The Idea Of Sacrifice In The Early Vedas Research Paper Argumentative Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information of the Vedas

Kinds of Sacrifices and Offerings

Sacrificial Process and Practices

Importance of Sacrifice

Criticism

Sacrifice and Christianity

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Sacrifice is an act of offering to a deity as a form of worship with some desired results expected. It usually imply ritual killing where blood is involved although other forms of offerings are also sacrifices. It is regarded as a means of obtaining power from one world over the other, over visible and invisible and also inmate and inanimate creatures.

It is considered to exist from eternity and proceed from the Supreme Being. It is a practice that has been performed for ages by different societies. This paper will examine aspects regarding sacrifice especially among the Hindus. It looks at the origin and classification of Vedas, forms of offerings and sacrifices, sacrificial practices, and importance attached to sacrifice and different arguments on the idea, sacrifice.

Background Information of the Vedas Vedas are ancient scriptures that are considered to be the earliest and most sacred books of India. It is nonetheless difficult to trace exactly when they were first written since initially the teachings were passed by word of mouth. They have teachings on all aspects of life concerning mankind and have acted as a religious authority especially for the Hindus.

The Hindus uses the Vedic teachings in their day to day activities e.g. during marriages or even death, cremation for example is seen as a form of sacrifice since fire is used. The ideas of the Vedas were passed from one generation to the other through word of mouth but later they were written. The Vedas are classified into four (. i.e. the Sama, the Atharva, the Rig-Veda, and the Yajur). Each Veda consist of four parts; the hymns, rituals, theologies and philosophies (Kishore 15).

Kinds of Sacrifices and Offerings According to Benson and Cook (67), Sacrifices included sheep, cows, buffaloes, men and horses. Men and horses were considered to have the greatest value. Offerings comprised of cow products like milk and butter and grains which were boiled, fried or made into flour balls. Human sacrifice has also been practiced in many parts of the world. In ancient times it was viewed as a building – dedication rite. There were cases of decapitation of human heads to act as trophies; the heart was also used as a part of human sacrifice.

The use of the most essential parts of the body without which a person cannot live signifies the importance attached to the sacrifice. Blood sacrifice is viewed to be the most influential way to soothe the gods and the supposition behind it is that life ought to pass through death, although the notion appears primitive. Although Human sacrifice has been practiced most people view it as a practice that is practiced by the uncivilized societies that don’t value human life (Marvin,

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The reservation system in India based on Caste Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Original purpose and its progress

Impact on the productivity of the workforce

India’s reservations policies

Political, social, and economic consequences

Reservations for women

Works Cited

The caste system in India is a social structure where individuals are classified into groups according to their genetics within firm organization of social stratification. In the olden days, caste was a phrase used to refer to individuals limited in their choice of work and the extent of socializing with other people. However, in the modern days the social rank is dependent on the caste of one’s birth rather than work (Dumont 2000).

The history of the caste system in India is dated about 3000 years ago. This structure was made for the purpose of fulfilling the requirements of social order related to hierarchy. The misfortune of caste system is still common in some regions of India. Its unpleasant consequences are observed on social matters of marriage and kinship.

The caste structure is classified into different Varnas and Jatis. The class of Varnas comprise of Brahmans, the priestly and elite people; Vaishyas, planters and traders; Kshatriyas, the fighters and leaders; and Shudras, peasants and manual workers; In addition, the Untouchables are also under Varna. People under Varnas are grouped into jatis. The Jatis have typical regulations and traditions. In the beginning, all classes were treated the same and inter-caste marriages were allowed (Hutton 1998).

The caste system had influence on various issues. For example, a marriage between castes was not allowed. However, in the present India inter-caste marriage is permitted. The Indian government has legalized castes, mainly to determine the justified reservation through poll. The reservation system in India is wholly founded on quotas. Individuals classified as Scheduled Tribe, Scheduled Castes, and OBCs benefit from exceptional favors in learning bodies and places of work (Nesiah 1997).

In the present India, the rulers of India were determined to make India a self-ruled, socialist, and worldly nation. Basing on this policy there is a distinction between religion and government. Doing untouchability or isolating individuals because of their caste is an abomination of the law.

Together with this policy, the state permits positive isolation of the depressed groups in the country. The Indians are now not strict followers of the beliefs of the caste system. Basically, the Indians living in towns are more flexible with their traditions than those living in the countryside (Dumont 2000).

In the city various caste people mix with each other, however in the countryside there is inequality founded on castes and untouchability. Sometimes cruel clashes occur linked to caste pressures. Sometimes, the superior castes hit the inferior castes who are attempting to improve their lives. As a result, the inferior castes fight back. In the present India, the phrase caste is used to refer to the Jat and Varna. Caste was a term used by the British when they dominated India till 1947 (Radhakrishnan 2000).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The British who headed India made a record of the Indian communities and used names like castes and tribes to classify them. Tribe was used to refer to those people who lived in the bushes away from other people. It was also used to refer to those individuals not categorized under castes for instance, those who lived through thieving. The record used by the British, was applied by the Indian administration to make records of people permitted for constructive discrimination (Hutton 1998).

The superior castes in the Indian community were categorized as high classes while the inferior were classified as lower castes. The lower castes were classified into three groups. The first group was the Scheduled castes. It comprised of the untouchables. In the present India, untouchability rarely takes place.

The untouchables are known as Dalit, implying the depressed. Before the 1980s, they were known as Harijan referring to God’s children. This name originated from Mahatma Gandhi who wanted other communities to acknowledge the dalits and treat them fairly (Rana 2008).

The second group was called Scheduled Tribes. This group consisted of those people who rejected the caste system and decided to live in the bushes away from the society. The Scheduled were also referred to the Adivasi, implying the aboriginals. The third group known as the Backward Classes consisted of people from Sudra Varna and the untouchables who switched to other religions. This class also comprised of individuals who made a livelihood from unlawful acts (Himansu 1997).

The government had a positive intention when implementing the isolation policy. However, after the execution of the new rule, more problems emerged. The superior castes felt isolated by the state policy because of acknowledging the Backward Classes. As a result, many people of the high caste fought for the few ranks set for them.

On the other hand, the Backward Classes didn’t fight because they had many positions. In order to fill the differences between them, the Backward Class was given ranks though not qualified. In other cases, the reserved ranks remained unmanned due to less people from the lower class resulting to more pressure between the castes. Amongst the lower castes conflicts arose as a result of reservation matters (Nesiah 1997).

Original purpose and its progress The reservation system was used and is still used to gratify the desires of some people and a tool for getting more votes during elections. This is made possible through the constitution which was initially planned for 15 years or execution of Mandal Commission. There are many features of reservation.

We will write a custom Essay on The reservation system in India based on Caste specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, there is resistance to the reservation system because the privileges are consumed by other people from the superior castes, while people in the lower class are still suffering (Dumont 2000). Therefore, the superior caste continues to benefit from the reservation system.

Impact on the productivity of the workforce Work place discrimination due to caste systems has resulted to the marginalization of the inferior class in the Indian community. As a result, legal action has been initiated to protect the minority group from such discrimination.

In India, diversity is the foundation for prejudice and is the center of its legal reservation policies. Individuals belonging to the inferior class and the outcaste still encounter unfairness in all areas of their life, though this action of naming individuals as untouchables is forbidden according to the Indian constitution in 1950. India’s NGOs attempted for several years to solve the subject of castes systems. However, the state administration stated that the caste subject was not related to racial prejudice (Dumont 2000).

The 1950 bill of liberated India formed the world’s initial and ancient structure of helpful discrimination and affirmative action towards the inferior in the community. It protects India’s reservation laws demanding public firms to establish quotas for the three key recognized classes: Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Backward Classes.

Despite these policies, injustice against these castes is carried on and is still persistent in India, even presently. In addition, the prejudice is not restricted only to job matters but also every part of life from birth, education, job, housing, marriage, death, and even after death in burial processes especially in the countryside (Hutton 1998).

In 2001, a UN meeting on race in South Africa was held. It was here that the issue of caste systems was acknowledged as a serious matter similar to racism. The phrase Untouchables was substituted with Dalits meaning the depressed. It has been observed that dalit children are made to stay behind the classrooms in more than half of learning institutions. These kids are disgraced, bullied, beaten forcing many of them to abandon their studies. The dalit students are made to do tedious tasks such as sweeping and cleaning toilets (Borooah 2005).

The Untouchables were ordered to stay away from caste Hindus; even their shadow was seen as evil. If they broke this rule they were severely punished. In spite of the abolition of the term Untouchable and the defense laws under the 1950 constitution, prejudice and hostility towards the Untouchables prevails especially in the countryside. Regardless of the attempts of Mahatma and six decades of the constitutional abolition of biased actions, the social shame to be classified as a Dalit is powerful than before.

India’s affirmative action policies were known as reservations. They were formed in the 1950 constitution as a short-term corrective procedure of compensatory helpful discrimination to handle a long period of past inequalities and oppression. These policies were founded on rank and position emerging from the customary Hindu caste system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The reservation system in India based on Caste by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The caste system affects capital structure, opportunity systems, and payment of salaries in India. It is a significant subject in the Indian community with the state’s offers for caste founded work quotas in private firms and a rise in reservation systems at places of higher education. It affects individual’s financial decisions (Hutton 1998).

Religious isolation is still practiced in the individual, professional, communal and financial lives of the community especially in the rural setting. Though the city people are not strict on their traditional beliefs, prejudice is still a serious matter in India. As a result of prejudice, the dalits lack proper education and good job opportunities.

The Untouchables find jobs in unclean and insecure places such as sewage cleaning. They work without protective garments such as protective shoes, masks, and gloves. Consequently, they are exposed to diseases such as tuberculosis, respiratory and liver diseases, or the risk of sinking into the excreta. In ship breaking, the dalits are given the work of smashing ships holding hazardous substances like asbestos, without any protective clothing (Nesiah 1997).

The dalits are also accountable for excavating graves, picking dead bodies to the funeral pyres, making fires and collecting ashes afterwards. They throw the carcasses of dead animals. As a result, India is confronted by the problems of competing in the global market with its work force still intensely separated by faith, traditional beliefs and castes (Ray and Mary 2005).

India’s reservations policies The four main standards for the justification behind these laws are: reimbursement for unfair actions, safety for the inferior group in the community, enhancing equality in all aspects of life, and practicing social justice. Private firms do not adhere to the reservation laws and do not stand for affirmative action in spite of the strain and force from the government. For the functions of affirmative action, the government has a record of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled tribes and Other Backward Classes (Borooah 2005).

Conducted by Mahatma Gandhi’s peaceful group of reactive opposition, India received its liberty from the British in 1947. The Constitution of India was designed under the head of Ambedkar, who was India’s supreme winner for the dalits. It was unconstitutional to give more rights to one caste than the other because the constitution prohibited that (Vohra 2001).

The constitution banned prejudice, and enhanced equal opportunities to all castes in jobs and abolished untouchability. Under this law, the children were given free and compulsory studies until they were 14 years of age. The educational and financial matters of the SCs and STs were also dealt with. The president was given the authority to form records of these people for the affirmative action goals of reservations (Paswan and Jaideva 2003).

Though there was a sensible agreement among Indians on forming reservations for the SCs and STs, there was heated opposition on the meaning, requirement, and degree of reservations for the communally and educationally inferior castes because the phrase has not been precisely defined in the constitution.

In 1990 when the Singh government initiated the Mandal Commission’s proposals for caste-based reservations of public works and learning centers, there was opposition all over the nation, by the superior caste student groups who were against the reservation system (Nesiah 1997).

Political, social, and economic consequences The reservation procedures in India are at an early and very controversial level of who should be considered in the reservation policies. In addition, instead of including the castes into the Indian constitution, it has re-institutionalized the caste classes and powered caste uniqueness to both inferior and superior classes.

Reservations strengthen the preservation of one’s caste identity for fiscally stability. The 1992 Supreme Court declaration reserved work for the OBCs however restricted complete reservations to beyond 50 percent of the people (Hutton 1998).

The transformation has been political. This is done by eliminating the marginalization of Hindu caste-based professional differences into a wider political matter, above religious limits, and forming it as a way to get more votes. Matters to do with caste are of concern in the state and national politics of India. As a result, the percentage of Indians qualified for reservations has increased rapidly from freedom and persistent electoral pressure, on raising the reservation quotas (Yadav 2005).

Currently, fifty percent of the ranks given to learning and public works depend on the reservation laws. These stages of reservation are the highest found any place on the earth. For example, in the city of Karnataka, 90 percent of all people are qualified for reservations. In Tamil Nadu, 68 percent of the university positions are set aside (Maheshwari 1991).

In politics, organizations show their main followers in terms of class. The Congress party portrays equality of all castes. However, the Bharatiya Janata party is for the superior and Bahujan Samaj for the inferior group. However, there is rising hostility and resistance to reservations in India. Caste-based hostility over the rising quotas is common as upper caste students practice protests, destroying status and self- immolating in demonstrations (Basu 1996).

With the rapid economic freedom in India since the 1980s, foreign dealings have risen, price regulations have reduced, and many national businesses have been privatized, making market pressures more powerful. Many international firms have penetrated the Indian market and formed centers in India, incorporating foreign business practices in India.

Urbanization and immigration have made the caste system less important for professionalization in the cities. Though the names of people can establish their castes, less people follow it. This is because people are able to surpass their traditions so as to get good jobs in the urban centers. This experience is observed in the information technology firms and other managerial positions (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).

Studies have revealed that the differences between the average income of the superior and inferior castes was a result of caste-based prejudice. To solve the problems of financial differences, the SC and ST should be motivated through affirmative action in learning institutions and places of work.

The work market bias has brought about great distinction in wealth between the inferior and superior class of people over many years as a result of separated social systems. In order to improve personal capability, their entrance to social capital should be opened to abolish the lasting consequences of discrimination (Borooah 2005).

Reservations for women Women are not completely guarded under the reservations laws because quotas of women are still being discussed in different Indian states. The caste system has made women encounter double prejudice as they are still suffering from mistreatment due to their inferior caste and female femininity. Moreover, women confront various difficulties because of the load of dowry (Keane 2007).

While the 1950 Constitution of liberal India allows same privileges for all Indians, Article 15 forbids segregation on the basis of gender, permitting unique treatment for women and children and equal job opportunities. However, women are not legally incorporated in all the reservation laws. India is the oldest nation with constitutional requirements formed in 1950, for the safety of the inferior communities. However, the success of India’s reservations policies is determined by the jury.

The Indian community is still isolated on how effective their state’s reservation laws have been handling initial discrimination and accomplishing its aims as addressed in the constitution. Meanwhile, the communities guarded by the reservation policies have increased dramatically so that they can benefit from these laws (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).

After India was liberated from the British rule, the reservation policies were designed as a short-term measure for the inferior groups. In the political and financial contribution in the country, the caste system would ultimately diminish. However, in the present India there is still no accord for the reservation of women and the OBCs though this subject is being discussed and the pressure on increasing reservations in private firms.

Though caste-based professionals are becoming less important in terms of finances in the modernized India, studies have revealed that caste systems are becoming more significant in nationwide and state politics. Political parties founded on supporting SC, ST, and OBC have been supported. However, the struggle between those for and against reservations still goes on (Dumont 2000).

As for women, India is still dominated by men. However, many firms are making advances of giving women equal opportunities as men. Corporations that have supported the affirmative action have enhanced job opportunities for women. Because of the reservation policies, there are various forces working on both the public and private firms in India. The reservation policies enable the minority groups to have equal opportunities of education, jobs, and government representation (Basu 1996).

Works Cited Basu, Amrita. 1996. Caste and class: the rise of Hindu nationalism in India, Harvard International Review, 18 (3) summer: 28-31. Harvard, Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Borooah, Vani. 2005. Caste, inequality and poverty in India, Review of Development Economics, 9(3): 399-414.

Dumont, Louis. 2000. The Caste System and its implications. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Himansu. 2008. Dalit: The Downtrodden Of India. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Hutton, J.H. 1998. Caste in India. Oxford, IL: Oxford University Press.

Keane, David. 2007. Caste-based discrimination in international human rights law Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Maheshwari, Shriram. 1991. The Mandal Commission and Mandalisation: a critique. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press

Nesiah, D. 1997. Discrimination with reason? The policy of reservations in the United States, India and Malysia. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Özbilgin Mustafa, Syed Jawad. 2010. Managing cultural diversity in Asia. London, England: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Paswan Sanjay, Jaideva Pramanshi. 2003. Encyclopaedia of Dalits in India: Human rights new dimensions in dalit. Delhi, India: Kalpaz Publications.

Radhakrishnan, P. 2000. India, the perfidies of power: a social critique. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Rana, Mulchand. 2008. Reservations in India. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company.

Ray Raka, Mary Fainsod. 2005. Social movements in India: poverty, power, and politics. London, England: Rowman

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Debt Doesn’t Matter Term Paper writing essay help

In the recently concluded GOP elections the populist vote said no to government spending. Many believe that government spending and its accomplices, debt and deficits are the reasons why the economy is in turmoil (Karabell, 2010, p.1). The Tea Party capitalized on these fears and experienced a decisive victory in the said GOP elections.

Their battle cry can be summed up in the following statement made by a congressional candidate who said, “Federal spending must be drastically reduced … To ignore this issues is a crime against our children and grandchildren” (Karabell, 2010, p.1). However, the author said that this is just popular opinion but in truth extreme austerity measures is detrimental to the U.S. economy.

The author argued that this is a good platform that a candidate can run on, especially those who oppose the current administration. He added that even the Republican Party’s Pledge to America is built around the promise that the party will work hard to end the kind of heavy spending that ran amok when it comes to health care bills and bailouts (Karabell, 2010, p.1).

It is easy to understand why many are afraid of spending. In their own lives they can easily see what it can do. When a person spends there is less money left for other expenditures and worse the heavy spender can be easily in debt.

By arguing against this populist mentality the author had to have a few assumptions. One of the major assumptions is that government spending is needed to boost a stalled economy. The second major assumption is that the debt burden has not dramatically changed in the past twenty years (Karabell, 2010, p.1).

Finally, the third assumption is that what the candidates are proposing is an extreme form of austerity measures that can hurt the economy in the long run. Businessmen must have access to funds because they are the only people who can generate jobs and jumpstart the economy.

The author did not offer any clear evidence or any form of tangible data that would support his first assumption. He based it on the common idea that in order to make money one has to spend money. He did not put it so plainly, he rather said that the key to economic prosperity is investments and the solution is for wise fiscal policy that would enable the government to do just that.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it comes to the second assumption, the author provided convincing arguments pointing to the fact that “in 2009, net interest payment on the debt decreased from the year before, and the overall percentage the U.s. spends to service its debt (currently less than 3% of GDP) is lower than it was in the late 1980s and most of the 1990s” (Karabell, 2010, p.1). This means that even if the Federal Government is carrying a heavy burden it still has the capacity to pay.

For the third assumption the author used information culled from history books and a closer inspection of the Great Depression of the 1930s was sparked by the growing fear of financial instability and as a result bankers and businessmen became afraid to spend money.

One historian supports this claim saying that when fear gripped the nation, people began to play it safe, and as a result, “The financial machinery of the country began to freeze into rigidity, the industrial and commercial machinery to slow down” (Shcultz, year, p.11). This proves that the author was correct when it comes to his major assumptions.

Conclusion Debt is indeed not the problem. The most important issue is wise fiscal policy this means that the government has to prove that it has the capability to spend money wisely. The author was against irrational austerity measures. He pointed out that wise spending is the key. He used evidence from history and he used the tools of the economists to show that the government must be allowed to spend money in order to create jobs and to jumpstart a stalled economy.

Works Cited Karabell, Zachary. “Debt Doesn’t Matter.” Accessed from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2028095,00.html

Schultz, Stanley. The Great Depression. WI: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2006.

Seltzer, Marc. “Are Republicans Lying About Financial Reforms?” Accessed from https://www.care2.com/causes/financial-reform-what-you-need-to-know.html

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Non-Traditional Families and Child Behaviorism Affects Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Society attitude towards non traditional family parenting

Impact of non traditional family parenting on children

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The orientation of modern families has shifted away from the ‘ideal’ context of a nuclear family paving way for the emergence of more controversial family setups such as single parenthood as well as gay and lesbian families (Arrigo, 2005).

Various states in America and other regions of the world have legalized homosexual marital unions, which have enabled them to enjoy relatively similar legal rights as those enjoyed by heterosexual couples. These jurisdictions have further prohibited discrimination of homosexual parents during the process of adoption, which has been prevalent in the past (Arrigo, 2005).

Various concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of the non-traditional families’ environments for the development of children. While some scholars suggest that children in these non-conventional families are likely to experience difficulties in developing gender orientations, identity, and gender roles, others suggest that children raised in homosexual families are likely to become homosexuals themselves.

Further, children in homosexual and single-parent families are often subjected to stigma and can be traumatized by their peers from heterosexual family settings rendering them more vulnerable to psychological and interpersonal difficulties as well as behavioral problems (Arrigo, 2005).

Society attitude towards non traditional family parenting Through a research study, Hereck and other scholars sought to identify the causes of society’s negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians as well as their views towards the impact of their parenting (Crawford, 1999).

The study revealed that men have a tendency to be more homo negative than women and the society’s negative attitude towards gay and lesbian parenting could be partly attributed to external forces prevalent in society such as religious orientations of a given society, traditions upheld in that community as well as the ideologies and attitudes towards gender and the family.

Crawford (1999) concludes that the most likely people to hold negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian parenting are theistic highly traditional people who conceptualize homosexuality as a lifestyle choice and people who are surrounded y a society that holds similar views towards homosexuality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the contemporary society, one out of every three children is born to unmarried parents rendering the child to a higher risk of negative pressures being elicited by society.

Negative impacts are likely to result from societal attitudes as well as low income often associated with single-parent families. In their empirical paper ‘The Impact Of Marital Quality, Divorce And Remarriage On The Relationship Between Parents And Their Teachers’, Oruch, Thomton and Cancio analyzed the parent-child relationship putting into consideration such variables as marital quality as well as the marital status of the parent. According to them, the parent-child relationship differed depending on the gender of the child.

In cases where the mother was divorced and failed to remarry, the relationship between the mother and the daughter remained intact while the relationship between her and the son was negatively affected by the family restructuring. The quality of the father-child relationship was also negatively affected by divorce in both the daughter and son, but the impact was found to be stronger in daughter (Elizabeth, 2000).

The role of the father is considered vital in the development of the child and consequently his absence may negatively impact on the child in single-mother families. It is often assumed that the primary role of the father in the family is economic and in his absence the family is likely to suffer from economic hardships, which put more pressure on the single mother as well as her children (Elizabeth, 2000).

However, with the changing roles of fathers in as well as the social norms about fatherhood in the modern society; this trend is continually changing towards family set up where the mother can independently provide for her children without male assistance.

Impact of non traditional family parenting on children Homosexual and single parents’ families have to constantly struggle with prejudicial notions and such as homophobia and gross stereotyping in the modern society which labels them as ‘unfit parents’.

However, there lacks adequate literature to prove significant negative impacts on children brought up in non-traditional family settings relative to the impacts on children brought up in heterosexual two-parent environment. The existing research suggests that these parents are as capable as heterosexual parents to provide an environment condusive for positive development of their children (Arrigo, 2005).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Non-Traditional Families and Child Behaviorism Affects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A study conducted in 2001 in the United States revealed that out of a random sample, 8% of lesbian and gay men were parents or legal guardians of minor children with 49% of the participants revealing the intention of being parents in the future (Arrigo, 2010).

It is a general societal expectation for heterosexual parents to become parents and they often do this in absence of a strategic plan, on the other hand, minority groups such as homosexuals and single parents have to endure complex procedures in an attempt to become parents and due to external pressures and negative expectations from the society, such parents are likely to strive to become better parents than parents in heterosexual relationships.

Tasker and Golombok’s longitudinal study in 1995 where they studied a sample of 25 young adults from lesbian families and 21 young adults from heterosexual single parent’s families revealed that those children brought up in lesbian functioned normally psychologically and in terms of sexual orientations which served to nullify the misconception that homosexual families results into homosexual children.

Further, no significant differences were found to exist between children raised in homosexual family setting from children raised in heterosexual single-parent homes and the children raised in these two family settings displayed relatively similar levels of anxiety as assessed by trait anxiety inventory as well as depression levels as assessed y Beck Depression inventory. The study was clear evidence that non-traditional families do not have substantial detrimental effects on child’s development (Arrigo, 2005).

Further, a study conducted by C. Patterson (1994) on 37 four to nine-year-olds found two differences existing between children from homosexual families and heterosexual parents whereby the children in homosexual families reported more symptoms of stress than children in heterosexual families but enjoyed a stronger sense of well being.

Through this study, C Paterson concluded that development of children in these families was within the normal limits and misconception that the children were likely to develop homosexual orientations was completely unfounded (Arrigo, 2005).

Conclusion The dynamic nature of the modern world has led to restructuring of major institutions in the society. The family set up has shifted towards non-traditional form and this has raised a lot of controversy in the society. However, as a result of modernization, the significance of family structural variables such as sexual orientations of parents and the number of parents in the family set up is gradually diminishing, rendering the changes in family set up inevitable.

Therefore, people should aim at accommodating and accepting individuals from homosexual and single-parent families rather than criticizing and excluding them. This will serve to promote their self acceptance, boost their self-esteem as well as the overall effect of promoting the cohesion in the modern world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Non-Traditional Families and Child Behaviorism Affects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Arrigo, A. B.,

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How Racial Discourses Subtend Military Projects Essay best essay help

Introduction Danticat writes about the 1937 massacre of Haitians by a Dominican dictator, Refael Trujillo (3). Between October 2nd and 4th the Dominican Republic solders under the political influence of prominent landowners slaughtered approximately 15,000 – 20,000 immigrants from Haiti at the massacre river (Danticat, 3).

The reason for massacre was to force out the squatters and make way for the big landowners to take over. The next year, the two governments come to an agreement of settling the matter without international court proceedings. The Dominican Republic agreed to pay $750,000 but paid only $500,000, which translated to approximately $25 for every victim to overrule need for justice.

The massacre river that was once a swallow of bodies is today a place full of life, peace and habitual routine. The Haitians’ tale is part of global history as a remembrance of Haitian community, as well as correlation to the global denotations or results of such massacre. Danticat (11) presents the case of Haiti not only as a Haitian community problem but also as a global concern especially in relation to the military projects.

There are therefore various facts that stand out from the massacre. This paper forms a critical analysis of racial discourses and the delimiting factors on military projects. The paper aims to advance understanding on effects of discrimination through analysis of the relationship between military men and women as well as between military and civilians. What really subjects soldiers to racial, cultural or ethnic hatred and thus negatively affect military projects?

Historical Analysis the Haitians’ Massacre The Dominican Republic army used tactics to cover up their tracks from possible prosecutions. For instance, the murder of victims using machetes, bayonets, pitchforks, smashing children’s heads on walls, forcing some to jump over cliffs and drowning others. They avoided using firearms and this meant that it was not easy to trace back the murderers (Danticat 13). The agreement between the two governments shows the complicity of the Haitian government to cover-up the massacre thus ensuring denial of justice to victims.

These are clear indications of racial discontents within the military and the vast effects on overall performance as well as project development for their units. Since time in history, particularly in a close reference to Haitians’ massacre in 1937, racial and ethical discriminations seem to be an element in the daily military contracts.

General Analysis of the Army The appointment of army personnel occurs through assignment of duty and analysis of specialty, rather than general selection of personnel. However, the assignment procedure is certainly not an arbitral procedure, therefore the appointment frequently occur based on chance. The assignment to duties is deliberate procedure, based on expertise and proficiency, without considering a soldier’s ethnic or racial background.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The military argument is that, when personnel are in ranks, then assignment of duties is likely to occur within a particular hold up basis. The military personnel often express interest and preferences for duties and work locations as they advance through the ranks and experience. The army’s requirements ought to be the main force over appointments. This is not possible because performance and allocation of duties as well as advancement of rank have very high influences to appointments.

Common Sources of Racial Discourses in the Army War or inhuman acts such as the Haitian’s massacre starts due to negative administrative assertions. Racial discourses or affirmations by administrative units in the military catalyze its emergence. Discrimination is part of political fight or strategy to gain power and authority and these influences are common within the military as evidenced during the 1937 Haiti massacre (Niebuhr 32).

Good examples are military affirmations indicating that war starts because of violation of resolutions, such as being in possession of weapons of mass destruction. Fight for peace is also another issue that fuels inhumanity since some governments feel the need for ensuring favourable conditions and run into unsuccessful endeavours to promote dialogue for peace. This subsequently degenerates to threats, and eventually to war.

Military personnel react pro-actively and make the most of all in its power to enhance racial hostility either against external forces or within themselves. However, power of command controls conflicts that lack logical or solid reasons and proof for justification. In most cases, racial discourses results to negative effects on human lives by depriving military men and women the most essential needs and respect for civilization. Some of the cases occur through political instigation in favour of a certain category of people.

The main reason why racial segregation or racial talks are not justified is due to the negative effects on human rights for instance, most conflicts among these great military compatriots is due to haste by administrators such as the political figures in the government. Racial indifferences within military setting are the foundation for work-based conflicts and in some cases deaths, thus depriving many families their special members whom are responsible for love and basic provisions.

Other than fatalities, many casualties who are immediate family providers may end up depending on others in different ways due to physical, mental and psychological injuries caused by racial-related wars. Such conditions increase pressure on the coalition governments, particularly on the military projects for instance, when those assigned are of conflicting views.

Cost of Racial Discourses within the Work Setting Racial discrimination causes high dependence humanitarian aid and reconstruction assistances and primarily leads to compromise on human dignity (Sifry and Cerf 27). Humanitarian crisis during racial conflict are very high. Loss of human life such as the Haiti massacres is attributable to greed, fright between the rich and the poor. In line with Sifry and Cerf (27), racial war distracts the non-governmental organizations plans for humanitarian assistance due to the uncertainty during and after such conflicts.

We will write a custom Essay on How Racial Discourses Subtend Military Projects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poverty is one of the main effects associable to human racial-related discordances. Basic needs such as medicines, shelter, hygiene facilities and food therefore remain scarce during wars. There are fears over shortage of basic assistance even among the solders. Casualty reports confirm the fears, as the numbers of victims are overwhelming during that period.

Effects on Education and Healthcare Racial discrimination causes people especially women and children to vacate their home and settle in displacement camps due to need for safety. This remains a permanent scar to the society and leads to diversification of resources to cater for the affected. Regardless of some humanitarian assistance from well-wishers, there is often refusal to offer physical assistance in settling of victims. People lack comfort to attend school and access health services.

The military is responsible for provision of some health care services and education programmes. Racial discourses leads to poor or lack of proper governance and this means that the affected sectors are not able to cater for the indispensable needs. Innocent children end up suffering from something they rarely understand and furthermore such racial conflicts causes psychological suffering of their naive minds.

Compromised security Compromise on security is one of the critical effects of racial conflicts or discourses on military projects and is a big challenge. The racial discourses in the military camps halts major operations due to broken trust.

This cause worries over security since protection by the involved parties may compromise work-related collaborations. The compromise of social security pervades the human working environment. This causes low working morale, difficulties of finding trained or retrained workers and disrupted training or supervision when undertaking military projects.

Compromised security also affects activities especially during combat. For instance, when required to maintain teamwork and team strategies in the fields such as the war-torn areas, the social opposition may compromise confidentiality and lead to weak coordination or poor communication among personnel.

A co-officer may give up on others due to rivalry brought about by racial discourses among soldiers. Those emotionally effected individuals or the discriminated parties may find other possible payback mechanisms for instance, exposing fellow soldiers’ to opponent attacks.

Compromised human rights The biggest effect of racial discourses on projects is denial of various human rights. Most military projects in majority of the countries especially areas involved in wars fail due to racial divisions. First, the situation causes financial segregation owing to the fact that decision makers may try to favour certain groups over others in the same base camp.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Racial Discourses Subtend Military Projects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Seniority therefore prohibit equal access to resources in what is supposedly a teamwork activity thus compromising on success of projects. The racial reasoning also compromises provision of the basic needs such as health care and eventually there are shifts from the normal form of equal provisions, to categorized care. This adversely compromises military project.

Disrupted health surveillance and compromised public health programs negatively hinders humanity, for instance favour on usage of health resources like clinics, referral systems and vehicles. Additional, racial discourses affect the communication logistics. It may also lead to poor equipments maintenance procedures during projects. Finally, it is evident that majority of the adversely affected projects results from prejudice against the essential basic human resources such as sanitation, food security, water and power.

Majority of the military projects are concern with restoration of peace and order. The projects are important especially when humanitarian needs are in consideration. Racial discourses are the main barriers to restoration of understanding. Provision of human needs for such peace-related projects mainly depends on a nation’s infrastructure.

Generally, war activities such as the Massacre of Haitians by the Dominican Republic soldiers caused compromise on communication, which is the main support for humanity and human rights (Danticat 13). After such war activities, it is not easy to enforce peace since effects of insecurity shifts focus towards individual involvements and personal acts.

In most instances, racial talks or discriminatory acts brings in the negative influences on employment such lack of job satisfaction thus affecting majority of the projects, which are often group assignments. According to Chancellor (71), one in every ten soldier’s experience, racial discourse or their family suffer from similar discriminatory acts.

Effects of Military Discourses to Consumer Projects Some of the military projects relate to local consumer markets. The discrimination reasoning within the military camps extends to the non-military personnel. The local consumer may thus face discrimination during interaction or transactions with the military. The military has extensive orders that prohibit racial talks and discrimination.

The desegregation policies work extensively well within the military bases, but rather slowly off the barracks. Some of the communication policies within the military base guards against discrimination that relate to job specifications, training opportunities and schooling or training within the base. On the other hand, state laws fight against any formal or informal state of segregation.

Racial discourse or segregation gets support from soldiers’ reluctance to implement their rule while off the base, arguing that the policies are not applicable outside barracks. Lack of proper reinforcement of rules is certainly a setback to majority of these projects outside of the military settings.

The civil right leaders increase the pressure to fight against off-base discriminatory acts and emphasize the need for enhanced troop morals during the off-base projects. Discourse within the community causes members to respond in a less partisan manner to assist such project completion.

The high-ranking officers have powers to respond to discriminatory practices that may affect projects both outside and inside the military base settings. They have to encourage immediate control of situations that may get out of hand and affect military projects or those of the neighbouring communities. These officers have to ensure that all projects that promote racial discourses or discrimination face immediate rejection or possible termination.

Today, there is no need to have project termination approvals from the secretary of defence; the commander has power to terminate any discriminatory acts (Chancellor 71). According to Chancellor (71), sociologists’ estimates indicate existence of less racial segregation in the military due to influences by the commanders and the locals’ activists.

Considering that there is low individual’s propensity, to report discriminatory behaviours in the workplace, it depends with the amount of discrimination and individual’s tolerance to such behaviours as racial discourses within the work setting. Solder’s propensity will also depend on the nature and frequency of contacts with workmates. A person who lives off base is likely to react very differently, compared to the single personnel who live with others within the base.

Racial discourse mainly occurs due to cultural diversity. Diversity boosts individuals’ competitive abilities and neutralizes the racial situation within the workforce. Unlike the early days when soldiers’ appointment was confined to policies, the current job market is full of challenges.

In order to enhance good services when tackling a project, there is need for a universally acceptable strategy such as appointment of culturally diversified personnel. The engagement enables today’s soldiers to know that different cultures demand for different opinions.

Racial discourses prevent understanding of concepts and importance of working in a multi-cultural setting. A culturally diverse group is rich in knowledge due to inclusion of people from various countries thus has enough chances of enhancing project achievements (King and Stivers 81).

Soldiers’ garrisons having ethnically diverse personnel can easily serve a wide base of clients without discrimination and with a great deal effort considering the ease for workers to relate with each other and with clients. This kind of situation would have prevented the Haiti’s 1937 massacre.

There is a wide and equally diverse and well-balanced pool of knowledge created by diverse cultures in the workplace. Knowledge is power to gain experience, creativity, customer support or participation, lasting results and eventually long-term high profit margins (King and Stivers 81).

Discrimination acts and lack of acceptance are the barriers to enhancing cultural diversity in the workplace. People from different background still have personal feeling that hinders this form of development. Society with such people can be the main source of social conflicts, group-work failures, fall of operations and eventually poor economic growth. The discrimination issue can therefore be a negative aspect if it lacks proper control measures.

Consequences Related to Racial Denounces at the Workplace Implementation and acceptance of culturally diverse community in military barracks requires subsequent strategic planning. Execution or change in management must entail inspiration through infusion or integration of different aspects such as those involving diversification into project procedures or requirements.

Cultural acceptance ought to apply from the top executives, who should show commitment and importance of diversity. Having the soldiers to understand significance of diversity from the word go reduces any possibilities of racial conflicts.

Fostering cultural diversity at the workplace The top officials must engage in upbeat measure of solving racial-related conflicts by regularly emphasising on cultural benefits to the military. Cultural commitment to diversity requires legal gazetting with the external regulator body to emphasize on the consequences regarding those racial conflicts that break the project rules. In relation to King and Stivers’ writing (82), a corporation need to have programs for performing prior training to employees on how to deal with counterparts from different cultural setting.

Arguably, it is impossible for employees to grasp various complex cultural nuances in one sitting, therefore the need for them to be careful on issues regarding stereotyping, language differences, time differences and individual versus collective racial mind-set, as a measure of avoiding or resolving diversity related conflicts.

Conclusion Promotion of cultural differences in the workplace ought to take place before commencement of hiring. This means that commanders should include need and importance of stressing diversity in the recruitment plan. In line with King and Stivers (82), discovery of strengths or benefits of an action occur well prior to proper planning.

These calls for the management to be responsive over recognizing respecting and capitalizing on various positive aspects regarding ethnic, race and gender difference. There is need for soldiers to note that even outside the work setting, they can find exposure from various cultural practices.

According to King and Stivers (82), a good system capitalizes on the employees strengths while minimizing on their weaknesses. The differences between employees’ culture should therefore entail proper usage, to strengthen understanding and enhance stronger bonds through team works as a measure to capture and workout global projects.

Militaries ought to understand that diversity is something more than mare moral obligation. It is a necessity for enhancing growth opportunities and avoiding inhuman activities such as those experienced during the Haiti massacre by the Dominican Republic Soldiers.

Works Cited Chancellor, Schroeder. Remarks on anti-war Stance as Saddam Crumbles. Mexico City: Agence France-Presse, 2003. Print.

Danticat, Edwidge. The Farming of Bones: A novel. (Vol, 3), New York: Soho Press, 1998. Print.

King, Cheryl, and Stivers Camilla. Government Is Us: Public Administration in an Anti-Government Era. California: Sage Publications, 1998. Print.

Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral man and immoral society: a study in ethics and politics. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. Print.

Sifry, Micah, and Cerf Christopher. Iraq War Reader: History, Documents. New York: OpinionsSimon

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Bilateral Relations between the US and Paraguay Essay college essay help near me

Paraguay is a country located in the southern part of America. It is part of Latin American countries. The country has a population of approximately seven million people, the majority of whom, about ninety percent are Roman Catholic Christians. The people speak Spanish and Guarani languages (Jermyn and Yong, 137).

The country has flourished in Agriculture and has pleasant forest and wood resources. Paraguay has a rich history characterized by wars and military interventions. The Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia defined a political system in Paraguay, which has undergone various transformations to form its current political and leadership system.

Paraguay has signed many bilateral and other relations agreements with its neighboring countries and other countries in the world. This is in effort of achieving political stability, economic growth, fight against narcotics and terrorism and other social evils in the region and the world at large. The United States on the other hand is a larger country located in the northern part of America. The country is more stable politically and economically when compared to Paraguay (Bowles, 2).

With its resources and desire to invest, the US has also entered into a number of agreements with many countries. It also gives such countries political, financial and military support to enable them to achieve their goals, which also interests the US. The bilateral relation between Paraguay and the United States is one of these beneficial relations that has realized much accomplishments and is also likely to yield more benefits for both the two countries in the future.

The start of the relation between Paraguay and the United States of America dates back to as early as 1845. The countries established the relationship so that they may meet their own interests. USA helped Paraguay in its domestic concerns while taking advantage of their president’s anti-communist stand in Latin America.

Paraguay wanted the US to assist them in their security concerns. Paraguay’s president, Stroessner, felt that his government was threatened by communists and thus supported US’s security policies to solicit US’s support in maters of security and development. The US, on the other hand was interested in trade and investment in Paraguay.

The relationship between these two countries was good between World War II and towards the end of 1970s. However, this relationship started wavering in the late 1970s due to a bridge of human rights and lack of political reforms. Stroessner’s dictatorial nature denied the citizens political and press freedom, an issue that America did not support (Mora and Cooney, 196).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His government officials also were involved in trafficking of narcotics, an issue which distorted the country’s relationship with America. Therefore, political, constitutional and governance reforms were necessary in Paraguay in order to rejuvenate its relationship with the US.

Alfred Stroessner, president of Paraguay, served for the longest time as president as compared to other Latin American countries. Stroessner reigned in Paraguay for eight successive terms between 1954 and 1989, for thirty-five years, after staging a coup d’état against the then reigning President Federico Chavez. Stroessner was born and brought up in a German family. His daddy came from Germany.

And his mother was from an influential wealthy family in Paraguay. Stroessner started his journey to power by participating in various public and background activities in Paraguay. He first participated in the Chaco War against Bolivia in 1929 (Morales, 101). This is where he excelled as a good commander and impressed the people who were craving for power once the war was over.

However, Stroessner acted in the background through the period of coups and periods of short governments in Paraguay, assisting presidential aspirants ascend to power through military interventions. In 1951, the then Paraguay’s president Federico Chavez appointed Stroessner as the commander in chief of the armed forces of Paraguay as a tribute to his assistance accorded to him to gain presidency.

Stroessner later overthrew Chavez in 1954 by staging a coup against him after differing over the issue of arming the police. Stroessner changed the constitution of Paraguay to enable him cling to power as long as possible (Mora and Hey, 2003). His government carried out many assassinations, torture, and was involved in corruption; drug trafficking, money laundering and gross election malpractice.

He suppressed the freedom of his opponents and the press an issue that made many of them to live in exile throughout his reign. General Andres Rodriguez staged a coup d’état against Stroessner on February 3, 1989 that ousted him. Stroessner then lived in exile in Brasilia, Brazil for seventeen years where he died. The Paraguayan government denied Stroessner state honors in his burial. His family members and a few of his friends buried Stroessner in Brasilia, Brazil.

Stroessner’s anti-communism attitude made him accepted by the US as a partner in many of its activities. The US used his anti-communism to fight anti-communists in Paraguay and in the Latin America. This friendship is what strengthened the relationship between Paraguay and the United States of America.

We will write a custom Essay on Bilateral Relations between the US and Paraguay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stroessner depended on the US troops to offer his country security against communists and his political rivals while US was interested in investment and trade. He maintained his relationship with America to his advantage until America pushed him to allow political reforms in Paraguay.

Regional blocs played an important role in enhancing relationships between countries in their region (Haas, xi). Countries made regional blocs in order to strengthen their local economies, eliminate trade barriers, and even assist each other in governance issues (Mattli, 3; Laursen, 106). The American countries formed regional blocs after the Cold War. They believed that a state driven economy would lead to economic collapse and would not favorably compete with a market driven economy.

“After the Cold War, the market driven, liberal economic model has spread throughout the world and the world economy has become interconnected as a result of globalization” (Kantorun, Para.1). Kantorum also noted that some of the regional blocs formed around the world not only represent trade and economic policies but also other regional interests. Regional blocs of interest in this case include MERCOSUR, EU (European Union, and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).

MERCOSUR is one of the regional blocks, of Latin American countries. The founding members of MERCOSUR are Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. The bloc unites countries of southern America. The aim of coming up with this bloc was to establish one market for the members and to do away with internal tariffs.

The countries’ motivation into forming a regional bloc was to enhance regional integration, improve their economies and promote democracy in member countries. Brazil and Argentina are the founding nations of the MERCUSOR trade block.

They came up with it deliberately to eliminate security uncertainties in these countries and avoid military coups and takeovers as those experienced before. These countries including Paraguay and Uruguay had experienced military coups before they attained democracy. The member countries therefore view this regional organization as an important tool, which is likely to prevent overthrowing of governments through military interventions and institutionalize democracy in their countries.

Another motivation for this regional integration is economic liberalization through common plans of industrialization and setting marketing tariffs (Aquin and Caro, 1; Barbato and Bucheli, 2). Uruguay and Paraguay, who were smaller members of MERCOSUR, transformed their policies to allow foreign investment and export substitution between member countries.

These are the policies, which enabled Paraguay to liberalize its trade and investment activities and undergo political, social and constitutional transformations to meet basic requirements for the relations. The member states formed committees to make policy and marketing strategies and set tariffs for the trading bloc.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bilateral Relations between the US and Paraguay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also made committees responsible for dispute resolution in member countries. However, since these countries had non-uniform constitutions, the member states made the last decision in line with their constitution.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into action in 1994, with Mexico, Canada and United States as its founding members. Just like MERCOSUR, NAFTA’s aim was to eliminate trade barriers and tariffs between member countries and enhance regional integration (Hufbauer, and Schott, xi).

The heads of state of these member counties established NAFTA. Unlike MERCOSUR, NAFTA had no committees to bring together the heads of the member states to put plans in place for further integration. Thee bloc helped boost the economic growth of member states especially Mexico.

For US, NAFTA was to help it to minimize illegal immigrations and improve the economic relations between the two counties. MECURSOR had a more comprehensive regional integration plan than NAFTA and it succeeded in combating military interventions in member countries. The blocs also have served as tools for regional integration and globalization of trade and economy.

Paraguay’s major economy is Agricultural, some commercial activities, and a struggling industrial economy. The country has a large subsistence sector, high urban unemployment, a large labor population and re-export sector. It has a large electricity-generating sector, which is the world’s second largest hydroelectric generator.

The country is open to foreign investors and treats them with dignity. The country’s economic growth depends upon a number of export products. Some of these are cotton, sugar electricity, and various ceral crops.

The United States and Paraguay enjoy a cordial association in commerce and in various state operations that are intended for their mutual benefit. Paraguay is committed to counteract drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering among other trans-boundary evils taking place across its boundaries. It takes part in anti terrorism and anti narcotic activities in partnership with its neighboring countries and the United States. The United States is also committed to help Paraguay to meet its development goals. It supports the stabilization of Paraguay’s democracy as well as economic and constitutional reforms.

The two countries have continued to work together in fulfilling the requirements of a number of global agreements. There is also great improvement in bilateral trade between the two countries. There is an active exchange of imports and exports between the two countries. US’s multinational firms have also a number of branches in Paraguay to enhance this partnership in investment and trade.

This firms feature sectors like agro-industry, computer, banking, communication among other service-oriented sectors. (“Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs”, Para. 28). There are many US business agents in Paraguay and a good number of US citizens reside in Paraguay.

The US also offers Paraguay material, monetary and technical support. This includes the skills and tools the Paraguay government needs to achieve its goals.

The U.S. Department of State, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Treasury “provide technical assistance, equipment, and training to strengthen counternarcotics enforcement, combat trafficking in persons, promote respect for intellectual property rights, and to assist in the development and implementation of money laundering legislation and counterterrorism legislation,” (Para. 30).

Paraguay has signed bilateral investments agreements with other countries. These include Argentina, Taiwan, South Africa, Brazil, France, Chile, United Kingdom and Uruguay.

It has also signed other agreements with other countries like Austria, Peru, Spain, Romania, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Germany, among others. The agreements that Paraguay has signed with the US include Agreement relating to investment guaranties of 1955 and Agreement relating to investment guaranties of 1992 (“2008 Investment Climate Statement”, Para. 30).

The signing of agreements between regional blocs like MERCOSUR and the European Union will open up marketing opportunities leading to globalization and economic development.

Apart from trade and investment agreements between Paraguay and US, the two countries also collaborate in military issues. Military agreement between US and Paraguay came into effect in 1994. The agreement was mainly aimed at averting local military interventions and terrorism. The agreement gave the United State’s military immunity to carry out humanitarian operations in Paraguay and enabled it to carry out joint exercises with the Paraguayan military. They also collaborate in protecting intellectual property rights (Beittel, Para. 2).

In conclusion, the bilateral relationship between Paraguay and the United states has been a long-term venture. Even though the relation started in 1845, many scholars do not agree with this fact.

This is because the relation between these two countries was not very much public during its establishment. The relation became public in the late 1970s when the US tried to force Paraguay to brig about reforms in its political system and constitution. This is what ended the tyrannical governance in Paraguay and reinstated humanitarian and press freedoms.

Even though the US and Paraguay have hand a long-lasting relation, there have been a number of challenges in this relationship. The relationship between the two counties has faltered a number of times due to war, political and humanitarian issues. Similar interests in combating narcotics, terrorism and communism made the relation flourish. The US signed an agreement with the US to get permission and protection to carry out investment activities in Paraguay.

Paraguay also entered into the agreement because it needed protection against communists and needed to develop the country. President Stroessner of Paraguay started this partnership agreement with the US in pursuit of his own interest of clinging to power. The relationship, however, forced him to be flexible to reforms and took Paraguay to another level.

The Policies of MERCOEUR, in which Paraguay is a member, prohibited the countries to make bilateral agreements with non-member states. This must have threatened the relation between the US and Paraguay. The signing of agreements between regional blocks like MERCOSUR, the EU, and NAFTA has changed the situation. With this globalization, Paraguay and the United States have a good prospective future in their relations.

Works Cited Aquin, Nora, and Caro, Ruben. Políticas públicas, derechos, y trabajo social en el Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Espacio, 2009. Print.

Barbato, Celia, and Bucheli, Mario. Mercosur, una estrategia de desarrollo : nuevas miradas desde la economía y la política. Montevideo: Ed. Trilce, 2000. Print.

Beittel, S. June. Relations United States-Paraguay. Bloggers of the Americas. 2010. Web.

Bowles, Nigel. The government and politics of the United States. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Print.

“Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs.” Background Note. U.S. Department of State. 2010. Web.

Haas, Ernst B. The uniting of Europe; political, social, and economic forces, 1950-1957. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1968. Print.

Hufbauer, Gary C., and Schott, Jeffrey J. North American free trade: issues and recommendations. Washington, DC: Inst. für Internat. Economics, 1992. Print.

Jermyn, Leslie, and Yong, Jui L. Paraguay. New York : Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010. Print.

Kantorun, Ufuk. Regional intergration in America: MERCOSUR, NAFTA. Bilgesam. 2010. Web.

Laursen, Finn. Comparative regional integration: theoretical perspectives. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print.

Mattli, Walter. The logic of regional integration: Europe and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999. Print.

Mora, Frank O., and Cooney, W. J. Paraguay and the United States: distant allies. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. 2007. Print.

Mora, Frank O., and Hey, Jeanne A. K. Latin American and Caribbean foreign policy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman

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Pop Music Nature and History Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Concert

The History

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Pop music, as the name suggests, is popular not just in various societies but also to different age groups. In this ethnographic work, I chose to study pop music, especially its history. Pop music is a general term that encompasses genres such as hip-hop, rhythm and blues, rock, rap, soul and country music. Hatch and Millward simply define pop music as “a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz and folk music” (1).

Pop music has evolved with the industrial revolution, defying all odds to come of age. It is a multimillion-dollar industry propelled by the media and record companies. Attending a pop music live concert is a memorable event that everyone should look for. Pop music gives people something to identify with as I discovered after attending one such concert.

The Concert The stage was three feet above the ground. The cameras were rolling, some across the stage, and others above our heads. At the back of the stage, a few feet above it was a gigantic screen.

The stage lights, of virtually every colour, were magnificent. Some were on top of the stage, others on the upper balcony of the auditorium, directing all their magnificent colours to the stage. This was modern technology, at its best. On the right side of the stage, at the back, was the drum set. Three electric and box guitars hung on their stands on the other side. All the microphones were set.

The performing artist, Gordon Lightfoot, entered the stage, followed by his band. The drum set, the guitars, the vocals, all combined their musical sounds to back the lyrics. One song after another was performed. Gordon paved way for Joni Mitchell and later Leonard Cohen. It was a euphoric atmosphere and everyone could feel it. The Lyrics talked of a wide range of issues from love to the composers’ perception of life

Here I was, amidst hundreds, thousands to be precise, of loud screaming pop music fanatics. Their sound was deafening. Looking at such a crowd, I could not stop thinking of the hundreds of thousands, probably millions of dollars the event organizers gained. After a glance to my left and right, the back, I realized most of the people in the auditorium were young. Some holding up placards, others holding beer bottles waving them sideways like flags. A teenager standing beside me, on a sleeveless top, had tattoos all over her right arm.

She had one big tattoo of someone who looked like Michael Jackson with the words, ‘love you forever’. An unimaginable number of earrings were on her ears. She had two rings on both sides of her nose. After some time during the concert, I discovered she had another piercing on her tongue. In front of me were two young men with an amazing hairstyle. At this point, I was battling with one question on my mind. Has pop music always attracted this kind of crowd?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The History In the seventeenth century, as the middle class was emerging in big cities, pop music became the idealistic approach to depict their lifestyle. It was not called pop music back then. Classical music was for the high class, the affluent in the society, but the rapid urbanization brought by the industrial revolution came with a type of music popular to the middle and lower classes. It addressed their issues; defining who they were and what they experienced in everyday life.

It displayed the civil injustice in the society. It was their most powerful tool. It traces its roots back to the sixteenth century, in Napoli Italy, by composers like Alessandro Scarlatti and Francesco Provenzale who brought live into music. They made it a more appealing and interesting form of entertainment. Later, music became an art that could be performed in weddings and other parties.

The industrial revolution gave birth to a new class of people, the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie, middle class people, in turn paved the way for populism, which created a perfect platform for pop music to thrive. The American and French revolutions, which brought changes in cultural dimensions, came only to fuel this kind of music to greater heights.

With the establishment of the ‘Opera-Comique’ theatre in Paris 1715, forms of entertainment were diversified to include dance and comedy, which would later form part of pop music. Unlike the operas, pop music could be performed in a casual environment and settings, a condition, which was comfortable for the bourgeoisie. Music became easier not just to compose but also to perform.

This was in complete contrast to the complexity in operas, which strictly followed musical notes and only the experts could compose or perform. Pop music could address the issues affecting the bourgeoisie, their day-to-day life and plight. Due to the simplicity in this new type of music, amateurs could compose their own music and even perform. It is the kind music, which did not require one to go to a theatre to listen.

You could listen to it while taking a drink with friends at a cafe. This gave rise to café concerts. Video technology, multi track recording and digital editing from the 1980’s increased the quality and hence popularity of pop music. All along, creativity and innovations with invention of new styles in musical art were the key ingredients in pop music.

The Blues genre begun among poor blacks in the American Mississippi region and later spread to other parts. Soul music and Rhythm and Blues (R

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The Short Story “Found Objects” by Jennifer Egan Essay best college essay help

Introduction Found Objects is a short story by Jennifer Egan that gives an account of a young woman trying to find identity in an ever busy world. Sasha as the name of the young woman goes is in her mid-thirties and has serious issues that have pushed her to consult the services of a therapist.

Sasha has adopted a habit of stealing anything that she can lay her hands on. This ranges from screwdrivers to wallets and a host of other things that she does not really need. The strangest part of the story is that she does not mix the things she steals with her private life. Instead, she keeps them on a separate table as though hoping “to return them one day.” This leads us to conclude that she steals these things for a higher purpose than to fulfill her needs.

By looking at the story, it is hard to exactly pinpoint the motive for Sasha’s kleptomaniac behaviour. However, one thing that we can decipher from the story is that Sasha’s behaviour relates to her relationship with people. By stealing, Sasha seems to be passing across a message that she does not trust people and neither does she expect to be trusted.

This comes out clearly at the Lassimo Hotel where she steals a wallet from a woman in the washrooms. When she goes to adjust her eye shadow, she notices a wallet sticking out of a bag belonging to a woman who is peeing in the next toilet stall. The “trust” that the owner of this bag has on New York residents provokes Sasha to steal the wallet.

By doing this, she is sending across a message that people should not be too trusting. This clearly means that she does not trust anyone and neither does she expect to be trusted. Maybe, this is the reason why she gets so surprised when she sees her date Alex trying to help the woman recover her wallet. This leads her to conclude that both the woman and Alex must be residents of another town outside New York. To Sasha, stealing is simply a way of saying that people will do worse things to you if you give them the opportunity.

By closely looking at the story, one does not fail to realize that all the problems bedeviling Sasha have their genesis from the broken relationship with her father. From the story, we gather that Sasha’s father left when she was six years old and he never came back to get her. Sasha must have loved her father since she blocks any discussion about her father.

This shows that she must have loved her father so much and that his decision to abandon her hurt her so much. On his part, Sasha’s father does not appear to have loved her so much since he never came back even once to see how she was doing. This is perhaps one reason why Sasha has stopped trusting the people around her life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is seen from the incident with the plumber whom she believes has character traits similar to her fathers and her therapist whom she claims that she cannot trust his background. However, the relationship with her therapist Coz is more cordial since she feels that he can understand her. The therapist has one agenda and that is helping Sasha have a fresh start in her life. On her part, Sasha respects the therapist since she feels that he can see right through her.

The event where Sasha steals an inspirational message from Alex’s wallet gives us a deeper insight into her life and character. According to the story, Sasha keeps all the things she has stolen since using them would imply that she is greedy or that she is simply driven by her self-interest.

However, when she steals the note from Alex’s wallet with the words “I believe in you” scribbled on it, she realizes that she has to keep it. Although the reasons why she wants to keep this note separate from the other things are unclear, we are left with an open space to guess her reasons for doing so.

One reason why this might be the case is that Sasha might be under the illusion that this particular message is from her father who had abandoned her. This shows that she is still looking for approval and affection from her father. The other thing that might be the reason for her choosing to keep this note is that it implies a connection between her and someone in the heart of New York. This shows that Sasha felt disconnected from the society and she was looking for love and acceptance.

Conclusion Found Objects is a short story that shows the struggles that a young woman by the name of Sasha goes through to regain acceptance and recognition in the world.

This leads her to form a habit of stealing perhaps to fill her emptiness. The genesis of Sasha’s problems can be traced to her father’s leaving when she was six years old. By analysing her character, one realises that Sasha is looking for acceptance and recognition from the society. This can be seen from her desire to keep a note with an inspiring message that she steals from a man she is dating.

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The effective early childhood educator Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Early childhood education plays an important role in educational, physical and social development of a child. There is no question that the education given to a child in its early years of development has significant contribution to the future intellectual development of the child.

The relationships, educational experience and nutrition during the first eight early of a child have high contribution to the child mental and social growth. Therefore, a good early childhood education helps a child to develop in a healthy manner while poor program can have long-term negative effects on a child’s development. Effective early childhood educators are the backbone to successful early childhood education.

Success of an early childhood education program is highly depended on the competence of early childhood educators. An early childhood educator does not just teach but helps the children to develop in various aspects of their lives (Early, et al., 2007). Above introducing children to education, early childhood educators have to take care of physical, nutritional and social developmental needs of the children.

On top of introducing the children to reading, writing and simple computation, early childhood educators have to teach hygiene, safety and other important things that a child needs in its development. Importantly, early childhood educators act as parents to the children and have to respond to the children’s emotional needs. In this paper, I will explore the qualities that make an early childhood educator to be effective.

Early childhood educator is an occupation like no other. Early childhood educators must be able to deal with children and respond to their multiple needs. They have the responsibility of laying a foundation to future lives of their students and above all, act as parents to the children.

The educators give instructional assistance in the most important part of the children’s education. It is during the early years of development that a child acquires vital social skill and learns to interact with other people. In addition to helping children develop in their social aspects, early childhood educators play significant role in shaping a child’s attitude towards school (Early, et al., 2007).

To be effective, therefore, an early childhood educator must have a passion to teach young children. Without having the passion, an early childhood educator cannot withstand the many demands from young children and their parents. The main motivation for early childhood educators should be the children themselves. Early childhood educators must enjoy spending most of their time with young children and participating in their activities such as plays.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children require a supportive environment for them to develop effectively (Vialle, Lysaght

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Existing Business Expansion Plan Problem Solution Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Summary The purpose of this paper is to prepare a business plan for the FlexMation, which will expand its business with existing products in the US market. However, FlexMation will open XYZ New store to address the emerging market demand for aluminum structural framing.

However, The XYZ new store will be located in one of the busiest streets of Blaine, MN, offering a variety of products that would suit with the needs of many other businesses like construction industries, real estates, recycling factories, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, and so on. Initially, the store would provide the local customers with products from categories such as carts, clean rooms, enclosures, fixtures, frames, guards, material handling, and work cells.

Among the products of cart categories, the most high quality ones would include Mobile Test-Cart, Instrument-Towers, Instrumentation-Cart, Label Cart, HEPA Enclosure-Cart, and Controlled-Environment Parts Cart. The clean room product categories will consist of Wall and Ceiling Clean Room and Controlled Environment Wall, and the enclosure categories would consist of Weld Robot, Pharma Enclosure, Machine Enclosure, Dark Room Test Station, and Positive Pressure Enclosure.

On the other hand, the fixtures would comprise of Tool Holder, Adjustable Height Fixture, etc, whereas the frames would comprise of Peristaltic Pump Stand, Test Frame, and the guards would comprise of Cat Walk and Guard, ECOSAFE Machine Guard, and Mazak Stand. In this context, with such a widely diversified product line, it is important for the store to build up popularity among its client in order to acquire a good market position in Blaine. This requires the implementation of a good advertisement strategy through which the store could create awareness between public.

This would be mostly to attract the local customers and therefore XYZ would adopt advertising forms like Billboards and Hoardings, Yellow Pages, Direct mail, Electronic Mail, and Radio for example. In addition, FlexMation will invest 60% of its total starting capital to expand its operation in the US market. As FlexMation will expand its business by opening a new store, it will be easy for the company to generate profit from the first year of its operation.

Timeline The business plan of XYZ New Store will be placed to the board of directors for review, and approval on January 2011, and design its timeframe to go into operation within three months (90 working days) that counted April12 2011. As parent company FlexMation has very strong credit line with several financial institutes, it will be less time consuming for the XYZ New Store to receive start up and working capital from bank.

Due to an extension of existing business, the XYZ New Store would face less obstacles and time constrains. The arrangement of total startup and working capital would be completed within a month i.e. February 15 2011 as the initial activities would be started from the at once after the approval of board the site selection continues from January 16 to February15 2011.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the second month of 2011 after the sanction of bank loan, XYZ New Store will make contract with the rented premises and start decoration and renovation. To do so, the XYZ New Store will complete all contracts with the suppliers within a week starting from February 16 to February 21 2011.

All preachments, decoration, and renovation will be completed with in March 15, 2011. The project would consider adverting as a most significant tools for success and take it as an ongoing process staring next to rental premises and continues advertise in the print and electronic media in order to attract target customers.

The project XYZ New Store would like to start employee’s selection process from February 16 2011 and complete on March 14 2011. From March 2011 to April 2011, it will continue training for the employees and project has aimed to celebrate opening ceremony on April 15 2011.

The managers would provide day-to-day update to the CEO by phone or e-mail to know future tasks and start operation seriously with the objectives to reach break-even point within first year of its operation. However, the project would lead and operate complying with the following timeline that will demonstrated more elaborately the work detail and the milestone scheduling for XYZ New Store.

Deadline and milestone:

The XYZ New Store will try to finish all the initial functions within three months of project approval by the board of directors, for instance, preparing documents for the registration the name of the company. All the entrepreneurs also arrange their 15% capital within this short period. Additionally, they will contract with banks to know about initial documents, try to find out a rental premises near to selected location and secure the place by rent, contact with other suppliers, complete the procurements, employee selection and training and start operation as per following timeline and milestone which has also demonstrated in a Microsoft Project Gantt chart –

Table-1: Timeline for project implication

(A Gantt chart has presented into the Microsoft project File)

We will write a custom Essay on Existing Business Expansion Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relationship of events:

Here, it is significant to argue that all the above functions are interconnected with each other, for instance, it would not be possible for XYZ New Store to submit the proposal for bank loan without preparing a business plan.

On the other hand, bank loan is the key factor to start new project, as the entrepreneurs would not be capable to start XYZ New Store without fund, as they would only invest 45% of the total capital involved. In addition, bank loan is also a major issue to coordinate all the operational activities, human resources management, promotional activities, as well as marketing functions.

Moreover, the fund would engage for purchasing raw materials, fixture, fittings, furniture, and appliance. In addition, appointing employees is a longer process as adverting for job position, listing selected applications, interviewing short listed candidates, and appointing potential staff as well as providing training for them.

At the same time, market research is another significant task to selection the location, assesses market risks, external business environment, attitude of the target customers, comparison the size of XYZ New Store with competitors, response of competitors, and to identifying other significant factors.

Finally, XYZ New Store intends to develop an e- commerce site in order to facilitate the customers for online order and payment opportunities, communicating with customer, advertises the company, and introduce home delivery services better than other competitors in the market.

Products XYZ New Store will offer following products –

List of the Products Reasons for Setting the Costs (Depending on Product Features and Quality) Controlled-Environment Parts-Cart The product will be completely enfolded with stainless-steel top/bottom panes, poly carbonate surface panes, 2 doors through padlocking grips, 9 modifiable ledges and 4 padlocking caster-wheels HEPA Enclosure-Cart The top of the cart would clutch a HEPA filter to compel the higher cabinet zone comprising the combination tools; the polypropylene subordinate cabinets would clutch instrumentation and spare equipment whilst the frame will size to fit through the consumer’s constricted doorways Label Cart-Product The product could grip eight single reels of labels in a hospital product construction zone; it would restore a plastic-shelf pushcart that could only grip a couple of reels Instrumentation Cart-Product It will hold abundant file-servers and data-collection tools; the 2 clout strips will integrate for control management from the overhead source and the backside will have SS panes that would serve as shielding and decorative pivoted-doors through the main-walkway; moreover, the unit will sit on heavy duty caster wheels and foot operated floor locks Instrument-Towers The explicit towers would usually be for burn-in-testing and its remarkable characteristics would comprise of the louvered-SS hinged door-panes, wire-bondage, shelf-brackets, heavy-duty casters, and floor-locks Mobile Test-Cart This custom cart will house an electo-mechanical press and the upper tower will hold the actuator enclosed by plain poly carbonate panels; the table top would be gray laminate on a wood core, whereas the base unit will have a storage with two doors that would provide access to the control panel W I P Cart This product will handle work in progress in a manual automated assembly area; through this cart, the consumer could get 7 portions-shelves into this exceptionally mobile-cart that would assist the clients to save floor-space SS Top-Workstations These two tables would be custom designed to suit the consumer’s particular needs possessing of stainless-steel clippings for stability and locking caster-wheels for mobility; moreover, the left table will have adjustable tilt top tray, a hinged arm for holding a flat panel screen and a detent pull-out keyboard tray Calibration-Station This product will be a setting up precision measuring equipment; the top right will contain a hinged arm to hold the monitor and keyboard and the beneath that is an aluminum tabletop will have special features for the test fixtures; besides, the lower left will contain aluminum shelves for holding the fixed PC equipment Table 2: Products of XYZ New Store

Source: Self generated

Not sure if you can write a paper on Existing Business Expansion Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The following figure shows the price of the products of XYZ New Store –

Figure 1: Price of the products

Source: Self generated

Competitive analysis The marking research demonstrates the result that ergonomic workstations industry is already saturated with numerous conventional competitors. FlexMation has both direct and indirect competitors for all the service and product items like Work In Progress Rack, Parts Presentation Rack, Rear Support Bar, Main Table, and Tool Holder.

Thus, several direct competitors of this industry are ShapeMaster, Terra Universal, Pentz Cast Solutions, and indirect competitors are Applied Industrial Technologies, Inc, Industrial Distribution Group, and MSC Industrial Direct Co. However, Terra Universal is the direct competitor for the Electropolished Stainless Steel Work-In-Process (WIP) Racks, DARLEX Manufacturing’s wide range of aluminum extrusion profiles,

Porter 5 forces:

Porter (2004) argued that market competition should assess by considering following five forces and these are –

Figure 2: – Porter 5 forces model for XYZ New Store

Source – Self generated from Porter (2004)

Threat of New Entrants: The threats of new entrants are relatively low in this industry due to the presence of a number of obstacles to pierce the market; therefore, despite of a quite high international demand it is rather hard for the new comers to capture a large part of the market at first instance. However, new entrants may find it easy to penetrate if they concentrate on a niche market rather than mass market.

Just like many other commercial sectors, the biggest obstacle to come into this industry is the enormous expenses related to set-up and sustain the business in such a competitive market embraced by price wars. Nonetheless, it is important to argue that since FlexMation Enterprise is already an efficient, renowned, and moneymaking business, XYZ new store will not suffer from the typical problems like lack of efficiency, finance, and hostile competition like many other new entrants.

Rivalry among competitors:

Although there are many indirect competitors of XYZ new store, but, conversely the number of direct competitors are few. Nevertheless, the competitive rivalry is quite high in the market, since the indirect players who focus on niche market have strong market share and customer base from their own positions.

In this context, all the products of the new store of FlexMation will need to compete with many other small and medium sized enterprises like Applied Industrial Technologies Inc, Industrial Distribution Group Inc, and MSC Industrial Direct Co Inc as well as the giant players like ShapeMaster, Terra Universal, and Pentz Cast Solutions.

Bargaining power of buyer: Hollingbery (2007) pointed out that the bargaining power of the buyer is low because the market demand for the products including aluminum solutions, steel products, and ergonomic Workstations is high in global market.

On the other hand, this power is low due to availability of similar products the in the market, and numerous diversified product range offered by the customers. However, the new store of FlexMation will target both individual customers as well as small medium sized companies to market these products.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Hitt, Ireland

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E-commerce and Competitiveness: Amazon.ca and Chapters.Indigo.ca Report custom essay help

Internet-based systems enable companies to simplify their information management process by removing complexity, which makes the organization more responsive and as a result, organization generates more profit through revenue and saving.

The process of doing business over the Internet or any other electronic medium is known as e-commerce. This paper analyzes two competing businesses that use their websites for electronic commerce. The two companies are Amazon and Chapters, with their websites being Amazon.ca and Chapters.Indigo.ca respectively; both serving Canadians people.

Both companies have been able to embrace e-commerce technology by offering their customers a wide range of products, including music, toys, electronics, software, books, and clothes. However, the differences between Amazon.ca and Capaters.Indigo.ca can be realized in terms of their functions, user friendliness, and ability to support the company’s business strategy. The criteria used in evaluating these websites are interactivity, integration, and e-market mechanism such as e-catalogue, search engine, and shopping cart.

Amazon.ca (2010) provides Canadian customers with many options of selecting products. The site organizes its products in form of books, music, movies

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Definition of Animal Rights and Its Problems Essay online essay help: online essay help

Since the research works held every year in the field of biology and biodiversity show that the decline in the number of rare species is constantly growing, and that animals rights are being violated by a number of physical persons and legal entities, the obvious conclusion that can be drawn is that there must be something done about the situation. In spite of the fact that animals right have been talked much about, there is still very little done to protect the wildlife from the people and their inventions that pose a terrible threat to the state of the wildlife.

Humanists have come up with the idea of animal rights rather recently, and the progress that the idea has brought, rapidly growing popular with the people all over the world, is truly indescribable.

People have grown concerned with the issues that they have never thought of, and the humanism that the theory of animals having their own right is shot through is a clear evidence of the fact that the mankind has achieved another level of development. The notion of mankind and humanity are bound to be intertwined someday, and this is quite cheerful news.

In spite of the fact that the progress cannot but bring joy and relief, there are certain questions rising as the new ideas start developing.

However, not all people think that animals are supposed to have any rights at all. For example, Cohen (2008) assumes that according to their natural state, animals cannot have any rights, in contrast to people. He explains it by the fact that animals are no human beings, while rights are the attribute of people only, according to the law and logics.

Human beings are self-legislative, morally autonomous. Animals (that is, nonhuman animals, the ordinary sense of that word) lack this capacity for free moral judgment. They are not beings of a kind capable of exercising or responding to moral claims. Animals therefore have no rights, and they can have none. (p. 709)

This is the core of the argument about the alleged rights of animals. Indeed, the existing laws do not presume that animals should have the same rights as people do. From this point of view, it must be ridiculous to think that animals can understand the notion of rights, and accept that they have certain rights.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since humans are the only beings that can be taken as sane and articulate, only humans can have rights and freedoms. Meanwhile, the wildlife does not have the privilege of rights. It is not that animals are thought to be of less importance than the progressive mankind or the other elements of the Earth, but the whole idea is that wildlife cannot fit the idea of rights. It is high above the moral concepts – the latter are not applicable to the nature as it is at all.

Cohen (2008) explains that his idea is not that, because of people’s superiority, a man can do to animals whatever he or she wants to – on the other hand, he tends to think that people should take care of animals, since the latter are more vulnerable. Yet Cohen insists that animals cannot possess rights owing to their belonging to the sphere where no morals or laws can exist.

Rights entail obligations, but many of the things one ought to do are in no way tied to another’s entitlement. Rights and obligations are not reciprocals of one another, and it is a serious mistake to suppose that they are. (p. 708)

In other words, nature is the environment different from the human civilization, and animals cannot possess rights in the meaning that people are used to out to this concept. Freedoms, as well as obligations, are the substance that does not fit into the frame of the wild life.

With all the regard to the abovementioned point of view, it is necessary to mark that it embraces the concept of rights only from the legal point of view. This is only the constitution and the Declaration of Rights and Freedoms that such judgment is based on. In other words, since the nature itself id the notion that stands out of the structure of the human world, the rights of animals are supposed to touch the sphere that does not have the direct correspondence to the acting laws and justice.

As Regan puts it, the treatment of animals in the modern society is not to be improved, it is to be changed completely, for its ideas are interconnected – once something has been changed, the whole system is brought down.

Regan (2008) shows a complete revision of the concept of animals rights as the possible way out of the conflict situation: “What’s wrong — fundamentally wrong — with the way animals are treated isn’t the details that vary from case to case. It’s the whole system.” (p. 696)

We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Animal Rights and Its Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This wrongness is the fact that drives people to the abuse of animal rights.

However much one might know about the right treatment of animals, it will be impossible to solve the misconception of the animals rights with help of the standards that we are used to apply to people.

There must be something deeply wrong about the way people perceive the idea of respecting animals and their rights. The basic question is whether it is possible to respect the rights of chicken having it for a dinner. This is what vegetarians are conducting debates about.

The perfect explanation that Regan (2008) provides for the drawbacks of the existing system of animal rights is the following:

As for animals, since they cannot understand contracts, they obviously cannot sign; and since they cannot sign, they have no rights. Like children, however, some animals are the objects of the sentimental interest of others. (p. 699)

This is as far as the law system goes with providing animals with their right to live and to enjoy their life, the right not to be treated brutally and killed. The law makes their rights equal to naught, since they can be posed neither like physical persons, nor like a legal entity, of course. Like lawyers say, “dura lex sed lex suus” – “the law is hard, but it is the law.”

Still it is obvious that animals must not be mistreated. However different they might be from people, it is the principle of humanity that must guide people in their relation towards the living creatures.

It goes without saying that people can make use of the plenty that the Earth provides us with. Since people cannot handle without eating meat, the question of vegetarianism remains open, and the “meat-eaters” can stay with their consciousness unstained. But as far as it goes about mistreating the living beings, making them suffer just because a man is a superior creature to those who are in pain because of people, such things have to stop.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Definition of Animal Rights and Its Problems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cruelties that people can do make one’s hair rise in terror. As Regan (2008) said, animals suffer greatly because of people and their actions, which are wilder than the nature itself, completely deprived of logic of the wild world where killing is for food, not for pleasure.

But what is wrong isn’t the pain, isn’t the suffering, isn’t the deprivation. These compound what’s wrong. Sometimes – often – they make it much, much worse. (p. 697)

As a matter of fact, they do. These compounds shape into such terrible results that one cannot help thinking of whether a man is any difference from a beast. In fact, even animals do not treat each other with the cruelty of a man.

Regarding the situation, one must say that it has to be dealt with. People have to acknowledge that animals are living beings just like people are, and their rights are not a vague notion but the basis for the humanity of people all over the world. Animals have to get the rights that they have been deprived of for so long, and the aim of giving them those rights must be the prior goal of humanists and animal protection organizations.

Reference Cohen, C. (2008). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research.

The Norton Reader: An Anthology of Nonfiction. 12th Ed. New York, NY: W.W. Norton

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People Resourcing Essay essay help online free

The most valuable asset that any organization can be in possession of is the human resource of the organization. According to Jackson and Schuler (1990, p1), “human resource is a part of a strategic business planning.” There is therefore a necessity that there should be an organized procedure in obtaining and maintaining these valuable resources.

The role of a Human Resource Manager whether in a profit making or a non-profit-making organization is to ensure that the acceptable chord of conduct is executed during the selection of the employees and that the working conditions are conducive to encourage the employees. The morale of an employee is also boosted if during their selection, there was transparency. An employee bribed his way into a job will always be haunted for as long as he serves the company.

To facilitate this, there should be a strong relationship and co-ordination between the Human Resource management and the recruiting authority. The expanse of the personnel’s responsibility will depend on the kind of business an organization is carrying out (Johns

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Human resource management – Starbucks Report essay help free

Introduction Starbucks prides itself as the largest coffeehouse in the world. As a matter of fact, the company has more than 17800 stores. In this case, it has operations in more than 49 countries (Starbucks 18). Most of the company’s stores are located in the United States of America. The company offers a wide range of coffee products. These include; deep brewed coffee, cold and hot drinks, salads and other drinks.

The company has an entertainment division that markets music, books and films. In this case, most of the company’s products are meant to suit a particular market depending on the prevailing season at that particular time. In addition, these products are developed according to the needs of that locality. As a matter of fact, it offers branded ice cream and coffee (Starbucks 38). The company has been expanding rapidly since it was formed.

A lot of expansion was witnessed in the 1990s where the company opened a new store in every single working day. After opening its first store in Canada (outside USA), it has continued to open other stores in different countries. As a matter of fact, its overseas stores constitute a third of the company’s operational activities. It should be known that the company had planed to open 900 new stores in 2009 (Starbucks 21). These stores were to be located outside USA in a bid to consolidate its market and operations.

On the other hand, the company had announced that it will be closing more than 900 stores in USA. Therefore, it should be known that the company has been subject to a number of protests (Starbucks 27). This has been in relation to issues that revolve around anti-competitive practices, labor relations, fair trade policies and environmental impact.

This paper will try to look at the successful execution of human resource management practices and processes at Starbucks. In this case, the paper will try to evaluate how these processes have enabled the company to achieve its goals. This is because human resource plays and important role in ensuring that a company achieves its goals and objectives.

Starbucks has been having a good human resource strategy to enhance its operations. As a matter of fact, the company has a recruitment department that ensures that it attracts the best talent in the market. Starbuck has a coffee master course that is supposed to be taken by all employees. All employees who have undergone this course wear black aprons. The company has also come up with a good mentoring program to ensure that senior and more experienced employees are able to mentor their juniors.

Discussion Recruiting/selection

Recruitment revolves around attracting, screening and finally selecting the best individuals for a specific job in an organization. This process can be done by the firms’ professional recruiters or it can still be outsourced to other recruitment organizations (Legge 12). As a matter of fact, there are many stages that are involved in the recruitment process. Every firm or organization has its own ways of recruiting people or individuals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starbucks has continually recruited people to join its operations. Because the company has operations in more than 39 countries, it has been forced to ensure that it attracts the best talent to enhance its operations. In this case, the company manages a full cycle recruitment process. This means that candidates end up having a positive experience in the recruitment and selection process. As a matter of fact, the company has a recruitment department that ensures that it attracts the best talent in the market (Starbucks 17). The company has come up with an open recruitment process to avoid any complaints from different and diverse candidates.

Recruitment is a good topic that is supposed to be effectively addressed by all organizations (Ulrich 9). Therefore, there are many benefits that an organization can get by ensuring that it has an effective recruitment and selection process. When an organization effectively addresses this issue, it will save on time and ensure that its operations are not interrupted.

This process is very important because it speaks a lot about the organization and its activities. In this case, it will be a true reflection of the company’s professionalism and validity (Legge 14). This therefore explains why Starbuck has continually enhanced its recruitment process to build on its existing professionalism. A good recruitment process enables the company to hire the right people. These people are supposed to have the necessary skills and talent to undertake their duties and responsibilities.

Starbuck has settled on an internal recruitment process because it saves on costs. In this case, it has been able to save on time and thereby enhance its operations as time goes by. There are various problems that can arise from a recruitment and selection process (Legge 6). In this case, various candidates that were supposed to be recruited can experience issues and delays as far as the recruitment process is concerned.

In extreme cases, organizations might have problems in ensuring that their recruitment process is well organized. This means that they will be having a long recruitment process. In this case, an organization might end up with the wrong person for a given job (Ulrich 14). This means that all organizations should have a fairly efficient recruitment process. It should be known that delays can lead to various technical problems that can end up affecting the whole recruitment process.

Because the recruitment and selection process is an important aspect that relates to the general well being of the organization, managers are supposed to ensure that it is well addressed for sustainability.

Starbuck has put in place the right mechanisms to enhance its recruitment process by welcoming suggestions on how it can improve its recruitment activities and processes (Starbucks 15). Managers should ensure that the organizations recruitment process is open enough to attract the best talent. This will encourage various professionals to participate in the recruitment and selection process.

We will write a custom Report on Human resource management – Starbucks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Training

Training is the acquisition of knowledge, competencies and skills that relate to a specific job or responsibility. It is an essential activity for organizations because it provides them with enough skills and knowledge. This ensures that an individual has the right skills to undertake a specific job or responsibility. Training provides the necessary and specific useful competencies that employees need to undertake their tasks (Legge 34). In this case, it provides the backbone of the content that is needed for sustainability.

Current business trends require people to continually undergo training beyond their initial qualifications. This enables them to maintain, upgrade and update their skills as time goes by (Ulrich 11). As a matter of fact, training can also be referred to as professional development. This is because it improves employee performance after they have acquired the necessary skills.

Starbuck has a coffee master course that is supposed to be taken by all employees. All employees who have undergone this course wear black aprons. As a matter of act, this training educates them on coffee growing regions, coffee tasting, purchasing and roasting (Starbucks 25). The company therefore has its own training policies that are supposed to be strictly adhered to by all employees in the organization.

To accommodate fast growth, the company trains baristas and store managers on the best practices. This has enabled the company to build its image and thereby enhance its operations as time goes by (Starbucks 18). Training is a very important aspect that relates to human resource development. This is because it enhances and improves employee commitment in the organization.

Training keeps employees motivated to continue working for the organization. The business world is continually changing and organizations need to train employees throughout their career. This will enable them to stay ahead of competition as they will be motivated to face various challenges. New skills and knowledge can help employees to reduce boredom (Legge 24). As a matter of fact, it increases their confidence in the organization.

An organization should continually invest in training programs for sustainability. This increases the morale of employees because they will feel that they are very valuable for the organization to invest in them. In a broad perspective, training can be used to create positive attitudes (Ulrich 13). This is done through the clarification of attitudes and behaviors that are expected in the organization.

The most outstanding benefit of training is that it is very cost effective. This is because it is cheaper to train existing employees in relation to specific industry requirements than to hire new ones (Legge 45). Hiring new employees is very costly as they have to be integrated into the organization for sustainability. There are various problems that can arise from employee training. For instance, it is difficult to handle diverse and distinct employee attitude problems.

Some organizations might lack the necessary communication skills that are needed for effective training. Starbuck has come up with performance improvement discussions to enhance its training activities as time goes by. Productivity can be affected if various attitude problems are not dealt with as expected (Ulrich 23). There might be cases where supervisors do not have the necessary skills to carry out training activities in their respective portfolios and departments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human resource management – Starbucks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To enhance training programs, managers need to come up with the best and acceptable practices that will make the organization more competitive in the market place. In this case, they should be able to understand the most common causes of attitude problems in the organization (Legge 41). To address this topic effectively, they should enhance team work in the organization and encourage cooperation among employees.

This will enable them to come up with better ways of enhancing their work. As a matter of fact, a manager should undergo management training programs to remain competitive. This will increase confidence and the comfort level that mangers need to deal with various problems.

Mentoring

Mentoring is an important personal development and empowerment tool that all organizations are supposed to have for their own sustainability. This is because it encourages and supports people/ individuals and employees to maximize their potential (Legge 14). This is normally done to develop their skills and enhance their individual performance. Effective mentoring can enable employees to become what they want to be as far as their duties and responsibilities are concerned.

As a matter of fact, mentoring can help employees to progress with their careers. In this case, it is a partnership between two people who might be working in the same field (Ulrich 13). In a broad perspective, these employees might be sharing the same experiences. Mentoring should help employees to boost their confidence and morale to continue working for the organization.

Starbuck has come up with a good mentoring program to ensure that senior and more experienced employees are able to mentor their juniors (Starbucks 24). In this case, mentors rely upon their past experiences to gain a good empathy and understanding on different issues. This is because employees are supposed to be encouraged to undergo different trying moments in the course of undertaking their duties and responsibilities.

This has allowed the company’s employees to explore new ideas with confidence. In the process, they have become creative in coming up with better ways of enhancing the company’s operations (Starbucks 15). Through mentoring, employees have been able to identify new opportunities that the company can explore to its own advantage.

There are many benefits that come out of mentoring programs in an organization. Mentoring programs enable employees to do the right thing thereby encouraging them to perform their duties more effectively. In this case, it speeds up the process of redeploying employees to new places within the organization (Legge 19). Mentoring has also been known to enhance employee satisfaction. This is because employees who participate in mentoring programs end up with a high job satisfaction.

Another benefit of addressing employee satisfaction can be seen in employee productivity. This is because they will have a good mechanism of getting the right answers at the right time. As a matter of fact, employees can be able to rediscover and reinvent good solutions to different problems (Armstrong 27). Mentoring programs enhance career growth and succession planning. In this case, an organization can be able to grow its employees into senior positions without hiring new ones at high costs.

Mentoring gives employees synergy while reducing the levels of frustration. This is because employees who do not know how to go about their jobs and can end up being frustrated. Frustrations affect employee turnover by bringing about morale problems (Armstrong 21). This topic is very important because it is directly linked to the quality of work. There are various problems that can arise from a mentoring program.

Organizations might find it difficult to establish a good mentoring relationship between employees. This can be as a result of different rules and regulations that guide a given organization. Conflicts at work can hinder the accomplishment of a mentoring program (Armstrong 18). It might also be difficult to establish a mentoring agenda that will suit an organizations needs.

To establish an effective mentoring program, managers need to come up with a good curriculum for mentor development in the organization. This will enable them to deal with various issues and challenges that might arise as far as mentoring is concerned (Pfeffer 16). Managers should know the value of mentoring programs in their organizations as time goes by for sustainability. This will enable them to remain competitive in the ever changing business world.

Workplace violence

Workplace violence is the violence that is witnessed in different firms and organizations. As a matter of fact, it originates from various employees and employers. It should be known that workplace violence can end up threatening employees as far as their work is concerned (Pfeffer 16). This can end up affecting employee morale and productivity in the organization. In extreme cases, employees can suffer or end up being exposed to violent scenarios.

It has been known that an unpleasant work environment can increase the probability of work place violence in an organization. Employees can be stressed up as time goes by because of a poor working environment (Armstrong 27). Starbuck has been enhancing employee relationships to reduce incidences of work place violence (Starbucks 16). In this case, they are always reminded that their security is the organizations priority.

Communication and training has been occasionally done to ensure that employees are comfortable as far as their jobs are concerned. As a mater of fact, the staff at Starbuck undertakes periodic work place violence awareness programs (Starbucks 9). This enables them to be informed of the current work place violence issues. In this case, employees should be aware of all issues that relate to work place violence.

Training employees on workplace violence can save lives. This is because some of these activities can end up being fatal if they are not properly dealt with. Employees can also benefit by coming up with a good conflict management system that will end up enhancing an organizations activities (Pfeffer 20). As a matter of fact, employees will be in a better position to understand each other well. This enables an organization to create a good working environment for its employees.

There are various problems that can come out as a result of work place violence. In this case, it might be difficult to understand different employee attitudes (Armstrong 17). This is because work place violence is brought about by employee misunderstanding in the course of carrying out their duties and responsibilities.

Current managers are supposed to address this problem because it affects employee productivity and morale. In this case, they are supposed to come up with good training programs to educate employees on work related issues. This should be done by educating them to treat each other with respect. In the long run, they will have a good working relationship that will increase their own productivity.

Disciplinary procedures

Employers are supposed to use disciplinary procedures at work to tell employees that their behavior or code of conduct is not in line with the organizations expected ethics (Armstrong 23). As a matter of act, disciplinary procedures can be used to encourage improvements in productivity. It should be known that a disciplinary procedure can be used to tell an employee that something is certainly wrong as far as his duties and responsibilities are concerned.

Starbucks has different supplier social responsibility standards that it expects from its employees. In this case, suppliers are supposed to implement and come up with reasonable procedures of disciplining various employees. As a matter of fact, Starbucks uses monetary fines for its disciplinary practices (Starbucks 11). This is done to ensure employees are able to comply with the company’s expectations as far as their work is concerned.

The company encourages its employees to continue being disciplined. This has ensured that they perform their duties within the company’s expected code of conduct. Discipline procedures at work enable organizations to set good standards of conduct at the work place (Pfeffer 18). In a broad perspective, they ensure that an organization has fair and consistent mechanisms of treating employees.

Employers will be able to deal with various problems that relate to their employees code of conduct in the organization. As a matter of fact, an organization will be able to deal with various problems that relate to employee productivity (Legge 16). There might be problems in dealing with a given organizations disciplinary procedures. This might be seen in documenting good procedures to deal with disciplinary problems.

Overlapping grievances can also come up as a problem in executing disciplinary procedures. Problems can also arise from contractual policies that a given organization might be having as far as employment issues are concerned (Armstrong 27). This is because every organization has its own way of undertaking employment issues.

Managers should effectively understand disciplinary procedures because they have an impact on employee productivity and morale. Good disciplinary procedures will enable them to deal with distinct and emerging employee related issues.

Conclusion I think that the company has a good approach to human resource management. This is because it has not had any human resource problems in its operations. As a matter of fact, the company has a very high rate of employee productivity. In this case, I will continually support the company as it enhances its operations in the ever changing and competitive market.

Starbuck has continued to have good human resource practices for its own sustainability. In this case, it has always reviewed its human resource practices in relation to existing industry standards and expectations. This is because it has operations in more than 49 countries.

As a matter of fact, the company has a recruitment department that ensures that it attracts the best talent in the market. The company has come up with an open recruitment process to avoid any complaints from different and diverse candidates. The process of recruitment and selection is very important because it speaks a lot about the organization and its activities.

In this case, it will be a true reflection of the company’s professionalism and validity. This therefore explains why Starbuck has continually enhanced its recruitment process to build on its existing professionalism. A good recruitment process enables the company to hire the right people. These people are supposed to have the necessary skills and talent to undertake their duties and responsibilities.

Works Cited Armstrong, Michael. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page, 2006. Print.

Legge, Karen. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print.

Pfeffer, Jeffrey. Competitive advantage through people. Harvard: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. Print.

Starbucks. Our Company. 2010. Web. https://www.starbucks.com/about-us/company-information

Ulrich, Dave. Human Resource Champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press, 1996. Print.

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Public Awareness of Climate Changes and Carbon Footprints Annotated Bibliography cheap essay help: cheap essay help

This research explores the subject of public awareness of the issues of climate changes. In particular, the research focuses on the issues of the impact that global warming and big concentration of carbon have on human health and what possible decisions of these problems are. The research also considers questions of the importance of media and public interaction to address global climate change.

This research can argue that “lexical creativity and lexical framing” (Nerlich and Koteyko 206) can influence greatly on the propagation of terms related to environmental issues and explanation of them. For example, it can promote public interaction and “conduct public discourses on global climate change” (Inglis 500) and raise peoples’ interests to such issues as the influence of a greenhouse effect and carbon in the air on human health.

This study aims at drawing attention to the importance of media in evolving questions of global warming and its consequences (greenhouse effect). A sustainable work should be led to “put the issue of carbon mitigation into the public spotlight” (Nerlich and Koteyko 208).

Certain steps had already been done in this direction as “most scientists now accept that climate change is a reality” (Brook 253). However, this questions still deserves great attention because according to the work by Gautier, Deutsch and Rebich, a majority of people, students in particular, have some “misconceptions about climate” (387).

Consequently, there is a “knowledge gap” as, “public health officials are aware of the growing human risk associated with climate change” (Akerlof et. al. 2561). Thus, media should pay bigger attention to inform and explain issues related to global climate change. One more important solution to the problem of peoples’ awareness of the global issues and comprehensive social changes is a “public interaction” (Inglis 501).

Having analyzed the works mentioned above, we can come up to a conclusion that: one of the reasons of global warming is a big concentration of carbon in the air. As a result, we can observe a greenhouse effect that has a negative influence on peoples’ health. A major task of media and scientists is to join their forces and promote people’s awareness of these issues through different sources of information and public interaction. It can elevate peoples’ consciousness and encourage finding common solutions to the problems.

Some steps have been taken to solve the problem. First, many the subjects concerning global climate change have been introduced to the curriculum of many educational establishments to raise students’ awareness of the climate change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, the Kyoto Protocol that aims at preventing climate changes was signed. Third, the production of newsletters concerning a greenhouse effect sent to e-mails was developed. Finally, media was involved in the process of fighting against global warming while producing specialized articles and educational TV programs.

Our research reveals the problem of public awareness of the influence of global climate change and its effect on human health. Thus, further work in this direction presupposes creating specialized classes and student conferences that would promote peoples’ interaction discussing problems of climate change. The production of more articles in scientific and non-scientific journals that would explain the issues in an appropriate language can also bring positive results and attract peoples’ attention to the problem.

Works Cited Akerlof, Karen et. al. “Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 7 (2010): 2559-2606. Web.

Brook, Ryan K. “Ignoring the Elephant in the Room: The Carbon Footprint of Climate Change Research.” InfoNorth. 62. 1 (2009): 253–255.

Gautier, Catherine, Katie Deutsch and Stacy Rebich. “Misconceptions About the Greenhouse Effect.” Journal of Geoscience Education. 54. 3 (2006): 386.

Inglis, Jan. “Evolving to Address Global Climate Change and the Scale of Public Interactions.” World Futures 64.5-7 (2008): 498-502. Web.

Nerlich, Brigitte and Koteyko, Nelya. “Carbon Reduction Activism in the UK: Lexical Creativity and Lexical Framing in the Context of Climate Change.” Environmental Communication. A Journal of Nature and Culture. 3: 2. (2009): 206 — 223.

We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Public Awareness of Climate Changes and Carbon Footprints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Working Bibliography Akerlof, Karen et. al. “Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 7 (2010): 2559-2606. Web.

Akerlof and others discusses the problem of influence of the global environmental changes on peoples’ health. Several surveys were conducted in the United States, Malta and Canada order to define how people perceive the global climate changes. It was defined that concerns about the climate changes grow.

Moreover, people thing that the main reason of the majority of diseases related to heart, respiratory problems, cancer and infectious diseases is a global warming. During the research, it was discovered that global warming influences greatly on elderly people and children. People in America sure that environmental changes are more dangerous in developing countries. The authors offer to mount public health communication initiative and inform people about consequences of diseases related to climate change.

Brook, Ryan K. “Ignoring the Elephant in the Room: The Carbon Footprint of Climate Change Research.” InfoNorth. 62. 1 (2009): 253–255.

The author of the article attracts attention to the question that global climate changes are the results of the human activity. He present the results of a Global Pole that only 41 % of people believe that global warming is the result of human activity and carbon emission. The author provides the opinion that people are aware of a danger of carbon emission, but nobody still does anything and that data gathering can have significant positive impact and solve the problem.

Thus, Ryan Brook suggests making first steps to reduce the carbon omission. For this purpose, he offers calculating individual research footprints and do something about it. He assumes that only uniting their forces, people can do significant contribution to reducing the carbon emission. Finally, Brook provides the idea that scientists who preoccupied with the global climate changes should share their knowledge and data about carbon emission and how to reduce it providing leadership on issues of tourism and business actions.

Gautier, Catherine, Katie Deutsch and Stacy Rebich. “Misconceptions About the Greenhouse Effect.” Journal of Geoscience Education. 54. 3 (2006): 386.

Catherine Gautier, Katie Deutsch and Stacy Rebich in their article present the research directed on defining the misconceptions about climate changes among students. Students were suggested to pass several tests in order to define the level of understanding of such issues as global warming and greenhouse effect The study was conducted in mock summit class on global changes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Awareness of Climate Changes and Carbon Footprints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Having analyzed the results, the scientists understood what methods should be used to overcome misconceptions. The study showed that the majority of misconceptions were maintained through the class and many students had built their own mental models about the greenhouse effect. The authors emphasize that as future citizens of the world, student should be well aware of greenhouse effect and lead a research work in order to prevent its destructive influence on environment.

The authors suggest a “potential role of students in decision making related to global climate change”. Moreover, the task of such students will be to prevent further misconceptions in environmental science. The authors also suggest basic information that students should know. This information is about the gases that constitute greenhouse effect, their qualities (how gas absorb and reemit radiation), etc.

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Problems of the Individual’s Privacy in the Society Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The debate on the use of technology still rages unabated. On one hand, technology has paved the way to a change, a change that virtually all people have welcomed. With this technological progress, the world seems reduced in size and terms like ‘global village’ have sprouted as a result to describe how connected people are in contemporary times.

Things have become simplified; however, as the old adage asserts, ‘when the deal is too good, people ought to think twice.’ Although, technology is highly used for security purposes by almost all countries, it has in turn violated the initially prevailing individual privacy rights.

As online services continue to blossom, gadgets, which cannot distinguish a private, and/or personal from a public package have arisen in the name of improving the security sector. Since people have the right to privacy, the end thereof is not warranted by the means owing to the corresponding impact.

The government is not justified in using technology that may violate individual privacy in its security endeavors because, “People have the right to traverse the streets and parks of the DC without being under scrutiny of Chief Ramsey and the FBI” (Parenti, 2002, p. 432). Should the government break human rights the name of beefing up security?

Why Even though the government seeks to enhance the safety of its people through the establishment of the surveillance machines, which is a right move, it fails to consider how the move interferes with peoples’ right to privacy. As a result, it loses the justification in using the technology because with the establishment of surveillance gadgets strategically located all over, along streets, inside buildings, and vehicles, information concerning people is currently being gathered on a continuous basis.

Though peoples’ security is the intended outcome, there lacks a clear cut line between the kind of information, that ought to and the one that ought not to be collected. As Parenti (2002) exposits, “…when police watch a person with a high-powered intelligent camera…they are in effect conducting an unwarranted and unconstitutional search” (p. 432).

Since the camera collects information of all people regardless of rank, there is a high possibility of arousing disputes from prominent people based on the revelation of their private or personal information. For instance, if President Obama’s privacy were publicized, would the world be at peace? Chesterman (2010) comes in handy to answer this when he says, “If we surrender our liberty in the name of security, we shall have neither” (p. 2). Political reasons deprive the government of this justification as elaborated next.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the massive and uncontrolled information gathering, the government may seek to satisfy its political desires by falsely following up the whereabouts of a person, who seems to pose a political challenge. This is no more than an abuse of the available technology, which cannot justify the government use of it. John Adams, a former American president offers the best illustration of this issue. Kaminer (2002) says that, “John Adams supported the Alien and sedition acts which… was used to imprison his political foes” (p. 436).

Moreover, the issue of the former President Bush to arrest all the immigrants at the dawn of September 11 terrorism implies a predisposed collection procedure in the sense that, majority of those detected as having participated in the bombing were not even connected to the attack.

It therefore stands out that government crime detection criteria are subject to biasness and may be employed in favor of some hidden political agenda like chasing away the immigrants or fighting against some political enemies, whose private information has been accessed and then used to weaken him/her politically.

While the fight against terrorism may be the fuel behind the use of technology by the government, the government is to a large extend unjustified owing to the inability of computer programs to perfectly identify the nature of the person being investigated, whether a student, a spy, or a terrorist.

Therefore, as an alternative, the government ought to modify the surveillance gadgets so that they can tell a terrorist from a group of innocent people. These programs, by investigating the peoples’ privacy go past FISA’s limitations and at the same time defying the peoples’ privacy rights.

As Posner (2006) observes “…the problem with FISA is that the surveillance it authorizes is unusable to discover who is a terrorist, as distinct from eaves dropping on known terrorist…” (p. 446). This is a clear implication that even after the privacy investigations by the government, a lot is required in order to avoid the evident inaccuracies which have left many suspected and detained, though absolutely innocent.

Conclusion Considering the aforementioned expositions, it suffices to declare the government unjustified in its endeavors to use technology as a way of boosting the security sector. Though it is a working criterion, the other side cannot be ignored. The method has gone against the rights of individual as far as their privacy is concerned.

We will write a custom Essay on Problems of the Individual’s Privacy in the Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, a balance ought to be struck between privacy and security because the two are equally basic; therefore, the government has no reason to major on security leaving the privacy section unattended bearing in mind that, privacy is a right and need only to be accessed under one’s consent. Since this is not the procedure applied by the government, it is therefore not justified to use the technology, which violates the privacy of its people in its bid to keep them safe.

Reference List Chesterman, S. (2010). A Little Less Privacy, a Bit More Security. The New York Times, pp. 2.

Kaminer, W. (2002). Trading Liberty for Illusions. Spring: Free Inquiry.

Parenti, C. (2002). DC’s Virtual Panopticon. The Nation, pp. 432.

Posner, R. (2006). Wire Trap: The New Republic. The New Republic: LLC, pp. 446.

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Oroonoko by Aphra Behn Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Attitude to slavery and enslavers

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Different authors try to communicate their views about race and class differences, relations between certain categories of people, and the historic and sociocultural context of these differences.

Aphra Behn is the author of Oroonoko who can be considered one of the first professional female writers due to her original style and applicability of plays to theatrical performances. Aphra Behn uses colonialism as a method to demonstrate her attitude to the class differences by means of contrasting an enslaved African prince and the nobility that inhabits Surinam colony.

The author tells about the events of her time suggesting the political situation in the country and the world where people did not as willingly apply for a job on another continent as they do today due to globalization.

It is necessary to compare and contrast the attitude of the author towards the slaves in Africa and in colonies with regard to Oroonoko who serves as a bridge in building up relations between two different cultures though he fails to succeed in applying traditions typical of his native tribe to the setting typical of English colonies of that time. I plan to focus on the author’s manner of describing the actions of Oroonoko and Englishmen to provide a clear evidence for the argument.

Attitude to slavery and enslavers The main concern of the author is to show her attitude to the position of slaves with regard to their origin and nobility contrasted to slaves that were sold to enslavers by their compatriots. Though Aphra Behn implements an original composition of the text to ensure that the readers believe that the text is drawn from the true story that took place in the life of inhabitants of a colony, she fails to convince me of the true historic usefulness of this story as it is full of personal ideas.

Behn claims about being a witness of the events though she applies her writing gift to describe vividly the setting where he characters were found in their homeland. Thus, an African prince who was enslaved is referred to as the ‘royal slave’ (Behn 2003) by his enslavers and by other slaves who were sold to slavery by Oroonoko. Honor and other virtues play a crucial role in the establishment of the author’s attitude to Oroonoko shaping readers attitude as well.

Personal experience of the author should be taken into account while reading the story and assessing the historic usefulness of it for evaluation of slavery and assessment of the European perception of slavery. In this respect, readers can genuinely understand the author’s attitude to slaves as they are depicted in their ‘state of innocence’ (Behn 2003, 11).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, the author demonstrates her certainty in the necessity of enslaving people for political and economic reasons beneficial for the country (meaning England). Ambiguity in the author’s attitude makes this work of literature of special literary significance for readers because slavery was favored by one category of people and received negative acclaim from the other.

In other words, the author fails to show how she treats slaves and the principles of slavery including the ways people are enslaved and reasons for that. The same situation occurred in contemporary European society where people demonstrated different attitudes toward slavery as well as Aphra Behn in the novel about African slaves on the South American continent.

Another way of demonstrating the author’s attitude to differences between slavery as positive and as negative phenomenon in the contemporary society is the presentation of the romantic story where a beautiful Imoinda was opposed, in some way, to the narrator of the story. Though these two characters have some features in common as European women used their beauty to obtain a position in court and Imoinda ‘who trusting in the strength of her charms, believed she should appease the fury of a jealous king’ (Behn 2003, 30).

A contrast appears when Imoinda is enslaved and sent to Surinam where the author finds herself visiting the colony and admiring the slaves. The women that come from Europe are independent and can do whatever they want contrasted to women that live in African tribes and have to fulfill their responsibilities as a wife and a mother instead of being a representative of some company in a colony and write poems.

The more readers learn about the beauty of African women, the less they believe that the author could support the principles of slavery for any reason.

Though Aphra Behn has a sort of ambiguous attitude to slavery as it is depicted in her story, she also imposes some portion of uncertainty about the real attitude of Oroonoko to his people and representatives of other tribes while being in Africa and after being sent to Surinam colony.

He is referred to as the ‘royal slave’ but he fails to address the principles of nobility in European people who appear to be the colonizers. The moment when Oroonoko kills Imoinda, he is depicted as barbarian for the Europeans and as a man of nobility, honor, and traditions for other slaves. He did not treat slavery as something negative before due to the education he obtained. In this respect, the African prince fails to understand the situation he found himself in and the true perspectives of his further life within colony.

We will write a custom Essay on Oroonoko by Aphra Behn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So, he appealed for colonizers to leave him and Imoinda to Africa as she was pregnant and had nothing to do as to kill her and himself ‘first cutting her throat, and then severing her yet smiling face from that delicate body, pregnant as it was with the fruits of tenderest love’ (Behn 2003, 72) in accordance with the honor principles of their motherland.

Conclusion The author communicates her message of slavery and its ambiguous nature with the help of a complicated composition where she persuades the readers in the origins of the story and her being witness of the events introduced in the novel. Thus, the attitude of Aphra Behn changes in the process of describing the beauty of ingenious people of Africa and explaining the economic and political usefulness of the slavery for England and other European countries.

Moreover, it is possible to trace the differences between the attitude of the author towards the male and female slaves on the territory of African when they are sold to slavery by their compatriots and in colonies when they found themselves in the status of slaves. Though the romantics of the story is obvious, the characters die in the end in accordance with the principles of honor and nobility typical of slaves as well as colonizers.

Reference List Behn, Aphra. 2003. Oroonoko. New York: Penguin Classics.

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Organizational Design and Culture Evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

This paper aims to discuss the changes in organizational structure of healthcare institutions. In particular, it is necessary to show how workplace hierarchy in these hospitals was restructured and how the administration modified means of coordinating and monitoring work of healthcare professionals.

Furthermore, we need to evaluate the efficiency of these changes and the improvements they brought. Overall, it is possible to argue that the majority of hospitals attempt to become less bureaucratic and turn themselves into adhocratic organizations. This means that they try to eliminate formal barriers between the top managers and their subordinates in effort to improve the quality of healthcare and remove time-consuming red tape (Mintzberg

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Newspaper Response on Buddhism Essay (Article) custom essay help

Buddhism is one of the largest religions in the world. It is quite different from other world religions. For example, almost all religions have a God who is a sacred spirit. Buddhism has Buddha, who was a man reached nirvana. There are several “types” of Buddhism that are now considered different religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. However, all these religions are based on one teaching and have common principles.

In the article by Tenzin Gyatso “Many Faiths, One Truth”, author discusses this question comparing the basic principles of Buddhism with basic principles of other religions. The author claims that there is not the best religion, all world religions teach people the same basic virtues but interpret them in different ways. Thus, it can be summarized that Buddhism is related to other religions of the world in spite of all its peculiarities, consequently, all “faiths” share “one truth” that is universal for all people.

The article by Tenzin Guatso is devoted to the exploration of different religions and comparing them to Buddhism and its basic principles. The author writes about situation in the Middle East and Europe. He says that there are still fights between representatives of different religions.

However, apart from these conflicts, there is also a tendency for globalization and tolerance, “peoples and religions become ever more entwined” (Gyatso). The author finds common things in Buddhist’s and Christian’s religious ideas, myths and rituals, thought, these religions were considered to be absolutely different. Finally, the author estimates that harmony is the “essential ingredient” of all religions and it is a guarantee of the welfare of all nations.

Giving a response on this article it should be mentioned that the author discusses one of the most urgent questions of the modern society concerning questions of religion.

According to Bailey and Fisher, “traditional cultures and religions naturally assumed their own points of view…Every culture saw itself as the center of the universe.” (2). However, the truth is that the world’s nations seek to uniting. And the same thing can be said about religion. Moreover, a proper analysis of different religions proves that the standpoints of all these religions are common.

For example, Buddha teaches to lead a pious life and live in piece with nature and people around. In addition, one of the core ideas of Buddhism is the theory of emptiness, which means that all things around are out of importance and the aim of everyone is to reach “nirvana”. The same assumption (but in different words) can be said about a core idea of Christianity: one should lead a right life in order to go to Heavens after the death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gyasto supports this idea in his article when suggesting the example with “compassion”. He says that the theme of compassion can be found in Talmud and Bible. He also found “centrality of selfless compassion in Hinduism and Islam” (Gyasto). Thus, in his article, the author provides a very important idea that “Finding common ground among faiths can help us bridge needless divides at a time when unified action is more crucial than ever” (Gyasto).

The article “Many Faiths, One Truth” by Tenzin Gyasto is devotet to the exploration of the similarities of the Buddhism with other religions of the world. The author assumes that there are very many common things, for example, a theory of compassion. Thus, having analyzed this article, we can assume that harmony between different religions is possible and very important for the welfare of our world.

Works Cited Gyatso, Tenzin. “Many Faiths, One Truth”. The New York Times. (2010): n. pag. Web.

Fisher, Mary P. and Bailey Lee W. An Anthology of Living Religions, 2nd. Ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.

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United Kingdom and the “Opt Out” from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The United Kingdom opted out of the European Union Monetary and Economic Union (herein referred to as EMU) for several reasons, specifically what came to be referred to as the five economic tests. In retrospect, the “opt out” was not a good decision for the British business given the fact that businesses in this country effectively became outsiders to the Eurozone, and will be affected by policies made by this union just like any other foreign country.

Verdun (1999) provides a working conceptualisation of the term monetary union. This is the definition that will be adopted throughout this essay. According to this author, a monetary union can be viewed as an agreement between several nations to use a common currency amongst themselves (Verdun 1999: Stauffer n.d). The nations may go as far as establishing a single central bank and other centralised agencies that are tasked with the role of regulating the financial aspects of the nations.

The European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is such an example of a monetary union as defined by Verdun (1999). According to Adiong (2008), this union was to be implemented in three stages over a period of several years. Adiong (2008) refers to these steps as discrete but evolutionary, meaning that a step builds on its predecessor.

It is not all European Union nations that joined the EMU and this can be attributed to several reasons. There are those, specifically Greece and Sweden, that failed to meet some of the criteria put down to qualify member states to be part of the monetary union.

Others, like the United Kingdom, negotiated for what Willis (2010) refer to as opt outs. This means that these nations are exempted from the provisions and regulations of the monetary union, and they can join whenever they feel like, provided of course they meet all the necessary conditions.

This essay is going to look at the case of United Kingdom’s opt out from the European Monetary and Economic Union. The author is going to look at the reasons why this country opted out this union among other issues. The author will especially critically appraise whether the decision to opt out was the best or not for British businesses.

The European Economic and Monetary Union: Overview Before looking at the reasons why the United Kingdom opted out of the monetary union and analysis of the impacts of this decision to the British business, it is important to provide a brief overview of this union. According to Stauffer (n.d), the European Economic and Monetary Union’s idea can be traced back to the year 1979.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the year that the European Council ratified the decision to adopt the European Monetary System [herein referred to as the EMS] (Stauffer n.d). This system was mostly concerned with the regulation of the union’s currency exchange rates.

However, the European monetary and economic union was not to be formed until the year 1992. This was the year that saw the signing of the famous Maastricht Treaty, the treaty that led to the founding of the European Union (Stauffer n.d). In this treaty, provisions, referred to as the convergence criteria (Adiong 2008), that were to be met by each of the European union member states before they could be allowed to join thee monetary and economic union.

The European economic and monetary union was to be set up in three steps, a process that was recommended by the findings of the Delors Report (Bojden 2010). This was the report of a commission that was structured by thee European council to look into stages that can be followed in forming and adopting a monetary union for the European Union member states. The figure below depicts these steps and the provisions of each of them:

Figure 1: The Three Stages to the Adoption Economic and Monetary Union

Source: European Central Bank 2010-11-27

The first stage of the adoption was initiated on July 1st, 1990, and it provided for the elimination of virtually all restrictions imposed on the movement of capital from one European Union state to the other (Cash and Jamieson 2004). The second stage of the adoption saw the structuring and adoption of the European Monetary Institute (herein referred to as EMI) and the European Central Bank [herein referred to as ECB] (European Central Bank 2010).

This second stage commenced in the year 1994. The third stage begun on January 1999 (European Central Bank 2010: Blackstone, Lauricella and Shah 2010). This stage is still continuing, and it aims at fixing a common exchange rate for all the members of the monetary union.

We will write a custom Essay on United Kingdom and the “Opt Out” from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Kingdom has remained in stage two of the adoption of the monetary union. It has failed to move with the other members to the third and final stage of the EMU that would have seen the abolishment of the sterling pound and replacement of the same with the euro. This move has been informed by several factors, ranging from political, economical to social considerations.

The United Kingdom and the European Economic and Monetary Union: Why the Opt Out? Overview

The United Kingdom has been cynically referred to in many quarters as the master opt outs. This is given the fact that her majesty’s government has an affinity to negotiate for exemptions from major treaties, the provisions of which would have naturally affected the nation.

The latest in these escapades is the country’s total “opt out” from the provisions of the Justice and Home Affairs policy region (Willis 2010). Her Majesty’s negotiators were able to secure this preferential treatment during the negotiations that went into the Lisbon Treaty (Willis 2010: Blackstone et al 2010).

It was thus not entirely surprising when the United Kingdom negotiated for opt out from the European Economic and Monetary Union in the year 1992. The provisions of this opt out were that this country will be exempted from the participation in the third stage of the adoption.

Addressing the issue of the country’s participation in the third stage of adoption, the government was of the view that this will depend on several factors. This included the achievement of five economic tests as formulated by the then Labour Party Chancellor and later Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown (Bojden 2010). When the five tests are met, a referendum will be held, seeking the approval of the British citizenry before the joining of the union.

Why the Opt Out?

As earlier indicated, several obstacles stood in the way of the adoption of a single currency by the United Kingdom’s government. These included economic, political and social obstacles (Cash and Jamieson 2004).

Economic Barriers

One of the major economic reason informing the refusal to join the economic union is the fact that the economy of this country is “out of synch” (Willis 2010 p4) with the others in the European continent.

This is especially so considering the fact that the sterling pound, the United Kingdom’s currency, has performed relatively well as compared to other currencies in the region. It is also noted that the unemployment rate, economic growth rate ad other aspects of the United Kingdom’s economy are not at par with the rest of the region’s (Bojden 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on United Kingdom and the “Opt Out” from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to note that, at the time the United Kingdom negotiators worked out the opt out provisions, the degree of trade interdependence that the United Kingdom had with the rest of the economies making up the European union was quiet low (Willis 2010). This is unlike in the case of today, where sixty percent of the United Kingdom’s foreign trade is made up of trade between this country and the European Union economies (Willis 2010).

Political and Social Barriers

It is important to note that, despite being an economically oriented treaty, a lot of political and social overtones are discernible in the European Economic and Monetary Union.

The European Monetary Economic and Monetary Union and the European Union in extension have been very unpopular with the British public. Successive opinion polls and surveys have consistently indicated that the United Kingdom citizens do not support the idea of the country embarking on the third stage of adoption.

This realisation might have informed the decisions of the negotiators credited with the EMU opt out. For example, in the year 2005, 57 percent of the public polled opposed the country’s adoption of the euro (Bojden 2010). This opposition has been consistent over the years, with 59 percent opposing in 2008 and 64 percent in 2009 (Blackstone et al 2010).

Majority of those opposing the adoption of the euro and the elimination of the sterling pound are of the view that their opinion is not only economically motivated, but also social to a large extent. They are of the view that if the country adopts the single currency policy, it will lose its identity in the process (Blackstone et al 2010). This is given the fact that majority of the citizens in this country have a strong attachment to the sterling pound, and have come to regard it as part of their national heritage.

These are some of the social considerations that have ensured that the United Kingdom remains an “opt out” as far as the European economic and monetary union are concerned. Politicians- eager to appease the populace and win votes necessary to keep them in power- have ensured that the country hangs onto the sterling pound, adhering to the provisions of the “opt out” clause.

This line of thought is significant given the fact that Gordon Brown, who was the chancellor who formulated the five economic tests, rose up the political ladder to become the country’s prime minister (Willis 2010). As the incumbent of this position, Gordon Brown has ensured that the country remains an “opt out” case, giving this phenomenon one of its most obvious political overtones.

These economic, political and social barriers are inexplicably interlinked with the five economic tests that Gordon Brown formulated. Following is an analysis of these tests:

The Five Economic Tests

The following are the five economic tests for the United Kingdom:

Convergence of business cycles

Economic flexibility

Improvement of foreign and domestic investment

Improvement of United Kingdom’s financial services

Positive effects on growth, stability and employment

A detailed analysis follows:

Convergence of Business Cycles

According to this test, business cycles in this country have to be compatible with those in other economies in the European Union region (Adiong 2008). Several indicators for this test were identified, and it is the achievement of these indicators that will determine whether the test itself is achieved or not. These include inflation and interest rates, output differences between the economies and currency exchange rates (Adiong 2008).

According to this test, the inflation rate had to be less than 1.5 percent of higher term (Adiong 2008). This is when compared to the mean of the three lowest inflation rates, according to this test (Adiong 2008). As far as the interest rate is concerned, it had to be less than or equal to two percent above the three lowest such rates that have been recorded (Adiong 2008). The deficit of the government’s financial estimates, according to this test, should not be above 3 percent of the gross domestic product (Adiong 2008). The debt of the government should also not exceed sixty percent of the gross domestic product (Adiong 2008).

Flexibility of the Economy

The second test provides that the economy of this country, before the adoption of the single currency, should be resilient enough to ensure that the local economy can absorb any fluctuations in the euro economy (Adiong 2008). For example, the labour market in the United Kingdom must be flexible enough to cushion the economy against adverse developments in the euro economy.

Foreign and Domestic Investment

If the United Kingdom was to take part in the single currency economy, the third test that must be met provides that there must be proof that this participation will improve investment (Adiong 2008). For example, there must be proof that in the long term, the number of local and foreign investors in the United Kingdom economy will increase, as well as the increase in the number of United Kingdom investors able to expand their wings to other economies outside the border of this country. This means that the exchange rates, the restrictions and such other provisions of the single currency must be friendly to investors.

Financial Services

According to this fourth test, the competitive advantage of the country’s financial services sector must be enhanced by the adoption of the single currency economy (Adiong 2008). This is especially so considering the fact that the United Kingdom’s financial services market is one of the most competitive ones in the world, and as such, the government will not adopt policies that threaten this position.

Growth and Stability

Gordon Brown and his advisors were of the view that the integration of the United Kingdom in the single currency economy must impact positively on the employment and growth rates of the country (Adiong 2008). This improvement can be gauged by the effects that the euro zone will have on this country’s foreign trade and economic stability.

A review carried out in the year 2007 found that only one of the tests has been met fully (Bojden 2010). This is the first one, the one on convergence of business cycles. This means that this country is not ready to adopt the single currency economy in the near future.

This state of affairs is not good at all to the business in the United Kingdom. This is given the fact that businesses in this country stands to lose a lot if they remain outside the euro zone, despite the public’s opposition of this kind of integration.

The Opt Out Bad for Business The businesses in this country are losing from the adoption of this decision by the country’s political class keen on appeasing the emotions of the public. For example, the businesses are losing as far as exchange rates are concerned. This country, as earlier stated in this paper, imports and exports a lot within the euro zone as compared to other economies in the world (Willis 2010).

This means that the business people in this country have to incur the extra costs of exchange rates, a cost that they could have avoided if the country was operating on the euro currency (Willis 2010).

The businesses in this country interact heavily with the euro economies. However, despite these interactions and interdependency, British business is treated as foreigners or outsiders in the euro zone (Blackstone et al 2010). This means that they are affected like any other outsider by the economic decisions that are ratified and adopted by the economies party to the monetary union.

There are arguments within the circles of those proposing the adoption of a single economy, arguments to the effect that should the EMU economy succeed, this will sound a death knell to the United Kingdom businesses’ competitive advantage (Bojden 2010). This is given the fact that competitive advantage brought about by the success of this monetary union translates into losing of business for economies outside the union, Britain included.

Conclusion There are those who argue that, by opting of the EMU treaty, the United Kingdom made the right decision which was the best for its businesses. They argue that, given the foreign nature of this country in relation to the EMU, United Kingdom businesses will not suffer negatively from instabilities within the union.

This is for example the fluctuations and weakening of the euro against major currencies such as the US dollar, fluctuations that may affect British businesses negatively. A lot of political friction, according to the views of these conservatives, is inevitable in the process of the United Kingdom’s adoption of the euro. This includes public outrage within the United Kingdom and political misunderstandings with other nations. All of this can be avoided by sticking to the “opt out” clause.

However, objective analysis of the situation reveals that the British business stands to gain more from the adoption of the euro economy. The public opposition to this is motivated by irrational fears of the unknown together with unrealistic and emotional attachments to the sterling pound.

References Adiong, N. 2008. United Kingdom’s challenges in the European Monetary and Economic Union (EMU). New York: Free Press.

Blackstone, B., Lauricella, T., and Shah, N. 2010. Global markets shudder: Doubts about U.S. economy and a debt crunch in Europe jolt hopes for a recovery. The Wall Street Journal, February 2010.

Bojden, K. 2010. The United Kingdom-does it belong in the EU? Wall Street Journal, March 2010.

Cash, B., and Jamieson, B. 2004. The strangulation of Britain

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Keeping Employees Happy in a Post-Recession World Essay (Article) essay help online free

Table of Contents Suitability of the article

Author’s view point

Impact on management as a profession

Opinion on the contents of the article

Impact on future career

Work Cited

Suitability of the article This is an excellent article, since the author has clearly identified his target audience and tailored his message in line with their areas of expertise. While this article is addressed to managers, the message is relevant to different categories of persons in the society.

Proprietors of small-scale enterprises and other ventures may find this article beneficial in their daily undertakings. Employees perched at different hierarchical levels in the organization may also use it to their benefit. The paper is well written in clear-cut English with coherent ideas, making it easy to understand.

Author’s view point The author lays emphasis on the importance of retaining employees. He argues that this move provides continuity hence ensures efficiency in the firm. Managers are urged to embrace and deploy strategies that will ensure they retain most of the employees. He contends that managers should be flexible, taking up all possible options which create a favorable environment for their employees. Summarily, managers are challenged to leave their comfort zones and engage with their employees from a different perspective (Ryan).

Impact on management as a profession Employing principles proposed in this article will create responsive managers. The author quotes a survey, which revealed that a majority of employees are comfortable if the management cares about their affairs (Ryan). This will result in a low-employee turnover, hence relative security and stability. These constitute crucial aspects of company growth, which is necessary after the recent economic downturn.

The move is also beneficial, since companies will minimize the budgetary allocations reserved for the recruitment and selection process. Time spent on orientation and assimilation will also be minimized substantially. It should be noted that retaining the core of a company’s workforce implies familiarity among the workmates. This translates to a commendable team spirit and synergy, which is essential in realizing the established organizational goals.

According to the writer, ignoring these proposals may prove detrimental to the firm, with grave ramifications on the future of the said business venture. This is true, because unresponsive managers ignore the importance of feedback (Ryan).

This implies the existence of severed connections with their workforce, due to the difference in perception; hence methodology of achieving established goals. He also argues that rigid managers are content with the status quo. This may be damaging to company prospects in case managers utilize unsuitable management techniques. I concur with this argument, and the proposal that managers should take up coaching in order to improve on their areas of weakness (Ryan).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opinion on the contents of the article Primarily, the article proposes changes in the way managerial responsibilities are discharged. Given his credentials and work experience, the author is better placed to offer advice on this topic. The timing for the release was also blameless, because most firms are recovering from the economic melt down. This was a period characterized by loss of jobs hence reduced spending power.

As a result, management strategies should be altered, due to the changed situation of employees. Most of them are mentally disturbed as a result of the unstable market. I agree with the concepts the author is advancing, since they strive to introduce humanity into management practices. This implies that managers will consider their subordinates before decisions are arrived at. Subsequently, realistic targets will be set for clients and administrators operating at a lower cadre than the policy makers.

Impact on future career This article has contributed immensely in changing my perspective towards management. Consequently, I have been inspired to adopt a dynamic approach when handling employees and other work related responsibilities. Most importantly, I appreciate the fact that constant evaluation is an integral ingredient in the advancement of organizational ambitions (Ryan). This should be done across the board, beginning with the management before employees are taken through the process.

The article has also enlightened me on the importance of appreciating the efforts displayed by employees. This way team spirit and collective responsibility will be encouraged in the process of realizing organizational goals.

Work Cited Ryan, John. Keeping Employees Happy in a Post-Recession World. Bloomberg Business week. 2010. Web.

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