The First-Generation College Students Quantitative Research


First-generation college students’ experiences, habits, and perceptions of the relevance of extracurricular enrichment activities are examined in this presentation to determine whether or not they will continue their education and complete their degree. The characteristics and practices of academics, as well as extracurricular activities, such as involvement in Upward Bound, a unique enrichment program, will be investigated in this presentation.

Literature Review

Researchers discovered that, whereas graduation rates have fluctuated over time, the factors that predict completion of secondary education have stayed relatively constant throughout time. Here are a couple of such examples: factors of a purely economic nature. One of the reasons for this is due to the demography of the population. Influence on ninth-graders is a factor. In addition, there is the matter of course failure to take into account as well. Measures have been implemented at the state and local levels to address these issues and increase graduation rates throughout the state. Increasing the graduation rate of students has proven to be beneficial when using an integrated approach that considers a wide range of variables from various educational levels and contexts (Atalar, 2020). Those who have observed youngsters falling behind in their schooling have implemented early intervention programs to assist them in catching up. Due to the increase in our student population’s diversity and growth in size, it is becoming increasingly vital to recognize demographic differences and the specific demands of different geographical locations.

For many children, their family and school environments have a substantial impact on whether or not they are able to complete their educations. According to studies, students who do not have actively involved parents are more likely to drop out of high school than their peers who do have such parents. It has been found that high school graduation rates are higher among students who attend smaller schools and who regard their professors as “good quality.” Schools with high dropout rates tend to have an unjust and unproductive discipline system, according to students. Schools with a history of violence and insecurity have higher dropout rates. Students who identify as LGBT frequently cite the threat of physical or verbal violence at school as a motivation for dropping out. Academic accomplishment and self-worth are less common among LGBT students in high school than among their peers. This research has found that reading proficiency in third grade has been associated with academic performance in the long run, particularly high school graduation rates. Some studies have found that reading abilities below the basic level have a greater dropout rate than those with basic skills, whereas students with superior reading skills have a lower dropout rate than those with basic reading skills. Twenty-six percent of second- through eleventh-grade students who could not read proficiently were expelled or did not finish high school on time, as compared to nine percent of students with basic or below-basic reading skills who had not lived in poverty. Poorer areas and underperforming schools are more likely to be home to students from low-income families. All of these things could have a negative effect on student’s grades and graduation rates. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more young people from low-income families do not finish high school or do not enroll in high school (CDC). Dropout rates among young women are significantly higher when they become pregnant or become parents while still in high school. Women who had children while still in high school were more likely to have earned their diplomas by the age of 22, although this is not true for virtually all women who had given birth while still in high school. Dropouts are more likely to suffer from poor health and die early in the long run. Self-reported poor health is more common among persons who did not complete high school. Asthma, diabetes, and heart disease were among the most common chronic conditions among them, compared to slightly over half of college grads. Early death can be decreased by finishing more years of high school and receiving a high school diploma. Initiatives that encourage high school graduation can benefit students and their communities. More educated people have more money, better living conditions, and better food and health care options available to them. Graduation from high school can have a positive impact on people’s health in general.

The dropout rate is too high, and the graduation rate is too low, according to the majority of people. Understanding the true scale of the problem has been difficult due to discrepancies in how the rates are calculated. Remediation is challenging when the nature of the problem is still in flux, as is the case in this situation. Without reliable and consistent data on the graduation and dropout rates for all students, it is impossible to evaluate the effectiveness of various policy interventions aimed at improving educational outcomes for Young people in this country. Using high-impact rules to encourage student involvement, academic achievement, and effective learning are all discussed in this philosophy of education. The increase in graduation rates is due to a combination of all of these factors.

In order to adequately prepare future professors for the classroom, graduate programs at colleges and universities must be altered. A few decades ago, the vast majority of new Ph.D. graduates, at least those from the most prestigious programs, were placed in positions where research is the primary focus (Johnson & Stage, 2018). In order to teach successfully, college instructors today need to have access to a lot of material. Knowledge about learning and pedagogy, as well as the design and effectiveness of alternative methods of instruction, is becoming more and more relevant as time goes on. There has been an increase in the need for specialized training because of the advent of new technology. It is becoming more and more problematic for graduate students to be underprepared in light of growing knowledge about effective strategies for engaging students, identifying their issues with course material, and modifying teaching approaches accordingly. Graduate students are already being trained to teach in colleges and universities by giving them the opportunity to help professors in key lecture courses and by creating centers where they may receive coaching on how to be better teachers. Training in how to be a classroom instructor is becoming more commonplace in many disciplines. Although allowing graduate students to serve as mostly unsupervised teaching assistants and creating facilities where they can undergo a fast orientation or a few optional sessions on teaching is important, these steps alone will not adequately prepare them for a career in the classroom. More extensive preparation will be necessary as time goes on, and this will become more critical as the relevant amount of knowledge grows. Rather than providing suitable programs for the academic roles that graduate schools are designed to serve and in which the vast majority of their students continue to work, departments spend much too much time training Ph.D. candidates for careers outside academia. Provosts and deans could use teachers from other departments or the university if departments are unable to provide such training due to a lack of faculty members with relevant expertise. However, they may be reluctant to do so because graduate education has traditionally been the exclusive domain of departments. Donors with a business mindset may desire to support graduate schools or departments that are open to making the necessary adjustments in order to better their programs. One or two of the world’s best colleges and universities will undoubtedly follow suit if they respond positively to this request.


In descriptive research, the goal is to describe the current state of an observed variable. Through the application of statistical tools, the goal of these studies is to compile comprehensive data on a certain occurrence. It is rare for researchers to begin with a hypothesis in mind but rather to develop one after collecting evidence. An evaluation of the hypothesis is based on the data analysis and interpretation. Systematic data collection necessitates the careful selection of study units and the precise measurement of each variable. A primary purpose of causal-comparative/quasi-experimental research is to uncover correlations between the variables being researched (Atalar, 2020). These designs are very close to real trials, but there are a few crucial changes. To determine the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable, the researcher controls the independent variable but does not alter it. It is not possible for a researcher to randomly assign groups; instead, he or she must employ groups that have developed spontaneously or that have existed previously (Papasian-Broadwell, 2021). It is important to distinguish between control groups that have been exposed to the treatment variable and those that have not.

These designs are very close to real trials, but there are a few crucial changes. To determine the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable, the researcher controls the independent variable but does not alter it. It is not possible for a researcher to randomly assign groups; instead, he or she must employ groups that have developed spontaneously or that have existed previously (Papasian-Broadwell, 2021). It is important to distinguish between control groups that have been exposed to the treatment variable and those that have not.

Analysis of the data sets and components involves the use of special application software, including SPSS and Excel, to obtain regression and visual impressions for inferencing purposes. The data gathering involves the use of questionnaires, interviews, and observation. To understand the application of applied behavioral analysis and changes, modeling using either SPSS software or Excel is used to gain a visual summary of what the abstractions relate to in giving patterns of impacts on the rate of student success and course completion. The data sets were obtained through a comprehensive data gathering process for both primary and secondary data, with the core variables being the abstract value trends for the implementation of the ABA with a time frame and graduation metrics.

It is estimated that about 80% of people in an age group need some sort of postsecondary education to be effective in today’s rapidly changing, information-based economy. This has resulted in numerous policy suggestions from a wide range of groups, explaining how policymakers, states, and K–12 schools, as well as postsecondary institutions, may work together to promote educational achievement in the 21st century for kids, families, and community organizations. In light of this research, several factors can both aid and hinder the completion of a bachelor’s degree. A number of promising treatments are also within our grasp if only they can be put into practice correctly and reach enough students to make a difference. Many more questions remain unresolved, as evidenced by the above list of unanswered questions. Due to a shortage of funding, colleges, and universities are unable to effectively raise student success. There is no way for a university to change the family tree of its students. On college campuses, cultural transitions can be difficult and unwelcome. Some of the institution’s long-held concepts and normal operating methods may be destructive in their application, yet they are deeply embedded in academic leaders’ and senior administrators’ minds (Cresweel, 2020). While this is the case, most institutions have the capacity to do much more than they are currently doing in order to implement interventions that will influence how students approach college and what they do after they are on campus. The real question is whether or not we are willing to put into practice what we already know to be effective educational policies and practices in order to increase the number of students who are ready for, enter, and complete their education.

In a difficult situation, one may find self in a quandary. If one works in any field, one will eventually encounter a problem. It is impossible to avoid. Every job comes with its own set of peculiar problems and dilemmas. Behavior analysts face a variety of challenges, including obstacles to overcome and dangers that must be kept in mind, as well as unforeseen events that may need to be investigated. There may be times when applied behavior analysts are caught off guard and unsure of what to do, even though they have been trained to deal with the majority of difficult situations and ethical dilemmas that arise in the course of their work. Anyone who works in applied behavior analysis will have doubts about their own ethics. ABA therapists need to be aware of the dangers of the job, which requires a great deal of intimacy and in-home care. Psychotherapists have to deal with a wide range of ethical dilemmas, including demanding patients, busy schedules, and overbearing parents. Several issues are at play.

Expected Findings

It is critical for school administrators, counselors, and teachers to have a full grasp of the reasons why students drop out of school, including both evident and covert factors such as bullying. Further research should be conducted to see whether any additional early warning indicators exist that may have an impact on the graduation rates of potential first-generation college students in addition to those that have previously been discovered (Creswell, 2020). The fact that some children may be labeled as “latch-key” children, in which they are left at home alone while their parents are at work, may make it difficult for some students to concentrate or study; (c) the fact that some children may be referred to as “latch-key” children, in which they are left at home alone while their parents are at work; (d) the fact that some children may be labeled as “latch-key” children, in which they are left at home alone. According to research, stress has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on the ability to concentrate and retain knowledge. The identification of early warning indicators, as a result, does not assist educators in understanding how to effectively address the issue of unacceptable graduation rates if students’ essential social, psychological, and emotional needs are not being met at home and if schools fail to recognize the extent to which these same unmet needs may influence academic performance, motivation, and attendance as well as behavioral problems. Sincere, empathetic, sympathetic, and accountable relationships with students are the most effective approaches for instructors to learn about their student’s experiences in the real world.


Atalar, A. (2020). Student exchange: The first step toward international collaboration. In Successful Global Collaborations in Higher Education Institutions (pp. 63-71). Springer, Cham.

Creswell, S. (2020). Written Reflections and Discussion Forums–Math for Elementary School Teachers (Q2S-EP: Math 301AQBR and Math 301BQBR).

Johnson, S. R., & Stage, F. K. (2018). Academic engagement and student success: Do high-impact practices mean higher graduation rates? Journal of Higher Education, 89(5), 753-781.

Papasian-Broadwell, M. (2021). On-Time Graduation Rates in a Suburban Secondary School: A Mixed-Methods Study Examining Factors that Impact Student Academic Achievement and Graduation.