher could see their literacy level and divide them adequately into groups for teaching-learning a new syllabus.
The next step in the assessment should include evaluation of students’ achievements after being in the program for some time (at least two months); this means that evaluation should be performed in a stage-by-stage manner to understand the effectiveness of the syllabus and its influence on the learning process of ESL students in primary school in Taiwan.
Conclusion The reforms are always important for different sectors of human activity but education is one of the areas where reforms also can be either positive or negative. As a rule, the gaps in the methodologies and techniques are identified after their implementation into full operation. This also causes multiple problems and necessity for solving them.
As such, the importance of education was advocated in many studies while others think education to be a rudiment of the ancient ages when this was a method for achieving some goals.
At the same time, education remains the method of achieving one’s goals because it enables people to think differently, read books, and learn something new due to their skills. The age of learners can vary but the methodologies remain the same because of their proven effectiveness.
English is claimed to be an international language and every country attempts to introduce it as a foreign language into the system of education to develop the learners’ interest and desire to learn it in a more advanced level. Every syllabus should be designed in the way that facilitates understanding and learning of the material offered by the teacher.
Social, cultural and educational values may shift priorities but the desires remain the same and people often need formal education to go further up the career promotional ladder. In Taiwan, education has a strong basis for English language acquisition and instructions but they want to achieve more in giving their students the best practices and making them more experienced in English.
Reference List Barchers, S. (1991). Bridges to Reading: Grades K-3. Florida: Libraries Unlimited.
Brownlie, F., Feniak, C. and McCarthy, V., 2004. Instruction and assessment of ESL learners: promoting success in your classroom. 2nd ed. Winnipeg, MB: Portage
Migration and Development Essay essay help site:edu
Since time immemorial, people have always moved from their original or cradle land and found settlements in other places. This movement is caused by a number f reasons some of which are intentional while others are as a result of catastrophic occurrences.
This movement of people from one place to another is referred to as migration (Giddens, 1984). The aim of this discussion is to look at some of the impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around the immigrant and the community at large. In addition, this discussion will also focus on the link between migration and development.
There are quite a number of developmental issued that have emerged as a result of migration. This is because; most of the people who migrate are part of a workforce in a given society. This therefore means that their departure will leave a gap in the workforce of their society and will also add to the workforce of the so city where the immigrants will finally settle.
The United States of America for instance has continued to receive immigrants from many parts of the world with most of the immigrants to America coming from Mexico. This has created a relationship of dependency considering that America is a 1st world country while Mexico is still a developing country.
Many European countries have also seen immigrants from North America move into these countries permanently (Agunias, 2006).
During the boom period that was experienced in the 60s and 70s there were several agreements that were reached between the countries that were receiving labour and those that were providing labour. However, when this period came to an end, the needs of the countries that were receiving labour changed and this broke the ties between these countries.
Migration from various anthropological studies has been viewed in various angles some of which have been addressed in this discussion. Migration has been looked at from the angle of modernization. This is where anthropologists have argued that migration was used a tool of modernization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This meant that since people in third world countries would migrate to 1st word countries in search of labour, they would get to earn of the new ways of life and when they went back to their native countries the would take back the new practices.
At the same time, by the immigrants providing labour in the 1st wor1d countries they would contribute to development and this enhanced modernization. Thus, if an immigrant from North Africa moved to Europe both the native country and the country that the immigrant settles in stand to benefit as a result of the migration.
On the other hand, migration has been said to create dependency between the third world countries and the already developed countries. This is because, the immigrants who are from the periphery countries always depend on the core countries to provide them with labour opportunities so that they can migrate and set their base of work there.
The immigrants therefore do not consider how they can look for ways to develop their own countries and develop a sense of livelihood without having to migrate. Therefore, an immigrant from North Africa would prefer to migrate to a European country in search of labour opportunities instead of looking for labour opportunities in his or her own country.
Migration has also been considered in two main ways. There is migration from a peripheral or a third world country to first world country that is the most common (Kapur, 2003). There is also a new trend whereby people from third world countries are migration from the rural areas into the urban areas of their country in search of job opportunities.
While the latter is different from the former, the concept is still the same. This trend has brought about other issues of development (Kearney, 1986). While on one hand this issue encouraged development and urbanization, there is also slow growth in the rural areas as almost everybody has moved to the big cities and towns in search of work.
Impacts of Migration The impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around him or her like the family members and the community at large can be looked at from two perspectives. There are some impacts that are negative while others are positive.
We will write a custom Essay on Migration and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, when an immigrant moves from his native country to another country, the society from he come from is deprived of one of the most important pillars of development that is the labour force (Kuhn, 1962).
This means that even though the immigrants is likely to come back with new concepts that could enhance development, already the native country of the immigrant is likely to suffer as far as development is concerned due to lack of sufficient labour force. As a result, the local and regional economies are greatly undermined (Rodenburg, 1997).
This situation leads to a continued trend of dependence on the first world countries to provide labour opportunities. The end result is that since the native country is experiencing sluggish growth or the growth is almost ground to a halt for lack of enough labour, poverty crops in, and this encourages even greater migration as people sort of seek refuge in greener pastures (Hass, 2010).
Migration is also seen as creating inequality especially in third world countries (Sen, 1999). This is because the labour opportunities that are provided by the developed countries are such that not every person in the developing country can qualify to take them up. This means that for those who are not able to take up the opportunities. Their fate is sort of sealed.
Looking at it from this angle, then one clearly concedes that migration is not a tool for development especially for the counties from where the immigrants come from. Migration has not in any way helped the alleviation or reduction of poverty in the developing countries. If anything, it has helped increase poverty levels by high margins as the productivity of the community has gone low for lack of enough labour force.
There is yet another argument that has been developed regarding the role played by migration in development (Myrdal, 1957). It is argued that most of the immigrants together with their families do not have a proper investment strategy of the money they earn upon migration.
Instead, they spend their money on various consumer goods since most of the 1st world countries encourage consumerism. This therefore means that when the immigrants go back to their native countries, they have nothing to shoe for their work and this paralyses development (Glick et al, 1991).
Migration and development are intertwined but whether migration has aided development remains a subject of debate and the controversy surrounding the subject does not seem to go away any time soon.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Migration and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Agunias, D. (2006) Remittances and Development: Trends, Impacts, and Policy Options. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Glick, Szanton et al. (1991) Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
Hass, H. (2010) Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. Oxford: University of Oxford.
Kapur, D. (2003) Remittances: The New Development Mantra? Paper prepared for the G-24 Technical Group Meeting, September. 15–16. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
Kearney, A. (1986) From the invisible hand to visible feet: Anthropological Studies of Migration and Development. California: University of California.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Myrdal, G. (1957) Rich Lands and Poor. New York: Harper and Row.
Rodenburg, J. (1997) In the Shadow of Migration: Rural Women and their Households in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
The relationship between effective feedback and customer satisfaction Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive Summary The following paper is a thought experiment, a work in progress that is unfolding as I observe today’s dynamic industries struggle to exploit multiple avenues to respond to customer complains. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of feedback system as one of the mechanism that supports functional element of organizational climate.
The study methodology uses a trail group consisting of 35 members from the United States, Philadelphia region dispersed across a variety of demographic location and environments to determine how companies A, B and C quickly respond to their complains.
The trial attempted to measure how fast companies A,B, C effectiveness responded to customers’ complains in relation to their defective devices in service industry perspective, and to evaluate the collective processes and outcomes.
To effectively measure feedback system performance and satisfaction, the study uses variables that included technical-customer support, action orientation, phone-based technical support and information exchange. Changes in subject cognition were assessed using a series of conceptual model to measure reliability of the results obtained.
Results of this study did however demonstrate that companies that engaged in feedback system and actively involved in strategic activities that requires introduction of innovative products and outreach program that mitigate customer problems before they occur reported high returns.
Our conclusive results reveal that all the variables that related to feedback system positively linked to customer satisfaction. This study provides evidence of a relationship between effective feedback system in relation to solving customers’ complains and customer satisfaction.
Introduction Feedback system remains to be the most significant factor of organisational climate in resolving customer complains. For example, majority of computer companies in the United States continued to expand their products through implementation of effective and up to date feedback system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since many companies are thriving to survive through the competitive markets, many new and efficient products are such as iPod, Mac, iPhone are being introduced to the markets everyday. These products are reported to be widely successful due to the organisations’ communication system. This requires the organisation to implement effective feedback system with eminent good customer support that quickly responds to customers complains (Kaplan, 2006).
The three companies assessment results present us an investigative framework to examine extend to which service firm utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism. The essay further explores the effectiveness of feedback system using a questionnaire methodology to find out the relationship between overall feedback and customer satisfaction in computer companies in the United States (Fred, 2001): Fox, 2004).
Literature Review Feedback system
Lately, the three companies have been using feedback system for paying out customers with defective machines. For example, one of the Company’s products “iMac” was widely reported for to be giving clients problems and the company responded by giving 15% refund bonuses to all faulty 27 inch iMac in the UK and was also reported to extend $300 apologies to all its aggrieved customers in the US.
In resolving the issue, the company responded quickly by offering free repairs to all the affected machines and launched a support page where it described how minor problems could be resolved and the resulting warranty extension for each affected machine. The company also reimbursed customers who used their own money to repair the faulty machines and advised them take their drives to official company repair channels (Moore
SimVenture Essay scholarship essay help
SimVenture is a medium sized company started in the month of January and thus has been in existence for the last several months. The business has been set up on a strong base of research and a fully understand the market as well as the product. This report explains the performance analysis for the few months of operation.
A comprehensive view if the business performance indicates a healthy business plan which has already helped break-even and offer a good return. In the month of January 2010, the profit and loss account could not be accurately prepared due to incompleteness of the records available. What is noticeable though is the fact that there was substantial expenditure in activities of research and development.
Most of the activities in the month involved setting up the business. However, estimates show that the company made a gross profit of about £61 from the one order which was delivered during the month. The net loss amounted to -£329.
It should be noted that under the expenses, the portion of research was the largest registering £300 of the £390. This is indicative of the solid basis on which the company is found. At this time, the product could only be priced at £460 due to limitations in quality, features, performance and style.
In February, 2010, the company made impressive sales revenue of £1380. The gross profit rose to £114 from the £61 registered in January. However, this time round, focus was on sales and marketing. Of the total expense totaling to £1590, £1500 was used to finance an aggressive marketing campaign geared towards familiarizing the products to the customers.
We were able to accurately identify our target market as well as fully understanding their needs. This was aimed ensuring that we focus all our energies on producing products which meet the needs of our target customers. Appropriate product designs were developed to suite the customer requirements.
A small IT business market was identified as the target market. Still many activities were part of the business set up. As a result, the company recorded losses amounting to £1,476. Notably, the products were now priced at £495 up from £465 due to improvements in product design.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the month of March, the situation changed. We were able to make a profit of £177. This was as a result of an increase in sales as well as a reduction in costs. The turnover may have dropped to £990 but the gross profit rose to £267. Notably, overheads drastically reduced to £90. This was mainly as a result of the pay-offs from the marketing campaigns held in the previous month.
Again in a bid to improve efficiency, the company changed its supplier and engaged a cheaper source of materials for production. The company also increased its efficiency from 63% in February to 74%.
The number of features available in the Company products was also increased with the aim of appealing to an even wider customer based. By this time the quality of the product had significantly risen to warrant a higher price of £550. This significantly improved the gross profits.
In April, turnover rose to £1100. The marketing strategies were responding even better. Gross profits were a whooping £378. However, the company saw it fit to obtain feedback from the customers. The intention here was to establish possible areas of improvement. This necessitated significant expenditure in research a situation which resulted in a loss of £12.
Expenditure on research alone stood at £300. Therefore excluding the research element of the expenses, the company’s profits would have risen even higher than the previous month. Notably, efficiency level rose to 77% indicating the company’s commitment to improving efficiency both internally and externally.
The Month of May saw a drop in both the gross and net profits. The company produced too many products for the market which saw a rise in costs. This was done together with an aggressive sales and marketing campaign which accounted for about 90% of the expenses. Efficiency in this month fell to 74% mainly due to excess production. However, the order book showed significant growth as a result of the marketing campaign.
In June, the situation improved drastically. Net profit rose to £449. The situation was a show of the effectiveness of our marketing tools. Again, the number of orders remained high. Efficiency remained at 74%. Sales levels rose to £1650 and the number of orders kept rising.
We will write a custom Essay on SimVenture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In July, efficiency rose to 80% while gross profits rose to £1433 leading to a net profit of £543. From this point on, the company has managed to maintain profitability and consistently increase the level of efficiency. August saw a gross profit of £1577 which was the highest figure recorded. The company continued to record improved activities in production and even engaged in house research and marketing.
September saw a rise in the price of the product after improvement in product design and in consideration of market trends. The new price was set at £576. This made net profits rise to £1430. We managed to move to an even bigger premise.
Wages were also hiked as profits started streaming in to motivate the employees hence improves on productivity. However it is notable that as the production keeps increasing, the company continues to accumulate debts. Again, the company continues to get more orders hence requiring even higher production.
The entire first year of operation has proved profitable for the company. The overall profits add up to £5,401. 41. This is definitely a positive start which gives a very strong foundation to the company. The strength comes from the fact that the company has significantly engaged in research as well as marketing activities which have enabled it to not only learn valuable information about the market and the products but also grow the market significantly.
The following is a graphical representation of the trend in profits
Graph showing trend in profits
The fact that the last few months have seen consistent profitability tells strongly about the future of the company. It is thus prudent to inject further capital with the aim of achieving three main objectives. First is the need to maintain debts from creditors at manageable levels so as to win them over.
Secondly, there is an urgent need to increase the production so as to effectively cater for the increasing demand for the company’s products. This puts extra demand on the need to boost working capital. Finally, despite the expansions, there is the need to acquire even bigger space which will ensure higher production in the future.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SimVenture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the balance sheet, the company has accumulated a large portfolio of current assets and more importantly no long-term liabilities. This means that the company is lowly geared meaning that the company is strong meaning that risk of lending to us is significantly low.
The future presents great opportunities for the company. The market uptake of the company’s products is high as witnessed by the rapid rise in revenues across the short period of operation. Market research shows that the target market is still very lowly penetrated. This is got from the market surveys conducted during the in the last few months.
The penetration rate stands at a paltry 15% in within the locality of the company. Again new businesses are being set up a factor which is rapidly increasing the demand levels for the company’s products. There is also the need to invest in even better and more effective technologies which are likely to attract the clients even better.
The objectives of the company go beyond the region. The intention to go regional is very viable. There is the need to aggressively expand in the region where the company is based. This will give us an edge over the competitors and guarantee a much better and bigger growth for the company. Achieving these objectives will require us to raise funds but which will considerably present very low risk.
In the upcoming year we expect to expand our operations consistently to at least four times the current level of operation. This means that the balance sheet should go up by four times.
In February, we intend to scale up on production so as to generate total revenue of £11000. This will ensure that the gross profit rises to £3500 and that net profits rise to £2200. This trend is expected to continue for the next three months.
After this, we expect to relocate to an even bigger spacious building which under the current market prices should cost double the current rent. This amounts to about £376 monthly. This extra space should help us scale up production to at least five times in the next two years.
This being the case, the net profit for March is projected to be about £2600. This is after a rise in gross profits to about £3800. April net profits are projected to be about £2900. In May this is expected to fall due to the expansions expected to be undertaken then. The profitability stream is expected to follow at a much bigger scale.
Projections for profits expected for the next three years are as follows
To fund these expansions, we require a loan of at least £15000. £6000 is expected to be used to boost the working capital so as to make operations more efficient while the remainder will be used to improve technology as well as build on machinery and equipment after relocating to an even bigger space. A repayment installment of about £1,000 per month will be favorable for the company.
By the end of the year, the balance sheet extract should have changed to the following estimates:
Fixed Assets £9550
Current Assets £26000
Long term Liabilities £15000
I find that the above projections are fairly accurate and hence warrant the company a profitable future. This means that our engagement will be of mutual benefit.
Reflective report SimVenture offered a unique opportunity to interact and cooperate with a team with the aim of achieving the best results. Working as a team was a great experience due to a number of reasons. First, it offered me the opportunity to learn different application of different ideas in business practice.
Each member would come up with unique but informed interpretation of the situation facing the company a situation which would help me view the same issue from many different angles and thus develop the best way forward given the circumstances. Secondly, I was able to improve my skills in teamwork and cooperation towards achieving a common goal.
There were some difficulties especially in developing a common way forward on issues where the views of the members were too divergent. I think this was driven b the different personalities in the team. Some are gambles while others are conservatives. While the gamblers were less risk averse, conservatism made other team members reject rapid expansions.
Again, it was difficult to convince all the team members on the right amounts of money to apply in different situations. As can be seen from the report, there were several instances when an amount of money would be set aside for research or for marketing. Setting these amounts was a challenge.
We needed to undertake lengthy negotiations within the team before engaging third parties who would agree or disagree with our resolutions hence requiring us to go back and discuss again. In the month of April, many team members thought that it was too soon to obtain meaningful feedback from customers.
They wanted the research on customer’s feelings about the company’s products to be conducted much later in the year after the product had been widely tested. However, another group argued that getting feedback early would ensure prompt response to customer’s requirements hence a better future for the company. This issue brought in a lengthy but constructive debate and at the end the group proposing the obtaining early feedback succeeded in convincing the other.
Planning ahead was always a priority for my team. Before starting off in January, we developed a complete plan for implementation within the next six months. The plan included some set targets which were to be achieved within certain time frames. This greatly guided our decisions subsequently.
It is however true that in some situations we had to deviate from the set plans. The plans gave a clear indication of where focus would be during any period. In the early months, market surveys and marketing activities were prioritized in the plans. In later months the need for marketing was the focus.
The team constantly made trade-offs in a bid to achieve certain goals. In January, the decision to engage in research was a trade-off for profits. If the research was not done the company would have incurred a loss of a paltry £61. However, the research was in the long term interest of the firm. Again in February, we incurred a loss of -£1476 after spending £1500 in sales and marketing.
This trade-offs continued in the following months. They were informed by the need to achieve long-term sustainability of the business as opposed to short term goals. It is clear that activities such as marketing always paid off in the subsequent periods and also ensured that our products were able to penetrate the markets even better by creating awareness.
The commitment needed to run a small business is enormous. SimVenture may be a small business entity but it demands full attention from all the team members in a bid to ensure that correct decisions are made and implemented. As team members we had subdivided ourselves in groups of two and would alternate the running of the business on a weekly basis.
However, it required that all the members be present at least twice a week either to make important decisions or to assist in the implementation of the agreed ideas and strategies. An eight hour day is simply not enough to ensure things run smoothly. A great deal of personal sacrifice is required.
The exercise has helped me better understand the intrigues of running a small business. The first and most important lesson is that one should develop a plan way before starting off the business. This is very instrumental in guiding the subsequent decisions in a bid to build a strong business entity. Secondly, the plan should contain fairly accurate cash flows.
These helps establish the financial requirements of the business ahead of time. Such projections ensure that the business does not encounter problems of liquidity which are likely to hamper progress. Again, it is very important to give priority to long term growth as opposed to short term gains as this boosts the ability of the business to ensure continuity as well as growth.
Finally, I have learnt that achieving a successful business entails a great deal of personal sacrifices and commitment towards the implementation of decisions aimed at achieving set targets.
The experiences gained here are arguably the best teaching in business management.