Table of Contents Introduction
Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill
Introduction The feminist movement since its earliest times has been marked with varying perspectives, positions and arguments. Nevertheless, these variations should be understandable, especially when interpreted within the contexts (both in time and space) that inspired them. Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stewart Mill represent different times in the evolution of women’s rights movement.
Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill Wollstonecraft and Mill share a common task, namely, the advocacy for more rights for women. That advocacy begins in admitting that women are treated differently from men. Still, as their essays show, there are differences in their advocacies that reflect certain contextual differences of their times.
In A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Wollstonecraft makes her argument based on the issues of morals and virtue. For her, one is considered moral and virtuous if they perform their tasks properly.
However, this devotion to tasks can only occur if all people (men and women) are equal, which is attained through education. She writes: “There must be more equality established in society, or morality will never gain ground, and this virtuous equality will not rest firmly… if one half of mankind [is] chained to its bottom by fate” (Wollstonecraft 802).
If, for instance, a woman paid more attention to what men think of her looks, then she is failing in her moral obligation because she is distracted from her role, herself. She argues that each and every woman should acquire proper education as the only way to gain respect, as well as the freedom to choose the level of her independence.
Wollstonecraft’s view of education for women is different from what Rousseau sees it to be (as women’s attempt to rise above men). For her, the purpose of education is not to give women power over men, but over themselves. Women attain freedom when they start to view themselves from the point of view of the self, and not the other (represented by men, in this case).
She writes: “It is vain to expect virtue from women till they are, in some degree, independent of men; nay, it is vain to expect that strength of natural affection, which would make them good wives and good mothers” (Wollstonecraft 804). A woman who is not educated views herself from the perspective of men. As a result, being conscious of that masculine perspective, she becomes “cunning, mean, and selfish” (805)- either in rebellion against or adoration for that view.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unmistakably, Wollstonecraft’s arguments adopt a conservative perspective. To her, the ultimate purpose of education for women is not for them to rise above their domestic plight. Rather, education would make them better equipped to be wives and bear children not for employment, voting rights, and property ownership, among others. Education would make women even better moral figures.
Thus, by simply getting education, regardless of whether they remain in the same position as they previously were in, women are freed. We can, therefore, infer that Wollstonecraft, in her advocacy, still believes that the domestic setting is the woman’s place.
Her goal is not to break away from that domestic cycle, but- perhaps to give it better status and name and, consequently, uplift the status of women. To Wollstonecraft, the differences between men and women, as well as their places in society, are both important and should be recognized as such. As long as women get that recognition, for Wollstonecraft, they have attained equality.
John Stuart Mill’s arguments, of course, stem from the foundation first laid by the likes of Wollstonecraft. It is only expected that both Wollstonecraft and Mill share the basic task of advocating for more rights for women. However, the scopes of their advocacies are different. Mill, unlike Wollstonecraft, aims to give women the right to enter into fields hitherto known to belong to men.
Mill examines the subordination of women from the legal dimension, that is, how the legal system (including the constitution) helps this subordination. But that legal system, he argues, is only the result of a social principle that “regulates the existing social relations between the two sexes” (Mill 819). In other words, there is an inherent element of society that makes the subordination of women natural and, therefore, generally accepted. This, he says, hinders human improvement.
The purpose of his essay is to act as a mouthpiece for what he terms as “perfect equality” (Mill 819); a balance of power in which no side is given power over the other. By ‘perfect equality’, Mill means that women should have equal rights as men in all facets of life, such as occupation, government and marriage.
Mill, therefore, introduces the aspect of societal structure (of which the legal system is part). He presents his arguments by examining the role of nature and nurture. He questions the notion of ‘nature’ as used in the society to justify the plight of women. To him, what is seen as women’s nature is actually what the society has nurtured them to be.
We will write a custom Essay on The Ideas of Women Status between Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society has never given women much room and freedom to explore what their nature really is. Rather, by placing and governing women within the framework of the dominant patriarchal psyche, society has nurtured the woman into what she is. Simply, the differences between men and women are the products of the society rather than the result of nature. The solution, to him, is found in opening space for women to explore further the limits of their nature.
As a proof of how much women can achieve he says: “We know how small a number of reigning queens history presents, in comparison with that of kings. Of this smaller number a far larger proportion have shown talents for rule” (Mill 823).
The differences in scope between the positions held by Wollstonecraft and Mill are products of context and, therefore, understandable. Besides, as the feminist movement has evolved over the years, the voices of advocacy have increasingly pushed for more rights.
Therefore, it is understandable that Wollstonecraft’s arguments are more conservative in character that education for the housewife is enough for her. She is the product of a context that, perhaps, cannot permit more, and she has to stay within that context’s possibilities. Mill understands this.
He is himself the product of a context that is beginning to open up to more new ideas. Therefore, education as such is not enough for him. To herald a new mindset with regard to social gender relations, Mills believes society must reach out to new horizons. In this respect, the establishments of the society, such as the legal system, should not interfere with the natural social set-up by taking sides.
Conclusion In conclusion, this paper does not exhaust the issues that both authors explore in their papers. Still, it explores the central themes in the two articles. Wollstonecraft sees education as enough. Mill asks for much more. In the end, they both recognize the adverse plight of the womenfolk and call for their ‘freedom’- any situation better than the present.
Works Cited Mill, John S. The Subjection of Women, New York: D. Appleton Co., 1869. Print.
Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, London: Joseph Johnson, 1792. Print.
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Analysis of Jackson Pollack’s Phosphorescence Essay essay help
Jackson Pollock’s painting is distinguished all over the world because it explores a certain type of automatic, mechanical technique that pleases surrealists at irregular intervals. The paint is used a device rather than end because of its ability to produce the desired design. Evaluation of the paint shows that the painter loaded weighted strings, which reconstructs a solid network on the work of art.
The silvery paint that shines out of the dense egg-shaped tracery implies a gorgeous astronomical product. The works of Pollock shows an advanced skill in the field of modern paining. This is due to the advanced stage of disintegration. Disintegration is made possible through liberation and cathartic effect. Disintegration is clued-up by a highly individualized cadence. The painting has a main intention of assaulting the image-making sense.
At each point of attentiveness of these high-tension instances of bravura phraseology, which visually are similar to nervous spirals of snide wire, there is an unsatisfactory deficiency of resolution in a picture or graphic event for all their supernatural dispersal of power. It is even exciting to realize that the personal canvases in the paint presume a completely image-making action and singleness of the characteristic (Karmel 47).
Particularly, Pollock brought out the illogical excellence in picture making to one edge. It is a type of expression and a hazard for imitators in such a straight objective expression of states of being as compared to thoughts and meaning. Even in his scenario, the painting is not conceivably sustained by a uniting or main subject or practice and is too wasteful with bunches of surrealist perceptions.
What does come out is the large scale of Pollock’s processes, his extremely individualized cadence, and in conclusion something like an unadulterated calligraphic symbol for a devastating belligerent virility. There are textural revelations in Jackson Pollock’s newest sailcloth team. If they are not sailcloth, there is nothing the uneven picture that looks like the dark and light tinted sails in the Bay of Biscay or the Riviera. The Riviera contains incredible and oft-repeated twisting lines indecipherable across them as if raged by winds of the sea.
The best ever panel in Pollock’s illustration at the Parsons Gallery is an energetic prototype of forceful black and white with noticeable strokes of yellow, blue, and an infrequent red. The majority of Jackson Pollock’s works of art at the Betty Gallery look like nothing so much as a cleanup of knotted hair. One or two of them seem to be ordered and remarkable.
Comparison with Modernist Ideals Modernist ideals refer to the modern view points in the field of painting. It refers to the modern practices employed by painters, which are more appealing and attractive as compared to the previous forms of paintings. In broader sense, modernism refers to a revolution that subscribes to the reasoning of modern painters as opposed to old, rigid practices that never appreciated inventions and innovations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Modernism emerged after the 19th century meaning that the field of painting was responding to the new changes brought about by industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. The rapid growth of cities could not allow painters to continue using the old systems and practices but instead they had to employ new forms of paintings.
Clement Greenberg is considered the advocate of modernist ideals because he always criticized the views of conservative painters. His reasoning supports the works of Jackson Pollack on Phosphorescence. First, the reasoning of Pollock and Greenberg are similar in the sense that they both reject realism in the field of painting.
They do not subscribe to the views of realists but instead they utilize the findings of earlier painters to design the paintings that withstand the taste of time. In this regard, they employ the works of the past by applying reprise, incorporating old ideas into the new findings, rewriting the works of previous scholars, recapitulation, revising the previous findings, altering the previous painting techniques to suit the demands of the modern customer (Hopkins 12).
It should be understood the Greenberg and Pollock do not subscribe to the ideas of realists because of their claims that the works of art, particularly painting, do not change. They both have a standpoint suggesting that change is inevitable in every field of study or profession.
Greenberg noted that Emmanuel Kant was the first modernist because he went against the views of traditional philosophers by suggesting that theories must be falsified for them to be accepted as real theories. In the same way, Greenberg suggested that paint should be able to accomplish its intended purpose for it to be accepted.
The two were optimistic other forms of production would one day overtake that modern since change would never be prevented in any human society. In this regard, other forms of paintings that would suit the demands of society at the time would replace modernist ideals. Pollock suggested that it was the role of other artistic scholars to develop his ideas in order to come up with the most appealing paints.
Works Cited Hopkins, David. After Modern Art 1945-2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Jackson Pollack’s Phosphorescence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Karmel, Pepe. Jackson Pollock – Interviews, Articles, and Reviews: [publ. in Conjunction with the Exhibition “jackson Pollock” … the Museum of Modern Art, New York, November 1, 1998 to February 2, 1999]. New York: Abrams, 1999. Print.
Natural Resources: Diamonds Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Botswana is a country found in Southern Africa that is ranked among the highest diamond producers in the world. The tremendous growth in Botswana’s economy over the last three decades is attributed to its valuable diamonds. There are very few countries that produce diamond and this therefore makes diamond to be among the most valuable minerals in the world.
This paper will explore the socio-economic and environmental impacts of diamond mining in Botswana. The price of diamond at the international market is fairly good compared to other minerals. The economy of Botswana is among the best in Africa because the country has large deposits of valuable diamonds.
Botswana discovered diamonds for the first time in the late 1960s. At independence, a larger percentage of Botswana’s population was languishing in poverty because the country had not discovered its vast mineral resources (Collier 37). The three main diamond mines in Botswana include Letlhakane, Jwaneng and Orapa.
The production of diamonds from the three mines made Botswana to be among the leading diamond producers in the world by 1980 (Collier 56). Botswana has the best brand of diamonds due to their high value compared to those from other countries. The Damtshaa mine which was established in 2002 is the most recent mine in Botswana. Botswana is blessed with large quantities of diamond that is yet to be fully exploited (Collier 113). It is estimated that Botswana produces 25% of all the diamond in the global market.
Botswana has an estimated total population of 2.1 million people with an average population growth rate of 1.656% (Dale 75). The adult population in Botswana is estimated to be 39% of the total population.
Botswana is estimated to be 581,730 km2 with 75% of its land surface covered by the Kalahari Desert (Dale 76). The country has a high mortality rate as a result of the AIDS pandemic that is very prevalent. The urban population is estimated to be 60% of the country’s total population. Botswana has a life expectancy of 60.3 years (Collier 87).
The majority of workers who work in diamond mines are local people with a considerable number of foreign expatriates (Collier 94). The major mining companies have a joint ownership between the government and foreign companies. Almost half a million local people earn their living either directly or indirectly from the four major mines in Botswana. The AIDS pandemic is very prevalent in mining towns as a result of the carefree lifestyles in the towns.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many sex workers move to mining towns in order to exploit money from the miners who are well paid (Collier 94). The mining companies in collaboration with the Botswana government have put in place HIV/AIDS prevention programs especially for the mine workers. The people in rural areas practice some subsistence farming and at the same time receive financial support from their relatives in mining towns (Mcntyre 132).
Diamond mining has brought significant economic benefits to the local communities in Botswana (Mcntyre 132). The mining industry has benefited the entire country because the majority of government functions and programs are funded using proceeds from diamond exports. Other industries such as agriculture and tourism rely on the mining industry for funding (Dale 66).
The education and health sectors have significantly been improved through the building of new schools and hospitals that benefit the local community. Botswana has moved from being among the poorest countries in the world at independence to a middle income economy after the discovery of diamonds (Dale 66). The local communities have benefited greatly from the diamond mines through the improvement of infrastructure and the numerous job opportunities found in the mines.
Mining companies in Botswana work under strict international environmental conservation guidelines to ensure environmental sustainability. The companies conduct frequent monitoring of water; air and land as a way of preserving the natural surrounding and at the same time minimize the potential environmental risks (Dale 114). Mining companies have played a significant role in the conservation of flora and fauna to promote the tourism industry.
The mining companies distribute free antiretroviral drugs to minimize the number of employee deaths resulting from HIV (Collier 147). The price of rough and refined diamond has been fluctuating in the last four years depending on market dynamics. Botswana mines an average of 23 million carats of rough diamond annually with an average price of $ 170.36 per carat (Mcntyre 74). Diamond prices are slightly high in the United States with an average price of rough diamond being sold at $ 236.30 per carat (Mcntyre 75).
In conclusion, diamond mining is a major economic activity in Botswana that has been instrumental in improving the country’s economy. The mine workers are well remunerated on top of being provided with good working conditions. Safety measures are a priority in all the mines in Botswana and this has reduced the number of accidents that occur in the mines (Collier 156). Australia and the United States record more mine accidents compared to Botswana.
The Government of Botswana in partnership with mining companies offers special services and outreach programs for mine workers with medical conditions. The special initiatives have greatly benefited those workers who are infected or affected by the HIV pandemic (Collier 157). Local production of diamond products should be encouraged to create more jobs for the local people. Despite facing its fair share of challenges, Botswana’s mining industry is a perfect model for other countries to emulate.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Natural Resources: Diamonds specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Collier, Paul. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy, New York: World Bank Publications, 2003. Print.
Dale, Richard. Botswana’s Search for Autonomy in Southern Africa, New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005. Print.
Mcntyre, Chris. Bradt Botswana: Okavango Delta, Chobe, Northern Kalahari, New York: Bradt Travel Guides, 2010. Print.
Philosophies of Community Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents John Locke’s “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”
Booker T. Washington’s “Atlanta Exposition Address”
John Locke’s “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” This essay was one of the pioneering educational works that promoted the empirical method of understanding, also known as empiricism. Completed and published in 1689, the essay was revolutionary since it was in direct opposition to the traditional understanding of knowledge at the time. It was directly opposed to the view that ideas were innate rather than experientially acquired (Locke, 1689).
John Locke’s work in this essay was therefore both a product and a reflection of the Enlightenment period in which he lived. This is the age where rationalism and empiricism prevailed over and in opposition to religious traditions and claims about innate or divinely revealed knowledge (Lowe, 1995). Though John Locke tried to refute Rene Descartes ideas of innate rationalism in Book 1 of this essay, the idea outlived him and continued to prevail even to the present day.
The educational values shaped by this historical idea include the popularization of the scientific method. This essay was also an important foundational work for empiricists who came afterwards, such as David Hume.
Even though John Locke was a Christian and deeply religious, the historical ideas that he taught and suggested, brought into question numerous religious claims. Empiricism became the primary means of acquiring knowledge, and this would continue into the modernism period. The ideas expressed in Locke’ essay continue to influence and undergird much of scientific inquiry being carried out today.
The empirical method is still central to both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. In the realm of modern philosophy, the empirical method has been integrated with pragmatism. This means that the insights gleaned from empirical knowledge are combined with rational thinking to come up with a substantive claim of truth or understanding of any phenomena.
Booker T. Washington’s “Atlanta Exposition Address” This address was written and delivered in the year 1895, by Booker T. Washington. The historical context at the time was a period when slavery had just been abolished. However, many African Americans could not enter into the American economy and compete fairly with white traders. This is because the African Americans at the time did not have the necessary educational training to handle both the financial and legal knowledge required in many professions (Washington, 2013).
Furthermore, many Southern white farmers at the time depended greatly upon immigrant labor to work on their farms and industries. The population of immigrants was much lower than that of African Americans who were already living in the South. Therefore, Booker T. Washington saw this as an opportunity to strike a deal that will benefit both the whites and the blacks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The compromise, though not regarded as such by Booker T. Washington and his supporters, was that the whites would ensure that African Americans got basic education and due process in law. In return, the African Americans would provide the much needed labor upon white farms and industries. At the time, the Southern economy was performing more poorly than that of the North, especially in areas of commerce and industrial development.
While the address was an acceptable compromise at the time, much has changed today. At the time, only the whites owned and ran industries, and they were the sole employers. However, today, the African Americans not only receive similar education as the whites, they also possess equal legal rights. The address is therefore regarded only as an initial step towards the equality and economic synergism that could only be successfully attained after the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
References Lowe, E.J. (1995). Locke on human understanding. London, UK: Routledge.
Locke, J. (1689). An essay concerning human understanding, 38th Ed. London, UK: William Tegg
Washington, B. T. (2013). Up from slavery. Lexington, MA: Tribeca Books.
The Play “Hamlet Prince of Denmark” by W.Shakespeare Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Irrespective of social class, religious inclination, size of accumulated wealth, epoch inclination, and beauty, death kisses people equality every time it knocks on the door of its victim! The play Hamlet is tragic. Hamlet, an affluent prince, is moved by the death of his father.
However, opposite to his expectation, his mother seems unmoved by the unfortunate demise. One of the longest plays written by Shakespeare, the play Hamlet Prince of Denmark is characterized as a tragedy. Thus, the key concept of this reflective treatise is to ascertain the reasons why Hamlet treats Ophelia with contempt. In addition, this view is related to the events in “Hamlet Prince of Denmark”.
Analysis The key antagonists and protagonists demise eventually in the play “Hamlet Prince of Denmark”. Interestingly, death is presented as a redeemer of what each character stands for (Hamlet: Plot Summary 2).
Hamlet, a Denmark Prince, is the main character in the play. He is the only son to the dead King Hamlet and Queen Gertrude. Claudius is the present King and his uncle that becomes a new husband to his mother. In the climax of the play, Claudius appears to be responsible for the death of King Hamlet. It turns out that he murdered his brother to marry Gertrude.
The main theme in this play is death. Particularly, the death of King Hamlet forms the focal story line. Driven by anger, Prince Hamlet assassinates the innocent man behind the curtain because he has been confused by Claudius. In an interesting turn of events, the victim of his anger is the father of Ophelia, Polonius. Ophelia cannot live with the pain of losing his father and soon commit suicide.
In a nasty twist, Ophelia’s brother, Laertes actualizes his vow of avenging on the murder of his father and sister by stabbing Prince Hamlet with a poisoned arrow. Unfortunately, he is also wounded and dies (Analysis of Characters in Hamlet 4). Thus, though Hamlet loves Ophelia, the bitterness in his heart cannot let him offer full love and gratitude to Ophelia (Deception in Hamlet 9). Hamlet tells Ophelia, “It would cost you a groaning to take off my edge” (Bosak 75).
Death is an obsession in the life of Prince Hamlet. Ironically, Hamlet is painted as a weakling with a mental disorder. Severally, the play points at Hamlet as vacillating person who appears confused as the play opens. Besides, Hamlet is a distrustful and bitter loner who has a bitter hatred towards Claudius.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, his hatred becomes more as his mother rushes into a marriage with Claudius, and this makes Hamlet wonder whethr she was loyalty was devoted to Hamlet’s father or she was also involved in the murder (Introduction to Hamlet 6). This makes Hamlet strode alone as he ponders his next move, and a ghost appear to him informing him of the unfortunate events leading to the death of his father. These events make Hamlet a bitter person who cannot differentiate love and selfishness.
More about Hamlet When Polonius says, “brevity is the soul of wit,” why is it ironic? 5 351 What best describes how Laertes feels about his father’s death? 5 201 Which Statement Best Describes Laertes’s Development Between Act 1 and Act 4? 5 86 Why is Reynaldo obligated to follow Polonius’s instructions? 5 58 Which Statement Best Describes Gertrude’s Development Between Act 1 and Act 4? 5 56 In act 1, scene 1, which character does Shakespeare use most to create suspense? 5 109 He does not care about Ophelia because he despises women in general, especially after Hamlet discovers about the affair between his mother and Claudius. His hatred overwhelmes his mind, he assumes Ophelia is like any other woman. Hamlet tells Ophelia, “O God, your only jig-maker. What should a man dobut be merry? For, look you, how cheerfully mymother looks, and my father died within these two hours” (Shakespeare 71).
Hamlet is not sure as to whether he should take revenge on his mother too or not, as advised by the ghost. Specifically, in scene 1 (58), his indecisiveness is apparent in “To be or not to be” (Shakespeare 58). Apparently, he is angry with his mother for rushing into another marriage. In this context, what truly hurt Hamlet is the reality that the person who killed his father is not a stranger but an affiliate of their family, his uncle, a brother to his father.
he motives of the murder could be different, but one of them, for sure, is craving for power and envy. Hamlet undergoes emotional pain because of the tragedy occurred in his family, which makes his unable to control himself and his feelings. He passes this pain to the innocent Ophelia. Hamlet lives in fear for his life as he does not know whether his uncle has the same plans for him since he has inherited his father’s throne, and this places Hamlet at a tight spot.
Probably, Hamlet treats Ophelia with contempt due to fear of her being used by Claudius in order to kill him. Hamlet’s mother seems to have been blinded by all these sentiments and resort to stand firm by his decision regarding the murderous Claudius. Hamlet follows the advice of the ghost and avenges for the death of his father. In the process, antagonists and protagonists die.
Conclusion Conclusively, Hamlet’s bitterness and lust for revenge make him treat his lover with suspicion; consequently, such behavior and atitude toward Ophelia lead to her death. Ophelia becomes part of the collateral damage in this revenge saga.
Works Cited Analysis of Characters in Hamlet 2010. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on The Play “Hamlet Prince of Denmark” by W.Shakespeare specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bosak, Joe 2002, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. PDF file. Web.
Deception in Hamlet 2010. Web.
Hamlet: Plot Summary 2008. Web.
Introduction to Hamlet 2010. Web.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. David Bevington and David Scott Kastan. New York: Bantam, 2005. Print.
Chocolate’s Positive and Negative Effects Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction In the past two decades, chocolate has been considered a “junk food” due to the way in which its consumption has significantly contributed to the obesity epidemic within the U.S. at the present.
Nearly 33% of adults within the U.S. are obese which represents a 60% increase over a 20 year period with the rate for child obesity not far behind at nearly triple what it was 30 years ago. Most of these cases have been attributed to the consumption of large amounts of junk food with chocolate being ranked among the most popular types to be eaten.
However, it must be questioned whether chocolate truly deserves to be ranked as a junk food. The fact remains that numerous studies such as those by Howe (2012) have expressed that the consumption of chocolate is in fact beneficial and can aid in enabling a person to attain a healthier body. On the other hand, there are studies such as those by Hughes (2012) which state that it is the excess consumption of chocolate that has contributed significantly to obesity within the country.
It is based on this that this paper will examine aspects related to the current junk food culture, the portrayal of the media about junk food and chocolate as well as current academic literature surrounding the consumption of chocolate. The researcher expects that through this investigation a clearer picture can be seen regarding the nature of chocolate. It is the assumption of this study that chocolate can be considered a junk food depending on the quality and the quantity that has been eaten.
The Age of the Junk Food Culture Junk food in the form of chips, dips, burgers, fries, sodas, candies and ice cream have become such a part of America’s culture that the most prevalent cultural distinction for American today is that of the “Junk Food” culture. The term “junk food” is actually a terminology that was originally developed during the early half of the 1970s to describe the growing proliferation of prepackaged easy to consumer food products that came in disposal wrappers.
The low nutritional content of said food products combined with the easy to dispose nature of their wrappings resulted in the creation of the term “junk food”. In nearly every town, city and state groceries, shopping malls and fast food restaurants carry some form of junk food that is rapidly consumed by a voracious public that enjoys the taste and convenience of such products.
Unfortunately, this cultural distinction is actually slowly killing the American population due to resulting effects such food types have one the body. The recommended daily allowance of nutritional calories that a body should have in a single day as recommended by the American Medical Association is roughly 2,500 to 3,000 calories a day.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem with junk food is that due to their convenience and serving size most people are not aware that on average they consume more than 3,000 calories a day from the various forms of junk food they eat. An average adult male in the U.S. should consume only 65 grams of fat and 2,500 calories in a single day yet a burger and fries combo meal with a large coke available at the local McDonald’s is equivalent to more than 50 grams of fat and 1500 calories within a single sitting.
This would not be a problem should that be the only large meal they eat throughout the day however this meal is supplemented by various chips, sodas and various other unhealthy options throughout the day which brings the total calorie count to 4,000 calories or more.
Chocolate in particular, due to the current manner in which it is produced, is deceptively packaged to the extent that a single chocolate bar can contain 300 to 400 calories or more. Considering the fact that it would take a considerable amount of chocolate to feel full, normal consumers wind up eating more than they should resulting in the consumption of several hundred excess calories.
Journalism and the Portrayal of Scientific Information to the General Public On average nearly 10,000 TV ads appear within a given year which focuses on promoting the products of various restaurants and companies. Children in particular are targeted by fancy commercials advertising sugary sweets through the use of cleverly crafted cartoonish elements in the commercial itself.
Since TV advertisements are an extension of popular culture it can be seen that popular culture is one of the primary reasons behind the obesity problem America now faces due to this patronage of products that are not only unhealthy but cause people to become obese as a result of their consumption. The power of advertising should not be underestimated since it has been shown that TV ads are one of the best ways to convince people to buy a certain product.
From this it can be seen that the causes behind obesity is not merely the fast food culture that Americans find themselves in but also the actions of various corporations that promote with wild abandon their products without taking into consideration the possible ramification on the population. It should be noted though that along with these numerous advertisements come equally numerous articles by journalists which deride and criticize food companies for ruining the health of the present day generation.
However, what is lacking in such articles is a truly in-depth examination of the nutritional impact of individual junk food products. What occurs is merely a general critic instead of an examination which attempts to determine whether foods such as chocolate have any generally positive effects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Chocolate’s Positive and Negative Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Positive Effects of Chocolate While it may be true that chocolate has become a synonymous aspect of the junk food culture, the fact remains that it has a variety of positive healthy effects on the body.
This encompasses effects related to better cardiovascular health, an increased metabolism, and brain stimulation. Not only that, chocolate has also been stated as being a possible anti-depressant as well as possessing anti-cancer and anti-oxidant effects. However, its relation as a junk food has been cemented due to the manner in which it is consumed in amounts that are greater than the recommended dietary allowance per day.
As it was revealed in the study of Howe (2012), chocolate and its numerous iterations has been mixed and matched with a plethora of substances to the point that its health benefits have been highly diluted through an assortment of brands and products. Its health benefits are tempered by extreme amounts of added sugar along with prodigious amounts of carbohydrates and assortment of chemicals.
The end result is a product that combines the positive mental stimulation of cocoa with the negative impact of a high fructose corn syrup. It is based on this that it can be stated that any health benefits derived from chocolate depends on the type of chocolate and the amount that is consumed. Thus chocolate can be considered a health food so long as one eats it sparingly and consumes chocolate products that are rich in natural cocoa and have little sugar in them.
Conclusion Based on the information and arguments that has been provided in this paper thus far, it can be stated that can be considered a junk food depending on the quality and the quantity that has been eaten.
Reference List Benton, David. 2004. Coffee, Tea, Chocolate and the Brain. Florida: CRC Press Datar, Ashlesha, and Nancy Nicosia. 2012. “Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity.” Journal Of Policy Analysis
“The Story of Qiu Ju” a Film by Zhang Yimou Essay essay help free
It is possible to say that the film The Story of Qiu Ju is aimed at creating a realistic portrayal of life in a Chinese village and this realism is achieved with the help of different formal elements such as mise-en-scène, sound, as well as editing.
This is the main thesis that should be discussed in more detail. This movie can give readers deep insights into the challenges that Chinese peasant faced. This point can be better illustrated analyzing different shots from this movie and the way in which they are related with one another. These are the main questions that should be examined in this paper.
One can take a look at the first shot of this sequence; it lasts approximately five seconds. In this part of the sequence, the film-makers attempt to show the mode of life in a village family. In particular, the viewers can see the house of Wang Shantang and its yard (The Story of Qiu Ju).
In this case, the authors prefer take a medium long and low-level shot. This approach enables the camera operator to demonstrate that every member of Wang Shantang’s family has to work almost continuously in order to make ends meet (The Story of Qiu Ju). This technique can give viewers a better idea about this household. The following picture illustrates the technique used by the authors of this film:
Figure 1: Qiu Ju stands in front of Wang Shantang’s House (The Story of Qiu Ju)
Additionally, one should not forget that the film includes mostly diegetic sounds. This means that the source of sound is either directly visible, or at least one can understand where it comes from. For example, one can speak about the voices of people, the sounds of birds and animals, especially poultry.
The absence of non- diegetic suggests that the authors intend to recreate the atmosphere in the village in a very meticulous way. Under such circumstance, the inclusion of a sound-track or third-person narration might not be suitable. Additionally, the house of Wang Shantang is located at the center of the composition, and this detail is vital for describing the household of the family. These are some of the details that immediately attract the attention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The realistic portrayal of peasant life can be seen in other shots included in this sequence. For example, one can look at the scene when Wang Shantang and Qiu Ju talk to one another. In this case, the camera operator also decides to take medium long and eye-level shots. This technique is important because in this way, one can better describe the main characters who are in conflict with one another. For example, people can clearly see that the characters live in very harsh conditions.
This is one of the aspects that should be considered. Moreover, the viewers can notice that the family of Wang Shantang is greatly depending on farming. One can refer to such details as poultry and livestock in the background, since these details are very informative. These are some of the main aspects that should not be disregarded.
Figure 2: Qiu Ju and Wang Shantang talk to one another (The Story of Qiu Ju).
The two characters are at the center of the composition, while in the background one can see almost desolate mountain landscape (The Story of Qiu Ju). This form of composition is an important element of mise-en-scène since the viewers can notice how the characters are dressed.
One can even speak about the poverty of these people. This is another issue that should be taken into account. Although, these people are opposed to one another, they encounter the same hardships. Similarly, this shot is based on the use of diegetic sounds, namely voices of people and the sounds of animals.
Another aspect that should be considered is the editing of this sequence. Close attention should be paid to the length of shots. On the one hand, the authors use editing in order to increase the tempo of the sequence. This approach is achieved by making cutting the sequence into relatively short shots.
However, at the same time, the shots are lengthy enough so that viewers can better discern the details of various scenes, especially the household. This is one of the details that one can distinguish. It is possible to argue that the authors are able to create a dynamic and realistic sequence. This is one of the main arguments that can be made.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Story of Qiu Ju” a Film by Zhang Yimou specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the whole, these examples show that The Story of Qiu Ju is a good example of realistic cinematography. By using long-range shots and diegetic the film-makers are able to recreate the atmosphere of a Chinese village in which people have to cope with a great number of challenges.
The formal elements used by the authors should be examined because they indicate how one can express complex ideas with the help of editing, sound, and shooting. The analysis of this approach can be a very useful activity because it illustrates the techniques used by cinematographers.
Works Cited The Story of Qiu Ju. Ex. Prod. Zhang Yimou. Beijing: Sony Pictures Classics, 1992. DVD.
The Dialog “Crito” by Socrates Explicatory Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction The dialog Crito, in which Socrates explains his reasons for having chosen in favor of remaining at the prison and facing the execution, has traditionally been referred to as one of the most intellectually refined argumentative defenses of the very notion of a statehood. In its turn, this explains why, until comparatively recent times, people used to find it rather challenging to come up with discursively legitimate objections to Socrates’ ‘pro-death’ argumentation, deployed throughout the dialogue’s entirety.
Nevertheless, as of today, this effectively ceased to be the case, because: a) the realities of a post-industrial living render the classical concept of a statehood/law hopelessly outdated; b) the recent discoveries in the fields of biology and physics expose the assumption that there should be an ‘afterlife’ after one’s death, conceptually fallacious. Given the fact that the notions of ‘statehood/law’ and ‘afterlife’ are prominently featured in the Socrates’ line of reasoning, the philosopher’s arguments can no longer be considered legitimate. In my paper, I will aim to explore the validity of this suggestion at length.
Analytical part Socrates’ defense of his decision to remain in the prison makes a perfectly logical sense. First, the philosopher points out to the fact that it is only a righteous living, which can be fully enjoyed.
Second, in order for just about anyone to be considered a righteous individual, he or she must be courageous and intellectually honest enough to never cease being observant of the provisions of a secular law. This is because it is specifically this law’s unconditional enactment, which allows the society to maintain its integrity – hence, making possible the continuation of a socio-cultural progress.
What it means is that one’s willingness to disobey laws, regardless of how unjust they may appear for the concerned individual, reflects his or her lack of existential righteousness: “He who disobeys us (laws) is… wrong, because… he has made an agreement with us that he will duly obey our commands; and he neither obeys them nor convinces us that our commands are unjust” (58).
After all, by refusing to obey laws, on the account of their presumed wrongness, without trying to convince legislators to adjust them, one indirectly sheds doubt on the legitimacy of the state in which he or she lives.
Yet; whereas, the wrongful application of a law may only affect the well-being of a single individual, the active denial of a law (by the mean of refusing to submit to it) will inevitably result in the deterioration of the state/society, and consequently – in depriving the rest of the citizens of an opportunity to realize their full existential potential.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, in light of what accounts for the realities of today’s living, Socrates’ line of argumentation, in this respect, cannot be referred to as such that represents an undisputed truth-value. This is because, as of today, the very concept of statehood continues to undergo a qualitative transformation.
Whereas, even as recent as a few decades ago, only the independent states used to be considered the rightful subjects of an international law, nowadays this is no longer the case. For example, even though the organization of the European Union is not considered the de jure state, it nevertheless exhibits the indications of the de facto statehood, such as the common currency (Euro), the unified government (European parliament) and the ‘transnational’ police-force (Europol).
What is even more important, however, is that it is specifically an ongoing technological progress, which allows the citizens of the EU countries to enjoy a high-quality living, and not their willingness to adjust their behavior to the euro-centric provisions of a secular law.
In fact, because the earlier mentioned progress renders the postulates of a conventional law outdated, it is specifically one’s willingness to violate this law, which should be thought of as the proof of the concerned individual’s existential fitness. This, of course, suggests that Socrates’ idea that the extent of one’s virtuousness is being reflective of the measure of his or her lawfulness, can no longer be considered discursively legitimate.
Another justification for Socrates to decide in favor of ending his life, as it was prescribed to him by the court of Athens, was his irrational belief that the death of his body will not result in the death of his ‘soul’.
The validity of this statement can be well illustrated in regards to Socrates’ suggestion that: “We (laws) shall be angry with you while you alive, and our brethren, the laws in the world below, will receive you as an enemy; for they will know that you have done your best to destroy us” (60). In other words, the apparent ease, with which Socrates went about justifying his decision not to attempt the escape from prison, may in part be explained by his belief in the ‘afterlife’.
This, of course, implies that contrary to what Socrates wanted people to believe about himself, his resolution to lead a righteous life was not entirely motivated by purely idealistic considerations, on the philosopher’s part. In other words, had there been a good reason for Socrates to consider the possibility that the end of his physical existence would result in the destruction of his personality (‘soul’), he would not remain quite as calm, while explaining his reasons to decide to stay in the prison. In fact, he might have decided to escape.
We will write a custom Essay on The Dialog “Crito” by Socrates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yet; whereas, the idea that the death of one’s body necessarily results in the death of his or her ‘soul’ would be definitely deemed inappropriate in time when Crito was written, today’s intellectually advanced people (specifically biologists, psychologists and physicists) regard this idea self-evident. The reason for this is apparent – this idea is utterly inconsistent with the most fundamental laws of nature.
There is no ‘afterlife’. After one’s death, there is nothingness – just as it was the case before his or her birth. What it means is that Socrates’ suggestion that, after having died, he would be held accountable in the ‘underworld’, cannot be referred to anything but the byproduct of his unawareness of how the universe actually functions.
Conclusion As it was shown earlier, there are least two good reasons to consider the line of Socrates’ ‘pro-death’ argumentation conceptually erroneous. In its turn, this suggests that the ‘appeal to morality’ can no longer be considered a discursively appropriate foundation for the philosophical reasoning to be based upon.
Apparently, it is the empirical science and not the vaguely defined notion of ‘morality’, out of which the legitimate set of ethically sound rules of behavior originates. This, of course, implies that despite the emotional appeal of Platonism, this philosophy does not resonate with the actual realities of today’s living. I believe that this conclusion is fully consistent with the paper’s initial thesis.
Effects of China’s Economic Growth on Sub-Saharan Africa Essay scholarship essay help
As Asian countries continue to record impressive economic growth rates, economic power is slowly shifting from the west to the east. Among the countries that have registered high rates of economic growth is China. As a matter of fact, China has become an economic threat even to advanced economies like Canada, Germany and United States of America.
Due to its rapidly growing economy, China has enhanced its relationship with many countries most of them in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, this relationship has received mixed reactions from many people on whether it is beneficial or detrimental to Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, it is important to note that China’s economic growth can boost and at the same time hinder economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The benefits that Sub-Saharan Africa receives from China are numerous. To begin with, China is slowly becoming Sub-Saharan Africa’s largest trading partner. This means that Africa has increased its sales thus increasing income which leads to economic growth.
On the same note, trading with China has led to increase in prices of raw materials that are produced by countries in Sub-Saharan Africa thus leading to expansion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Similarly, China gives Africa a lot of money inform of soft loans to help in development projects (Lanteigne 48). Additionally, China provides the technical support that is very scarce in Africa. This is quite crucial in propelling development of these economies.
Furthermore, China has comparative advantage over Africa in production of several commodities. Therefore, China brings cheap products into Sub-Saharan Africa. This increases affordability as well as freedom of choice among consumers. In addition, China’s increased interest in Africa has revived the interest of other countries which had neglected the continent (Greenaway 111). As a result, the number of investors interested to do business in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased leading to economic development.
Unfortunately, this relationship is also detrimental to Sub-Saharan Africa. China gives its loans with a lot of restrictions including that labor should be imported form China. These types of tied loans usually benefit china more than Sub-Saharan Africa. On the same note, large numbers of people are migrating from China to Africa.
This leads to increase in population of Africa given the fact that Africa’s population growth rate is already very high. On the same note, the population increase exerts pressure on the already strained economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (Padayachee 394).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, while cheap commodities from china are beneficial to Africans, they are also poisonous to the economy. Currently, the markets of Africa are flooded with cheap Chinese products which increase competition for locally produced commodities. Besides pushing many people out of business, the Chinese products are also killing local industries thus economically degrading Sub-Saharan Africa.
Similarly, China has compelled countries in Sub-Saharan Africa into being just exporters of unfinished raw materials (Morrissey and Evious 58). Income on raw materials is very low compared to finished products. This has not only led to the unwillingness of Sub-Saharan African countries to invest in industries, but has also hindered the probability of these countries to earn more.
The relationship between China and Sub-Saharan Africa is undoubtedly beneficial to both parties. However, the negative effects on the part of Sub-Saharan Africa should be given a second thought. China might not be truly concerned with the gains of Sub-Saharan Africa in their relationship. Therefore, Sub-Saharan Africa should not be blinded with the little aid they get. Instead, Sub-Saharan Africa should ensure that the negative effects are minimized if not eliminated.
Works Cited Greenaway, David. The World Economy: Global Trade policy 2009. Hoboken: John Willey and Sons, 2011. Print.
Lanteigne, Marc. Chinese Foreign Policy: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2009. Print.
Morrissey, Oliver and Evious Zgovu. The Impact of China and India on Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, Challenges and Policies. Marlborough: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2011. Print.
Padayachee, Vishnu. The Political Economy of Africa. London: Routledge, 2010. Print.
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Students’ Satisfaction at Universities Proposal scholarship essay help
Introduction Education is a process of learning that needs well articulated systems to enable the learners to achieve their intended goals. This is a practice that is almost universal across the globe. It begins at infancy and perhaps never has an end in people’s lives. Scholars say that education is an endless process in people’s live because there is always something new to learn inconsiderate of age.
It is important to note that there are two types of education; the natural learning process and the one taught in learning institutions. Infants are brought into the world completely oblivious of whatever is contained in it. In most occasions, it is the duty of parents to educate their babies on the basics of life including mother-languages and other simple practical activities like walking and sitting.
On the other hand, there is the type of education that is only gotten in classes and in learning institutions like kindergartens, primary schools, high schools and institutions in higher learning. Education is a systematic process that requires an individual to first go through kindergartens to primary and high schools before he/she can eventually join an institution for higher learning; also called the university.
It is imperative to note that those who go through the formal educations (students) must have successfully passed the previous stages of education before they are able to graduate to the next step. In the event that a person does not meet the required qualifications in a previous stage of education, he/she is normally compelled to rewind and attain the pass mark before being given the go ahead to continue (Herbst, 2007).
Education plays an integral part of a country’s economic status. Learning institutions produce all the scholars, entrepreneurs, politicians, religious leaders and the overall society of a nation. For this reason, it is only wise that the education system within a country is drafted by intellects and monitored closely in order to realize the projected economic growth in the nation in question.
This not only applies to the low levels of education like kindergartens but also to higher education institutions like universities. Since education is a process that involves human effort, it is important that favorable environments are created in the learning institutions so as to come up with the very best scholars. This paper is meant to give an insight on students’ satisfaction at universities.
Students’ satisfaction at universities The higher education sector in quite a number of countries is gradually becoming a competitive market. Countries have gone to an extent of importing labor meant to enhance education at their universities (University of Michigan, 2009). Additionally, quite a number of students have also sought higher education from foreign countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This indicates the importance of offering satisfactory services in these institutions. Students’ satisfaction at universities is currently a vital element of quality assurance (Pfeifer, 2011). This implies that the quality of labor produced for universities is highly dependent on the level of satisfaction the students had while still at school.
University students are the easiest to deal with due to their maturity, but only if offered acceptable and favorable environments to operate in. This can be achieved through a number of ways. The most important elements that should be factored in as far as students’ satisfaction at universities is concerned are students’ convenience and adequate time utilization. This is an indication that the duty of students’ satisfaction at universities is purely a managerial duty (Herbst, 2007).
Some universities can be referred to both as a hospitality institution and a learning institution. Such universities accommodate their students within their premises. On the other hand, other universities are purely learning institutions.
Some people have, however, argued that even though universities that do not accommodate their students are referred to learning institutions alone, nearly all of them offer meals to the students and so they are hospitality institutions too. In hospitality, guest satisfaction is the ultimate key to overall success. For this reason, universities ought to offer satisfactory services in satisfactory environments in order to meet their institutional objectives (Hilton, and Wilmington University, 2009).
Key areas of students’ satisfaction at universities Education
Students have a sole purpose of attending universities; to get educated. As a result, it is only through satisfactory educational procedures that students will be able to attain their goals.
It is the duty of the university management to ensure that the various schools that offer different degree certificates are well equipped with the necessary machineries and staff in order to deliver the expected quality of education (Pfeifer, 2011). These machineries must meet international standards so as to produce the right labor that can be utilized internationally. That notwithstanding, the students have to agree with the machineries and staff as a quality assurance to their education.
Education is normally supplemented with extracurricular activities in order to come up with a blend of knowledge and wisdom. Recent researches have indicated that incorporating games in learning plays an imperative role in nurturing real scholars. Besides, there are students whose passion for sporting activities is impregnable.
We will write a custom Proposal on Students’ Satisfaction at Universities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The only way to capture full concentration of such students in class is to enable them pursue their talents. This not only includes sporting activities but also drama and music amongst others. Just like in the hospitality industry where the customization of guest services is key to making sales, giving students exactly what they want plays an integral part in enhancing academic performance (University of Michigan, 2009).
Ease of congestion
Universities are probably the largest learning institutions amongst all other learning institutions. This is perhaps due to the fact that they attract quite a large population; both locally and internationally. For this reason, they are vulnerable to congestion. The management of universities must ensure that adequate control measures are deployed in areas that are vulnerable to congestion. For instance, many universities have come up with students’ portals where they can register their units, view their results and fee statements amongst others.
All these services are better provided online than manually as a way of easing congestion. Additionally, some lectures are taught via video conferencing in some universities. Other universities also post notes of some units on students’ portals. These are always done in the event that the number of students registered for a particular unit exceeds the capacity of lecture halls. This is ingenious as it enables students acquire the same quality of education despite their large population (Pfeifer, 2011).
Food and accommodation
Even though food and accommodation are not part of the core services of a university, they are vital in determining the extent of students’ satisfaction at universities. Students tend to value upscale accommodations services and food at school. When the otherwise is provided, they are most likely to cause commotion and a state of unrest in and around the university.
In order to curb this menace, it is important that the management of universities put in place measures to ensure that students are offered satisfactory services in this sector. Universities normally give students a variety of foods to choose from. In addition to that, they normally offer different classes of food outlets with different foods of different prices within the university in order to accommodate both the middle class and upper class students (University of Michigan, 2009).
Implications of students’ satisfaction at universities
The satisfaction of students at universities has quite a number of positive implications. There are institutional, individual and social implications related to students’ satisfaction at universities. The institutions gain in the sense that satisfied students are bound to carry on with their education at the university.
That aside, the students are most likely to do well in their academics and this translates to an enhanced reputation and financial position of the university (Herbst, 2007). This happens as a result of the fact that students’ success helps in retaining and attracting more students at the university.
Socially, students’ satisfaction at universities nurtures high achievers who in turn participate in the growth and development of the community. Any university that intends to maneuver its way to the helm of quality education should invest wholesomely in students’ satisfaction. Similarly, Yamamah University of Saudi Arabia should implement the students’ satisfaction measures too in order to meet its organizational projections.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Students’ Satisfaction at Universities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The assessment of students’ satisfaction is important in providing a mechanism through which universities are able to focus on issues pertaining to quality assurance in a bid to provide high quality education. That notwithstanding, such measure of students’ satisfaction may be imperative in helping in the identification and application of development strategies. In conclusion, therefore, students’ satisfaction at universities is inevitable.
References Herbst, M. (2007). Financing public universities: The case of performance funding. Dordrecht: Springer.
Hilton, Y. R.,
How Harley Davidson Affected American Motorcycle Riding Today Cause and Effect Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief Background Information
Harley Davidson’s Influence on Motorcycle Riding
Introduction The word ‘American’ is in almost, if not all, descriptions of the Harley-Davidson motorcycle. So what makes Harley-Davidson so American? According to Lynch (2003), the design embodies the American free spirit. Quoting CDF.org, Lynch (2003) writes, “Perhaps more than any other 20th century product, the Harley Davidson motorcycle is revered as an American icon-symbol of free spiritedness, love, and verve for living life with all your sense”.
Almost everything about the Harley-Davidson motorcycle, from the manufacturers to the design and what it embodies speak ‘American’. According to Yates (2003), “the Harley-Davidson brand is so rooted in American culture that the history of the company intertwines with the history of America itself”.
However, Harley Davidson did not only become a symbol of American culture, but also changed attitudes towards motorcycle riding- an influence that has continued to date.
Brief Background Information The company was founded in 1903 by William S. Harley and two brothers, Walter and Arthur Davidson. The first Harley-Davidson motorcycle was manufactured in a small shed in Milwaukie (Wisconsin), the original base.
According to Lynch (2003), the shed measured 10 by 15 feet, with a hand-painted sign with the words “Harley Davidson Motor Company” hanging at the front. Since then, despite a few attempts into modern designs, the company has stuck with its “traditional cruiser motorcycles running on its signature “air-cooled V-Twin engines” (Lynch, 2003).
The Harley-Davidson motorcycles have over the years been associated with various notions and attracted various attitudes. Harley Davidson has been known to produce quality products famous not only for their quality, but also their dependability.
It is partly for this that the company served the country in both world wars, as well as several police forces across the U.S. On the other hand, it has been associated with ruggedness and rebellion, thanks to troublemaking biker gangs who have always used Harley-Davidson as the motorcycle of choice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Harley Davidson’s Influence on Motorcycle Riding Harley Davidson motorcycles turned many people into riders. This was especially based on the simplicity of its designs that did not require much expertise. Speaking of designs, 1903 marked an important time of technological revolution that had began in the last quarter of the gone century. The invention of the internal combustion gasoline engine and light bulb was an important one for the founders of Harley-Davidson.
Having no technical training or experience and down on budget, the three first experimented with blueprints of the “De Dion-Bouton engine” (Lynch, 2003), a French engine running on a single cylinder. Their idea was to build a simple and rugged machine that had “extra strength designed in the traditionally weak points” (Yates, 1999). In other words, the company’s core design philosophy rested on the premise of utility and practicality.
The company website describes its first motorcycle as a “Bike built to be a racer, with a 3-1/8 inch bore and 3-1/2 inch stroke (Lynch, 2003). The Harley-Davidson motorcycles went on to have a significant impact and reputation on racing. Moreover, the company’s bikes also won much recognition in endurance races, such as hill climbing.
One of the very obvious impacts that Harley-Davidson has had is establish motorcycling as a culture. One way of viewing this is to take note of Harley-Davidson as an American symbol. It does not matter where one finds the Harley-Davidson motorcycle. It will always be the American brand. If only for its Americanness, many people, including those who were not necessarily riders, fell in love with motorcycle riding.
Just as an example of how much strong the culture of Harley Davidson was back then and has continued to be, when Harley Davidson finally broke off from the AMF and returned its headquarters to its original base in Milwaukie (having been relocated to New York by AMF), new competitors had invaded the market. Japanese companies were producing motorcycles in the model of Harley Davidson and at cheaper prices.
Harley Davidson had lost up to 50 percent of its market share. However, it re-established itself and rose to the top again. Harley Davidson provided what the new companies could not provide. Bitchin wrote, “The Harley, the true symbol of human frailty and audacity, was to be honoured and revered, not for its utility or its sheer excellence, but for its god-awful, all-American, in your face, hog-stomping, ball-busting, real-life representation of man’s own imperfections” (Yates, 1999).
The second perspective of viewing this assertion is to consider the various groups associated with Harley-Davidson. The most notable of these are the biker gangs. The earliest biker gangs consisted of the Second World War veterans, who felt isolated from the civilised society and, thus, turned to violence. “These veterans feeling cast out of normal society embraced the motorcycle not only as a recreational diversion but a weapon against the established order” (Yates, 1999).
We will write a custom Essay on How Harley Davidson Affected American Motorcycle Riding Today specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There were, for instance, the Pissed off Bastards of Bloomington (also known as POBOB) and the Booze Fighters. Harley-Davidson became their main motorcycle of choice. That rugged reputation that many came to associate with Harley-Davidson in the 1940s has – albeit in a subtle way- rubbed off on motorcycle riding in general today.
Generally, most people back then viewed motorcycles and motorcycle riding merely as tools and means of transport (getting from point 1 to another point 2). However, the design of Harley-Davidson did not just take into account the matter of aesthetics. A Harley-Davidson motorcycle is an object of raw beauty.
The Harley Davidson motorcycles have fenders’ with smooth and flowing curves, their fuel tanks are characterised with trademark smooth lines, their bodies have beautiful reflections and their big engines have power and purrs in the only way known to belong to Harley-Davidson.
These not only set the Harley-Davidson motorcycle apart from the rest, but also turn it into a work of art. As a result, the Harley-Davidson motorcycles did not just become a means of getting from point 1 to point 2, but also a source of passion. Motorcycle riding also became a recreational exercise. Motorcycles have also since become symbols of adventure. Thus, people who own and ride the Harley-Davidson motorcycles do not just say ‘hi’ and go by. They connect, sharing stories of their experiences with their bikes.
Conclusion In conclusion, Harley Davidson has not only been an icon of the American culture. It also started transforming attitudes towards motorcycle riding. Importantly, through simplicity and utility philosophy in design, it made riding look easy to a lot of people. But most importantly, it turned motorcycle riding into a culture.
Motorcycle riding became more than just a means of transportation. It also became a source of pleasure and passion. Ultimately, the influence of Harvey Davidson is positive in certain ways and negative in others, but that influence remains notable in the field of motorcycle riding today.
Lynch, J.W. (2003). Harley Davidson, a Spirit of American Freedom for 100 Years. Thesis for Master of Arts in Corporate and Public Communications: Seton Hall University
Yates, B. (1999). Outlaw Machine: Harley Davidson and the Search for the American Soul. New York: Little, Brown, and Company.
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Analysis on Religion, Racism and Family Conflicts Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Religion
Religion James Baldwin unfolds his theme on religion from the cover page. He uses a title with a spiritual ethnography. Most of his characters have bible names. The language he employs is biblical in nature. His chapters are bible related along with his biblical utterances. In fact, one who is not conversant with the bible may have a hard time trying to realize where the writer is coming from.
Religion is vital in guiding and supporting the members. It gives guidance of behaviour expected members. It upholds integrity and dismisses destructive behaviour. Religion promises people riches after their poverty life comes to an end. Those that behave badly fear condemnation. The widely speaks of Christianity.
The beginning chapter of the novel introduces us to a church family of Pentecostal denomination. It is a patriarchal family. Gabriel is a preacher and a staunch believer in his faith. His wife Elizabeth and son; John’s affiliation to religion is less than Gabriel’s. His religious views are complex and irrevocable. He believes in salvation through Jesus and condemnation for non believers
The novel enlightens the issue of hypocrisy in the church. Gabriel uses the church to disguise his violent behaviour. He is a role model to the church. Every Sunday he teaches sermons on the Ten Commandments and leading true Christian lives. Contrary to this, he is quick to condemn Elizabeth of her infidelity, yet he dismisses his extra marital affair. He gets Esther pregnant, steals his wife’s savings and gives Esther.
Gabriel is unable to tame his own son. He is extremely rebellious and homosexual. The novelist does not state directly that he is a homosexual; he suggests so in many instances. He finds it difficult to concentrate in his church lessons as he admires a boy who is handsome. John masturbates at school while he fantasizes with older boys. Religious turmoil in teenagers is common. Their backgrounds are contributing factors. They become rebels and adopt queer ways of living. (Sylvia Collins-Mayo)
The boy struggles on the road to spiritual maturity. At the novel, he has visions. Anxiety comes from his past sinful life and his fears. He proclaims salvation in the morning. His mum encourages him, whereas Gabriel remains cold on him. The church community eventually accepts him as a transformed person.
Family conflict Conflicts in families are apparent in the novel. Major characters bring up the theme undoubtedly. John, a young man hates his father passionately. His father is a religious fanatic and stern disciplinarian. John imagines of killing him and running away as a result of tension his dad creates. Lack of love is obvious in his family. John consistently strives to accept his stepfather of which he finds extremely difficult.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Florence a child to a freed slave woman brings up the theme of conflict in families. Through her prayer, it is manifest that she faces discrimination by her mother. She marvels and complains that her mother favours her younger brother Gabriel. Disgusted by this treatment like John, she wants to disappear. Shockingly, she leaves her mother and Gabriel for New York. Her mother at that time was almost dying.
Various unpleasant encounters in the family unit are as an outcome past heartaches. Others have a tendency of making life impossible for others even though, they had nothing to do with their turmoil. The novel educates on the harm it may cause to the perpetrators and the victims. (Sylvia Collins-Mayo)
Racism Baldwin brings out plainly the theme of racism. The novelist describes the effects of racism experienced by his characters. The novel dates back to a time between American slavery and the civil war. It discloses the inhumane aspect of racism. He draws characters whose ancestors were victims of either slavery or the war.
They feel alienated from the white dominated culture. The ill-treatment affects their lives negatively. They become bitter and vicious. Gabriel becomes an abusive father and does not relate well with his son. This is an adverse effect of the prejudice he faces in the hands of the whites. Gabriel suffers as a subordinate in a racist world. John wonders why his father hates the whites so much.
John is flexible and inexperienced on his views about racism. He thinks that his father only wishes to settle a past score. His father; Gabriel is distrustful and turns a deaf ear on John’s views on integration. John enjoys praise not only from the white teachers but also the African-American teachers.
He recalls a white teacher treating him after he gets sick. He does not identify with the injustices Gabriel tells him. His father says that his son has to live in a racist society for him to have a concrete picture. John has read books about prejudice on blacks in the south. Gabriel assures him that they will all burn in hell.
Conclusion The way the writer brings out the issues is intriguing. He uses comprehensive method to teach lessons to the readers both directly and indirectly. He describes each temptation and how his characters overcome them making the novel easily graspable.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis on Religion, Racism and Family Conflicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Baldwin, James. Go Tell it on the Mountain. New York: Penguin Adult, 2001.
Sylvia Collins-Mayo, Pink Dandelion. Religion and Youth. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 2010.
Black Expression Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Music is universal, and all races cultures and tribes have unique music. Music is also an integral part of African culture. In some cultures, music is a source of entertainment, while in African cultures; music is a medium for communication and passing of knowledge. African American music style can be traced to West Africa, which appears to be the mother land of the African American ancestors. This can be seen by the deep African influence that is in jazz and blues.
Slavery, which began in the 16th century, uprooted Africans from their mother land to settle in new lands across the Atlantic Ocean. These people who suffered the fate of being slaves had nothing but the music they knew to lean on when times got hard (Walker, 42). T
hey mostly sang at the end of a work day before going to sleep and during working hours to maintain enthusiasm levels. These songs reflected their hardship and dreams they had for the future. Different types of music branched out from these songs as slaves become free after the outlawing of the slave trade.
The music of the now free slaves caught on like wild fire and spread across America. The rhythms that encased the compositions were highly addictive even to the most rigid white counterparts. The documentation of cases of slaves performing for their masters in the past is common.
Though these cases were few, it clearly showed the extent of African music bridging the race divide in America (Walker, 48). Concerts were happening across America as these freed slaves were rising to stardom. The exact people who enslaved them and acted as their slave masters for a greater part of the 16th century were now their fans. Black musicians became household sensations in white homes and across America.
African American music acted as a bridge between the cultures one being a minority culture, the slaves, and the wide spread white community all over America. This music was not just for the African American, somehow it managed to penetrate the stereotype that was tagging slave music at that time, becoming known almost everywhere in America.
This music was gaining acceptance of some of the whites because it carried experiences applicable to both white and African alike. These songs were a refreshing change from the soulless music that was filling the airwaves at that point in time. Gospel and jazz African music could move individuals to tears because it encompassed emotions and the truth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, African American music brought identity to some parts of America because the original Americans tended to be cultureless and had nothing distinguishing them from other parts of the world or their neighbors in other states. This music brought identity to states like New Orleans where jazz is a way of life.
African American gospels took Christianity to a different level in America. Large churches grew as a result of the wide following of these soulful choirs that performed the songs in the church. These songs had such heart that it was common to hear people say that angels came down on Sundays to listen gospel songs performed by the choirs. This music was so enticing that some of the white flock wound up on African American churches on Sundays to be part of the movement shaping the American nation.
Expressionism is the way of conveying ones beliefs or thoughts through creative ways. African Americans brought expressionism in various forms in the New Orleans. Art, religion and, death and after life, are examples of some of the ideologies that African Americans were imposing.
Religion in the New Orleans is a product of heavy influence by African American expressionism. These African Americans converted the religious gospels to favor their African background (Rodriguez-Mangual
Fitness for Use in Operation Management Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Definition: The satisfaction of a customer in relation to this or that product or service depends on the quality of the product, its usability, and on such important aspects as the speed of delivery and consistency. These aspects are closely associated with the concept of fitness for use as the ability to satisfy the needs of customers (Collier
Love in Boys Don’t Cry Research Paper college essay help online
Boys Don’t Cry denotes an American independent drama film of 1999 whose director is Kimberly Peirce and its co-writer is Andy Bienen. The movie is a performance of the actual-life account of Brandon Teena, acted in the movie by Hilary Swank. In the movie, there is raping, assaulting, and murdering of Hilary Swank by his male friends prior to their discovering that he is actually female.
The film discusses the themes of liberty, empowerment, bravery, and identity. A majority of the performers in the film campaigned for the best actor over the duration of three years. A then unidentified Swank shone, as her character appeared comparable to that of Teena. Many of personalities were anchored in actual-life individuals, while several were composites. Boys don’t cry movie has been mentioned as among the most controversial and discussed movies of 1999.
The movie was released concurrent with the killing of Matthew Shepard, a youthful gay man, which ignited further public concern (Blackman 12- 17). The film brings out the hardships that teenagers experience due to taking part in love affairs. In accordance with the film, love causes people start a long journey of harassment, laughter, and tears. Love in the 1999 American independent drama film Boys Don’t Cry is depicted through desperation and suffering as explicated in this paper.
Brandon (acted by Swank) signifies a youthful ‘man’ who was actually Teena Renae Brandon. At the time that Brandon was identified as a female by a sibling of a lady he at one time dated, he turns out to be a prey to physical dangers. In a short while, Brandon is entangled in a bar war and is thrown out from the trailer of his cousin.
In this regard, Brandon relocates to Falls City where he builds comradeship with ex-prisoners John Lotter (acted by Peter Sarsgaad) as well as Tom Nissen (acted by Brendan Sexton). Brandon also builds a friendship with pals of the ex-prisoners namely Candace (acted by Alicia) and Lana (acted by sevigny).
In the film, Lana turns out romantically engaged with Brandon (Blackman 18- 21). At this point, Lana is not aware of the actual sex and rotten past of Brandon. Both Lana and Brandon decide to relocate to Memphis. Later, Brandon is imprisoned for accusations that came into being before his moving to Memphis and was locked up in the women’s part at a jail in Falls City. Luckily, Lana pays a bail for the release of Brandon.
When Lana inquires from Brandon as to his reason for being locked up in the women’s section, Brandon deceives her that he was a hermaphrodite and that she would soon obtain a sex alteration to become a male. Lana affirms her affection for Brandon at whatever cost. Tom Nissen and John Lotter build suspicion when they find an article in a newspaper concerning Brandon that calls him Teena Brandon. Following their suspicion, Nissen and Lotter compel Brandon to take out his underwear, disclosing his genitals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After attempting to make Lana have a look at it, she covers her eyes in refusal. Following the conflict Nissen and Lotter take Brandon to a secluded place, where beat, and aggressively rape him (Blackman 22- 24). Later, Brandon was taken to Tom’s residence. Despite injuries, Brandon flees through a window. In spite of threats from his attackers and warning against reporting the assault to the police, Lana is nevertheless able to persuade the troubled Brandon to file a case.
One evening after taking a lot of beer, Nissen and Lotter thought of killing Brandon. In spite of efforts to bar them, Nissen and Lotter head to Candace’s isolated residence where they get hold of Brandon. Brandon has been in a hideout in a shed at the residence of Candace. Lotter shot Brandon at the chin while Nissen shot at the head of Candace. In the meantime, Lana makes efforts to fight them as she shouts in a bid to stop them.
Lotter jabs the already dead body of Brandon while Nissen attempts to shoot at Lana. Luckily, Lotter prevents Nissen from shooting. After this act Lotter and Nissen escapes from the scene. Lana is left lying on the lifeless body of Brandon. The following morning, Lana woke up on the lifeless body of the scene and she carried her psychologically stressed daughter away (Blackman 25- 27). At the conclusion of the movie, Lana leaves Falls City and a correspondence written to her by Brandon is read.
Brandon chooses to leave his original residence subsequent to his thinking that people were aware of his criminal actions. In spite of Brandon being a female, it is hard to understand why he chooses to act like a male. Shockingly enough, Brandon as well lacks a proper explanation as to why he acts like a male. Nevertheless, Brandon is faultless at it and he is decided in dealing with possible gainsay. He chooses to relocate to Falls City where nobody is aware of his actual gender.
In Falls City, Boys Don’t Cry illustrates the element of love through desperation, which suppresses most of the ladies there. Most of the ladies in Falls City are in search of a man who could quench their thirst for love and companionship. In this city, Brandon meets Lana in her desperate state. Lana is in dire need of a man who could satisfy her sexual craving. After evaluating Brandon, Lana finds him kind and handsome. Never before has Lana been so sexually aroused by a man as Brandon does.
In this regard, Lana declares to go after Brandon at whatever cost. After realizing that Brandon is as well desperate for love, they both agree to settle for love and give it a chance to blossom (Blackman 28- 30). Despite learning that Brandon is truly a female, Lana is so desperate that she cannot succumb to this certainty. In spite of the confusion, Lana opts to believe and support Brandon; completely giving him her trust.
Fischer brings about a new reason as to why individuals fall in love (Fisher 23- 26). After evaluating a group of individuals that are totally in love, Fischer wraps up that love is extremely impressed in the brain of an individual. She speculates that sentiments do not portray love through feelings.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Love in Boys Don’t Cry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An individual could be under puppy love and still be sentimental. Nevertheless, puppy love does not mean that an individual is in true love as it may come out of desperation. In Boys Don’t cry, Brandon and Lana are somehow sentimental. However, this does not signify their love. Sentiments just function as a byproduct of their desperation (Swan 89- 92). Both are in a state of deep infatuation, which makes them sentimental. At some point both Lana and Brandon agree to flee even following their being together for a short time.
Lana is angered by the act of Lotter and Nissen humiliating Brandon. Lana and Brandon are so much in each other’s mind that they cannot wait to fall in love. The two lovebirds do not take time to assess if any of them is true to the relationship. They desire to stay together despite the circumstance. This appears evident when Brandon promises not to disappoint Lana in spite of the pressures from Lotter and Nissen. On the same note, Lana promises to be by Brandon’s side in spite of all abnormalities.
In the end of it all, Lana and Brandon suffer because of love. Lotter and Nissen humiliate Brandon publicly following their realization that Lana cannot give in to the claim that Brandon is neither a male nor a hermaphrodite. Their reason for humiliating Brandon is not based on his claiming to be a male but on the fact that he is able to win the heart of Lana; something that Lotter had tried to no avail for a long time.
On his part, Brandon is totally determined to bear every kind of suffering and he declares not to vacate Falls City without Lana. Boys Don’t Cry illustrates a bitter end of individuals who seek to go beyond all odds in a bid to gratify life craving through love (Blackman 31- 36).
Hatfield and Walster affirm that during a love incidence everybody is skillful (34- 45). They maintain that in a bid to be in love with someone of the opposite gender, individuals regard aspects such as money, individuality, and physical look. They affirm that love and affection could be either obsessive or companionate. Obsessive love is sentimental and full of uncertainty and concern (Hatfield and Walster 34- 45).
On the other hand, companionate love is illustrated by a strong affection and connection towards a person. In the film Boys Don’t Cry, love is illustrated through suffering and confusion. As Hatfield and Walster (34- 45) affirm in their publication, obsessive love is packed with suffering. These aspects emerge almost entirely in the movie. Lana in reality is aware that Brandon is not a male after being in love for a long time. Throughout the entire period, Brandon has been deceiving Lana and taking her for granted.
Nonetheless, Lana talks about how she takes pleasure in their affection and is confused. Lana is so obsessed with Brandon that she cannot discover deserting him at this time even following such obvious actuality. For a long period, Lana had never encountered a man who would make her experience love or one that would treat her with affection.
Brandon comes into view and he satisfies all that Lana had been longing to have for a long period (Blackman 38- 43). After some time in love, Lana comes to know that Brandon is a female. This result in Lana’s confusion as to whether to let go all the happy instances she has with Brandon or to disregard the allegations and progress with their relationship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Love in Boys Don’t Cry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her alternative to stay devoted to Brandon, in spite of the betrayal depicts the condition of confusion and suffering that is brought by love. When people fall in love, they turn out to be so obsessive that they are not able to the way existence could be without each other. In addition, it becomes almost impossible for persons in love to believe that they could ever again fall for such a wonderful individual (Karen 34- 38).
Having sought for a man that makes her satisfied, Lana believes that she may never find another individual like Brandon. Therefore, Lana suffers with the notion of ending their love or continuing in it.
Love is depicted through suffering and desperation. Suffering is what makes Brandon relocate to Falls City and search for a lover in a bid to forget concerning his past. His past life is filled with negativity and he desires to forget concerning it and progress in life.
Despites his awareness of what Tom Neisser and John Lotter are capable of, Brandon suffers between deserting Lana and maintaining the love. Brandon has aided him to overlook a lot things and he has a feeling that deserting her could cause him relapse to his past life. Boys Don’t Cry illustrates the suffering of Brandon on whether to confront Nissen and Lotter and spare his love or desert Lana.
The suffering heightens more with the raping, beating, and murdering of Brandon. The affirmation to stay in the city if he cannot relocate with Lana depicts an element of desperation. A state of desperation is also evident when Lana vows to remain with Brandon even after learning of his deceit. The two believe they are the reason for each other and that life would be worthless without their togetherness.
Works Cited Blackman, Malorie. Boys Don’t Cry, New York: Corgi Children’s, 2011. Print.
Fisher, Helen. Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love, London: Holt Paperbacks, 2004. Print.
Hatfield, Elaine and William Walster. A New Look at Love: A Revealing Report on the Most Elusive of all Emotions, New York: University Press of America, Inc., 2003. Print.
Karen, Robert. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.
Swan, Rachel. “Boys Don’t Cry.” Film Quarterly 54.3 (2001): 47-52. Print.
New Constitution of USA in 1787 Essay essay help online: essay help online
The US new constitution was drafted in 1787 at a convention held in Philadelphia. The constitutional convention comprised of 55 delegates who were given the responsibility to revise some articles of the congress confederation.
However, instead of amending specific articles, the delegation decided to adopt Edmund Randolph proposal to write a completely new constitution. In the process of drafting the new constitution, two different proposals plans emerged. One plan was called the Virginia plan while the other one was called the New Jersey plan. This paper compares and contrasts the two proposed constitutional plans.
Virginia vs. New Jersey Constitutional Plans
The Virginia plan called for a government with three separate arms including the legislature, executive, and the judiciary. The national congress was to comprise of two houses namely: the senate and the House of Representatives.
Furthermore, the plan proposed that representation in both chambers was to depend on the population of each state. According to this plan, members of the House of Representatives were to be elected directly by the voters of each state. Later, they would select the members of the senate from the lists of people nominated by the state legislatures.
In terms of congregational power, the Virginian plan provided that the congress would retain its earlier powers, but on top of it add the power to make laws for the states, override state laws, and coerce states to obey national laws in all circumstances. The congress was also accorded powers to select members of the judiciary and the president, who would stay in power for a term equal to seven years. Finally, it provided that both the executive and the judiciary would have the power to veto, subject to override.
On the other hand, the New Jersey plan advocated for a government with three branches just like the Virginia plan. It gave the central government power to enforce national laws, raise taxes, and regulate trade. According to this plan, the laws set by the congress were to be more powerful than state laws.
Contrary to the Virginia plan, the New Jersey plan called for equal state representation in the congress regardless of the size of the state. The congress was to have one house consisting of members elected by the state legislature. In addition, the congress would choose the federal executive which, in turn, would choose the federal judiciary. In summary, the two plans differed in structure, congregational representation, and congress power as highlighted above.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Benefits of each Plan
Each plan appealed for representation in the congress as well as advocated for a powerful central government. This is beneficial because initially, representation was biased and the congress lacked enough powers to control the affairs of each state and make powerful national laws.
Alexander Hamilton vs. Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson are important features in the history of the US government and economy. They both concurred that the government needed major changes. However, they deferred ideologically on matters pertaining to governance and the economy. Hamilton advocated for a strong central government, a federal bank, and a stable financial system. On the contrary, Jefferson called for a weak central government and an agrarian economy.
Jefferson’s views were democratic because he held that the commoners be given more opportunities in the government while Hamilton’s views were undemocratic because he held that the commoners were ignorant, and thus were incapable of supporting self-governance. Hamilton would support the New Jersey plan because it called for the minority government while Jefferson would support the Virginia plan because it called for the government of the majority.
How the Finished Constitution Impacted Slavery
The final constitution weakened the institution of slavery. The northerners wished to abolish the slave trade, but the southerners were against the claim because the trade was their source of income. However, after the new constitution was implemented the congress took at least 20 years to abolish the trade because the congress held that it was inhuman.
As a citizen of the new American republic in 1790, Jefferson’s view would be better because it honoured the commoners and supported democracy. In addition, Virginia constitutional plan would be selected over the new jersey plan because it advocated for democracy and equitable representation.
TV News Role in Citizens Life Essay a level english language essay help
The media have a vital role in promoting the awareness of citizens by relaying valuable information regarding various events at multiple levels including the community, country, and world at large. The television is a vital means of passing this information through TV news. This paper attempts to address the concern of the quality of news due to the recent increase in sensationalism of news content in news programs.
TV news provides citizens with unbiased information that helps to shape their thinking, as well as, their comprehension of various events. The two primary classes of TV news are those that focus on issues, and those that prioritize sensationalism and gossip. News items that focus on issues relay information that is relevant to both home and international audiences.
The issues that make up TV content are dependent on the strategies used by the media channel to enhance their commercialization and popularization. Such trends have resulted in the relay of mild forms of issues pertaining to education, environment, trade, crime, calamities and accidents, which are thought to be relevant to a large audience.
The tendency of news items to focus on sensationalism has been changing since the 1990s. Initially, sensationalism and human interest news content involved the coverage of information involving crime, violence, natural disasters, accidents and other issues pertaining to politics. The concept of sensationalism TV news was started with the view to spreading amusing, shocking, and heartwarming content to viewers.
However, the elements of sensationalism began to be employed in hard news. This was further enhanced by the development of new technologies and consumer-driven journalism that permitted the development of flashy and lavish formal production features. These elements were aimed at enhancing the participation of audiences during the viewing process of a variety of content including sex, scandal and celebrity news.
While various sensationalism elements such as flashy subtitles, decorative effects and video maneuvers enhance the entertainment aspect of news and increase the interest of viewers, it may, on the other hand, compromise the objectivity of the reporting. It is necessary for TV news to retain its credibility as a source of information, public debate and scrutiny of various concerns. Media stations should take a take a pragmatic approach in formulating the news agenda so that it takes into consideration multiple content including political events, sports events, crime reports, and accidents among others.
The primary coverage for TV news involves violent events such as riots, civil unrest, accidents, disasters and terrorism. This category is followed by a need for information pertaining to constitutional politics, which involves state visits and political meetings. Other categories of interest to the public include crime and corruption, health and environment, culture, entertainment and sports, and economics and trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People expose themselves to various kinds of media content in order to satisfy multiple social and psychological needs. The primary need for news content is surveillance. This implies that a majority of people are motivated to tune into TV news in order to acquire information regarding various events in the world.
As such, TV news should prioritize the delivery of such information in order to meet the primary market requirement. Other motivations include emotional release from certain events, and social function through interpersonal chat of occurrences. This implies that issue based standard news are more gratifying to viewers compared to sensationalism of gossip or entertainment news since the former is more believable than tabloid news, which focuses on viewer enjoyment.
Life of Prisoners Report a level english language essay help
Most people may not differentiate between a jail and a prison. In fact, some people use the two terms interchangeably. When a person is said to be in jail or prison, they are denied the freedom to move freely. Life in prisons is characterized by restrictions that avert the occurrence of crimes. Further, there is a range of rights and freedoms that inmates are deprived. However, there exists a significant difference on the detainees in the two places.
Comparison of jail and prison inmates
Jail inmates are sentenced for a remarkably short duration. This would range from a few weeks to months but, less than 1 year. In most cases, during that time, inmates await trials. Jail inmates have temporary housing and are always transferred to other places after their trials. Jail inmates are entitled to housing, safety and food requirements. In addition to providing basic needs, a jail has fewer amenities than a prison.
Inmates in a prison are already convicted for crimes. Their sentences are usually longer than those of jail inmates. Prison inmates are convicted for doing or taking part in felonies (Ruiz, Strain
Significance of a Male Role Model for Forming Tomas and Gabe’s Personal Essay college essay help: college essay help
Identity in Brian Ascalon Roley’s American Son Filipinos migrate to the United States in order to become closer to the better life, to realise their dreams, and receive the chance to change their reality. In fact, Filipinos become the victims of the racial discrimination and begin to suffer from the impossibility to determine their national and cultural identity. From this point, those children who are born in multicultural families also begin to suffer from inability to find the right place in the society where people are not ready to discuss them as the real Americans.
Furthermore, the problem of identity and transnationalism is often associated with a range of other problems typical for teenagers and young adults. Tomas and Gabe are the protagonists of Brian Ascalon Roley’s American Son. These young men experience the difficulties of being the children of the American father and Filipino mother while living in the USA and observing the other Americans’ making their dreams real.
The situation is complicated with the fact that boys are brought up without their father. Thus, Tomas and Gabe have no opportunities to orient to the male role model developed in the family because those behaviour patterns which they remember as typical for their father are rather violent and racist, and as a result, boys have the erroneous vision of masculinity.
It is possible to pay attention to Tomas and Gabe’s visions of masculinity referring to the ideas developed by Tomas in relation to the question, to the opinion which is characteristic for Gabe, and to the male role model which is typical for the behaviour and attitudes of the boys’ father.
On the one hand, the image of Tomas can be discussed as the embodiment of masculinity because of his appearance. Thus, the young man’s muscles are covered with “gangster tattoos”, his head is “shaved down to stubble”, and moreover, Tomas is “really half white, half Filipino but dresses like a Mexican” (Roley 15).
On the other hand, the brutal behaviour of Tomas and his attitude toward his relatives and other people cannot be considered as the embodiment of the real masculinity. Tomas is inclined to misinterpret the notion of masculinity and act as a cruel man. The actions of Tomas can be explained from the point of his desire to determine his role in the society which is rather holistic in relation to the minorities. Moreover, brutality is the only behaviour pattern which is associated with the boys’ father.
Tomas as the elder brother should become the main man in the family. That is why, Gabe is affected significantly by the particular features of the elder brother’s influence (Roley 18). Later, Gabe even reflects the peculiarities of the young man’s behaviour in spite of the previous disapproval of the position supported by Tomas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the fact that the life conditions and environments are the same in relation to both brothers, Gabe grows as a quiet boy who does not want to create new problems for his mother because she has to bring up two boys without the help of her husband. However, Gabe also has no correct vision of masculinity.
Gabe is inclined to act under the influence of his brother Tomas, and his image becomes the embodiment of masculinity for Gabe in spite of all his attempts to reject these behaviour patterns. Gabe experiences brutality, hostility, and discrimination almost in all the spheres of his life.
From this perspective, the absence of the male role model and the racial issues make the young man find his own identity and place within the American society. The particular features of the family relations and the problematic racial questions affect Gabe’s vision of masculinity which becomes the reflection of the visions which are characteristic for Tomas.
Tomas and Gabe are brought up by the Filipino woman, but they do not want their peers to see her communicating with the boys. The problem is in the boys’ perception of their identity and ethnicity. Nevertheless, the problem is also in the vision of the role of woman in the house and in society. This vision is the heritage of observing the definite male role model used by the boys’ father.
Gabe describes the situation when “dad stood over her making fun of Filipinos and her family and looked as if he was about to hit her, and my brother dragged him outside and tossed him onto the acorn” (Roley 24). Tomas and Gabe cannot define masculinity correctly because even those insignificant details remembered about the attitudes of the father toward the Filipinos and women cannot provide the boys with the examples of the behaviour which should be characteristic for the real man.
As a result, Tomas and Gabe experience a lot of difficulties, trying to find their place in the American society. These young men are not ready to adopt their ethnicity, and they are inclined to feel shame because of their mother Asian ethnicity (Roley 24). Furthermore, Tomas and Gabe have no male role model to help them to survive in the world full of ill-wishers. The only way to survive in this society is to act brutally and reveal the masculinity with references to violent actions.
That is why, Gabe is inclined to follow the life of violence because this model is more familiar for him depending on the experience of his father and brother. The inability of many Filipinos as any other migrants to build the life of their dream within the American society makes them feel frustrated, especially in comparison with the more successful representatives of the American majority. Thus, aggression becomes the only way to demonstrate the people’s dissatisfaction regarding the situation.
We will write a custom Essay on Significance of a Male Role Model for Forming Tomas and Gabe’s Personal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Brian Ascalon Roley’s American Son, Tomas and Gabe have no opportunity to reflect the male role model of their father because the boys are not brought by the man. That is why, boys are unable to create their vision of masculinity which can be based on the positive examples of their father behaviours. As a result, Tomas and Gabe develop their vision of masculinity with references to the realities of the American society which is rather unfriendly and even hostile toward Filipinos.
Thus, Tomas is inclined to mask his problems choosing brutality and referring to the ‘gangster’ image, and Gabe intends to hide his difficulties with identity using the advantages of the non-Asian appearance. The young men’ behaviours cannot be discussed as the reflection or embodiment of masculinity, but they are affected by the absence of the father in the boys’ life.
Works Cited Roley, Brian Ascalon. American Son. USA: W. W. Norton
Media Propaganda Essay scholarship essay help
Media Propaganda refers to a message that aims at changing people’s opinion on issues by providing only one side of an argument. Propaganda is widespread in the media especially in advertisements and magazines (Baran and Davis 76). In this paper, we will consider a poster advertisement.
This poster contains an advertisement for a body spray, Axe. In the advertisement, there is a couple walking down the street along window displays. The advertisement shows a man cut into two halves, the lower half and the upper half. The lower half of the man’s body is lagging behind, standing by a window display with a female mannequin dressed in lingerie.
On the other hand, the upper half continues walking alongside the woman. In addition, the poster contains a written message at the bottom of the page. This message reads, “Part Good. Part Bad. That’s Man’s Essence.” Further, at the lower right corner, the poster has a picture of the spray under consideration and the name of the spray: “New Axe Essence”. This message appeals to the audience to use Axe body spray.
The audience of this advertisement is men. This advertisement is simply appealing to men, especially from teenage upwards. Men relate to this idea of walking together with a woman while at the same time admiring other women. This makes them feel integrated (Bhasin 1).
The message contained in this poster appears to be appealing to men to use this body spray to get a double deal. It implies that axe gives men an advantage of attracting women who are sexually appealing and at the same time keep their girlfriends. Men have added integrated egos when they attract such beautiful women and seem to have successful relationships. This will translate to the men being content and happy.
The man in the poster looks comfortable and confident. Further, the woman in the advertisement seems impressed, happy, and relaxed. The advert makes it appear that the man is the one making the woman happy. Therefore, this implies that men who use axe appear relaxed and composed manage to impress their girlfriends.
These influence choices of men who want to impress their girlfriends and make them happy. In addition, the poster portrays the given location as luxurious with lovely shop displays without people. This implies the unique and distinct nature of Axe. Obviously, the properties given to the spray add class to it and allow the spray to select rich and classy men as prospective buyers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This advertisement portrays Axe body spray as being appropriate for use at any time. For instance, for casual time, at work or anywhere, the casually dressed couple in the advertisement seems to be admiring shop displays’ probably on their way to a casual meeting after work.
The man used in the poster is young emphasizing that axe body spray is convenient for young men. He is young and needs to feel happy and successful. The smile of the man in the poster portrays his happiness probably because of his youth. This contentment associates with the audience’s needs and attract their attention.
Additionally, the poster uses tranquil and non-screaming colors. Advertisers use blue and grey colors on the spray and the background respectively. These colors are passionate, serene, welcoming and can accommodate diverse moods and occasions. These colors attract the audience and encourage them to use the spray.
This advertisement is exceptionally convincing and can attract many people. However, ideological analysis of this advertisement reveals the presence of unintended cultural messages dotted all over the poster (Sproule 130). Cultural aspects that come out can discourage prospective users of Axe spray if they paid deeper attention to the advertisement.
This advertisement suggests that a man who uses axe essence will have more than one woman at his disposal. It assumes that men are happy when they have multiple women. Further, the advertisement stereotypes men as being sex oriented. The lower part of the man’s body staring at the mannequin shows this stereotype.
One would wonder why the lower and not the upper half of the body was staring the mannequin considering that it is the one with eyes. What does the lower half of the man’s body use to see the mannequin? Clearly, the body part that substitutes the man’s eye is his phallus. This shows that men view women as objects for their sexual desire, which is not completely true.
The message and pictures in the advertisement pose another cultural controversy. The picture indicates that the lower half of the man remains behind while the upper half continues walking together with the woman. The girlfriend does not seem to notice that her boyfriend’s lower part is lagging behind staring at other feminine figures.
We will write a custom Essay on Media Propaganda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The man continues walking as if nothing is happening. This brands men as cheaters and unfaithful spouses. The advertisers seem to know this when they write that man is partly good and partly bad. However, they dismiss it referring it to as man’s essence. This is against cultural norms, which advocates for fidelity among spouses.
This advertisement for axe body spray portrays women as sex figures. The lower part of the man’s body lagging behind to admire the mannequin proves this. This act emphasizes on extreme sexuality of women and the power those feminine figures posses to the extent of splitting a man into two.
This is obvious in the lower part of the man’s body admiring a displayed mannequin wearing red lingerie. This shows that men prefer women who dress skimpily to casually dressed women. These women appear to be extra sexually appealing and attract men. Consequently, this advertisement perceives women as sexual objects and displays women in a negative way.
This advertisement is not completely true. For instance, the street appears to be vacant allowing the couple quality time alone. There are shops as shown by the displayed mannequin wearing lingerie. However, we know that shops need clients to keep them functional. The poster neglects this fact and creates an illusion that Axe body spray allows people to be completely alone in the street. The advertisers use this fallacy to create emotion and influence buyers.
In conclusion, we are justified to say that this advertisement is effective. The poster effectively uses graphic display and words to convey the intended media message (Jowett and O’ Donell 280). They achieve this by using physically attractive people, using a quiet and serene setting.
Further, the advertiser’s choice of colors and creativity help them to attract a larger audience. The advertisers capture audience’s attention well and consider their needs. They conform to the audience’s need of being happy, having integrated ego and using distinguished products. Therefore, the use of media propaganda assists the advertisers to achieve their goal.
Works Cited Baran, Stanley and Dennis Davis. Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future 6th ed. London: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Bhasin, Kim. How Axe Became The Top-Selling Deodorant By Targeting Nerdy Losers. 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Media Propaganda by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jowett, Garth and Victoria O’ Donell. Propaganda and Persuasion 4th ed. London: Sage Publications, 2005. Print.
Sproule, Michael. Propaganda and Democracy:The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print.
Race, Inclusion, Exclusion, and Segregation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion and analyses
Introduction The significance of race has always been evident in the social practices of human beings. Biology was used to explain racism before the 20th century. Currently, racism is only viewed from a social point of view. The concept of racism was developed in the European region by the whites who viewed themselves as a “superior race”.
This ideology was enhanced by biblical explanations that were used by the whites to support their arguments. After the migration and settlement of the whites in many parts of the world, racial hierarchy and discrimination came into being.
The race factor has always been a central issue in controlling how several issues are handled in the United States. The race factor has also affected myriads of activities in the American history. The analysis of the positive and negative effects that accompany racism demonstrates that the race factor has negatively affected social integration in the U.S. Besides, there are numerous cases of segregation and exclusion that have emerged from the race factor.
Discussion and analyses The whites have always been the most influential race in the United States. The Anglo-Saxon ideologies that people with white skin are god chosen and are supposed to rule the world made them to dominate in the United States. The white culture has been taken as the basic American culture for many years. Besides, there are other Americans and immigrants who prefer adapting the white cultural practices. It is perceived as the best way of fitting in American society.
This has resulted into the conversion of many white skinned Americans to whites. On the other hand, the dark skinned people are sometimes self-driven to lighten their skin. For instance, they use plastic surgery to make their complexion to appear white as they struggle to adapt to the American culture.
The whites have completely absorbed the Mexican Americans. This scenario was driven by various reasons. It is factual that their skin complexion is almost the same as those of their white counterparts bearing in mind that were easily accommodated by the whites. However, the Mexicans are still a minority race in the US. They were afraid of being segregated. This fear was enhanced by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that promised American citizenship to the native Mexicans.
This never came to pass until the mid twentieth century. Before then, Mexicans were forced to pass as whites in order to enjoy the privileges enjoyed by the whites. They preferred to be integrated among the whites rather than undergo segregation. Therefore, the Mexicans in the United States are treated as whites to some extent. Other minorities in the United States with a skin complexion that is similar to the whites have also opted to be integrated as the white population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They believe that being whites is accompanied by improved social, economic, and political security. The inclusion principle however could not be effective on African Americans and other minority races that have a darker skin complexion. The skin color factor favored the Mexicans while it completely segregated other American races. The language factor was not of much significance when the principle of inclusion came into play.
There are several fears associated with race mixing and cultural contamination. For instance, some minority ethnic groups fear being alienated on the basis of their small population segment. It is against this backdrop that several amendments have been made in the constitution with the aim of ensuring equality in the US.
The level of racism has subsided although there are some cases of racial segregations, inclusion and exclusion that have been witnessed in some areas in the United States. The most significant segregation was witnessed between the blacks and white. During the 1960s, courtship and marriage between whites and blacks was prohibited. Furthermore, the blacks and the whites attend different schools.
In the 19th century, African Americans were completely separated from the whites. The constitution recognized the whites as being superior with higher social statuses than the blacks. The public facilities were to be offered to both the two groups. However, this was done in a very different manner.
There are currently two major groups that are identified in the US. These are the whites and the blacks. Since these are the major classifications of the Americans, it has resulted into the disregard of other minority groups especially when classifying the American societies. The non-white Americans are the most affected.
The Spanish, Jewish, and the Germans among are generally classified as the whites. During the 19th and early 20th centuries when the constitution treated the whites differently, the other communities that were white enjoyed the privileges meant for the whites. African Americans on the other hand have never been confused and the race factor has always resulted in the segregation of the blacks and the red Indians.
The race has played a major role in classifying the American society. People from the same communities tend to occupy the same area. The African Americans normally occupy the central parts of the American cities that are densely populated. The whites on the other hand occupy the suburbs of the cities that are well spaced although the habitants are mainly the white communities. The race factor has therefore hastened assimilation of the whites into the broader white American population.
We will write a custom Essay on Race, Inclusion, Exclusion, and Segregation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, it has enabled the acceptance and peaceful coexistence among the white Americans. African Americans are also known to easily accommodate immigrants who have a dark complexion without necessarily investigating the background and the origin of these people. Race has helped in the Americanization of many immigrants who come into America. Racism is a major factor that defines American culture. It has promoted integrations as well as segregation.
Worse still, racism has compelled several minority ethnic groups in America to be assimilated by the whites. As a result, it has created a larger integrated white society. The whites decided to occupy the suburbs of the cities to avoid the large African American populations that occupy the city centers of major cities.
Covering the outskirts of the city is one of the ways in which this could help regulate the urban migration of the African Americans. Any other non-whites who want to coexist peacefully must adopt the cultures of the whites in order to ensure good neighborhood.
In cases whereby the natives were treated as whites, their ethnic groups were undermined. The whites assumed their cultural practices are the most advanced and civilized. They were introducing these practices to others as a form of civilization.  Natives were expected to adopt the cultural practices of the whites. Besides, their cultural practices were perceived to be barbaric and as such, undermined the other white skinned people in the United States.
The race factor in this case completely excluded the natives from their cultural practices. The natives who did not observe these regulations were alienated from the rest of the white community in the United States. The Mexican farming practices of the natives such as those around Texas who were nomadic farmers were completely discouraged. These people were forced to become whites in order to live comfortably in the United States.
The school environment has suffered the segregations that are associated with racism. Pupils tend to group themselves in terms of race. The Latinos are the worst hit by the effects of segregation. The number of Latinos who attend the white schools has greatly reduced due to the fear of segregation that is apparently high in the white schools. The learning process of these Latinos is greatly affected by racial segregation.
The African Americans are also segregated in the education sector as a result of racial differences. In most of the schools attended by the majority whites, it is rare to find the African Americans in such schools. The African Americans have ended up embracing the American society. This has in some cases created a social distance between the African Americans and the whites.
The minority American races have always been radicals. They have often been associated with democrats. On the other hand, the white Americans have preferred to maintain the status quo and as such, prefer to be republicans.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Race, Inclusion, Exclusion, and Segregation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In summing up, it is worth to note that racism has defined the American society. Any person with a light skin complexion is taken to be “white” while the dark complexion is a “black”. Any person who is in America has to choose where to belong. Deciding to be white implies that an individual has to learn the white culture. The same principle applies to the assimilation process of African Americans.
Footnotes Winant, “Race and Race Theory,”1
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 229.
Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of White Ethnics in the United States. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness,” 181.
Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of White Ethnics in the United States. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness,” 184.
Griswold del Castillo, “War’s End: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,” par, 11
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness in Critical White Studies,”212.
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness in Critical White Studies,” 213.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 235.
Africanamericans, “Segregation: The Fights Between Blacks and Whites”, par, 3
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 229.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 697.
Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of White Ethnics in the United States. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness,” 193.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 701.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 706.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 706.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 223.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 224.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 228.
Competing Theories of Economic Development Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
According to Contreras (n.d.), there are four major theories of economic development (1). They include:
Neo-Marxist dependency model
Neoclassical revival model.
According to the structuralism school of thought, economic development can be achieved by expanding the internal economy of a give nation (Contreras 16).
To achieve this goal, it is essential for the state to transform its economy from relying on a traditional based economy that relies heavily on agriculture to a modern economy that is industrialized and comprises of a high urban population. Application of modern technology is one of the main conditions that has to be met.
This school of thought views modern technology as a tool that can be used to increase the production of a given nation, especially in the industrial sectors that might be using outdated technologies of means of production. Consequently, for economic development to be achieved, the concept of dualism has to be eliminated in developing nations.
This will ensure that these nations do not act as a source of cheap raw materials and market for finished products from developed nations. Therefore, it is essential for the government of developing nations to impose strategies such as the import-substitution policies that impose tariffs on imports to protect local industries and encourage the government to invest on local enterprises.
The Linear Stage-Growth model was applied in Western Europe as a means of reviving the economy of this region that had collapsed after the Second World War. According to the Marshall plan, economic development in this region could only be achieved through intense industrialization activities (Contreras 31).
However, unlike the structuralism model that viewed the internal environment as the key for economic growth, this model viewed the internal environment as an inhibitor of economic growth as a result of the pressure that would arise from a local institution and social ignorance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rostow’ Stages-of-Growth model was an influential tool in transforming the economy of Western Europe. According to Rostow, developed nations enjoyed high rates of economic growth due to the fact that they had passed through a series of stages to reach the take-off stage that is characterized by a self-sustaining growth. These stages include:
The traditional society
Preconditions of take-off
Drive to maturity
The age of high-mass production (36)
On the other hand, developing nations have not yet passed through all these stages. Therefore, they cannot sustain their won economies and had low levels of investments and savings unlike developed nations that concentrated highly on investments and savings hence supporting economic growth and development.
This assumption led to the failure of its application in developing countries where the governments encouraged foreign direct investments as a source of savings and investments. However, these nations failed to prosper as compared to developing nations since they lacked a human capital that was skilled and experienced.
The Neo-Marxist approach was a modification of Karl Marx surplus doctrine applied on a global scale. This approach viewed developed nations as the capitalists who were extracting excessive value from developing nations.
According to the scholars who believe in this theory, developed nations buy raw materials from developing nations at a low price. However, the finished products from these raw materials are sold to developing nations at high prices hence bringing about debt and poverty as a result of the negative effect on the balance of payments.
Consequently, developed nations are reluctant to support industrialization activities in developing nations since this move would reduce the surplus they are gaining. However, this theory has been criticized since it stated that developed nations solely depend on developing nations to propose. Consequently, it states that achieving capitalization and industrialization in developing nations is impossible.
The neoclassical revival model dismissed the claims of the structuralism and Neo-Marxist models. Instead, it states that developmental challenges that are experienced in developing nations are due to poor policies and government intervention.
We will write a custom Essay on Competing Theories of Economic Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To averse this situation therefore, the government of developing nations should develop policies that encourage free trade, an efficient market, privatization of state owned enterprises. Most importantly, this model recommended that government intervention in trade and investments should be limited.
Millennial Development Goals Millennial Development Goals (MDGs) are eight different goals that were set at the Millennial Summit that was attended by United Nations (UN) member states in the year 2000. The aim of these goals is to improve the overall well-being of individuals all across the world.
To achieve this vision, these goals focused on the social and economic factors that affect an individual and the overall global economy. Poverty eradication is one of the main goals that have to be achieved for this vision to be realized. In developing nations, poverty is a predicament that prevents economic growth and development. The inhabitants of these nations usually live under $1 per day.
However, poverty not only concerns itself with the income an individual earns but also the opportunities that he/she faces given the social and economic conditions of a given state. In most developing nations, the level of poverty has been enhanced as a result of social constraints that deprives individual the access of basic amenities such as shelter, education, and healthcare. Therefore, poverty can be regarded as a state of capability deprivation that hinders individuals from realizing their full potential.
Education is an essential component in achieving economic growth and development. It is essential for a nation to have a human workforce that has the skills and expertise to handle various economic, social, and political requirements. Education thus supports the realization of this requirement. Thus, it is the priority of every government in the world to provide primary education to its citizen.
It has always been stated that a nation is as healthy as its citizens. Thus, to achieve the MDGs, it is essential for governments especially in developing nations to ensure that its subjects have access to high quality medical services. The life expectancy of individuals in developing nations is slightly lower as compared to developed nations.
Consequently, the rate of maternal deaths and infant mortality are higher in developing nations as compared to developed states. Therefore, it is the duty of developing nations to come up with measures and policies that would ensure that its subjects have access to healthcare. In Cuban government for instance has set up universal entitlements to support education and healthcare.
Developed nations in Germany and North America on the other hand spend massively to support their education, healthcare programs, and social security. The USA for instance spends approximately 35-45% of its GDP to support these activities (Dreze and Sen 43). Therefore, developing nations need to increase their public expenditure to support education, healthcare, and social security programs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Competing Theories of Economic Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, MDGs aim at sustaining the global economy. To achieve this goal, the governments of member states have to ensure that their nations exhibit positive economic development and growth. To achieve this goal, it is essential for these nations to ensure that there is equitable distribution of resources within the economy.
Consequently, it is essential for member states to have positive diplomatic relations that would encourage trade and foreign investments. This will ultimately increase the level of savings and investments among member states hence supporting economic growth.
Works Cited Contreras, Ricardo. Competing Theories of Economic Development. n.d. Web.
Dreze, Jean and A. Sen. India: Development Participation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Software Reuse Strategies Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Software reuse is the process by which organizations leverage on knowledge found in code components, test cases and functional designs in order to increase productivity and the quality of their products.
It has become a popular alternative for organizations that want to increase their productivity of their software development efforts. Companies may not always reap the rewards of software reuse at the beginning. As a result, it is essential for them to understand the reuse strategies available to them as well as the effort they must put into those choices.
Overview of reuse strategies Reuse as part of company work organizations
Reuse may be considered as part of a company’s work organization. In this regard, firms must plan and improve their software development efforts regularly. They need to have a plan in order to determine project requirements ahead of time. Some trade offs will need to occur between cost and time. When companies utilize this reuse strategy, they must incorporate consumer needs within the development process.
Companies ought to have a disciplined path in which they can incorporate software reuse modules and the new products. Continuous improvement should also be a critical aspect of this reuse strategy. Software developers and organizational leaders should get feedback about the outcomes of software reuse so as to improve in the future. All measures should include tasks in software development like component integration, retrieval as well as production (Eduardo et. al. 266).
In this strategy, companies often try process improvements on a small scale then use the knowledge acquired to go full scale. At the small scale level, developers often consider the process as an exploratory one. Any lessons learnt will be documented and applied in future scenarios. Organizations applying this strategy also have a standard process that assists inexperienced developers to succeed in reuse by depending on standardized practices.
Formalization of these processes ensures that participants understand their responsibilities and the relationship between the different aspects of software reuse. In such companies, people are fully aware of the steps between coding and testing so they are able to carry out the process effectively. Structuring ensures that project outcomes have certain standards. Additionally, it helps provide for desirable outcomes (Slinger et. al. 187).
In this strategy, firms need to provide strong management support. They can demonstrate this by allocating sufficient human and financial resources to provide software use. Management support also comes in the form of policies and practices that support reuse. Management needs to ensure that employees have the right training and preparation needed to reuse the software (Eduardo et. al. 264).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creating libraries of components
In this software reuse strategy, companies will have a software repository from which they build new software and customize code. Since they can easily change existing components to meet new requirements, then high levels of reuse are prevalent using this strategy (Agresti 51).
Flexibility is also gained because developers have the choice of several components. On the flipside, companies cannot share software artifacts or may find it difficult to do so as reuse is mostly restricted to the organization. The repository approach has less risk since companies control the quality of the components in use. Businesses can only recover their investments once they reach a critical mass of components within their libraries (Slinger et. al. 190).
Companies that want to create their own libraries of components must do this in a systematic manner. They often employ parts from real systems to create new ones. These stakeholders make such decisions in order to increase maintainability of the software as well as the time it takes to develop them.
Perhaps most importantly, firms will engage in these endeavors in order to minimize the cost of software development. When a company intends on creating a library of components, then it must exert more effort than if it were writing code for conventional, non reuse purposes (Agresti 55). In this regard, developers ought to create code generically such that users can apply the components in different settings.
Organizations should know that the process of building a software library using reusable components will consume a lot of their resources, and that positive results may only be evident in the future. Additionally, they must be ready to deal with management issues when component libraries start growing exponentially. At that level, duplicated versions of components may arise, so they need to be controlled (Slinger
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Essay (Book Review) college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The Central Intelligence Agency emerged during the reign of President Harry Truman in 1947. Truman signed the National Security Act (NSA) which led to the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency amongst other entities. This replaced the existing Central Intelligence Group (CIG) formed by the State’s Secretary in conjunction with secretaries of war and navy in 1946 under Truman’s orders. By replacing CIG, the CIA absorbed most of the components like the Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE).
The functions of ORE were diverse; creation of the national, economic, scientific, and technical intelligence, and coordination of the national estimates. The CIA introduction faced much hostility particularly from the military who considered that it is a tremendous threat and competitors for their operations and resources, respectively (Richelson, p. 40). This paper examines the CIA evolution and development including descriptions of how the organization could have been more effective.
CIA Evolution and Development The evolution of the CIA did not take place haphazardly. Likewise, others systems such as the National Security Council, CIA development is understood based on three interrelated dimensions. These are the initial design, political actors influence and the exogenous events.
The structural laws contained in the 1947 National Security Act removed of the development options at the expense of others. In addition, the political influence of the president, bureaucrats as well as the policy makers helped in narrowing further these possibilities. Furthermore, the events acted as a reinforcement which entrenched the whole agency alongside the route. All together, these dimensions ensured that the concealed capabilities of CIA prospered while the coordination capabilities lapsed (Richelson, p. 39).
Internal Design CIA development emerged from the schizophrenic design. The CIA provisions in the NSA provided the foundation upon which the agency evolved. With these provisions, the covert activities developed as the coordination capability and functionality diminished. This prevailed as the NSA concealed the whereabouts of the covert activities. Interestingly, this was boosted by additional of two other vital provisions by the NSA.
To begin with, the act empowered CIA to take control of common activities that are of concern since the NSC worked more in centralized, manner. Next, and most important, the act authorized it as a new agency mandated with power to perform functions and duties about intelligence touching national security as NSC would recommend from time to time (Richelson, p. 48).
Political Actors Influence The original CIA’s design ensured ease in creating of covert capabilities but experienced hardships in centralizing the intelligence analysis. In this respect, the political actors influence changed this into reality. The political forces, which were instrumental in this success, included the president, bureaucrats and policy makers (Richelson, p. 46).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Presidents Presidents are amongst the significant players in CIA evolution. The presidents of all calibers have promoted and protected the clandestine operations of the CIA, for instance Truman. Truman had no faith in covert operations, but he became the first president to embrace them in war. On the other hand, President Kennedy is most renowned for his increased emphasize on the use of covert activities during and after the Bay of Pigs catastrophe. Additionally, Ford is hailed for his greater efforts in protecting the agency during the 70s. Ford strived to fend off investigations by the Congress by forming his own commission which he restricted to certain extents. This included only the abuses which had already been publicized by the press. According to him, disclosing all CIA’s abuses would diminish the effectiveness of which he feared (Richelson, p. 45).
There are which are two reasons attributed to why each and every postwar president supported as well as relied more on the CIA. First, the presidents had a stronger natural incentive for directly developing foreign policies on their own without interference from the Congress. This indicates that presidents were held responsible for the successes and failures of foreign policy. Secondly the rise of the Cold War triggered the use of covert operations. With the heightened conflicts between the Americans and Soviets, each power sought the alternative to the other without using military intervention. This urgency rose with the anticipation of the nuclear war. To counteract such aggression called for a new tactic to balance between war and diplomacy. Covert operations solved this problem (Richelson, p. 36).
Bureaucrats The bureaucrats in the larger intelligence community wanted their freedom. In this respect, they strongly advocated for decentralization of the intelligence system in 1947. Moreover, they endured the long development of the CIA system as it did not interfere with their own affairs, budgets and their people at large.
Although greater autonomy is preferred by all, intelligence was necessary to maintain their independence. As of 1948, Ferdinand Eberstadt echoed that each and every organization required intelligence based on their needs, for example, military intelligence (Richelson, p. 3).
The military has the defense intelligence which can only be interpreted by qualified military personnel. Therefore, such organizations like the military amongst others allowed the development of the CIA freely. Notably, they even supported CIA in getting the covert capabilities. However, the bureaucrats admitted that they never hoped that the CIA covert capability would grow powerful or large as it did (Richelson, p. 45).
Law/Policy Makers The lawmakers played a role in the evolution of the CIA, though it was complex. In the first half of the evolution process, the legislators blissfully ignored the covert operations and the management challenges in the CIA. In addition, the oversight committees and subcommittees like of the Armed forces awarded the CIA little attention.
The onset of 1970s saw the law makers’ active participation in matters regarding the CIA such as investigating the abuses. This was boosted by the selection of new oversight committees and intensified efforts to pass reform laws on CIA particularly in covert operations and management. In regards to abuse investigation, the lawmakers relied mainly on reports from the media and the public which they then investigated but changed (Richelson, p. 44).
We will write a custom Book Review on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Exogenous Events The exogenous events were instrumental in propelling the CIA evolution. These events included war, threats, incursions and scandals. As noted above, the prevalence of the Cold War and other alarming was on the way contributed to the evolution and development of CIA. All these events catalyzed formation of covert activities. By the late 1940s, the American foreign policy adopted covert operations as one of the major weapons of war.
In regards to war, the Cold War was the primary war that influenced the creation of covert operations. However, other wars like the Korean War played a part. Indeed, the Korean War contributed to CIA expansions on a fourfold coupled with newer emphasis about the paramilitary operations. According to Ray Cline, former Deputy Director of CIA it is during the Korean War that the CIA gained total authority, funding and real CIA mercenaries (Richelson, p. 44).
CIA operations were faced with many scandals. The Soviet threats contributed to uncovering the dirty tricks and scandals in the CIA. This puts CIA into the spot from where the covert operations were highly questioned particularly in these three events; Bay of Pigs, 1970s scandals and Iran-Contra.
However, none of these events affected the CIA covert activities but rather intensified their use. Moreover, the collapse of the Soviet Union did not affect the CIA covert operations. Instead, the agency’s operations remained intact and shifted priority to other areas (Richelson, p. 47).
Increasing of CIA’s Effectiveness Since the inception, the CIA had been continually furnished to improve its effectiveness. To begin with, the CIA would have been more effective by embracing the latest technologies. This highly helped the CIA to adjust to the environment impacted by advances in science and technology. 1963 saw the creation of the Directorate for Science and Technology (DDS
Air Pollution and Health Policy in China Proposal best college essay help
The proposed study aims to critically assess the health impact of various forms of air pollution arising from overreliance on coal so as to inform current and future health policy directions in China. Towards the realization of this specific aim, the study will be guided by the following research questions:
1. What are the factors that are influencing the current state of China’s coal production and use?
Some of the factors that influence the high production and use of coal in China include enormous population, rapid economic growth, urbanization, and high demand for energy due to rapid industrialization (Kuby et al 795; Zhang
World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) Essay essay help
Introduction Since time immemorial the world has witnessed wars between different groups, states, countries, and allies. Initially, the motive behind wars was survival. Ancient people fought in order to usurp land for cultivation. Gradually, as the world population grew, the motives behind wars became multifarious.
Different groups and countries started fighting with each other in order to gain control of areas where there were natural resources such as gold. Another reason for war was to gain access to routes generally used for movement of commodities from the starting place to the consumption areas.
It is understood that after a war, one group prospered at the cost of another. Religion also has been an instigating factor for many wars. However, in all the wars, the motive was to gain advantage of some sort.
During the past years, when countries came together as allies, there have been instances when allies of a particular group had to go to war just because they wanted to safeguard themselves from the disadvantages of not participating in the war. In this paper, we shall discuss the reasons that led to World War 1. “World War 1 began in eastern Europe. The war started when Serbia, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany decided that war or the risk of war was an acceptable policy option”.
Causes of World War 1 General Causes
1879 onwards, the world witnessed formation of alliances between nations having similar interests. Following are some of the major alliances that took place:
The Dual Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary entered into an alliance in 1879 in order to defend against Russia.
Austro-Serbian Alliance: Austria-Hungary and Serbia entered into an alliance in 1881 in order to prevent Russia from asserting power in Serbia.
The Triple Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary entered into an alliance with Italy in 1882 so that the latter could not favor Russia’s moves.
Franco-Russian Alliance: Russia and France entered into an alliance in 1894 in order to protect their countries from the Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Entente Cordiale: France and Britain entered into a formal agreement in 1904 in order to protect each other’s interests.
Anglo-Russian Entente: Britain and Russia entered into a formal agreement in 1907 in order to protect each other’s interests.
Triple Entente: Russia, France and Britain entered into an alliance to counteract Germany’s growing threats. Later, in 1914 and under the same alliance, all the three countries concurred that they will not sign any peace treaty without mutual consent.
All these alliances (from 1879 to 1914) forced some countries to go to war just because they were in some alliance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Imperialism
Imperialism is a term used for instances where any country usurps any other country’s land and asserts its supremacy and power. Due to the incessant progress of industrialization, countries felt the need of venturing into fresh marketplaces.
By the year 1900, Britain had extended its empire in five continents and France controlled major parts of Africa. The increase of both these countries’ power did not go well with Germany; Germany had only small areas under its rule. Following is a map that depicts the colonies of these three major European players in 1914.
William Anthony Hay claims that according to McMeekin, a tutor of international relations, “The war’s real catalyst lay in Russia’s ambition to supplant the waning Ottoman Empire in the Near East and to control the Turkish straits – the Bosphorus and Dardanelles – linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean”.
But Richard Evans contradicts this opinion by stating that “In the end it was the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia that set off the process that ended in the outbreak of World War 1, not Russian ambitions in the Straits. But if we think logically, no country will enter into a war without personal interests.
Alliances were also made to serve individual interests. So it is wrong to say that Russia did not have any interest or ambitions in the Straits. Russia was an industrialized nation and needed to sell its products to people in other nations. For this purpose, it needed a safe passage and new markets.
We will write a custom Essay on World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Militarism
When any country gives preference to its army, it is said to be following militarism. The growing alliances among various nations prompted nations to empower their army with more arms and ammunitions. France and Germany doubled the strengths of their respective armies.
Britain and Germany seemed to be in a competition of better sea control. In 1906, Britain launched the ‘Dreadnought’, considered to be a very efficient battleship. Following the footsteps, Germany also launched its own version of impressive battleships. The following illustration shows how Germany planned to attack France in case Russia attacked Germany; France and Russia were allies. So due to the alliance, Russia was bound to retaliate when one of its allies was attacked.
“A military revolution occurred in the seventeenth century. The most important of the many changes was a considerable growth in the size of the armies. Those large forces could no longer live off the land: steal supplies from the populace”.
We all have love for our respective countries. So did the people of that period. Austria-Hungary and Serbia had different radical groups trying to free their states from foreign involvement. Both Italy and Germany were divided. People of these countries wanted unification. “Along with the history of imperial machinations, however, World War 1 should be understood in the context of the popular imagination and the growth of nationalist sentiment in Europe”.
As part of an understanding, Britain gave control of Morocco to France in 1904. The Moroccan people wanted freedom. Germany, in order to take an advantage of the situation, proclaimed its support for the freedom of Morocco. A conference was held that allowed France to continue its control over Morocco and a war was averted. Again, in 1911, Germany started pronouncing its support for the Moroccan independence but again it was persuaded to compromise its stand on the issue.
Not sure if you can write a paper on World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bosnian Crisis
Bosnia (a Turkish province) was taken over by Austria-Hungary in 1908. This action of Austria-Hungary did not go well with the Serbians. The Serbians thought Bosnia was under them. As such, a conflict aroused. Serbia proclaimed war over Austria-Hungary. Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-Hungary. A war was about to start but at the nick of the time Russia backed off and the war was averted.
But tensions were still mounting up between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. “It is true that during July the German decision makers sometimes expressed the hope that the conflict would be localized: in other words that Austria would be able to vanquish Serbia without Russian Intervention”. Dale Copeland argues that “Germany actively sought war in July 1914 and that German leaders by the end of July preferred world war to a negotiated peace, even to one that gave Austria most of what it wanted”.
The Immediate Trigger
World War 1 started in the year 1914. The assassination of Austria’s Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, acted as a trigger to World War 1. Franz Ferdinand and his wife were murdered in 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, member of a Bosnian radical group. “The crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire decided, after the assassination on 28 June, to take action against Serbia, which was suspected of being behind the murder”.
This was considered to be an immediate reason for the war but the real reasons seem to be more complex and are still topics of debate among various historians. According to William Anthony Hay, “Germany bears responsibility for the war, in this view, because its leaders deliberately turned a regional clash between Austria-Hungary and Serbia into an existential Struggle of rival alliances”.
Hay is right in his opinion because history reveals that there were other options with Germany that could have averted the war. But since Germany wanted to gain on its own interests, it forced other countries to plunge into a war that they did not intend. “The size and wealth of the conquered Eastern territories easily outweighed what would have been lost had the Germans withdrawn from Belgium and France. Had they done so, France might have made peace and the anti-German coalition collapsed”.
Conclusion All these instances make us to believe that Germany was behind waging the World War 1. In its ambitions to usurp power, Germany was thought to have instigated the war. But it is to be understood that down the years, historians put an end to the controversy as to which country was responsible for the World War 1.
Historians from the two main countries (Germany and France) came to an understanding that none of their countries should be blamed for instigating World War 1. It was the policies of militarization of each of the participating countries that led to the war.
But certain facts still point the finger towards Germany. After the war started, some confidential documents were discovered that suggested that the German government had vast plans of extending its territory due to the economic requirements.
Bibliography Copeland, Dale. The Origins of Major War. New York: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Evans, Richard. “The Road to Slaughter.” New Republic. Last modified 2011. Web.
Fergusan, Niall. “Germany and the origins of the First World War: New Perspectives.” The Historical Journal 35, no. 3 (1992): 725-752.
Hamilton, Richard and Holger Herwig. The Origins of World War 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Hay, William. “Ambition in the East.” The Wall Street Journal. 2011. Web.
Merriman, John. “The Origins of World War 1.” Yale University. 2013. Web.
Sheffield, Gary. “The Origins of World War One.” BBC. 2011. Web.
Williamson, Samuel. “The Origins of World War 1.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (1988): 795-818.
Footnotes Samuel Williamson, “The Origins of World War 1,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (1988): 795.
William Anthony Hay, “Ambition in the East,” The Wall Street Journal, 2011.
Richard Evans, “The Road to Slaughter,” 2011.
Richard Hamilton and Holger Herwig, The Origins of World War 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 5.
John Merriman, “The Origins of World War 1,” Yale University, 2013.
Niall Fergusan, “Germany and the origins of the First World War: New Perspectives”, Historical Journal 35, no. 3 (1992): 731.
Dale Copeland, The Origins of Major War (New York: Cornell University Press, 2001), 79.
Gary Sheffield, “The Origins of World War One,” BBC, 08 March 2011.
William Anthony Hay, “Ambition in the East” in The Wall Street Journal
Gary Sheffield, “The Origins of World War One,” BBC, 08 March 2011.
Travelling across English Colonies Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
If I had an opportunity to travel across English colonies, I would have traveled to Jamestown because this was the first place that had been conquered by the British invaders. Besides, I could have become a witness of remarkable and historically important events that happened during the English colonization.
Located in Virginia, I could also chance to take part in establishing and developing colonies, as well enjoy the benefits of geographical location. There were also many other interesting events, including introduction to the indigenous culture, development of agriculture in the area, as well as acquaintance with the most influential figures in the history of colonization (Davidson et al. 6).
Finally, I could also have traced the origins of the historic survival of the newcomers on the Indian lands, particularly when the indigenous population rescued colonizers from hunger. However, I would prefer settling this territory after the years of hunger because these times were the most difficult ones for aristocratic population. Hence, I chose to stay at Jamestown for 15 years –from 1610 to 1624 – to trace economic, political, and cultural changes in the colonized region.
At the beginning of seventeenth century, many newcomers conquering Virginia were of aristocratic origins and, therefore, the main purpose of their expansion consisted in increasing the profits of the Virginia Company, the first enterprise established on the colonized territories.
Therefore, I could also have learnt much about the main underpinnings for the company’s activities, as well as their influence on the development and welfare of the colonized area. The significant economic progress would have allowed me to find a prestigious job and fulfill my professional goals.
Moreover, it could have become a marvelous opportunity for me to explore how ancient Americans adjusted to new economic conditions. Despite the rapid economic development, I would still be more concerned with cultural background of the period because this was an excellent opportunity to explore the history of Native Americans, as well as define why they had to confront the pressure on the part of the English colonists.
To increase the Virginia Company’s revenues, the new settlers tried a variety of small industries, including wood production, glassmaking, and potash production. However, none of the ventures had been successful until the production of tobacco was introduced by the colonist John Rolfe, an English newcomer who married Pocahontas, an indigenous girl.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this period, tobacco was among the most popular plants that had been growing in the New World and, therefore, it brought in considerable revenues. Living at the beginning of the seventeenth century could have provided me with new business opportunities for expanding commercial relations.
Economic progress, therefore, could have created new ways for promoting my business and establishing fruitful relationships with Native Americans, who possessed valuable experience in cultivating land. Further expansion and growth of tobacco business allowed the settlers to carry out first export of the product to other countries and continents. The development of tobacco production influenced the decision of King James I to dissolve the Virginia Company and focus on other fields of potential growth.
Continued expansion and planting activities on the conquered had led to rapid development of agriculture. As soon as Indian tribes and English newcomers managed to establish peaceful relationships, the first assembly in Jamestown had decided to create the government of Virginia that could ensure justice and wealthy existences of all the inhabited people. This government was called the House of Burgesses, the precursor of the Virginia General Assembly.
The created group consisted of such influential figures as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Patrick Henry. All these political and economic activists lived at the beginning of the seventeenth century and, therefore, I could have had the possibility to gain knowledge about their policies, reforms, and activities. I could also have witnessed the development of four districts in the city that the colonist introduced to take greater control of the territory.
The representative government of English in the New World introduced a number of laws, causing numerous confrontations with indigenous population. In particular, a 1622 war with Indians, as well as multiple rebellions of the Indian population against the government is presented as the most abhorrent event in American history. As a result of such confrontations, the company had been destroyed in 1624 and the king of the colony had made the district royal.
from significant political development, I could also have traced the first arrival of African-American workers who had been originally recognized as servants. Based on the agreement, the workers had to work on the land for several years to be able to own it in future. Therefore, this period could also be considered successful because the agreement did not imply slavery or limitation to immigrants’ freedom.
With regard to the above-presented events, the last years of my staying at the colonies would have been the most difficult ones because the Indian population resisted the development of English colony. As a result, the events of 1622 related to the most horrible ones because they were connected with Indian Massacre, when more than 300 new settles had been killed.
We will write a custom Assessment on Travelling across English Colonies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I believe that rapid spread of Christianity and economic development as a means of demonstrating power and influence of England was not a good policy because most of the explorers failed to express tolerance to religion and culture of the Indian tribes. However, abundance of resources that could contribute to the colonists’ wealth, as well as reluctance to cede the positions to the native population, had become the main reason for the emerged conflicts.
Jamestown continued controlling social and political life in Virginia, although the legislature and excess pressure of the newcomers made the Indian population constantly encounter segregation and violent treatment. Despite the fact that the period from 1610 to 1624 had a great number of hardships for the English colonist arriving to the coasts of Northern American, the new settlers managed to overcome the difficulties and create a powerful commercial, economic, and political infrastructure.
Therefore, Jamestown could be regarded as the most successful and prosperous centre at the beginning of the English colonization. Most of the events occurred to the region were connected with economic and commercial progress and, therefore, I could have had marvelous opportunities for carrying out business activities in case they were connected with agriculture.
Tobacco production was also among the most profitable ventures and, therefore, the New World during the period was also considered as the place for establishing commercial and business ventures. Finally, due to the fact that most of clashes between the Native population and the newcomers were based on religious discrepancies, I would have expressed more tolerance to their culture and traditions.
Works Cited Davidson James West, Delay Brian, Heyrman Christine Leigh, Lytle Mark, and Michael Stoff. Experience History: Interpreting America’s Past. US: McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2010. Print.
The Islamic Societies History Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Territorial expansion of Islam
Introduction Islam plays a significant role in lives of many believers. It has been the unifying factor for many Muslims due to belief in one God and Muhammad as His Prophet. This essay explores the views of Muslims on the role of religion, politics, and military affairs, and how did this play out in the territorial expansion of Islam.
Religion Prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the seventh century AD. The religion spread through trade routes of the time. He claimed that he was getting messages from God. Muhammad claimed to be a prophet just like Moses and Jesus. However, Muhammad fled to Mecca and established a state of Medina where he found Pagan Arabs.
Muhammad engaged in assault of traders by attacking merchant caravans from his base in Medina. Pagan Arabs reacted by using armed soldiers on their trade routes. However, in the Battle of Badr, Muslims defeated Pagan Arabs, and this marked the spread of Islam. He expanded his territory in the following decades in which he fought both Pagan Arabs and other Arab tribes.
Muhammad guaranteed his soldiers everlasting life if they defended their faith. Muhammad became powerful and expelled the two tribes Medina due poor relationships. He massacred the third tribe of Banu Qurayza in Medina. He proceeded to take control of Mecca and establish control over other Pagan Arabs. He forcefully converted these Pagan Arabs to Islam.
The role of Islam depends on the five Pillars of Quran. Muhammad and Quran traditions have the fundamental rules directing Muslims. Islam controls believers’ right actions and rules. The religion has five pillars. The foremost pillar is the witness or shuhuduh, which highlights the existence of only one God and Muhammad is God’s prophet.
Therefore, any believer who does not recognize God, or has more than one God and rejects Muhammad as the prophet is an apostate. This is punishable by killing. The second pillar is the worship or salat or ritual prayer, which believers must conduct while facing the Kabah in Mecca and recite Quran. Salat is a way of cleansing and worshipping God.
The third pillar is fasting or saturn, which Muslims perform during the month of Ramadan. The fourth pillar is giving or zakat of tithe or alms. Zakat serves the purpose of helping the needy. It encourages Muslims to share whatever they have with the poor in society. The fifth pillar is pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca. Muslims should visit Mecca at least once in a lifetime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the five pillars, there are also other aspects of teaching that guide Muslims. Jihad in reference to war has been one of the most controversial pillars of Islam. According to Muslims, jihad wars are for God. However, others consider jihad as fundamentalism and a reaction to non-Muslims and other religions (Armstrong 169).
Muslims consider fighting against people who do not believe in God as right. Believers also fight people who have rejected the teachings of Prophet Muhammad until they can recognize both God and messages from Muhammad. Scholars have noted that Muslims attribute various meanings to jihad based on various contexts (Habeck 108). Some consider jihad as a fight against Jews, Christians, or Arab pagans. Other Muslims view jihad as a means of protecting Islam against external aggressors.
Politics Most states find it difficult to balance religious and secular aspects of rules. However, religion and politics have fundamental roles in states. A study in teachings of Muhammad reveals that Muhammad and his successors and followers introduced politics into Islam.
When Muhammad went to Medina in 622 CE, he used Islam to conquer and establish political territories. The warring tribes of Khazraj and Aus gave Muhammad an opportunity to rule as a neutral outsider. He wrote the Medina Charter, which gave him the power to rule, and it referred to him as the prophet of God.
Muhammad established the Medina Charter based on Quran and his actions. These are the Islamic laws or Sharia. They have been the cornerstone of Islamic movements and territorial expansions to present day. Muhammad used these Islamic laws to spread his power by capturing Mecca and other Pagan Arabs. He used the army and followers to fight Arab Pagans and Jewish. In some cases, Muhammad used diplomacy to conquer regions.
In the contemporary society, we have several Islamic democratic societies and parties. At the same time, we also have Islamic fundamentalists in various countries across the globe. Islamic fundamentalism is a term many non-Muslims used to refer to radical approaches most Muslims use to support or defend their religion. Such political and religious ideas have also found formidable support from terror groups and militant Islamic movements.
States are political vehicles for the actors or political leaders. However, secularism defines a religious state from other states. In other words, secular states welcome ideologies from religious bodies for creating fundamental laws that govern a country. We can understand the role of Islam and politics from this point.
We will write a custom Essay on The Islamic Societies History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We can consider “human rights, aspects of civic responsibilities, constitutionalism, and citizenship” (An-Na’im 4) in order to understand the relationship between Islam and politics. It is important to note that Islam and politics have their origin in history. Sharia laws allow people to have debates and reach consensus.
This is why Islam accepts some views, which Muslims formerly regarded as dissent. Islamic teaching of reciprocity or mu’awada also encourages debates, which should accommodate differences and guarantee individuals’ rights. This is the Golden Rule of the religion.
However, in the mainstream Islamic law fails to separate issues of states and the religion. It is Islamic laws that have applied in most cases. Studies have shown that contact with the West brought some secular ideas into Islamic, but reactions were different among various states.
For instance, some Islamic nations like Turkey and others have operated as secular countries. On the other hand, the Iran Revolution of 1979 replaced secularism with Islamic laws. Secularism has been a major uniting factor among different communities of Islam nations. This is because it favors minimal moral obligations on believers (An-Na’im 23).
Muhammad used Islamic laws as a constitution to run Mecca and conquer new states. Today, constitution aims at protecting Muslims by ensuring that rulers follow and engage in acceptable practices. Muslims have a right to create their own constitution to serve their needs. However, the only challenge is that a constitution should serve majorities who do not have control over a nation.
Politically, Muslim culture should advocate for human rights and today, most Muslim nations have started to adhere to human rights practices across the world. This aims at protecting individuals from harsh laws, which Islamic fundamentalists impose on the perceived offenders.
It is also necessary for Muslims to accept both teachings from international conventions and teachings from Quran. This approach does not undermine both conventions. As Muslims advocate for citizenship, they must rely on the principle of the Golden Rule. This gives all citizens equal opportunities. Therefore, political leaders must act with responsibility and honesty toward citizens.
In modern states of Islam, secular nations should be neutral with regard to political affairs. However, the state must understand the role of Islamic religion in shaping public affairs. In this context, civic reasons should work alongside religion principles in order to shape public policies. This is because religion alone cannot serve diverse interests of people. According to early historians in the Islamic religion, civic reason is a part of Islamic principles, which evolved with Islam (Feldman 9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Islamic Societies History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Civic reason tends to show the line between the state and religion. This aims at protecting Muslims so that they can express their different views without attacks. In this regard, the state should not control the functions of civic reason. Instead, the state should support fundamental principles to guide civic reason for inclusive purposes.
Islamic scholars have supported the place of Islamic religion in politics. They also noted that Western civilization slowed the spread of Islamic ideologies (Feldman 79). Therefore, effects of Western colonialism in Islamic states have shaped political ideologies in such states.
For instance, in current Islamic states, Mostapha Benhenda notes that democracy within “Islam often means democracy within Islamic limits” (Benhenda 1). This implies that Muslims have shaped their current governments to reflect Islamic ideologies. However, different states have different approaches of defining their Islamic ideologies based on the prevailing circumstances.
Most democratic Islamic groups, such as Muslim Brotherhood and Jamaat-e-Islami have noted that democracy can help them achieve their goals through cooperation with other like-minded political movements. On the other hand, fundamentalists like al-Shabbab, al-Qaeda, and Taliban have embraced radical and militant Islamic principles to punish perceived offenders of the religion.
Military affairs Prophet Muhammad encouraged his followers to fight jihad. This meant that the fight was in the way of God. Therefore, Muslims had to use their power, exert efforts, and endeavor in order to overcome forms of social disapproval. However, the application of jihad differs based on the perceived sin, enemy, or one’s sinful ways.
Based on these various usages of jihad, scholars concur that when the term jihad lacks a qualifier, then it takes its military usage. Others have viewed jihad in terms of a struggle to achieve religious and moral obligations (Esposito 56). Still, there are Muslims who prescribe to the ultimate jihad, which only focuses on spiritual well-being of believers. On the other hand, we also have a jihad that drives warfare ideologies.
Most Islamic states consider jihad as a military exertion against enemies, non-believers, and non-Muslims. This is mainly in cases where Muslims need to expand their territory or Ummah or in the defense. Scholars have debated the ultimate aim of jihad. Others consider it as a way of protecting Islamic religion or territory with no offensive motives. Conversely, others view jihad as a way of conquering the entire world.
According to many scholars, “jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims or hamper proselytizing efforts” (Habeck 108). As a result, many Muslims believe that jihad is the only form of war that is suitable for defense. It also applies in cases where a society must operate under Sharia or Islamic laws.
Among Muslims, jihad is not an individual’s responsibility, but rather a collective one. It is only among people with important positions who must consider jihad as an individual’s duty. Therefore, people who have great duties to declare jihad must mobilize the rest of the population in order to participate in jihad.
It is the responsibility of spiritual leader to declare offensive jihad on others. However, offensive jihad is rare. Some scholars also note that jihad has its limits. For instance, Muhammad did not allow killing of women and children during jihad. Besides, the Quran does not make jihad a compulsory affair.
Muslim armies stayed away from cities in order to avoid corruption of cities. The second Caliph, Umar did not want desert soldiers to adopt corruption in cities. Umar did not want soldiers to learn behaviors of Roman and Persian elites. As a result, soldiers had to stay in isolated camps away from cities. Caliph argued that the attraction of wealth and luxury would corrupt the soldiers. This was also a method of keeping soldiers away from the general population in order to avoid struggle for control with other authorities.
Territorial expansion of Islam Initially, Islam was mainly in cities and among some nomads. The armies of Muhammad established garrisons, which grew into cities. These conquerors spread the religion forcefully and by diplomatic means. The religion attracted other nomads as it gained economic power too. Later, Muhammad allowed imperial expansion of Islam (Karsh 19).
Muhammad died in 632 AD. Caliphs took over the leadership of Islam. Caliphs were close to Muhammad. Rashidun Caliphs adopted the Muhammad’s method of acquiring new territories. Abu Bakr became a Caliph after the death of Muhammad. His major assignment was to eliminate rebellion of Arab tribes, which renounced the religion after the death Muhammad.
This was the beginning of the War of Apostasy, which aimed at suppressing rebels. After the end of the War of Apostasy, Caliph started to attack powerful empires of the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire. These two empires did not provide much resistance to Muslims because they were weak from war between themselves.
The second wave of Islamic territorial expansion used both persuasion and military force. Military expansion became the preferred method of expanding the territory of the religion. According to scholars in Islamic history, the Arab or Turkish conquerors applied force in “North Africa, Anatolia, the Balkans, and India” (Lapidus 198).
In other areas, such as West Africa and Indian Ocean regions, they used peace to spread the religion. In other cases, rulers or urban dwellers decided to adopt the religion. It is necessary to note that most coverts of Islam also resorted to forceful methods in order to expand their territories (Spencer 150).
Conclusion Muslims expanded their territories through persuasion and wars. However, Muslims relationships depicted of invasions, conquests, and destruction. Muslims’ powerful leaders also rose and fell as some of them committed atrocities against non-Muslims and people who resisted the religion. Islamic religion managed to maintain its stability and spread in most areas of the despite these cases constant wars. Roles of Islam are important for followers. However, the forceful and radical approaches make Islam feared and controversial.
Works Cited An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. The Future of Shari`a: Secularism from an Islamic Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Emory School of Law, 2007. Print.
Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library Publishers, 2002. Print.
Benhenda, Mostapha. “Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground.” Politics, Philosophy
A Discussion on the Effects of Geography online essay help: online essay help
The assigned reading demonstrates how history is filled with various accounts of man’s conquest at the sea. Through the act of piercing together various evidentiary accounts dating back to prehistoric times, the reading brings into the limelight some of the factors that came into play to favor the development of sailing in the Arabian shores and beyond. The present paper relies on the reading to demonstrate how geography and climate favored the development of Arab seafaring.
In terms of geographical orientation, it can be argued that Arab seafaring benefited a great deal by virtue of the Arabian physical location at the crossroads of important commerce routes that not only necessitated oriental trade with the Mediterranean world but also ensured easy flow of goods via the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Suez and the Persian Gulf.
It is clear from the reading that owing to its physical location at the epicenter of these natural waterways, that Arabian commerce with neighboring countries was invited to the west by the long shores of Northeast Africa and to the Northeast by the long shores of Iran.
Additionally, owing to its physical location, the Arab world was in direct contact with some of the most ancient centers of wealth and civilization, including Egypt, Iran, and Mesopotamia, implying that more commerce passed its way as goods were being transported from these centers to far away countries such as China and India.
Wares from China and India also passed through the Arab world into these centers because Arabs had easy access to the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. The Arab world also benefitted substantially from the Red Sea, the Nile, the Euphrates and the Tigris, which were natural channels that could be used for through traffic of goods between the Mediterranean basin and Eastern Asia. These geographical factors favored the development and growth of Arab seafaring.
In terms of climate, it can be argued that Arab seafaring benefited a great deal from the monsoon winds, which, according to the reading, assisted voyages both to Africa and to India.
However, it should be noted that Arab ships could not stand the vigor of the southwest monsoon winds which started in July and terminated in October due to the fact that the boats were made of skins and hollowed coconut trunks, not mentioning that they were sewn with stitches of coconut fiber instead of being secured with large iron nails as was the case with Greek ships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it is imperative to mention that the Persian Gulf not only lacked craftsmen to build strong ships, but the area produced little suitable timber for shipbuilding, necessitating Arab seafarers to build their boats from coconut trunks that could easily fall apart in high seas.
Consequently, owing to the unstable shape of the Arab ships as explained above, the reading suggests that Arab seafarers used the northeast monsoon to sail to countries such as India as it was not as vigorous as the southwest monsoon.
All the same, it is evident that Arab seafarers benefitted a great deal from the monsoon winds as they later employed the services of the Phoenicians to build strong ships from timber fetched from Nineveh. These new ships could withstand the strong southwest monsoon winds to directly sail from Arabia to India and then return in winter using the northeast monsoon winds.
Faith and Family: Video Review Essay (Movie Review) essay help online free: essay help online free
The significance of a family as a building block of the community is enormous because it is important for each individuals to have a feeling of connection. Indeed, family shapes our attitude to morale, divorce, religion, and beliefs. It provides a deeper understanding of people’s future goals in life. While looking at the videos on family and faith, it is possible to construct the basic values that a human should pursue to become a moral and full-fledged member of society.
At this point, understanding morally right beliefs and behavior should serve the basis for developing worldviews. Family relationships provide individuals with a meaning of parenting and upbringing through enhancing our religious commitment and faith. Increased awareness of the role of family’s ethnic heritage is important as well because it affects people’s attitude toward their cultural backgrounds. Finally, the ethnic and social values influence the religious responses of family members to social and cultural challenges.
In the first video, much attention is given to the role of religion and faith in family life. In particular, traditional beliefs systems that family follows are premised on social environment in which it is placed.
In fact, deep commitment to and faith in family’s power influences their interest in such aspects as social justice and belief systems. At this point, the majority of families realize that religious has always had a strong influence on them because members of society are regarded as future representatives of generation that should preserve family traditions.
Certainly, the religion accepted in a family is likely to influence children’s future belief systems. Within this perspective, the fact that religious parents have a strong impact on their children’s choices is not always approved.
However, children should not be under the pressure of parents’ preferences and stereotypes because there is greater probability that they would rebel. Imposing limitations on their choices does not contribute to children’s normal emotional and psychological development. Therefore, providing freedom in their actions is the best way for parents to control their children.
The fact that ethnicity influences considerably family’s culture, values, and environment is undeniable. Therefore, such challenges as racial discrimination, inequality, and limited freedom are among the most serious ones that families from minority groups can face. In the video, there is much concern about the difficulties that African-American communities encounter due to the crisis of social and ethnical values. In fact, the historical past has a tangible imprint on black families who strive to lead a normal life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result of social and cultural pressure, African American communities also have problems with children’s upbringing who often lack communication skills. The majority of kids do not posses the sense of family belonging because of their ethnical ancestry. Nevertheless, the community should strive to reduce the consequences of racial discrimination and harassment to build a healthy community.
Finally, in order to build a strong family with high moral values, the emphasis should be placed on religious responses to the social challenges. In particular, the video focuses on the achievements and contributions that religious communities and church made to improve the situation.
Introducing mentors who could encourage frustrated families is a step forward toward restoring the utmost family values and developing a new ethical and moral framework. In such a manner, it is also possible to reduce the number of divorce and bring up a happy nation.
Economic Analysis of Germany Case Study college admissions essay help
Major macro-economic indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013(f) GDP Growth (%) 3.6% 2.7% 3.1% 0.9% Inflation (Yearly average) (%) 1.1% 2.2% 1.99% 1.3% Budget balance (% of GDP) 4.2% 0.8% 0.2% 0.4% Current account balance (% of GDP) 6.11% 5.63% 5.65% 5.69% Public debt (% of GDP) 83.4% 81.5% 83% 81% Strengths Germany is characterized by a thriving export industry, strict discipline on fiscal matters and industrial relations and welfare policies which are driven by consensus among all parties. The country is specifically associated with goods of high quality and goods that are high-tech. It also practices a social market economy which is characterized by a combination of free enterprise and competition that concentrates on high level of social services.
Germany’s economy is ranked third largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and fifth largest one in terms of purchasing power parity. There is social understanding and cohesion among employers and employees, and the workers’ union representatives negotiate with executives of corporate companies in boardrooms. This system is referred to as co-determination.
Germany is also credited with having the largest coal deposits among the European Union countries, estimated at 7.4 billion short tons. This state has also put in place a highly developed transport and communications network which helps in transportation of goods and services (Merikas
Psychology of Business Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Literature Review Situational Questionnaires
While filling out the situation questionnaire, specific emphasis is placed on the analysis of situations the interviewees could face in various settings. At this point, Deinzer et al. (1995) assert that situation has a potent impact on the individual’s traits and behavior. Latent forms of expression and exposition, therefore, could be revealed by means of situational questionnaire.
In addition, Isaksen et al. (2001) focuses on the role of situational outlook questionnaire in improving or hampering the creative thinking among learners. The findings have revealed that learners rely on their experience while presenting their attitude to an academic process.
Behavioral psychology has a long history because it allows the researchers to identify the main aspects of social cognition. Therefore, introducing behavioral questionnaires provides a greater understanding how individuals respond to certain factors (Rath et al., 2013). Introducing behavioral questionnaires to the participants of the study contributes to self-evaluation of performance and other characteristics.
Analysis of spatial intelligence is also crucial for understanding which skills, experiences, and abilities could be measured by means of behavioral questionnaire (Eliot
Toy Story 1: An animation legend Research Paper custom essay help
Before Toy Story 1, Pixar previously worked on commercials and individual sequences of feature films and produced such short pieces as the 1988 Oscar-winner Tin Toy, which John Lasseter took on behalf of Pixar.
When it turned out that he was the one to direct Toy Story, it became a legend and revolutionized an industry. As a production director, he advanced the animation technology to produce an animation movie in a period of two years, integrating skills of more than 110 people, including 28 animators and 30 technical directors. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
Animation development is done through several techniques including stop motion, computer generated imagery (CGI) and hand-rendered art, among others. Stop motion involves the use of physical objects, photographing them and creating an illusion of movement through moving the object over a series of separate photography frames and then playing these frames sequentially.
Computer generated imagery involves the use of computer graphics, while hand-rendered art involves drawing scenes physically. An animation can be performed through a combination of such techniques. Exclusive production of Toy Story 1 is done by Computer Generated Imagery. Computer Generated Imagery involves three basic steps.
First, it is necessary to develop a wire frame geometric model for every object of the animation. Secondly, defining surface appearances, such as textures, color and reaction to light, is needed. The last step to perform is to execute the scenes, which is done by animating objects, integrating sound and light (Mitchel “Impact of CGI on Animation”).
Considering animation production of Toy Story 1, it should be noted that it is performed completely by computers, then computing power is of top priority. Pixar developed a unique computing room for Toy Story 1. The 24-hour operating room, named Sun farm after its excessive use of Sun Microsystems hardware, was created.
It had 294 processors running from Sun SPARC station 20s–87 dual-processor and 30 quad-processor SPARC stations. With the use of exceptional software for modeling, creating texture and colors, animating objects, integrating sound and lighting, the production included 1700 shots. It is the running of these frame animations which creates this computer-animated film, Toy Story 1.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in Computer Generated Imagery animation is generating animated objects. With over 366 objects, it required a dedicated team of artists to use this proprietary shelf software.
With the exception of the digitization of the clay model of dog Scud, all other objects were designed by sole use of Alias and Men V software. The latter is procedural modeling environment fourth generation Pixar software, which was used to create a five-block neighborhood with immense details, so that each house has its own driveway and landscape or even the cars and telephone poles.
The software used revolutionized the way of creating animated characters, such as designing a manufactured look for Woody. In creating some objects, modelers used some parts of the objects to make other ones; this practice came into play in creating things and humans through appropriating sizes and magnitudes. To create hair in animations, such as Andy’s hair, is quite a complex task; it took Pixar 6 years, after finishing Toy Story 1, to perfect this technique to produce Monster Inc in 2001. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
After modeling the underlying object skeleton; step two is the next to be followed. In this step of computer generated imagery animators, it is necessary to define the surface appearance of each object like color, texture and transparency. This involves the use of a specialized animation-computing tool, Shaders. Apart from describing outlook of object’s surfaces, it defines their reaction to light. An added twist to this mix was using top animation painters to paint splotches to incorporate into the software set.
This created a realistic effect of surface change in the occurrence of actions on the object and creating a background disparity and depth. An integral development of this software enabled the Pixar team to reduce the number of models needed, instead of creating models for providing minor details on existing objects; the result of complex software development was ability of Shaders to create a rich texture, such as scuffmarks on the walls. Further modification of this software was crucial to handle close-ups.
Third step was in parts animating the objects, lighting, inclusion of sound and finally, film shooting. In Toy Story 1, the animation of all the 50 characters including main characters, other toys and humans was needed. Human toys were complex to animate, especially due to clothes, which require a lot of details to be taken into account.
Characters’ animation was accomplished by Men V, implementing animation controls into the models, such as Buzz’s 800 animation controls. This software uses an inverse standard animation toolset. The assignment of characters was to multiple animators, each animator was working on a movie frame. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Toy Story 1: An animation legend specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Animation is quite a tedious yet still stimulating activity. The first step was analysis of the characters make-up, such as rigidity, then repeatedly listening to the dialog track in order to grow an imagination of their expectations of character’s movement in a given frame. After character’s animation is done, facial animation and lip sync came in; it included the development of character faces with pull points for facial muscles, which were essential to depict emotions and lips’ move in tandem with voice. (Calhoun “Toy Story”)
With animated models and sound built in, one detail was missing, lighting. Galyn Susman, a long standing Pixar employee, was the lighting director. With Man V, modelers created objects’ reaction to the light, which was quite essential development for this stage.
Importance of lighting cannot be underestimated because this is what creates drama, interaction, environments as well as hides animation flaws. The dramatic environment, such as a shower of rain and light streaming out, is a good example where lightning plays the major role. Animation of humans was a challenge; covering any of their animation flaws in shadow was a necessary action.
For Pixar, much used to just creating commercials, movie production required a different form of management. A team of Heidi Stettner and Peter Nye led by Karen Robert created a tracking system for the production. The system had complete information of everything in the movie. It was an all-inclusive system, which had versions of all details of the production work and the updates. The string tied the production all together.
The Pixar team succeeded in turning imagination of children’s book to a real movie. In the process, it built a new world for us, a world filled with animated humans and living toys. On November 22, 1995, launch of Toy Story 1 took an industry by storm by becoming a clear box office winner through gaining $361 million.
Years later, 2010 to be exact, after much tweaking with the software in areas, such as lighting and Shaders, though not under Lasseter’s wing, Toy Story 3 became the tenth all time grossing animated film and the most grossing animation, with unfathomable $1 billion at the box office (Mitchel “Impact of CGI on Animation”).
Works Cited Calhoun, John. “Toy Story”. TCI. February 1996. Print.
Mitchel, David. “Impact of CGI on Animation” zenoshrdlu, 2002. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toy Story 1: An animation legend by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Robertson, Barbara. “A Triumph of Animation”. Computer Graphics World Magazine – August 1995. Print.
Death Lore: Texas Rituals, Superstitions, and Legends of the Hereafter Essay (Article) college application essay help
Table of Contents What does Death Lore entail?
What does death encompass?
Is the research done in the field of Death Lore enough?
Untiedt looks at some of the key aspects that encompass death, dying and other aspects. He affirms that death is familiar and universal to all societies in the world. Thus, this has ensured that there are tales, activities and even beliefs that involve death. These aspects cannot be separated from each other because they encompass uncertainty and anxiety.
Most people do not talk about death because it is perceived as a taboo. In fact, conversations avoid death aspects. Besides, it is a topic that fascinates all people in all societies. Although, writers have written on aspects of death, there are many aspects unknown to people.
What does Death Lore entail? Therefore, fear, mystery and familiarity make death the focus of most folklore. This has seen the writing of many articles that try to address the issue of death. For instance, in Texas, publications on the same topic have facilitated folkloristic appreciation and understanding of the same.
Besides, this is aimed at educating the people of their culture without interfering with values that are upheld in society. Hence, Death Lore encompasses a number of articles, recollections and other topics on death from other parts of the world (Untiedt, 1). Further, it links the same to the beliefs and values of the people of the state of Texas.
Untiedt also explores the resting places of the dead people. For instance, he enlightens the people of Texas on the graveyards and all that go around them. Further, he looks at the challenges involved in cemetery space allocation. Besides, Untiedt brings out some of the bizarre wishes that are made by families of the dead people.
What does death encompass? Moreover, the Untiedt highlights some of the death process and the ceremonies that follow thereafter. Besides, he addresses some rituals that are done for the dead. This is achieved through the use of narratives. He also incorporates the work of other authors such as Massingills and Oden to highlight the worth of death lore for the people in various societies.
In fact, death Lore highlights different perspectives about death in various societies. Therefore, there is the likelihood of raising many questions rather than giving answers. It has not been able to address some of the aspects that encompass the Texas Death lore. For example, death has not been explored in the computer age (Untiedt, 288). However, this does not deter a person from appreciating all that has been done by authors like Ward and Rushing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Is the research done in the field of Death Lore enough? What is more, there are gaps regarding the Texas Death lore. This has been intentionally left to facilitate other researches on the same topic. This would also act, as a motivator, to ensure that people are involved in carrying out research. Furthermore, this will ensure that there is extra exploration in the field of death. Thus, there will be more sources with appropriate and valid data to be used than before.
In summary, Untiedt’s literature highlights the relationship between the fascination and taboos regarding death. This forms the foundation for further research on issues of death. Therefore, it gives other authors a challenge that needs to be solved. In fact, his work encourages others to find anecdotal and analytic issues that underpin deaths in societies.
Works Cited Untiedt, Kenneth. “Death Lore: Texas Rituals, Superstitions, and Legends of the Hereafter.” Journal of American Folklore (2008): 288- 290. Print.
Company Analysis between FedEx and US Postal Service Term Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Overview of the USPS and FedEx
Overview of US Postal Service
Overview of FedEx Corporation
Competiveness between US Postal Service and FedEx
Overview of the USPS and FedEx The contemporary economy provides both opportunities and challenges for the logistics companies in the United States and the entire world. Most companies are, therefore, coming up with competitive strategies that are meant to help them withstand the challenges, thus enhancing their competitiveness in the logistics sector.
FedEx and the United States Postal Service (USPS) and FedEx are examples of companies that operate in the larger US logistics sector. The last two decades have witnessed a significant rise in cross border trade. This has been enabled by an increase in the number of shipments of goods from one region of the world to the other. Also, the volumes of trade within countries keep swelling, thus enhancing the significance of the companies that deal in delivery of goods to customers.
Overview of US Postal Service The USPS is a logistics company that deals in the provision postal services across the United States. The US Postal Service is a government owned agency that has dealt in the provision of postal services for over two centuries. The most unique feature between the US Postal Service and FedEx is the size of US Postal Service. The US Postal Service is the largest postal service company in the world. It should be noted that though it is government owned, the agency operates independently. With over a half a million employees and over a quarter a million fleet of vehicles, the company supplies and delivers mails across the entire United States.
Being the main government owned agency in the logistics sector in the United States, the main competitors for the company are private companies like FedEx. In order to enhance its capacity to deliver services, the US Postal Service contracts most of its activities to other companies. Contracting eases the competitive scale for the company, besides increasing efficiency in the discharge of services, particularly in business areas like overseas freighting in which the company is disadvantaged (Team, 2012).
Overview of FedEx Corporation FedEx Corporation is a United States based global courier that delivers services across the United States. FedEx began its operations in the year 1971. However, the real stature of the company today is based on the developments in the company from the 1980s up to today, where the company made a series of acquisitions in order to gain the status it has today.
FedEx is organized into diverse units, which makes it easy for the company to attend to diverse business operations. FedEx operates as an international carrier, unlike the US Postal Services that largely operates in the United States and contracts most of its foreign shipment services to other companies. At the beginning of this year, the company was listed in the Fortune Magazine as the most attractive companies for employees (Rushton
Understanding Technology Management Fundamentals Research Paper essay help online
Introduction Acquisitions, mergers, and or strategic alliances make it possible to create values that are attributed to some forms of synergies. Although such an advantage is beneficial for the American Airlines and the US Airways, “statistical findings show that the benefits that look so good on paper often do not materialize” (Stahl, 2004, p.3).
Mergers may at times produce value destruction. Literature on acquisitions and mergers record failure rates in the range of 50 to 70 percent with exceptions where the failure rate may even be higher (Stahl, 2004). This paper argues that, in the proposed merger of American Airlines and the US Airways, companies should put in place strategic measures to resolve internal challenges for the merger to be successful.
Problem Analysis Fare regulation and Labor integration challenge
One of the substantive impacts of the merger between the US Airways and the American Airlines is that competition in the industry would be reduced. Portillo (2013) supports this challenge by reckoning, “the combination will reduce the number of competitors, which would otherwise suggest that higher fares are in the offing” (Para.11).
Even if this challenge is crucial, the American Airlines and the US Airways have had little overlaps since the two companies have established strong brand names. Merging the two companies would mean putting efforts to establish a new brand. Portillo (2013) exemplifies the overall internal impact of this case by arguing, “the merger will result in the loss of one airline brand name though the net to the consumer will not be some octopus-like monopoly that chokes fares upward” (Para.13).
In the airline industry, competition is one of the magnificent factors that make companies build their brands based on low fares. Merging the companies translates into a reduction of the industry’s competition. Hence, it is more likely that fares would go up across the entire firms operating in the industry. More effects are perhaps expected in the routes where the American Airlines and the US Airways have been dominating together.
Past research indicated that mergers fail because of poor strategic fits. Research that is more recent disapproves this position by holding that mergers and acquisitions find themselves in trouble due to poor execution processes related to “instances of insensitive management, lack of trust building, communication, slow execution, power struggles, or a leadership vacuum following the deal” (Stahl, 2004, pp. 3-4).
As an internal challenge facing mergers, leadership manifests itself for reasons stemming from the fact that the merger firms had some existing hierarchical leadership structures, which cannot be filled with dual person in the new firm. For the merger between the American Airlines and the US Airways, the above issue surfaced even before the execution of the merger deal took place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it has already been agreed upon, “Tom Horton, chief executive of American Airlines’ parent company AMR Corp., will serve as the company’s chairman for about a year, and Parker will become the chairman upon his resignation” (Portillo, 2004, Para. 2).
While the deal for the leadership top positions seems to have already been arrived at, the criteria for allocation of leadership positions in the lower hierarchical structures of management in the merger may create challenges thus often truncating into internal organizational conflicts.
Still in the domain of mergers’ leadership, different organizations establish different organizational cultures. Therefore, a challenge arises in the integration of different corporate cultures into one culture (Klein
International Pressure and Sanctions Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How International Action Contributed to Ending Apartheid
Introduction The apartheid system, which was in place from the late 1940s to the early 1990s in South Africa, was one of the worse examples of discrimination and racism by a government against its citizens. This system divided South Africans into first class and second-class citizens based on their racial orientation.
The minority white South Africans were afforded all the political privileges and given the status of “first class citizens” while the other races were treated as inferior. The South African government tried to justify this discriminative system to its citizens and the international community. However, local and international condemnation of the system grew over the 1960s with calls been made for the government to end this oppressive system.
The relative importance of the domestic and international in bringing an end to apartheid is debatable with some people arguing that black South Africans political participation in anti-apartheid movements played the biggest role while others argue that actions by the international community where the most significant in dismantling apartheid. This paper will argue that international pressure and sanctions were the most important factors in ending apartheid in South Africa.
How International Action Contributed to Ending Apartheid The economic sanctions imposed on the apartheid government led to economic difficulties that made the apartheid system unfavorable. The goal of imposing sanctions against South Africa was to reduce the economic welfare of the rich white minority in the country and hence diminish the willingness of the country to persist in maintaining apartheid.
In spite of the country’s mineral wealth and valuable geographic position, the international community was not willing to downplay apartheid (Thomson 114). Western powers encouraged their citizens to disinvest in South Africa. This disinvestment by capital by foreigners led to a significant reduction in the wealth of the white minority therefore raising the costs of apartheid for the group that had benefited from the system.
Kaempfer and Lowenberg note that the economic sanctions against South Africa resulted in a reduction of the GDP of the country (377). These negative economic outcomes led to a change in the behavior of the South African government in the desired direction. Economic sanctions contributed in the dismantling of apartheid by reducing the economic welfare of the white minority who were the main beneficiaries of the apartheid system.
The isolation brought about by international pressure decreased government efficiency and the local support for apartheid. Led by the United Nations, many countries condemned the policy of apartheid and called for its end. Lulat (364) notes that many newly independent African countries put pressure on the Western powers to take action against the South African regime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Efforts by the international community to pressure the South African Government to end apartheid were in play as early as 1963 when the US sort ways to “induce the South African government to remove the evil business of apartheid from the continent of Africa” (Duncan 38).
The US and some European countries restricted the granting of travel visas to high-ranking political and military personnel within the South African government. In 1977, the US government recalled its Ambassador to South Africa and subsequently joined the rest of the world in condemning apartheid (Thomson 113). In addition to the effect that international pressure had on the white South African community, it also raised the expectations of black South Africans.
International pressure demonstrated to the black community that the rest of the world supported their efforts towards ending apartheid. It showed that the international community supported the determination of the Africans to win full status and dignity in their country. The government therefore had a harder time maintaining and defending apartheid institutions in light of this anti-apartheid sentiment from the international community.
International efforts against the Apartheid regime led to the imposition of an arms embargo that reduce the military capability of the South African government and increased the cost of equipping the military. Due to the perceived injustices of apartheid, the non-White groups in the country founded protest movements to fight for equal rights and freedoms with the whites. The government reacted aggressively to this protests using military force to suppress any opposition.
Duncan observed that the growing government oppression in South Africa could only be countered by external pressures (42). The international community therefore intervened to stop the government from getting the arms that it needed to form a well-equipped army to counter this growing African militancy. Its efforts to acquire this arms from the international market where thwarted by a UN Security Council resolution in 1977 that banned the shipment of arms to the South African Government.
The United States, which is a major weapons trader in the world, adopted a complete embargo of military equipment to South Africa. Duncan notes that the US stopped supplying the South African government with all lethal goods and even terminated the sale of all military spare parts to South Africa (115). The South African government tried to counter this arms embargo by manufacturing its own arms.
However, the locally produced weapons were costly and of a lower quality to those available in the international market. In addition to this, the cost of research and production led to financial strain by the government as funds were diverted from important public institutions. This decreased the popularity of the apartheid policy even within members of the White population.
We will write a custom Essay on International Pressure and Sanctions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International pressure forced the South African government to enter negotiations with the oppositions groups that were demanding political representation and justice. The apartheid policy had denied the non-White population any political power and the white minority were unwilling to reach a compromise.
The prominent anti-apartheid South African cleric, Archbishop Desmond Tutu declared that while the objective of the African opposition movements was negotiation, the apartheid regime could not “get to the table without concerted international pressure” (Lulat 364).
Through this pressure, the government was forced to listen to the troubles of the majority and react to them in a favorable manner. Without the involvement of the international community, the South African government had no incentive to negotiate with its non-White population.
Conclusion This paper set out to argue that international pressures and sanctions played the most significant role in ending apartheid in South Africa. To this end, it has highlighted the ways in which the international community contributed to the collapse of apartheid.
Through international pressure and the use of punitive measures such as investment sanctions and trade restrictions and embargoes on supply of key goods, the international community was able to accelerate the ending of apartheid in South Africa.
If the international community had not involved itself in South Africa’s affairs, the oppressive apartheid system would have continued for longer. Because of this international pressure and sanction, South African abandoned apartheid and adopted a system that ensured majority rule based on justice and equality.
Works Cited Duncan, Patrick. “Toward a World Policy for South Africa”. Foreign Affairs 42.1 (1963): 38-48. Web.
Kaempfer, William and Lowenberg Anton. “A Model of the Political Economy of International Investment Sanctions: The Case of South Africa”. KYKLOS Journal 39.3 (1986): 377-397. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Pressure and Sanctions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lulat, Yuni. United States Relations with South Africa: A Critical Overview from the Colonial Period to the Present. Peter Lang, 2008. Print.
Thomson, Alex. “The Diplomacy of Impasse: the Carter Administration and Apartheid South Africa”. Diplomacy
Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Definition of key terms
Criteria for value judgement
Application of the criteria
Introduction Over the years, marriage has been thought to be a private affair between two partners who express love and commitment to each other. However, this has grown to be referred to as a public institution. Marriage originates from time immemorial where the Christians profess that God created man and woman and put them in the Garden of Eden to reproduce and take care of the garden.
Therefore, the marriage institution has existed for a long time now. However, different scholars have emerged with various definitions of the term marriage. The marriage bill in the United State has had various amendments as different leaders considered it a sensitive issue in the country. The issue of gay marriage has always been brought about by lawmakers in the country since the 1970s where they advocate for legalization of the same sex marriage.
This paper brings into light several amendments to the Marriage Act where it guarantees the constitutional right of all citizens in the country. The Defense of Marriage Act is abbreviated as DOMA was enacted on September 1996 by the United States Congress. This legislation was enacted under President Bill Clinton, and it recognizes the marriage institution. According to DOMA, marriage refers to a union between a man and a woman that is legal under law that give the right of each partner in the marriage.
However, the law does not acknowledge the existence of the same sex marriage, and this has brought about legal cases to the government by aggrieved parties. The act signed into law by President Clinton raised a lot of questions about the Marriage Act where different lawmakers failed to acknowledge homosexual marriages under the law. The failure to recognize same sex marriage brought a lot of legal action to the government by aggrieved parties (Perkins, 2).
Definition of key terms Federal law refers to a state regulation of Acts that each citizen is supposed to follow without fail. The Federal bills are passed by the Congress and signed by the President before being gazetted into law.
The laws provide guidelines of how citizens should carry themselves under the legal framework of the given country. The law protects the citizen from arbitration or any breach of their right and freedom either by the state or any citizen (Cott, 73). Marriage can be defined as a legal union between two individuals who express love and commitment to each other.
The union is recognized under the country’s legal framework as a binding agreement where benefits to both individuals are paramount. Under a common law, marriage is a legal union between a man and woman who come together to express love, sacrifice and commitment to each other under the law. This union is guarded by a legal document signed by the couple in front of a witness. There are different kinds of marriage that exist. This includes the Christian marriage that permits only one man and woman to have a marriage union.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other kinds of marriage include civil union, which is officiated by the Attorney General. Over the years, debate about legalizing the same sex marriage had challenges following what is seen as a breach of the public view on the moral standards and especially in the church and family setting. In the past, most churches could not ordain gay priests as they were considered to have gone against the Biblical teachings.
Criteria for value judgement Under the DOMA agreement enacted on September 1996, no state or even political subdivision can recognize same sex marriage for federal reasons including benefits to government employees or even social security for survivors’ benefits (Perkins, 2). Under the Clinton government, the law was put in the letter, and this raised a lot of questions and cases castigated towards the government.
As the government tried to criminalize homosexuality in the country, the homosexuality conduct law brought a case of Lawrence and Texas in 2003. The case was a follow up of the country in a move to overturn any same sex marriage where the parties to the marriage had no right under the law to conduct such an act.
The case was decided that brought power to the gay rights community in the state of Texas. The sodomy laws had criminalized many gay and lesbian couples before the Lawrence v Texas case in June 2003, which overturned the implications that the same sex marriage couple suffered under the sodomy laws. Before this case was brought out into the public domain, the homosexuals had been criminalized for their acts.
The same sex marriage law had extended to the military where the soldiers were not supposed to indulge in these acts. The law also sought to remove the children from their lesbian mothers’ home as a justification of these harsh laws against gay marriage. The Texas case impacted on the Marriage Bill in that the exclusion of gays from the military was now seen as a breach of their right to join the army and serve in the country’s military as they deemed fit (Duncan, 623-663).
Application of the criteria In declaring the sodomy law unconstitutional in the country, the court that ruled the Lawrence v Texas case the court sought clarification of the Georgia sodomy statute that banned the same sex marriage in the country (Chauncey, 509-538).
Sodomy laws were thought to be the ideological, but they never considered the rights of the rising outcry by the gay community that sought the court orders to deem their marriage fit under the law. The anti-gay legislations that were eminent before had to be criticized to enable the observation of the rights of the different people who wanted to indulge in same sex marriages and relationships.
We will write a custom Essay on Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Following the election of President Obama into power, the Congress was mandated to look into the matter regarding same sex marriage and whether to legalize the union of the same sex partners. The DOMA act that was signed by President Clinton had to be investigated to allow for more public opinion about the same sex marriage in the country. The Massachusetts court granted several follow up with the same sex marriage bills seeking to allow for civil union of the same sex couple in the country.
The Supreme Court held meetings to discuss the implication of legalizing the same sex marriage, and various issues were raised that necessitated the need to legalize the bill into law. By the year 2009, most states had legalized the same sex marriage and started to issue certificates to the couples. States like California legalized the same sex marriage, and it was seen as a win for the gay community as their constitutional rights were finally recognized and considered (Condit and Lucaites, 56).
Conclusion The anti same sex marriage laws has over the years seen as abusing the constitutional right of many citizens in the United States. The law criminalizes against gay and lesbian marriages. However, the trend seems to be changing with many people coming out to declare their sexuality. This has led to the public outcry to amend some of these laws. The sodomy law in the State of Texas was criminalizing gay couples and made it difficult for the gay community to serve in the military.
Works Cited Chauncey, George. “What Gay Studies Taught the Court: The Historians’ Amicus Brief in Lawrence v. Texas.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 10.3 (2004): 509-538. Print.
Condit, Celeste and John Louis Lucaites. Crafting Equality: America’s Anglo-African Word. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Print.
Cott, Nancy. Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Press, 2000. Print.
Duncan, William. “The Litigation to Redefine Marriage: Equality and Social Meaning.” BYU, Journal of Public Law, 18 (2004): 623-663. Print.
Perkins, James. Defense of Marriage: Does It Need Defending? New York: Novinka Books, 2004. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara Essay college admission essay help
Jataka describes Prince Vassantara as one of the reincarnations of Buddha. It is possible to note that Prince’s all actions are driven by his desire to give away. This desire makes him give away his treasures, his kingdom and even his family. More so, he is ready to give away his self if it is necessary.
This is seen as the highest manifestation of virtue and Jataka describes last reincarnation of Buddha in this way to stress one of the major values of the religion. Admittedly, liberality is seen as one of the most important characteristics of a righteous man. Jataka tells the story of Prince Vassantara to give people the model to follow.
The desire to give away appeared in Prince Vassantara when he was in his mother’s womb making his mother crave “to have six almshouses built” and give a lot of gifts, “every day to give six hundred thousand gold coins” (Cone
Divergent Social Worlds Essay (Book Review) custom essay help: custom essay help
“Divergent Social Worlds” reflects a culmination of the in depth study of the linkage of race, place and crime. The book brings into light new aspects and advanced analytical approach to research on the cyclic problems of neighborhood, race, and crime. The authors explore and answer lingering questions of how violent and property crimes differ across neighborhoods that are composed of different ethnic and racial clusters.
The authors begin by postulating an operational theory of the ethnic and latitudinal distribution of crime by enunciating a broad variety of sociology theories; physical race theory, communal disorganization theory, and theories of suburban separation. The authors contend that a key operational mechanism by which cultural orders have been replicated in America is suburban isolation.
In turn these have led to racial spatial divide in which racial-ethnic minorities find themselves compelled to the bottom strata and the privileged whites find themselves at the top strata. This unequal stratification has led to social disparities in which led to the creation of varying interests located in distinct neighborhoods, ultimately leading to unequal rates of crime.
The book has integrated this theoretical perspective meticulously and combined information from urban sociology, criminology, racial and ethnic stratification. Mainly throughout its skeletal body, residential segregation is the major factor that connects the overall racial order with dramatic racial and ethnic differentials in crimes across communities.
Theoretical integration is achieved by the book as it reinforces the complex intertwine of social and institutional inequities that better place white neighborhoods in contrast to those of the African American, Latino and other arrays of neighborhoods. Intrinsically, segregation is the backbone of divergence between the social world of people in the United States in relation to color and as to why neighborhood crime is so radicalized.
Empirical evidence has been brought out by the authors in order to substantiate their theoretical claims. They test their theoretical claims using data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), where they compiled crime and related data of about nine thousand six hundred neighborhoods in approximately ninety-one large cities in the year two thousand. The large database created an unlimited and unbiased source of information, which made it easier to identify the relation between race, place and crime in the United States.
Previous research was conducted in a single city and thus by cutting across different cities, Peterson and Kivro have been able to explore how these patterns of neighborhood crime vary across communities of different races. In the initial analysis, they document how crime rates differ significantly across neighborhoods that consist of different ethnic and racial groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The book clearly illustrates the dramatic nature of the racial-spatial divide and helps us fathom how entrenched social and economic disparities in America’s neighborhoods are. In subsequent analysis, they outline the magnitude to which differences in relative advantage and disadvantage are sources of unequal crime rates across the various types of neighborhoods. They use multivariate models to examine both neighborhood and city characteristics as indicators of crime rates.
The book lays to rest the prevalent misunderstanding that persistently high crime rates in less privileged societies is as a result of individual ethical decadence or pathologies or worse a culture of group criminality.
The book exonerates the people living in impoverished societies of the earlier misconceptions of crime activities in these societies and brings to light the silent externalities that are a key factor to molding these societal inequalities. The book tends to close the gap for organizers, policymakers and future researchers and creates an insight in these cyclic issues.
How to Motivate Your Employees Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need for Employee Motivation
Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm
Employee Motivation in the 21st Century
Strategies of Employee Motivation
Recommendations on How to Motivate Employees
Introduction Employees form the most important part of any organization. According to Chopra (2002), employees are the most important assert within an organization. Employees will determine success or failure of an organization based on the approach they give to the various tasks assigned to them.
Employee motivation is therefore, very important in ensuring that employees achieve desired result in various tasks assigned to them in order to ensure an overall success of the firm. Motivated employees tend to give their best effort in all that they do. The work with very little supervision, and do not wait to be directed to perform given tasks. They work with the vision of the organization in their heart, always determined to see success in all that they do.
It is because of this that various firms have come to appreciate the need to have a group of motivated employees. Firms are currently struggling to ensure that they offer their employees the best working environment that will ensure that they are constantly motivated. Employees’ motivation always has a direct impact on the success of the firm in the given industry. This paper focuses on ways in which employees of a given firm can be motivated.
The Need for Employee Motivation For a long time, labor has not been given its rightful position in many organizations. Many of the managements have not thought of viewing their employees as very important asserts. However, the happenings of the recent past have proven that labor force is one of the most important asserts to any given organization.
When the management lays down objectives to be achieved, it is always the employees who are expected to implement the policies that would bring the desired results. It is this work force that would be expected to turn the policies from paper to reality. Therefore, retention of employees is very important. Employees should be retained within the organization to ensure that the firm’s operations are consistent.
High turnover rate of employees is not healthy for the firm’s prosperity (Anderson, 2004). This is because it does not only affect the smooth implementation of policies within the firm, but also leads to increased cost of training new employees. It is even worse that the employees would go away having learnt the strategies of the firm, making the firm vulnerable to its competitors.
The management should therefore device methods of hiring qualified employees and retaining them within the firm. One of the best ways to achieve this is through motivation. It is through motivation that employees will feel attached to the firm and therefore feel committed to the firm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm Armstrong (2002) says that employees are the implementing arm of the organization. While the top executives formulate the policies to be implemented by the organization, most of their tasks always end in the paper. It is upon the employees to make these blueprints a reality.
In his words, employees are the engine of the organization. When well taken care of and put in a proper condition, they would always give the best of the results to the organization. However, when they are neglected and left to ‘rust’ they will always give leap service and the output will be very disappointing.
Motivating employees within the organization is very important. There is a direct link between employee motivation and success of a firm. It is very important that a firm increases the rate of employee motivation because of a number of reasons. In most of the occasions, policies are always developed to last for one whole year. However, these policies are always units in the larger vision of the firm.
A vision may be developed to be achieved in a time span of say thirty year or so. This duration is long and the firm may not take a direct approach towards achieving this vision. It therefore has to split this vision into yearly strategic objectives. When the year begins, the firm would plan with its current work force.
When some of the employees leave along the year because of lack of motivation, it would be a blow to the success of that year’s strategic objectives. The firm would be forced to look for a replacement and train them and make them understand the objectives to be achieved (Barrows