Table of Contents Introduction
Factors influencing the growth of the industry
SWOT Analysis of the Victoria state
Conclusion and recommendations
Introduction The tourism and hospitality is one of the fastest growing industries in Australia. The industry takes a larger portion of the economy and plays a vital role in the Australian economy. The tourism industry not only operates nationally but also fully participates in the global market economy. The industry is currently recording massive improvements especially due to the recovery in the world economy from the disastrous economic meltdown that was previously.
The Victoria tourism and hospitality industry stands out to be the second largest in the whole of Australia with flourishing businesses ranging from restaurants, cafes, hotel services, bars, pubs, clubs as well as well furnished apartments. The industry is famous for its high quality and customer friendly facilities that provide customers with the desired comfort (Kayler, 1995, p. 178).
Factors influencing the growth of the industry The global economic recovery has led to the tremendous growth of the tourism and hospitality industry in Victoria. Victoria is also renowned for its quality restaurants and hospitality facilities that highly attract more tourists and visitors.
In addition to this, the industry incorporates a number of organizations and institutions that provide important information to their potential visitors and thereby making known worldwide the quality services provided in Victoria. Such organizations include the Baking Industry Association of Victoria and Artisan Bakers Association among others (Bergin and Jago 1999, p. 342).
Also the foreign investment regulations within the state are moderate and highly promote investment from the foreigners and therefore this has attracted many investments from both the foreign and local investors.
In addition to the above factors, tourism in Victoria has also been influenced primarily the reduction in the oil prices, which led to the subsequent reduction in airline surcharges and therefore leading to decrease in the airfares charges, especially regarding longer routes. This as a result has led to the increase in the number of tourists visiting the state.
Generally, Australia has improved its aviation facilities in the recent past, especially routes linking to the international countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. The increased capacity has translated into more visitors and tourists visiting the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More SWOT Analysis of the Victoria state As outlined before, the tourism and hospitality industry in Victoria is the second largest in Australia and the most famous because of the quality services offered by their ultra-modern facilities. The industry has a workforce of more than 115000 workers who accounts for a good percentage of 4.4% of the total labor force within Victoria State.
In Victoria State, hospitality and tourism incorporates a number of businesses whose services are tailored toward meeting the consumer’s ever increasing demands (Bergin and Jago 1999, p. 342).
They include accommodation facilities, restaurants, café, bars and pubs, catering services, facilities for hosting meetings and events both for business purposes, managing, and coordinating tour operations, providing relevant information to tourists, conducting tour guiding, managing holiday parks, conducting and organizing cultural tourism, casinos, and caravan park operations.
The state of Victoria is within the southern region of Australia that is widely known both locally and internationally as a key tourism destination. Therefore, the strategic location of the state is an added advantage to them (Kayler, 1995, p. 178).
The state has the aging population as their working population and due to inadequate skilled personnel within the young population, it means that most of the old staff is retained and this might lead to inefficiency and low output. There is need for skilled and experienced personnel within the young population to replace the old aging population
Target market The target market for all the products and services mentioned above is mainly from both the international and the local tourists. For instance, a fall in the growth of tourism will translate into a reduction in the growth of the hospitality industry. This is due to the fact tourists, both local and international, play a major role in the utilization and consumption of the products and services offered in the hospitality industry.
Therefore, the hospitality industry is highly dependent on tourism. On the other hand, tourism also relies on the hospitality industry to some degree. For instance, high quality and attractive services offered in the hospitality industry can be used as an attraction to tourists who will visit these facilities in order to enjoy the wonderful services offered by them (Bergin and Jago 1999, p. 342).
We will write a custom Report on The Hospitality and Tourism Market in Victoria State Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Victoria State covers only three percent of the Australia’s landmass and has a population of approximately 5.13 million people. In addition, almost half of the entire population is below 35 years and therefore forming a good market for the tourism and hospitality industry. The presence of a young population is a good sign that the industry shall continue flourishing due to the available of the domestic market.
Victoria also receives a larger number of international tourists who account for 25% of the all tourists visiting Australia. For instance, the state received 1.5 million tourists last year. Therefore, apart from the domestic tourists from within Australia, Victoria also receives a relatively large number of tourists. Most of their international tourists come from North America, the United Kingdom, China, Japan, Singapore, and New Zealand.
Pricing strategies Victoria has gone a step farther by embracing the online booking provisions in their tourism industry. The proposed system that is already in use is a national booking platform for both the international and the local tourists. The system is known as the Tourism Exchange Australia (TXA) that contains a large database of all the products and services provided by the Australian tourism and hospitality industry.
All the businesses listed by the Australian Tourism and Data Warehouse (ATDW) will have their products and services accessible online and booking made possible because the data warehouse contains all the vital information including the prices for the services and products. All the locally developed booking systems are also linked to this exchange system that enables online selling of the services and products and therefore increasing the sales for the industry.
The system also supports online establishment of agreements between the tourism industry and the prospective buyer and therefore making it more effective. Operators of the respective businesses can access the database and update their prices for the various services and products (Kayler, 1995, p. 178).
Promotional practices Domestically, the government and other institutions related to the industry have come up with strategies that are aimed at publicizing the industry to the Australian population. Some of the ways embraced by the state to advertise its tourism industry include play Melbourne campaign that advertises Melbourne as a city with hidden treasures.
This has been achieved through a number of ways including using local media and press and media. This is extended to the online websites and is meant to encourage local tourists from all over Australia to dare visit Melbourne and discover the treasures that lies within the city.
This is part of the larger Victoria jigsaw campaign meant to promote Victoria’s tourism and hospitality industry locally, within the Australian population and also reach to the international community. Also there are committees put in place to facilitate and coordinate regional campaigns. The publicity campaigns are aimed at branding all the cities and towns within Victoria as unique places worth visiting (Stabb, 1999, p. 123).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Hospitality and Tourism Market in Victoria State Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the international scale, various campaigns and strategies have been formulated to see to it that the State’s tourism and hospitality industry is well known to the international community. There is an international marketing division, Tourism Victoria, which works closely with the other stakeholders within the industry in marketing Victoria to the international countries.
The division formulates winning strategies to market the industry in international countries. It has offices in other countries that fall within their target markets. This is to help in easier coordination of advertising activities in those countries and keep in touch with the potential customers (Kayler, 1995, p. 178).
Tourism Victoria works handy with Tourism Australia, Australian Airlines, major industry stakeholders in liaison with the Victorian tourism industry in a bid to sell the industry to the prospective tourists and visitors. The international marketing strategies are carried out in two ways including the trade and consumer strategies.
Both strategies are meant to assisting in attaining an increase in familiarity by the potential consumers on the tourism and hospitality facilities within Victoria. They are also targeted at branding Victoria as the leading tourist destination as far arts and cultures, events, recreation, catering, and wine services are concerned (Rose, 1991, p. 412).
In consumer marketing, Tourism Victoria has a stronger influence on all activities conducted by Tourism Australia in the foreign markets. In some instances, the division runs autonomous brand campaigns to advertise Victoria to the international community.
There is a website tailored to provide relevant information to those aspiring to visit Victoria as well as advertising it as the main destination point for all tourism activities. There are both written content and video on the website to provide the required information. The information available is in different languages so as to reach as many people as possible.
In trade marketing, Tourism Victoria works in partnership with Australian based inbound tour operators by organizing and coordinating workshops and trainings to familiarize them with available tourism opportunities within Victoria. The division also organizes trade fairs and exhibitions to their prospective consumers both nationally and internationally.
Tourism Australia also in partnership with local and international airlines carries out cooperative promotions for publicizing Victoria’s tourism potential to the international countries. This is done with most of the airlines and distribution networks and therefore widening their market by creating awareness among the potential consumers globally (Kotler, Bowen and Makens 2010, p. 441).
An official website managed by the state provides a variety of information to the potential visitors concerning the tourism facilities in Victoria State. There is a provision on the same website under tourism for the local tour operators and stakeholders in the hospitality industry to showcase their businesses on the website and display the range of products and services they offer. This form of online marketing is meant to cover as many businesses as possible and advertise them to the both local and international communities.
Conclusion and recommendations From the information in the sections above, it is true that the tourism industry in Victoria has well established framework to support their activities at the same time ensure sustainability in the industry. The state has played a significant role in ensuring that Victoria continues not to be only Australia’s tourism destination point but also the world’s most attractive tourist site.
However, there are still shortcomings that need to be correction to ensure long term improvement and growth in the sector (Kayler, 1995, p. 178). Even though the industry seems to be on an upward trend, more is required for the industry to start operating at its optimum and therefore maximize on the available opportunities in the industry.
Both the government and the various stakeholders in the industry have a role to play in ensuring success of the industry. Therefore, the following are some of the recommendations that need consideration in order o reap maximally from the tourism and hospitality industry and make Victoria a tourism haven in the whole of Australia and the world at large.
The accreditation system put in place to certify operators in the industry needs improvement. The current system of accreditation has not had any impact on the service delivery to the final consumers. Some of the operators, even after receiving accreditation, are still rendering poor services to their customers.
A good number of businesses have untrained personnel who do not meet the requirements for the industry. Therefore, the government should consider such factors as employee skills and knowledge as well as availability of quality facilities before accrediting the operators. Also continued vetting should be thorough to ensure that accredited operators maintain the required standards of service provision to their customers (Bergin and Jago 1999, p. 342).
The government in partnership with the respective shareholders should build a competitive digital capability that will ensure Victoria competes favorably with the other international competitors. This can be achieved by incorporating more competent personnel in managing online marketing and coming up with ways of expanding the service so as to cover the entire global market.
The government should encourage investment into the tourism industry by offering more incentives and subsidies that will attract both the local and foreign investors into the industry. This will facilitate the expansion of the industry and therefore fasten its growth.
The government can also partner with the other stakeholders in developing the infrastructure, especially the transport and communication network within the state so as to open Victoria to the rest of the world. The various tourism sites should have a good transport system (Bergin and Jago 1999, p. 342).
The government should encourage domestic tourism and give more attention to the training of personnel to work in the industry. Regular workshops and trainings help sharpen the skills of those working in the industry and inform them of the current trends and emerging issues in the global market.
The state should work handy with the other states to eliminate cut-throat competition, especially on the international market. It will also give them a common bargaining front and therefore lead to reduction in trade barriers imposed on them by the international countries (Baum and Hagen 1999, p. 299).
Reference List Baum, T. and Hagen, L., 1999. Responses to Seasonality: the Experiences of Peripheral Destinations. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(5), pp. 299-312.
Bergin, S. and Jago, L.J., 1999. Accreditation of Adventure Tour Operators: The Consumer Perspective 1999 CAUTHE National Research Conference. Adelaide Bureau of Tourism Research.
Kayler, T.W., 1995. Tourism Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Strategic Directions for Victoria. Tourism Victoria.
Kotler, P., Bowen, T.J. and Makens, C.J., 2010. Marketing for hospitality and tourism. 5th ed. Sydney: culinary and hospitality industry publication services.
Rose, R., 1991. What is Lesson-drawing? Glasgow: Centre for the Study of Public Policy.
Stabb, C., 1999. Review of Membership for Involvement in Cooperative Promotions Funded by Tourism Victoria. Tourism Victoria.
Digital versus Traditional media in advertising Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The shift from print to online media
Analogue to digital television
Digital interactive media
Introduction A radical change in the media industry is totally transforming the whole meaning of advertising. In light of this, advertising has grown from a mere sub-industry to a very critical sector in the business world. Changes in technology have drastically transformed the manner in which operations are conducted in the world.
This new wave of change has seen a rapid growth in the digital media as a way of advertising. The digital interactive forms of advertising have been availed at the very appropriate time considering the amazing rate at which globalization is affecting business operations across the world (Langdon, 1996).
This essay is an attempt to explore into this field and see how the digital interactive media is transforming the whole concept of advertising. It seeks to delve into the commonalities and the differences that characterize the traditional forms of advertising and the digital interactive forms of advertising. This essay will therefore delve into these issues while paying greater attention to the manner in which the whole aspect of advertising is changing.
Body Firstly, the traditional forms of advertising that dominated much of the last few decades include television, print and radio. These forms of advertising are considered traditional in the sense that newer methods of advertising have actually come up rendering them close to being obsolete.
But really, can the digital forms totally take over the process of advertising without back up from the traditional forms? Well, that is subject to a whole range of debates. Nevertheless, it must be stated from the onset that the traditional forms of advertising cannot in any way be relegated into the dustbin of history as they really supplement the digital media advertising.
The digital media technology has availed many options in the field of advertising that had not been seen before. Today, more than merely watching an advert on the television, one can download the information they have watched and even store it for future use.
It is in light of these varieties that one feels the urge to dissect the whole concept of advertisement to see the realities that have characterized the field and recommend options to anyone seeking to launch any advertisement in the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Any advertisement should be designed taking in mind that consumers are inundated with a flood of information at their disposal. The modern digital forms of advertising have therefore an upper hand in this aspect compared to the traditional methods which may not reach many people as expected (Langdon, 1995).
The shift from print to online media Secondly, the world has continued to become much global as time progresses. This has seen multinational companies establish branches all across the world. The goods and services produced are therefore targeted for not only the local markets but for the whole world.
This has created the need for advertisement forms that reflect of the diversity of the world and can reach all corners of the world where the goods are supposed to be utilized. The print media industry has for a long time been dominated by the newspapers as the major forms of advertising.
Newspapers, however, have the disadvantage that they cannot be supplied across the whole world. A paper published in New York for instance may not be circulated past the United States. They are therefore limited by reach. However, with the advent of the internet and the radical shift that characterizes the whole sub-sector, most of these materials can now be accessed online by the consumers.
Mobile phone technology is currently extensively used as an advertising media. The number of people reached in this case is very large considering that majority of people own cell phones. Major newspapers have today introduced online versions where readers can access all the information at the comfort of their mobile phones or personal digital assistants (PDAs).
It is a common trend today for most people in the developed world to read their newspapers online other than buy the hard copies on the streets. The printed papers may therefore go out of market in a few years if the rapid adoption of technology across the world is anything to go by.
It is interesting to note that the world’s population is mainly dominated by young people who are below 25. It is this same young population that extensively uses the internet. This is a clear indication in the great potential that lies in the field of online advertising.
We will write a custom Essay on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Newspapers, however, still continue to enjoy a large readership especially among the educated and in the developing world where internet is still expensive. Research shows that educational levels are a great determinant of the readership of newspapers.
People who have spent much time in school tend to read newspapers more than those who have not. It is normally quite hard to change people’s behavior patterns and this has the implication of limiting advertisers on the amount of population they would wish to reach.
Magazines are very popular all over the world and have become a very rich ground for reaching many consumers. They also have the advantage of reaching specific groups of people in the community. For instance, beauty magazines mostly target young women and could therefore effectively convey adverts relating to such women.
Like in newspapers, magazines have also managed to create an online presence and most of the popular magazines are presently read online in addition to the conventional printed versions. However, the online media in the case of magazines has not gained much root as in newspapers.
Many people still prefer to buy their magazines in the streets and shopping outlets as opposed to reading them online. This provides a suitable ground where the advertisers can harness many opportunities (Australian Interactive Media Industry Association, 2009).
Analogue to digital television Thirdly, a radical change has been seen the world of television where operations have totally been transformed. Television has been use for decades as method of advertisement. Much of that use began in the later part of the 1950s when television sets were available in entirely the whole world.
Televisions sets have for a long time been in the analogue form that availed viewer with various options such as the free to air TV cable TV and pay-tv. Currently a shift is occurring from the analogue to the digital television, which has come with various modifications to the interest of the viewers.
The digital form enables the viewers to access many channels and interact more. This allows people to control their viewing and hence the advertisements they get. Advertisers have seen a great opportunities in the digital television that were hitherto unavailable in the analogue.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is estimated that by 2014, 80% of television viewers in the world will be using the digital television sets (PRC,2006). This can provide a glimpse on the amount of information that will be conveyed to the people in the form of advertisements.
Radio as a form of advertising is not left behind in light of the new changes that characterize the advertising industry. Even though the digital radio is still limited to only metropolitan areas in the world, it is forecasted that by 2014 it will be within reach to over half of the population in the world.
Digital radio like digital television, offers interactive capabilities to the listeners. It is not just audio as in the analogue case as it combines visual abilities to provide the listeners with additional features such as graphics, animation and slide shows. Digital radio will therefore be used to offer better advertising services to the listeners.
Presently, however, the analogue radio will continue to reign supreme in advertisements. It can be seen that both the traditional and the digital forms of advertisements are actually merged up. They continue to operate as a unit by supplementing each other (Commercial Radio Australia 2009).
The dissatisfaction realized from television advertising comes from the fact that at any given time, the advertiser is not sure about who is actually watching. It therefore heavily relies on a matter of chance such that if the advertiser is lucky, then the intended target will be watching.
Otherwise the whole advert becomes useless. Another problem also arises out of the fact that the interests of people who watch television are not usually the same. A discomfort therefore arises when an advert that only favours a particular category of people comes up. Advertisements by television costs more than the interactive forms of advertising. Their use is therefore becoming more and more limited to specific products.
Digital interactive media Digital interactive media is used to refer to the modern digital systems that are computer based that offer various options to the users. Such options include animation facilities, audio-visual, text and graphics (Lane, W R, King, KW
Nuclear Program in North Korea Essay best essay help
The nuclear program in North Korea has left its neighbors and the whole world in general concerned about the North Korea’s intentions. The program has led to a lot of controversy with many people wondering whether the nuclear weapons are for defensive purposes or are majorly instruments of coercion (Pollack, 2010).
A lot of questions have been asked to establish the real intention of North Korea’s nuclear program with no clear answers being found. This paper will try to unravel the mystery behind North Korea’s nuclear program.
There has been a lot of pressure from the international community to stop North Korea from going ahead with its nuclear program but the efforts have not borne any fruits for almost two and a half decades (Pollack, 2010).
North Korea claims to possess plutonium that is popular for making nuclear weapons and uranium that the country claims to be an alternative source of reactor fuel. According to North Korea, the United States is a threat to its security and the nuclear program is a strategy to counter the threats.
The U.S and North Korea have engaged in diplomatic talks since the year 2009 but the engagement has proved futile to this far. The U.S mission is to see North Korea become a completely non-nuclear state. North Korea insists that it will continue to retain its nuclear programs and weapons as long other nations in the world continue to do the same (Pollack, 2010).
North Korea clearly demonstrated their defiance in May 2009 by conducting its second nuclear test. It is believed that North Korea went ahead to officially announce its new status as a nuclear weapons state. These actions have completely stopped diplomatic engagements in recent times. North Korea has also lost the political support it used to enjoy after its latest actions.
The South Korean president has completely changed nuclear program policies and the engagement between the North and the South is very cautionary with the South completely resisting the influence from the North. The attempts to restrain North Korea have been reversible making the whole process frustrating (Pollack, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North Korea has constantly disrupted all the efforts made by allies and adversaries to make it comply with non-proliferation obligations. International Atomic Energy Agency has terribly failed in trying to make North Korea comply with its regulations. North Korea was the first nation to withdraw from the Nonproliferation Treaty in the year 2003 and it has since then continued to violate its promises to stop the nuclear program.
During the first nuclear test, long-range missile ranges were tested and subsequent tests saw the introduction of new nuclear weapons that North Korea claimed were for defensive purposes. The international community has been putting some measures in place to compel North Korea to stop the nuclear program but these strategies have not been working.
To begin with, the international community and other security agents have been trying to mitigate all the perceived threats by North Korea’s nuclear program. The second strategy was to place both political and economic sanctions against North Korea. The other strategy was to interdict all weapon shipments to and from North Korea and complete isolation (Pollack, 2010).
Illicit technologies were to be interdicted but all these efforts have been in vain since North Korea has never been deterred by all the attempts aimed at frustrating it to stop its nuclear program. North Korea sees the approaches employed by the U.S as coercive in nature and uncooperative.
All the denuclearization efforts by the international community have been failing and any new attempts are bound be skeptical. North Korea has set up unimaginable conditions for it to stop its nuclear program (Pollack, 2010).
The external powers and the current policies have been constantly rejected by North Korea making a non-nuclear future very unrealistic (Fitzpatrick, 2008). Making North Korea to be fully committed to denuclearization has been the greatest test the U.S and the international community has failed to pass.
The conditions and strategies set up by North Korea are aimed at protecting its interest and nuclear weapons development (Cimbala, 2005). The diplomatic talks between North Korea and the U.S under the Obama administration have been associated with mistrust on both sides.
We will write a custom Essay on Nuclear Program in North Korea specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The negotiations have been faced with a lot of obstacles with North Korea going ahead to consolidate its nuclear program and declare itself a nuclear weapons state despite the negotiations that had just been revived in 2009.
North Korea’s possibility of changing its nuclear policies has been greatly hampered by the changes in leadership. Leadership succession process plays a crucial role in the way a state makes major decisions (Cimbala, 2005). North Korea has heavily invested in the nuclear programs for over two decades and dismantling that is actually unimaginable.
Reversing all the nuclear programs in North Korea still remains a mirage. The whole world waits to see the kind of strategy the Obama administration will use to break the deadlock. The North Korean leadership seems to value the nuclear program so much to an extent of it being one of the major focuses of its policies.
The leadership in North Korea claims that its policies are meant to protect its population from external attacks and influences. The nuclear program is one of its strategies of strengthening its military capabilities. The nuclear program is seen as a survival strategy by the current regime.
The regime has continued to develop the program disregarding the economic implications and the diminishing relationships with the Republic of Korea, Japan and the United States. The country has been faced with economic crisis over the years forcing it to entirely rely on external support.
China has been the only source of refuge with South Korea and Japan withdrawing their support because of North Korea’s refusal to change its policies regarding the nuclear program. What surprises many people is North Korea’s refusal to sell or exchange its nuclear weapons for economic aid (Bishop, 2005).
The efforts of nuclear diplomacy by the Republic of Korea have seriously failed since North Korea has never been ready to exchange its nuclear capabilities with anything. In effort to defend its system, the North Korean leadership has continued to develop its nuclear programs and most importantly nuclear weapons.
North Korea has lately shown utmost defiance by declaring that it would do everything possible to boost its self-defense. All the weapon inspectors have been expelled with renewed efforts to strengthen the weapons section.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nuclear Program in North Korea by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, North Korea has clearly stated that its nuclear weapons are for defense purposes. Efforts of nuclear diplomacy have always failed because of North Koreas refusal to change its nuclear policies (Alagappa, 2009). With past diplomatic efforts having failed, convincing North Korea to dismantle its nuclear program is still unimaginable.
References Alagappa, M. (2009). The long shadow: Nuclear weapons and security in 21st century Asia. New York, NY: NUS Press.
Bishop, J. et al. (2005). Dismantling North Korea’s nuclear weapons programs. New York, NY: Strategic Studies Institute.
Cimbala, S. J. (2005). Nuclear weapons and strategy: Nuclear policy for the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Taylor
Multi-National Companies Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Functional Performance A multinational company is one that has several branches in different countries around the globe. Examples of such companies are Toyota, Sony, and General Motors. However, this paper analyses the performance of Japan’s Toyota Motor Corporation.
The Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) was founded by Toyoda Kiichiro of Japan in 1937. It is a multinational corporation with its headquarters located in Japan, and the larges automaker by sales. In Japan, Toyota is also the largest manufacture with a current market share of 50% (Rowley, 2007).
In the global market, however, the motor corporation holds a third position in the market share. The market share of Toyota in Japan is as shown in the table 1a in appendix 1. The logo and contacts for Toyota Motor Corporation are as shown in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: Label for Toyota
Toyota-Cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan Phone: (0565) 28-2121
Introduction to International Accounting System
International accounting is a broad topic that generally focuses on issues relating to multinational companies. In addition to that, the topic also deals with the study of various functional areas of accounting in a global perspective. International accounting tries to provide solutions to the issues facing multicultural companies when engaging in foreign direct investment and international trade.
The world economic situation is quickly changing momentum and more exporting and importing companies being incorporated into the system. This trend appears to move in the direction of normalising international trade as much smaller firms are now participating in the trade as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the last 20 years, there has been substantial growth in the foreign direct investments which is attributed to globalization effects that encouraged countries to liberalize investment laws.
With such investment capabilities, countries and multinational countries have to employ better ways of ensuring profit maximization and value is attained. Therefore, special accounting systems that can help in achieving such goals have to be developed and applied in their models.
Type of Accounting System Used by Toyota
Toyota Motor Corporation utilizes the Just-in-time (JIT) model of accounting system in running its businesses worldwide. “In this approach, companies attempt to modify the process of manufacturing so that the non-value-added activities are completely removed fro the process” (“Just-in-Time, n.d”).
By doing this, companies are in a position to determine weather the cost involved is high or low. Therefore, this provides a company with the benefit of monitoring itself. The JIT evolves as a result of the need to meet demand just in time rather than having inventory at hand just in case.
“The characteristics of this system include: Minimization of defects in goods; minimization of raw material; simplification of the process of production; and the creation of timely multi-skilled workforce” (“Just-in-Time, n.d”).
Impact of the Accounting System
Other than having a number of positive implications, the JIT also has some negative implications on a business. Below are the advantages and disadvantages of using the JIT accounting system in a multinational company.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Multi-National Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of JIT helps in lowering costs that would come as a result of space needed for inventories and production;
It reduces costs that would arise from inventories being obsolete.
It leads to reduction in handling and transporting inventories.
It lowers the cost of investing in inventories.
It leads to less paperwork as records of purchase, storage, and used inventories are cut low.
Finally, it leads to reductions in the total costs of manufacturing goods that would be compromised by better coordination required between departments to achieve run at limited levels of inventories (“Just-in-Time, n.d”).
The introduction and actualization of a serious Just-in-time procedure can prove to be very difficult and expensive for a start.
Furthermore, JIT exposes a business into more risks with regard to the business’ supply chain. “A production line can quickly come to a halt if essential parts are unavailable” (Shawn, 1994).
Justification of the System – Case Analysis
Business Example: Dell Computer
Del Computer Corporation is a multinational company which utilizes the Just-in-Time system in it operation. At the moment, the JIT system in Del has been improved to a level that a delivery for a customized computer can be made 12 hours after customer places his or her order via the internet (Shawn, 1994).
Application of this system has led to the reduction in production cost of Dell computers by a significant factor. The low production costs has since enabled Dell to maintain a competitive edge since it values its products 10-15% lesser than its business rivals.
In addition, the effectiveness of the JIT system has led to an increased growth rate of Dell at 5 times more than the average growth rate of that industry (Shawn, 1994). The lower costs are achieved in a very simple manner.
“While machines from Compaq and IBM can languish on dealer shelves for two months Dell does not start ordering components and assembling computers until an order is booked.” (Shawn, 1994). This works effectively for Dell since the price of computer parts can take a very short period to drop by significant figures. This mean while other manufactures will be making losses due to lower prices, Dell does not participate in such losses.
Basing on the case of Dell, it is evident that the benefits of the Just-in-Time system are much more than the possible disadvantages. This is true because by implementing the JIT system; Dell has experienced lower production costs, more sales, minimal losses, production efficiency, and general growth of the company. Therefore, the Just-in-Time system is very effective and should be adapted by other multinational companies for better results.
Recommendations for Improvement of Accounting System
Judging from the Dell case, it is conclusive to say that the JIT system is more effective in maximizing a firm’s productivity as compared to other accounting systems. This is due to many benefits that it yields for a business as compared to the risks. It is a recommendation that more multinational companies should implement the system so as to enjoy the same benefits. However, companies engaging in the implementation should be aware of the accompanying risk and work against it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Multi-National Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Business Performance Nature of the Business: Product
Toyota is a major car manufacture with its headquarters in Japan. Therefore, it is purely a product-based company manufacturing various types of cars. The vast variety of automobiles produced by the multi-national ranges from mini-vehicles to huge transport trucks.
Apart from the common brand (Toyota), several other brands are produced such as Lexux, Hino, and Daihatsu. In the year 2005 alone, these brands sold over 6 million units in almost all parts of the world. Apart from manufacturing millions of cars to meet the local and global demand, Toyota has values that guide its service to customers.
These values are in line with their mission to serve ethically, uphold quality, and create an eco-friendly company in harmony with nature and society. In order to meet their mission and goals, Toyota has adapted a favouring marketing mix as described below.
The 4Ps marketing mix blending for Toyota; product strategy, pricing strategy, promotion strategy, and places strategy are discussed under the subtitles below.
Product Strategy Anything that can be offered in a market with an aim of satisfying a particular need or want is referred to as a product. Toyota has used various brands like name, sign, symbol, term or design to identify and differentiate the finished goods from their competitors.
For example, the well known brand in Japan is TOYOTA which also sells and is known in various parts of the world. Also, labeling has been used by the company by creating simple tags that are attached to the finished product. The mark containing the three ovals (as shown in figure 2) is identified as the label or logo for the company.
Figure 2: Label for Toyota
Price Strategy Generally, companies adapt their pricing strategies and change them depending on the conditions of the market. In the international market, a new marketing strategy through collective action is being organized by emergence of commodity marketing organization.
However, Toyota employs a value-driven pricing method for its commodities. With this method, value is given to the customers in terms of quality, warranty, and customer support. Therefore, the company wins loyal customers by providing an affordable price quotation for a quality product.
This process enables the company to reinvest in its operations making it a low-cost manufacturer without sacrificing the quality of offerings. This process results in attraction of more value-conscious customers.
Depending on the region, Toyota cars will be sold at different prices. Therefore, a differentiated pricing is also adapted. This is referred to as location pricing where different states get the same model for different prices. This is due to different insurance rates and road taxes from one state or country to another.
Promotion Strategy Generally, Toyota uses various techniques to advertise its products because most of the printed adverts are usually individually targeted.
These promotions are usually customized according to factors like power, comfort, driving pleasure, performance and leg room. Toyota conducts its product promotions through various methods such as advertising, brochures, bill boards, display signs, bulletins and television broadcast.
As such, advertising is a type of communication which has the intention and effect of convincing an individual into purchasing a certain product.
In this type of promotion, for example, Toyota uses pictures of models posing next to best selling brands so that one may be easily interested in the brand.
Also, brochures, leaflets, and posters are produced with picture of brands like Prado, Innova, and Toyota Corolla on them so as to attract more influence.
In India, Toyota uses billboards at various expressway and highways to advertise Innova and Toyota Corolla. Other methods that are used by the company in promotion include; sales promotion, public relation, personal selling, direct marketing and over the internet/Pioneer Toyota website.
Place (Distribution) Strategy This involves the selection and management of channels and product flow to customers. It represents the pre-determined locations where a company’s products can be bought. This may refer to the physical location such as showrooms or actual geographical locations where one can place a purchase order.
Appendix 1shows a sample picture of a showroom and a map showing various destinations for purchasing Toyota cars. The company employs a vertical marketing system in its distribution process as indicated in the figure 3 below.
Figure 3: Vertical Marketing System
Competitive Analysis/PEST Analysis In this section, an analysis of the political, economical, Socio- cultural and technological factors affecting Toyota Motor Corporation in relation to the current global market condition shall be conducted.
“Foreign direct investment policy in foreign governments has major impact on the company; for instance, the Chinese regulation is not easy to follow in case of a joint venture” (Hurley, Norton
Global Accounting Standards Research Paper essay help online free
How changing world environment is leading to an increased focus on international accounting Saudagaran (2009) says, “The purpose of accounting is to provide information that is useful for making business and other economical decisions.”
The growth for businesses from small companies to multinationals has raised the need for international accounting since the accounting information is needed by the stakeholders for making business and economical decisions. (Saudagaran).
In the capital markets where capital is graded, listed companies need to apply international accounting standards especially if the market is experiencing a steady growth.
This will make it easy for foreign investors to make timely and well informed decisions on investing in the market without undergoing the consultation cost or learning the new accounting standards.
(Saudagaran, 2009). In 2008, during the sub-prime loan crisis in America, financial institutions and investors worldwide experienced massive losses from the meltdown. The crisis provided evidence that in a global financial system, national borders are porous. (Saudagaran)
Difference in accounting method as they are applied internationally There are two types of accounting methods the cash and the accrual method. According to Rich et al 2009, cash method mainly deals with incomes.
Under cash basis accounting, revenue has to be recorded when the cash is received regardless of when it is actually earned. Similarly, an expense is recorded when cash is paid.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, by recording only the cash effects of transactions, cash-basis financial statements may not reflect all the assets and liabilities of the company at a particular date. For this reason, most companies do not use cash method. (Rich et al, 2009).
Accrual method is an alternative of cash method and transactions are recorded when they occur. (Rich et al 2009) He further says that “the reason why accrual accounting is superior to cash method is because it ties income measurements to selling which is the principle activity of the company.”
So this means that all revenues are recognized as they are earned and all expenses are recognized when incurred. Accrual method also has a more complex system that records both cash and non cash transactions. (Rich et al).
Time period assumption Most stakeholders usually demand timely information from companies so companies have to frequently produce financial report like the quarter year report, half year report and end year report to satisfy information users (Rich et al, 2009). Since companies are involved in different activities every time, there is great need to record every transaction on time for proper accountability.
Revenue recognition period This principle is used to determine when revenue is recorded and reported. Under this principle, revenue is to be recognized or reported in the period in which these two conditions are met; the revenue is earned and collection of cash is reasonably assured.
According to Rich et al (2009), the requirements are met when goods or services have been delivered or performed to the customer since at this point the risk of ownership has been transferred from the seller to the buyer regardless of when the cash is received.
Matching principle In matching principle expenses are incurred regardless of when the cash is paid. (Riahi, 1985) Expenses of an accounting period should include only those costs used to earn revenue that was recognized in an accounting period and exclude cost used to earn revenue in early or later periods thus the key to expense recognition is matching the expense with revenues. (Rich et al, 2009).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Global Accounting Standards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Classification of accounting models used in different geographical regions Bhattacharyya 2005 states that, “accounting model is a key that unlocks the mystery of double entry accounting”. Accounting models are based on two major parts; the T model, the five ledger accounts model which are also the accounting models.
Accounting models include asset account, revenue account, liability account, equity account and the expense account. The accounting model used in a particular geographical region basically falls under either of the above mentioned depending on the preferred model and business.
Role of International Accounting Standards Committee and International Accounting Standards Board The role of International Accounting Standards Committee through committees and consultations with the International Accounting Standards Board in establishing International Accounting Standards is issuing interpretation of standards since was replaced by the International Accounting Standards Board. (Mattessich, 2007).
The International Accounting Standards Board’s role is to regulate and amend International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards and also to create new standards if possible. They essentially oversee the application of the standards to ensure uniformity.
Examination of different accounting standards and determinants of national accounting standards Political and economical ties
Countries which are geographically close usually create trade unions for free movement of goods, services and capital between them. Political and economical ties play a major role in the formation of these trade unions which relatively affect the accounting standards used by the union nations. (Riahi, 1985).
Nations like Germany have adopted the cash method since it’s a communist government and its main focus is the welfare of every individual.
Britain, a capitalist government has adopted accrual method since in a capitalist government the main focus is about competition which will in turn influence growth. Therefore, all the nations allied to the two countries tend to have similar accounting practices. (Riahi, 1985).
Level of inflation
During inflation firms tend to choose a different accounting policy for stock keeping, either LIFO or FIFO, to ensure maximum profitability. (Mattessich, 2007). The governments usually try to cub the level of inflation by employing both scholars and professionals to try and regulate inflation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Accounting Standards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Zimbabwe, a country that has the highest level of inflation, very minimal growth can be achieved so the government tries so much to fight inflation. In developed countries like America, inflation has very minimal effect so the two countries are forced to adopt different accounting standard for the welfare of the people.
Level of economic development
Germany is a major producer of goods and low producer of services since most of its population comprises of the elderly. This means the government receives more taxes from exports. The government has adopted the cash accounting model since this model ensures that the welfare of the people is well catered for.
In Britain, the government has adopted both the accrual and the cash model. This is because Britain is a major producer of goods and services. They have adopted a capitalist kind of government which encourages people to work hard.
The national culture is usually carried down from one generation to another. Germany colonized most of the African and European countries.
Germany has adopted a communist kind of government. Such countries adopted a similar kind of government and accounting practices that were carried down to the subsequent generations.
Relationships between business and capital providers
This is especially important if the capital providers are foreigners. This is because the capital providers will need accounting standards that they best understand.
This is mostly experienced in the capital market especially when a steady growth is noted and most investors are foreigners (Bhattacharyya, 2005).
Both Brazil and India have been forced to change their accounting standards to influence capital inflow from foreign investors which is healthy for growth. This is because the two countries have had a steady growth.
Therefore, in conclusion, these various determinants impact significantly in the determination of a country’s accounting standards. Thus such factors should be put into consideration in understanding the reasons of adopting one accounting model over another.
References Bhattacharyya, U. (2005). Municipal accounting: concepts and practical issues. Mittal Publications: India.
Mattessich, R. (2007). Two Hundred Years of Accounting Research. Routledge: Britain.
Riahi, B. (1985). International Accounting: issues and solutions. Quorum Books: California.
Rich, J., Mowen, M., Hansen, D.
The Issue of Obesity: Epidemic and Complications Essay college application essay help
Statistics have been keen to show that the issue of obesity has become more of an epidemic and due to the various complications that come about when government fails to regulate food industry. There is a dire need for the government to regulate the food industry, to avoid problems associated with the epidemic that arises due to lack of control.
Regulation of food would help to solve some problems that some foods bring to the society. For one, there is the issue of obesity. To start with, obesity causes an estimated 30,000 deaths every year. It is also evident that the problem does not occur to grown-ups only but also, children as little as three years have also been faced by the epidemic.
Being obese also brings so many problems to the people in the society. For one, it results to diseases that cause death amongst the people. Diabetes is one of the diseases that is caused by obesity. Children at a young age also become victims of the disease, as they face the likelihood of being affected by type II diabetes.
Statistics have also shown that per every year, the government is increasing the budget of diabetic patients as more and more of them are increasing. The cost is also increasing when it comes to the deaths that are reported every year due to the epidemic. The cost is not only a financial one but it is also a social one as the society is losing a big number of workers every year due to this epidemic.
The government also needs to control the food business so as to avoid any contamination of food that is meant for public consumption. The recent scare of food contamination can only be dealt with when the government is keen on ensuring that the food business is well controlled.
To avoid contamination the government needs to set up standards that ensure that the foods that are meant for human, meet a certain standard that is not likely to cause any harm to the health of the consumer. Not only does the government need to set up the right standard, but also the responsibility of enforcing it follows under them.
As a way of ensuring that organizations do not suffer the redundancy cost, the government may feel the need to regulate the food business. The government is able to reduce the cost that some organizations may incur, by ensuring that each and every organization observes a certain set of standard.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When every organization has a defined standard, it is usually cheaper for other organizations, since there is no fear that certain products that they get do not meet their standards. In turn, they do not need to hire experts to check the standards.
The call for the government to control the food industry raises various feelings among the interested parties. There are those who feel that the already set rules about food are already adequate and that there is no need to have others, since it might increase the cost of production and in turn, make the products expensive.
However, there are those who feel that the various risks that come with lack of control for the food industries are so much and need to be reduced. Either way, it is important for the government to have adequate control of food industry, to ensure that the health of the citizens is not compromised. It is also important to ensure that imports are adequately controlled to avoid any contamination.
What Makes Hamlet such a Complex Character? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
In William Shakespeare’s literary works, Hamlet, Hamlet is the most fascinating character. Shakespeare concentrates on Hamlet’s emotions, dilemma as well as inconsistency to achieve his heart desires especially revenge. Hamlet’s questionable sanity and captivating character contributes to the success of the play. The inability to decide and sentient his actions signifies the complexity in his character.
When the reader first come across Hamlet, he is sad and mourning his father’s death, King Hamlet. On closer analysis of Hamlet’s appearance, his emotional state signifies something strong or mysterious connected to his mourning.
Furthermore he tells his mother, “for they are actions that a man might play; But I have that within which passeth show – These but the trappings and the suits of woe” (Shakespeare Act I, Scene 2). Hamlet is unable to speak out his mind; therefore, he expresses his feelings in form of parables. Hamlet’s is unhappy because his father’s death is fading away fast.
His mother remarries Hamlet’s uncle, King Claudius, immediately after his father’s death. Therefore, instead of exclusively mourning his departed father, he mourns his mother and uncle’s betrayal to his father. Hamlet’s emotional turmoil turns to hatred and questionable madness especially towards women including Ophelia who he had once confessed his love for her.
When Hamlet’s father requests him to avenge his death against King Claudius, he is unable to carry out his revenge. Although he is vengeful, his emotions, anxiety, and morality drag him behind his mission. He is unable to fulfill his actions even if the opportunity avails itself.
More about topic name Where does Claudius send Cornelius and Voltimand? Why? 5 62 What’s the meaning behind “…for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so” in Act 2, scene 2? 5 82 What is “get thee to a nunnery” meaning? 5 175 What is the Meaning of “There Are More Things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are Dreamt of in Your Philosophy”? 4.7 1660 When Polonius says, “brevity is the soul of wit,” why is it ironic? 5 335 What best describes how Laertes feels about his father’s death? 5 200 For instance, when he encounters Claudius meditating, he spares his life because he thinks the gods will forgive him. Unfortunately, his ability not to act makes him rational where he carelessly kills Polonius thinking it was a rat after, which he hides the body.
After the second appearance of his father, he secretly starts to plan on how to kill Claudius but his actions are impounded. When King Claudius, discovers Hamlet’s plan to kill him, he (Claudius) plans to kill him (Hamlet) first; unfortunately, Hamlet escapes the trap eventually killing him.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the inability, to avenge his father’s death, his mission leads to the murder of Polonius, Gertrude, Claudius, Laertes, Ophelia, Guildenstern, and Rosencrantz. However, the author’s mission in delaying Hamlet’s revenge is to emphasize on the complexity in his emotional state and psychological well-being.
Hamlet’s return from hiding raises eyebrows especially on King Claudius who becomes uncomfortable with his presence. The confidence and moral attitude with which he presents himself is a sign of his secret plan to kill King Claudius.
Shakespeare’s ability to change Hamlet’s character from a rational, anxious, and emotional person to a cool, confident, and moral person presents him as a round character. Hamlet is unable to kill his uncle until he proves that he is guilty. Through a play, he is able to ascertain that Claudius killed his father but he is unable to revenge. The turning point of his actions comes when he returns from exile and eventually executes his mission.
In summary, Hamlets’ ability to change from an emotional, hateful, rational, vengeful and insane to cool, friendly, confident, and moral person enables him to execute his mission of killing King Claudius. Shakespeare’s description of Hamlet’s character categorizes him as a round character. In addition, Shakespeare mission to delay Hamlet’s plan to avenge his father’s death highlights the complex nature of his (Hamlet’s) emotions and psychology.
Work Cited Shakespeare, Williams. Hamlet, 2003. Web.
The market of video games Essay college application essay help
Admittedly, nowadays the market of video games is developing at high speeds. The major rivals (Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft) try to create new products and attract as much buyers as possible. The new product presented by Nintendo this year has enabled the company to achieve really high rates of sales. Nintendo has used the principles of Just Noticeable Differences (JND) and Just Meaningful Differences (JMD) theory, which are still relevant in the contemporary society.
Interestingly, the theory was developed by Karl Weber long ago (Yeshin, 2006: 61). The principle of JND is based on Weber’s assumption that consumers “detect differences between stimulus value” (Yeshin, 2006: 61). Thus, to attract consumers’ attention it is necessary to make them see the difference in the product to buy it instead of some other goods. It goes without saying that the difference should be noticeable and meaningful, otherwise the consumer simply can fail to notice it.
On the other hand, it is not enough to make some minor change in the product to attract consumers. The change should be meaningful. For instance, it is not enough to start producing goods of different color, but it is important to understand what color can suit consumers’ needs and longings. Every change should address certain needs and possess special meaning for potential consumers.
For instance, nowadays 3D technology has gained popularity among consumers. Watching 3D movies at home has become a kind of breakthrough in the market of various devices. Companies producing video games rapidly responded to the needs of customers.
Notably, Nintendo managed to understand what modern gamers, living in the times of 3D technologies could want. The major JND and JMD which Nintendo 3Ds suggest are that while enjoying playing 3D games people do not need to wear the special glasses which are regarded as one of the major drawbacks of contemporary 3D technology (Buckleitner, 2011).
Apart from this the new product meets some more desires of consumers. Reportedly, Nintendo 3Ds are easier to use, parents can control their children’s games buying, there is possibility to play with other people having Nintendo 3d (which is a meaningful value for contemporary gamers) (Buckleitner, 2011).
All these advantages or JND and JMD did attract the necessary attention to the new product. Reportedly, Nintendo 3Ds sales reached about 400 thousand units during the first week of sales in the United States (Sherr and Becker, 2011). Admittedly, being the first company to present such video games makes Nintendo a leader in the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It goes without saying that there are still many things to improve to attract even more consumers. One of the most valuable JMD for customers will become lower prices (Sherr and Becker, 2011). Hopefully, the company will work out the way to respond to this eternal longing of the majority of consumers.
On balance, it is possible to point out that Nintendo 3Ds is one of the latest evidence that the principles of JND and JMD work though being introduced long ago. Nintendo understood what contemporary gamers need and responded to these desires.
It is possible to claim that when trying to attract attention of consumers it is essential to change the product somehow. However, the changes should be thoughtful. In the first place it is important to know what changes would be noticed and valued by customers and then change the product in the necessary way.
Reference List Buckleitner, W. (2011) ‘A Closer Look at the Nintendo 3DS’, The New York Times, 01 March.
Sherr, I. and Becker, N. (2011) ‘New Nintendo, Sony Gadgets Buck Slump in Videogames’, The Wall Street Journal, 16 April.
Yeshin, T. (2006) Sales Promotion, London: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Cinemaplex Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of macro environment analysis
Summary of industry environment analysis
Other critical factors for the movie industry
Introduction The movie industry has seen it all: Both best moments and worst moments. Some few years ago, movies could only be watched at the theatres and people loved watching them in big screens and with theaters and studios being the only place where big screens could be afforded, people really enjoyed.
However, with technology advancements and visual and audio systems becoming cheaper, the movie industry has been experiencing lagging growth because few people nowadays visit the theaters and studios and those who visit these places do it with other motives in their minds for example being away from their parents, dates among other things. This means that if there could be alternatives most people would not go to watch movies.
Summary of macro environment analysis There exists several macroeconomic factors which influence the way managers or leaders in a certain company make their decisions. These macro environment factors include issues such as changing laws, government policy, and demographic issues among others.
They are analyzed under a model called PESTE. The model seeks to analyze what factors influence the performance of the industry and if these factors are threats or opportunities to the industry (Bensoussan
Societal Structural Order and Change Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Social structures keep changing day in and day out and there exist not one but many contending sociological theories that attempt to clarify why individual and societal lives exist as they are and why they keep changing. Sociological theory has continuously developed with time from classical to contemporary sociology with the recently evolved theories capable of dealing with today’s relevant societal matters.
Some of the hypotheses can be traced back to the ideas of classical theorists as Durkheim. Though slightly superannuated, his works have not ceased containing significant theories that when expounded upon relates to the ever changing contemporary society.
As a matter of fact, contemporary theory is filled with the developed ideas of outstanding classical theories. According to the perspectives of some social theories, which mainly center on societal transformations, various critical arguments have emerged.
Society is viewed as an organization through which every interconnected component fits together to make a whole. Society functions as a unit basing on norms and values, satisfactory behavior as well as social ties.
The purpose of social structures and institutions within the society, the connection between these structures, and the way in which they restrain the activities of persons within the society is well defined by the social order.
With the emerging changes, individuals have tended to stray away from the customary rules that govern their behavior thus creating some sort of deviance in the society. Therefore, things that had once been unacceptable, or considered aberrant, are now part of cultural norms.
In order to understand the society, this essay aims to look at the societal order and changes that take place within the society and how they are manifested in the works of some famous sociologists; Durkheim, Parsons and Merton.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Structuralism is a thought established in the hypothesis that human behavior is structured by the societal environs. These structures shape human behavior. With the assistance of his student, Robert Merton, Talcott Parsons came up with the idea of structural functionalism during the 1950s.
This, he developed basing on the sociological theory of Durkheim, a French sociologist, who is truly regarded a founder of the present day sociology. Durkheim and Parsons both considered the individuals within the society as inactive players in the continually varying societal structures (Parsons, 2011, pp. 51-53).
In his book, The Division of Labor in Society, Durkheim dwells upon the specialization in labor as a function of the process that contributed to solidarity and social density in the society. He examines how social order is kept within the various societies.
He views the division of labor in the traditional society as different from that of the modern society. He argues that conventional societies were ‘mechanical’ and were joined by the fact that everybody was somewhat equal and thence had mutual things.
He continues to debate that, in conventional societies collective consciousness completely colligates the personal consciousness; societal rules are firm and social doings are substantially controlled. In modern societies, the extreme complexity of the division of labor results in ‘organic’ solidarity.
Various differentiations in work and social functions create dependences that tie individuals to each other since individuals could no more depend on meeting all of their requirements on their own (Durkheim, 2005, pp. 105-107).
This theory however, presented a problem; it collectively combined the contradictory issues of the economy and social organization which would lead to social disintegration and not solidarity. In an effort to resolve this, Parsons came up with economic and social stratification systems thus enabling each system to conduct its own issues separately and consequently moving toward its own structured demands and objectives.
We will write a custom Essay on Societal Structural Order and Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his Sex Roles in the American Kinship System, parsons explains that during the medieval times families acted as the foundation for social organizations and functions. This, he argues, has changed with the development of the division of labor in the passage to the present times which is characterized by several chores and functions previously performed by the family; social segregations have occurred.
As industrial and business enterprises flourished, production progressively took place beyond the family into an economy. Additionally, some social functions were freed from the household and relocated to institutions of education.
Parsons states that this separation of roles is important as it enhanced specialization such that separate social structures and positions became responsible for executing certain roles. This differentiation also meant that tasks could be better executed (Parsons, 2011, pp. 52-53).
This is what Durkheim referred to as organic solidarity in his work (Durkheim, 2005, p. 108). A family serves two major functions according to Parsons; socializing children and stabilizing the personality of an adult in a society.
This simplification enabled parsons to avoid unneeded combinations of varying problems. This provides a good description of how the society has evolved from traditional to modern era and the changes that have taken place (Parsons, 2011).
Similarly, Merton also developed his theories basing on those of Durkheim. Merton’s major contribution was his investigation into the connections betwixt culture, structure and anomie. Durkheim had in his earlier writing concentrated on the direct consequences of specialism increase upon a person.
He discovered that in a society with mechanical solidarity, the law in general is repressive; an individual who goes against the rules suffers a penalty that in reality would even collective conscience overlooked by the offense- the penalty serves to uphold the oneness of consciences.
On the contrary, the laws of a society with organic solidarity are normally restitutive; its objective is not to penalize but rather indemnify ordinary actions of a complicated society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Societal Structural Order and Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rapidly changing society is because of the rising division of labor hence producing states of muddiness with respect to social rules and neutrality in social life that finally contributes to the collapse of societal rules that regulates doings. Durkheim marks this situation anomie which from it arises all kinds of aberrant behaviors, particularly suicide (Durkheim, 2005, pp. 107-111).
Profound changes have been produced in the structure of our societies in a very short time; they have been freed from the segmental type with a rapidity and in proportions such as have never before been seen in history…., the functions which have been disrupted in the course of the upheaval have not had time to adjust themselves to one another; the new life which has emerged so suddenly has not been able to be completely organized,… (Durkheim, 2005, p. 111)
He made a conclusion that anomie is the outcome of deteriorating strength of the usual ethics in the modernistic society In an assay to counter this problem, Durkheim developed the notion of corporate moral sense that he stated as, “The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society forms a determinate system which has its own life; one may call it the collective or common conscience” (Durkheim, 2005, p. 106).
He saw the rise in the ‘division of labor’ as a reason for this change; the decline but not vanishing of the collective consciousness.
Hence, missing in this counsel, an individual would fail to maintain their general conscious awareness in their conception of good or bad thus becoming disoriented and permitting anomie to kick in; “If, in certain cases, organic solidarity is not all that it should be, it is certainly not because mechanical solidarity has lost ground, but because all the conditions for the existence of organic solidarity have not been realized” (Durkheim, 2005, p. 108).
Durkheim’s notion of anomie was expounded upon by Merton who to a greater extent developed them into a contemporary edition. Merton, in Social Structure and Anomie stated that culture was an “organized set of normative values governing behavior which is common to members of a designated society or group” (Merton, 1996, p. 16), and that social structure was “that organized set of social relationships in which members of the society or group are variously implicated” (Merton, 1996, p. 21).
Drawing out from this, Merton reasoned out that anomie came about when particular conflicts arose betwixt the cultural norms and goals, and the socially integrated statuses that group’s members concur with.
Through the expounding on this theory, anomie is no more related simply to deficiency of moral counsel in today’s world but also due to the fact that people are being pushed to consider their social statuses first in place of moral values so as to pull through adversity (Merton, 1996).
Merton conceives that society influences the behaviors of an individual by setting ambitions and the way those ambitions are to be achieved. He believes that there is a connection between anomie and the difference that exist between the vehemence laid upon the ambitions and the means of achieving them in the society.
Thus, society is the root cause of crime and it represents how poorly the society is organized. The perspective of Merton is therefore similar to that of Durkheim in that both see a person’s life as a making of the society (Merton, 1996).
However, while Durkheim considers that the key societal principles and values are accordant, it is only during the beginning of a stage in societal development that he conceives the aspirations of individuals to be the same (Durkheim, 2005).
Merton on the other hand, asserts that the society as a whole strives toward similar goals and only some persons prefer not to comply with the rules that the society has set in reaching their aspirations. Durkheim is of the opinion that society creates criminal offenses so as to ameliorate and keep order within the society whilst Merton’s opinion is that society is the cause of an individual resorting to offense on account of it failing to serve its administrative purposes (Merton R. , 2008).
The social structure produces a strain toward anomie and deviant behavior. The pressure of such a social order is upon outdoing one’s competitors. So long as the sentiments supporting this competitive system are distributed throughout the entire range of activities and are not confined to the final result of “success”, the choice of means will remain largely within the ambit of institutional control.
When, however, the cultural emphasis shifts from the satisfactions deriving from competition itself to exclusive concern with the outcome, the resulting stress makes for the breakdown of the regulatory structure (Merton, 1996, p. 151).
He further goes on to argue that the society sets goals which are unattainable and urges an individual to pursue them and often not supplying the means of lawfully attaining them. In the process, it fails to order the society and provides a militant environment in which criminal offenses flourish (Merton R. , 2008).
It is only when a system of cultural values extols, virtually above all else, certain common success-goals for the population at large while the social structure rigorously restricts or completely closes access to approved modes of reaching these goals for a considerable part of the same population, that deviant behavior ensues on a large scale (Merton, 1996, p. 143).
From the discussion it can be seen that the writings of the three sociologists pertains to the issues within today’s social organizations such as crime and morality, economy, as well as the social justice system. Various elements of a person’s life such as work, marriage, and children have been analyzed as well hence providing a great understanding of the social structures.
It has been made quite clear that in order for a society to progress; structural separatism of work related roles is a requirement. In conclusion, deviance can be viewed as an illumination of moral value limits, avouchment of social order, and a booster of social integrity and social change. It has also been showed that we live in extremely specialized societies that are divided along lines of work, social classes, and cultural structures.
References Durkheim, E. (2005). From The Division of Labour in Society (1893). In S. Appelrouth,
Curley Effects on the Politics of Boston Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Curley Effect
Curley’s Political Policies
Introduction James Michael Curley was elected for four times as mayor of Boston. He was also elected as a Governor of Massachusetts. His mission was to care for the poor people especially the Irish immigrants. He distributed wealth to them.
However, he detested the richer citizens and made them to emigrate to the nearest cities and lands. The rich citizens were from England. There were also American’s Yankees and Brahmins (Gamm 10). Despite this, he kept being elected as a mayor for four terms by the Irish immigrants.
He was corrupt and was often charged with fraud cases. Curley saw that the rich in Boston were a threat to him in his political career and made a way to eliminate them by sending them to other places. One way that he used was to introduce different taxation to different groups.
He heavily taxed the natives who opposed his rule and policies. Those that supported or were in favor of his rule were taxed less. This ensured that he got majority votes from his supporters. In short, the number of those that supported him was increased and the number of his enemies was reduced.
The rich and local people always opposed his rule since he was corrupt. He was hated for his policies and the native people worked to ensure that he was not elected.
Boston city was having a lot of Irish immigrants. Their population increased and hence their power. Curley, who was an Irish immigrant, took this opportunity to head over them. One of the effects of Curley political influence was to increase the Irish mob’s power in Boston. This he did by incorporating the mob in the Boston’s defense industry.
The Curley Effect We can see the Curley effect on his strategy. He increased his voting, political base by caring for the poor Irish immigrants who voted for him. He cared for the poor Irish people because his family was poor. His neighborhood was poor and his father had died while he was young.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He ensured that they were the largest group. He then encouraged emigration of Native Americans who opposed his rule. This reduced the numbers of Native of Boston and hence their voting power. Curley had a deep hatred for English people who were among decent of Boston because of the wars that were fought between the English and Irish people (Gamm 12). This led to discrimination between English and Irish people.
Curley saw them as his enemies and hence sought to reduce their numbers. He didn’t care if the rate of poverty was going to increase due to sending away the rich natives who influenced the economy of Boston. The rich controlled the agricultural sectors, offered jobs to the poor and led in exportation. By sending them away, his economy was slowing down. His interest was gaining political power in Boston.
We can see that the Curley effect produced leaders that practiced dictatorship in Boston. Curley dictatorship was seen when he sent away his political opponents who protested his rule. This ensured that his political oppositions were eliminated. There was an opposition that was weakened. This was as a result of their reduced numbers. Their voting power was reduced.
Another way that Curley influenced the politics of Boston is by introducing different taxes to different groups in Boston (Fiorina 46). As discussed above, he heavily taxed the native people of Boston to encourage emigration of them.
Those who favored his rule and policies were less taxed. Curley made sure that the number of those people that supported him remained higher than the ones that opposed him. This slowed down the economy.
Curley only cared for reelection. That’s why he was elected as a mayor for four terms. The poor Irish people didn’t mind if he was charged with fraud cases as long as he represented them. Curley was known to give even money to the poor Irish people.
Curley brought his effect on politics of Boston by encouraging leaders to rule people who were poor so that they could be reelected while enriching them. Curley enriched the poor by creating and offering jobs to them.
We will write a custom Essay on Curley Effects on the Politics of Boston specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike many leaders, Curley did not want to rule an area that was rich. Many leaders like to rule rich people because they think that they comprise the largest group and they have wealth. However, Curley brought his effect on politics of Boston by increasing his voting power.
Curley’s Political Policies Curley had policies that favored his Irish people and others that did not favor his opponents. These are the same policies that made the Brahmins, Yankees and English people to migrate (Fiorina 52). One area of his policies where he practiced favoritism was sharing out of public wealth.
There was also giving out of finances. Curley built public buildings for the Irish people. He sold public property like Boston garden so that he could build parks for the Irish people. This act angered the Yankees who protested with a lot of force.
Another example is constructing playgrounds in Irish wards. The Irish wards were Dorchester and Roxbury. He also used public places in favor of Irish people to be used as entertainment places. Scollay Square was turned into tattoo parlors.
Curley created jobs for Irish people by initializing constructions which employed people. A good example is a hospital which he had expanded. It was Boston City Hospital. It was a big project which offered employment to many supporters of Curley (Fiorina 56).
He also made sure that the hospital offered low cost medical services to his supporters. They were given a lot of medical facilities compared to their opponents. Curley made sure that his supporters got the majority of public jobs.
He was also involved with the financial affairs of people of Boston. He increased the wages of those that were paid poorly like police patrolmen. He lowered the wages of those that were paid well like higher officers and doctors.
Curley spoke badly of English people as being hypocritical and not being patriotic. He accused them of exhibiting political chicanery. We can see the Curley’s effects in his policies. His policies favored his supporters so that he could be reelected. His political agenda was to satisfy those who voted for him by constructing buildings for them, creation of jobs, and offering medical services at a low cost.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Curley Effects on the Politics of Boston by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Curley was a leader who cared for his people that elected him as a mayor for several terms. During his time, he changed the politics of Boston by sending away of his opponents who did not support his policies. This he did by imposing heavy taxes on his enemy, unfair distribution of wealth and this led to the emigration of his opponents. By doing this, he reduced the voting power of his opponents.
Works Cited Fiorina, Matthew. Special Interest Politics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981. Print.
Gamm, Patrick. Curley’s Political Effects. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Print.
Macroeconomic Policy under Floating Exchange Rate Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction A floating exchange rate is “an exchange rate regime whereby a currency’s value is allowed to fluctuate according to the performance of the foreign exchange markets”. This means that the exchange rate is flexible and can change from time to time in response to the dynamics of the foreign exchange markets.
The floating exchange rate has been adopted by several countries since it helps them to dampen the effects of shocks and predict the possibility of having a balance of payment crisis. Besides, it adjusts itself to the changes in the market.
Despite these benefits, the floating exchange rate has in several cases failed to ensure stability in the financial markets and to promote economic growth. Consequently, proposals have been formulated in response to its weaknesses. This paper analyzes such proposals in terms of their merits and demerits.
Limitations of the Floating Exchange Rate Regime The floating exchange rate regime has failed to ensure stability in financial markets and stimulate economic growth due to the following reasons. First, a flexible exchange rate limits a country’s autonomy over its national macroeconomic policies.
This is attributed to the high international capital mobility associated with the world economy. According to the Mundell-Fleming model, a floating exchange rate limits the extent to which fiscal policies can be implemented in a country thus lowering economic growth.
Second, liberation of monetary policy at domestic level is often illusionary under a floating exchange rate. This is attributed to the open nature of financial markets and the fact that central banks are usually attached to monetarist targets.
Thus under floating exchange rate, “the monetary policy becomes exchange rate policy”. This means that the ability of an expansionary monetary policy to stimulate domestic demand is determined by the exchange rate depreciation and the resultant impact on trade balance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also difficult to depend on monetary policy at international level when using floating exchange rate. In most cases, an expansionary monetary policy in one country leads to a deflationary shock in another country especially if the aggregate demand is strategically composed of export-import balances.
Third, the use of floating exchange rate leads to uncoordinated macroeconomic policies. “Shocks from foreign exchange markets are usually transmitted to domestic markets”. Consequently, each government develops its own defense mechanism in response to the shocks and this complicates the process of coordinating macroeconomic policies. Lack of coordination is likely to cause more volatility in the economy especially in the employment sector.
Fourth, the floating exchange rate regime is likely to worsen speculation and volatility associated with foreign exchange markets. Investors normally sell their stock of a given currency if they expect its value to depreciate in order to make profits.
Speculation normally results into high exchange rate fluctuations in the long run as investors respond to changing economic trends. High fluctuations in exchange rate is likely to cause great instability in the foreign exchange markets as investors lose their confidence in the market. Besides, investors who are not able to sell their stock of currencies may incur huge losses as the currencies depreciate.
Reform Proposals Due the above limitations, several reforms have been proposed to help in ensuring stability in the foreign exchange markets. Even though the proposals are expected to address the weaknesses of the floating exchange rate regime, they are also associated with limitations and this can be explained as follows.
Target Zones This is an exchange rate system whereby “wide margins are devised around adjustable sets of exchange rates and are meant to be consistent with a sustainable pattern of balance of payment”. Under this system, the authorities are under no obligation to formally make commitments to intervene so that the actual exchange rate is maintained within the zone.
However, they are allowed to intervene and suggest the optimal level of exchange rate. The target zone system differs from managed exchange rate since it targets a specific area and has a greater influence on monetary policy. The system is characterized by both ‘loud zones and quiet zones’.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Macroeconomic Policy under Floating Exchange Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Public announcement concerning the exchange rates are made in the loud zones. However, confidential information is only revealed in the quiet zones. This is meant to facilitate joint intervention and surveillance on exchange rate.
The Merits of Target Zone System First, it promotes effective supervision of the activities of member countries. If a country breaches the rules of the zone either through inappropriate fiscal or monetary policies, it will be subjected to multi-lateral reviews by its peers.
Such a country will then be put under pressure by its peers to adjust its policies accordingly to enhance coordination. Second, even if the target zone is changed instead of the fiscal policies, the “domestic political costs accruing from regular adjustment of the exchange rate will impart its own discipline”.
Finally, the target zone system aims at providing an anchor for expectations on exchange rates in order to minimize volatility and misalignment. The anchor is attributed to estimated exchange rates as announced by the authorities and the expected course of the monetary policy among the member countries in future.
Demerits First, for the target zone to be effective, it must be “wide enough to reflect the uncertainty concerning equilibrium central rate”. It should also be wide enough to cushion the member countries against transitory disturbances that can not change long-term rate.
Besides, it should provide better protection against speculative bets. Thus the target zone will not be able to achieve its objective if it is narrow. Second, the effectiveness of the target zone is determined by the frequency with which it is revised.
While frequent revision of the zone is good for stabilizing the economy, it might reduce the credibility of the zone. Finally, the zone will achieve its goals only if the authorities are committed to implementing polices that will help them realize their exchange rate forecasts. This means that the zone is likely to fail if the authorities are not committed or are not able to effectively implement the policies that will help in achieving equilibrium exchange rate.
Stronger Institutional Coordination of Economic Policies International coordination refers to “a significant modification of national policies in recognition of international economic interdependence”. Coordination is necessitated by the fact that, economic policy measures taken by one country usually generate externalities for other countries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomic Policy under Floating Exchange Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, such externalities must be taken into consideration in order to achieve economic stability at the international level. Thus coordination offers a framework for internalizing the externalities. The success of the coordination process is assessed by several indicators which include the following.
It can be assed based on growth in domestic demand, changes in GNP and the level of inflation. Other indicators used to assess the coordination process include monetary conditions as well as balance of trade.
The coordination process should be implemented as “a regular, ongoing process” for it to be effective in achieving its objectives. This is attributed to the following reasons. First, the possibility of multi-period bargaining increases the chances of completing policy bargaining.
This means that the countries involved in the coordination process have ample time to bargain on the consequences or the expected benefits of the policies to be implemented if the coordination is done on a continuous basis.
Besides, it gives them an opportunity to adjust their policies accordingly in response to emerging challenges. This would not be possible if the coordination exercise is done through periodic episodes. Second, it enables countries to take advantage of the recurring bargaining strengths and considerations on reputation during coordination.
As countries coordinate their policies over time, they tend to realize their strengths and weaknesses. Thus they are able to take advantage of their strengths to enhance stability while reducing their weaknesses.
Besides, the countries with a reputation of cooperation during the coordination exercise can be rewarded through special considerations. Finally, implementing coordination as an ongoing process enables the participants to have more freedom to maneuver on policies than when negations are done only during crisis situations.
Merits of Coordination Coordination of economic policies is associated with the following benefits. First, misalignment and excessive volatility is usually caused by inappropriate policies and inefficiencies in the market. Consistent coordination over time helps to deal with the above mentioned causes of volatility and misalignment and this has been achieved as follows.
First, coordination specifies the commitments expected of each and every participant. Second, coordination ensures better cooperation in implementing intervention policies in exchange markets. Besides, it enables the participants to have a fair view on the actual exchange rate patterns.
Second, a wide-ranging multi-issue coordination method is likely to enhance the chances of concluding bargains that are beneficial to all parties. The coordination process leads to the generation of favorable spillover effects which benefits all the countries involved in the coordination and negotiation process.
Demerits of Economic Policy Coordination Despite its benefits, achieving effective economic coordination has proved to be difficult. The difficulties in achieving economic coordination are attributed to the following factors. First, international policy bargains characterized by objectives that are common among participating countries can be frustrated in the event that the policy instruments are considered as objectives in themselves.
For example, in 1980s President Reagan of US was committed to increasing expenditure on defense while reducing taxes. Under such circumstances, it would have been very difficult to realize “target zones for exchange rates”.
Second, the implementation of the coordination process is likely to be derailed as countries disagree on the impacts of policy changes on the goals of the policies. Agreeing on jointly developed policies has always been difficult since participants in the coordination process interpret the functioning of the global economy in different ways. There has never been a universal view of how the global economy functions.
Finally, most countries usually compromise on their growth and inflation targets due to their domestic financial or economic crisis. Consequently, their ability to compromise further on demand measures during coordination remains limited. T
he global inflation rate is likely to increase if deliberate attempts are made to stabilize a given pattern of exchange rate. It is for this reason that the US Treasury Secretary and UK Chancellor made proposals in 1987 for the introduction of “commodity-price-basket indicator as an early warning signal of emerging aggregate price developments”.
Taxes Critics of the floating exchange rate system have proposed the introduction of “internationally uniform tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another”. The tax that is expected to correspond to the size of transactions is meant to prevent “shot –term financial round-trip excursions into another currency”.
Each government will be responsible for implementing the tax under its jurisdictional area. The tax revenue can be deposited in international financial institutions such as World Bank or IME. All financial instruments purchased in foreign currencies will be subject to taxation.
Merits First, the international tax will help in reducing fluctuations in exchange rates. It aims at limiting the margins over which the exchange rates can fluctuate. Second, the international tax system will enable governments to have more autonomy to pursue their domestic macroeconomic polices.
Demerit The main problem associated with the international tax system is the difficulties related to its administration and enforcement. Due to inefficiencies or lack of political commitment, some governments might fail to implement the tax system thus leading to its failure. Besides, dishonest traders can take advantage of the weaknesses of the tax laws to evade taxes.
Conclusion Floating exchange rate refers to an exchange rate regime whereby the appreciation or depreciation of a given currency is determined by the dynamics of the exchange market. Even though it helps countries that use it to dampen the effects of shocks, it has been criticized due its limitations as discussed above.
Consequently, various reform proposals have been developed to stabilize the foreign exchange market. The proposals include introduction of an international tax system, stronger coordination of economic policies and adopting target zone systems.
Works Cited Blanchard, Oliver. Macroeconomics. Pearson Prentice Hall: New York, 2008.
Frenkel, Jacob and Morris Golstern. Excgange Rate Volatility and Misalignment: Evaluating some Proposals for Reform. New York: International Monetary Fund, 2004.
Tobin, James. “A proposal for monetary reform.” Eastern Economic Journal, 29(4) (2003): 519-526.
The EEOC’s Role in the Lawsuit Essay best college essay help
Introduction Discriminatory practices and frustration of employees at their employment place is not a novel practice. In multinational and low level companies, the employees continue to live in fear because of persistent harassment.
Employees suffer for varied reasons including, work place discrimination, employee harassment, persecution, and reprisal. As a rejoinder, the EEOC, designed laws aimed at curbing employee mistreatment.
These laws, set to protect employees, can be broken either through prejudice or through unawareness. Breaking the decree therefore puts an organization or a company in court tussles. This piece identifies one such grievance in which EEOC sued Georgia Military College for discriminating against an employee on racial grounds.
The paper discusses compliance failure in this particular case and its ramifications on the college. In addition, the paper summarizes the functions of the U.S. EEOC and its role in the lawsuit. Further, this piece confers to the contribution of the lawsuit to social change and compares the two sources of this news. Finally, to conclude, the paper presents author’s suggestions on ways of avoiding such compliance negligence in an organization.
Lawsuit Chosen: “Georgia Military College Sued by EEOC for Race Discrimination” The employee lawsuit picked hit the news bulletin on 21 January 2011 stating that EEOC had sued Georgia Military College for disregarding federal laws by transgressing upon an employee racially. According to EEOC, the college had allegedly subordinated Solomon Mosley of African – American origin to an employment surrounding that was racially intimidating for a period of four years.
The proceedings undeniably have consequences on the college. The college stands a big chance of experiencing a slump in its significance. With news of the discrimination against employees being a public domain, the college will be under scrutiny. It will lose its image and standard may go down because of unrestricted confession of intellectual wealth.
The college may invest time and finances on litigations at the expense of building the college. The case will ensure that the institution spends on appointing an attorney to handle the case on behalf of its authorities apart from satisfying other standing court charges.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lawsuit may also invite unconstructive stakeholder rejoinder, hurting a range of other participation. Furthermore, the institution’s management may let shareholders down who might close it in any case; overheads of litigation threaten fiscal expectations.
Functions of EEOC The U.S EEOC is a government agency in charge of implementing federal laws illegalizing the practice of employers’ intolerance against staff and potential workforce. EEOC seeks to protect employees against bias on issues including origin, color, belief, sexual category, ethnic origin, disability, singling out, and bias at their employment places.
The agency also provides practical aid, plans, and creates awareness to thwart abuse of works before they arise. Furthermore, EEOC, offer help to federal agencies regarding equal employment prospect initiatives apart from faculty building on decrees, compliance, and adjudication of appeals on opinions provided on its complaints. Finally, it scrutinizes charges of oppression leveled against companies applying its regulations.
The EEOC’s Role in the Lawsuit In the lawsuit against Georgia Military College, EEOC observed that the college enhanced prejudice tendencies against an employee on the grounds of race. This offense attracts litigations for compromising “Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act”. The initial role of the watchdog was to settle the allegation by assuaging the management, though it reports this flopped.
Therefore, EEOC took the issue to the next level, filing a suit at the U.S District Court on behalf of the personnel. Further, it made request that the court take punitive measures against the college and pay costs for hurting the employee. Finally, it requested a ruling on alleviation of future occurrences of comparable maltreatment. In principle, the commission worked to help the employee.
Contribution of Lawsuit to Social modification Reflecting that, racial oppression negates the interest of multicultural appreciation of people we meet, this lawsuit was vital. In my scrutiny, the world is changing too fast and globalization is contributing to integration of economy, labor market, technology, and knowledge, discrimination is therefore uncalled-for. In addition, people need to embrace one another and exist in accord.
However, some people reduce these desires by perpetrating intolerance having far-reaching consequences on social harmony. Therefore, a lawsuit of this nature would believably improve relations among races. Achieving this would be a great boost to building and strengthening social transformation to enable a better world where everyone is liberated. This lawsuit advances societal change.
We will write a custom Essay on The EEOC’s Role in the Lawsuit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparison of the EEOC Press Release to GpB News The news as relayed to the public on GpB News and released on press by EEOC, a few comparisons is tenable. Initially, I noted the news agency reported, the college administrators were uninformed of the complaint while the commission’s press release indicates it tried to settle the case through reconciliation method, which flopped.
Both news contradict and confuse people. In addition, the news title in GpB News is much shorter and leaves out certain details. However, on EEOC newsroom press releases, the title is detailed and undemanding to comprehend. In addition, the newsroom reduced the words used by EEOC but retained the meaning.Conclusion
Employee sufferings at work place have constituted the news headlines. Employers subject their workforce to varying prejudicial service conditions. Workers protection endeavors in the U.S are fronted by EEOC. EEOC works vigorously with some organizations and companies, which have subscribed to execute the outfits regulations on workers protection.
This piece discussed a lawsuit filed by EEOC in which a training college violated rights of an employee to work in a safe working situation. Further, it recommended activities to avert any mistreatment of workers in an organizational setting.
Diplomatic Protocols and Privileges Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Barston (2006) defines diplomacy as the administration of interstate interactions. Other variables that may affect any of the states are also included in the interaction. A diplomat therefore promotes their country’s national interests by representing the country in negotiations and doing tasks that promote national interest.
The ministry of Foreign affairs in most cases has a department that trains and equips the diplomatic employees. It is also concerned with their welfare as they conduct missions abroad. Consequently, diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges have been designed in pursuit of their good conduct and their welfare (Berridge 2002 p. 201).
The diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges apply to both the diplomats and the supporting staff working in the embassy. The top ranking diplomats enjoy more privileges than the supporting staff. Their families who accompany them also enjoy such privileges.
The diplomacy contributes to the states’ implementation of foreign policy. The diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges vary from one state to another and vary in the way it applies (Melissen 1999, p. 12) This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges.
The advantages and disadvantages of diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges Advantages
In accordance with Berridge (2002 p. 10), diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges ensure that diplomats are catered for in their social lives. There are provisions for the diplomat where the family is catered for. The diplomat is allowed to live with members of his family.
There are situations where there are severe hard ships. These provisions enable the diplomat to perform his duties better than they would without such support. For instance, diplomats send abroad are send with their families where they live. They are provided for housing and are taken care of in case of emergency. The ministry of finance where they belong must give adequate support.
The United States ministry of finance has to offer maximum security to its diplomats in foreign states. This is as a result of past attacks on American embassies. Whenever there is a security threat, there are arrangements made to protect them. In some cases, in warring countries, they are flown back to home country as soon as possible (Hamilton
Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Background Information on Behavioral Differences of Mutual Fund Managers Algorithmic Trading and Mutual Funds
It should be stressed that algorithmic trading is frequently used by mutual funds because it allows the managers to calculate securities in large amounts with the help of sophisticated mathematical formulas. In particular, this form of trading includes the division of larger amount of shares into smaller groups to provoke quick selling and buying.
Therefore, algorithmic trading is used by mutual funds to successfully manage opportunity cost, market impact, and risks (Bergan and Devine, 2005). Automated trading is also used to initiate orders premised on date received electronically to define such aspects as timing, price, and final income.
With regard to the above-presented considerations, Chaudhuri (2004) and Khnadani and Lo (2007) state that algorithmic trading enable the mutual fund managers to identify whether their profits can be forecasted in terms of risks and returns obtained at mutual funds.
Particular role in defining the connection will be played by random and autoregressive models proposed by Friedman and Shachmurove (1997) for defining the future values of mutual fund performance. Beside greater accuracy of prediction, the risk adjustment rate can be calculated in a less time consuming mode providing more valid results.
Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior
It has been commonly recognized that processes of forecasting and modeling are intrinsic, challenging, and fluctuating. These processes are closely associated with a random walk process implying that these correlation series are statistically and economically insignificant (Malkiel, 2003).
Such an assumption is premised on the studies of Eugene Fama (1970) who believes that stock markets were significantly efficient in presenting data about individual stocks and about stock market in general. With regard to this theory, there is a close relation between the information available and the extent to which future outcomes are predictable.
However, financial researchers and statistics are more inclined to believe that stock prices as well as returns are to an extent predictable (Malkeil, 2003). In particular, Adaptive Market Hypothesis has emerged in an effort to reconcile behavioral and predictable models of stock prices identification.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduced by Andrew Lo (2004, 2005), the concept applies evolution principles , those of adaptation and natural selection to financial operations. Predictability of mutual fund returns can be analyzed from different perspectives. On the one hand, predictability enables investors to earn extra returns whereas unpredictable processes prevent them from achieving this goal.
One the other hand, results base on predictability do not necessarily imply that profits is connected with unfavorable risk; at the same time, unpredictable calculations can lead to profit if their expected risk is favorable (Hallahan et al. 2009). One way or another, the estimated results are uncertain because the forecasting is based on measuring the extent of uncertainty.
This means that probability theory should be introduced to define the number of probability to each particular event where the highest certainty is applied to number 1 (Lo, 2004). The assessment of probability level is aimed at achieving Sharpe ratio that reveals the way the return compensates the risk taken. In this respect, the higher the ration is the more return is obtained for the same risk, in case risk free rate benchmark is a constant.
The above information presents how scheme according to which expectations are identified. In this respect, Khandani and Lo (2007) and Chaudhuri (2004) believe that short-term mean reversal model of algorithmic trading allowing the mutual managers to define whether their profits can be predicted with reliance on random model of forecasting accuracy of risks and returns at mutual funds.
Methodology Before applying specific algorithmic trading models, it is necessary to state that “fund managers who are interim losers are likely to increase fund volatility in the latter part of the assessment period to a greater extent than interim winners” (Hallahan et al., 2009, p. 14).
This tournament behavior can be predicted within the risk adjustment ration (RAR) model: (σ2L/σ1L)>(σ2W/σ1W) (1), where σ1 and σ2 are identical to the portfolio risk levels at the first and the second stages correspondently. L and W letters refer to lose and winner respectively. The presented equation provides a solid basis for further analysis and prediction of tournament behavior in mutual funds with the help of algorithmic trading models (Alonso, 2010).
As it has been mentioned before, computational tools contribute greatly to the analysis of risk-return ratios based on a risk shifting behavior. In case the risk is not a constant indicator, the Sharpe ratio will look as follows:
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More where R is the return the investor will get, Rf – free rate risk, and σ – is fund volatility. With regard to the assumptions made by Alonso (2010), Fama (1970), and Friedman and Shachmurove (1997), free rate risk can undergo shifts in the course of time.
Consequently, algorithmic trading, particularly linear autoregressive model, can provide more accurate results while presenting calculations of predictability and changing values of stocks in future (Wilson and Banzhaf, 2010).
First stage regression, therefore is needed to evaluate the amount of the information obtained: Mit=αi ۷i βQit εit (3), where Mit is dependable variable, Qit is the autoquote set, αi is fixed effect on stock and ۷t is a set established per day (Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld, 2011).
Tournament behavior also presupposes regime switching, which is strictly adhered to Adaptive Market Hypothesis proposed by Lo (2004, 2005). Tournament behavior of mutual funds, therefore, is often predetermined with the desire to predict those switches and gain a competitive advantage.
In this respect, algorithmic trading models and strategies can assist in defining achieving the highest Sharpe ratio with the help of high-frequency trading (Butler, 2007). This approach is quite effective if attached to the Sharpe ration because the more bet the mutual fund manager place, the smaller standard deviation from the mean they will experience.
Another theory of algorithmic trading is Game theory that is applicable to capturing behavior in making specific choices (Alonso, 2010; Aumann, 1987). Being initially introduced for evaluating competitions where one individual is competitively stronger than another, the model contributes to better understanding of changing prices in the efficient market.
The model for understanding the changing behavior is simple. For instance, if the rise today is higher than the expected rise, than it is predicted that the rise tomorrow will be lower than the rise today. The probability model can be presented as follows:
where Pt is the rise per a particular unit of time, which is an independent variable (Alonso, 2010). Hence, the two unite events embracing the probability statement are associated with the action defined in informal prediction model presented above.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While moving on with the analysis of spread and probability, high frequency model is placed within the context of presenting risk management techniques and trading rules.
With reference to trading rules, it is imperative to consider the marketing position in pair that enables to avoid magnitude of mean reversion and minimize the standard deviation. Hence, we should choose a return rate and portfolio weights to diminish the overall fluctuation of the portfolio (Chiu et al., 2011; Gatev et al., 2006). All these calculation can be presented in accordance with Markowitz model:
While presenting a pair selection scheme, it is imperative to analyze those pairs for stationarity and reversion. In order to assess the risk taken by mutual fund manager, it is necessary to avoid market risk through presenting pairs of assets as ∆β≤0.1 (Chiu et al. 2009, p. 6).
The pairs will be selected from the same sectors to avoid misconception and industry risk. Here the main risk encountered by managers is regime switching (Alonso, 2010). In other words, the pairs spread no longer takes place and the time span for mean reversion has been radically changed.
Conclusion The above presented models offered by Alonso (2010), Chui et al. (2009), Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld (2011) contribute greatly the analysis of tournament behavior of mutual fund manager in terms of timing, risk management, and liquidity.
The theories proposed by Aumann (1987), Lo (2004, 2005), and Wilson and Banzhaf (2010) are greatly elaborated by above-presented computational tools. In particular, the reliance on autoregressive model and reversion mean support the theory offered by Fama (1970) about the risk-changing behavior at the investment market.
Reference List Alonso, N. M. (2010). Statistical Arbitrage and Algorithmic Trading: Overview and Applications. UNED. Available at: http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/eserv.php?pid=tesisuned:CiencEcoEmp-Mnoguer
The role of the mentally ill and the dynamics of mental disorder: A research framework Report best essay help
Article Summary The paper presents a sociological theory on the cause of a steady mental disorder. Although the evidences in support of the theory are based on previous formulations, Scheff develops a precise sociological theory that attempts to explain the cause and path of a stable mental disorder.
Using the concepts of the social institution of insanity, residual deviance, the societal responsibility of the individual with mental illness, and the divergence of the societal response such as denial and labeling, Scheff constructs a theory of mental disorder in which the psychiatric signs are thought of as violations of social norms, and stable “mental illness” to be a social role (Scheff, 1999).
Essential to this theory are 9 proposals that require experimental processes.
By restricting the forms of behavior that are to be covered, by basing the paper on previous findings, and by applying an entirely sociological approach (such as the theory of residual deviance), the author proposes a methodology in which the dynamics of mental disorder take place within the system consisting of the person exhibiting deviant behavior and those responding to it.
According to the theory designed here, the basis for the initiation, maintenance and end of the deviant conduct referred to as mental disorder are parts of the social system, and cannot be separated, hence, from endopsychic forms of behavior.
Fat is a Sociological Issue: Obesity rates in late modern, ‘bodyconscious’ societies This paper surveys the factors involved in the current spiraling of obesity rates in the contemporary society, focusing both upon the causes of the high prevalence rates and its effects. Crossley contends that rates of obesity have risen rapidly in the last two decades, causing some people to talk of an imminent crisis and compelling governments and health institution to react (Crossley, 2004).
Many studies in the sociology of the body are centered on the social belief that certain ‘bodies’ are more acceptable than others, for example, slimness, fitness, and good health are socially acceptable practices. Proof of this assertion exists in the steadily rising number of health clubs in the UK and the corresponding number of subscriptions in the last decade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another trend that exists next to exercise is that of dieting. Diet books are among bestseller listings, besides, food consumption in response to recommended diets are very significant. A large number of persons ascribe to weight watching clubs and associations, known as ‘body-conscious society’ (Crossley, 2004).
Body fat affects the BMI and a value of 20 -25 BMI value is deemed normal, a value less than 20 is deemed underweight while a value of 25-30 is considered overweight, with a value greater than 30 considered obese. Obesity varies with age, and narrowly with age and social class, with women at a higher risk of becoming obese.
Due to the social concern, the author contends that the steadily rising rate of obesity is a social fact. This is evidenced in two ways, first, the statistics relating to obesity are normally given in societal perspectives, for example, obesity varies between individuals, and across societies, that is, it is a social variable. Secondly, the causative agent for the variation of obesity rates is social. Individual differences in levels of obesity, biological or psychosomatic, cannot be used to explicate on the variations in obesity rates.
There are two broad causes of obesity: lifestyle and modernity. We do less physical exercise, live a sedentary lifestyle and use several labor saving appliances at home and at work, consumption of high-calorie foods has increased both in frequency and quantity.
It worthy to note that social changes leading to a rise in obesity are related to class and gender variations, this is proven by the fact that obesity is lower among the lower class. The latter sections of the paper attempts to explain the relation between body and society and how fluctuations of the rate of obesity affect the society (illness and early death).
This paper targets a general population, especially one that is at a higher risk of becoming obese. This is derived from the fact that it informs of the causative agents of obesity and prevention. It may also be useful to sociologists trying to understand the link between body and the society.
Fat Ethics’ – The Obesity Discourse and Body Politics The paper examines how facts about obesity are presented and availed to the public, and the ethical concerns arising from the public’s comprehension of obesity. Public understanding of obesity is frequently based on various sources of information that focus of cause and prevention of the disease, however, other health problems such as cancer do not receive similar coverage on the public domain, particularly relating to the ethical and moral elements.
We will write a custom Report on The role of the mentally ill and the dynamics of mental disorder: A research framework specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information availed to the public on the ‘obesity epidemic ’ through various media focuses on the grave effects of being obese, the scientific facts about obesity are restated to give authority and sureness to the allegations of the growing rates of the ‘epidemic’ (Rich
Diageo and The Recession Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Successful management in today’s business environment requires that managers understand that the concept of management involves various function and that these functions are interrelated. As such successful managers need to understand how to combine and apply each of these functions in the organization they are running.
Boddy (2002) explains that management is a wholesome process that incorporates several function such mapping, arranging, directing, controlling and learning in the process.
Mapping a management plan involves the act of clearly establishing the available organization resources and allocating them to achieve the set objectives.
This means that setting desired objectives is part of management (Ghosh and Ghosh 1991). Because managers manage people as well as resources they have to establish the best relationship with this people to establish best support mechanism.
Management is also intended for the achievement of certain objectives and as such there has to a strict monitoring process. The monitoring ensures that there is an established mechanism of control that provides learning opportunities on management.
Ghosh and Ghosh (1991) also add that since not all management is form the benefit of man, then special consideration can be given to this perspective to include the attainment of a prior set objective.
There are various approaches to management each of tem having unique characteristics. Despite the fact that these approaches have varying propositions they all congregate around Quinn et al (2003) Competing Values Framework, CVF (See appendix 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This model is frame work that describes the management functions as driven by a number of competing factors. It is quite a difficult task to create employee satisfaction by enhancing cooperation, unity, flexible job roles, team work cohesion amongst is maintained while maintaining rational goals.
This is because setting of rational goals is an individualistic and such destroys team work. Goal setting also involves a lot of instructions thus becoming an unreceptive and demoralizing to employees (Quinn 1988; Quinn et al 2003).
This is because internal control involves a lot of tracking and rationalization of the team as well as employees’ roles and tasks. Internal controls are characterized by skepticism and cynism that may affect employee Morales.
Moreover it also becomes difficult to have an open system in a work place that encourages innovation. Open systems require a lot of negotiated brokerage in problem solving. Internal controls do have the tendency to conflict with open systems.
Diageo Plc Diageo plc, registered in London is the biggest alcoholic drinks company in the world in terms of sales, market capitalization as well as products range (Diageo 2011a; Wakely 2001).
The company motor is to provide an opportunity to make merry during any of the merry making occasions at any location in the world.
As such the company prides itself in having some of the world’s most famous alcoholic brands. Among many popular brands, the company brand portfolio includes Johnnie Walker, Crown Royal, J
The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change Rhetorical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Overview
The sociology of work
Overview The Industrial Revolution is the era of massive enormous technological advancements and social changes, which affected people to the extent which is often contrasted to the change from hunter and gathering to agriculture. Development of machines increased production and enhanced the economy that had initially relied on skilled labor.
The exact dates are an issue for a heated debate about this period because different historians examine and study it from their own point of view. The most spirited debate was held in the period from the 1760s to the 1840s. The origins of this dispute can be traced to Great Britain from where it then spread to the rest of the world, including the United States.
The term industrial revolution was employed to depict the era by the 1830s, but contemporary historians progressively term it a ‘pioneer Industrial Revolution’. It was influenced by advancements in textiles, steam and iron, which were implemented first in Great Britain.
These facts distinguish this revolution from a subsequent one of the 1850s which was marked with the innovations in steel production, automobiles and electrics and arose in Germany and the U.S.
A number of things changed both economically and industrially. The innovation of steam power was deployed to provide energy to transport and factories, which allowed deeper mining. Advancements in iron making methods caused large and high production levels.
New machines, like jenny and spinning, changed the textile industry and other related industries, thus permitting increased production at reduced costs. Enhanced machine tools appeared due to additional and improved machinery. The industrial revolutions enabled the creation of novel and faster transport networks through railways and canals.
Swift urbanization led to building new cramped houses and adapting to changing circumstances and environment. Emerging factories and city cultures affected peer groups and families. There emerged laws and debates concerning public health, child labor and working conditions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Firstly, industrial revolution was caused by the end of feudalism, which changed relationships in the economy. Secondly, the increase in population due to reduce in the level of the diseases and numbers of infant deaths permitted of a massive mechanized work force. Thirdly, the agrarian revolution freed individuals from the lands and drove them to the urban places and manufacturing industry.
It was also caused by proportionally vast amounts of extra money for investment. There were discoveries in the technical development giving rise to a new machinery. Colonial trade systems and the existence of all the necessary resources also caused industrial revolution. Finally, the culture of working hard inventing new ideas and taking risks promoted the industrial revolution.
Debate Historians, like Craft and Clapham, debated that there was a slow evolution in the industrial divisions as opposed to a prompt revolution. It is not certain how the revolution worked because historians are still attempting to separate some very interconnected inventions.
There were corresponding developments in a number of industries and other related spheres; these innovations, for example, production of cotton, surged and motivated the others. Debate is still conducted about the reason why the industrial uprising commenced at that time and why it began in Britain.
The sociology of work Moreover, if a fundamental division of labor was significant to resourceful production in definite forms of productions and inventions, this did not justify the transition to massive numbers of industries. A number of domestic productions assumed the new technological and organizational methods prior to the multiplication of industries.
There is the need to expound why a dramatically resourceful method of production centered at home, generating a conversion to factory organization. The answer is more likely to be the one, on which the central characters of this issue agree. Household production of this manner was successful, thus allowing employees to do minimal work for more wages.
There is no human being craving to acquire material riches through labor hen there can be an alternative. If technology enhanced greater levels of profit for minimal attempts and if the enlightening norms were to reduce human effort rather than exploit human reward, then the expertise could just either serve to limit or to increase a total production.
We will write a custom Essay on The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The answer of merchants and putting out industrialists were eminent: to compose the most of the novel techniques needed to vital and hierarchic control – employees were to be forced to work when industrialists needed them too, but not while they desired it (Wharton, Vallas and Finlay, 55).
Cultural changes The Revolution was initiated in 1966. Mao assumed that bourgeois fundamentals were invading the government and community as a whole, aspiring to reinstate capitalism. He asserted that these “revisionists” were ejected through aggressive class struggle. The Chinese youth reacted to Mao’s plea by establishing Red Guard groups across the nation.
The group increased the martial, urban employees, and the Communist Party management itself. This revolution resulted in extensive fractional wrangles in all spheres of the people’s lives. In the premier leadership, it resulted in a huge crowd of superior officials who were blamed for opposing the socialist way, most remarkably Shaoqi and Xiaoping. In this matching era, Mao’s classified sect extended to enormous numbers.
Millions of citizens were victimized by the brutal, factional wrangles that threatened the entire nation, and underwent a wide range of insults including anguish, rape, captivity, continued harassment, and abduction of wealth. A mammoth fragment of the inhabitants was forcibly relocated, the most outstanding event was the relocation of metropolitan youth to countryside areas. Historical artifacts and ruins were shattered. Cultural and holy sites were looted.
Social changes When the accumulative manufacturing of the Industrial Revolution swamped the market with reasonable consumer products, these manufactured goods significantly enhanced the life style of the people of these industrialized nations. When the cost of life reduced, and the living standard amplified, the inhabitants experienced an enormous boom.
The population only of Europe increased four times, and in the continent of America, the number of people rose significantly between 1700 and 1900. This populace boom emerged because of top rates of birth due to the reduced costs of living and the dropping of death rates owing to a boost in sanitary surroundings and diets. The population boom that the industrial states encountered in the 1800s was identified as a demographic conversion.
A majority of families also faced modifications because of the Revolution. Initially, most of the families engaged in agricultural tasks before industrialization. However, the system of the factory gave rise to alterations in the family structure.
Members of the families, including children, were encouraged to leave the agricultural tasks concerned in the household and transfer to labor in mass production industries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The working categories of men enjoyed salaries, which were higher as compared to that of women who were also working. The enormous salaries made the men breadwinners, hence becaming the head of the families, while the other members were obliged to respect them.
Bibliography Wharton, Amy, Vallas, Steven and William Finlay. The Sociology of Work: Structures and Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Theology and Philosophy Research Paper essay help site:edu
The Author of “The Shape of Catholic Theology “tries to explain the importance of God in Christianity and how theology relates to philosophy. Philosophy and theology are relevant in explaining some of the basic elements of Christianity.
Although theology is about faith and revelation, it cannot overlook the importance of philosophy in its work. Philosophy is crucial in explain how the revelations relate to the existence of God. Philosophy explains the existence of God using the things that human beings posses. It proves that there is a supernatural being from the activities and habits that human beings adopt.
Philosophy asks questions and attempts to answer them, as does theology. The two relate because both attempt to give answers to the basic questions asked all over the world. The first case in this is the theory that explained the name God. All religions have different names for their higher being, but all of them believe that God is one and only.
Philosophers want to understand where the name originated from and whether it has any connection with reality. The Dogmatic constitution teaches us that a theologian should isolate himself or herself from the philosopher. The reason given by the constitution is the need to connect reason and faith, as well as nature and grace.
Catholicism believes in the grace of God and the ability to change the life of human beings so that they can lead a life that is not as God created. Theology bases their arguments on the fact that God is the one shaping one’s destiny, but a philosopher will want to understand the nature of the being as God created before it undergoes the transformation.
The Catholic Church believes that human beings became corrupt after the fall. Therefore, they argue that philosophers are also the corrupt. However, the fact that Jesus came to save the world means that man is not totally corrupt. They base this on the fact that man has his roots in how God created him.
The church wants to create a philosophy based on Christianity. This is by answering questions about the existence of God. This philosophy will use revelation to explain and answer questions. The key question that needs to be answered is the question of the existence of God.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theology can answer this based on the realities like Jesus, and the holy sacrament. Theology also explains the existence of God using the theory of perfections. This is evident when a human being strives to do everything perfectly. The inner voice or consciousness is also a true reflection of the existence of a supernatural being.
A philosopher says that human being has the drive to do the correct thing even if there is no one to judge him or her. The conscious feeling that people have in them is an unexplainable phenomenon that cannot be explained only by logic. It is a feeling inside the hearts of human beings that is so powerful that it can only be related to God.
In accordance to the Christian faith, the belief is that God exists. It is this existence that forms the foundation of Christian faith and is unshakable within the realms of this faith. The proof of the existence of God can be found in human nature. An example mentioned in the text is that Christianity is guided by hope, as it is the desire or anticipation for things to occur.
Hope guides Christians into being optimistic that their dreams will be fulfilled through letting God have his way into their lives. The combination of the two aspects i.e. existence of God and hope cultivate into morals within the Christian faith. Another example that was given is the urge and desire to satisfy the internal and bodily needs. Human beings have a never-ending urge to do things over and over again.
The urges never disappear even if the person repeats the action several times. The desires seem to be aimed at finding satisfaction in another place or world. This means that there is another world or body that can satisfy these needs. They believe that heaven is the place where man will find lasting satisfactions of these desires, and find the true meaning of life (Aidan 67). Hope is one of the things that are consistent in the lives human beings.
No matter the situation, they will still hold on to the hope of a good life afterwards. The same applies to the case of an eternal life; human beings belief that there is a place where everything is perfect with no problem. They hope that they will go to heaven and find eternal peace. This is because people believe that God is the determiner of destiny and has good plans for everyone.
Bibliography Aidan, Nichols. The Shape of Catholic Theology. London: Liturgical Press, 1991, Print.
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Starbucks – Competitor of GC3 Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
The following review is an analysis of Great Cups Coffee Co. (GC3) with Starbucks. The present report provides a detailed analysis of the competitive analysis of Starbucks and GC3 . The first part of the report will deal with the web analytics of Starbucks and show how the competitor is successful or unsuccessful in making its online presence work.
Figure 1 shows that there is a great deal of traffic in the website. Daily page viewers actually provide the percentage of internet users worldwide are viewing Starbucks’ website. The figure shows data for the last 6 months. The data demonstrates that there is a decline in the number of visits to the website and it follows a cyclical pattern.
Visits are more from mid-October to mid-November. The traffic to the website has been high from December through January. However, for the months of August through early October traffic has been low. Web analytics tools show that in the past one month, page views for GC3 have increased by 3% while that of Starbucks has declined by 7.5%. for three months period, GC3 has seen an increase of 180% viewership while Starbucks faced only an increase of 30% viewership.
Figure 1: Website Traffic for Starbucks.
Figure 2: Page views for GC3.
Page views Change 1 month 0.000012 3% UP^ 3 month 0.000011 180% UP^ Figure 3: Top Queries from Search Traffic at GC3 and Starbucks.
GC3 Starbucks Query Percent of Search Traffic Percent of Search Traffic 1 keurig 17.85% starbucks 38.38% 2 k cups 10.32% coffee 2.30% 3 k-cups 3.17% starbucks locations 2.16% 4 k cup 2.55% starbucks menu 1.58% 5 great coffee 2.47% starbucks nutrition 1.17% 6 k cups cheap 2.36% company 1.14% 7 kcups 1.33% starbucks coffee 0.84% 8 kuerig 1.24% starbuck 0.83% 9 keurig k cups 1.08% starbucks card 0.73% 10 buy coffee beans online 1.03% starbucks.com 0.69% On comparing, the search queries for the GC3 and Starbucks are provided in figure 3. The table demonstrates that the top searches related for Starbucks is the brand itself while that for GC3 is Keurig. GC3 seem to have to favourite search items are Keurig and K-cups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A comparative analysis of Starbucks and GC3 based on demographics of viewers and the analysis shows that the age of the viewers to GC3 are less compared to the total number of 18-24 year olds on the Internet. On the other hand, the number of 18-24 year olds is just marginally low for Starbucks. Most of the people surfing GC3 website belongs to the age group of 35 to 64 years while that for Starbucks is 25 to 34 years.
In terms of education, the viewers of Starbucks page are usually been to College while for GC3 the viewers did not attend college or have been to some college. Mostly females surf the Starbucks website while that for GC3 cannot be specifically stated. GC3 is surfed by viewers who mostly have children while Starbucks website is surfed by those who do not have children. GC3 website is surfed mostly from home while Starbucks website from work.
There is a distinct difference in the income group of the viewers visiting GC3 and Starbucks. The former has viewers who mostly belong to the income group of $30,000 to $60,000 and above $100,000. While that for Starbucks is $60,000 to $100,000 and above $100,000. This difference indicates that mostly people with high-income groups surf the Starbucks website.
In both the websites, the maximum viewers are Caucasians. Further, in terms of geographic coverage, Starbucks is viewed in 10 countries including Asian and European countries while that of GC3 is viewed only in the United States. This can be viewed from the data derived from Google Analytics data as shown in figure 4, 5, 6, and 7.
Figure 4: Age Demographics Starbucks visitors.
Figure 5 Income Demographics Starbucks visitors.
Figure 6: Gender Demographics Starbucks visitors.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Starbucks – Competitor of GC3 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 7: Education Demographics Starbucks visitors.
Figure 8: Visitors interest in Starbucks website.
Interest Affinity Coffee
Parents and Families as Partners Expository Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Volunteering at the school and in the community
Supporting students learning at home
Involvement in decision making and advocacy
Collaboration with the community
Introduction Education is not an isolated experience but can be considered as an interactive endeavor that takes place over the course of a person’s life. When parents, families and school work together, they can provide the best possible resources and expertise to enhance the education of all their children.
In a synthesis on parents’ involvement, it was established that families and parents had a major influence on their children’s achievements in school and education in general. Parents and families can also be described, explained and understood more effectively by the illustrations explained of how a teacher or a school can encourage this type of partnership below. Parenting knowledge and skills.
According to Morrison , this is the education and the knowledge acquired by both the parents and the family as a whole of how to bring up their children. The parents are learning how to rise up children who value and appreciate the need of education as a part of their growth.
A teacher or a school encourages the need for parenting knowledge and skills when the advantages and the response of children and the community can be notified to the parents. Communication between home and the school.
A synthesis by Boult (2006) describes this as the relationship between school, parents and family of a student in a particular learning institution. A teacher encourages this communication by giving the parents opportunities to know teachers and interact with them. This encourages working in partnership to improve the children at the same time improving the morale of the teachers.
Volunteering at the school and in the community It is where parents, teachers and children are able to give the feedback to the society. This can be through working on community projects which encourage the interaction of the parents, teachers and children. Teachers and schools encourage this as it enables the partnering of both teachers and parents. They are in a better position to know more of the ways to help children to improve on their education.
Supporting students learning at home This can be described as the encouraging students to spend some of their spare time at home studying and the provision of the proper study environment at home. According to Boult , teachers and schools encourage this by offering home visits and visits of children the school community.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Involvement in decision making and advocacy Parents and families are included in the decision made by teachers and school about their children with their suggestions that are also taken into consideration. Before changes are made in schools, parents are allowed to offer their suggestions and give their views on the issues.
Collaboration with the community This is the working together between parents, families and teachers of students with the community to ensure educational success of the students. Teachers and schools encourage this by taking part in community activities as members of the community and, thus, being able to interact with families and parents discussing the ways of overcoming challenges in education.
This, therefore, leads to the conclusion that parents and families working together as partners with the teacher to support learning and education; this leads to children achieving better academic performance. Students can also stay in school for longer to complete their education.
References Boult, B. (2006). 176 Ways to Involve Parent: practical strategies for partnering families. California: Sage Publications Company.
Cox-Petersen, A. (2011). Educational Partnerships. London: Sage Publication Limited.
Morrison G. S. (2009). Early Childhood Education Today (11th ed.). California: Pearson.
First Nations/Aboriginal People and Justice System Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction The terms First Nations and Aboriginal people are commonly used to refer to indigenous people in Canada. The group makes up about 4% of the total population in Canada. The Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes three groups categorized as Aboriginal people. They include Indians, Métis and Inuit.
Large numbers of Aborigines occupy the northern part of Canada but few numbers are scattered all over the country. Statistics collected during the 2001 Census in Canada showed that North American Indians comprised a population of 957,650; Métis were 266,020 while the Inuit’s were 44,835.
It is however argued that the bureau did not give exact figures. The number of aboriginal people is expected to be larger than that. The question of Aborigines has been a major concern in Canada and Australia since the arrival of first colonialists from Britain (Comeau
The Business Communications Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Business communication is also popularly referred to as company communication, and it refers to the passing of information within a firm and within a supply chain (“Business Communication” 1). Employee engagement and transaction of officially permitted matters falls under business communication.
Other topics that fall under this include; advertising, branding, client dealings, community involvement, and event organization, among others. There are various means through which internal business communication can take place and they include; cyberspace (email), print, face-to-face meeting and video conferencing, among others. Communication involving external parties or entities may entail other channels like radio, television, billboards, among others.
Communicating a bad-news message to an employee Every organization has laid down rules and code(s) of conduct which the members of staff are expected to abide by. There are as well spelled out procedures or actions to take if an individual goes against the set regulations (McLean 1). It has to be brought to the attention of any person going against set rules that they have done so. This has to be done in the right and most sober manner so that the offender realizes the gravity of the matter.
To begin with, one has to pick the most appropriate channel to relay the message to the employee in question, as regards to the bad-news meeting.
Word of mouth or a face-to-face engagement is the most fitting since the information is received in first hand. In firsthand acquisition of the message, the right mood is usually captured from the tone in one’s voice (in the case of telephone communication) and both the tone and facial expressions are captured if it is a face-to-face engagement.
The content of the communication to the employee in question should be direct. This serves to tone down anxiety in him or her as a lot is likely to go through their minds when they hear of a meeting with their superior. This will enable them to relax and be open during the meeting and even offer constructive insight.
During the meeting, the offender needs to be informed of their mistake and the evidence of committing such an offence made clear. With clear and open evidence, the offender will find it rather difficult to be dishonest. It also offers a perfect ground to level accusation(s) against the offender with no fear of appeals being raised.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Making the right evidence clear therefore reduces the time to be spent on dealing with law-breaking cases. The offender then needs to be given room to react to the accusation(s) after being made aware that honesty should always be their guiding principle. The meeting convener has to be a good listener (“Forms of business communication” 1).
No multitasking that needs to take place as this is impolite and one may miss vital points in the conversation. Following this, the convener of the meeting needs to communicate what the rules say as far as committing the offence in question is concerned.
Conclusion of the meeting needs to be done by communicating the importance of rules in any institution or place of work. The offender then needs to be made to willingly accept their offence(s) and offer their apologies. This is especially important because it will largely bar the offender from committing such offences in the future. Whenever tempted to go against set rules, one will remember how they promised to abide and will therefore conform.
Works Cited Business Communication. “What is Business Communication?” Management Study Guide. 2008. Web.
Forms of business communication. “Business, Communication Technology”. Information Science Today. 2011. Web.
McLean, Scott. “Business Communication for Success.” 2010. Web.
The five competitive forces of Michael Porter Essay college essay help online
Business strategists’ primary function in companies is their ability to understand competition and create plans to cope with such. The five competitive forces Michael Porter discusses in his article are the threat of new or potential entrants, negotiating power of suppliers, bartering power of customers, threat of substitute products and/ or services and competition among direct rivals.
An industry’s structure is characterized by the comprehensive competition of the five forces. These forces also outline the temperament of aggressive interaction within an industry. It is important for company strategists to have a thorough understanding of the five forces in order for them to plan out strategies for the company.
In understanding the five competitive forces, the company will be able to “reveal the roots of an industry’s profitability and provide framework for anticipating and influencing competition and profitability” (Porter, 2008). Understanding a given industry’s structure is also essential in the positioning of a company.
The industry structure determines the strength of the five forces. Such is characterized by the economy and technological advancement (Porter, 2008). The five forces which shape strategy differ from industry to industry with regards to their configuration. Evaluating and analyzing the five forces may enable companies to understand the challenges present in the industry. The first force is the threat of new players in the industry.
The presence of new entrants affects the industry’s prices, costs and rate of investments. “New entrants bring new capacity and desire to gain market share. This force puts a cap on the profit potential of an industry” (Porter, 2008). Entry barriers and the reactions of incumbents determine the competition and profitability of an industry.
Industry incumbents have an advantage through the seven entry barriers which are supply-side economies of scale, demand-side benefits of scale, capital requirements, incumbency advantages independent of size, unequal access to distribution channels and restrictive government policy.
In planning out company strategies, managers must take into consideration the relationship of entry barriers and potential players’ capabilities. The second force which affects strategy is the power of suppliers where “they try to gain more value for themselves by charging higher prices, limiting quality or services or shifting costs to industry participants” (Porter, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another force is the power of buyers where customers tend to coerce sellers in lowering product prices, demanding superior quality and services. Customers can influence the increase of costs at the expense of the profitability of an industry. The fourth force is the threat of substitutes.
Substitutes can threaten the profitability of an industry for they can act as an alternative when a customers are not satisfied with a given product. Lastly, the rivalry among existing competitors is the fifth force which shapes competition. These rivalries can be manifested in different forms such as price competition, product innovations, marketing and advertising campaigns and improvements of services.
Profitability of industries is limited when rivalry among industry players is high. “The degree to which rivalry drives down an industry’s profit potential depends on the intensity which companies compete and the basis on which they compete” (Porter, 2008). An industry’s profit potential is determined by the industry structure.
Understanding the five forces enables companies to regulate how economic value is created in the industry. Strategists must consider the five forces in keeping the overall industry structure in mind and must focus on structural conditions.
Aside from the five forces, strategists must also take into consideration factors which affect industries namely the growth rate of the industry, technology and innovation, government policies and complementary products and services.
An evaluation of an industry’s forces and factors may provide an understanding that industry structure constantly undergoes adjustments and such can change sporadically. Changes in the industry can originate from within the industry or it can be attributed to factors outside the industry. The outcomes of the changes in the industry can be an advantage or a disadvantage.
The importance of understanding the five factors enables strategists to identify the framework of the industry thus they can expect such developments and anticipate the impacts of such changes in the industry’s profitability. Such changes may include the shifting threat of new entry, changing supplier or buyer power, shifting threat of substitution and new bases of rivalry.
We will write a custom Essay on The five competitive forces of Michael Porter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The thorough understanding of forces, factors and changes in the industry allows strategists to plan out how companies should position themselves, exploit industry change, shape industry structure and define the industry. In developing strategy, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the forces which shape the competition of a given industry.
The five forces expose the profitability of an industry and a thorough understanding of such together with the factors affecting the industry as well as the changes brought about justify such profitability. The five forces expose the most important features of an industry’s competitive environment.
A detailed understanding of the forces enables strategists to determine the standard strengths and weaknesses of a company in a given industry. The knowledge of industry structure helps managers shape strategies for companies to compete in the market.
Works Cited Porter, Michael. “The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy.” Harvard Business Review January (2008): 78 – 93. Web.
Microsoft Share Point Report college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Microsoft SharePoint to businesses environment
Cases related to Microsoft SharePoint.
Introduction Microsoft SharePoint has done a lot in improving the efficiency of businesses. Before its introduction into the business industry, business people wasted a lot of resources hiring people to manage their information. Getting these services cost the businesses a lot of money as they needed to hire many people.
The reason why the businesses hired many people was because no one person could do all the necessary things by himself. However, the introduction of Microsoft SharePoint into the sector is changing the situation. The only things that a business needs to do are pay and specify the service they require. After this, the upgrading process is automatic. On top of this, the services are cheaper than hiring a group of people to do this manually.
Businesses realized the need to work together. They needed to join forces in order to improve the quality of services they give to their consumers. The businesses require a platform where they could share this information. Therefore, Microsoft designed the Microsoft SharePoint.
Microsoft SharePoint is a product of the Microsoft office. It monitors the performance of businesses. It also helps the businesses manage their date, plan and collect data. It collects the views of consumers and other stakeholder’s concerning the finances of the business. After collecting the data Microsoft SharePoint analyses the data, and share the information with the rest of them.
This is a tool they use to share the information that sees to improve their businesses, (Williams, 95). The information they share increases the companies’ productivity. It gives the employees a chance to insights and ideas.
Importance of Microsoft SharePoint to businesses environment The SharePoint is crucial in the business environment as it helps businesses to increase its efficiency and improve team work. SharePoint makes this possible by providing a site where the businesses stay connected across many regions and boundaries. People access documents and any other information through this site.
The employees get information regarding their work and the current developments. This gives them a chance improves their work, which in turn, translates to high productivity. It helps the business manage information by editing the information they have before they can put it into the site. It also stores the documents for future use (Noel
Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender Analysis in health care
Introduction Gender analysis assesses the effects of actions on both women and men. Gender analysis tends to focus on women more than men. The institutional structures view women as insubordinate. This could be termed as an aspect of women marginalization. Women are not involved in planning, decision making, policy formulation, training, employment and in projects. Women have been marginalized in politics, schools, economic and family setting.
Consequently, men have emerged as the privileged gender. Men who come from high social status have enjoyed the impacts of development. The economic status of women usually denies them a chance to access and maintain quality healthcare (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 1).
There is a need to examine gender relations in health care. This will enable policy makers to implement policies that benefit the least advantaged gender in the society.
This essay defines gender analysis and discusses the application of gender analysis to the health status of women of different incomes. The paper will also examine the implications of gender analysis to public policy and how research can contribute to gender analysis.
Gender Analysis in health care Gender analysis in healthcare can be defined as the process of evaluating effects in healthcare provision from a social and economic perspective on both male and female genders.
The aim of gender analysis is to promote sustainability of healthcare provisions, enhance equity and identify areas with challenges. The assessment highlights areas of involvement, achievements and failures associated with either men or women. Gender analysis will provide the information required to plan and implement effective programs (Hunt, 2004, p. 100).
According to Office for Women’s Policy (2005, p. 8), gender analysis in health care involves identifying healthcare experiences for both men and women and noting the disparities. The aims and objectives of the policies are analyzed to obtain their impacts on men and women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data on different groups including the high, middle and low social class women and men is obtained and analyzed. Investigations on the effects of the policy on different genders are recorded and evaluated. Innovative solutions are obtained to overcome the challenges.
Recommendation of the most appropriate solution that will achieve gender equity is considered. The policy and the program are communicated and the indicators mentioned.
To examine health status of women of different incomes, it is necessary to obtain information concerning sex in the community, households and in the workplaces. Their health care needs, the level of income and access to health care are also important to gender analysis (Women and Healthcare Reform Group, 2009).
Gender analysis involves aspects like convenience and access to health care facilities. It also involves attitudes and perceptions about health for both men and women. Gender analysis will seek to obtain information on health care providers and investigate their attitude towards male and female. The influence of different instructions such as schools and religious institution can be analyzed. The implications of diverse attitudes from policy makers in health matters should be examined.
The equipment, infrastructure, environment, waiting time and access to facilities can be analyzed. The source of motivation for health care providers and the hospital guidelines used can be assessed. The services that are offered, community involvement, education materials and organization structure can contribute to the assessment of gender analysis.
Financing in health care is an aspect of gender analysis. The focus is placed on areas that are given priority in relation to gender analysis. Analyzing the stakeholders and decision making process on their ability to recognize gender issues in health institutions is significant. Obtaining information on service delivery for both genders is essential for gender analysis in healthcare, as Jackson et al (2006, p. 1) mention.
Social indicators of health and illnesses between men and women should be analyzed. Depending on the roles and the economic social status, differences may affect the access and availability of health care resources. Poverty may increase vulnerability.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women who are left with the responsibility of providing and childcare may lack the resources to access health care. Cultural norms have a great impact on the perception of health by both men and women. Men and women give different levels of attention to illness, preventive measures and treatment. Culture affects the attitudes of both genders.
Quality healthcare is important in healthcare provisions. High social class women have access to quality health care owing to their economic status. The low class struggle to obtain and access healthcare. They are exposed by their environment and sometimes lack information on measures to prevent preventable illnesses. A large number of women belong to the low social class and the middle class. Consequently, they receive low quality health care than men. Poor quality health care may have negative effects on women.
Policies impact the implementation and the outcomes of every program in healthcare. Policies are the foundation for programs undertaken in health care institutions. The assumption is that policies address prevailing health issues. Gender blind policies ignore the differences between male and female and foster widespread gender inequalities. Gender aware policies are neutral, specific or redistributive.
The aim of gender awareness policies is to recognize the differences in men and women and attempt to attain equality between them. They also address specific issues in one gender and transform existing policies in order to accommodate both men and women irrespective of their situation (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 32).
According to Moana (1999, p. 4), policies based on gender analysis avoid discrimination of one gender. Most of the policies eliminate gender discrimination against women, who are often the victims of gender inequality. Basic health care is a human right and should reflect in public policy.
Health care policies that reflect gender analysis overcome unconstructive cultural practices and promote the availability of healthcare at an affordable price for women of all social classes. They also enhance accessibility to health care facilities. The application of gender policies will enable women to have access to reproductive healthcare services. Occupational challenges related to childcare and health care for women in career development will be alleviated if policies that are gender sensitive are implemented.
According to USAID (2012), gender analysis can be achieved if men and women collaborate in the evaluation and implementation of policies. Policies that are implemented should incorporate the community. It should not be viewed as a means of attaining equality but as an avenue for improving the lives of the marginalized. The programs should ensure that both men and women from low to high social class benefit.
Muecke (1996, p. 385) notes that healthcare providers pay little attention to gender when offering services. The value of gender analysis can be recognized if the quality of healthcare given to women is known. Gender analysis will enable healthcare providers improve the quality of healthcare given to women from diverse economic backgrounds.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If gender analysis is implemented, women with low income will access quality health care. Health services will be convenient and accessible. Programs that are implemented in health care will become a success because some of the issues and challenges will be overcome. Policies will be effective in meeting the needs of diverse groups in society. Gender analysis will contribute to the awareness of gender issues while enhancing the capabilities of women in society (Office For Women’s Policy, 2005, p. 5).
Research in gender analysis will inform the policy makers to formulate policies that will improve the quality of healthcare for women. Additionally, policies should be communicated to women, to whom the quality of healthcare services is directed (Muecke1996, p. 385).
World Health Organization (2002, p. 10) reveals that research provides a clear understanding of the issues in gender. Moreover, research can be effective in providing a solution for the challenges encountered in the analysis of gender. Research can also be used to set agendas and to determine the measures that are effective for prevailing problems.
Conclusion Gender analysis mainly focuses on women. In health care, gender analysis eliminates the inequality related to gender, sustenance and meeting the goals of programs, identify issues and enable equal distribution of health resources to both genders of all social classes. Gender analysis informs policy formulation and is based on research.
Women of low income are more vulnerable than men. Gender analysis is a process that recognizes that men and women have different roles and are economically diverse. Women have been marginalized by the social institutions. Change will be realized if men and women collaborate. Gender analysis will improve the health of both genders if gender aware policies are implemented.
Reference List Hunt, J. (2004). Introduction to gender analysis concepts and steps. Development Bulletin, 64, 100-106. Web.
Jackson, B. E., Pederson, A.,
“War” and “The other Wife” Essay essay help online free
In this paper, I will strive to show the significance of characterization, at the expense of other elements of literature, towards the successful revelation of the deeper meaning of the following two short stories: “War” By Luigi Colette and “The other Wife” by Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette. As we shall see characterization can be employed as the main vehicle towards the realization of a writer’s thematic concerns.
“The Other Wife” by charlotte is about a woman, who is married to a rich husband; the story has three characters, Marc, Alice and Marc’s ex-wife (Colette). The bulk of it comprises of dialogue between Marc and Alice who have just arrived at a hotel for lunch. Incidentally, Marc’s ex-wife is in the same hotel. Through exchanges of pleasantries that reveal the traits of Marc and Alice, Calotte foregrounds the themes of patriarchy and sexual love.
Marc is a controlling husband. He finds pride and power in dominating his wife and feeling needed. For instance, when his wife lets him order lunch for both, he is so pleased that: “He sighed as if he had just moved an armoire, gazed at the colorless midday sea” (Colette). This simple act gives him great pleasure.
His wife, Alice, on the other hand is emotionally dependent on him. She is passive and unobtrusive. She willingly lets Marc make even the smallest of decisions for her. For example, when Marc asks her what she would like for lunch, she so naturally lets him order dinner for both: “Whatever you like, you know that” (Colette). She is so proud of his complements that she seems to rely on them to reaffirm her self-worth: “Her firm, round breasts rose proudly as she leaned over the table” (Colette).
It is through the characterization of Marc and Alice, the contrasting of Alice with Marc’s ex-wife, that the story’s themes are revealed. By characterizing Marc’s ex-wife happy and contented and Alice as timid and dependent, the story’s themes are realized.
“War” on the other hand is a longer piece. It’s about how parents who have children at the battlefront view war (Pirandello). The horrors that are committed during war can never be justified by simply invoking patriotism. It is through the characterization of the fat red faced man that the main theme of this story is communicated.
At first, we think him stoic and patriotic and the other parents are embarrassed when he says such things as: “Why then should we consider the feelings of our children when they are twenty? Isn’t it natural that at their age they should consider the love for Country even greater than the love for us” (Pirandello). And later;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Everyone should stop crying; everyone should laugh, as I do…or at least thank God—as I do—because my son, before dying, sent me a message saying that he was dying satisfied at having ended his life in the best way he could have wished” (Pirandello).
But we get to know that is mere bravado, his unwillingness to face his son’s death is what inspires his talk. Eventually, it becomes inevitable that he should face reality and “he snatched in haste a handkerchief from his pocket and, to the amazement of everyone, broke into harrowing, heart-breaking, uncontrollable sobs” (Pirandello).
It is through the characterization of this man as vulnerable that we are forced to really wonder at the worth of war, even with patriotism at stake. As clearly shown, characterization is a powerful conveyer of inner meaning in literature.
Works Cited Colette, Sidonie-Gabrielle. “The other wife”. 2007. 28 Jan. 2012. .
Pirandello, Luigi. “War.” 2009. Web.
Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Comparison between China and USA Business in China and America
Countries operate around different political regimes with unique policy formulation, implementation, and review that affects business environment. These policies are aligned by policy makers towards self interest protection and profit optimisation. At micro and macro levels, these protectionist policies have merits and demerits in short and long-term business engagements.
Notably, business related policy formulations in specific market environment have weaknesses capable of attracting conflict of interest especially when the same policy functions in the international trade market scenario.
Since the beginning of the new millennium, China has become an economic powerhouse in terms of aggregate investment portfolio and economic growth. The systematic and consistent rise is attributed to political and economic policies which also double as source of tension between America and itself.
Located in the heart of the Asian continent, the Democratic Republic of China is founded on the principles of Communism and ruled by a single party government. Despite capitalism dominating business environment across the globe, China has managed to hold firm on the Marxist-communist foundation and has struck a balance between the science of politics and communist business system.
Characteristic of a communist system, the government of China is active in monitoring and directly intervening in major sectors of the economy. Due to deep rooted culture of concentrated power in the hands of the politically established government, who have liberalised its market and facilitated internal investment by foreign investors, China offers attractive investment incentives and waivers on taxes to potential investors.
Comparatively, then ne-liberalist system controlling business environment in the states of America is equally developed. Reflectively, this system is based on the ideology of totalitarian democracy in which decisions on business and other matters of public interest are made by a democratic republican or democrat government elected by the majority. Despite consisting of three political parties, that is republican, democratic, and independent, the first two are dominant in the economic, social, and political spheres of America.
Aiming to start a medium shoe making business with relatively sketchy market network, the first choice of business location is in the Democratic Republic of China, especially in strategically located town of Shangai.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This choice of location is as a result of the large untapped market of China and regions surrounding it, the friendly communist regimes with direct intervention in business activities, massive cheap and readily available labour, and friendly business regulation policies on investment and business functioning based on acculturation. Despite being at the same level in comparative analysis, China plays a bigger role as a retail business leader and industrialist.
According to Markus 2007,
China is not just the World Factory, most booming market for resources and consumer goods and the fastest growing economy in the world with an average GDP of over 10% in the past decade. It is also the most attractive destination for foreign investment since China opened its door to foreign businesses in 1978. (p.23)
Within business organisation and practise, labour is vital especially in balancing over head cost of doing business. Reflectively, existence of abundant, cheap, and sustainable labour supply gives a business an upper hand in the competitive market and ensure its survival and sustainability in long run. China has a skilled pool of cheap labour.
This aspect is attractive in doing business within its territories. The population of China is ethically aligned and appreciate the essence of commitment and hard work towards achieving greater heights. Comparatively, America’s labour market is expensive, highly structured and professionalism work ethics have been internalised by the labour market same as that in China (Jonathan, 2006).
In order to gain from this comparative advantage, doing business in China saves resources that could have been directed towards training workforce since skilled labour is available and relatively affordable as compared to that in America where living standards are higher and minimum wage bigger.
In addition, the culture of Chinese people promotes self discipline and appreciates excellence in service delivery as a means of making the economy better. In the process of achieving this, the self motivating culture facilitates competence and combines skills with loyalty to give positive result. Thus, this would give China an upper hand as a preferred choice for retail business location since cheap labour would translate into more profits (Ambler, 2000).
We will write a custom Essay on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To meet the demands of its population, China has successfully transformed the economy and economic systems from traditional agricultural dominance into advanced and reliable service industry system consisting of international banking systems and liberalised private sector through its business policies.
These banking systems make credit available for entrepreneurs in the private sector and facilitate public borrowing. Subsequently, the economy has been expanded and series of opportunities are available for internal and international investors. As noted by Rainer (2007), interactions between banking sector and private businesses in China have made it a hub for entrepreneurship and emergence of wide market.
Thus, to gain from this advantage, retail trade investment in China is more viable than the vulnerable market of America which often fall a victim of market swings (Rainer, 2007). Interestingly, from the study on number of investors for the two countries carried in 2006, Rainer (2007) noted the following:
For the first time, China attracted more foreign investment than the United States. The world’s fastest-growing economy is the second largest behind the United States, and by mid-century, it is expected to be number one. (p. 67.)
According to Ambler (2000), China has rich resources which have managed to ensure success of companies such as Gamble and General Motors which were established in the terror back in the late 1980s. Reflectively, despite series of swings in global economy characterised by periodic inflation and deflation, China’s economy remain stable following the acquisition of membership certificate from World Trade Organisation.
America on the other hand, has similar flexible business policies that promote trade (Ambler, 2000). Moreover, the results of the American Chamber of Commerce survey indicates that of 450 American companies in China, nearly 69 percent have directly benefitted from substantial profits more than their counterparts based in America (Jonathan, 2001).
This success is attributed to existence of investments opportunities, ready market, and competitive advantage as a result of consistence in service delivery, insurance efficiency, and reliability in the banking system, and flexibility in retail industry (Xiaowen, 2001).
Markus (2007) states the prevailing positive economic climate in the economy of China offers unlimited opportunities to sellers to expand market territory from small streets to upmarket with ease (Markus, 2007). In an attempt to capture attention in the global market, China adopted the strategy of maintaining relative advantage through exportation of goods and services tagged with competitive price as a policy (Curran and Acker, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over time, this strategy has paid off in the continents of the global market where China has created market for every brand of its products irrespective of economic classes in these markets. Besides, the population of China consisting of nearly a third of the world population and offer ready market, labour, and services in every industry irrespective of its size.
According to Harvard University article (2004), as a substantial proportion of the middle class experience upward mobility, demand chains are created periodically to sustain continuously production and supply. Therefore, creation of an international market within the boundaries of the republic of China can reap relative advantage of the expansive market for its products and a channel of accessing related markets at global level (Harvard University, 2004).
In the global business arena, China predominate large scale manufacturing of competitive goods and delivery of affordable services. Mass production of cheaper goods is due to its ability to balance overhead cost by use of highly skilled, readily available, and cheap labour in the manufacturing industries as compared to America’s expensive labour market.
According to Xiaowen (2001), over the last decade, China has made substantial investment in product development and research. Consequently, gains from intellectual capital have created expansive opportunities for marketing. These opportunities act as incentive for global investment in China (Xiaowen, 2001).
China is endowed with natural resources same to America. As a matter of fact, availability of raw materials is the basis of viability in investment planning. As a result production resonates on the periphery of low-cost. According to Jun (2006), the dynamics of cheap raw materials and their availability can be attributed to quality and dominance in international trade by China more than American market.
For instance, mass production of textile and toy in mega factories in China is as a result of availability of cheap raw materials. Subsequently, the low cost of production encourages mass manufacturing and boosts the cumulative profit gained from a bundle of production units (Jun, 2006). Though America is more strategically located, market for shoes would be higher in China which consists of a third of the world population (Bucknall, 2000).
American market has more or less same advantages as China. In fact, democracy and total market liberalisation policy in America is advantageous to business set up and operation. Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion. Besides, competition for shoes product is very stiff as compared to the same in China.
Conclusively, it is apparent that China is better off as a strategic location for establishing business as compared to America. Among other reasons for the better position can be attributed to cheap labour, ready market, government commitment, and the spirit of entrepreneurship.
Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion Thus, as a potential investor in shoes manufacturing business; I prefer the town of Shangai in China as the location for my business because of its untapped market, political stability, and strategic location.
References Ambler, T. (2000). Doing Business in China. Economic Policy Journal, 11(3), 25-41.
Bucknall, K. (2000). Cultural guide to doing business in China. (3rd ed.). London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The textile Industry Essay essay help online free
The textile industry is one of the biggest industries in the world, as the market for its product is growing at an exponential rate. This industry is concerned with the immediate role of producing material in yarn and cloth form; which are the primary ingredients in the manufacture of clothing.
In the 18th century, the British inventors wanted to exploit the world markets with their technological designs and at the same time there were restrictions on selling the designs, models, or the machinery to other parts of Europe. James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny while Richard Arkwright came up with the first textile factory in 1771 in Cromford, England.
Samuel Slater later opted to start his own factory in Rhode Island in 1792. In the early 1800s, other factories started coming up in Boston and other parts of the United States. Since then the textile industry has flourished not only in America but in the whole world. Factories with modern state of the art equipments have been built in major cities in the world; and demand and supply of their products are at a rising trend (Gathi, 2001).
International trade is one the most complex areas in the legal arena. This is because there are a number of players involved, both state and non-state actors forming trade organizations. The levels of interactions amongst the parties involved are difficult if not tedious to keep track of. Before the trade act of 2005, the textile industry in America was not doing so good.
The relationship between the US and China for example has been in the dark side for decades. Exports and imports between the two countries have been hampered by the political interests and differing ideas of these two countries. The textile markets between these countries have never achieved their full potential. Looking at the American industry, the number of jobs that were lost in this period with trade barriers were totaling to the thousands.
This meant that more Americans were jobless and there was little income coming from this sector. The removal of the trade sanctions in 2005 has seen an increase in the trade of textile and especially in the trade of the demin material.
Everybody in the word seems to be in love with the denim jeans. It therefore would be no surprise to find at least 10 pairs of jeans in each house hold in America. The denim business is a giant catch, raking in over 50 billion dollars each year. There are over 70 countries involved in the production of jeans in the world; the big producers are China and Mexico.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The business of denim has become so global, that it is literally evident in the threads that make the materials. Different countries e.g. India, Azerbaijan, Turkey, United States and Pakistan produce the cotton that is used to make the denim fabric. Snyder’s Fugitive Denim looks at the business of Jeans and its impact on the lives of those involved, as well as its impact on the environment.
One of the counties explored was the United States. Different fashions have come and gone but the denim jeans seems to have outlived them all; only evolving to become the iconic fashion symbol of the 20th and perhaps the 21st century. However, in the last few years, cotton production has been of low benefit to the farmers as the world market prices plunged.
Farmers in the United States enjoy subsidies from the government unlike some of their counterparts from others parts of the world. They also use methods of farming that are less harmful to the environment. When you buy your jeans from the shop, chances are that the pair contains up to 3.5 % of pesticides used during production.
It is no wonder that the American farmers have adopted safer methods that avoid the usage of Pesticides. The farmers are using genetically modified cotton seeds. The impact of the toxic pesticides has been felt by farmers in the third world; who do not have the privilege of advancing their farming methods. Farmers in these regions end up developing lung and other long term diseases such as cancer.
Furthermore the textile industry has been riddled with scandals of child and slave labour. The most affected counties being china and Cambodia which have numerous scattered sweatshops. Other impacts of the textile business are those of water pollution and soil degradation. Being a water intensive type of farming, farmers channel water to their farms from the rivers.
This leaves some of the rivers with no way of supporting life. Some of the water also gets contaminated with the chemicals from the farms leaving the soils toxic and dangerous to human life. The world system theory suggests that the world economy has disparities in economic development. That development largely depends on the technological knowhow of a state. Making the United States at the top of this hierarchy followed by her counterparts in Europe.
And the tasks or works that require higher levels of skill and capitalization are reserved for these regions making the third world a peripheral region and receiver of the remnants of the maldistribution of resources. Hence, current progress of the world economy tends to enlarge the economic and social gaps even further.
We will write a custom Essay on The textile Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leaves the third world a beggar of sorts (Chase-Dunn and Grimes, 1995). It would be safe to say that the world-systems theory is drawn from the dependency theory. This is further defined as a macro-sociological existence, where different states or regions depend on each other for the basic survival kits which include food, fuel, and perhaps protection.
There is a presence of a power hierarchy. There are regions or states that exist in the core and are considered to dictate terms of business to the other regions that exist within the periphery. Technology seems to be a power weapon in the quest for domination.
The peripheral countries are structurally disabled to pull themselves out of the murky situation and formulate policies that are development oriented. The core states maintain the system as well as try to pull out the peripheral states by offering their surplus (Goldfrank, 2000).
Do I agree with this world-systems theory? It is quite evident that the third world countries have remained in the same status as they were economically; while the developed countries continue to rich themselves from the spoils they get from their exploits.
Even though the developed world is offering help on one hand, the other hand seems to be taking. This makes me agree with wallerstein’s theory.
Works Cited Chase-Dunn,