Introduction This article focuses on the exhibit of the great fire of Chicago that is on display at the Historical Museum of Chicago. It looks at analysis of the exhibit and emphasizes on the traditional historical research of the great fire of Chicago. This exhibit is significant as it captures the history of the great fire of Chicago that killed hundreds of people and rendered thousands homeless (Colber and Chamberlin 1).
Origin of the great fire Speculations show that the great fire of Chicago started in 137 De Koven Street in Chicago. It started at around 8.00 p.m on the Sunday 8th October in 1871. The firefighters put out the fire that had continued for two days on the following Tuesday (Fire Rescue Magazine 1).
Insights trace the origin of the fire to a barn in the shanty part of the town. Mr. and Mrs. O’Leary who were Irish immigrants owned the barn. Residents accused Mrs. O’Leary of starting the fire (Bales 1). Analysts attributed those accusations to the fact that Mrs. O’Leary was Irish. The large numbers of Irish people in the town made them unpopular.
Exhibit analysis The exhibit used in this article is a picture of the great fire of Chicago.
Figure 1: the great fire of Chicago
This exhibit describes the state that Chicago was in during the incident. The background of the picture is a big fire with dark clouds of smoke. Further, visible in the photo are buildings and two bridges. The picture shows the fire spreading forwards towards the buildings and the people in the picture.
The right side of the picture shows a river flowing under the first bridge and people inside their boats. The central and lower left sides of the picture shows a crowd of people, some carrying luggage. These people huddle together at the edge of the second bridge as they struggle to cross over it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One easily gets the message intended by the artist by glancing at the image once. An individual grasps the idea that there is a fire, which is spreading fast and furiously. Further, one can see that the crowd is fighting for their lives in the way they crowd the river.
Strengths and weaknesses of the exhibit This exhibition is efficient as it captures the incident of the great fire of Chicago well. One sees the broad picture of how Chicago was at the time of the fire. In addition, the picture shows what is happening without using many illustrations. The interactivity of this exhibit is excellent and familiarizes the viewer with the events that took place back then.
This exhibit is appealing manages to serve the purpose of capturing events of the great fire of Chicago. However, the effectiveness of the exhibit would increase if it had appealing colors. For instance, the water and boats should have different colors so one can easily note them.
However, this exhibit has several big pitfalls. It has several interactive features that may misguide the viewer. This exhibit should stress on comprehensiveness of the fire as that is the main idea. Conversely, in this exhibit the crowd occupy a large portion and may lead the viewer to think that the commotion of the people is the main idea of the exhibit. In addition, the exhibition does not capture all details of the incident. For example, one has to study the exhibit keenly to note the boats.
Importance of the exhibit This exhibit is important as it preserves history. For instance, one visiting the museum acquires information on the historic great fire of Chicago. Additionally, it serves as an educational material and helps viewers gain new knowledge. Moreover, the artistic nature of this exhibit plays a role in entertainment. It feeds viewers curiosity and leaves room for imagination.
Social, economic, and political importance of the exhibit to Chicago A good exhibit should tell the viewer more than the details in the exhibit itself. Exemplary, when one looks at an exhibit one can tell much about the social, political, and economic way of life of the affected people. For instance, in reference to social life one questions extent to which the residents prepare for disasters.
What practices do these people engage in that would start a fire and facilitate fast spreading? History in books answers these questions. For example, the people of Chicago back then lived in wood houses. This coupled with a hot dry summer encouraged the fire to spread fast. “Even the ground itself was on fire. The streets, sidewalks, and bridges were made of wood, providing ample fuel for the fire” (Miller 14).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The great fire of Chicago specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economy of Chicago is of interest in relation to this fire. According to sources, the economy of the town was good. Therefore, this fire plunged the affected into a pool of loses.
“From a lofty height that enabled you to perceive the expanse of land and water that surrounded the city, you would note above all pre-fire Chicago’s critical position as the nexus between the manufacturing East and the agricultural West in a nation that was establishing its eminence in an international economy.” (Cook 1). Despite of Chicago’s wealth, the city had shady towns, which worsened the tragedy. Poor Irish immigrants occupied these shoddy towns (Murphy 15).
This exhibit does not reflect Political position of the city. When one is analyzing the exhibit, one cannot connect the incident to any political influence. Therefore, we can conclude that this exhibit lacks political bias.
Significance of the exhibit to the changing city life in Chicago The great fire exhibit helps the viewer to understand and analyze the position of Chicago before, during, and after the tragedy. The fire tragedy in Chicago was devastating and damaging. Throughout the city, lay melted iron and crumbled marble and only bricks withstood the heat (Sawislak 11).
However, this fire acted as a wake-up call for Chicago. Though it was obvious the residents would rebuild the city, it had to be increasingly safe and ready to contain disasters. The rebuilding process was fast and improved compared to the way the city was before the tragedy (Schons 1). When reconstructing the city the residents considered the best choices they had. For example, they considered fireproof houses, proper spacing of houses and fuel driven vehicles instead of using horses.
Conclusion In conclusion, the exhibit of the great fire of Chicago is effective. This is because it plays an important role in helping us understand and speculate about the tragedy that befell Chicago. The exhibit is efficient in triggering the expected response. In addition, this exhibit helps us to make a connection of life in Chicago before, during, and after the fire incident. However, improved exhibit design and modification will increase efficiency of the exhibit.
Works Cited Bales, Richard. A New Look at the Cause of the Great Chicago Fire. North Carolina: McFarland and Company, 2004. Print.
Colber, Elias and Chamberlin, Everett. “The Ruined City.” Chicago and the Great Conflagration, 1871 (2011): 1-3. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The great fire of Chicago by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cook, Frederick. A Bird’s Eye View of Pre-Fire Chicago. 2011. Web. .
Fire Rescue Magazine. My Fire Fighter Nation. 8 October 2008. Web. .
Miller, Ross. The Great Chicago Fire 1st ed. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2000. Print.
Murphy, Jim. The Great Fire. New York: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2006. Print.
Sawislak, Karen. Smoldering City Chicagoans and the Great Fire, 1871-1874. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Print.
Schons, Mary. “The Chicago Fire of 1871 and the Great Rebuilding.” National Geography (2011): 1-2. Print.
World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) Essay essay help
Introduction Since time immemorial the world has witnessed wars between different groups, states, countries, and allies. Initially, the motive behind wars was survival. Ancient people fought in order to usurp land for cultivation. Gradually, as the world population grew, the motives behind wars became multifarious.
Different groups and countries started fighting with each other in order to gain control of areas where there were natural resources such as gold. Another reason for war was to gain access to routes generally used for movement of commodities from the starting place to the consumption areas.
It is understood that after a war, one group prospered at the cost of another. Religion also has been an instigating factor for many wars. However, in all the wars, the motive was to gain advantage of some sort.
During the past years, when countries came together as allies, there have been instances when allies of a particular group had to go to war just because they wanted to safeguard themselves from the disadvantages of not participating in the war. In this paper, we shall discuss the reasons that led to World War 1. “World War 1 began in eastern Europe. The war started when Serbia, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany decided that war or the risk of war was an acceptable policy option”.
Causes of World War 1 General Causes
1879 onwards, the world witnessed formation of alliances between nations having similar interests. Following are some of the major alliances that took place:
The Dual Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary entered into an alliance in 1879 in order to defend against Russia.
Austro-Serbian Alliance: Austria-Hungary and Serbia entered into an alliance in 1881 in order to prevent Russia from asserting power in Serbia.
The Triple Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary entered into an alliance with Italy in 1882 so that the latter could not favor Russia’s moves.
Franco-Russian Alliance: Russia and France entered into an alliance in 1894 in order to protect their countries from the Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Entente Cordiale: France and Britain entered into a formal agreement in 1904 in order to protect each other’s interests.
Anglo-Russian Entente: Britain and Russia entered into a formal agreement in 1907 in order to protect each other’s interests.
Triple Entente: Russia, France and Britain entered into an alliance to counteract Germany’s growing threats. Later, in 1914 and under the same alliance, all the three countries concurred that they will not sign any peace treaty without mutual consent.
All these alliances (from 1879 to 1914) forced some countries to go to war just because they were in some alliance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Imperialism
Imperialism is a term used for instances where any country usurps any other country’s land and asserts its supremacy and power. Due to the incessant progress of industrialization, countries felt the need of venturing into fresh marketplaces.
By the year 1900, Britain had extended its empire in five continents and France controlled major parts of Africa. The increase of both these countries’ power did not go well with Germany; Germany had only small areas under its rule. Following is a map that depicts the colonies of these three major European players in 1914.
William Anthony Hay claims that according to McMeekin, a tutor of international relations, “The war’s real catalyst lay in Russia’s ambition to supplant the waning Ottoman Empire in the Near East and to control the Turkish straits – the Bosphorus and Dardanelles – linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean”.
But Richard Evans contradicts this opinion by stating that “In the end it was the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia that set off the process that ended in the outbreak of World War 1, not Russian ambitions in the Straits. But if we think logically, no country will enter into a war without personal interests.
Alliances were also made to serve individual interests. So it is wrong to say that Russia did not have any interest or ambitions in the Straits. Russia was an industrialized nation and needed to sell its products to people in other nations. For this purpose, it needed a safe passage and new markets.
We will write a custom Essay on World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Militarism
When any country gives preference to its army, it is said to be following militarism. The growing alliances among various nations prompted nations to empower their army with more arms and ammunitions. France and Germany doubled the strengths of their respective armies.
Britain and Germany seemed to be in a competition of better sea control. In 1906, Britain launched the ‘Dreadnought’, considered to be a very efficient battleship. Following the footsteps, Germany also launched its own version of impressive battleships. The following illustration shows how Germany planned to attack France in case Russia attacked Germany; France and Russia were allies. So due to the alliance, Russia was bound to retaliate when one of its allies was attacked.
“A military revolution occurred in the seventeenth century. The most important of the many changes was a considerable growth in the size of the armies. Those large forces could no longer live off the land: steal supplies from the populace”.
We all have love for our respective countries. So did the people of that period. Austria-Hungary and Serbia had different radical groups trying to free their states from foreign involvement. Both Italy and Germany were divided. People of these countries wanted unification. “Along with the history of imperial machinations, however, World War 1 should be understood in the context of the popular imagination and the growth of nationalist sentiment in Europe”.
As part of an understanding, Britain gave control of Morocco to France in 1904. The Moroccan people wanted freedom. Germany, in order to take an advantage of the situation, proclaimed its support for the freedom of Morocco. A conference was held that allowed France to continue its control over Morocco and a war was averted. Again, in 1911, Germany started pronouncing its support for the Moroccan independence but again it was persuaded to compromise its stand on the issue.
Not sure if you can write a paper on World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bosnian Crisis
Bosnia (a Turkish province) was taken over by Austria-Hungary in 1908. This action of Austria-Hungary did not go well with the Serbians. The Serbians thought Bosnia was under them. As such, a conflict aroused. Serbia proclaimed war over Austria-Hungary. Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-Hungary. A war was about to start but at the nick of the time Russia backed off and the war was averted.
But tensions were still mounting up between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. “It is true that during July the German decision makers sometimes expressed the hope that the conflict would be localized: in other words that Austria would be able to vanquish Serbia without Russian Intervention”. Dale Copeland argues that “Germany actively sought war in July 1914 and that German leaders by the end of July preferred world war to a negotiated peace, even to one that gave Austria most of what it wanted”.
The Immediate Trigger
World War 1 started in the year 1914. The assassination of Austria’s Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, acted as a trigger to World War 1. Franz Ferdinand and his wife were murdered in 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, member of a Bosnian radical group. “The crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire decided, after the assassination on 28 June, to take action against Serbia, which was suspected of being behind the murder”.
This was considered to be an immediate reason for the war but the real reasons seem to be more complex and are still topics of debate among various historians. According to William Anthony Hay, “Germany bears responsibility for the war, in this view, because its leaders deliberately turned a regional clash between Austria-Hungary and Serbia into an existential Struggle of rival alliances”.
Hay is right in his opinion because history reveals that there were other options with Germany that could have averted the war. But since Germany wanted to gain on its own interests, it forced other countries to plunge into a war that they did not intend. “The size and wealth of the conquered Eastern territories easily outweighed what would have been lost had the Germans withdrawn from Belgium and France. Had they done so, France might have made peace and the anti-German coalition collapsed”.
Conclusion All these instances make us to believe that Germany was behind waging the World War 1. In its ambitions to usurp power, Germany was thought to have instigated the war. But it is to be understood that down the years, historians put an end to the controversy as to which country was responsible for the World War 1.
Historians from the two main countries (Germany and France) came to an understanding that none of their countries should be blamed for instigating World War 1. It was the policies of militarization of each of the participating countries that led to the war.
But certain facts still point the finger towards Germany. After the war started, some confidential documents were discovered that suggested that the German government had vast plans of extending its territory due to the economic requirements.
Bibliography Copeland, Dale. The Origins of Major War. New York: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Evans, Richard. “The Road to Slaughter.” New Republic. Last modified 2011. Web.
Fergusan, Niall. “Germany and the origins of the First World War: New Perspectives.” The Historical Journal 35, no. 3 (1992): 725-752.
Hamilton, Richard and Holger Herwig. The Origins of World War 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Hay, William. “Ambition in the East.” The Wall Street Journal. 2011. Web.
Merriman, John. “The Origins of World War 1.” Yale University. 2013. Web.
Sheffield, Gary. “The Origins of World War One.” BBC. 2011. Web.
Williamson, Samuel. “The Origins of World War 1.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (1988): 795-818.
Footnotes Samuel Williamson, “The Origins of World War 1,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (1988): 795.
William Anthony Hay, “Ambition in the East,” The Wall Street Journal, 2011.
Richard Evans, “The Road to Slaughter,” 2011.
Richard Hamilton and Holger Herwig, The Origins of World War 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 5.
John Merriman, “The Origins of World War 1,” Yale University, 2013.
Niall Fergusan, “Germany and the origins of the First World War: New Perspectives”, Historical Journal 35, no. 3 (1992): 731.
Dale Copeland, The Origins of Major War (New York: Cornell University Press, 2001), 79.
Gary Sheffield, “The Origins of World War One,” BBC, 08 March 2011.
William Anthony Hay, “Ambition in the East” in The Wall Street Journal
Gary Sheffield, “The Origins of World War One,” BBC, 08 March 2011.
Travelling across English Colonies Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
If I had an opportunity to travel across English colonies, I would have traveled to Jamestown because this was the first place that had been conquered by the British invaders. Besides, I could have become a witness of remarkable and historically important events that happened during the English colonization.
Located in Virginia, I could also chance to take part in establishing and developing colonies, as well enjoy the benefits of geographical location. There were also many other interesting events, including introduction to the indigenous culture, development of agriculture in the area, as well as acquaintance with the most influential figures in the history of colonization (Davidson et al. 6).
Finally, I could also have traced the origins of the historic survival of the newcomers on the Indian lands, particularly when the indigenous population rescued colonizers from hunger. However, I would prefer settling this territory after the years of hunger because these times were the most difficult ones for aristocratic population. Hence, I chose to stay at Jamestown for 15 years –from 1610 to 1624 – to trace economic, political, and cultural changes in the colonized region.
At the beginning of seventeenth century, many newcomers conquering Virginia were of aristocratic origins and, therefore, the main purpose of their expansion consisted in increasing the profits of the Virginia Company, the first enterprise established on the colonized territories.
Therefore, I could also have learnt much about the main underpinnings for the company’s activities, as well as their influence on the development and welfare of the colonized area. The significant economic progress would have allowed me to find a prestigious job and fulfill my professional goals.
Moreover, it could have become a marvelous opportunity for me to explore how ancient Americans adjusted to new economic conditions. Despite the rapid economic development, I would still be more concerned with cultural background of the period because this was an excellent opportunity to explore the history of Native Americans, as well as define why they had to confront the pressure on the part of the English colonists.
To increase the Virginia Company’s revenues, the new settlers tried a variety of small industries, including wood production, glassmaking, and potash production. However, none of the ventures had been successful until the production of tobacco was introduced by the colonist John Rolfe, an English newcomer who married Pocahontas, an indigenous girl.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this period, tobacco was among the most popular plants that had been growing in the New World and, therefore, it brought in considerable revenues. Living at the beginning of the seventeenth century could have provided me with new business opportunities for expanding commercial relations.
Economic progress, therefore, could have created new ways for promoting my business and establishing fruitful relationships with Native Americans, who possessed valuable experience in cultivating land. Further expansion and growth of tobacco business allowed the settlers to carry out first export of the product to other countries and continents. The development of tobacco production influenced the decision of King James I to dissolve the Virginia Company and focus on other fields of potential growth.
Continued expansion and planting activities on the conquered had led to rapid development of agriculture. As soon as Indian tribes and English newcomers managed to establish peaceful relationships, the first assembly in Jamestown had decided to create the government of Virginia that could ensure justice and wealthy existences of all the inhabited people. This government was called the House of Burgesses, the precursor of the Virginia General Assembly.
The created group consisted of such influential figures as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Patrick Henry. All these political and economic activists lived at the beginning of the seventeenth century and, therefore, I could have had the possibility to gain knowledge about their policies, reforms, and activities. I could also have witnessed the development of four districts in the city that the colonist introduced to take greater control of the territory.
The representative government of English in the New World introduced a number of laws, causing numerous confrontations with indigenous population. In particular, a 1622 war with Indians, as well as multiple rebellions of the Indian population against the government is presented as the most abhorrent event in American history. As a result of such confrontations, the company had been destroyed in 1624 and the king of the colony had made the district royal.
from significant political development, I could also have traced the first arrival of African-American workers who had been originally recognized as servants. Based on the agreement, the workers had to work on the land for several years to be able to own it in future. Therefore, this period could also be considered successful because the agreement did not imply slavery or limitation to immigrants’ freedom.
With regard to the above-presented events, the last years of my staying at the colonies would have been the most difficult ones because the Indian population resisted the development of English colony. As a result, the events of 1622 related to the most horrible ones because they were connected with Indian Massacre, when more than 300 new settles had been killed.
We will write a custom Assessment on Travelling across English Colonies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I believe that rapid spread of Christianity and economic development as a means of demonstrating power and influence of England was not a good policy because most of the explorers failed to express tolerance to religion and culture of the Indian tribes. However, abundance of resources that could contribute to the colonists’ wealth, as well as reluctance to cede the positions to the native population, had become the main reason for the emerged conflicts.
Jamestown continued controlling social and political life in Virginia, although the legislature and excess pressure of the newcomers made the Indian population constantly encounter segregation and violent treatment. Despite the fact that the period from 1610 to 1624 had a great number of hardships for the English colonist arriving to the coasts of Northern American, the new settlers managed to overcome the difficulties and create a powerful commercial, economic, and political infrastructure.
Therefore, Jamestown could be regarded as the most successful and prosperous centre at the beginning of the English colonization. Most of the events occurred to the region were connected with economic and commercial progress and, therefore, I could have had marvelous opportunities for carrying out business activities in case they were connected with agriculture.
Tobacco production was also among the most profitable ventures and, therefore, the New World during the period was also considered as the place for establishing commercial and business ventures. Finally, due to the fact that most of clashes between the Native population and the newcomers were based on religious discrepancies, I would have expressed more tolerance to their culture and traditions.
Works Cited Davidson James West, Delay Brian, Heyrman Christine Leigh, Lytle Mark, and Michael Stoff. Experience History: Interpreting America’s Past. US: McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2010. Print.
The Islamic Societies History Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Territorial expansion of Islam
Introduction Islam plays a significant role in lives of many believers. It has been the unifying factor for many Muslims due to belief in one God and Muhammad as His Prophet. This essay explores the views of Muslims on the role of religion, politics, and military affairs, and how did this play out in the territorial expansion of Islam.
Religion Prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the seventh century AD. The religion spread through trade routes of the time. He claimed that he was getting messages from God. Muhammad claimed to be a prophet just like Moses and Jesus. However, Muhammad fled to Mecca and established a state of Medina where he found Pagan Arabs.
Muhammad engaged in assault of traders by attacking merchant caravans from his base in Medina. Pagan Arabs reacted by using armed soldiers on their trade routes. However, in the Battle of Badr, Muslims defeated Pagan Arabs, and this marked the spread of Islam. He expanded his territory in the following decades in which he fought both Pagan Arabs and other Arab tribes.
Muhammad guaranteed his soldiers everlasting life if they defended their faith. Muhammad became powerful and expelled the two tribes Medina due poor relationships. He massacred the third tribe of Banu Qurayza in Medina. He proceeded to take control of Mecca and establish control over other Pagan Arabs. He forcefully converted these Pagan Arabs to Islam.
The role of Islam depends on the five Pillars of Quran. Muhammad and Quran traditions have the fundamental rules directing Muslims. Islam controls believers’ right actions and rules. The religion has five pillars. The foremost pillar is the witness or shuhuduh, which highlights the existence of only one God and Muhammad is God’s prophet.
Therefore, any believer who does not recognize God, or has more than one God and rejects Muhammad as the prophet is an apostate. This is punishable by killing. The second pillar is the worship or salat or ritual prayer, which believers must conduct while facing the Kabah in Mecca and recite Quran. Salat is a way of cleansing and worshipping God.
The third pillar is fasting or saturn, which Muslims perform during the month of Ramadan. The fourth pillar is giving or zakat of tithe or alms. Zakat serves the purpose of helping the needy. It encourages Muslims to share whatever they have with the poor in society. The fifth pillar is pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca. Muslims should visit Mecca at least once in a lifetime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the five pillars, there are also other aspects of teaching that guide Muslims. Jihad in reference to war has been one of the most controversial pillars of Islam. According to Muslims, jihad wars are for God. However, others consider jihad as fundamentalism and a reaction to non-Muslims and other religions (Armstrong 169).
Muslims consider fighting against people who do not believe in God as right. Believers also fight people who have rejected the teachings of Prophet Muhammad until they can recognize both God and messages from Muhammad. Scholars have noted that Muslims attribute various meanings to jihad based on various contexts (Habeck 108). Some consider jihad as a fight against Jews, Christians, or Arab pagans. Other Muslims view jihad as a means of protecting Islam against external aggressors.
Politics Most states find it difficult to balance religious and secular aspects of rules. However, religion and politics have fundamental roles in states. A study in teachings of Muhammad reveals that Muhammad and his successors and followers introduced politics into Islam.
When Muhammad went to Medina in 622 CE, he used Islam to conquer and establish political territories. The warring tribes of Khazraj and Aus gave Muhammad an opportunity to rule as a neutral outsider. He wrote the Medina Charter, which gave him the power to rule, and it referred to him as the prophet of God.
Muhammad established the Medina Charter based on Quran and his actions. These are the Islamic laws or Sharia. They have been the cornerstone of Islamic movements and territorial expansions to present day. Muhammad used these Islamic laws to spread his power by capturing Mecca and other Pagan Arabs. He used the army and followers to fight Arab Pagans and Jewish. In some cases, Muhammad used diplomacy to conquer regions.
In the contemporary society, we have several Islamic democratic societies and parties. At the same time, we also have Islamic fundamentalists in various countries across the globe. Islamic fundamentalism is a term many non-Muslims used to refer to radical approaches most Muslims use to support or defend their religion. Such political and religious ideas have also found formidable support from terror groups and militant Islamic movements.
States are political vehicles for the actors or political leaders. However, secularism defines a religious state from other states. In other words, secular states welcome ideologies from religious bodies for creating fundamental laws that govern a country. We can understand the role of Islam and politics from this point.
We will write a custom Essay on The Islamic Societies History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We can consider “human rights, aspects of civic responsibilities, constitutionalism, and citizenship” (An-Na’im 4) in order to understand the relationship between Islam and politics. It is important to note that Islam and politics have their origin in history. Sharia laws allow people to have debates and reach consensus.
This is why Islam accepts some views, which Muslims formerly regarded as dissent. Islamic teaching of reciprocity or mu’awada also encourages debates, which should accommodate differences and guarantee individuals’ rights. This is the Golden Rule of the religion.
However, in the mainstream Islamic law fails to separate issues of states and the religion. It is Islamic laws that have applied in most cases. Studies have shown that contact with the West brought some secular ideas into Islamic, but reactions were different among various states.
For instance, some Islamic nations like Turkey and others have operated as secular countries. On the other hand, the Iran Revolution of 1979 replaced secularism with Islamic laws. Secularism has been a major uniting factor among different communities of Islam nations. This is because it favors minimal moral obligations on believers (An-Na’im 23).
Muhammad used Islamic laws as a constitution to run Mecca and conquer new states. Today, constitution aims at protecting Muslims by ensuring that rulers follow and engage in acceptable practices. Muslims have a right to create their own constitution to serve their needs. However, the only challenge is that a constitution should serve majorities who do not have control over a nation.
Politically, Muslim culture should advocate for human rights and today, most Muslim nations have started to adhere to human rights practices across the world. This aims at protecting individuals from harsh laws, which Islamic fundamentalists impose on the perceived offenders.
It is also necessary for Muslims to accept both teachings from international conventions and teachings from Quran. This approach does not undermine both conventions. As Muslims advocate for citizenship, they must rely on the principle of the Golden Rule. This gives all citizens equal opportunities. Therefore, political leaders must act with responsibility and honesty toward citizens.
In modern states of Islam, secular nations should be neutral with regard to political affairs. However, the state must understand the role of Islamic religion in shaping public affairs. In this context, civic reasons should work alongside religion principles in order to shape public policies. This is because religion alone cannot serve diverse interests of people. According to early historians in the Islamic religion, civic reason is a part of Islamic principles, which evolved with Islam (Feldman 9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Islamic Societies History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Civic reason tends to show the line between the state and religion. This aims at protecting Muslims so that they can express their different views without attacks. In this regard, the state should not control the functions of civic reason. Instead, the state should support fundamental principles to guide civic reason for inclusive purposes.
Islamic scholars have supported the place of Islamic religion in politics. They also noted that Western civilization slowed the spread of Islamic ideologies (Feldman 79). Therefore, effects of Western colonialism in Islamic states have shaped political ideologies in such states.
For instance, in current Islamic states, Mostapha Benhenda notes that democracy within “Islam often means democracy within Islamic limits” (Benhenda 1). This implies that Muslims have shaped their current governments to reflect Islamic ideologies. However, different states have different approaches of defining their Islamic ideologies based on the prevailing circumstances.
Most democratic Islamic groups, such as Muslim Brotherhood and Jamaat-e-Islami have noted that democracy can help them achieve their goals through cooperation with other like-minded political movements. On the other hand, fundamentalists like al-Shabbab, al-Qaeda, and Taliban have embraced radical and militant Islamic principles to punish perceived offenders of the religion.
Military affairs Prophet Muhammad encouraged his followers to fight jihad. This meant that the fight was in the way of God. Therefore, Muslims had to use their power, exert efforts, and endeavor in order to overcome forms of social disapproval. However, the application of jihad differs based on the perceived sin, enemy, or one’s sinful ways.
Based on these various usages of jihad, scholars concur that when the term jihad lacks a qualifier, then it takes its military usage. Others have viewed jihad in terms of a struggle to achieve religious and moral obligations (Esposito 56). Still, there are Muslims who prescribe to the ultimate jihad, which only focuses on spiritual well-being of believers. On the other hand, we also have a jihad that drives warfare ideologies.
Most Islamic states consider jihad as a military exertion against enemies, non-believers, and non-Muslims. This is mainly in cases where Muslims need to expand their territory or Ummah or in the defense. Scholars have debated the ultimate aim of jihad. Others consider it as a way of protecting Islamic religion or territory with no offensive motives. Conversely, others view jihad as a way of conquering the entire world.
According to many scholars, “jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims or hamper proselytizing efforts” (Habeck 108). As a result, many Muslims believe that jihad is the only form of war that is suitable for defense. It also applies in cases where a society must operate under Sharia or Islamic laws.
Among Muslims, jihad is not an individual’s responsibility, but rather a collective one. It is only among people with important positions who must consider jihad as an individual’s duty. Therefore, people who have great duties to declare jihad must mobilize the rest of the population in order to participate in jihad.
It is the responsibility of spiritual leader to declare offensive jihad on others. However, offensive jihad is rare. Some scholars also note that jihad has its limits. For instance, Muhammad did not allow killing of women and children during jihad. Besides, the Quran does not make jihad a compulsory affair.
Muslim armies stayed away from cities in order to avoid corruption of cities. The second Caliph, Umar did not want desert soldiers to adopt corruption in cities. Umar did not want soldiers to learn behaviors of Roman and Persian elites. As a result, soldiers had to stay in isolated camps away from cities. Caliph argued that the attraction of wealth and luxury would corrupt the soldiers. This was also a method of keeping soldiers away from the general population in order to avoid struggle for control with other authorities.
Territorial expansion of Islam Initially, Islam was mainly in cities and among some nomads. The armies of Muhammad established garrisons, which grew into cities. These conquerors spread the religion forcefully and by diplomatic means. The religion attracted other nomads as it gained economic power too. Later, Muhammad allowed imperial expansion of Islam (Karsh 19).
Muhammad died in 632 AD. Caliphs took over the leadership of Islam. Caliphs were close to Muhammad. Rashidun Caliphs adopted the Muhammad’s method of acquiring new territories. Abu Bakr became a Caliph after the death of Muhammad. His major assignment was to eliminate rebellion of Arab tribes, which renounced the religion after the death Muhammad.
This was the beginning of the War of Apostasy, which aimed at suppressing rebels. After the end of the War of Apostasy, Caliph started to attack powerful empires of the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire. These two empires did not provide much resistance to Muslims because they were weak from war between themselves.
The second wave of Islamic territorial expansion used both persuasion and military force. Military expansion became the preferred method of expanding the territory of the religion. According to scholars in Islamic history, the Arab or Turkish conquerors applied force in “North Africa, Anatolia, the Balkans, and India” (Lapidus 198).
In other areas, such as West Africa and Indian Ocean regions, they used peace to spread the religion. In other cases, rulers or urban dwellers decided to adopt the religion. It is necessary to note that most coverts of Islam also resorted to forceful methods in order to expand their territories (Spencer 150).
Conclusion Muslims expanded their territories through persuasion and wars. However, Muslims relationships depicted of invasions, conquests, and destruction. Muslims’ powerful leaders also rose and fell as some of them committed atrocities against non-Muslims and people who resisted the religion. Islamic religion managed to maintain its stability and spread in most areas of the despite these cases constant wars. Roles of Islam are important for followers. However, the forceful and radical approaches make Islam feared and controversial.
Works Cited An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. The Future of Shari`a: Secularism from an Islamic Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Emory School of Law, 2007. Print.
Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library Publishers, 2002. Print.
Benhenda, Mostapha. “Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground.” Politics, Philosophy
A Discussion on the Effects of Geography online essay help: online essay help
The assigned reading demonstrates how history is filled with various accounts of man’s conquest at the sea. Through the act of piercing together various evidentiary accounts dating back to prehistoric times, the reading brings into the limelight some of the factors that came into play to favor the development of sailing in the Arabian shores and beyond. The present paper relies on the reading to demonstrate how geography and climate favored the development of Arab seafaring.
In terms of geographical orientation, it can be argued that Arab seafaring benefited a great deal by virtue of the Arabian physical location at the crossroads of important commerce routes that not only necessitated oriental trade with the Mediterranean world but also ensured easy flow of goods via the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Suez and the Persian Gulf.
It is clear from the reading that owing to its physical location at the epicenter of these natural waterways, that Arabian commerce with neighboring countries was invited to the west by the long shores of Northeast Africa and to the Northeast by the long shores of Iran.
Additionally, owing to its physical location, the Arab world was in direct contact with some of the most ancient centers of wealth and civilization, including Egypt, Iran, and Mesopotamia, implying that more commerce passed its way as goods were being transported from these centers to far away countries such as China and India.
Wares from China and India also passed through the Arab world into these centers because Arabs had easy access to the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. The Arab world also benefitted substantially from the Red Sea, the Nile, the Euphrates and the Tigris, which were natural channels that could be used for through traffic of goods between the Mediterranean basin and Eastern Asia. These geographical factors favored the development and growth of Arab seafaring.
In terms of climate, it can be argued that Arab seafaring benefited a great deal from the monsoon winds, which, according to the reading, assisted voyages both to Africa and to India.
However, it should be noted that Arab ships could not stand the vigor of the southwest monsoon winds which started in July and terminated in October due to the fact that the boats were made of skins and hollowed coconut trunks, not mentioning that they were sewn with stitches of coconut fiber instead of being secured with large iron nails as was the case with Greek ships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it is imperative to mention that the Persian Gulf not only lacked craftsmen to build strong ships, but the area produced little suitable timber for shipbuilding, necessitating Arab seafarers to build their boats from coconut trunks that could easily fall apart in high seas.
Consequently, owing to the unstable shape of the Arab ships as explained above, the reading suggests that Arab seafarers used the northeast monsoon to sail to countries such as India as it was not as vigorous as the southwest monsoon.
All the same, it is evident that Arab seafarers benefitted a great deal from the monsoon winds as they later employed the services of the Phoenicians to build strong ships from timber fetched from Nineveh. These new ships could withstand the strong southwest monsoon winds to directly sail from Arabia to India and then return in winter using the northeast monsoon winds.
Faith and Family: Video Review Essay (Movie Review) essay help online free: essay help online free
The significance of a family as a building block of the community is enormous because it is important for each individuals to have a feeling of connection. Indeed, family shapes our attitude to morale, divorce, religion, and beliefs. It provides a deeper understanding of people’s future goals in life. While looking at the videos on family and faith, it is possible to construct the basic values that a human should pursue to become a moral and full-fledged member of society.
At this point, understanding morally right beliefs and behavior should serve the basis for developing worldviews. Family relationships provide individuals with a meaning of parenting and upbringing through enhancing our religious commitment and faith. Increased awareness of the role of family’s ethnic heritage is important as well because it affects people’s attitude toward their cultural backgrounds. Finally, the ethnic and social values influence the religious responses of family members to social and cultural challenges.
In the first video, much attention is given to the role of religion and faith in family life. In particular, traditional beliefs systems that family follows are premised on social environment in which it is placed.
In fact, deep commitment to and faith in family’s power influences their interest in such aspects as social justice and belief systems. At this point, the majority of families realize that religious has always had a strong influence on them because members of society are regarded as future representatives of generation that should preserve family traditions.
Certainly, the religion accepted in a family is likely to influence children’s future belief systems. Within this perspective, the fact that religious parents have a strong impact on their children’s choices is not always approved.
However, children should not be under the pressure of parents’ preferences and stereotypes because there is greater probability that they would rebel. Imposing limitations on their choices does not contribute to children’s normal emotional and psychological development. Therefore, providing freedom in their actions is the best way for parents to control their children.
The fact that ethnicity influences considerably family’s culture, values, and environment is undeniable. Therefore, such challenges as racial discrimination, inequality, and limited freedom are among the most serious ones that families from minority groups can face. In the video, there is much concern about the difficulties that African-American communities encounter due to the crisis of social and ethnical values. In fact, the historical past has a tangible imprint on black families who strive to lead a normal life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result of social and cultural pressure, African American communities also have problems with children’s upbringing who often lack communication skills. The majority of kids do not posses the sense of family belonging because of their ethnical ancestry. Nevertheless, the community should strive to reduce the consequences of racial discrimination and harassment to build a healthy community.
Finally, in order to build a strong family with high moral values, the emphasis should be placed on religious responses to the social challenges. In particular, the video focuses on the achievements and contributions that religious communities and church made to improve the situation.
Introducing mentors who could encourage frustrated families is a step forward toward restoring the utmost family values and developing a new ethical and moral framework. In such a manner, it is also possible to reduce the number of divorce and bring up a happy nation.
Economic Analysis of Germany Case Study college admissions essay help
Major macro-economic indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013(f) GDP Growth (%) 3.6% 2.7% 3.1% 0.9% Inflation (Yearly average) (%) 1.1% 2.2% 1.99% 1.3% Budget balance (% of GDP) 4.2% 0.8% 0.2% 0.4% Current account balance (% of GDP) 6.11% 5.63% 5.65% 5.69% Public debt (% of GDP) 83.4% 81.5% 83% 81% Strengths Germany is characterized by a thriving export industry, strict discipline on fiscal matters and industrial relations and welfare policies which are driven by consensus among all parties. The country is specifically associated with goods of high quality and goods that are high-tech. It also practices a social market economy which is characterized by a combination of free enterprise and competition that concentrates on high level of social services.
Germany’s economy is ranked third largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and fifth largest one in terms of purchasing power parity. There is social understanding and cohesion among employers and employees, and the workers’ union representatives negotiate with executives of corporate companies in boardrooms. This system is referred to as co-determination.
Germany is also credited with having the largest coal deposits among the European Union countries, estimated at 7.4 billion short tons. This state has also put in place a highly developed transport and communications network which helps in transportation of goods and services (Merikas
Psychology of Business Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Literature Review Situational Questionnaires
While filling out the situation questionnaire, specific emphasis is placed on the analysis of situations the interviewees could face in various settings. At this point, Deinzer et al. (1995) assert that situation has a potent impact on the individual’s traits and behavior. Latent forms of expression and exposition, therefore, could be revealed by means of situational questionnaire.
In addition, Isaksen et al. (2001) focuses on the role of situational outlook questionnaire in improving or hampering the creative thinking among learners. The findings have revealed that learners rely on their experience while presenting their attitude to an academic process.
Behavioral psychology has a long history because it allows the researchers to identify the main aspects of social cognition. Therefore, introducing behavioral questionnaires provides a greater understanding how individuals respond to certain factors (Rath et al., 2013). Introducing behavioral questionnaires to the participants of the study contributes to self-evaluation of performance and other characteristics.
Analysis of spatial intelligence is also crucial for understanding which skills, experiences, and abilities could be measured by means of behavioral questionnaire (Eliot
Toy Story 1: An animation legend Research Paper custom essay help
Before Toy Story 1, Pixar previously worked on commercials and individual sequences of feature films and produced such short pieces as the 1988 Oscar-winner Tin Toy, which John Lasseter took on behalf of Pixar.
When it turned out that he was the one to direct Toy Story, it became a legend and revolutionized an industry. As a production director, he advanced the animation technology to produce an animation movie in a period of two years, integrating skills of more than 110 people, including 28 animators and 30 technical directors. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
Animation development is done through several techniques including stop motion, computer generated imagery (CGI) and hand-rendered art, among others. Stop motion involves the use of physical objects, photographing them and creating an illusion of movement through moving the object over a series of separate photography frames and then playing these frames sequentially.
Computer generated imagery involves the use of computer graphics, while hand-rendered art involves drawing scenes physically. An animation can be performed through a combination of such techniques. Exclusive production of Toy Story 1 is done by Computer Generated Imagery. Computer Generated Imagery involves three basic steps.
First, it is necessary to develop a wire frame geometric model for every object of the animation. Secondly, defining surface appearances, such as textures, color and reaction to light, is needed. The last step to perform is to execute the scenes, which is done by animating objects, integrating sound and light (Mitchel “Impact of CGI on Animation”).
Considering animation production of Toy Story 1, it should be noted that it is performed completely by computers, then computing power is of top priority. Pixar developed a unique computing room for Toy Story 1. The 24-hour operating room, named Sun farm after its excessive use of Sun Microsystems hardware, was created.
It had 294 processors running from Sun SPARC station 20s–87 dual-processor and 30 quad-processor SPARC stations. With the use of exceptional software for modeling, creating texture and colors, animating objects, integrating sound and lighting, the production included 1700 shots. It is the running of these frame animations which creates this computer-animated film, Toy Story 1.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in Computer Generated Imagery animation is generating animated objects. With over 366 objects, it required a dedicated team of artists to use this proprietary shelf software.
With the exception of the digitization of the clay model of dog Scud, all other objects were designed by sole use of Alias and Men V software. The latter is procedural modeling environment fourth generation Pixar software, which was used to create a five-block neighborhood with immense details, so that each house has its own driveway and landscape or even the cars and telephone poles.
The software used revolutionized the way of creating animated characters, such as designing a manufactured look for Woody. In creating some objects, modelers used some parts of the objects to make other ones; this practice came into play in creating things and humans through appropriating sizes and magnitudes. To create hair in animations, such as Andy’s hair, is quite a complex task; it took Pixar 6 years, after finishing Toy Story 1, to perfect this technique to produce Monster Inc in 2001. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
After modeling the underlying object skeleton; step two is the next to be followed. In this step of computer generated imagery animators, it is necessary to define the surface appearance of each object like color, texture and transparency. This involves the use of a specialized animation-computing tool, Shaders. Apart from describing outlook of object’s surfaces, it defines their reaction to light. An added twist to this mix was using top animation painters to paint splotches to incorporate into the software set.
This created a realistic effect of surface change in the occurrence of actions on the object and creating a background disparity and depth. An integral development of this software enabled the Pixar team to reduce the number of models needed, instead of creating models for providing minor details on existing objects; the result of complex software development was ability of Shaders to create a rich texture, such as scuffmarks on the walls. Further modification of this software was crucial to handle close-ups.
Third step was in parts animating the objects, lighting, inclusion of sound and finally, film shooting. In Toy Story 1, the animation of all the 50 characters including main characters, other toys and humans was needed. Human toys were complex to animate, especially due to clothes, which require a lot of details to be taken into account.
Characters’ animation was accomplished by Men V, implementing animation controls into the models, such as Buzz’s 800 animation controls. This software uses an inverse standard animation toolset. The assignment of characters was to multiple animators, each animator was working on a movie frame. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Toy Story 1: An animation legend specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Animation is quite a tedious yet still stimulating activity. The first step was analysis of the characters make-up, such as rigidity, then repeatedly listening to the dialog track in order to grow an imagination of their expectations of character’s movement in a given frame. After character’s animation is done, facial animation and lip sync came in; it included the development of character faces with pull points for facial muscles, which were essential to depict emotions and lips’ move in tandem with voice. (Calhoun “Toy Story”)
With animated models and sound built in, one detail was missing, lighting. Galyn Susman, a long standing Pixar employee, was the lighting director. With Man V, modelers created objects’ reaction to the light, which was quite essential development for this stage.
Importance of lighting cannot be underestimated because this is what creates drama, interaction, environments as well as hides animation flaws. The dramatic environment, such as a shower of rain and light streaming out, is a good example where lightning plays the major role. Animation of humans was a challenge; covering any of their animation flaws in shadow was a necessary action.
For Pixar, much used to just creating commercials, movie production required a different form of management. A team of Heidi Stettner and Peter Nye led by Karen Robert created a tracking system for the production. The system had complete information of everything in the movie. It was an all-inclusive system, which had versions of all details of the production work and the updates. The string tied the production all together.
The Pixar team succeeded in turning imagination of children’s book to a real movie. In the process, it built a new world for us, a world filled with animated humans and living toys. On November 22, 1995, launch of Toy Story 1 took an industry by storm by becoming a clear box office winner through gaining $361 million.
Years later, 2010 to be exact, after much tweaking with the software in areas, such as lighting and Shaders, though not under Lasseter’s wing, Toy Story 3 became the tenth all time grossing animated film and the most grossing animation, with unfathomable $1 billion at the box office (Mitchel “Impact of CGI on Animation”).
Works Cited Calhoun, John. “Toy Story”. TCI. February 1996. Print.
Mitchel, David. “Impact of CGI on Animation” zenoshrdlu, 2002. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toy Story 1: An animation legend by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Robertson, Barbara. “A Triumph of Animation”. Computer Graphics World Magazine – August 1995. Print.
Death Lore: Texas Rituals, Superstitions, and Legends of the Hereafter Essay (Article) college application essay help
Table of Contents What does Death Lore entail?
What does death encompass?
Is the research done in the field of Death Lore enough?
Untiedt looks at some of the key aspects that encompass death, dying and other aspects. He affirms that death is familiar and universal to all societies in the world. Thus, this has ensured that there are tales, activities and even beliefs that involve death. These aspects cannot be separated from each other because they encompass uncertainty and anxiety.
Most people do not talk about death because it is perceived as a taboo. In fact, conversations avoid death aspects. Besides, it is a topic that fascinates all people in all societies. Although, writers have written on aspects of death, there are many aspects unknown to people.
What does Death Lore entail? Therefore, fear, mystery and familiarity make death the focus of most folklore. This has seen the writing of many articles that try to address the issue of death. For instance, in Texas, publications on the same topic have facilitated folkloristic appreciation and understanding of the same.
Besides, this is aimed at educating the people of their culture without interfering with values that are upheld in society. Hence, Death Lore encompasses a number of articles, recollections and other topics on death from other parts of the world (Untiedt, 1). Further, it links the same to the beliefs and values of the people of the state of Texas.
Untiedt also explores the resting places of the dead people. For instance, he enlightens the people of Texas on the graveyards and all that go around them. Further, he looks at the challenges involved in cemetery space allocation. Besides, Untiedt brings out some of the bizarre wishes that are made by families of the dead people.
What does death encompass? Moreover, the Untiedt highlights some of the death process and the ceremonies that follow thereafter. Besides, he addresses some rituals that are done for the dead. This is achieved through the use of narratives. He also incorporates the work of other authors such as Massingills and Oden to highlight the worth of death lore for the people in various societies.
In fact, death Lore highlights different perspectives about death in various societies. Therefore, there is the likelihood of raising many questions rather than giving answers. It has not been able to address some of the aspects that encompass the Texas Death lore. For example, death has not been explored in the computer age (Untiedt, 288). However, this does not deter a person from appreciating all that has been done by authors like Ward and Rushing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Is the research done in the field of Death Lore enough? What is more, there are gaps regarding the Texas Death lore. This has been intentionally left to facilitate other researches on the same topic. This would also act, as a motivator, to ensure that people are involved in carrying out research. Furthermore, this will ensure that there is extra exploration in the field of death. Thus, there will be more sources with appropriate and valid data to be used than before.
In summary, Untiedt’s literature highlights the relationship between the fascination and taboos regarding death. This forms the foundation for further research on issues of death. Therefore, it gives other authors a challenge that needs to be solved. In fact, his work encourages others to find anecdotal and analytic issues that underpin deaths in societies.
Works Cited Untiedt, Kenneth. “Death Lore: Texas Rituals, Superstitions, and Legends of the Hereafter.” Journal of American Folklore (2008): 288- 290. Print.
Company Analysis between FedEx and US Postal Service Term Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Overview of the USPS and FedEx
Overview of US Postal Service
Overview of FedEx Corporation
Competiveness between US Postal Service and FedEx
Overview of the USPS and FedEx The contemporary economy provides both opportunities and challenges for the logistics companies in the United States and the entire world. Most companies are, therefore, coming up with competitive strategies that are meant to help them withstand the challenges, thus enhancing their competitiveness in the logistics sector.
FedEx and the United States Postal Service (USPS) and FedEx are examples of companies that operate in the larger US logistics sector. The last two decades have witnessed a significant rise in cross border trade. This has been enabled by an increase in the number of shipments of goods from one region of the world to the other. Also, the volumes of trade within countries keep swelling, thus enhancing the significance of the companies that deal in delivery of goods to customers.
Overview of US Postal Service The USPS is a logistics company that deals in the provision postal services across the United States. The US Postal Service is a government owned agency that has dealt in the provision of postal services for over two centuries. The most unique feature between the US Postal Service and FedEx is the size of US Postal Service. The US Postal Service is the largest postal service company in the world. It should be noted that though it is government owned, the agency operates independently. With over a half a million employees and over a quarter a million fleet of vehicles, the company supplies and delivers mails across the entire United States.
Being the main government owned agency in the logistics sector in the United States, the main competitors for the company are private companies like FedEx. In order to enhance its capacity to deliver services, the US Postal Service contracts most of its activities to other companies. Contracting eases the competitive scale for the company, besides increasing efficiency in the discharge of services, particularly in business areas like overseas freighting in which the company is disadvantaged (Team, 2012).
Overview of FedEx Corporation FedEx Corporation is a United States based global courier that delivers services across the United States. FedEx began its operations in the year 1971. However, the real stature of the company today is based on the developments in the company from the 1980s up to today, where the company made a series of acquisitions in order to gain the status it has today.
FedEx is organized into diverse units, which makes it easy for the company to attend to diverse business operations. FedEx operates as an international carrier, unlike the US Postal Services that largely operates in the United States and contracts most of its foreign shipment services to other companies. At the beginning of this year, the company was listed in the Fortune Magazine as the most attractive companies for employees (Rushton
Understanding Technology Management Fundamentals Research Paper essay help online
Introduction Acquisitions, mergers, and or strategic alliances make it possible to create values that are attributed to some forms of synergies. Although such an advantage is beneficial for the American Airlines and the US Airways, “statistical findings show that the benefits that look so good on paper often do not materialize” (Stahl, 2004, p.3).
Mergers may at times produce value destruction. Literature on acquisitions and mergers record failure rates in the range of 50 to 70 percent with exceptions where the failure rate may even be higher (Stahl, 2004). This paper argues that, in the proposed merger of American Airlines and the US Airways, companies should put in place strategic measures to resolve internal challenges for the merger to be successful.
Problem Analysis Fare regulation and Labor integration challenge
One of the substantive impacts of the merger between the US Airways and the American Airlines is that competition in the industry would be reduced. Portillo (2013) supports this challenge by reckoning, “the combination will reduce the number of competitors, which would otherwise suggest that higher fares are in the offing” (Para.11).
Even if this challenge is crucial, the American Airlines and the US Airways have had little overlaps since the two companies have established strong brand names. Merging the two companies would mean putting efforts to establish a new brand. Portillo (2013) exemplifies the overall internal impact of this case by arguing, “the merger will result in the loss of one airline brand name though the net to the consumer will not be some octopus-like monopoly that chokes fares upward” (Para.13).
In the airline industry, competition is one of the magnificent factors that make companies build their brands based on low fares. Merging the companies translates into a reduction of the industry’s competition. Hence, it is more likely that fares would go up across the entire firms operating in the industry. More effects are perhaps expected in the routes where the American Airlines and the US Airways have been dominating together.
Past research indicated that mergers fail because of poor strategic fits. Research that is more recent disapproves this position by holding that mergers and acquisitions find themselves in trouble due to poor execution processes related to “instances of insensitive management, lack of trust building, communication, slow execution, power struggles, or a leadership vacuum following the deal” (Stahl, 2004, pp. 3-4).
As an internal challenge facing mergers, leadership manifests itself for reasons stemming from the fact that the merger firms had some existing hierarchical leadership structures, which cannot be filled with dual person in the new firm. For the merger between the American Airlines and the US Airways, the above issue surfaced even before the execution of the merger deal took place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it has already been agreed upon, “Tom Horton, chief executive of American Airlines’ parent company AMR Corp., will serve as the company’s chairman for about a year, and Parker will become the chairman upon his resignation” (Portillo, 2004, Para. 2).
While the deal for the leadership top positions seems to have already been arrived at, the criteria for allocation of leadership positions in the lower hierarchical structures of management in the merger may create challenges thus often truncating into internal organizational conflicts.
Still in the domain of mergers’ leadership, different organizations establish different organizational cultures. Therefore, a challenge arises in the integration of different corporate cultures into one culture (Klein
International Pressure and Sanctions Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How International Action Contributed to Ending Apartheid
Introduction The apartheid system, which was in place from the late 1940s to the early 1990s in South Africa, was one of the worse examples of discrimination and racism by a government against its citizens. This system divided South Africans into first class and second-class citizens based on their racial orientation.
The minority white South Africans were afforded all the political privileges and given the status of “first class citizens” while the other races were treated as inferior. The South African government tried to justify this discriminative system to its citizens and the international community. However, local and international condemnation of the system grew over the 1960s with calls been made for the government to end this oppressive system.
The relative importance of the domestic and international in bringing an end to apartheid is debatable with some people arguing that black South Africans political participation in anti-apartheid movements played the biggest role while others argue that actions by the international community where the most significant in dismantling apartheid. This paper will argue that international pressure and sanctions were the most important factors in ending apartheid in South Africa.
How International Action Contributed to Ending Apartheid The economic sanctions imposed on the apartheid government led to economic difficulties that made the apartheid system unfavorable. The goal of imposing sanctions against South Africa was to reduce the economic welfare of the rich white minority in the country and hence diminish the willingness of the country to persist in maintaining apartheid.
In spite of the country’s mineral wealth and valuable geographic position, the international community was not willing to downplay apartheid (Thomson 114). Western powers encouraged their citizens to disinvest in South Africa. This disinvestment by capital by foreigners led to a significant reduction in the wealth of the white minority therefore raising the costs of apartheid for the group that had benefited from the system.
Kaempfer and Lowenberg note that the economic sanctions against South Africa resulted in a reduction of the GDP of the country (377). These negative economic outcomes led to a change in the behavior of the South African government in the desired direction. Economic sanctions contributed in the dismantling of apartheid by reducing the economic welfare of the white minority who were the main beneficiaries of the apartheid system.
The isolation brought about by international pressure decreased government efficiency and the local support for apartheid. Led by the United Nations, many countries condemned the policy of apartheid and called for its end. Lulat (364) notes that many newly independent African countries put pressure on the Western powers to take action against the South African regime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Efforts by the international community to pressure the South African Government to end apartheid were in play as early as 1963 when the US sort ways to “induce the South African government to remove the evil business of apartheid from the continent of Africa” (Duncan 38).
The US and some European countries restricted the granting of travel visas to high-ranking political and military personnel within the South African government. In 1977, the US government recalled its Ambassador to South Africa and subsequently joined the rest of the world in condemning apartheid (Thomson 113). In addition to the effect that international pressure had on the white South African community, it also raised the expectations of black South Africans.
International pressure demonstrated to the black community that the rest of the world supported their efforts towards ending apartheid. It showed that the international community supported the determination of the Africans to win full status and dignity in their country. The government therefore had a harder time maintaining and defending apartheid institutions in light of this anti-apartheid sentiment from the international community.
International efforts against the Apartheid regime led to the imposition of an arms embargo that reduce the military capability of the South African government and increased the cost of equipping the military. Due to the perceived injustices of apartheid, the non-White groups in the country founded protest movements to fight for equal rights and freedoms with the whites. The government reacted aggressively to this protests using military force to suppress any opposition.
Duncan observed that the growing government oppression in South Africa could only be countered by external pressures (42). The international community therefore intervened to stop the government from getting the arms that it needed to form a well-equipped army to counter this growing African militancy. Its efforts to acquire this arms from the international market where thwarted by a UN Security Council resolution in 1977 that banned the shipment of arms to the South African Government.
The United States, which is a major weapons trader in the world, adopted a complete embargo of military equipment to South Africa. Duncan notes that the US stopped supplying the South African government with all lethal goods and even terminated the sale of all military spare parts to South Africa (115). The South African government tried to counter this arms embargo by manufacturing its own arms.
However, the locally produced weapons were costly and of a lower quality to those available in the international market. In addition to this, the cost of research and production led to financial strain by the government as funds were diverted from important public institutions. This decreased the popularity of the apartheid policy even within members of the White population.
We will write a custom Essay on International Pressure and Sanctions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International pressure forced the South African government to enter negotiations with the oppositions groups that were demanding political representation and justice. The apartheid policy had denied the non-White population any political power and the white minority were unwilling to reach a compromise.
The prominent anti-apartheid South African cleric, Archbishop Desmond Tutu declared that while the objective of the African opposition movements was negotiation, the apartheid regime could not “get to the table without concerted international pressure” (Lulat 364).
Through this pressure, the government was forced to listen to the troubles of the majority and react to them in a favorable manner. Without the involvement of the international community, the South African government had no incentive to negotiate with its non-White population.
Conclusion This paper set out to argue that international pressures and sanctions played the most significant role in ending apartheid in South Africa. To this end, it has highlighted the ways in which the international community contributed to the collapse of apartheid.
Through international pressure and the use of punitive measures such as investment sanctions and trade restrictions and embargoes on supply of key goods, the international community was able to accelerate the ending of apartheid in South Africa.
If the international community had not involved itself in South Africa’s affairs, the oppressive apartheid system would have continued for longer. Because of this international pressure and sanction, South African abandoned apartheid and adopted a system that ensured majority rule based on justice and equality.
Works Cited Duncan, Patrick. “Toward a World Policy for South Africa”. Foreign Affairs 42.1 (1963): 38-48. Web.
Kaempfer, William and Lowenberg Anton. “A Model of the Political Economy of International Investment Sanctions: The Case of South Africa”. KYKLOS Journal 39.3 (1986): 377-397. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Pressure and Sanctions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lulat, Yuni. United States Relations with South Africa: A Critical Overview from the Colonial Period to the Present. Peter Lang, 2008. Print.
Thomson, Alex. “The Diplomacy of Impasse: the Carter Administration and Apartheid South Africa”. Diplomacy
Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Definition of key terms
Criteria for value judgement
Application of the criteria
Introduction Over the years, marriage has been thought to be a private affair between two partners who express love and commitment to each other. However, this has grown to be referred to as a public institution. Marriage originates from time immemorial where the Christians profess that God created man and woman and put them in the Garden of Eden to reproduce and take care of the garden.
Therefore, the marriage institution has existed for a long time now. However, different scholars have emerged with various definitions of the term marriage. The marriage bill in the United State has had various amendments as different leaders considered it a sensitive issue in the country. The issue of gay marriage has always been brought about by lawmakers in the country since the 1970s where they advocate for legalization of the same sex marriage.
This paper brings into light several amendments to the Marriage Act where it guarantees the constitutional right of all citizens in the country. The Defense of Marriage Act is abbreviated as DOMA was enacted on September 1996 by the United States Congress. This legislation was enacted under President Bill Clinton, and it recognizes the marriage institution. According to DOMA, marriage refers to a union between a man and a woman that is legal under law that give the right of each partner in the marriage.
However, the law does not acknowledge the existence of the same sex marriage, and this has brought about legal cases to the government by aggrieved parties. The act signed into law by President Clinton raised a lot of questions about the Marriage Act where different lawmakers failed to acknowledge homosexual marriages under the law. The failure to recognize same sex marriage brought a lot of legal action to the government by aggrieved parties (Perkins, 2).
Definition of key terms Federal law refers to a state regulation of Acts that each citizen is supposed to follow without fail. The Federal bills are passed by the Congress and signed by the President before being gazetted into law.
The laws provide guidelines of how citizens should carry themselves under the legal framework of the given country. The law protects the citizen from arbitration or any breach of their right and freedom either by the state or any citizen (Cott, 73). Marriage can be defined as a legal union between two individuals who express love and commitment to each other.
The union is recognized under the country’s legal framework as a binding agreement where benefits to both individuals are paramount. Under a common law, marriage is a legal union between a man and woman who come together to express love, sacrifice and commitment to each other under the law. This union is guarded by a legal document signed by the couple in front of a witness. There are different kinds of marriage that exist. This includes the Christian marriage that permits only one man and woman to have a marriage union.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other kinds of marriage include civil union, which is officiated by the Attorney General. Over the years, debate about legalizing the same sex marriage had challenges following what is seen as a breach of the public view on the moral standards and especially in the church and family setting. In the past, most churches could not ordain gay priests as they were considered to have gone against the Biblical teachings.
Criteria for value judgement Under the DOMA agreement enacted on September 1996, no state or even political subdivision can recognize same sex marriage for federal reasons including benefits to government employees or even social security for survivors’ benefits (Perkins, 2). Under the Clinton government, the law was put in the letter, and this raised a lot of questions and cases castigated towards the government.
As the government tried to criminalize homosexuality in the country, the homosexuality conduct law brought a case of Lawrence and Texas in 2003. The case was a follow up of the country in a move to overturn any same sex marriage where the parties to the marriage had no right under the law to conduct such an act.
The case was decided that brought power to the gay rights community in the state of Texas. The sodomy laws had criminalized many gay and lesbian couples before the Lawrence v Texas case in June 2003, which overturned the implications that the same sex marriage couple suffered under the sodomy laws. Before this case was brought out into the public domain, the homosexuals had been criminalized for their acts.
The same sex marriage law had extended to the military where the soldiers were not supposed to indulge in these acts. The law also sought to remove the children from their lesbian mothers’ home as a justification of these harsh laws against gay marriage. The Texas case impacted on the Marriage Bill in that the exclusion of gays from the military was now seen as a breach of their right to join the army and serve in the country’s military as they deemed fit (Duncan, 623-663).
Application of the criteria In declaring the sodomy law unconstitutional in the country, the court that ruled the Lawrence v Texas case the court sought clarification of the Georgia sodomy statute that banned the same sex marriage in the country (Chauncey, 509-538).
Sodomy laws were thought to be the ideological, but they never considered the rights of the rising outcry by the gay community that sought the court orders to deem their marriage fit under the law. The anti-gay legislations that were eminent before had to be criticized to enable the observation of the rights of the different people who wanted to indulge in same sex marriages and relationships.
We will write a custom Essay on Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Following the election of President Obama into power, the Congress was mandated to look into the matter regarding same sex marriage and whether to legalize the union of the same sex partners. The DOMA act that was signed by President Clinton had to be investigated to allow for more public opinion about the same sex marriage in the country. The Massachusetts court granted several follow up with the same sex marriage bills seeking to allow for civil union of the same sex couple in the country.
The Supreme Court held meetings to discuss the implication of legalizing the same sex marriage, and various issues were raised that necessitated the need to legalize the bill into law. By the year 2009, most states had legalized the same sex marriage and started to issue certificates to the couples. States like California legalized the same sex marriage, and it was seen as a win for the gay community as their constitutional rights were finally recognized and considered (Condit and Lucaites, 56).
Conclusion The anti same sex marriage laws has over the years seen as abusing the constitutional right of many citizens in the United States. The law criminalizes against gay and lesbian marriages. However, the trend seems to be changing with many people coming out to declare their sexuality. This has led to the public outcry to amend some of these laws. The sodomy law in the State of Texas was criminalizing gay couples and made it difficult for the gay community to serve in the military.
Works Cited Chauncey, George. “What Gay Studies Taught the Court: The Historians’ Amicus Brief in Lawrence v. Texas.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 10.3 (2004): 509-538. Print.
Condit, Celeste and John Louis Lucaites. Crafting Equality: America’s Anglo-African Word. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Print.
Cott, Nancy. Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Press, 2000. Print.
Duncan, William. “The Litigation to Redefine Marriage: Equality and Social Meaning.” BYU, Journal of Public Law, 18 (2004): 623-663. Print.
Perkins, James. Defense of Marriage: Does It Need Defending? New York: Novinka Books, 2004. Print.
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The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara Essay college admission essay help
Jataka describes Prince Vassantara as one of the reincarnations of Buddha. It is possible to note that Prince’s all actions are driven by his desire to give away. This desire makes him give away his treasures, his kingdom and even his family. More so, he is ready to give away his self if it is necessary.
This is seen as the highest manifestation of virtue and Jataka describes last reincarnation of Buddha in this way to stress one of the major values of the religion. Admittedly, liberality is seen as one of the most important characteristics of a righteous man. Jataka tells the story of Prince Vassantara to give people the model to follow.
The desire to give away appeared in Prince Vassantara when he was in his mother’s womb making his mother crave “to have six almshouses built” and give a lot of gifts, “every day to give six hundred thousand gold coins” (Cone
Divergent Social Worlds Essay (Book Review) custom essay help: custom essay help
“Divergent Social Worlds” reflects a culmination of the in depth study of the linkage of race, place and crime. The book brings into light new aspects and advanced analytical approach to research on the cyclic problems of neighborhood, race, and crime. The authors explore and answer lingering questions of how violent and property crimes differ across neighborhoods that are composed of different ethnic and racial clusters.
The authors begin by postulating an operational theory of the ethnic and latitudinal distribution of crime by enunciating a broad variety of sociology theories; physical race theory, communal disorganization theory, and theories of suburban separation. The authors contend that a key operational mechanism by which cultural orders have been replicated in America is suburban isolation.
In turn these have led to racial spatial divide in which racial-ethnic minorities find themselves compelled to the bottom strata and the privileged whites find themselves at the top strata. This unequal stratification has led to social disparities in which led to the creation of varying interests located in distinct neighborhoods, ultimately leading to unequal rates of crime.
The book has integrated this theoretical perspective meticulously and combined information from urban sociology, criminology, racial and ethnic stratification. Mainly throughout its skeletal body, residential segregation is the major factor that connects the overall racial order with dramatic racial and ethnic differentials in crimes across communities.
Theoretical integration is achieved by the book as it reinforces the complex intertwine of social and institutional inequities that better place white neighborhoods in contrast to those of the African American, Latino and other arrays of neighborhoods. Intrinsically, segregation is the backbone of divergence between the social world of people in the United States in relation to color and as to why neighborhood crime is so radicalized.
Empirical evidence has been brought out by the authors in order to substantiate their theoretical claims. They test their theoretical claims using data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), where they compiled crime and related data of about nine thousand six hundred neighborhoods in approximately ninety-one large cities in the year two thousand. The large database created an unlimited and unbiased source of information, which made it easier to identify the relation between race, place and crime in the United States.
Previous research was conducted in a single city and thus by cutting across different cities, Peterson and Kivro have been able to explore how these patterns of neighborhood crime vary across communities of different races. In the initial analysis, they document how crime rates differ significantly across neighborhoods that consist of different ethnic and racial groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The book clearly illustrates the dramatic nature of the racial-spatial divide and helps us fathom how entrenched social and economic disparities in America’s neighborhoods are. In subsequent analysis, they outline the magnitude to which differences in relative advantage and disadvantage are sources of unequal crime rates across the various types of neighborhoods. They use multivariate models to examine both neighborhood and city characteristics as indicators of crime rates.
The book lays to rest the prevalent misunderstanding that persistently high crime rates in less privileged societies is as a result of individual ethical decadence or pathologies or worse a culture of group criminality.
The book exonerates the people living in impoverished societies of the earlier misconceptions of crime activities in these societies and brings to light the silent externalities that are a key factor to molding these societal inequalities. The book tends to close the gap for organizers, policymakers and future researchers and creates an insight in these cyclic issues.
How to Motivate Your Employees Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need for Employee Motivation
Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm
Employee Motivation in the 21st Century
Strategies of Employee Motivation
Recommendations on How to Motivate Employees
Introduction Employees form the most important part of any organization. According to Chopra (2002), employees are the most important assert within an organization. Employees will determine success or failure of an organization based on the approach they give to the various tasks assigned to them.
Employee motivation is therefore, very important in ensuring that employees achieve desired result in various tasks assigned to them in order to ensure an overall success of the firm. Motivated employees tend to give their best effort in all that they do. The work with very little supervision, and do not wait to be directed to perform given tasks. They work with the vision of the organization in their heart, always determined to see success in all that they do.
It is because of this that various firms have come to appreciate the need to have a group of motivated employees. Firms are currently struggling to ensure that they offer their employees the best working environment that will ensure that they are constantly motivated. Employees’ motivation always has a direct impact on the success of the firm in the given industry. This paper focuses on ways in which employees of a given firm can be motivated.
The Need for Employee Motivation For a long time, labor has not been given its rightful position in many organizations. Many of the managements have not thought of viewing their employees as very important asserts. However, the happenings of the recent past have proven that labor force is one of the most important asserts to any given organization.
When the management lays down objectives to be achieved, it is always the employees who are expected to implement the policies that would bring the desired results. It is this work force that would be expected to turn the policies from paper to reality. Therefore, retention of employees is very important. Employees should be retained within the organization to ensure that the firm’s operations are consistent.
High turnover rate of employees is not healthy for the firm’s prosperity (Anderson, 2004). This is because it does not only affect the smooth implementation of policies within the firm, but also leads to increased cost of training new employees. It is even worse that the employees would go away having learnt the strategies of the firm, making the firm vulnerable to its competitors.
The management should therefore device methods of hiring qualified employees and retaining them within the firm. One of the best ways to achieve this is through motivation. It is through motivation that employees will feel attached to the firm and therefore feel committed to the firm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm Armstrong (2002) says that employees are the implementing arm of the organization. While the top executives formulate the policies to be implemented by the organization, most of their tasks always end in the paper. It is upon the employees to make these blueprints a reality.
In his words, employees are the engine of the organization. When well taken care of and put in a proper condition, they would always give the best of the results to the organization. However, when they are neglected and left to ‘rust’ they will always give leap service and the output will be very disappointing.
Motivating employees within the organization is very important. There is a direct link between employee motivation and success of a firm. It is very important that a firm increases the rate of employee motivation because of a number of reasons. In most of the occasions, policies are always developed to last for one whole year. However, these policies are always units in the larger vision of the firm.
A vision may be developed to be achieved in a time span of say thirty year or so. This duration is long and the firm may not take a direct approach towards achieving this vision. It therefore has to split this vision into yearly strategic objectives. When the year begins, the firm would plan with its current work force.
When some of the employees leave along the year because of lack of motivation, it would be a blow to the success of that year’s strategic objectives. The firm would be forced to look for a replacement and train them and make them understand the objectives to be achieved (Barrows