The Effects Of Electromagnetic Fields On Human Health Report A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction Abbreviated as EMF or EM field, an electromagnetic field can be described as a physical field mainly generated when electrically charged objects are moved. It usually affects the behavior of all charged particles within the neighborhood of the field. In general, electromagnetic field exists indefinitely in space and denotes scientific electromagnetic interaction, which is among nature’s fundamental forces. Others include strong and weak interaction and gravitational interaction.

This field can therefore be considered as a combination of magnetic and electric fields, produced by currents and stationary charges respectively (Joe 1). These are described as the major sources of any electromagnetic field. It is important to note that electromagnetic fields have found an array of applications that have continued to be beneficial to mankind.

Nevertheless, these electromagnetic fields have a wide range of effects on human health. This report gives an analysis of these effects and how human beings respond. Other segments synthesized include but not limited to types of electromagnetic fields, sources, solutions and recommendations.

Types of electromagnetic fields Classification of electromagnetic fields is based on the wavelength, giving a unique type of radiation for a given emission. Despite the fact that this approach of classification has been proved to be effective and accurate, neighboring electromagnetic energies overlap. In some cases, classification of electromagnetic fields is based on sources of radiation, say when differentiating X-rays from gamma rays. The following segments describe different types of electromagnetic fields, commonly encountered through their significant applications.

Radio frequency

Appropriate antennas make use of radio waves as described under the resonance principle, with an approximate wavelength range of between one millimeter and several hundreds of meters. Radio waves are common in data transmission through modulation. Common devices which use these waves include but not limited to television, wireless networking, amateur radio and mobile phones (Joe 1). The usage of this type of radiations is always government-regulated through allocation of frequencies.

Microwaves

This type of waves is short and able to make use of tubular metal waveguides, which have a realistic diameter. Microwave energy is principally produced by magnetron and klystron tubes coupled with solid diodes like IMPATT and Gunn equipment (Hinwood 123). Additionally, the waves can only be absorbed by particles that have a dipole moment while in their liquid state. They are applied in thermal heating, in Wi-Fi and in volumetric heating.

Infrared Radiation

Infrared spectrum occurs within a range of 300 GHz to 400 THz and can be broadly divided into three sections, namely, Far, Mid, and Near-infrared. Far-infrared ranges between 300 GHz to 30THz, with its lower part sometimes referred to as microwaves. It is absorbed by rotational modes in gaseous state, by phonons in solid state and by movement of molecules in the liquid phase.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, mid-infrared occurs within a frequency of 30 to 120 THz (Hinwood 123). It is believed that heated objects effectively radiate in this region as it is absorbed by vibrations of molecules when they are at equilibrium positions. The region is sometimes referred to as fingerprint region. Lastly, the near-infrared spectrum falls within 120 and 400 THz. It exhibits physical processes that are identical to those observed under visible light.

Visible radiation

This includes the range in which most stars like the sun emit their radiations. Additionally, the human eye is highly sensitive to this region. Visible light is principally absorbed and released by elections moving from one energy shell to another. It therefore follows that the light seen by human eyes represents a very minute portion of the electromagnetic field (Hinwood 124).

Ultraviolet radiation

The wavelength of this radiation falls below violet but higher than X-rays. Abbreviated as UV, these radiations have the ability to break chemical bonds, causing some molecules to be more reactive or alter their physical properties. UV radiations cause sunburns, which occur when skin cells are affected by rays.

This has been found to be a major cause of skin cancer in most parts of the world. Besides these, UV may affect DNA molecules resulting into irreparable mutation problems. The sun is known to be a major source of UV rays, posing a threat to humanity as the risk of desertification heightens. However, these rays are usually absorbed by the ozone layer, which is threatened by depletion due to emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

X-rays

These rays also have the ionizing potential and interact with matter as a result of the Compton Effect. They are classified as either hard or soft X-rays. Because of their ability to pass through a range of materials, X-rays are commonly used to see through other objects. This has led to X-rays being adopted for radiography, a process that allows scanning of organs to facilitate diagnostic processes in medicine. They are also used in astronomy and high-energy physics (Attix 124).

Gamma radiations

These rays were discovered in 1900 by Paul Villard. Since their discovery, they have been widely applied in physics, medicine and general science. They are the strongest and most energetic radiations known to human beings. They can be produced from radioactive isotopes. Other applications include irradiation, and cancer imaging using PET scans (Attix 124).

Through Compton scattering, the wavelength of these rays can be determined. As mentioned before, most electromagnetic fields exhibit overlap of energies. As a result, there are no distinct boundaries for various bands of magnetic radiations. Consequently, some radiations carry a mixture of properties.

We will write a custom Report on The effects of electromagnetic fields on human health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sources of electromagnetic radiations

There are two major sources of electromagnetic fields known in history. These are natural sources and human made sources. The main natural source of electromagnetic sources is the sun, the largest star that has a lot of significance to human life. As mentioned above, Ultraviolet rays are emitted by the sun and have harmful effect on human health; they cause sunburns that lead to skin cancer and destruction of skin cells (Hinwood 121).

UV rays are usually absorbed by the ozone layer prevent their full impact from reaching the earth. However, due to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, there has been continuous depletion of the ozone, allowing these rays to hit the earth directly, a condition that exposes the earth to desertification and high prevalence of skin diseases.

Apart from the sun as the main source of electromagnetic fields, human made sources have also become significant and of importance in the world. Under this category, electricity is believed to be the commonest source of electromagnetic fields. Being a major source of power around the world, this implies that human beings are prone to exposure of rays produced by electricity (Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation 1).

These rays are mainly produced when electricity is transmitted through cables and machines. Importantly, electricity continues to produce electromagnetic fields even after it has been delivered to users. In other words, electricity emits radiations from generation to distribution through transmission.

In its usage, people in offices, institutions, homes, factories and other structures are vulnerable to getting in contact with radiations produced by electricity (Hinwood 122). Beyond, electricity, almost every electrical appliance and equipment emit radiations that interact with the user or operator.

In the understanding of electromagnetic fields, it is important to note that there are several generators of radiations at workplaces. These mainly include electric appliances and electronic devices like computers, printers, fax machines, fluorescent lights, scanners, copy machines, motors, telephone switching systems and other countless electrical devices.

In most homes around the world, electromagnetic generators include electric blankets, television, electric water bed heaters, cell phones, clothes washers, blenders, coffee makers, microwave ovens, stereo systems and refrigerators among others (Hinwood 121). Notably, electromagnetic radiations are not only produced when appliances use electricity, but it is the nature of these appliances like television, radio and other communication gadgets to emit radiations.

Aside from electricity and electric appliances, several transportation methods are also a source of electromagnetic radiations. These methods are magnetic trains, automobiles, subway systems, airplanes and trucks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The effects of electromagnetic fields on human health by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worth noting that in the presence of two or more sources of electromagnetic fields at the same location, there is a likelihood of overlapping fields to be produced. This means that office and metropolitan homes are usually saturated with an array of electromagnetic fields from different sources within their vicinity (Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation 1).

Effects electromagnetic radiations

Although most electromagnetic fields have limitless applications in life, say in medicine, physics and astronomy among other disciplines, research has found out that there are countless effects caused by these radiations on human body and in general daily living. These effects can be classified into several categories like electrical hazards, fire hazards, biological effects and other long-term effects (Upton 65).

Electrical and fire hazards

The use of electricity exposes users to high risk levels associated with strong radiations that have the potential of releasing an electric shock to human beings or even animals. Electrical shocks have varying impact depending on the strength of the electric current flowing. Nevertheless, strong shocks are fatal and can cause death of human beings through electrocution. Overloading of these radiations can also lead to the destruction of electrical equipment if control measures are not taken.

Another effect of electromagnetic radiations is explosions. This is common in cases where strong radiations are being used coupled with faulty transmission or connection errors. Electrical explosions are dangerous and the intensity of an explosion equally depends on the source of radiations and the nature of interruptions. These explosions lead to loss of lives and destruction of property (Blake and Henry 370).

Fire hazards are also a common effect of electromagnetic radiations. This mainly occurs when induced voltage is higher than the breakdown voltage within a particular region. In extreme cases, sparks are common, resulting into fire accidents. This is a major cause of forest fires and other electricity-related fire accidents. Major adverse effects of such cases include loss of life and destruction of property (Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation 2).

Biological hazards

Exposure to electromagnetic radiations results into short and long-term biological effects. As a result, people are likely to experience the impact of radiations variedly depending on the type of radiation and degree of exposure. Although short term effects of electromagnetic fields in human beings are common, it is important to note some of the symptoms exhibited by victims may not be recognized easily. As such, many cases of electromagnetic exposure go unnoticed among many people around the world.

What are some of these short-term effects? They include physical changes on the human body, which could easily be associated with lack of certain nutrients in the body. Common effects include: hair loss, headaches, stress, nausea, chest pain, sunburns and hyperthermia among others. Importantly, some of these may turn into long-term effects like skin cancer resulting from simple sunburns (Upton 65).

Long term effects

One of the major long term effects of electromagnetic fields in human beings is brain tumors. Most cell phones used today emit radiations that cause excitation of some brain parts whereas others are inhibited. The brain’s cortex is the most vulnerable part as it is adjacent to the outside of the ear where phones are placed during communication (Blake and Henry 370). Apart from formation of tumors, exposure to radiations causes general damage of the brain.

Cell phone frequencies also lead to aggressive growth of cells among Leukemia patients. This is common in both children and adults, although the impact depends on the level of exposure. Additionally, these fields result into high cases of miscarriage among pregnant women.

Electric appliances known to emit such rays include food mixers, hairdryers and vacuum cleaners commonly used domestically. Another permanent impact of electromagnetic fields is the irreparable damage of the DNA. This results into birth defects and neurodegenerative diseases. As mentioned earlier, skin cancer is common due to sunburns caused by high exposure to UV radiations (Upton 65).

Recommendation and conclusion

As noted above, almost all electromagnetic fields have negative effects on human being. It is therefore important to consider ways of mitigating the effects of these rays or limiting human exposure. Government solutions include proper power lines and cell phone towers location to avoid disconnections and erroneous faults. The government should further educate the public on potential impact of EMF’s. Personal mitigation efforts include minimizing phone usage and determination of EMF’s levels at home so as to take necessary measures.

Works Cited Attix, Frank. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. Munich: Wiley-VCH, 1986. Print.

Blake, Levitt, and Henry Lai. “Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays.” Environmental Reviews, 18.1 (2010): 369-395.

Hinwood, Barry. A textbook of science for the health professions. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes, 1992. Print.

Joe, Hall. “The Negative Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.” Consumer Health 20.9 (1997): 1. Print.

Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation. “What are Electromagnetic Fields?” Apple Mobile, 2011. Web.

Upton, Arthur. Health effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation: BEIR V. New York: National Academies, 1990. Print.

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Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. Essay custom essay help

About Yahoo, Inc. Yahoo, Inc. is a multinational company that operates in the internet industry. It is a publicly held company that was established in 1994. The headquarters of the company is based in California, USA. The company offer products and services that comprise of communication, search and content tools.

The products and services are offered in a variety of languages. A significant amount of revenue for the company is generated from advertising. The company also generates revenue from other sources such as royalties among others. The paper seeks to analyze the performance of the company for the between 2010 and 2012.

Analysis of trend Income statement

Analysis the trend of various values and ratios of a company gives information on whether the performance of a company is improving or deteriorating. Analysis of income statement of the company shows that the revenue declined from $6,325 million in 2010 to $4,984 million in 2011.

The value slightly improved in 2012 to $4,987 million. This shows a decline in the amount of revenue earned by the company over the period. The cost of revenue also declined from $2,628 million in 2010 to $1,503 million in 2011. In 2012, the cost of sales increased to $1,621 million.

These changes resulted in a decline of gross profit over the three year period. The value declined from $3,697 million in 2010 to $3,482 million in 2011. The value further declined to $3,366 million in 2012. The operating expenses changed in the same trend as cost of revenue.

The value declined from $2,925 million in 2010 to $2,681 million in 2011. In 2012, the operating expenses increased to $2,800 million. The resulting operating income increased from $773 million in 2010 to $800 million in 2011. However, in 2012 the operating income declined to $566 million.

Analysis of income statement reveals that the company made a number of sales of its investments. For instance, in 2010, the company sold Zimbra, Inc. and HotJob. In 2012, the company sold Alibaba Group Shares at $4,603 million.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These sales boosted the value of net income. Net income declined from $1,232 million in 2010 to $1,049 million in 2011. The value increased to 3,945 million in 2012. The graph presented below shows the trend of the values.

Balance sheet

The total current assets declined from $4,346 million in 2010 to $3,453 million in 2011. In 2012, the value increased to $5,653.The increase was attributed to the increase in the amount of total cash. Despite the sale of total investment, the value of non-current assets declined increased from $10,584 in 2010 to $11,330 in 2011.

The value further increased to $11,451 in 2012. The value of current liabilities, total liabilities and shareholder’s equity declined between 2010 and 2011. The values increased in 2012.

Finally, the value of total assets (total liabilities and stakeholder’s equity) declined from $14,928 million in 2010 to 14,783 million in 2011. In 2012, the value increased to $17,103 million. The graph presented below shows the trend of the values.

Profitability ratios

The profitability ratios are presented in appendix 1. Gross profit margin and net margin show that the profitability of the company improved over the period.

However, return on assets and return on equity indicates that profitability declined in 2011 and improved in 2013. Finally, asset turnover indicates that the company reported a decline in efficiency over the period.

Conclusion During the dot-com bubble a number of companies reported a significant increase in the value of the company. However, after the bubble burst, the companies reported a significant decline in performance and some companies did not survive the burst.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The results above indicate the bubble burst affected the operational performance and efficiency of Yahoo, Inc. However, the company used a number of turnaround strategies such as sale of investments. These strategies resulted in the success of the company after the dot-com bubble burst.

Appendix 1 Profitability 2010 2011 2012 Gross profit margin % 58.46 69.85 67.5 Net Margin % 19.47 21.04 79.12 Return on Assets % 8.25 7.06 24.75 Return on Equity % 9.83 8.36 29.12 Asset Turnover 0.42 0.34 0.31

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Corporate Philanthropy Argumentative Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical Frameworks for the Evaluation of Philanthropic Motives

Can Philanthropy Really Make a Difference?

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Corporate philanthropy or corporate social responsibility is a commitment to improve community well being through discretionary business practices and contributions of corporate resources (Aras

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Deborah Tannen’s Opinion on Complicated Relations between the Concepts of Gender and Talkativeness Essay argumentative essay help

During a long period of time, researchers intend to find the answer to the question of how much women and men talk in comparison to each other. Furthermore, it is also important to answer the question about the criteria according to which the conclusions should be made (Tannen and Alatis 12).

From this point, the article “Who Does the Talking Here?” which is written by Deborah Tannen and published in the Washington Post in 2007 can be discussed as one more attempt to respond to the developed debates.

In her article, Tannen proposes to discuss the relation between the concepts of gender and talkativeness from the large perspective because these relations are rather complex.

Tannen claims that it is irrelevant to count words spoken by women and men without references to the concrete situations and speakers’ purposes, and although many popular researches are based on the principle of counting spoken words, Tannen’s position seems to be rather persuasive because the author not only provides a range of arguments to support her vision but also discusses the weaknesses of counterarguments in detail.

Tannen starts her article with drawing the audience’s attention to the controversial idea which contradicts with the public’s traditional visions. The author states that a group of researchers found the evidences to support the view that “women and men talk equally” (Tannen par. 1).

Tannen focuses on this research’s conclusion as the basic argument to state the necessity of re-thinking the visions of men and women’s talkativeness. Thus, the author continues presenting her idea while discussing the opinion about the females’ talkativeness which prevailed in the society during a long period of time.

The popular opinion is based on counting the words, as it is in Louann Brizendine’s study, according to which women speak 20,000 words a day, and men speak only 7,000 words a day (Tannen par. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To oppose this idea, Tannen refers to the other researchers’ numbers which are 16,215 words spoken by women during a day and 15,669 words spoken by men (Tannen par. 2).

Paying attention to numbers which cannot appropriately reflect the real situation in the society, Tannen chooses to focus on the other approaches and criteria as more important in comparison with the method of counting the words.

Having stated the impossibility of the other researchers’ approach to discuss the situation with men and women’s talking in detail, Tannen presents clearly her own vision of the problem while asking the questions about the correlation between gender and language.

According to Tannen, “to understand who talks more, you have to ask: What’s the situation? What are the speakers using words for?” (Tannen par. 4). To support the importance of these questions, Tannen provides the vivid example to illustrate the role of the situation for men and women’s talking.

The example of a man who speaks more at the meetings than at home is effective to support the author’s vision of types of talking. Tannen states that women talk more when they want to focus on the people’s personal experience and feelings. This type of talking is the ‘rapport-talk’.

On the contrary, men prefer to provide people with some information, and it is the ‘report-talk’ (Tannen par. 7). The author’s discussion of these types of talking seems to be rather rational because the purposes of females and males’ speaking are explained clearly.

While developing the connection between the situation, purpose, and length of speeches, Tannen provides different real-life examples to support her conclusions.

We will write a custom Essay on Deborah Tannen’s Opinion on Complicated Relations between the Concepts of Gender and Talkativeness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to the purposes of speaking because women are inclined to be more talkative than men at home, when men are inclined to demonstrate their knowledge at work (Speer 23-25).

In her article, Tannen tries to focus on all the aspects of the issue and to discuss all the associated stereotypes. From this point, referring to the research by Campbell and Ayres, Tannen states that “women’s rapport-talk probably explains why many people think women talk more” (Tannen par. 11).

Moreover, people prefer to focus on others’ talking when they speak little (Tannen par. 12). As a result, Tannen leads the reader to understand the fact that in reality, women and men talk equally, but there are more situations when men can concentrate on women’s talkativeness.

In her article, Deborah Tannen builds a strong argument to support her vision of the problem of women and men’s talkativeness. While discussing the importance of gender differences to influence the males and females’ talks, Tannen chooses to focus on the causes for revealing numbers traditionally presented in the scholarly literature.

The author claims that the concentration on counting words cannot provide researchers with the appropriate results. It is important to know when and why women and men speak more.

This information is necessary to conclude about the connection between the concepts of gender and language. As a result, Tannen’s position can be discussed as correlated in a way with the idea stated in the article’s first paragraph according to which women and men talk equally.

Works Cited Speer, Susan. Gender Talk: Feminism, Discourse and Conversation Analysis. USA: Psychology Press, 2005. Print.

Tannen, Deborah. Who Does the Talking Here? 2007. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Deborah Tannen’s Opinion on Complicated Relations between the Concepts of Gender and Talkativeness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tannen, Deborah, and James Alatis. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond. USA: Georgetown University Press, 2003. Print.

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“Fashion retailing, marketing, and merchandising” by John Major Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Women’s clothing industry generates huge revenue worldwide. Starting from procurement to production, women’s clothing industry has creative designers. Garment designers stay in business because of sales. The goal of every designer is to make profit while maintaining brand reputation.

The sale of a firm’s fabric requires fashion marketing strategy. The author defined fashion marketing as the management of a firm’s merchandise. The customer’s buying behavior and desire influence fashion marketing strategy.

Business managers use sales records, social media, customer feedback, and media attention to develop design patterns. The quality and durability of products motivate the customer. Thus, marketing managers are responsible for new designs to suit customer’s preferences.

The industry sells its products to customers or retailers. The business operation of a firm may regulate the sale of products directly to customers or sell the products as wholesale merchandise.

The method used for marketing depends on the company’s business policy. Public promotions and the social media network provide direct channels for the clothing industry. The channels create awareness of brand names and the company’s reputation.

The article described another marketing strategy which induces customers to buy a firm’s product. The marketing strategy is called merchandising. This strategy involves direct sales to a target customer at the right price and place. The strategy utilizes fashion trends about the customer to produce and stock fabrics at the right price.

Fabrics merchandizers require information technology to update rapid demand for trending garments. For example, a stock agent in Dubai can place an express order for the production of summer suits in China if he or she sees the demand. The stock agent will use data collected to forecast future demand.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Internet has increased the retail channels of many fashion industries. Products are displayed on the company’s website while the online order platform is installed. Customers can purchase garments without waiting for the counter check and balance.

Although Internet use has its challenges, the point of sale method remains the best marketing strategy for fashion designers. Some challenges include the customer’s inability to verify the quality of the garment before purchase and the hurdles of garment return after purchase.

Fabrics merchandising provides customers with an easy method of purchase. Customers can buy products directly while saving transportation cost.

In the past, fashion specialists invited customers to view trending garments. Today, fashion designers organize events to showcase garments and fabrics. The designer invites artisans, journalist, celebrities, models, musicians and customers to view trending fashion. The event, though expensive, helps the organization in different ways.

Fashion shows give the customer a chance to meet the designer. The designer collects customer feedback during the show to make adjustments on its products. The event strengthens the firm’s brand name while sustaining its competitive advantage.

The competitive advantage of a firm will influence customer perception about the product. The firm can introduce discounts on excess products to promote brand recognition and reputation.

The article recognized fashion shows, merchandising and social media, Internet, wholesale and retail as channels of sale. The aim of the designer to sell ready-made garments can be achieved with these marketing tools. Customer perception, marketing strategy, and trending fashion control the production pattern in women’s clothing.

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Female genital mutilation Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Rationale

Previous studies

Approaches to the study

Conclusion

Reference

Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization as a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for no medical reasons. It is carried out without anesthesia and may involve injury of the genital area. This practice is usually carried out on girls who have just reached puberty or are a few days old into puberty.

The practice is usually carried out by a traditional circumciser or a person who is experienced in doing the mutilation in a traditional non-medical setting. The cut is made using a knife, scissors or razor blade. This practice is common in Western, Northern and Eastern parts of Africa and some parts of Asia and the Middle East.

It is also practiced among some immigrant communities in Europe, Australia and North America. It is estimated that approximately 100-140 million girls around the world have undergone female genital mutilation. Out of the 140 million, 92 million are from Africa (Gruenbaum, 2001).

There are four types of female genital mutilation. However, only three of the four types are commonly practiced. Type I involves removal of the clitoral hood. Usually this also involves removal of the clitoris itself. Type II involves removal of the clitoris and the inner labia while type three involves removal of the inner and outer labia, the clitoris, and stitching of the wound leaving a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood.

The stitches only come off during sexual intercourse and child birth. This usually involves tearing and bleeding. Type III is the most common of the procedures and is usually practiced in several countries such as Sudan, Somalia and Djibouti. Type IV involves symbolic pricking of the clitoris or labia or cutting of the vagina to widen it (Gollaher, 2000).

Rationale Female genital mutilation is considered to be a violation of the human rights of the girl child hence the reason for choosing this topic. Issues that have been raised about the practice focus on the human rights violations, lack of informed consent and health risks. Health risks include issues such as recurrent vaginal and urethral tract infections. In addition, complications during child birth are likely to occur. Several countries have made efforts to stop the practice following health concerns and medical risks associated with the practice.

Previous studies An observation that 90% of Eritrean women had undergone circumcision in 2002 sparked an interest in understanding the trends, factors that lead to female genital mutilation and its consequences. This study used data collected from the 2002 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) and the 2003 Female Genital Mutilation to determine factors that influence mothers to take their daughters through the practice and attitudes towards the practice (Woldmicael, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The findings of the study found that female genital mutilation was more common among older women than it was among the younger ones. The younger women were less likely to take their daughters through the female genital mutilation process than the older women.

The study also revealed that 89% of Eritrean women had undergone the practice. 39% had undergone the type III genital mutilation which is the most severe of the 4 types. When it comes to religion, neither Christianity nor Islam seems to have any significant influence on the practice (Woldmicael, 2009).

The findings show that even the least severe form of genital mutilation leads to complications during birth and puts the victim at risk of other health complications. This study also showed that social acceptance also favored the practice. The practice is considered to be an honor and earns the family respect. It also increases the girl’s chances of getting married. The society also believes that genital mutilation controls sexual promiscuity, protects the girl from potential seducers and rapists and also preserves her virginity (Woldmicael, 2009).

The study shows that female genital mutilation is being practiced in parts of this world and therefore strategies to combat it have been put in place. However, for a practice that is considered to be a violation of human rights of the girl child, it is still being practiced among some communities. Governments have been urged to implement laws that incriminate this practice in regions where it is being practiced.

However, it is very difficult to implement the law if the practice is a widely accepted vice. Very little research has been done in trying to establish why the practice still exists even when those who practice it have been educated and sensitized on the issue. Therefore this study will investigate further on the existing socio-cultural dynamics of female genital mutilation.

Approaches to the study The most common question is why those who practice female genital mutilation actually do it. Some people have condemned the practice while others simply have tried to understand the practice.

It is however important to understand the cultural history of the practice if one is to be able to understand the cultural dynamics. Most people attribute the practice to Islam but it has been shown that religion does not play a part in the practice. Several customs and beliefs contribute to female genital mutilation and these customs are often hard to get rid of.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Female genital mutilation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Sudan, for instance, it is believed that the campaign against FGM was a sure way of changing women’s consciousness. If a woman allowed her genitals to be removed, a heightened level of motherhood is achieved because it would not be tainted by sexuality. As a result she earns respect in the community. She also becomes empowered because by going through the process, she gets to earn respect from society (Shell-Duncan

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Evolution of Fire Protection Codes Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fire protection and building codes

The origin of fire protection code and building regulation

The growth of fire protection codes

Personal protective equipment and their effects

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The development of fire protection codes can be traced back to Rome in 64 AD, where fireproof building materials were first used. This is the first fire protection code known to man. Currently, fire fighters employ sophisticated technologies which greatly enhance fire disaster management.

The development of modern fire protection codes is as a result of response to catastrophic fires rather than in anticipation of such fires. Regardless of these developments, success in fire management seems elusive due to a number of factors. The greatest hindrance towards successful fire disaster management is noncompliance with existing fire protection codes.

From the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911 to the Station Nightclub Fire in 2003, investigations reports are consistent; business owners largely ignore basic fire protection and building codes. Additionally, the investigators report that disaster response time has gradually been reduced due to the improvements made on the fire alarms system.

Despite such developments reduction in response time, noncompliance with fire protection codes hinders effective managemt of fire disasters. Regardless of the fact that fire management has improved tremendously, new challenges continue to face fire disaster management. Such challenges include fire started by non traditional causes such terror attacks such the 9/11. This requires fire disaster managers to continuously evaluate the effectiveness of existing fire protection codes..

Fire disasters have led to some of the most horrific property damage and loss of human life. Recurrent fires disasters have led to gradual changes, amendment and improvements on fire protection codes. However, these gradual changes have not led to achievement of success in management of fire disasters.

With regards to the findings in this research paper, the following hypothesis seems relevant: despite the gradual improvements made to fire protection codes, noncompliance and the challenge of dynamic nature of fire disasters continue to hinder the attainment of successful fire disaster management practices. From this hypothesis, questions arise on why successful fire disaster management is elusive. To answer these questions, it is imperative to evaluate the circumstances that have led to evolution of fire protection codes.

Fire protection and building codes The management of fire disasters evolved from the use of rudimentary methods in ancient Europe to sophisticated methods employed in management of fire disasters today. The result of such gradual development is evolution of a complex life and property safety codes. Generally, life safety codes are developed to minimize or totally eliminate the loss of human life as well as damage to property in case of a major outbreak of fire.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditional fire protection codes mainly addressed a wide range of issues concerned with management of fire disasters. Such issues range from the ability of materials used in construction to withstand and prevent spreading of fire, adequate means of exit as well as the use of fire protection tools such as smoke detectors and alarms. Additionally, the evolution of fire protection codes incorporates proper planning procedures as well as tenancy elements.

These allow quick evacuation of people in case of fire emergencies. While the development of detection and prevention methods as well as quick response systems help to significantly minimize the effects of fire, disaster managers emphasize on absolute compliance with existing fire protection codes. In this regard, compliance with fire protection codes greatly rely on latest technological advancements combined with historic codes.

This is aimed at improving disaster management practices. It is imperative to state that with time, NFPA has successful separated building codes from fire protection codes, both of which combine to ensure improved efficiency in management of fire disasters.

While NFPA building codes aim at enhancing the building architecture to avert a major fire disaster, fire protection codes aim at enhancing early warning, response, fire detection and prevention, preventing fire from spreading and evacuation of victims (Alderson, Artim and Allen 1, 2).

The origin of fire protection code and building regulation Even though there is little documented evidence on the origin of modern fire protection codes, NFPA codes trace their origin from 19th century Europe. Evidence indicate that the earliest known fire protection methods were used in 64 AD Rome after the great Roman fire, which gutted Rome and left a trail of devastating effects on both human life and property. As a result, Emperor Nero instructed the Roman architects to develop building regulations, mainly focused on the building materials.

As a result, Roman buildings had to be built with fireproof materials. Thus, Rome was rebuild using fire proof building materials. This is first recorded case in the application of scientific principles in enhancing safety in buildings. The fact that there is no previous mention of building and fire protection codes implies that prior to 64 AD there was no effort to manage fire disasters professionally (Cote n.pagn).

There are no records of any improvements on fire protection codes between 64 AD and the 17th century. This is largely attributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. It isn’t until the renaissance that any major improvement is done. Existing records show consistency with these assertions since it is only after the great London fire that improvements on fire prevention standards developed in 64 AD Rome is done.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Evolution of Fire Protection Codes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1666, the Great London Fire gutted London destroying more than 80 % of the City as well as resulting to massive loss of life. In response to the fire, architects in London adopted the standards developed in 64 AD Rome, with minor improvements made. Other than building the outer walls with fire resistance materials such as bricks and stones, house partitioning was also done with fireproof materials.

This indicates that houses made in 17th century England had improved ability to withstand fire than those build in 64 AD Rome. Additionally, the Great London fire spurred the development of fire suppression techniques. As such, hand-pumper fire apparatus, the first fire prevention equipment to use water, was developed.

Hand-pumper fire apparatus was a heavy hand drawn water carrier that sprayed water over a fire, thus extinguishing it. Thus, before the industrial revolution, the only recorded use of fire prevention codes involved the use of fire resistance building materials combined with the use of hand-pumper fire apparatus (Cote n.pagn).

The advent of the industrial revolution in 18th century England marked tremendous developments in fire protection designs. This was necessitated by numerous industrial fires which gutted most of the new industries in London. To avert the loss of lives and property, records indicate that concrete, steel and hardened rock were the primary building materials.

Other than strengthening buildings, engineers at the time combined these three materials and provided English engineers with suitable solution to prevent rampant industrial fires. Additionally, to enhance the effectiveness of fire protection codes in 18th century England, the first public fire department was formed, underground water mains were installed as well as ready to use fire hydrants.

Moreover, between 18th century and early 19th century, fire protection codes mainly focused on specific buildings and the contents therein. This new approach seemed to have been necessitated by the existence of numerous industries, each having unique industrial processes as well as materials under storage.

This approach however, gained prominence in the later stages of 19th century after the outbreak of numerous fires within London’s paper and textile industries. Due to poor storage of paper and lint debris and waste, disaster managers faced a new challenge not possible to manage using fire protection methods existing at the time. As such, engineers developed the first ever recorded fixed fire suppression system.

This involved the use of manually operated water pipes. However, the hazard posed to fire fighters using manually operated water pipes gave rise to the idea of automatic water sprinklers. This is one of the most useful innovations in fire protection engineering ever developed (Cote n.pagn).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Evolution of Fire Protection Codes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The growth of fire protection codes As mentioned earlier, NFPA fire protection codes borrow heavily from those developed in ancient Europe, especially Rome and London. Additionally modern fire protection codes are not only developed in response to occurrence of major fires. Some of the most vital fire protection codes have been developed out of critical thinking. For instance, a meeting held in Boston in 1895 involving several parties affected by fire disasters led to the development of improved fire protection code.

These authorities included insurance companies, municipal authorities, engineers, property owner and businessmen as well as property insurers. In this meeting, extensive discussions were held, the outcomes of which was the development of Americas fire protection codes. Most significantly, businessmen and property owners adopted automatic water sprinklers as a significant fire protection technique.

The adoption of water sprinklers came as a result of increased pressure from property underwriters who felt that they were loosing a lot of money from fire disasters. As a result, underwriters realized that by involving engineers and business owner in active management of fire disasters, not only would the risks be evenly spread but also losses minimized.

As such, underwriters required engineers, business owners as well as local authorities to take more responsibility in managing and prevention of fires by installing automatic water sprinklers. Within this period, the National Fire Protection Association, NFPA was formed and mandated with the responsibility of overseeing fire protection activities within the entire country.

European influence in America fire prevention methods was rekindled in 1904 when a London fire insurer, John Smith joined NFPA membership. Such a move is perceived as the first effort in building consensus on the use of science based fire protection codes (NFPA 1 to 3).

There are notable improvements in fire protection codes for the period leading up to the 20th century. It is imperative to note that before the 20th century, fire protection codes focused on managing and suppressing fires, with little effort made to prevent the occurrence of major fires.

This implies that, before the 20th century, the concept of fire prevention was largely perceived as any effort assisting fire fighters to prevent and suppress fires. However, the beginning of the 20th century marked a critical period in the evolution of fire protection codes in America.

From this period onwards the concept of fire prevention assumed a different perspective. In March 25 1911, a fierce fire broke out in The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory located in New York. As a result of this fire, 146 garment workers lost their lives instantly and hundred others fatally injured. Additionally, property worth millions of dollars was destroyed. The damage resulting from The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire seems negligible compared to previous fires such as the great London fire and the great Roman fire.

However, the rise of human rights activism especially concerning the plight of workers magnified the need to improve fire protection methods in factories. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire attracted the attention of not only the state and federal authorities but also human rights activists, scholars as well as labor unions. This contributed to the significance that this fire had towards the evolution of fire protection codes (NYCOSH 1).

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire exposed various failures of not only the fire protection codes but also building codes existing at the time. As mentioned earlier, prior to this catastrophic event, NFPA’s concept of fire prevention focused on fire suppression rather than fire prevention. Additionally, the condition at The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory reveals lack of precautionary and fire disaster management measures.

It is assumed that the fire started as a result of a cigarette stump dumped in garbage heap containing two months accumulation of garment waste. While smoking was prohibited inside the factory, most of the workers were known to sneak in cigarettes and smoke during while working. This indicates noncompliance by both the workers and company owners.

Moreover, the accumulation of two months worth of flammable garment waste portrays noncompliance and ignorance of fire hazards on the part of the company’s administration. As a result of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Fire Prevention Act of 1911 was drafted and enacted. The Act enabled the setting up of the factory investigation commission whose primary focus was improvement of fire protection techniques, routine safety inspection and the general improvement of factory conditions (NYCOSH 2).

Even though previous fire protection codes required that buildings be fitted with automatic fire sprinklers, the Fire Prevention Act of 1911 made it mandatory for all factory buildings to be fitted with automatic sprinklers. Additionally, the Act made it mandatory for regular maintenance and inspection of fire protection mechanisms within factories and other public buildings.

Investigators reports indicate that most of the 146 deaths from The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire occurred due to lack of an alarm system within the building. At the time of the fire, an office telephone was the only means of raising public alarm incase of a disaster. However, Fire Prevention Act of 1911 required that all factories be fitted with a working alarm system.

With regards the existing building architecture at the time of the fire, the NFPA code for means of egress required that all buildings have safe and prompt escape routes for occupants in case of a major disaster, all clearly marked with exit signs readable in heavy smoke. However, despite the presence of adequate doors for worker to use as exits, company owners had made the exit inaccessible by locking all doors during working hours.

Additionally, the stairways and safety exits were made of flammable materials. As a result, they crumbled under fire making exit impossible. However, as required by the Fire Prevention Act of 1911, NFPA building codes made it mandatory for all buildings to have exits made of fireproof materials. Additionally, not only should buildings have safe and adequate means of egress but also easily accessible as well as allow for prompt escape from the building (Gerber 2 to 4).

After The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, fire disaster managemt was almost obscured by the two world wars. However, within this period, there were significant improvements on fire alarm systems. During this period of time, the fire alarm systems improved from a simple bell with a thermostat connected to water flow switches to sophisticated fire and smoke detectors.

However, one of the most historic fires in the US history, the Coconut Groove Night Club Fire which occurred in 1942, casts doubts on efforts by business owners to comply with exiting fire protection codes. While the building had stairways and walls made of nonflammable materials, the Coconut Groove Night Club had not complied with exit requirements. After The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, NFPA required that engineers provide adequate and prompt emergency exit routes.

However, the analysis of the conditions prior to Coconut Groove Night Club Fire indicate no adequate and prompt exist routes available. Investigators found only one revolving door as the only means of exit. Additionally, investigators found that few escapees used toilet windows and a concealed back door to escape. Moreover, the use of highly flammable decoration materials aided the quick spread of the fire.

Even though the alarm system worked well and alerted the fire response team in due time, investigators report that more than 300 lives would have been saved if club owners had completely complied with existing safety codes, especially on the provision of adequate means of exit (Moulton 5 to 8).

As a result of the Coconut Groove Night Club Fire, NFPA amended the its building codes that had been developed after the infamous Iroquois Theater fire of 1903 (which had banned the use of flammable decorations in public buildings).

NFPA amendments required two separates means of egress, in form of swinging doors that swings with the crowd as opposed to against the crowd. NFPA also required revolving doors to be flanked by swinging doors as well as adequate rails to provide support and prevent people from falling over each other (Moulton 13 to 16).

30 years after the Coconut Groove Night Club Fire business owners had not fully complied with NFPA fire protection code and building standards. In 1977, a wild fire burned Beverly Hills Super Club, and with it more than 160 patrons and workers. The construction of Beverly Hills Super Club took many years to complete.

The club’s walls, stairways, roof and floors were made of noncombustible materials such as steel and concrete bricks. However, interior decoration was done using plywood, lumber, wood and drapery, all highly combustible materials. Additionally, investigators found water pipes as the only available form of fire protection at the time of the event. Engineers had not installed automatic sprinklers, alarm systems or standpipes.

Despite having eight means of exit, many people died as a result of inadequate exit arrangements, overcrowding, use of flammable building materials, lack of fire sprinklers and alarms, as well as delayed discovery and response of the fire outbreak. As a result of such failures, NFPA 1981 amendments categorized night clubs as places of assembly occupancy.

In addition, NFPA amendment required place of assembly occupancy holding 300 people installed with automatic sprinklers as well as voice message enabled alarm systems. Such an alarm would be connected to the local fire station and thus reduce response time (Duval 8 to 16).

Yet, despite NFPA’s requirements, later fires expose ignorance of NFPA building and fire protection codes. In 2003, the Station Nightclub Fire exposed widespread ignorance of NFPA building and fire protection codes. Investigators found that engineers had used combustible materials in the construction of the Station Nightclub, including interior decorations. Additionally, egress arrangements largely violated NFPA building codes.

Despite having illuminated exit signs only few outward swinging exit doors were available. Moreover, an obstructing rail corridor ran against the main exit making quick escape impossible. With regards to fire protection, investigators found portable fire extinguishers instead of automatic water sprinklers. The club also had been installed with working alarm systems as well as heat and smoke detectors, yet not connected to local fire stations.

As a result of the Station Nightclub Fire, NFPA code 255 required building materials to be tested for fire propagation abilities. As such, Class A materials, which have no ability to propagate fires, were highly recommended for use in assembly occupancy buildings which hold more than 300 people.

Additionally, NFPA 255 code banned the use of pyrotechnics in places of assembly occupancy as well as construction of obstruction free exits. This is in addition to the expansion of the main exit point to accommodate at least two-thirds of the total occupancy load.

Places for assembly occupancy were also required to have trained crowd control managers at the ratio of 1:250, to aid quick exit during emergencies. Since all previous cases involve violations of NFPA building and fire protection codes, NFPA 2008 amendment made it a felony for business owners to violate these codes. Additionally, the amendment empowered access to buildings for fire safety inspectors at anytime (Duval 24 to 32).

The Coconut Groove Night Club Fire spurred extensive investigations, the result of which is the evolution of performance based fire protection designs. This approach was motivated by peculiar findings at the scene of The Coconut Groove Night Club Fire, in which most of the fire burned the roofs and upper parts of the walls, while leaving much of the floor and fallen chairs totally undamaged. Investigators found very high air temperatures inside The Coconut Groove Night Club due to overcrowding.

Additionally, the combination of flammable alcohol fumes hovering over the crowd fueled the fire. These findings by NFPA investigators corroborate assertions by doctors who responded to the emergency that many people succumbed to inhaling hot toxic air and related respiratory problems (Beller and Sapochetti 86 to 92). As result, NFPA required that public buildings have proper ventilation as well as standby respiratory protective equipment (Commission for Occupational Safety and Health 13).

Personal protective equipment and their effects By 1930s, records indicate the impossibility of fighting fires from inside a burning building due to lack of personal protective equipment, PPE. However, as Hasenmeier (n.pag) explains the earliest known PPE was a leather helmet used by fire fighters in the 1830s. However, this type of clothing did not insulate fire fighters from extreme heat conditions, and thus less effective.

Events at The Coconut Groove Night Club Fire highlighted the need for improved protective fire fighting equipment, especially to protect fire fighters from heat stress and intoxication.

This assertion corroborates FEMA‘s findings on cases such as 1990 Sedgwick County fire, the 1999 Santa Barbara fire, California wild forest Fire in 1990 and 1997 La Cima Fire, which indicates that almost half of fire fighters fatalities are as a result of heat stress, intoxication and exertion, emanating from bearing much weight from PPEs especially clothing, during fire fighting events (FEMA 6 to 10, 26 to 28).

As a result of these fires, fire protection codes have been amended to incorporate the use of appropriate PPE to protect fire fighters. Fire protection codes require fire fighters to be equipped with adequate PPEs such as helmets, boots, overalls, gloves, inhalers, face masks among others. NFPA requires that these equipments be made from fire and heat resistant materials. The main purpose is to allow fire fighters to enter burning buildings and extinguish fire from inside.

However, as evidenced from 1990 Sedgwick County and other fires, fire and heat resistant clothing has negative effects on fire fighters. Fire fighters are not able to loose heat through the natural heat loss mechanism. In strong heat conditions, much heat is trapped inside the cloths and not lost to the surrounding atmosphere. Thus, the fire fighters easily succumb to heat stress.

Therefore, NFPA’s “Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting” requires all fire fighter to use PPE’s that meets all thermal regulations as well as minimum weight requirements. However, in non-fire events, such clothing seems unable to facilitate normal body heat loss since the cloths are made of non-breathable moisture and heavy thermal materials, which increases body temperatures to dangerous levels.

Thus, NFPA 2000 and 2007 amendments require limited exposure to extreme heat conditions combined with regular interval rotation of fire fighters during fire fighting events. Additionally, NFPA 2000 and 2007 amendments demand the manufacture of PPEs with material that has high total heat loss value to minimize the chances of heat stress (FEMA 30).

Conclusion The elusive success in management of fire disasters should however, not take anything away from improvements made to fire protection codes. Valuable improvements have been made to traditional fire protection methods resulting to sophisticated fire protection codes. However, success in the management of fire seems elusive due to the combination of noncompliance and the challenge of complexity and dynamic nature of fires disasters.

The evolution of fire protection codes and the use of latest technologies significantly improve combating major fires. However, fire disaster managers continue to face the new challenges that cannot be addressed through already existing codes. Such challenges include the threat of terrorism and fires that might start as a result of such causes as terror attacks.

Additionally, each fire occurs under unique conditions and thus needs unique solutions to combat. This makes the development of new fire protection codes before a fire breaks out a near impossibility. Therefore, the management of fire disasters is a continuous process with no concrete solutions.

Works Cited Alderson Caroline, Nick Artim and Rick Allen. Fire Safety Retrofitting. n.d. Web.

Beller, Doug and Jennifer Sapochetti. “Searching For Answers To The Cocoanut Grove Fire Of 1942”. NFPA Journal (2000): 86 – 92. Web.

Commission for Occupational Safety and Health. Codes of Practice First Aid Facilities and Services Workplace Amenities and Facilities Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment. 2002. Web.

Cote, Arthur. History of Fire Protection Engineering. Fire Engineering. 2011. Web.

Duval, Robert. NFPA case studies: nightclub fires. NFPA. 2006. Web.

FEMA. U.S. Fire Administration. Emergency Incident Rehabilitation. 2008. Web. Gerber, James. Fire Prevention in the Wake of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire of 1911: the Role of Fire Chief Edward Croker. n.d. Web.

Hasenmeier, Paul. The History of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment. Fire Engineering. 2008. Web.

Moulton, Robert. “Cocoanut Grove Night Club Fire Boston, MA November 28, 1942” NFPA Journal. (2000): 5-16. Web.

NFPA. History of NFPA Codes and standards-making systems. n.d. Web.

NYCOSH. Don’t mourn –organize: Lessons from the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire. 2011. Web.

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Interview importance Descriptive Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Abstract

Behavioral criteria

The screening criteria

Planning for the interview

Preparation for the interview

The introduction and conclusion

Reference List

Abstract This interview package gives a reflection on the position of the Chief Accounting Officer. The package also provides the criteria which shall be used when interviewing the candidates for the position of the Chief Accounting Officer. It contains a series of areas which are going to be points of focus.

These areas include the role of the interview panel, the relevance of the interview process and the aspects of the interviewee which are going to be analyzed. This document is based on theoretical and scientific approaches which have been researched and utilized in the past. Thus, it is based on what scholars have identified as key areas which are fundamental within the interview process.

Introduction Interviews are critical processes which guide in the process of recruiting staff in organizations. This paper is based on the above premise. In this light, this paper presents a process which shall be followed when recruiting an officer for the vacant position of the chief accounting officer. This segment sheds light into the requirements of the task at hand. It clarifies on the issues which need to be put into considerations highlighting the important values which the position requires.

Behavioral criteria The behavioral aspect will focus on the following behavioral aspects the candidates. Communication, interpersonal capabilities, networking abilities, motivation abilities, administrative abilities and the intrapersonal abilities. It is worth noting that the stated post requires a person who is able to manage oneself as well as others.

Due to the fact that this position is administrative, it is important for the candidate to be in a position of building links and managing the team members who one is working with. It is therefore central to this position that the candidate display high degree of self awareness. In addition, this person ought to be able to engage people in a manner which is logical and persuasive.

This is because this will enable the company to use this person as the central person with regard to the organization of financial records as well as mobilization of personnel to work in stated accounting fields when called upon to do so.

In this category, there is going to be an emphasis on intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Due to the fact that this position requires an accountant who will assume the leadership role, it implies that the person to fit this position should be able to understand the organizational accounting dynamics as well as work with people from diverse background.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because as a multinational company, the chief accounting officer will have to work with accountants who hold similar positions in organizations which are across the globe. Secondly, one will have to be able to understand how to establish teams which will deliver results. Thus this calls for a person who is able to articulate a vision and state the objectives of that vision in a clear manner such that the subordinates will pursue it in a clear fashion without any confusion.

In addition, due to the fact that this position forms a central position within the organization, the holder of this position will have to be able to form links with other departments and offices within and without the organization to ensure that the needs and objectives of the organization are realized within the stipulated time.

This position will require someone who can be able to work under pressure. This is because it will entail working with people as well as ensuring that the results are achieved. Furthermore, it will need the holder to be conversant with the demands of accuracy and the international dynamics which are associated with commerce.

Thus, the employee should be a person who is aware of oneself in terms of ability to perform and at the same time should be able to communicate well when the occasion arises. This should be both in a written format and verbal form. Background and work experience

The candidate should bear a string background in organizational management with a bias in accounting. This will be in line with the organization’s objective of nurturing independent and hardworking employees. Furthermore, the applicant should highlight some experience in the field of management and accounting, preferably five years in a multinational organization.

The applicant should also illustrate depth in a variety of computer applications which will be needed in establishing digital accounting standards within the organization. Any qualification in computer applications will be an added advantage to the applicant.

The screening criteria The applicant must within the following criteria in order to considered for an interview; first, the candidate must have at least one year of professional work and experience in accounting and organizational management. The applicant should have served in active leadership positions and exhibited the drive to accomplish based on the achievements realized during the term of leadership. The applicant must possess at least a bachelor’s degree in business management.

We will write a custom Essay on Interview importance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The interview: Types of interviews There are several types of interviews. These include, the selection interview, the performance interview, the career development interview, information gathering interview and the problem solving interview. The process of interviewing among other things relies heavily in applying one of the stated approaches. In this case, the objective of the interview process is to get the right candidate for the stated post.

Thus, the interview panel is going to apply the selection interview. During this interview process, there are several techniques which might be preferred. In this case, the interview panel is going to consider the screening interviews, traditional interviews, behavioral interviews, the panel or group interviews and the case interviews.

This is because the objectives of the interview panel include weeding out any unqualified candidates who might turn out for the interview process, to evaluate the candidate’s ability to communicate, to match the candidate’s past performance to the job requirements basing the candidate’s ability on the past performances in similar positions, ascertain a candidate’s skills and approach to problem solving, problem diagnosis and communication.

Planning for the interview This process entails several steps of analysis. First and foremost, it is important to establish the legislation governing the interview process. Determine the objective of the interview is also important. This is because this will enable the panel to find out which approach or combination of approaches will work.

Based on this, the panel should be able to formulate questions reflecting on each agenda which has been set. Developing an interview guide is an important aspect of this process. This is because it ensures that the objectives set are realized within the limits which have been set. The interview process

The interview process can go on for quite a while. First, the applicant will be asked to come in for a screening interview. The screening interview is the first interview with a particular candidate. In some cases it may even take place over the telephone. During a screening interview, the person interviewing you will usually be someone who works in the human resources department, and he will want to verify items that are on your resume, such as dates of employment and schooling.

These questions will pertain to the interviewee’s skills and abilities, accomplishments, education, and work history. Furthermore, the applicant will also be asked questions about one’s strengths and weaknesses, interests and hobbies, and likes and dislikes, all of which will enable the panel to learn about the applicant’s personal traits and characteristics. The goal on a job interview is to give the candidate an opportunity to express oneself through the best answers one can possibly give.

The applicant should be prepared to give detailed answers to job interview questions. The interviewer, for example will ask about skills. The applicant should know what skills one has and should be able to discuss how they acquired them. The interviewer will use the applicant’s resume to guide him through the interview. The applicant should be conversant with their personal; resumes and they must be prepared to talk about and elaborate every item on it since a resume, by definition, is a just a brief summary of the applicant’s work.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Interview importance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Preparation for the interview This should be a process that should be completed before the actual interviewing process begins. During this phase, the organization should have established the persons who are going to seat on the panel and the steps which are going to follow in line with the interview. In this case, the preparation of the interview should ensure that the fundamental aspects which are necessary during the interview are adhered to.

These include; the questions, the location, the date and time for the interview to take place. It is also important to give the interviewer’s time to seat together and reason together as they come up with a team which will ensure that the process runs smoothly. We are going to look at the aspects mentioned above in detail in the next section;

Questions: these should be clear and statements which are aimed at bringing to the fore the actual meaning of the subject at hand. The questions should be stated in line with the position at hand and they should free from any ambiguities which might confuse the interviewee.

It is also important to ensure that the questions which are going to be put across to the applicant are questions which have been agreed upon by the panel. There are cases whereby the applicant might be allowed to have a look at the questions, in this case, that should be done early in advance to ensure that there are no delays.

The venue: it is worth noting that the location of the interview has got a major impact on the outcome of the process. It is vital to ensure that the environment where the interview takes place is place which is away from any form of distractions. The furniture should be comfortable both to the interviewers and the panellists.

The candidates: it is important to ensure that the candidates have knowledge with regard to the interview process. They should not be ambushed on the last day, rather they should be given a prior notice to enable them prepare in advance for the interview. In cases where there are special considerations, it is also important to communicate the same to the candidates. Legal requirements for interview process

There are several aspects which need to be put into consideration with regard to interviewing. These are aspects such as discrimination based on race, sex, marital status, religion, sex, and sexuality. These are factors which the interview panel will seriously need to put into consideration when they are carrying out the interview.

In addition to this, ethics should be maintained. That is, there are various issues which need to be put into consideration during the interview process. These issues which are known as the ethical codes vary from one organization to another. This implies that the interview panel should consider the organizational procedures that are governing the given profession. The universally held ethics include the UN declaration of Human Rights.

The introduction and conclusion The interview should commence with formal introductions. That is both the panel and the applicant are given an opportunity to introduce themselves before the panel. Secondly, the chair of the panel should give the objective of the interview in light of time allocated and the expectations from the interviewee or candidate.

The panel should give the client an opportunity to state their expectations and special requests, if any exists before the interview. The chairperson of the panel should guide the panel and the applicant during the conclusion and bring the process to an end. It is during this time that the applicant will be informed on when and how to get the results from the interview.

The introduction which is recommended for the interview is;

Good morning sir/madam,

First and foremost we want to thank you for taking your time to be part of this process. We highly appreciate the fact that you have chosen to take part in this interview process for the post of chief accounting officer. My name is Mr. XYZ and I am the chairman of this panel as well as the head of the human resource in this company.

The other panellists will introduce themselves as they put across their questions. The process will take approximately one hour. It will entail a series of questions from the panellists and they will expect responses from you. In case of anything, just let us know and we will be willing to step in and assist in any way possible.

The recommended conclusion should be;

Well that question marks the end of this session. We are grateful that you took your time to respond to our questions carefully. Unless you have any questions or comments, we shall get back to you in the next five days via the email address to notify you on the results. Thank you.

In conclusion, the preferred theoretical approach during this process will be the behaviourist approach. This is because this approach monitors progress in quantifiable terms. This is important when it comes to establishing tangible results which have been achieved and which are likely to be achieved by a person within a given duration of time under certain conditions.

Reference List Burns, D 2009, The First 60 Seconds:Win the Job Interview Before It Begins, Sourcebooks, Inc., London.

Catano, VM 2009, Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Cengage Learning, California.

Dale, M 2004 , Manager’s guide to recruitment and selection, Kogan Page Publishers, London.

Dale, M 2006, The essential guide to recruitment:how to conduct great interviews and select the best employees, Kogan Page Publishers, London.

Fontes, LA 2009, Interviewing Clients Across Cultures:A Practitioner’s Guide, Guilford Press, New York.

Gatewood, RD, Feild, HS

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The Whole Foods Market: 2010 Case Study college essay help online

The retail grocery industry has increasingly become very attractive in the recent past. Many firms have realized that this industry is lucrative given the increase of the number of people looking for healthy foods. In order to understand the attractiveness of this industry, Porters five forces will be used.

The first force is the risk of entry by other potential competitors. This risk is relatively low because most firms these products highly perishable and therefore, prone to high risk if customers are not accessible in time. The bargaining power of the buyers is relatively low because they are convinced that such healthy foods are worth high prices.

They are always willing to pay such high prices. The bargaining power of the suppliers is also low because they are always striving to release these products while they are still fresh. They would try to avoid situation where they stay with the products for long because they can go at serious loss.

The threat of substitutes in this industry is extremely low. It is not easy for the customers to find a perfect replacement for these products. This makes retail grocery industry very attractive. Whole Foods is one of the leading firms in this industry.

The macro environment has a number of factors that affect the retail grocery industry in general, and Whole Foods in specific. The Political environment would dictate ease of doing business in this country. With political stability, the industry will have the needed security to conduct business.

The economic environment may also affect players in this industry. With economic recession, the industry may experience low sales because consumers will have less disposable income. As shown in the case, the economic environment is a main factor that has been considered to affect players in the industry.

The social environment may dictate the nature of products that players in this field may stock. Technology is coming out strongly as another important factor in the external environment. Environmental concern is another important factor. The Green Movement is a clear indication that consumers expect firms to be environmentally friendly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the legal environment is a factor that must be considered in the external environment. In the internal environment, the financial position of a firm heavily affects its operations. A firm must understand its sales and the net income. The figure below shows the sales and net income of Whole Foods.

The figure above shows the sales made by this firm and the net income from the year 2005 to 2010. From the figures above, it is clear that this firm has been experiencing a steady increase in sales over the years.

Although the net income was a little unsteady, especially in 2008 and 2009, it started rising again in 2010. The slow rate of income in 2008 and 2009 can be attributed to the 2008/2009 economic recession in the country.

Based on the above findings, the main recommendation that the management should consider taking seriously is the need to increase its sales volume by going beyond its current market.

The management should consider moving to other European markets besides United Kingdom. China and India can also make very attractive market for this firm given the huge population they have. This will help in increasing their net income.

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Significance of neural plasticity on visual perception Proposal essay help free

Introduction Purpose

Neural plasticity as concept describes the process through which the brain adapts itself and rewires to the environment. Such a process is manifested in both the physical and chemical nature.

Against traditional psychologists who previously opined that the brain is developed fully in the infancy period, the contemporary psychologists have demonstrated that the brain is an organ that has actively altered the older neurons for new ones with the changing environment for adaptation while learning new information and creating new memories (Simons and Chabris, 1999).

The environment in which the brain is related is its nature, and is largely defined by what the brain gets exposed to. Thus, this research proposal attempts to explicitly establish the significance of neural plasticity on visual perception.

The independent variable is perception while the dependent variables are neural plasticity and personality. The study will adopt direct participation and secondary approaches.

Motivation

The level at which the brain gets adaptable to the environment is dependent on the critical periods on which it is susceptible as it develops its basic network. In its neural plasticity, the brain develops ability to adapt to changes in environment as stimulated by nerves which connect it to the external environment to images.

As a process, neural plasticity entails three major brain mechanisms; anatomical, metabolic and neuron chemical process. This process is useful in strengthening the existing connections to visual images. It is thus necessary to explore the relationship between neural plasticity and perception of visual images.

Previous research

In attempting to orientate the arguments in this paper to practicality of neural plasticity, the paper highlights experiments in which neural plasticity has been evidenced. The first of such examples was performed on rats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The experiment demonstrated that postnatal or prenatal stress on specimen produced a range of variations in the levels of neurotransmissions in the brain. Such levels were observed on the catecholamine, serotonin and the opiate.

When a similar experiment was performed on pregnant rhesus monkeys, the ones that were pre-exposed stress delivered offspring with permanent neurological changes.

Subsequent reports revealed permanence in the control and memory states that appeared impaired. Similarly, same survey conducted with pregnant women, suggested noticeable effects on the circumference of their babies’ heads.

Methodology This research will use secondary data since a lot of research has been carried out on the dependent and independent variables. The observers will be requested to randomly pick images from the research materials and offer a brief description in terms of color, texture and size.

The participants will be expected to answer the questions in the shortest time possible after observing ten images. The relationship between the dependent and independent variables will demonstrate the process of neural plasticity by aligning the discussion to development of image perception.

Besides, the variables will also be tested for their relationship to repetitive occurrences and constant change of images with different themes. The relationship that might exist between the dependent and independent variables is that perception is directly dependent on neural plasticity.

Possible Findings

The social influence takes course with the rationality to identify and classify visual images. This is dependent on neural plasticity and the personality of a person.

We will write a custom Proposal on Significance of neural plasticity on visual perception specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research implications

This study is necessary to establish the correlation between the actual images and visual perception in the external environment. The findings of this study will seal the research gap which currently functions only on the influences of the external environment on perception.

Psychologists might use the results of this study to learn the neural plasticity and its relationship to visual interpretation of images.

Reference Simons, D.,

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George Appo’s Autobiography Essay (Book Review) college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Appo’s Life

Why Appo Became a Criminal

Why Appo Wrote His Autobiography

Appo’s Solutions for Prison Reform

References

Appo’s Life In his memoirs, George Appo made startling revelations about his criminal life and NYC’s criminal underworld in the 19th Century. Born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1858, Appo’s early exposure to crime and drug abuse in Manhattan turned him into an accomplished pick pocket and a swindler.

Appo’s father, Lee Ah Bow, was an immigrant from China, whose violent outbursts saw him in prison for murdering his landlord after a protracted argument (Appo 2000). Around the same time, Appo’s mother and sister perished after their California-bound ship was destroyed by a storm.

At age three, Appo found himself destitute. A poor family residing in Donovan’s Lane, a crime-ridden street in Manhattan, accepted to adopt him. Appo describes the Five Points area in Donovan Lane as a multi-cultural, overpopulated and impoverished neighborhood in NYC (2000).

While growing in Donovan’s Lane, Appo learnt to steal from unsuspecting people. He joined criminal gangs, and begun abusing drugs (opium) and alcohol. All through his life Appo embraced the ethics of a “good fellow” by being generous to his underworld friends in the opium dens and “dives” he patronized (Appo 2000, p. 4).

It is at this point that Appo began his pick pocketing and prison stints at various prisons. In 1891, Appo joined a con game called the “green goods game”, which was very lucrative (Appo 2000, p. 3). It is while participating in this lucrative game that a victim shot him in the face. As a result, he became partially blind after losing an eye.

Appo was tried and imprisoned at different institutions for his crimes, but “never howled for the police for satisfaction in the courts” when wronged (Appo 2000, p. 8). At the ‘Sing Sing’ prison, where he served most of his sentences, Appo describes the brutality and torture he and the other convicts experienced at the hands of the guards.

He lost his teeth and had several scars on his body because of the beatings. His numerous trials and prison stints brought him a lot of notoriety and fame. In his autobiography, Appo gives insights into the corruption and brutality that characterized the prison system.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After his reform, Appo advocated for an overhaul of the justice system as one step towards ending corruption in prisons. His revelations to the Lexow Committee regarding graft that dogged the American justice system underscore his stance towards the American justice system.

Why Appo Became a Criminal Appo, at a tender age of 3, was forced to live with a poor foster family, named Allen, after his father was imprisoned and his mother killed in a shipwrecking incident. His foster family resided in Donovan’s Lane (Five Points), an area inhabited by “poor people of all nationalities” (Appo 2000, p. 7).

The area where Appo spent his childhood was densely populated and crime-ridden, which exposed him to other delinquents at an early age. He started picking other people’s pockets in this neighborhood at age 15. Thus, the neighborhood’s multi-cultural nature, drug (opium) use in saloons and crime-driven economy influenced Appo’s criminal activities.

As Appo writes, as a newspaper vendor, he “learned how to pick pocket” from “two boys who always well dressed and had plenty of money” (2000, p. 5). Thus, the deplorable social conditions of this notorious neighborhood propelled Appo into opium abuse, heavy drinking and crime.

Appo’s memoirs give insights into the social differentiation apparent in the 19th Century American society. Notorious neighborhoods such as Donovan’s Lane were inhabited by immigrants of all cultures and the “all Chinamen of the city lived” in the Lane (Appo 2000).

According to Stephen (2007), race, in the 19th Century, influenced relationships, identity formation and social inequalities that defined the American society. The people’s lives and relationships were influenced by hierarchies such as gender, class and racial backgrounds.

The upper class white families lived in mansions while the poor immigrant communities lived in over-crowded neighborhoods in cities such as New York. The effects of the social exclusion emerge in Appo’s autobiography as crime and drug abuse.

We will write a custom Book Review on George Appo’s Autobiography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though Appo did not represent any particular social hierarchy, his childhood encounters with his compatriots portray the alienation that was present in the American society. Appo portrays the 19th Century urban neighborhoods as poor and lawless, which allowed the underworld to thrive.

He narrates how corrective institutions, including the Sing Sing, Blackwell Island and the Eastern Penitentiary were crippled by corruption (Appo 2000). Police corruption and the social hierarchies in NYC, allowed crime and drug (opium) abuse to thrive in neighborhoods inhabited by immigrant communities.

Why Appo Wrote His Autobiography Appo, in his memoirs, exposes the widespread drug abuse by the immigrant communities, the organized crime in NYC, the brutal prison punishment, the deep-rooted graft in prisons, and the attempts of a congressional committee to fight this vice (Appo 2000).

In this way, Appo criticizes the American society’s attitude towards corruption, crime, justice system and drug (opium) abuse. Gilfoyle (2006) describes Appo as being “cognizant of the prison aristocracy, privileged inmates and the inmate economy” (p. 67) because of the many years he spent in prison.

Furthermore, Appo (2000) narrates of the thriving trade in contraband goods and the corrupt and inefficient guards. This shows that the prison warders and administrators at prisoners such as Sing Sing were poorly trained as some were illiterate and relied on inmates for information.

Appo also criticizes the organization of the inmate work programs. Private contractors paid prison administrators to get access to ‘cheap inmate labor’ for their factories and businesses (Appo 2000). Although the inmates acquired new skills such as hat-making (Sing Sing) through this program, it was “impossible” to find a job outside prison where one can apply such skills (Appo 2000, p. 9).

As a result, many ex-convicts went back to crime, which made rehabilitation of prisoners difficult. For instance, Appo’s “efforts to go straight by setting up an express business with Tom Lee” was rather short-lived because he could not find a stable job (Gilfoyle, 2006, p. 308). For this reason, Appo went back to crime (pocket picking and ‘green goods’ swindle).

The Long Depression (1873-1878) led to a decline in social welfare and massive unemployment due to decline in consumer prices (Stephen 2007). This increased in corruption in public institutions, promoted crime and stimulated the growth of neighborhoods in major cities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on George Appo’s Autobiography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Appo’s Solutions for Prison Reform Appo mentions that reforming the convicts cannot be achieved through “brutality and tyrannical discipline”, but a “kindly act from any person of influence” can help reform the convicts (2000, p. 8).

He notes that this approach should replace the tyrannical approach used in state penitentiaries in the U.S., which only succeeds in ‘hardening’ innocent convicts due to the inhuman punishments (Appo 2000).

Moreover, the 19th Century justice system was dominated by “immoral tyrants” who did “all sorts of graft and practiced immorality on young innocent victims” (Stephen 2007, p. 307). Appo recommends that prison administrators should focus on rehabilitation of the convicts.

Appo also decries the “inhuman treatment and cruelty” meted on convicts (Appo 2000, p. 11). Proper training of prison keepers is another solution that Appo offers that would reform the justice system. He attributes the keepers’ brutality to lack of training and corruption.

Moreover, the placement of the keepers in the 19th Century prisons was done “through political influence” (Appo 2000, p. 4). He implies that the penal system should be run without political influence. As Appo puts it, “the brutal discipline only makes convicts to be worse criminals”, which makes them to return back to crime (2000, p. 5).

Such brutal treatment does little to reform criminals. Instead, Appo recommends that counseling would go a long way in reforming prisoners. Moreover, an overhaul of the criminal justice system would help stem out corruption from the prisons.

Appo’s stance on prison reform won him many admirers. The Lexow Committee interviewed him to get his perspective on corruption in prisons and penitentiaries in the U.S., including the Sing Sing prison.

Also, the “Society for the Prevention of Crime”, a Christian organization, facilitated Appo’s integration into society. The organization offered him a stable job and supported him throughout his life.

Despite being labeled a dangerous criminal, the society embraced him and ensured he leads a normal life. This implies that social support and counseling can help reform and integrate prisoners into society.

On the other hand, Appo’s memoirs show that brutality and inhumane treatment do not reform convicts. Instead, inhuman treatment only turns innocent convicts into dangerous criminals.

References Appo, G 2000, ‘The Autobiography of George Appo’, Penguin, New York.

Gilfoyle, T 2013, ‘The Urban Underworld in Late Nineteenth-Century New York: The Autobiography of George Appo with Related Documents, St. Martin’s Press, Boston.

Stephen, D 2007, ‘Review of A Pickpocket’s Tale-The Underworld of the Nineteenth Century New York’, Journal Of American History, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 307-309.

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Critical Challenges Operations Management Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Supply Chain Management

Customer relationship

Inventory management

Strategic Planning

Conclusion

References

Abstract The management of the supply chain, inventory management, establishment of strong customer relationship, and strategic planning are critical challenges related to e-commerce which leaders face in the field of operations management.

Introduction The following discussion focuses on the critical challenges operations managers in the field of operations management face to improve the productivity and efficiency of operations.

Supply Chain Management According to Lee, Krajweski and Ritzman (2005) one of the critical challenges operations managers face include creating effective procurement aggressiveness to enable suppliers meet the objectives of quality, quantity, continuous quality improvements, effective pricing, and excellent service delivery.

Managers need to overcome human, organizational, and cultural barriers when determining the type of information to share with suppliers, manufacturers, retailers, and distributors and to overcome the bullwhip effect on their e-commerce site to avoid information moving away from the point of use.

Sehgal (2013) argues that a leader has to ensure that innovation, relationship, and process capital are effectively planned and controlled to ensure effective logistical coordination, control, and communication.

Sehgal (2013) argues that an effective framework for interactive and collaborative work and comprehensive understanding of the inner working of the transformation processes are critical to eliminate non-value adding activities and conflicts (Barnes, 2008).

Customer relationship Sehgal (2013) argues that a manager faces the challenge of establishing positive relationship between a firm and its customers on an e-commerce platform to compel them to buy the moment they log into the firm’s site. The features enable the manager to establish strong customer loyalty, which influences them to be committed to the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Slack, Johnston and Jones (2011), a well formulated e-commerce site influences customers to develop the propensity to switch to that site for better deals. It becomes critical for a manager to put a framework in place for responding effectively to external problems if they occur to avoid the threat of customers complaining to regulators or costly legal actions.

Inventory management According to Slack, Johnston and Jones (2011), managers face the critical challenges of acquiring, delivering, and maintaining inventories for executing internal and external production activities.

When management tasks are effectively executed, customers readily understand the inventory which is available which helps them to reduce on-hand inventories. It is important for a business to ensure effective inventory tracking, better inventory logistics, and to implement inventory reduction capabilities.

Strategic Planning Operations managers have to plan effectively to achieve and increase a company’s market share to enable the firm achieve and maintain industry leadership for its products. According to Slack, Johnston and Jones (2011), the main challenge is to achieve competitive advantage through effective strategic planning efforts (Sehgal, 2013).

Managers have to decide on how to effectively coordinate different functional areas which support e-commerce transactions using information technology (IT) and information systems (IS).

Studies by Leseure (2101) show that managers have to effectively coordinate different functional areas of an organization with different e-commerce strategies by partnering with others to overcome problems associated with competitive advantage because of missed opportunities (Slack, Chambers, Johnston, 2010).

Conclusion In conclusion, operations managers’ tasks in the field operations management have to overcome a number of critical challenges discussed above to improve processes, the productivity and operational efficiency of firms in current dynamic business environment to competitively position their firms in the dynamic market environment.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Critical Challenges Operations Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Barnes, D (2008). Operations Management An international Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill

Lee, L., Krajweski, L. Ritzman, P. (2005). Operations Management: Process and Value Chains, 8/E. Pearson – Prentice Hall.

Leseure, M. (2101). Key Concepts in Operations Management. New York: Sage

Sehgal, V. (2013). Leaders in E-commerce. Web.

Slack, N, Chambers, S, Johnston, R, (2010). Operations Management. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Slack, N, Johnston, R.,

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Pros and corns of traditional and flexible benefits plan Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction The reparation management of benefit policies might incorporate innumerable components. In fact, the compensation management schemes range from the insurance of health statues to the redeemable accounts of retirement. A good rapport between the company and the employees augment from such plans.

The employees feel a sense of belonging since the compensation policies positively entice and encourage the personnel to leave or stay at a specific organization. However, the compensation benefits plans may be either traditional or flexible.

The flexible subsidy policies are believed to lay spell on the customary benefit strategies. Interestingly, the flexible benefit plans may not be as moral as they sound. In essence, flexible policies may be referred to as the plans of smorgasbord, superstore, or restaurant.

Despite the fact that flexible benefit procedures emanate from different scopes and characters, the customary subsidy plans convey exclusive benefits and characteristics.

However, not all business dealers or dealings are entitled to these benefit schemes. The traditionally distinct benefit plans suit business proprietors yearning to donate approximately fifty one to fifty six thousand dollars.

Similarly, organizations having appropriate and reliable revenue patterns and subsidized compensation to the employees at any rate not less than five percent (5%) are liable (Martocchio, 2011). The associates who are eager to escalate delays of tax and have more than 40 years of age are entitled to the traditionally defined benefit plans.

On the contrary, flexible benefits policy originates where an employee is capable of developing his/her overall benefits and wages (compensation mix) within the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, both the flexible and traditional benefits plans possess a number of pros and corns under commerce. This paper thus highlights the pros and corns of the comprehensive traditional benefits and the flexible benefits plans.

The pros and cons of traditional benefits and flexible benefit plans In any organization, a significant contributing factor to the employee satisfaction is reimbursement. Unluckily, the contemporary benefits policies when compared to the customary plans prove to be adverse with respect to worker’s sovereignty. As an alternative, concern has been put to the employees’ uniqueness in regard to their compensation.

A number of guidelines are also instituted to guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency in managing payroll (Galinsky, Bond

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After the 2007-2010 Financial Crisis: Across the Chaos and Destruction to the Universal Order Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction: The European Policy

2007-2010: The Financial Crisis

Concerning the Main Issues: Count the Losses

Conclusion: Dwelling on the Issues

Works Cited

Introduction: The European Policy There can be no possible doubt that the crisis of the 2007-2010 has brought the most devastating changes to the world economics, changing the life of all countries across the world. Induced by the political inconsistencies and the lack of efficient strategies that could provide an efficient integration into the Eurozone, the crisis was actually the result of the unreasonable actions undertaken by the political leaders of the countries involved. Because of the half-baked decisions concerning the integration in the Eurozone had been taken, the Great Britain had to sign the agreement with Brussels concerning the further economical steps, which is likely to drive to the most unpredictable changes in the stability of England economics (Russo and Katzel).

2007-2010: The Financial Crisis Because of the shift in the world politics, economics and the financial policies, certain problems have been revealed, which questioned the reasonability of the world integration. Like any other major change in the world policy, the globalization process dragged certain negative effects, among which the split between the countries is the most essential one. As Charlemagne explained,

In an effort to stabilise the euro zone, France, Germany and 21 other countries have decided to draft their own treaty to impose more central control over national budgets. Britain and three others have decided to stay out. (Charlemagne)

Hence, the split between Germany, France and Britain can be observed. Obviously, Britain is likely to suffer considerable changes. Moreover, Britain may even be under the threat of isolation. Comprised with the losses that the country takes as a result of the financial crisis, the aftermath of 2007-2010 is rather deplorable for the country. On the other hand, Britain will avoid the instability that the creation of the Eurozone will induce on the countries involved, which balances the aftereffects of the crisis for the United Kingdom.

Concerning the Main Issues: Count the Losses Judging by the results of the crisis that took over Europe in 2007-2010, one must claim that Europe has to reconsider its ideas about the globalization process. Despite the initial inspiration and delight concerning the world integration, numerous countries are starting to express concerns about the ways in which the integration process can possibly backfire.

According to what Nicolas Sarcozy said, the integration process is doomed, at least from the economical viewpoint: “The bigger Europe is, the less integrated it can be. That is an obvious truth.” (Charlemagne). Hence, it can be considered that, because of the crisis, the entire globalization process is under considerable threat.

Conclusion: Dwelling on the Issues Therefore, it cannot be doubted that, due to the crisis that gripped the world in 2007-2010, Britain is most likely to break its long-lasting relationships with France and the rest of Europe, which is highly undesirable and is likely to lead to the most deplorable effects on the economics of both countries, as well as the global economics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the concern about the single currency that is growing increasingly high at present, can possibly resolve in the unwillingness to maintain the stability of euro, which will put at stake the entire idea of the global integration.

Hence, the Great Britain should develop the strategy that would allow it to conduct its own economical and financial policy which does not conflict with the one of the Eurozone. With the help of the given compromise, the Great Britain will be able to participate in the world economical affairs, which the rest of the European countries will also benefit from, and keep trustful relationships with France.

Works Cited Russo, Thomas A. and Aaron J. Katzel. The 2008 Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath: Addressing the Next debt Challenge. Washington, DC: Group of Thirty. 2011. Print.

Charlemagne. “Europe’s Great Divorce.” The Economist, 9 December 2011. Web. .

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Harlem Renaissance Poets Essay essay help online

Claude McKay’s poem, “If we Must Die” talks about tensions between African Americans and Whites and paints a gloomy outlook about the future of race relations in the U.S. The poet is incensed by the restrictions that make it difficult for African Americans to live free, in a country that they call home.

It must be noted that this poem had a special role to play in the Harlem Renaissance because it encouraged African Americans to fight against incidents of injustice and oppression.

The poem typecasts the author as a champion for equality and human dignity, who is not willing to stand by and watch his people getting persecuted (Sayre, 2012, p. 1174).

McKay adopts an angry tone in the poem to show his frustrations concerning constant harassments of black people by Caucasian lynch mobs in different parts of the country.

Langston Hughes’ poem, “The Weary Blues”, talks about how blues music helps black people reconnect with their heritage. The persona adopts a melancholic tone yet the power of blues makes him forget about his problems in a short while to help him convey inner feelings about his existence.

The musician described in the poem is a representation of all black people in general that struggle with a conflicted sense of identity, in a strange land they are supposed to call home. The poet describes how the musician sways to the rhythm of the blues and the emotional uplifting he gets out of the experience (Sayre, 2012, p. 1208).

Through the musician, the feelings and experiences of all black people are revealed. The persona and descriptions used in the poem epitomize the Harlem renaissance era, when blacks were free to express their artistic abilities without restraint in a hostile social environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McKay talks about hopelessness, violence and retributive justice in his poem. The element of double consciousness comes out when he insists that the black man’s will to survive will always prevail against any form of oppression.

His poem connects the past and present by asking African Americans to use any means to fight against their oppressors to ensure they gain a high level of respect which they deserve.

Additionally, McKay’s poem has dark imagery and speaks about blows, open graves and shedding blood (Sayre, 2012, p. 1174). These elements are symbolic of the struggles African Americans have faced from the days of slavery and how these struggles have shaped their destiny.

The poet seems to be resigned to the fact that African Americans must be willing to make sacrifices to earn the respect and dignity they deserve in the country. The omniscient narration in the poem has an aggressive tone which shows that African Americans are willing to settle scores to safeguard their racial pride.

Hughes consciousness’ is inspired by a strong cultural heritage and inbuilt strength; attributes that define African Americans’ existence in the U.S. He uses a somber mood in his poem to describe the seriousness of his themes and their relevance to ordinary people’s lives.

In a way, the poem seems to be communicating a message of self- appreciation to all African American people living in the country encouraging them not to despair.

His poem seems to be calling upon African Americans not to dwell too much on the past but to focus on having a better future in a country where they are still treated as inferior beings (Miller, 1989, p. 69).

We will write a custom Essay on Harlem Renaissance Poets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hughes calls upon black people to take time and reflect about what they ought to do to overcome different forms of oppression they are subjected to (Duplessis, 2001, p. 118).

McKay’s poem portrays themes of self –belief, valor, suffering and indignity. The title, “If We Must Die”, is a symbolic clarion call to all African Americans to be ready to shed blood to safeguard their pride and dignity.

He insists that collectively, they will remain defiant to their tormentors and they will use all their efforts to fight them, regardless of the consequences. The combative and aggressive tone used in the poem serves as a collective voice telling all African Americans to do more to protect themselves from white lynch mobs (Maxwell, 1999, p. 53).

Elements of pride and dignity are worth protecting and McKay insists that it is better for a person to die a hero than to live a miserable life. He adopts a defiant persona by claiming that all African American men need to show their masculinity by retaliating against their attackers to show that they are proud.

In the end, McKay comes out as a crusader for retributive justice and warns perpetrators that their actions will no longer be condoned.

The illustrations used in the poem demonstrate themes of resilience, tranquility and communal identity and strong cultural attachments. Hughes uses the poem to express black sorrow in the wake of strong discriminative practices that subjugate African Americans.

The blues offer resilience to African Americans encouraging them to forge ahead and make something positive out of their existence. Hughes’ description about the black singer’s hands pressing white keys of the piano, exemplifies the struggle African Americans have to endure, before they are accepted by the mainstream white society.

Moreover, singers and listeners alike are able to forget about their tribulations momentarily, because the rhythm is able to provoke their inner emotional sentiments (Gabbins, 1999, p. 115).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Harlem Renaissance Poets by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The blues is a representation of the collective black soul because it continues to echo in the musician’s head even after he has gone to sleep. Therefore, the suggestive message brought out by the powerful lyrics of the blues makes the singer appreciate his heritage and all it represents.

Poem: There was a Time Stanza One

The Harlem Renaissance was a time,

When black artists were conscious and their ideas flowed freely,

Provoking minds of men and women, suffering from similar fates,

Yet, amidst all this doom and gloom, they stood out from the rest,

And they overcame their fears, limitations and hopelessness,

By writing and narrating powerful words, that nourished and uplifted the soul.

Stanza Two

One acted as a crusader, beseeching all black men and women,

To regain their dignity, pride, self-respect and honor,

That had been taken away from them by their oppressors,

By fighting back viciously against the oppressor,

Because that was the perfect time for retribution and heroism,

That would redefine racial relations and attitudes in the country.

Stanza Three

Another one, encouraged African Americans,

To look back at their heritage with pride and nostalgia,

And reminisce about both the good and the bad times,

To reflect about their purpose and true destiny,

To improve their attitudes about their own existence,

By listening to the soft and evocative rhythms of the blues.

References Duplessis, R.B. (2001). Genders, races, and religious cultures in modern American poetry, 1908-1934. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gabbins, J.V. (1999).The furious flowering of African American poetry. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.

Maxwell, W.J. (1999). New Negro, Old Left. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Miller, R.B. (1989). The art and language of Langston Hughes. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.

Sayre, H. M. (2012).The humanities: culture, continuity and change. New York, NY: Pearson.

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Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Major challenges Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) encountered many challenges as it developed the Delhi Metro. About 6 people were reported to have died, and 15 to have sustained serious injuries following the collapse of the transit under construction.

This was one of the accidents that negatively impacted the organization in its endeavor to complete the project awarded by the government. The accidents were caused by failure of the contractor to address technical issues affecting the construction of the bridge.

The corporation also faced the challenge of public criticism due to its low quality public works. The media cited that the business organization was negligent and could not meet construction deadlines.

DMRC was encountering growing bureaucratic pressure from the government that aimed to fire the DMRC engineering specialists who managed the construction of the Delhi Metro.

The organization was not covered by law, and it did not have land for expansion during implementation of the project. In addition, the firm faced the problem of shortage of experienced engineers who could steer the completion of the remaining part of the bridge before Commonwealth Games started.

Strategies used to address the challenges The challenges faced by the organization required it to formulate tested strategies in order to complete the project and rebuild its corporate image. First, the corporation realized that it would benefit from the services of general consultants who would ensure that the project at hand would adhere to international, technical and professional standards.

DMRC invited tenders from general consultants. Highest bidders with sound technical and financial resources were selected. To deal with the issue of non-standard materials, the corporation adopted a broad gauge that could allow better speed and safety.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The idea was also supported by the Ministry of Railways. DMRC was previously operating without legal cover for the project. This exposed it to many types of litigation from different people and/or organizations.

Later, the management approached the Prime Minister of India to seek important legislation to guide the construction of the bridge. DMRC also requested to be exempted from tax on important imported materials that were used in the project.

In addition, the firm took an initiative to take land from persons near the construction site and compensated them. Through the initiative, it obtained land for expansion.

The factor (phase I) Corporate culture is the factor that enabled the firm to successfully complete phase I of the project. Culture is a crucial factor in all organizations because it shapes the way people behave within and outside the workplace. Sound corporate culture positively correlates with improved performances of companies.

It is documented that all employees of DMRC worked without delays to avoid a loss of about 0.3 million dollars for each day of delay. Therefore, the personnel worked within the time set and cost. In fact, it is presented in the study case that this was a way of life for the staff.

The leader, Dr. Sreedharan, spent about half an hour to explain to every new hire what would be expected of him or her. The sound culture of the firm helped its personnel to work honestly and without being corrupt. The firm was involved in many contracts, which were not characterized by any form of corruption.

The corporate culture of DMRC ensured that professional competence was valued within the firm. It engaged the services of general consultants to lead the completion of the first phase of the project.

We will write a custom Report on Delhi Metro Rail Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Consumer Behavior-Individual analysis Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Introduction It is normally the duty of most governments of states to finance almost all sectors of their economies such as health, sport, and education just to mention a few. However, there are international and local organizations that come in to help the government ensure that the society acquires all the essential needs.

Most of these organizations are not for the aim of profit making but for the help of the society. One such organization is UNESCO, which stands for United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

This organization seeks to ensure the sustainability of security and peace in the society through the provision of education and other important agents of success such as science and culture. There are about 197 member states of UNESCO throughout the globe together with eight Associate members. As such, regional offices of UNESCO are distributed in various parts of the world.

UNESCO has several objectives, with the main ones including poverty eradication, promotion of education, peace enhancement, and intercultural dialogue among others (UNESCO 1). In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, UNESCO has put in place programs that initiate their attainment.

The programs include communication and information, education, culture, social, and human sciences, and natural sciences. In addition to this, UNESCO has initiated projects as well as sponsored them in a bid to ensure that its goals as an organization are obtained. Some of the UNESCO sponsored projects include “the promotion of cultural diversity; technical, literacy, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects” ( UNESCO).

Having looked at a summary of the functions and objectives of UNESCO, the rest of the paper will analyze the application of consumer behavior literature and theories on this organization. Later on in the paper, the specific application of this theory on UNESCO will be discussed, as well as, how UNESCO as an organization attempts to influence its clientele.

Analysis The consumer behavior literature and theories of learning and memory

All organizations (both the profit and the non-profit oriented) have ways through which they encourage the society learn of what they do. In order to succeed in this, all organizations are entitled to be aware of consumer behavior literature, as well as the theories of learning and memory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Using these strategies organizations are able improve their marketing skills therefore, reaching a wide scope of consumers. According to the consumer behavior literature and the theories of learning and memory, organizations play with the psychology of the consumers hence making them like and prefer their services and/or goods to those of other organizations offering the same (Westbrook and Oliver 84).

Secondly, the organizations will be able to adopt strategies that put the consumers in the first position. For instance, the organization should ensure that the messages they convey through advertisements will be able to woe the consumers and make them potential customers.

Concisely, consumer behavior could be described as those qualities that potential consumers look for in a product or service before making the buy decision (Alba, Hutchinson, and Lynch). This behavior differs from individual to individual. As such, organizations have to make effective decisions during advertising to reach a wider scope of the society as its consumers.

As for the case of UNESCO, it ought to understand the scope of its consumers before implementing any marketing strategy. For one, UNESCO has several objectives, which are all driven towards a larger part of the society. Therefore, to ensure that the society is well receptive of their functions, projects, and aid, UNESCO as an organization has to apply the marketing strategy of consumer behavior literature and theories of learning and memory.

In doing this, the organization will attain the trust of the people in the society as they will be able to see the good work UNESCO is doing. First, UNESCO should ensure that its objectives are well defined such that the people in the society clearly understand its functions.

For example, when implementing one of the UNESCO projects mentioned earlier in the paper, the organization ought to describe in a clear manner the procedures and the aims of the objectives. This will not only help in gaining the cooperation of the people in the society, but will also ensure easier attainability of the objectives.

Application of the theory

As discussed in the previous section, the application of the consumer behavior and learning memory theory is through the objectives of the organization, in this case UNESCO. One of the main application methods is through proper marketing strategy, whereby the organization ensures proper and effective advertising of the functions and objectives of the organization to the society (Hawkins, Best, and Coney).

We will write a custom Assessment on Consumer Behavior-Individual analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can be through marketing campaigns that are widespread to reach a wide scope of consumers (Alba, Hutchinson, and Lynch). For instance, UNESCO could facilitate marketing campaigns especially to regions and nations that are not member countries to drive them to becoming members. If this is effectively managed, UNESCO will be a global organization and thus, its objectives of poverty eradication, as well as the others will be achieved globally.

Another way through which this theory could be applied is through social marketing (Hawkins, Best, and Coney). In this, the organization ensures that the consumers get the idea of the organizations’ products and services before they are sold to them. This way, consumers are able to make realistic decisions thus making them gain the trust of the marketing organization (Oliver 465).

UNESCO could apply this strategy, for instance, issuing of proposals of the projects they would like to develop in certain regions. This gives the society the chance to determine the genuineness and capability of the organization before having them start projects in their regions and then they fail in future.

Public policy is another way of applying the consumer behavior and theories of learning and memory (Hawkins, Best, and Coney). Given the publicity that UNESCO has gained through its service to the society as well as through collaboration with other non-profit making organizations such as UNDP, it has been able to apply effectively this policy. It is true to say that only a small percentage of the world’s population have no information concerning UNESCO.

Even those who do not know of its objectives and mission are aware of its existence. As such, convincing people is not a hurdle for UNESCO as an organization. From this, it can be said that UNESCO has a competitive advantage over other non-profit organizations in the same scope more so over the upcoming ones. This is because, most people are already aware of what it is and what it deals with hence, winning the trust of majority of the people.

In my own opinion, I would consider that these application methods are efficient if effectively implemented by UNESCO. In fact, implementing these strategies will create a greater influence of UNESCO as a non-profit organization.

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that UNESCO is one of the important non-profit organizations in the world. Having looked at the objectives of UNESCO, it is by no doubt that this organization carries out functions that are of dare need to the people in the society. However, all the objectives revolve around poverty eradication and peace enhancement, which are the needs of every society.

In order to achieve these objectives in an effective manner, UNESCO just like other organizations has to ensure that its marketing strategies are efficient. From the analysis, it was noted that a clear understanding of consumer behavior literature, learning and memory theories are essential for the success of UNESCO.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer Behavior-Individual analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The various ways through which these theories could be applied were also listed in the analysis section as being market strategy, social marketing, and public policy (Oliver 465). If all the aforementioned application techniques are efficiently applied on UNESCO, it is true to say that it will lead to its success.

In addition to this, the plan of consumer strategy for UNESCO is certainly not a big issue for the organization given the great influence and publicity that it has all over the world. It can thus be concluded that, only a little enhancement is required on the marketing strategy of UNESCO in order to ensure the win of more members from all regions of the world.

Works Cited Alba Joseph, Hutchinson Wesley, and Lynch John. Memory and Decision Making. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991. Print.

Hawkins Del, Best Roger, and Coney Kenneth. Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 7th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1998. Print.

Oliver, Richard. “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.” Journal of Marketing Research 17.4 (1980): 460-469. Print.

UNESCO. “Living and Learning for a Viable Future: The Power of Adult Learning.” CONFINTEA VI. 1995. Web.

Westbrook Robert and Oliver Richard. “The dimensionality of consumption emotion pattern and consumer satisfaction.” Journal of Consumer Research 18.1 (1991): 84-91. Print.

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