The Empirical Project: Turkey Essay Writing Essay Help

Introduction The Republic of Turkey is a republican parliamentary democratic country with the population about 68,000,000 people. Possessing a great number of natural resources, manufacturing, agriculture and a range of services, having a good location and opportunities for maritime commerce, the economical potential of the country is successful. The modern borders of the country have been created in 1920, and it is located in the southern-western part of Asia and in the southern Europe.

The country is influenced both by the European and Asian forces in cultural, political, and economical life. The country performs the functions of the balancing act, remaining open to the Middle East, it actively searches for the membership in the European Union. The country is a republic, but the president is elected. The economical situation in the country has changed as the crisis of 2008-2010 has not passed behind. Still, good potential and the desire to be a developed country have made it possible to start the economic recovery program (Sheehan 2004, p. 135).

Fast industrialization of the country also contributes to the economical and political development of the country and its high value at the international arena. The main purpose of this project is to consider the political and economical situation in the country as the background for more detailed description of the following issues, economy in the business sector and the economic problems the country faces.

Moreover, the fiscal and monetary policy stances are going to be discussed within the topic. Many financial factors, both at the national and at the international arena, influence the country development. Economical data in the country’s financial relations provides some impact on the micro and macroeconomics of the country.

Executive Summary The paper examines political and economical situation and its influence on the country’s development. To have a full vision of the situation in Turkey, a number of different aspects are to be considered. The general situation in the political and economical life of the country is the best way to see the situation in the country and to analyze the general development and the opportunities the country has. The information devoted to the import and export shows the country’s capacities and the necessities.

The general situation at the national and international market may be considered along with the information about the modern state of the industries and agricultural sector. The information about the economy and its place in the business cycle may help understand the level of business development and state the issues which should be addressed. The economic problems in the country may be identified and analyzed on the basis of the specific financial data.

Fiscal policy stance of the government and monetary policy stance of the central bank along with the discussion of bank’s independence is considered to be the focus of the analysis on the basis of the latest data taken from the up-to-date sources. Some data has been put in the table with the purpose to understand its influence on the micro and macroeconomic situation in of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having been impacted by the international polices and national privatization and democratic facilities, the county has to cope with a number of different problems and at the same time meet the standards of the EU if Turkey wants to be its member.

Background To understand the background for the country’s national and international development, it is important to check the political and economical situation in general, without referencing to the specific situations and financial activities. One of the main barriers on the way to successful development and functioning on the international arena has been the absence of democratic issues.

When the whole world has entered the epoch of democratization and liberalization, Turkey remained under pressure of the Islam and the politics on the basis of this religion. The country had to suffer some hybrid regimes to achieve the democratic position is takes now. Ghanim (2009) is sure that “considering that legitimacy derives from people rather than from God is a huge step in the direction of political modernization and a serious commitment to democracy” (77).

This is exactly what Turkey has made, it began to pay attention to human understanding of rights and now is a democratic country. The EU is considered to be the central force which made Turkey stand on the way of democratization and liberalization as the country development depends on it. The desire to become a member of the EU encourages Turkey to improve the economic situation and the relation to the human rights (Çarkoğlu and Rubin 2003, 192).

The successful development of political situation and its neo-liberalism became possible only because Turkey has refused from the politics run in the Middle East and has created its own norms and principles. Some people call this politics ‘un-Islamic’ (Ghanim 2009, 76). Still, such politics has made possible for the country to become the candidate of EU which is considered to be the main step on the way to membership (Çarkoğlu and Rubin 2003, 208).

The political changes have been supported with the economical recovery and improvement. The main principle of the economics in the country is competition “which possesses the institutional and political capacity needed to be able to provide the appropriate regulatory framework for an outward-oriented, market-based development (Onis 2009, 411)”.

Having used the Washington Consensus as the basis for the financial changes and having accepted the idea that political liberalization does not require from the state the change of legal and institutional acts, Turkey have faced the problem of inadequate functioning of the economical processes.

We will write a custom Essay on The Empirical Project: Turkey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The absence of the regulatory framework along with monetary and fiscal discipline resulted in three crises the country suffered from during different years (Onis 2009, 411). The economy of the country is on the way to recovery. Many attempts have been provided to make the economy of Turkey stable and developing. Analyzing the after-crises situation, it may be concluded that GDP is high, inflation is reduced as well as the budget deficit, the banking sector is significantly improved, GNP debt is large, but the tendency to its reduction are seen.

The economy still depends on short-term capital, therefore, the risks of a new crisis is reduced due to the regulation of the banking system and better macroeconomic environment. Even though the export has increased, the current account deficit is large. In spite of the time-lag, inflows of foreign investment and privatization have significantly increased.

The productivity has strongly improved and may be considered as the source of growth (Onis 2009, 422). So, the conclusion may be drawn that the general situation at the political and economical arena is stable and developing in the direction of the international market and relationships.

Imports and Exports Turkey is heavily relied on exports, for which the economy was influenced by the economic crisis in 2008 (Economy Watch 2011). After the economic boom experience4 in the period between 2002 and 2007, Turkey’s trade, exports, and imports “ were hit badly in the year 2008, when the trade deficit stood at 31%” (Economy Watch 2011).

The relation between the amount of import and export and economic growth is positively correlated, i.e. the expansion of the volume of trade leads to an increase in employment growth and labor productivity.

The main exports of the country revolve around clothes, automobiles, agricultural products, and electronics. Additionally, exports include natural resources such as iron and steel, oil, precious stones, and other (Economy Watch 2011).

The most apparent impact of the economic downturn of the financial crisis can be seen in 2010, where until 2009, the number of the exports continued to grow, reaching its peak of almost $140 billion. As of 2010, the export number started to recover, but they nevertheless are far behind (Index Mundi 2011). Currently, the total exports stand at $117, 4 billion (Index Mundi 2011).

When it comes to imports, the main imported commodities for Turkey include “electrical equipment, mechanical appliances, optical instruments, iron and steel, and pharmaceutical products” (Economy Watch 2011). Comparing imports and exports during the whole period between 2003 and 2011, it can be stated that Turkey suffered through a trade deficit, which can be seen through graph 1.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Empirical Project: Turkey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In that regard, the decision to explore alternative markets though countries in Africa, Central Asia, and the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) is a wise decision. The results of such expansion can be seen through increasing Foreign Direct Investments and strengthening trade relations with Africa. Currently, Turkey’s imports stand at $166, 3 billion (Index Mundi 2011).

Imports, Exports, and Trade Deficit (Index Mundi 2011, 2011)

Comparative Advantages and Disadvantages The competitiveness of Turkey can be attributed to several comparative advantages it enjoys, of which several are natural, and others are handmade. In that regard, the country’s geographical location can be seen among the advantages the country enjoys and which contributes to the country’s tourism industry.

Turkey’s natural endowment can be seen through the year-round sunshine, extended holiday season, ecological diversity, and others, all of which contribute to Turkey being a popular tourism destination (Europe CEIC Database Team 2011).

In general, the assessment of Turkey’s competitiveness internationally was revealed to be limited to labor intensive and easily imitable research-oriented products (Utkulu and Seymen 2004).

Revealed Comparative Advantages (RCA) of Turkey were identified in Utkulu and Seymen (2004) in seven groups of products, which cover seven product groups, including “clothing and clothing accessories; vegetables and fruit; sugar, sugar preparations, honey; tobacco; oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; rubber manufactures; textile yarn, fabrics and related products” (Utkulu and Seymen 2004, 18).

The disadvantages, on the other hand, can be seen in advanced technology products, compared to the EU. It can be stated that the comparative advantages of Turkey in such sectors as textile and apparel industry are related are both natural and handmade, based on geographical location and labor. The disadvantages, in that regard, are based on capital and technology (İNCE and DEMİR 2009).

Economy in the business cycle Having considered the economy from the point of view of business, it is possible to state the main strengths of the Turkey’s business are the climate and strong government. The EU has created a customs union which continues functioning. The influence of integration with the global capital market to the Turkish economy has been considered from two different sides. On the one hand, the benefit is seen in the sphere of business investment.

On the other hand, the risks and vulnerabilities are too high as the business sector becomes dependant from the foreign savings (Gonenc, Sahinoz and Tuncel 2010, 6).

It is obvious that the changes in the country’s economy have influenced the business sector. Turkey has opened international investment policy that has led to the reduction of the real long-term interest rates. The tendency can be easily followed.

Figure 1.1. Real long-term interest rates in selected countries (OECS 2010)

Date Turkey 2001 49.86 2002 24.96 2003 20.76 2004 14.04 2005 7.89 2006 8.21 2007 11.71 2008 8.38 2009 6.28 The lowered interest rate for a long term period has become a good stimulus for the business development in the country. The dynamic development of the business sector after the crisis is considered to be the great opportunity for economy development. Turkey should direct business development in two directions, macroeconomic credibility and microeconomic efficiency.

The better functioning of the business center may be achieved via the continuing modernization and improvement of fiscal institutions, updating the standing of the international market standing in Turkey, reinforcing the competitiveness of the country products at the national and international arena.

The country should pay attention to the following issues while improving the economy in the business sector, maintaining equal price, structure capital inflows, and reduce the energy import dependency. It is important to regulate the legal situation and legalize the necessary acts and policies necessary for the appropriate business functioning (Gonenc 2010).

Problems with the Economy One of the problems the impacts the economy of Turkey can be attributed to current account (CA) deficit. Current account deficit can be defined as the case when then spending of a country exceeds its income, i.e. the savings are little, of compared with investments (Sekmen and Calisir 2011, 166).

It should be mentioned that it is not necessarily a sign of worry, with a current account deficit. Nevertheless, a sign of worry might emerge when the current account deficit is accompanied by a continuously increasing deficit of the trade (Sekmen and Calisir 2011, 167). It can be stated that such case is applicable to Turkey. The account deficit experienced by Turkey is stated to be harmful to the Turkish economy by many economists and observers.

Many of those economists even claimed that the deficit signs a new crisis for Turkey, similar to prior currency crises. The asymmetric increase in imports and exports experienced in September 2010 can be seen as an important factor in that matter contributing to the way current account deficit impacts the Turkish economy. The increase of trade deficit, reaching $6.7 billion, is almost 67% (Sekmen and Calisir 2011).

The problem of trade deficit can be seen in relation to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and GDP growth. A study of the relationship between GDP growth and microeconomic variables of FDI, trade, and inflation, applied to the case of Turkey, revealed a negative relation between the coverage of the import coverage of exports, and GDP growth.

That is, the higher the imports cover exports, the lower the growth of GDP (Erçakar 2011). Another important finding can be seen related to the influence of the FDI supply in the country, and whether it is sufficient to guarantee an economic growth for Turkey.

Study of the causal relationship among microeconomic variables such as money supply, real exchange rate, FDI, and trade balance for the period 1989-2009 showed that there is no direct relationship between FDI and output (Sekmen and Inancli 2011, 164). Such finding indicates another important problem impacting the ec0onomy of Turkey, which is an inadequate level of spending (Sekmen and Inancli 2011).

Among the most recent events which implications can be seen influencing the economy of Turkey is the cut of the one-week repo rates, which indicates the move of the government to curb the inflow of FDI into the country. The implications include the short term weakness of the lira (Monetary Policy Shift: Key Implications 2011, 3).

Other than that, it can be stated that performance of Turkey is on track for recovery from the financial crises, although any deterioration of the economic environment in the next period will make Turkish economy vulnerable (Monthly review: August 2010 2010, 12-13). Among the positive notes that should be mentioned is also the recovery of confidence indicators, which nevertheless, did not reach the neutral threshold of 100 (Monthly review: August 2010 2010, 15).

Fiscal Policy Stance The fiscal policy in Turkey should be viewed in the context of the budget deficit, which is the one of the main themes of the economic policy in Turkey. The stance of the government toward such issue can be seen favorable, according to an analysis of the period between 2001 and 2008.

Despite the history of volatile inflation and budget deficits in the history of Turkish economy, a study of the government expenditures and revenues in Ucal, Meltem, and Asli (2010) showed the fiscal policy in Turkey was sustainable through period from 2001 to 2008, which indicates the government’s adherence to its budget constraints during g the implementation of the programs of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (Ucal and Alici 2010).

The most recent demonstration of the government’s stance of the policy is the fiscal rule which oblige the government to move toward a fiscal deficit of 1% of GDP in three years, given that GDP growth of 5% is achieved. Such issue can be seen two-fold on the one hand, the sustainability of the fiscal policy shows the government’s commitment, while the postponement in acceptance of the fiscal law can be seen as an evidence that “the government is not eager to commit itself to fiscal tightening in 2011” (Monthly review: August 2010 2010, 12).

Although the postponement of the acceptance of the rule, might be seen as a political move in general, in the long term it does not change the trend established by fiscal policies adopted by the country during the last decade.

An example of the latter can be seen through the fact that the October 2010 deficit being measured 31.4% lower than the deficit recorded during the same period a year earlier (Fiscal Improvement To Continue 2011). Thus, it is forecasted that the deficit will continue narrowing into 2015, and is projected to reach 1.9% (Fiscal Improvement To Continue 2011, 3).

Monetary Policy Stance The implementation of monetary policy implies the bank’s use of tools to attain desired level of inflation and GDP growth rates. One tool can be seen through interest rates, which are efficient policy instruments for banks to use in their monetary policy (Khakimov, Erdogan, and Uslu 2010, 319).

Other considerations paid by banks when developing monetary policy can be seen through inflation and price stability. The use of interest rates as a tool in the monetary policy is supported in Turkey, where a review of 2010 and the most recent shifts indicate that the central bank uses rates, namely, one-week repo rate as the main instrument in the financial system.

In 2010, the bank maintained the same rate throughout, which aim can be seen through the decision to maintain the rates as they are, and keep them low. The basis of such strategy can be seen through the way inflation trends remained consistent, and thus, the bank made its forecasts, considering that the rate will not change during 2010 (Monthly review: August 2010 2010).

At the end of 2011, the bank made the decision to cut interest rates, from 7% to 6.5%, with the aim of curbing the foreign short-term capital inflow. The expansion of money supply lowers interest rates, and accordingly, lower interest rates do not attract foreign capital looking for higher interest rates. The increase of the money supply depreciates the lira, in the short term, but, at the same time might act through increasing net exports and a decrease in trade deficit (Baumol and Blinder 2006, 386).

Such policy can be understandable when combined with fiscal policy, where policy recommendations amount to tightening fiscal policy loosening monetary policy (Baumol and Blinder 2006, 389). Such combination acts so that the decrease in budget deficit does not slow economic growth, and thus, the monetary stimulus, which decreases interest rates, compensates the fiscal policy (Baumol and Blinder 2006, 398).

Conclusion The present paper provided an analysis of the economy of Turkey. The paper started with providing an overview and a background of the country’s economic and political environment. An analysis of the countries important and export showed that despite of steady growth, which was only interrupted by the 2008 financial crisis, Turkey maintains a trade deficit, which can be attributed to inadequate spending.

Additionally, the paper provided an indication of the comparative advantages of the country, which can outline the importance foreign capital and the reliance on exports as a source of money inflow. In that regard, the paper showed that the main problems influencing economy in Turkey are related to trade deficit, current account deficit, and budget deficit.

The identified factors were found to be negatively correlated with GDP growth, which cannot be compensated by the flow of FDI into the country, given the current spending. The analysis of the monetary and the fiscal policy in Turkey revealed that the country chosen the right policy to pursue, which a contracting fiscal policy and a loosening monetary policy. Those policies will ensure that decreasing the deficit will not come at the expense of economic growth in the country.

Thus, it can be concluded that the economy currently resides at the state of revival after the financial crises, already showing signs of steady growth that should be supported by the adopted monetary and fiscal policies. The recommendations might include focusing on account deficit, and compensate for the coverage of the imports by importing intermediate goods, that should be used to increase production.

Reference List Baumol, William J. and Alan S. Blinder. 2006. Macroeconomics : principles and policy. 10th ed. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South Western.

Çarkoğlu, Ali̇, and Barry M. Rubin. 2003. Turkey and the European Union: domestic politics, economic integration, and international dynamics. New York: Taylor


Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Rawlings’s The Yearling is A Pulitzer’s price winning novel, one of the most popular works disclosing a challenging and difficult life of the boy called Jody coming of age. At the end of the nineteenth century, the story describes one year from life of a twelve-years-boy and his experience of living in the backwoods with his mother and father. In the novel, the author provides her own view on the problems and challenges of growing up as well as children’s goals and dreams.

Hence, Jody adapts a deer in a hope to find at least one friend and someone who will understand his childish concerns. He feels the necessity to favor someone with warmth, love, and care (Rawlings 22). Therefore, it is not surprising that the novel is often labeled as children or juvenile literature because it sheds light on the problems of adolescence as well as constrains that children face while becoming adults. In this respect, the illustrations presented by N. C. Wyeth only complement the main idea of the story.

They also describe Jody’s adventures and his searching for self-determination. Finally, the pictures also provide the readers with a clearer image of boy’s maturing while encountering challenging situation and making important decisions. This is why the novel appeals greatly to children of the same age who have similar problems and who do not know how to make a right choice.

Wyeth’s illustrations render a patently personal interpretation of a novel, including its mood, aspirations, precipitations, and hopes. His pictures create a strong narrative sequence that modifies readers’ experience in many important ways. Moreover, Wyeth illustrations also enable readers to construct a story obtained from the presented visual performances.

While discussing the illustrations, the artist has provided for other stories, and the ones concerned in particular, Wyeth’s representations of different stories contribute significantly to achieving the fullness and completeness of the narrative (Gannon 92).

With regard to the illustrations provided for Rawlings’s novel, one can notice that both textual information and visual representations are closely intertwined with each other creating a harmonic tandem. It also reflects the interaction between images and the text through enhancing the main protagonists’ experiences and feelings, his primary intentions, and his attitude toward his family and the surrounding world.

According Silvey, Wyeth’s illustrations to The Yearning, “lent glamour to classics that lured even indifferent readers and kept some of the titles in print for generations” (481).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though illustrations deviate from the classical representation of a coming-of-age novel in certain examples, the artist still manages to attract the readers and make them more interested in the story development (Rawlings 12). For example, the title of book mostly renders all information about the boy’s life and his endeavors to find place in life, as well as his desire to have someone he can look after.

Taking a closer look at Wyeth’s other illustrations dedicated to the novel, it is imperative to emphasize the author’s perspicacity and emotional filling under the influence of which all story-related images are created. These illustrations significantly contribute to the recreation of the novel details and the author’s intention to convey ideas and describe specific scenes.

Wyeth’s illustrations significantly enhance the power of narration because each image presented in book discloses the way the artist understands Rawlings’s story. More importantly, the illustrations render Wyeth’s own experience because he carefully considered most of his ideas before presenting them in a particular publication.

Particularly, the illustrator travelled to Florida to study the local peculiarities as well as the landscapes and this exploration greatly contributed to the representation of the main characters of the novel (Luce 77). While evaluating the picture depicting Jody Baxter sitting near the hearth and embracing the fawn, the reader is able to evaluate the realism of the story and imagine the hardships that young people may encounter to make their dreams come true.

The fawn depicted in the picture is also quite realistic and contributes to better understanding of the story (Luce 79). One can also notice a ray of hope in Jody’s eyes and the reader can understand that even without reading the text. Despite the completeness of the image, there is still a necessity to refer to Rawlings’ text to find deeper sense of visual representation.

Wyeth’s accent on realism is also presented in all his illustrations even if some fictional characters are presented in the picture. Such a realistic approach provides the readers with a broader experience while contemplating the historical and social background existing in the end of the nineteenth century.

In addition to realistic emphasis, the artist also introduces a melodrama component being an integral condition for conveying the author’s main idea. Looking at the pictures, one can understand that Wyeth realizes the importance of this component because exaggerated clarity is a priority for illustrative techniques (Nemerov 37).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, Nemerov states that, “Wyeth was an “obvious” or theatrical painter because as an illustrator he is what he was supposed to be” (36). Hence, each scene depicted in the book provides a realistic and vivid picture of all events happened in the story (Nemerov 39). It is not a surprise that this realistic and vivid representation of literary scenes appeals greatly to children because some of the displayed motifs are quite close to the problems that children face in real life.

Reviewing all illustrations to the Rawlings’s book, one can state that N. C. Wyeth’s soft, warm images successfully manage to capture the epoch of sweet survival and rough subsistence. Existential notes expressed through rough strokes in the picture contribute to a realistic representation of the novel (Heller and Arisman 11). The realism is especially seen in the picture describing a boy holding deer near the hearth.

More importantly, the artist also successfully renders the emotional background of the picture when playing with shadows and incorporating specific elements. Despite the dimness and homeliness of the time described in the novel, the author still resorts to a full-color pallet to highlight the most salient episodes of a literary work, which also contributes to better understanding of social and historical underpinnings of the novel (Heller and Arisman 11).

It should also be stressed that N. C. Wyeth’s major goal was storytelling rather than representing images because picture often precedes the text and language, which is the main essence of illustrations (Heller and Arisman 13). While reading Rawlings’s novel and previewing the pictures first, a reader can be immediately introduced to the details that will be further described and explained in the text.

All his childish, exaggerated, and romantic interpretations, therefore, have significantly enhanced the power of classical coming-of-age novel because the majority of the pictures represent maximalist tendencies in depicting landscapes and portraits where the major focus is made on the radical representation of certain episodes that are specifically highlighted by the writer (Silvey 482).

At the same time, Wyeth does not provide some additional elements that distract the viewers from the original content. On the contrary, his images enrich emotional, social, and historical background of the depicted events.

Being absorbed with romantic representation, Wyeth is significantly committed to the hero’s endeavors to overcome the existing adversities. With regard to the above, the mode of representation attracts young readers and makes them more involved into the plot of the story. This is natural because children’s inner world and imagination can be significantly enhanced by the visual representations of the novel characters.

In conclusion, novel’s affiliation to the children’s literature is evident because it represents a classical narration of the boy coming of age and searching for a better life. His dreams and overwhelming expectations are hilariously rendered by Rawlings and significantly enhanced by N. C. Wyeth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The illustrations also shed light the problem of adolescence that most youngsters experience at the age of twelve. Consequently, the usage of full-color palette, exaggerated clarity of representation enabling the readers to “read” the information contributes to understanding the main idea of the novel.

In addition, the visual information about Jody’s experiences in treating a fawn and the severities the hero confronts when he has to abandon the animal because of famine and lack of means for existence can be more explicitly understood while looking at the illustrations. Furthermore, some of the drawings look quite realistic because of the true scenes and landscapes illustrated.

Work Cited Gannon, Susan. The Illustrator as Interpreter: N. C. Wyeth’s Illustrations for the Adventure Novels of Robert Louis Stevenson (Gannon). Children’s Literature. 19 (1991): 90-106. Print.

Heller, Steven and Marshal Arisman: The Education of an Illustrator. US: Allworth Communications, Inc., 2000. Print.

Luce, Henry, Ed. Childhood Idols: Jack, Jody, Hans, and Heidi. Life. 43.24 (1957): 75-79.

Nemerov, Alexander. N. C. Wyeth’s Theater of Illustration. American Art. 6.2 (1992): 36-57.

Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan. The Yearling. US: Collier MacMillan Publishers, 1988. Print.

Silvey, Anita. The Essential Guide to Children’s Books and Their Creators. US: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002.


Mis-education of the Negro Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Published for the first time in 1933, The Mis-Education of Negro is one of the most successful books written by Carter Woodson. Woodson experience as an African American student armed with the necessary information to write such a compelling masterpiece. He criticizes the American syllabus, which ignores the historical and cultural systems of the Negros.

Unfortunately, the blacks do not realize the indoctrination that defines the American schools; however, if they realize the indoctrination, then they simply do not care for they continue to be sold out to ‘whiteness.’ Woodson argues that the long-term effect of mimicry and adaptation of a foreign culture heralded the extinction of the black culture. Although Woodson struggled to wage war against racism and oppression of the Negros, more than 70 years later racial discrimination still prevails.

Review The history and culture of the whites is the center of the American educational system; therefore, the educational curriculum exposes the blacks to a foreign culture forcing them to adapt different lifestyles yet they have their own culture. Surprisingly, the education system forbids the culture and history of the Negros with the primary aim of the whites being to impose inferiority complex in their black counterparts.

Although there are criticisms from the black scholars, the whites carry the day. Most black Americans have acquired the whites speaking accent and they do not take up courses that concentrate on the African culture, politics and/or Negro spiritual life. Therefore, the white education system does not focus on creating an all round citizen rather it controls the thinking and action of the citizens (Negros).

Woodson book seeks a wide audience; teachers, students, scholars and parents of the black society among others. Regrettably, seventy years later after its publication none of the whites administration considers the significance of this chef-d’oeuvre. The book has solution on American politics and policies including the adaptation of the affirmative action. Therefore, if the Negros and Latino-American read the book it would propel them to research and concentrate on their cultural system rather than the whites.

One of the major negatives of the ‘Mis-education of the Negro’ is the inability to live successfully as ‘whites’. Unfortunately, most of the Black Americans who have adapted the whites’ education system become useless, worthless and poor. Although some of them have learned up to the college or university level, nothing good comes out of them.

Additionally, due to the influence of the white culture, most Negros do not appreciate their black skin hence a feeling of inferior before their white counterparts. Similarly, Negros dislikes their fellow black men, despise their culture and love or appreciate the white people. They live in a world of fantasy; however, by so doing the hit the highway of self destruction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Woodson fears that the whites’ knowledge would forever oppress the African Americans. However, the only solution is to identify the enigma that runs deep in the current education curricula and rectify it. The result will not only popularize the African culture, but also promote antiracism and love within the black community.

Conclusion The antisocial and discrimination culture the blacks experience hinges on the misleading whites’ educational system and as Woodson notes, “when you control a man’s thinking you do not have to worry about his actions” (xxix). However, if the Negros and Latino Americans unite, they will change the current situation in the education system and promote their culture and race than chase the golden goose of ‘whiteness’ that has enslaved them for so long.

Works Cited Woodson, Carter. The Mis-Education of the Negro. New Jersey: Africa World Press Inc., 1990.


Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible Essay essay help: essay help

Martin Luther, the once devoted Catholic, one day came across a bible hidden in one of the apartments of Erfurt University library. Upon reading the book keenly, Luther encountered significant differences between what his Catholic Church taught and what the bible said concerning issues like relying on the church fathers for the remission of sins. Since the church teachings were contrary to the bible teachings, he got concerned and protested the issues, hence becoming the father of Protestantism.

As a working criterion of spreading the truth, as it stands in the bible, Luther took the boldest step ever of translating his newly found bible into vernacular languages, German for instance, an issue that angered the Catholic Church as more people left the church to follow Luther’s teachings.

The translation plays a very important role to the German history. Initially, the Germans could not tell lies from the truth based on the then teachings, which were presented in foreign languages other than their understandable vernacular language.

In addition, they had hungered for reformation for long and thus the translation seemed important as it marked the dawn of that awaited reformation. In fact, Shaff points out that “The spread of this version, imperfect as it was, proves the hunger and thirst of the German people for the pure word of God, and prepared the way for the Reformation” (Para. 9).

In addition, the translation was so important in that it solved the problems of the majority of Germans who, despite their little education, wanted to know the truth but could not get it from the former complicated bible. Sanders observes, “…even tailors and shoemakers, yea, even women and ignorant persons…studied it with the greatest avidity as the fountain of all truth” (Para. 2).

Further, the translation assisted the common people who, through the easy reading and understanding of the true word of God, could then make informed decisions concerning the truth. In other words, Luther’s work was no more than a force that fuelled the freedom of the Germans.

The evident Protestant state churches of Germany, initially used by Luther to teach his cohorts, aroused the courage of teaching to the Germans. Besides, the Lutheran bible is of great significance to the German history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Luther’s translation of the bible into German marked the most outstanding revolving point of the Germans’ history. For instance, its high rate of spreading across the Germans stands out as the origin of the advanced German language. Initially, the language featured so many dialects such that the people could neither understand nor unite with one another.

Therefore, Luther, through his works restored this harmony of language and further forming the basis of the contemporary German literature. The translation too fuelled the famous reformation of religion. In fact, it was through the translation that Protestantism emerged, which was otherwise nowhere before.

Further, the Lutheran bible contributed significantly towards “the creation of German nationalism because…his sayings and translation became part of the German national heritage” (Gerhard 216). The translation too contributed towards the reformation of the German education system.

The reformation came as Luther campaigned for the education of every person, which in turn left virtually all Germans in a position of reading and understanding the bible. Internationally, Luther’s translation significantly fuelled the widening of Protestantism as many other people who supported Luther came up with some other translations like the King James Version, the Bishop’s Bible, and the Douay-Rheims Bible among others.

Therefore, as evidenced by the expositions, Luther’s translation of the bible into vernacular German language stands out as both important and significant the Germans history. It marked the dawn of reformation in Germany as people demanded to hear and know the truth, as revealed by the word of God.

Further, it induced the courage of teaching by the Germans and more so teaching the true pure word of God in a language that even the illiterate could understand. As a result, the translation is the root of all the protestant churches, not only in Germany, but also in the world at large.

Works Cited Gerhard, Ritter. Luther: His Life and Work. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1963.

We will write a custom Essay on Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sanders, Ruth. How Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible Influenced the German Language, 2010. Web.

Shaff, Phillip. History of the Christian Church. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910.


Emirates Airlines Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Objectives and methodology

Linkage with the Public Administration Issues


Introduction Emirates airlines is an air services provider based in Dubai. It is ranked as one of the best performing airlines worldwide. This company according to Namaki (2008) “has played a major role in the economic development of the United Arab Emirates by promoting tourism besides the region being the rich in oil deposits” (35).

Before the inception of emirates airlines, the main airline was the Gulf air whose relationship with the leadership of Dubai was faulted by the fact that Dubai had refused to open up its skies for the company’s operations. This prompted the Gulf air to end and withdraw bigger percentage of its operations in Dubai, leading to a partial paralysis of travels in and out of the region.

Emirate airline was incepted to facilitate movement of people and goods in and out of Gulf region. Observations made on the growing trends of Airline companies indicate that, Emirates Airlines is steadily growing, serving more than 100 destinations all over the world. The success of this company is mainly based on strict management practices anchored in the company culture hence guaranteeing a sustainable survival.

Objectives and methodology The study of the management practices in Emirates airlines are meant to ravel the strengths of the company that have ensured its continuity to growth over the years. Middle East is one of the areas despite being endowed with natural resources; it is hard for companies to survive, owing to the political climate of the region.

This region has been facing political instability since civilization existed. It is therefore amazing how this company has managed to survive in this area and rise above many other companies which are operating in the most stable economies (Kuye, 2002).

Research shows that Dubai, the headquarters of emirates airlines, is also the fastest growing tourists’ destination. Perhaps, this may be due to the hostility in the neighboring regions. Many researchers believe that the presence of Emirates airlines has played a major role in development of this city into a leading tourist destination.

Again, this leaves one wondering the reasons behind such credibility to Emirates airline that started with a few numbers of operations in the region. The research questions in this case, therefore include, what is the management structure in the company, how management duties allocated are and how the management team guarantees accountability (Pathi, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The methodology for conducting this research will involve an intensive data collection activity. The main methods to be used in collecting the data will involve using structured questionnaires to obtain information from the Emirates airlines branches, obtaining performance information from airports authorities and researching through the company’s publications.

This will also require data collection from secondary sources which will form the literature review of the study. The data analysis and presentation techniques that will come in handy in this research includes using tables to record the data and coding continuous data to give it discrete values for easy manipulation.

This will be followed by writing a report on the research findings and this report should mainly concentrate on findings related to the management practices that have contributed to the success of Emirates airlines. It should also highlight the weaknesses that need to be addressed in order for the company to maintain the growth prospects in many years to come.

Linkage with the Public Administration Issues This research on the management of Emirates Airlines is related to public administration because; the company is owned and managed by the government of Dubai. The topic of public administration deals with the “implementation of government policies and the administration of government services” (Theaker, 2008, p. 265). Another definition of this is, the study of the decision making strategies applied by the government in policy making and analysis as well as the inputs that led to the development of these policies.

The management of Emirates airlines is done directly from the government offices and any issues affecting the government affects this company as well. Some of these issues include the political instability in the Middle East which has been a hindrance for development in this area for a very long time. The United Arab Emirates is has however never been affected by this political tension directly, but the instability in the neighboring regions in threatening.

Another public administration issue when it comes to the management of public companies is competition from the private sectors (Kuye, 2002). In most cases, the private operations do well compared to the public ones and this can be as a result of the private companies being more innovative hence taking over the market.

In this case for example, Emirates airlines is facing stiff competition from Qatar and Etihad airlines and if the management of emirates does not take protective measures against this competition, they may end up losing their already established market to these new companies. It is hard for an existing company to regain its initial position once its operations begin to decline especially when the cause of the decline it competition from upcoming companies.

We will write a custom Essay on Emirates Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Kuye, J., 2002, Critical Perspectives on Public Administration: Issues for Consideration, Heinemann, Sandown

Namaki, M., 2008, Strategy and Entrepreneurship in Arab Countries, Palgrave Macmillan, London

Pathi, S., 2010, Public Administration Today: Macro and Micro Issues, Dominant Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

Theaker, A., 2008, The Public Relations Handbook, Routledge, New Jersey