The Effect Of The Crisis On Schools Essay Best Essay Help

Table of Contents Bereavement in learning institution

Crisis intervention

Communication skills



Bereavement in learning institution A bereavement crisis usually arises from the sudden death of a member of a learning institution. The bereavement may affect the entire school by inducing a posttraumatic stress disorder, mourning, and passionate grief. The extent of the closeness with the decease determines the intensity of the effect across the entire institution, and may vary from one individual to another.

The effect of the crisis will be more emphasized in schools for minors, since they will be exposed to the facts about death for the first time. Therefore, they experience difficulties in coming to terms with the loss, and the realization that life is unpredictable and unfair. In addition, they may be inexperienced on grieving.

Crisis intervention To begin with, identification of students who seem deeply affected is the first step towards crisis intervention. The students who are found to be severely affected to be help with only psychological first aid should be put through a comprehensive screening interview (James, 1995).

The screening usually concerns; (a) the students experience and recollection of the episode; (b) whether the incident keeps recurring in the students day to day activities; (c) scrutiny of any effort of the victim to evade any reminders of the episode; (d) check for any signs of elevated physical or mental excitement; (e) sense of guilt by the survivor; (f) invalidity of the previous measures to alleviate the suffering; (g) somatic grievance; (h) self-destructive actions and; (f) evaluation of pre- and post-event performances.

This process generally involves the application of the diagnostic principles proposed by the DSM-IV-TR.

Importantly, some time should be allocated for the comprehensive discussion of the crisis, and any efforts to promptly reintroduce the academic routine should be foregone to allow the completion of the interventional process. Although reverting back to schools normal programs contribute a lot in the normalization of crisis, majority of students will encounter difficulty in readopting the academic schedule while still concerned with resolving the crisis.

Also, it is proven that classroom sessions facilitate student’s transformation from reaction to pro-action. In other words, the students are able to move from mere discussion of the episode to organizing the ways to heal the residual consequences of the crisis. Adopting a pro-active position allows student to develop a sense of strength and reinstitute stability in their lives. In addition, they can attain finality of the event by collaboratively organizing memorials and memorial services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication skills Basic listening and reaction abilities are prerequisite in the entire procedure of crisis resolution (James, 2008). The preliminary step involves problem identification.

Accurate problem definition helps the experts to understand the motives and concerns of the hostage keeper. Applying certain techniques such as participative listening through confirmation and rephrasing of content, pondering of feelings, summary translation, and unrestricted questions and indicators is useful in allowing the hostage keeper to ventilate feelings (James, 2008).

In addition this procedure facilitates the evaluation of emotional position and psychological condition of the hostage keeper (James, 2008). The hostage keeper is mobilized to reveal his or her story as vividly as possible, through the use of first person participle or owning statements of self revelation, urgency, and emphasis (James, 2008) to create a connection between him or her and the hostage keeper.

In every hostage circumstances, the preliminary corresponding manner between the negotiator and the hostage keeper is that of alliance. In this case, the negotiator assumes the role of bargaining tool between the authorities and the hostage keeper.

Even though the hostage wants the resolution to be achieved soonest, it is important to prolong the process in order to wear down the hostage keeper until she or he become fed up (James, 2008). Thus allowing the hostage keeper to ventilate over along period according to his or her wish is useful on account of time lapse.

Another important aspect of this process of crisis resolution is analysis of the identity of the hostage keeper. Usually identity matters are considered form two perspectives, namely; personal and social. To begin with, personal identity is determined from the unique insight of his or her personal attributes.

On the other hand, social identity concerns those attributes and the emotional contribution attached to individual’s sense of belonging to a certain group (James, 2008). Another significant point concerns allowing the hostage keeper to safe face for social or personal identity purpose is very indispensable. In various cases with different types of hostage keepers, affording them to safe face by working out “honorable” options of the situation very useful tactic for resolving the crisis..

We will write a custom Essay on The Effect of the Crisis on Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The effect of the crisis will be more emphasized in schools for minors, since they will be exposed to the facts about death for the first time. Identification of students who seem deeply affected is the first step towards crisis intervention. Basic listening and reaction abilities are prerequisite in the entire procedure of crisis resolution. In every hostage circumstances, the preliminary corresponding manner between the negotiator and the hostage keeper is that of alliance.

Another important aspect of this process of crisis resolution is analysis of the identity of the hostage keeper. The immediate fiscal expense of the latest systemic crisis does not comprehensively depict its total fiscal effect. Circumventing the incidence of a systemic crisis is prerequisite for controlling the cost of systemic crises. Residual threat of a systemic crisis will persist in spite of the regulatory interventions.

Reference James, R. K. (2008). Crisis Intervention Strategies. Stamford, Mass: Cengage Learning.


The essence of a manager’s job Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction How does it feel when an employer denies an individual a career advancement opportunity at the workplace, only because a computer has randomly selected the qualified individuals? In this era of stiff competition among firms as illustrated by time and eminence, managers have employed the use technology in decision-making.

These accessories aid the process of making organizational decisions. Furthermore, they believe that these electronic accessories help in making quick and accurate decisions. Hence, they manage to withstand stiff competition from other companies.

It is clear that even if managers use these software and computers in making their decisions, they are certain that the decisions will be more rational. It is crucial for managers to accept advice to reduce the use of such accessories when making decisions. Some of the reasons why the decisions made by managers will not be more rational are the fact that, computers and software tools restricts the scope of making decisions, as there are decisions that require the application of an individual’s principles and skills.

Moreover, these technologies easily results in errors when used in making organizational decisions since there are no consultations done during the process. In making decisions that are more rational, human conscience plays an imperative role, unfortunately decisions influenced by technology lack this concept.

Additionally, rational decisions free of individual manipulation are tenable. However, it is easy to manipulate technology-assisted decisions to favor a certain subject. Computer experts who enter the programs used in this processes can easily do this. Rational decisions are real since human instinct facilitates the process.

However, this is not the case when decisions are made with the aid of technology. Rational decisions made without the use of computers seem to convince the subjects more. It is a fact that, managerial decisions aim at achieving company goals. Thus, use of technology might as well fail to meet the company goals. Most importantly, a decision crafted in a rational manner is flexible.

This means that the decisions can be reversed or made to accommodate other concepts if need arises. It is noteworthy that this is not possible when decisions are made using computers and software tools. In as much as computers and software tools allow managers to congregate information and scrutinize them easily, they make their decisions faulty or irrational.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Birrell


Euthanasia and Suicide Essay college application essay help

Introduction Euthanasia can be defined as the intentional act of inducing an easy and painless death to a suffering individual or mercy killing. It is closely associated with suicide act which involves an individual deliberately terminating his or her life in most cases without any assistance. There are usually cases of assisted suicide where the individual takes his or her own life intentionally with assistance from another person who may either be a medical practitioner or even a lay person.

The final act that results in the death of the person is however usually performed by the person intending to die after the provision of information, advice and even the ways through which he or she can take his or her life by the assisting individual. Euthanasia can either be active or passive depending on the amount of action a person takes to bring about the intended result / death.

Physician Assisted Suicide Physician assisted suicide is a process where an individual takes his or her own life on purpose with assistance from a medical practitioner or a physician. Active euthanasia involves causing death of the sick person without his or her involvement but rather through assistance by someone else.

Active euthanasia can be in the form of voluntary euthanasia which is performed upon the request of the patient, involuntary euthanasia where the patient’s life is taken without his or her request and mostly where the patient express non acceptance for termination of his or her life, the main intention being relieving pain and suffering, and non-voluntary euthanasia that takes place with neither the patient’s request nor consent.

Passive euthanasia on the other hand can be termed as literally letting a patient die through carelessness or not providing the necessary care and treatment needed to keep him or her alive.

According to me, physician assisted suicide is more of active euthanasia than passive euthanasia as the physician is actively involved in the termination of the patient’s life without the patient’s participation. There is however a thin distinction since it can be passive where the doctor neglects the patient with the aim of letting him or her die (McDougall, Gorman, and Roberts, 2008).

Legalization of assisted suicide in comparison to Adolph Hitler’s Aryan supremacy world view Some of the reasons given by medical practitioners for their choice to conduct physician assisted suicide on a patient are; the fact that the person is suffering from a terminal illness which have no cure or where the person has no chances of benefiting from the discovery of a cure for the disease in comparison to his or her life expectancy, and where the person is in too much pain or has become a burden and therefore unacceptable to those he or she rely on for support.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Connor (2009) suggests that the legalization of assisted suicide is comparable to Adolph Hitler’s Aryan supremacy world view. I also agree on this argument since both ideologies results in unnatural deaths of the persons involved and the belief that the individuals are unworthy and a burden to the society and so the solution is their elimination through induction of death.

Conclusion Although euthanasia is termed as good death and emphasizes on dying with dignity as opposed to suffering and being a burden to others, it should not be used as the solution but other means of reducing pain and ensuring that the patient dies a natural death in dignity should be considered, for instance, hospice care bearing in mind that every person is important and life is divine.

A person should also not be offered with the option of terminating his or her life since he or she is part of the society and the decisions made may have impacts on the society at large.

Reference List Connor, K. (2009). Expansion of Assisted Suicide to Washington Targets Elderly, Disabled With Death. Retrieved from

McDougall, F.J, Gorman, M., and Roberts, S.C. (2008). Euthanasia: A Reference Handbook 2nd Ed. New York: ABC-CLIO.


Collaborative Crisis Intervention at a Domestic Violence Shelter Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Community Partners


Ethical Issues


Reference List

Introduction Domestic violence cases often touches on private and confidential of the family and the professional service provider because they are sensitive and very personal. However, because of the need for collaboration, sometimes it is totally difficult to avoid sharing clients’ information among the professionals offering these services (for example, lawyers, social workers, psychiatrists, and other workers from government departments).

Sometimes, important services can be provided without a breach of confidentiality but in most cases it is very difficult to maintain utmost confidentiality of sensitive information.

Community Partners Collaborative partners for the crisis intervention will include the state domestic violence shelter and victim management programs in the community. Once the women or the children have been referred to the programs, they are enrolled and taken through a number of interrogative sessions with criminal investigation services and the emotional assessment social workers (Lauer


Historical cemetery in Rhode Island Essay scholarship essay help

Rhodes Island is one of the regions in the United States that is endowed with historical resources. However, the most unique and often ignored of these resources are the region’s cemeteries. There are approximately three thousand historic cemeteries of different sizes in the region with some being small family lots and others being large well architecture and manicured garden cemeteries.

Unfortunately most of the cemeteries in the area, particularly the smaller lots, have been neglected and have over time turned into nothing more than unkempt parchments of land with headstones strewn all over. With cemeteries containing critical information regarding the personal details of persons including their occupations, religions and family background, it is understandable why these historical cemeteries need to be given due appreciation.

The Ebenezer Fuller Family lot located on Hall Lane off of Hope Road is numbered Cranston historical cemetery CR039 (Friends of Cranston). It has been registered at the Cemeteries Affairs of the Veterans Program and it is listed as one of the regions whereby vandalism is punishable by law.

There are 16 people buried in the lot between year 1815 and 1871 with 7 of them coming from the Fuller family, five from the Thayer family, two are Fenners (Friends of Cranston). The Fullers include a Caroline, two Ebenezers, an Ann Frances, an Elizabeth and two Lucy Anns. An Amy, a Rachel, a smith, a Mary and a Thomas are Thayers buried on the lot. The remaining three persons are an Almira Boss, a Willie King and a Franklin Smith (Friends of Cranston).

The cemetery was most active in December 1848, experiencing the burials of Lucy Ann Fuller and Amy Thayer, whose deaths had five days between them (Friends of Cranston). Currently, the cemetery is in very bad shape with most of the tombstones having either broken or fallen down due to natural effects. Some of the headstones lie haphazardly and it would take a keen family member to establish the proper graves on which they belong.

There is no planned growth on the lot and most of the trees around have aged and dried up. The degradation of the trees has resulted in an accumulation of a huge amount of growth-depressing humus on top of the graves. This therefore means that even in favorable climatic conditions, grass in the lot only grows in patches. The cemetery, measuring 25 ft by 35 ft is positioned approximately 10ft South of Hall Lane Road and neither has an enclosure nor a sign indicating its ownership.

With a surface area of 851 square feet, Ebenezer Fuller Family Lot can comfortably accommodate over 30 graves. It is therefore left for historians to establish whether there are more than the aforementioned sixteen individuals buried in the land. The property has never been sold and like many other historical cemeteries within the region, it is open to rehabilitation by any individual(s) of goodwill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the organizations that are making an effort in trying to get the cemetery back to shape include the Friends of Cranston Historical Cemeteries; an entity that has through its website appealed for individuals to volunteer information or resources that could help in taking care of this particular cemetery. The appeal states in part that the maintenance of historical cemeteries is important for future genealogists and historians (Friends of Cranston).

Works Cited Friends of Cranston Historical Cemeteries. To locate and promote the encouragement of the care of Cranston’s many historic cemeteries. n.p., 2009. Web.


The importance of realism and naturalism in American Literature Essay essay help

Realism and Naturalism in American Literature In American literature, realism is a literary technique that shows the realities in life while naturalism on the other hand attempts to apply scientific analysis and detachment in its study of human beings. In the Norton anthology of American literature, the editor discusses the role of these two literary techniques in America’s history. In the period 1865-1920 the United States experienced high industrialization rates. The innovation of the telegraph, telephone and electricity accelerated economic growth.

Furthermore the completion of the railway in 1869 enabled businessmen to come and exploit the land for gold and other minerals. There was a high inflow of workers from Europe coming to look for work. The development however brought serious consequences. With the rapid increase in population the people needed more land and territory. The ordinary people could not protect themselves from the mighty and wealthy.

The railway company stole land from the natives. It also shrewdly eliminated other competition and became a monopoly. Other industries like steel and oil were also in the hands of a few wealthy and powerful men. Working conditions and pay for workers was poor as the monopolies had all the power. The corrupt government turned a blind eye to the actions of these monopolies.

With the increase of populations in cities there arose new publishing opportunities through several newspapers. The marginalized and under-represented people had a voice now to speak out. The writers spoke out against social injustices and inequalities due to the rapid industrialization. These were writers who had the courage to speak up. The editor of the anthology stresses the importance of realism in this period since several social issues were spoken of boldly.

These were the issues of the railroad monopoly that took the land of small farmers and the corruption of government officials. Helen Hunt Jackson spoke of the US injustices against Native Americans, Charlotte Perkins Gilman spoke of wealth and human rights and Thorsten Veblen spoke of the greediness of the extremely wealthy businesses. These writers affected the sociology, philosophy, and economy of the people. There were also writers who spoke against racial injustices.

These issues were highly challenging causing the authors to turn to aesthetic realism where they used descriptive and colorful language to represent life as it was. It was known as local color writing where dialects, social relationships and the current natural environments were depicted in their novels. Mark Twain is an example of this generation of authors who showed the vernacular dialects and added humor. This caused the readers to sympathize with the characters. American naturalism came later.

It was a continuation of realism but with a detailed focus on the lower class and marginalized communities who had bleak chances of survival while realism focused on middleclass and upper class. It was more logical than realism. Naturalism was different though in a scientific and deterministic approach. This literal technique was highly influenced by Charles Darwin book, Origin of species that spoke of survival of the fittest (Baym, 2007, p 7).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These writers for example Frank Norris and Stephen Crane attempted to show life scientifically. The characters in the novels lived in an environment with chance occurrences and the strong people usually victimized the weak. The situation was very tough and the characters lacked the intellect and resources to overcome adversity. The characters had to join forces to survive against the tough environment. At the end of the day the novels still worked towards providing social solutions.

Reference List Baym, N. (2007). The Norton Anthology of American Literature. (7th Ed, Volume C). New York, NY: Norton, W. W.


Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction The nature of childhood is a varied concept defined by its interpretation in various societies and communities. Different perceptions of childhood therefore exist although some researchers purport that childhood is an already dead concept while others note that modern children are more empowered than ever before (Newman 2006, p. 1). Childhood is therefore a universal concept of human life and a natural stage of development although variations in culture have made its definition a little dramatic.

For instance, in the western world, children are considered quite fragile and different from adults but comprehensively, the variations in culture can be observed from the commonly held adult perception that children are innocent and have a strong entitlement to protection and nurturing (Newman 2006, p. 1). In countries such as Japan, children are accorded more independence and treated as people who can act willfully without much parental influence (Staples 2008, p. 1155).

The commonly held perception about childhood in the Western world is therefore largely based on biological construction. This explains why many Westerners purport that children are extensively dependent on their parents for long periods, infants can die if they are left alone for a couple of days or a human baby may depend on his or her parents for several decades to come (Newman 2006, p. 1).

In contrast, it is interesting to note that babies from other animals are normally very independent from their early days on earth. For example, a baby horse is able to get on its feet and play around in its early minutes of birth without any parental help.

From the Western point of view, the establishment of laws to protect children against various social adversities like pornography, child abuse, neglect and such like adversities is in order but its is equally interesting to note that the concept of childhood only took root in the Western society as late as the 17th century (Newman 2006, p. 5).

In many spheres therefore, the concept of childhood is often debated across various disciplines including developmental psychology, pedagogy, sociology and the likes but many researchers have often held the belief that childhood is a creation of cultural perceptions and an imagination of adult views (Newman 2006, p. 10).

Understanding the nature of childhood therefore stems from the understanding of how we perceive young children since we cannot differentiate how adults see young children and the paradigm that defines childhood today and in the past.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At present, small volumes of literature have shed light on the transformation of childhood through time and this study seeks to provide the missing link, with a clear definition of how the nature of childhood has evolved over the decades.

From this understanding, we will comprehend how the nature of childhood manifests itself in present day society when compared to historical time settings. In this context therefore, we will analyze the social and cultural perceptions of childhood and possible synchronistic developments to explore whether metabolite shifts in childhood have occurred over the years or not.

As will be evidenced in this study, childhood is rather a social construction than a biological stage because it basically emerges out of attitudes, beliefs, and values of different societies and communities at various points in time. This is however subject to a number of changes in definitions and expectations as will be evidenced through the parental perception of family responsibility. This analysis will be done systematically through the analysis of childhood in medieval times, the 18th and 19th centuries and childhood in modern times.

Medieval and Early Modern Childhood The perception of childhood during the early 16th to 17th centuries was an evolving issue. Majorly, the perceptions about children and adulthood were defined by adult views and during the early modern times, children were perceived by upper class citizens as mature and fragile. This eventually led to changes in the way children were treated in various disciplines such as nursing, care, aristocracy and the likes.

However, before this development, children were often perceived (in the 16th century) as inherently evil creatures with a strong inclination to do moral wrongs (Hwang 1996, p. 196). This view was majorly advanced by the Puritan doctrine. Several Calvinist people held the belief that children were wayward and impulsive in accordance with their belief in predestination (which meant they had very little room between hell and heaven).

In the early years of the 17th century, the interpretation of the nature of childhood significantly changed because it was at this period that childhood was first perceived as a separate developmental stage of human life. In addition, at this point in time, the notion of who was deserving of childhood also started changing as the concept slowly broadened to eliminate the previous narrow-minded way childhood was perceived.

The same developments were characteristic of the Western world, including Europe and America, although there were slight variations due to religion, geography and the likes. Basically, the major factors which instigated the change of childhood perception came about with the development of industry, urbanization, parenthood and gender rights movements.

We will write a custom Essay on Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the very early stages of the 17th century, the concept of childhood was majorly understood by middle and upper class citizens because lower class citizens (in the European society) had an extended period of childhood, with the maximum age set at seven. Newman (2006, p. 11) notes that this view changed “With the advent of Calvinism, and Protestantism in general, in the late 1500s, the focus shifted, perhaps because of the rise of a middle class, perhaps because of the new religion’s focus on the individual”.

For instance, from a protestant’s view (where the world and human beings were perceived as evil and agents of immorality), children were perceived in the same manner with critical researchers noting that children were also agents of morals, requiring character moulding (Newman 2006, p. 12).

Another major influence of the perception of early childhood can be traced to the invention and growth of industries which implied an immense need for labor. Since childhood was perceived as the period between birth and the age of seven, it was not deemed wrong to subject children (more than seven years old) to factory labor (Hindman 2009, p. 38). There was therefore no significant difference in the way adults and children worked, except for the fact that both did different kinds of work in different time schedules.

This meant that instead of children working in their family farms, they worked in factories for minimum wage. The situation between America and Europe never differed much, only that America had fewer industries at the time due to the deep rooting of the economy in agriculture. Nonetheless, the situation became so severe that kidnapping instances became quite common in Europe since children were exported to America to work in Industries (Hindman 2009, p. 39)

From the above understanding of childhood in the early 16th and 17th centuries, childhood can be seen as a mere creation of the society. This view was largely advanced by a French Medievalist, Philippe Aries. He noted that in early childhood, the concept of early childhood itself was nonexistent because attitudes towards children were virtually progressive and influenced by socioeconomic perspectives (Hutton 2004, p. 73).

This view was widely held until the early years of the 17th century when children were considered miniature adults and it was believed that they could take care of themselves without the help of families or relatives (Hutton 2004, p. 73).

Aries’ works were basically useful in the development of the concept of childhood because it introduced the concept that childhood was a result of social construction and not biological construction (Hutton 2004, p. 73). However, his works are now currently criticized by most researchers even though he introduced the analysis of childhood as an independent field of study.

Some of the basic criticisms against Aries’ works stemmed from the methodologies he used in drawing up conclusions about childhood. One of his main critic was Hutton (2004, p. 73) who notes that “in everyday life, children were indeed dressed differently to adults; they were just put in adult clothes to have their portraits painted”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This meant that Aries was wrong to take portraits in early modern history (regarding childhood and family) and base his assumptions of childhood on the same, because in essence; the portraits were often used to improve the status of individuals. Other researchers such as Kroll cited in (Hutton 2004, p. 73) also detested the view that childhood in medieval times was treated with a huge degree of ignorance as purported by Aries. Other criticisms held by Hutton (2004, p. 73) advances the fact that Aries’ works were wrong because:

“Firstly, his data were either unrepresentative or unreliable. Secondly, that he took evidence out of context confused prescription with practice, and uses atypical examples. Thirdly, he implicitly denies the immutability of the special needs of children, for food, clothing, shelter, affection and conversation. Fourthly, that he puts undue emphasis on the work of moralists and educationalists while saying little of economic and political factors”.

Nonetheless, Aries still remains one of the most celebrated contributors to the understanding of early childhood.

Representation of the Nature of Childhood in the 18th and 19th Centuries The 18th and 19th centuries are probably the times when today’s Western perception of childhood developed because during this time, children were starting to be viewed as innocent and in need of social protection (Warren 1997, p. 204).

From this point of view, children were seen as creatures in need of protection and guidance to prevent them from falling into social temptations, but along with the notion of protection came the notion of discipline. The 18th and 19th centuries therefore changed the concept of parenthood because parents at this time were more persuasive to their children not to fall into the traps brought about by the social world.

During this time, children were often beaten, until a change in the way children should be disciplined was introduced in the 18th century (Newman 2006, p. 7). However, the same vice continues in some societies to date. Churches also voiced their concerns regarding the same, with one notable Dutch priest who said that God created the human buttocks so children could be beaten without causing unnecessary bodily harm (Newman 2006, p. 12).

In some religious quarters, heaven was regarded as a place where children would not be disciplined in physical ways. Apart from religion and the church, certain social institutions also affected the development of the concept of childhood; for instance, the concept of child labor was widely accepted through a great part of the 1800s and the early years of the 19th century (Hindman 2009, p. 38).

As the years went by, children were often forced by some parents to go to the streets and fend for themselves, through peddling, begging, robbery, prostitution and other vices. This point led to the creation of laws to protect children from such adversities as is affirmed by Newman (2006, p. 12) who notes that:

“Some children had their teeth torn out to serve as artificial teeth for the rich; others were deliberately maimed by beggars to arouse compassion. Even this latter crime was one upon which the law looked with a remarkably tolerant eye. In 1761 a beggar woman, convicted of deliberately “putting out the eyes of children with whom she went about the country” in order to attract pity and alms, was sentenced to no more than two years’ imprisonment”.

The first childhood protection agencies only emerged in the middle of the 19th century to provide a sanctuary to children who had been abused and neglected by their parents and the society. Many such institutions emerged from that time and some are still coming up today. However, such organizations have failed to protect children from suffering social adversities. In other words, they have tried to prevent children from experiencing social extremes instead.

The major kinds of children who have been protected by such agencies are poor urban youth who have been viewed by the society as an economic burden and a threat to society (Newman 2006, p. 12). The major view held by adults in the 18th and 19th century was that poor childhood led to poor adulthood and so it was very important for the society to take care of children during their tender ages to prevent them from becoming unproductive adults.

However, still at this time, economic factors still defined childhood because families were more bound on economic than emotional fronts. The male child was especially valued more than the female child because he was considered of great value in terms of the human labor he could provide in the farm.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, three key ideas were advanced by Rousseau’s concept of childhood. The first major concept was that even in the age of reason where major milestones were covered in terms of technological progression and science; there was a strong need to still emphasize on matters of the heart and the importance of human emotion (Santer 2007, p. 2).

Net Industries (2011) notes that Rousseau also preached “against the prevailing doctrine of original sin, Rousseau proclaimed the basic goodness of human nature and the innocence of childhood and lastly, Rousseau took issue with the notion that children were but imperfect adults” (p. 4).

From this analysis therefore, we observe that Rousseau was a strong advocate of the opinion that childhood was a precious period in human development and it was basically characterized by its own laws and functions; an attribute which has greatly influenced the development of contemporary perceptions of childhood (Classen 2005, p. 1).

Representation of the Nature of Modern Childhood With the development and growth of industrialization in Europe and across the globe, the previous commonly held perception of children as a source of labor and income was no longer held since parents became the main source of income, rendering children economically useless (Newman 2006, p. 6).

This view made people see children as a great economic burden and with the progression of culture; many children were starting to be viewed in terms of their emotional significance (in contrast to the previously held perception of economic significance). Parents therefore began looking at their children in terms of their intimacy worth and many would invest in their children without expecting any tangible benefits in future. Many would only expect emotional support. Newman (2006, p. 11) affirms that:

“The contemporary social value of children is therefore determined not by their labor potential but by the love and care they are thought to deserve. Hence, the most desirable child for adoption today is the newborn baby. A person living in an earlier era would find this preference difficult to understand, just as we today assume that babies bring forth a nurturing instinct in adults”.

These views are primarily perpetrated by the media, and the internet through social networking sites. In fact, the media has been at the forefront in upholding the emotional value of children through contemporary television shows which depict children as priceless adult possessions (Andresen 2010, p. 14). Such observations have been evidenced through drama programs involving kidnappings, child adoption and the likes.

The internet and technology has also empowered children in terms of information access while children organizations have offered unconditional support to children who maybe subject to social adversities from their parents. Such developments have led to the empowerment of children laws, development of foster homes and other avenues to protect children. These developments have given children more voice in present day society.

Conclusion Childhood has evolved through time, driven by economic and social progression. Economic conditions changed the way children were perceived because it led many to perceive children as miniature adults who could fend for themselves. This was the major paradigm existent in the medieval society and the early years of the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. There was also a considerable degree of neglect on children at this time.

However, as industrialization took centre stage in world economics, children were viewed as priceless emotional creatures (which act as the basis for present day perception of children). This development also led to the strong empowerment of children by giving them a strong voice through children laws. These events characterize the development of childhood perception through the years.

References Andresen, S. (2010) Children and the Good Life: New Challenges for Research on Children. New York, Springer.

Classen, A. (2005) Childhood in the middle Ages and the Renaissance: The Results of A Paradigm Shift in the History of Mentality. London, Walter De Gruyter.

Hindman, H. (2009) The World Of Child Labor: An Historical And Regional Survey. New York, Sharpe.

Hutton, P. (2004) Philippe Ariès and the Politics of French Cultural History. Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Press.

Hwang, P. (1996) Images of Childhood. London, Routledge.

Net Industries. (2011) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Web. Available at: .

Newman, D. (2006) Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life. Thousand Oaks, Pine Forge Press.

Santer, J. (2007) Free Play in Early Childhood: A Literature Review. New York, NCB.

Staples, R. (2008) Early Childhood Education: The countries. London, Greenwood Publishing Group.

Warren, K. (1997) Ecofeminism: Women, Culture, Nature. Indiana, Indiana University Press.


Fallacy Summary and Application Paper Application Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fallacy One: Ignorance of Relevant Viewpoints

Fallacy Two: Presence of Vague Questions and Answers

Fallacy Three: Missing of Key Ideas


Reference List

Introduction There are many concepts in human life which help to define the importance of existence and enjoy the possibilities which are offered. Fallacy is one of such concepts. Paul and Elder (2006) help to understand the essence of fallacy as “a deceptive or misleading argument, a sophism” (p. 295). There are many types of fallacies identified, and in this paper, three logical fallacies will be evaluated. They are ignorance of relevant viewpoints, presence of vague questions and answers, and missing of key ideas.

These fallacies have certain impact on critical thinking as well as decision-making process as misuse of language may lead to unpleasant results (Shibles


The importance of realism and naturalism in American Literature Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Realism and Naturalism in American Literature In American literature, realism is a literary technique that shows the realities in life while naturalism on the other hand attempts to apply scientific analysis and detachment in its study of human beings. In the Norton anthology of American literature, the editor discusses the role of these two literary techniques in America’s history. In the period 1865-1920 the United States experienced high industrialization rates. The innovation of the telegraph, telephone and electricity accelerated economic growth.

Furthermore the completion of the railway in 1869 enabled businessmen to come and exploit the land for gold and other minerals. There was a high inflow of workers from Europe coming to look for work. The development however brought serious consequences. With the rapid increase in population the people needed more land and territory. The ordinary people could not protect themselves from the mighty and wealthy.

The railway company stole land from the natives. It also shrewdly eliminated other competition and became a monopoly. Other industries like steel and oil were also in the hands of a few wealthy and powerful men. Working conditions and pay for workers was poor as the monopolies had all the power. The corrupt government turned a blind eye to the actions of these monopolies.

With the increase of populations in cities there arose new publishing opportunities through several newspapers. The marginalized and under-represented people had a voice now to speak out. The writers spoke out against social injustices and inequalities due to the rapid industrialization. These were writers who had the courage to speak up. The editor of the anthology stresses the importance of realism in this period since several social issues were spoken of boldly.

These were the issues of the railroad monopoly that took the land of small farmers and the corruption of government officials. Helen Hunt Jackson spoke of the US injustices against Native Americans, Charlotte Perkins Gilman spoke of wealth and human rights and Thorsten Veblen spoke of the greediness of the extremely wealthy businesses. These writers affected the sociology, philosophy, and economy of the people. There were also writers who spoke against racial injustices.

These issues were highly challenging causing the authors to turn to aesthetic realism where they used descriptive and colorful language to represent life as it was. It was known as local color writing where dialects, social relationships and the current natural environments were depicted in their novels. Mark Twain is an example of this generation of authors who showed the vernacular dialects and added humor. This caused the readers to sympathize with the characters. American naturalism came later.

It was a continuation of realism but with a detailed focus on the lower class and marginalized communities who had bleak chances of survival while realism focused on middleclass and upper class. It was more logical than realism. Naturalism was different though in a scientific and deterministic approach. This literal technique was highly influenced by Charles Darwin book, Origin of species that spoke of survival of the fittest (Baym, 2007, p 7).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These writers for example Frank Norris and Stephen Crane attempted to show life scientifically. The characters in the novels lived in an environment with chance occurrences and the strong people usually victimized the weak. The situation was very tough and the characters lacked the intellect and resources to overcome adversity. The characters had to join forces to survive against the tough environment. At the end of the day the novels still worked towards providing social solutions.

Reference List Baym, N. (2007). The Norton Anthology of American Literature. (7th Ed, Volume C). New York, NY: Norton, W. W.


Fallacy Summary and Application Paper Application Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Fallacy One: Ignorance of Relevant Viewpoints

Fallacy Two: Presence of Vague Questions and Answers

Fallacy Three: Missing of Key Ideas


Reference List

Introduction There are many concepts in human life which help to define the importance of existence and enjoy the possibilities which are offered. Fallacy is one of such concepts. Paul and Elder (2006) help to understand the essence of fallacy as “a deceptive or misleading argument, a sophism” (p. 295). There are many types of fallacies identified, and in this paper, three logical fallacies will be evaluated. They are ignorance of relevant viewpoints, presence of vague questions and answers, and missing of key ideas.

These fallacies have certain impact on critical thinking as well as decision-making process as misuse of language may lead to unpleasant results (Shibles


Theories of Human Development Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Theory of Motor Development

Piaget’s Theory of Development

Vygotsky’s theory

Comparing and contrasting the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky



Abstract Human development is a very complex process and no single theory can be sufficient enough to explain these processes. This paper focuses on various theories that attempt to explain the development processes and factors that influence them. The study explores different theories of motor development, their pros and cons.

The paper also examines theories of cognitive development focusing on Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of development. The two cognitive theories are compared and contrasted citing some of their impact on the provision and practice used in working with children in the early years. These theories demonstrate that human development is a gradual but progressive process that occurs in stages.

Introduction Human development varied and extremely complex process. Therefore, no single theory can manage to explain human development exhaustively as a result of this complexity. Each theory tries to explain a limited range of development and this is the reason why particular areas of development often have cutthroat theoretical views, each attempting to explain the same facet of development (Barnes 1995).

Theories of human development are an array of ideas that are based on scientific proofs and efforts to explain and predict individual behaviours and development. From this definition it is very clear that theories attempts to provide vivid explanation from a messy mass of information (Neaum 2010).

Theories of development are categorized into minor and major theories. Minor theories of development deals with specific area of development; on the other hand major theories are the category that attempts to explain wider area of development. Some of the major theories of development include motor development, Cognitive development, Social cognitive development, evolution and ethology, psychoanalytic theories and humanistic theory (Neaum 2010).

Theory of Motor Development One of the major milestones in the development of infants is the achievement of various motor developments. The development of motor skills has a major impact on other facets of development. The ability of a child to act on the effects of his/her surrounding has significant implications on other aspects of development, and each and every accomplishment enhances the child’s level of independence. (Cohen 2002).

At birth a child has several well developed motor skills, which comprises of staring, suckling, grasping, breathing, crying-necessary for the infant’s survival. Nevertheless, the common impression of a new born baby is one of uncoordinated lack of ability and overall weakness. Movement of their body reveals weakness in the muscles and deficiency in coordination, and takes a number of weeks before the baby can lift their head in an appropriate posture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The infant’s muscles at this time are not able to function well therefore the infant is not able to perform basic activities. By the end of infancy, about a year and a half, the toddler can perform all the basic activities through complex coordinated movements (Bremmer


The Art of Photography: Seizing the Moment Flying Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Making the Things Fall into Place

Photography and the Concept of Gender

Perpetuation Which Takes a Moment

Reference List


Making the Things Fall into Place Being the art that disarms the time itself, depriving it of its destructive influence on people and things, photography rips things and people of their cover, presenting them in the way they are, with no disguise. In spite of all the attempts to camouflage the feelings of the people in the focus of the camera, a photographer will inevitably picture their real emotions and feelings.

Photography makes the gap between the opposites even wider, sharpening the problems and detecting the conflicts between the genders in a very Sherlock-Holmes way. Photography is a weapon of stereotyping of all kinds, the gender one as well. As Guimond marked, speaking of Allan Arbus, a prominent American photographer,

Later, in the mid-19060s when she was doing some free-lance commercial photography for Harper’s Bazaar, Arbus did a series of portraits of married couples (“Fashion Independence on Marriage”), which contained all the controversial gender stereotypes – the wives touch, cling and snuggle against the husbands; and the men stare boldly straight at the camera, whereas the women tilt their heads submissively.[1]

Of course, whether Arbus depicted the situation as it was or there was some air of personal experience in this work, the results spoke for themselves. In fact, the artist showed that photos can depict stereotypical ideas better than anything else.

It has been proved that a picture, which was in fact a frozen motion, could be more convincing and argumentative than a train-long debate. Being a revolution in the art of photography, this bold experiment initiated the series of others, where the social conflicts, among them the aspect of gender and gender stereotypes was paid a great deal of attention to.

Photography and the Concept of Gender As it has been proved already, photographs make the art of creating the models of people’s social behavior, especially the one concerning the gender gap, and exposing the most common prejudice and social phenomena to the mankind. Yet the boldness which the photographs depicted the gender stereotypes with stirred not only indignation, but also meditations concerning various social roles of a man and a woman in the then society. The ideas began shifting, and the gap between the two genders started narrowing, since the most important problems have been viewed already. Thus, the only thing which people were left with was to discuss these sore spots.

There was no doubt that the photographers who made the first steps towards the gender problems foresaw the on-coming gender revolution. The firmness of social roles of a man and a woman was doubted, which could not but raise protests from the orthodox part of the society and get the encouragement from the people with more progressive viewpoints.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The vividness of the gender stereotypes which the art of photography disclosed was incredible, because of the new ideas of gender gap and the gender prejudices which the boldest photographers dared to take picture of. Touching upon the racial issue later on, the photographs were still about the relationship between the genders and the settled gender roles.

With both whites and blacks fostering the vogue for the primitive, the movement could not be stopped. Its popularity allowed for the marketability of black artists and their creative contributions to the American culture. Conversely, primitivism worked to reinforce and perpetuate racial and gender stereotypes and to foster belief in white superiority.[2]

Exposing the sharpest conflicts to the public without a slightest air of hesitation, photographers thus both implanted the gender stereotypes deeper into the people’s subconsciousness and at the same time made people shake the dust of prejudice off their minds. The pictures taken to view men’s superiority, women’s submissiveness, the negative features of both were of a therapy effect to the society. As a matter of fact, these caricatures made people laugh, and laughter was of somewhat medical effect to the people’s souls and minds.

One of the most impressive works in this field, the pictures by Sherman, a photographer who depicted the existing gender conflicts and gender stereotypes in a most explicit an open way, was a mixture of a postmodernist world and the problems of gender, with a little tint of anxiety all over them. As Sutton emphasized, the issue of the conflict was made even more topical as it was viewed through the prism of postmodernism:

Even when the photographs did not appear to reference particularly stable identity types, they still reflected the very same fluidity of identity as a postmodern anxiety. This is why, from the beginning, they have had an unrivaled position in discourses of identity and representation.[3]

It is doubtless that the art of photography makes the unsteady time freeze in an artistic pose which reflects the controversies of the human nature, the gender conflicts in particular. The crisis in the relationships between a man and a woman led to the crisis in the arts, which in its turn triggered the postmodern crisis itself, as the abovementioned Sutton noticed:

Mulvey rightly suggests that it is feminism’s investigation of the fluidity and interchangeability of gender stereotypes – encouraged by analysis of Sherman’s work – that partly led to the recognition of such fluidity in identity by postmodernism in general.[4]

We will write a custom Essay on The Art of Photography: Seizing the Moment Flying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a specific response to the ideas of fluidity in the art of photography which were introduced by Stephen Bull. Exploring the issue of fluidity in the art of photography, he suggested that the replicated roles of a man and a woman in the society are not the biological necessity but the result of the social influence.

According to Sutton, society imposes certain model of behavior on a man and a woman, while photography is just another means to reveal the hypocritical standards and shift to a more civilized way of tackling the gender conflict:

It is in this culture that male and female roles are replicated. The important point here for Butler is that although seen as connected to biological differences, gender roles are not ‘natural’ and fixed, but ‘cultural’ and fluid. In other words, gender roles can be changed.[5]

Thus, Bull considers art in its every single manifestation a support for the ideas which differentiate the man’s role in society from the one’s of a woman. Bull makes it clear that the art of photography is a specific means of cultural repetition of gender roles.

According to Bull, photographers with their traditional approach to the idea of gender are merely another means of gender stereotyping and consolidation of the typical image of a man and a woman in people’s subconsciousness. However, Bull also marks that with help of photography the idea of gender roles can be changed if a specific approach is taken:

Butler argues that these changes are usually prevented be the cultural repetition of traditional gender stereotypes ‘performed’ through images and texts, but that it is also possible to transgress these by ‘acting against the grain’.[6]

There was another problem which concerned the issue of morality. People could not orient themselves in the labyrinth of the new art; they needed some landmarks which could draw the line between the moral and the immoral in the art of photography. Since there were more than a hundred ways to depict gender conflicts, gender gap and gender stereotyping, people were wondering how far photography and photographers can go to show the boiling social conflict.

In spite of the fact that photography did rip the mankind of its illusions about the gender conflict being settled, photographers themselves did not suggest any solutions, not helping to tackle the problematic issues, but even making them ever deeper. Like any art, the art of photography could only observe and create, while people demanded some actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Art of Photography: Seizing the Moment Flying by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Perpetuation Which Takes a Moment The mocking manner in which photography can enter one’s life and leave a mark on someone’s face is incredible. However, this was the problem which people did not realize. Being a mere mark on people’s lives, a photograph could not act, but only depict the objects and people around.

Proving to be a means to perpetuate gender conflict and the differences between the world pictures of both genders, a picture has long been a screen behind which stereotypical ideas were hiding from the progressive viewpoints. Like any other means for people to cling to their old prejudice to, this barricade was finally demolished as well.

Following the pace of the history, one can find out that the art of photography, ossifying people, events and ideas, was pushing the mankind to the technical progress yet making people regressive in terms of the gender relationships.

According to the historical evidence, the gender stereotypes in the art of photography were soon intertwined with other ideas which kept the former in the background. As Marien noted, speaking about the famous photographer and image-maker of the 1980s, Cindy Sherman, after the photographer taking the self-image out of her pictures:

Despite these changes, Sherman’s interest remained constant through the last decades of the twentieth century, as she continued to expose not only the shallowness of gender stereotyping but also the titillating pleasure of looking.[7]

Because of the fact that photograph can hardly express the one and only idea and there are always two or more implications even in a picture of an apple, ideas have to merge in a photo.

Thus, gender stereotypes would mix with the racial problems, and the racial issues will be replaced by political issues. Nevertheless, the authors of the gender stereotyping perpetuation manage to keep the main conflict in the focus of the camera and create a surreal image of men and women playing the part prescribed for them by the centuries of traditions and customs.

Twisting the focus of the camera, photographers can make it reveal hidden conflicts and suggest people some ideas concerning the situation. Yet people have to remember that a picture is merely a piece of paper, and that it is the pivot of our consciousness which makes people create stereotypes and break them.

Reference List Bull, S, Photography, Taylor


Procedures in the Justice System: Plea Bargaining Essay online essay help

Differences between different types of plea bargaining The practice of plea bargaining is widely spread in the United States of America and is recognized as an integral element of the justice system. Despite the popularity of this phenomenon, its benefits are rather disputable ad gave rise to the continuing debates of the specialists working in this field. Though the practice of plea bargaining increases the efficiency of the investigation process significantly, it should be limited for preserving the important constitutional rights of defendants.

The two major forms of plea bargaining include charge and sentence bargaining. The first types presupposes prosecutor’s offer an exchange of a less serious charge for a guilty plea. The second type is associated with the promise of a more favorable sentence recommendation. “90 percent of all criminal cases are plea bargained” (Worall, 2010, p. 369).

Among the main arguments for implementing plea bargaining are the improved flow of the cases, the benefits for the defendants and the increased victims’ satisfaction. However, this strategy is also compliant with a number of negative consequences. “Some argue that plea bargaining is objectionable because it encourages defendants to waive their constitutional right to trial” (Siegel, 2010, p. 436).

Thus, it can result in false confessions in case if a wrongly accused individual does not believe in his/her chances for winning the case and considers the guilty plea as the only way out. Along with the practices of some states of banning plea bargaining for particular crimes or restricting the use of certain types of bargaining were rather successful and can help in observing the defendants’ constitutional rights.

Along with all the benefits of plea bargaining for the judicial system, it predetermines a number of disadvantages and should be restricted with proper regulations of the procedures.

Ad hoc plea bargaining The term ad hoc plea bargaining is used to define a number of extraordinary concessions made by defendants. Among the most widely spread forms of this phenomenon is the performance of some act for dismissal or receiving a less strict sentence. Taking into account the implementation of unauthorized measures, the use of ad hoc plea bargaining should be restricted.

Taking various forms, ad hoc plea bargaining can either become violation of the legislative regulations or be beneficial for the community. The phenomenon is recognized as a rather controversial interpretation of the current legislation (Siegel, 2010, p. 435). Actually, the principle of ad hoc plea bargaining provides prosecutors with opportunities for free interpretation of the regulations and the implementation of unauthorized forms of charges and punishment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While in some cases ad hoc plea bargaining can be beneficial for the community (such as making a monetary contribution to educational programs or labor of public utility), in other cases the prosecutor’s initiatives can take more extreme and inadmissible forms.

For instance, in the case Ryan v. Common on Judicial Performance, the criminal charges were dismissed from a female defendant because she had exposed her breath (Worall, 2010, p. 369). Though cases of such extreme violations are no so frequent, the use of the strategy should be restricted.

Taking into account the human factor and the associated forms of prosecutor’s unauthorized initiatives, the use of ad hoc plea bargaining should be restricted for preserving the constitutional rights of defendants, on the one hand, and observing proper trial procedures, on the other hand.

Reference List Siegel, L. (2010). Introduction to criminal justice. (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Worrall, J. (2010). Criminal procedure: From first contact to appeal (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.


The History of Cars Essay writing essay help

Introduction It is hard to imagine life without cars. Cars have formed an important part of our lives and the quality and power of the car one drives is used to define his/her standard of living. They have become a status symbol rather than their original intention as a means of transport. Cars provide an individualized and privatized means of transportation.

The motor vehicles did not just rise in a single day but rather have evolved from the earliest models to the more sophisticated automobiles dominating our roads today. It has been a gradual process starting from when the wheel was first invented and through several other stages.

This paper traces the stages through the history that the cars have undergone from the primitive carriages of the 1880s to the fast, complex, and comfortable vehicle that dominate our roads in the 21st century (Volti 1).

The Invention of the Wheel This marked the infancy stage in the development of transportation known to us today. However, it is hard to know who or exactly when the wheel was invented but reports show that this may date back to more than 5000 years. The inspiration for the development of the wheel arose as people sought for easier and better means of moving things around. People had discovered that rounded objects could lessen the amount of effort needed if heavy things were placed over them and pushed along.

The sledge was soon later incorporated as a means of moving things, it was recognized that when sledge was pulled on a smooth surface or on logs, the amount of energy needed to push it was reduced.

The sledge was further improved by making grooves on the logs on which it was placed thus reducing the amount of friction between the logs and the sledge. This further lessened the amount of the effort needed and when the wood between the two inner grooves were cut, the wood that remained between the grooves now formed the axle. This type of sledge formed the first carts.

The next natural thing that the inventors of the wheel did was to design the axle so that it could fit into the hole made in the centre of the wooden wheel. Further improvements on the axle were made to ensure that the axle remained static while the wheel was made to rotate on it. Further improvements on the design of the wheel were made in different parts of the world with an aim of fitting different purposes such as war chariots, racing carts, and freight wagons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Age of the Horse Drawn Carriages During the first stages, the wheeled vehicles were pulled by people, oxen or horses but later the internal combustion engine were invented to replace ‘horse power’ as it was called then. The use of horses to pull the carriages allowed for the people to wield more power and to expand their territorial borders. The amount of pollution caused by horse wastes in European cities resulted in inventors looking for alternative forms of transportation.

The Horseless Carriages and the Steam Engine Steam-powered vehicle came into being in the late 18th century but were only considered more potentially practical in the early 19th century. Nicholas Cugnot (1725-1804) built the first steam powered vehicles that were supposed to haul French army artillery. It is recorded that his first steam vehicle travelled at a steady 3km/hr but run out of the steam power in less than 25 minutes (Volti 2). Cugnot second steam engine also failed prompting the government to drop the project.

Development of Locomotives Early 1830s witnessed continued interest in the steam as a source of power and the period continued to experience development in locomotives, steam powered tractors, and other forms of vehicles. In England, automobiles powered by steam were on the rise but their growth was terminated immaturely as more emphasis was laid on rail locomotives.

The Role of the Bicycle in the Development of Cars There was great stride in the development of bicycles during the 1840s. The development of the bicycle is very important in the history of cars as most of the parts found in the early cars owed their origin from them.

Such parts as the chain-and-sprocket drive, the tires, bearings, spooked wheels and many other components of the automobile were derived from the bicycle. Steam cars faced limitations in the building technology and lack of good roads and it was only in the 19th century that personal transportation emerged. These cars were very heavy thus meaning that they could only travel on rails to function effectively.

The steam engines were therefore used on railroads leading to the great success of the railroad industry. The steam engines operated by burning wood or other fuel and the thus generated heated water in boilers. The resulting steam was used in driving pistons up and down and in the process turning the crankshaft, which ultimately moved the wheels. These steam engines required numerous stops to replenish its water and also needed long time to start.

The Internal Combustion Engines Early attempts

The invention of internal combustion engines was influenced by the idea of personal mobility. This venture required that individual vehicles have a source of power to drive them.

We will write a custom Essay on The History of Cars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As already seen, steam power was out of question and could not be used in personal cars because of their weight and the fact that they could only use rails. This led to the idea of an internal combustion engine that contained an air-fuel mixture within it. Attempts to make an internal combustion engine dates back to the late 17th century; when efforts to use gunpowder were made but failed.

Lenoir’s double acting engine

In 1850s, a French engineer, Etienne Lenoir constructed a double acting engine in which an ignited mixture of air and gas was used to push the piston to the far end and of the cylinder creating a power stroke. When this piston was pushed back I the same mechanism, another power stroke was created and the exhausted gas was expelled.

Therefore, for each revolution of the crankshaft, two power strokes were produced. This kind of engine had its disadvantage in that the air was not compressed before being burned and therefore the engine produced less power and was inefficient. However, Lenoir’s engine was far much better when compared to the steam engine since it had a higher thermal efficiency.

Early development in Germany

In Germany, Nicholas Otto also made significant steps in the development of steam engine. Together with his friend Eugen Langen (1833-1895), Otto developed a four-stroke cycle in 1876. This model of engine was however not efficient but was a gap in the building of more improved combustion engines.

Daimler’s first ‘car’

In 1885, two of Otto’s workers; Gottlieb Daimler (1834-19000) and Wilhelm Maybach (1847-1929) made improvements on Otto’s four stroke engine by installing a single cylinder engine on a two wheeled frame which came to be referred to as the first motorcycle. The same engine was installed onto a four wheeled wagon to make the first internal combustion engine car (Volti 4).

Carl Benz (1844-1902) constructed a three wheeled vehicle that used Otto’s four stroke combustion engine and was better than that constructed by Daimler (Flink 11). Carl’s three wheeled vehicle marked the beginning of personalized road trips when his family made a 200 kilometres journey in it.

The progress of the internal combustion engine in France

Germany is credited with the manufacture of the first cars but credit also goes to France where considerable steps in the motor industry. Peugeot, a steel metal company, constructed the first car that used a v-twin engine which was a Daimler engine design. Peugeot later on produced its own design of engine which used independently pivoting wheels.

Another French company, Panhard et Levassor also introduced a car that was more sophisticated than the Peugeot. Panhard’s model of engine, termed systeme panhard had its engine mounted on the front and operated by turning the rear wheels via a driveshaft that run underneath the car.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Cars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United States of America joins the car industry

The united states marked a slow start in the motor vehicle invention and remained stuck in the ‘buggy’ despite making big strides in the manufacture of other industrial products such as watches, typewriters and fire arms at relatively low costs. Its first internal combustion engine automobile was designed by Charles and frank Duryea in Massachusetts in 1893. The car was propelled by an engine with a single-cylinder and contained a spray carburetor and electric ignition.

In 1894, the first gasoline car was made by Elmer and Edger Apperson using the Hayne’s design. The Duryea motor wagon company came into existence in 1895 and specialized in gasoline cars. Henry Ford first built his two cylinder engine car in Detroit and only registered the Ford Motor Company in 1903. Other important car builders in US during the early stages included; Ransom E. Olds and William C. Durant who founded General Motors in 1908.

Electric Cars This mostly came into being in the 1830s but failed due to the fact that early batteries were limited in their capacity to store energy. Because they operated within towns, the cars were relatively advantageous since they did not require to be occasionally replenished with water (Larmine


Giacomo Puccini: Madama Butterfly Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Public Reaction to the Opera

Performance History

Character Presentation

Libretto’s Adoption to Music

Musical Representations of the Orient



Madama butterfly is one of the most celebrated opera pieces in America and Europe. The opera extensively touches on social vices like devotion and irresponsibility, depicted by a tale of two lovers (Butterfly and Pinkerton) (Metropolitan Opera, 2011, p. 1). However, some people note that the opera has more to do with misunderstandings willful and innocence (Metropolitan Opera, 2011, p. 1).

According to Metropolitan Opera (2011, p. 1) critics note that the opera is “compassionate and brutal, colonialist and anti-imperialist, disdainful of Americans and demeaning of Japanese”. However, Art Nouveau (2010, p. 7) notes that “audiences are enraptured by the humanity of Cio-Cio-San’s love—and by Puccini’s music, which is at once lush, evocative, and witty”.

Madama Butterfly was an opera done by Guacomo Puccini based on the events that took place in Nagasaki in the early years of the 1800s when foreigners took Japanese women as their temporary wives (Groos, 1991, p. 1). The opera was originally played in two successive acts but ultimately in was played in three (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 3). The piece enjoys a huge acclamation in the United States, though it has a Japanese origin (Greenwald, 2000, p. 1).

Nonetheless, its hugely acclaimed version was not the original, but a rewritten piece by the composer, Puccini. Around the world, the fifth version of the opera is commonly played (Metropolitan Opera, 2011, p. 1). Madama Butterfly is a unique opera and its distinct nature can be best affirmed in the words of Art Nouveau (2010, p. 3) which notes that “It is intimate, devoid of spectacle, taking place completely within a house in Nagasaki”.

The story line is also uniquely simple in that “without subplots, girl wins boy, girl loses boy, and girl commits hara kiri” (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 3). Art Nouveau (2010, p. 3) further notes that: “What makes the opera unique is the characterization of Butterfly and her Captain Pinkerton, both in the drama and in the rich and luscious Puccini score”.

This observation, and the fact that the opera was among the first literary works to expose the differences in the way of life between the Western and Eastern world, are the unique features of the opera. However, the fact that the opera got a bad reception in its initial premiere and the fact that it turned out to be one of the most celebrated literary pieces also makes it cut a mark above the rest.

Public Reaction to the Opera Madama butterfly was a poorly received opera in the public eye during its first debut in Milan, Italy (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 3). This happened despite the fact that celebrated singers such as Rosina Storchio, Giovanni Zenatello and Giuseppe De Luca graced took part in the first overall presentation of the piece (Fisher, 2004, p. 330).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some sections of existing literature analyzing the opera affirm that the opera was so poorly received that even Puccini himself thought he would be lynched by an angry mob for producing such shoddy work (Fisher, 2004, p. 330). One of the reasons advanced for the poor reception of the opera was the irritatingly long nature of the second act (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

The lengthy nature of the second act was already known to Puccini as extensively long and therefore it had the potential to spell disaster for the premiere of the play (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 4). However, Puccini ignored such concerns and continued with premiere anyway. Puccini could easily divide the second act into two but his major concern was that breaking the second act would lead to a distortion of the dramatic composition of the entire opera (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 5).

Such concerns were especially noted when he had to break night and day in Virgil (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10). Partly, the reasons advanced for the poor reception of the piece was the late completion of the work and the poor quality it had due to a lack of proper time allocation during rehearsals (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

However, some observers note that Puccini’s rivalry with his contemporaries and the jealous nature of his competitors (especially for the good input his producer was helping in coming up with a good Libretto) was also part of the reasons for the poor reception at the La Scala premiere (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

In some quarters, Puccini was also criticized for plagiarizing his own music and therefore lacking originality in presenting his works (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10). Politically, the tensions existent in the Russo-Japanese war was also another reason for the poor reception by a section of the audience who thought the opera was sympathetic to the Japanese and therefore it was taken as a biased piece of art (Jenkins, 2010, p. 11). Comprehensively, Jenkins (2010, p. 11) affirms that:

“The exact reasons behind the fiasco are, of course, nearly impossible to trace with any accuracy but there are several likely explanations. First, Ricordi’s secrecy during the rehearsals and alienation of the press undoubtedly created an unnecessarily hostile reception in the papers.

Second, Puccini incorrectly assumed that the audience would be able to maintain concentration during his abnormally long second act–in the revised version, the curtain wisely falls during the vigil. Finally, and this must remain conjectural, it is possible that the fiasco was “fixed” beforehand. This would not be the only instance of such treachery in operatic history and certainly Ricordi suspected as much as he revealed in his comments recorded above”.

We will write a custom Essay on Giacomo Puccini: Madama Butterfly specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of these shortcomings, Puccini made several changes to the opera and notable was the splitting of the last scene into two, to make the three acts observed in the final piece (Jenkins, 2010, p. 12). After the changes were effected, the opera was received well.

Performance History Madama butterfly first premiered in one of Italy’s most known opera houses, La scala. The performance flopped despite the appearance of some of the most celebrated casts such as soprano Rosina Storchio (Jenkins, 2010, p. 10).

A lot of bad decisions were made during the opera’s rehearsals as can be noted from the high level of secrecy upheld by the opera’s producers who in turn recommended that the casts’ scripts should not leave the theatre (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13). The move was also motivated by the fact that the producers did not want careless singers to lose their musical scripts (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13).

This greatly contributed to the poor mastering of the music by the players. Moreover, the printed scripts were to be mastered by the cast, a page at a time, since printing was done sequentially and in a slow manner (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13). The press was also forbidden from attending the rehearsals and therefore most media agents and critics were irritated before the premiere, prompting them to search for small faults with the opera performance (Jenkins, 2010, p. 13).

Madama Butterfly also premiered in 1904 in Buernos Aries, Argentina while in London, it premiered in 1905 at the Royal Opera house, Covent Garden (Jenkins, 2010, p. 14). In the United States, the opera first premiered in Washington D.C at the Columbia theatre in 1906 and in New York, the first performance took place in November 12th of the same year at Garden theatre and lastly, in Australia, the first performance was done at the Royal Theatre in 1906 (Jenkins, 2010, p. 16).

Character Presentation The character, Butterfly was exclusively presented as her own distinct person by a Japanese girl, who many enthusiasts of the opera had valiantly tried to identify the real life model of the personality (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1). Butterfly is the main character in the opera who has an affair with a rather careless lover called Pinkerton.

She is depicted as a Western representation of the orient and in some aspects, a cross-cultural figure, though not a racial one (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1). She represents a confused Japanese girl who tries to trace her path between Eastern and Western social ideals as can be seen through the denouncing of her authentic religion for Christianity (Western influence) and her final decision to take a her life away (Ritual Eastern ideal) (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1).

Art Nouveau (2010, p. 5) affirms that “Madama Butterfly” figures in a distinctly American dialect of cultural and ideological power that is inseparable until the time of World war I, from both Japanese masculinity and from the musical sphere of high art in the West”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Giacomo Puccini: Madama Butterfly by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pinkerton is represented as an army officer in the United States and Butterfly as a fragile “butterfly” who Pinkerton pursues at whatever costs and through whatever means (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 10). Butterfly is represented as an innocent character by Cio-Cio San who battles an American rival who tries to win Pinkerton’s love through an endless dramatic ordeal until her suicidal death. Pinkerton’s American wife is nonetheless presented as a non-innocent character, though fragile just like Butterfly (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 12).

Often times, Cio-Cio San is presented as having a different interpretation of what Pinkerton’s actual motives are (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 1). The opera further represents the intrigue among the three characters as a tale of love and pain (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 11). Other characters represented in the opera are Puccini, Illica, and Giacosa (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 11).

Libretto’s Adoption to Music The adoption of the Libretto in Madam Butterfly varies from performance to performance and therefore no single adoption best conceptualizes what was sung at each performance (Fisher, 2004, p. 331). However, soprano was used in the music as an affiliation to Cho cho san. Mezzo soprano was used in affiliation to Cho cho san’s servant, Kate Pinkerton, cho-cho-San’s Mother and the aunt (Fisher, 2004, p. 331).

Tenor was used in affiliation to BF Pinkerton (the army lieutenant) and Goro (the Marriage Broker) (Fisher, 2004, p. 331). Baritone is musically used in representation of the United States Consul at Nagasaki and Yakusidé the official registrar (Fisher, 2004, p. 332). Finally, bass was used in representation of the Bonze (Cho-Cho-San’s Uncle) and the imperial commissioner (Fisher, 2004, p. 332).

Musical Representations of the Orient Madama butterfly has a number of musical representations. First Pinkerton’s opening act is accompanied by music representations, although plagiarized from Star Spangled Banner which is an exotic musical presentation representing his exotic role in the opera (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 12).

During this musical representation, the climax is marked with chauvinistic and colonialist sentiments from the assertion “America Forever” which may have very well aroused negative sentiments among the audience because it implies Western imperialism.

Butterfly’s entrance on stage is also accompanied by a magnificent musical setting called the “happiness motive” which represents Butterfly’s feelings at the time she met Pinkerton because she declared that her marriage to Pinkerton was going to make her the happiest woman in Japan. The music was characterized by a 4 note phrase which rises and climaxes in an elegant and pulsating manner (although Puccini integrates it with the Love duet at the end of the song to give the music more emotional power).

The Love duet is regarded by some analysts as one of the best musical representation in the entire opera since it gives Butterfly the courage to speak of her love for Pinkerton, even though she shies away from it (Art Nouveau, 2010, p. 12). This sounds almost childlike. However, the ending tones of the song are a little dissonant and quite frankly, fails to resolve tonally (perhaps as a way through which the composer explains to the audience that the love story remains unresolved).

When Butterfly believes that Pinkerton has come back for her in the second act, Puccini accompanies the scene with musical variations of the theme (which are essentially meant to capture the nostalgic sentiments of Butterfly and the empathic sentiments from the audience).

In the musical depiction Un bel di or “one fine day”, Puccini tries to show the delusional status of Butterfly’s mind when she sits and hopes that Pinkerton will come back to her (plus her faith in Pinkerton coming back to her). In the aria, a pentatonic musical segment represents a fragment of butterfly’s thoughts that Pinkerton will come up the hill but unknown to the audience, the music is played once again in the final act when Butterfly says that Pinkerton should be back in a couple of minutes to take their baby away.

Conclusion Throughout the opera, authentic Japanese melodies are included in the piece but occasionally, exotic instruments are included to enforce the Japanese melodies and the story’s plot. In some quarters, it has been assumed that Madama Butterfly has a strong sense of music such that the story follows the music and not the other way around.

The music is seen to haunt the characters such that it drives them to think of the first time they met each other, and to some extent, the music shows the level of submissiveness of the oriental woman (Butterfly) to her American lover (Pinkerton).

References Art Nouveau. (2010). Madame Butterfly – Giacomo Puccini. Web.

Fisher, B. (2004). Opera Classics Library Puccini Companion: The Glorious Dozen. New York: Opera Journeys Publishing.

Greenwald, H. (2000) Picturing Cio Cio Swan. Web.

Groos, A. (1991). Madame Butterfly: the Story. Web.

Jenkins, C. (2010). The Fiasco of Madama Butterfly’s First Performance: Feb 17, 1904. Web.

Metropolitan Opera. (2011). What to expect from Madama Butterfly. Web.


Research Studies in Technology Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Government policies play an important role in technology commercialization and can have both positive and negative effects on this process. The research under consideration Technology commercialization in road infrastructure: How government affects the variation and appropriability of technology by Caerteling, Halman and Doree was published in The Journal of Product Innovation Management in 2008.

The investigation explores various roles the government can play in technology commercialization and their combined effects upon the realization of technology projects.

The business research under consideration can be defined as basic or fundamental research which results are not meant for direct application in practice. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model analyzing the combined effects of the government’s impact on the processes of technology commercialization in road infrastructure, including the government’s functions of a regulator, sponsor, first user and buyer.

The purpose of this business research is to fill the existing gap in theoretical knowledge without specifying the ways for the immediate practical application of the research results. Previous studies focused on the effects of specific government’s roles, and the current study is aimed at enhancing the understanding of the combined impact.

The major business problems under investigation include the inconsistencies between the roles of government as a regulator of the market and the largest user of technologies and the importance of preventing the emergence of monopolies in the sphere of road infrastructure.

On the one hand, the government controls and owns the road infrastructure, and the changes in the sphere require its participation. On the other hand, the government does not develop any technologies and is dependent upon the firms which work on the innovations in the sphere.

Thus, government’s championship in the sphere limits the viability of new firms and technologies but its participation is important for regulating the situation in this sector. Caerteling, Halman and Doree (2008) noted that “government has to create a market for new technology, and technology commercialization is subjected to competitive bidding” (p.146). At the same time, the emphasis should be put upon support of new technologies, increasing the capacity use and creating opportunities for the traffic flow control.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The data collection methods which were used for the research include the literature review of the discussion of the government’s specific roles in road infrastructure and a multiple case study of the combined effects of the government on technology commercialization. These methods were helpful for building a bridge between the existing theories of the government’s roles and their practical application on the examples of particular technology projects.

The requirements for the choice of the projects included the distinction between technology and construction projects and the application for at least partial funding of the project by the government for demonstrating the links between the government and the private firms working on the technology projects. The data for a multiple case study was retrieved from several sources, including the interviews with project team members and the government officials.

The results of the research clarify the complexity of the government’s role in technology commercialization of road infrastructure or other partially public goods. The proposed conceptual model can be valuable for both policymakers who develop strategies for technology commercialization and firms developing product and trying to overcome the impediments of cooperating with government as a buyer. The research explores the interdependency between the technology and other types of policies.

Reference List Caerteling, J., Halman, J., and Doree, A. (2008).Technology commercialization in road infrastructure: How government affects the variation and appropriability of technology. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25: 143-161.

Sekaran, U. (2006). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. New York, NY: John Wiley


Role of Asian Women Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The role of Asian women in history and the transitions that they faced through ages Asian women have a remarkable record in history. All over the world, they women have been outstanding in almost all fields. These women have gone through massive oppression in their respective countries. No Asian woman could rule a kingdom, write literature, lead armies or participate in war. The western world portrays them as sexists. On the contrary, these women are warriors who have stood up to be recognized in different fields of profession (Taehakkyo


Merit Pay for Teachers Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Forms of merit pay

The Disadvantages of Performance Based Compensation


Works Cited

Introduction Merit pay, as many would call it, is a practice in which the salary of the worker is determined based on the basis of how well individual worker is successful in his/her work. This method of compensating employees may seem attractive as it makes sense to reward those employees who demonstrate high productivity and subsequently high contribution to the sector or the organization in question. This method may also look interesting as it show fairness and retains employees in the company.

Forms of merit pay a) Annual salary increment

Forms of merit pay include instances where a worker’s annual salary is increased on the basis of the productivity. Anyone whose work is assessed and found to be good re receives an increment in his/her salary.

b) The bonus system

In the bonus system of performance appraisals, hardworking and productive workers are rewarded with a bonus payment for only that period of time.

c) Direct compensation

This approach takes a direct recompense for quantified method of production. This is highly practiced in factory set ups and is not applicable in the merit payment for teachers (Bacal 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Disadvantages of Performance Based Compensation It is argued that this mode of compensation will be anomalous to the character of effective schooling. It is feared that this method of payment will suppress reforms in the education sector mainly by causing enmity between teachers as they endeavor to earn more pay.

Conflicts may arise in schools between teachers who are not compensated against those get high paychecks. Jealousy may arise from the administrators (who could be fellow teachers) against the teaching staff if they earn more. This is expected to give rise to competition and weak teachers may feel endangered.

This conflict between the two parties becomes unfortunate if it differently influences student learning. Concern also arises due to the financial attachment of the evaluation as some of those who do not qualify for the award fear that the judgment was not really equitable. It can be seen that the spirit of competition instilled into the teachers by this program becomes unhealthy and ideas are no longer shared.

Learning climate in the school change and teachers no longer share the hard work fearing that the credit may be beneficial to only one of them. In general, competition rather than cooperation arises. A common misunderstanding that arises is the comparison with commission stores that base their compensation on this mode and attain high productivity in sales. A clear observation reveals constant rivalry and lack of cooperation. The effect would cause our education system to crumble.

Merit payment is inequitable; it could lead to the rise of free riders who lie low and only come out during the sharing of the kill. This is especially so if merit payment is done as per department. This will deter collaboration because hard workers will become demoralized when they observe others slaking off. It is common knowledge that for any education system to prosper, teaching should be done in teamwork and collaboration (Solmon and Podgursky 8).

Performance-based payment tend to oppose the above notion by creating division, in fact, it is inappropriate and counterproductive. Supporters of the performance based payment argue that effort is not always collaborative to be productive. However, teaching is not like athletics, in athletics, individual effort matter most and the runners are paid based on their performance in the field, there can be no otherwise.

It is not clear on what basis anyone is dubbed a ‘good teacher’. There lacks proper parameters in measuring the ‘goodness’ of a teacher in the educational process. Standardized tests cannot be relied on in the evaluation of teachers as they are sometimes very difficult to use in gauging the relevance of a teacher to the students using their achievement (Abma 6). The two famous measures that proponents suggest for evaluation of teachers are inconclusive. No teacher can decide on what a given student get in an exam.

We will write a custom Essay on Merit Pay for Teachers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The test scores are also very ineffective in some spheres of the curriculum, for example, these tests do not measure well performances in arts or in contests (Solmon and Podgursky 8). How do you evaluate an artistic teacher? A teacher who is able to deal with imperfect situations? This teacher deals with various parties ranging from disturbed students, administrators, union employees. All teachers are therefore important in their own ways. It is difficult to also evaluate how a teacher make a class feel.

Conclusion It is evident from all over the world that merit based compensation poses serious problems especially in public schools. It is my view that this system should be left to operate in the private schools and in other industries. There are very few instances where this system has worked properly more so in the public school. Merit-based system has been experimented and has so far no fruits have been bored. I propose for a complete neglect of this system.

Works Cited Abma, Derek. “Merit-Based Pay For Teachers Ineffective, Educators Say.” National Post Inc. 2011. Web.

Bacal, Richard. “Performance Management and Appraisal Help Centre.” Bacal


Leadership as a Human Resources Management Strategy and Policy in Multinational Companies: a Case Study of Apple Company best college essay help

Research proposal Leadership as a human resources management strategy and policy in multinational companies: A case study of Apple Company

Brief discussion on leadership strategy and policies

Leadership is the ability to influence people to contribute willingly to the objectives of an organization. Leaders have the obligation of motivating their followers to improve their performance so that they can achieve the goals of an organization.

There has been an increasing need for organizations to come up with innovative products and to differentiate the products offered in the market for successful competition. As more companies penetrate the international market, competition increases and there is need to come up with strategies and policies of improving the performance of the employees (Kambil, 2010).

To improve the competitiveness of its products, Apple has embraced leadership as a strategy and policy and this has made the company to achieve higher sales levels in the recent past. Apple Inc. manufactures computer hardware, software and electronics. The company has become innovative and has been able to differentiate its products by adopting modern technologies. The innovativeness of the employees of Apple can be attached to the excellent leadership strategies of Steve Jobs, the president and co-founder of the company (Frank, 2011).

Rationale for the selection of this topic

Leadership has become a very important aspect of human resources management and there is need for organizations working in multinational environments to embrace leadership as a strategy of improving performance at the workplace. It is important for managers to use better strategies of communicating with their employees and to encourage the use of leadership roles to improve the level of competitiveness of the products manufactured and marketed by these companies (Mostovicz, Kakabadse,


“The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

“The Sate in Capitalist Society” Review


List of References

Introduction “The state in capitalist society” is a book written by Ralph Miliband. This book is the author’s masterpiece. The intention of the author in this work is to expose the capitalist state, “showing that it is not a neutral set of institutions, reflecting some general interest by way of democratic practices, but that instead it is the state of the dominant interest in a divided society” (Mead, 2008, Para (Para 1).

Miliband wrote this book in a plain manner, enabling the reader to understand the book, describing the complicated social relationships in such a way that social science students and other interested people can understand his work (Barker, 1978). There is an evaluation of the “capitalist state” in a broad perspective in the book: giving out examples from all the “Western type World”.

This gives room for a notion of all-inclusiveness on the author’s side (Anonymous: Reclaim the “state debate, 2010). “The state in the capitalist society” was written in the course of the mid 60’s and was initially published in 1969. According to Mead (2008), after the book being written, it “became a standard text in political science, sociology and the study of social policy for the next decade” (Para 2). The arguments presented in this book today remain to be sharp and perceptive.

According to Anonymous (The state of the capitalist society – 40 years on, 2009), this book has played a major role in the renewal of both “state theory and Marxist political thought” (Para 1). “The state in capitalist society” is a piece of work that has remained to be important and has played a major role in the development of the social as well as the political theory beginning from the mid twentieth century.

“The Sate in Capitalist Society” Review In the book, “The state in capitalist society”, Ralph Miliband offers a Marxist critical assessment of the liberal theories concerning modern capitalist state, and mostly, the assessment of “pluralism”. In this assessment, the author attains success. This author portrays pluralism as an ideological construct playing a role to make justifiable, a “state system” which upholds an intrinsically separated society, and in this manner bringing forth “relations of domination and subordination” (Mead, 2008).

However, what this author does not carry out is to sufficiently connect with the “nature of the state itself”, instead, he illustrates “what the state is not” (Mead, 2008 Para 4). There is no point at which the author offers a comprehensive evaluation of the state from a “Marxist” point of view.

It is even clear that there is no “Marxist politics” in the entire book. But this weakness or limitation does not make the book lose its importance because the purpose of the book was just to offer a critical analysis of “liberal conceptions”. This book remains to be a very important book, and especially when it is considered that it provides readers with “a clearly posed critique of bourgeois ideology on the state; and it provides a series of historical examples of mid-20th century state activity in capitalist societies” (Mead, 2008, Para 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This book presents an unrelenting and solid challenge to the present political compromise by carrying out the presentation of the drastic option of taking on socialism as the main issue encountered by civilization and the critical circumstance of carrying out substantial advancement (Smith and Harvey, 2008).

Giving an illustration that control of capitalism was quite all-inclusive to a level that there was no possibility of attaining half-done reforms, the author of this book makes an effort to give an explanation of the way the society has been able to avoid socialism, and he does this by carrying out an exploration of the way its claims have not achieved success to convince a number of intellectuals and the prospective supporters of a substitute order.

Carrying out an evaluation of “the power of economic leaders and the leading class”, Panitch (2009) points out that this book also “probes the state’s claims to legitimacy, defines the purpose and the role of the governments, and analyses the concepts of reform and repression” (Para 1).

More so, Panitch (2009) observes that “depicting how the state reemerged from behind the mystification of the political system and its behavior to become the central theme of the political studies, this book combines a potential appeal with thorough, detailed scholarship” (Para 1).

The state servants and the notion of “imperfect competition” are as well discussed in the book. Miliband has made a great contribution to “The state in capitalist society” as a writer (Anonymous: New Left Review, 2007.). Before he died, this author was among the prominent “thinkers on the Left not only in Britain but across in the whole world” (Panitch, 2009 Para 2)

According Anonymous (Reclaim the “state debate, 2010), most of the people who had engaged in the “Labor Movement” in the course of the 1960s and had been able to identify the weakness of this party, experienced a feeling to fight against reformism and the author of this book, Miliband, was among these people.

Basing on this book, the author presented arguments that “the limits of social democracy were not contingent but were rooted in capitalist social relations themselves” (Para 20). Of course this author did not accept the notion that “socialism could be brought about by electoral means alone and thought that any political changes needed to be supported by extra-parliamentary working class struggle” (Anonymous:. Reclaim the “state debate, 2010 Para 20).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on “The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book, as pointed out by Anonymous (Reclaim the “state debate”, 2010) was basically aimed at “bourgeois liberal ideas” which considered the society as consisting of “free individuals defined as such in the sphere of circulation and which saw the state as a democratic arena equally accessible to all individuals and pressure groups” (Anonymous: Reclaim the “state debate”, 2010, Para 21).

Through this book, Ralph Miliband looked for a way to convince people that there was a possibility to talk of classes, and justify the definition of the state by Marx as “a committee managing the bourgeois affairs” (Anonymous: Reclaim the “state debate”, 2010).

According to Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery (1987), in this book, Miliband presents an argument in a most convincing way that,

The state is in capitalist society represents the class interests of the monopolized corporate structure and that most of the paraphernalia of politics with which sociologists and political scientists choose to deal in the fifties and sixties such as political parties, elections, and education about government and politics, are simply mechanisms to legitimate capitalist state (Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery, 1987, Page 309).

Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery (1987) further point out that the state is an institution and tool that exercise power in favor of the corporations, basically for the reason that it is subjugated by these corporations, and there exist immense links among “individual corporate personages and specific officials of government” (Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery, 1987 Page 309).

There exists a similarity between the analysis carried out by Ralph Miliband in his book and that of the New Left, basically for the reason that Miliband’s analysis relies on the work of Antonio Gramsci (Italian communist) and “Gramsci’s analysis of the concept of hegemony” (Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery, 1987 Page 309). According to Miliband (1969), hegemony is defined as;

An order in which a certain way of life and thought is dominant, in which one concept of reality is diffused throughout society and all its institutional and private manifestation, informing with its spirit all tastes, morality, customs, religious and political principles and all social relations, particularly in their intellectual and moral connotations.

In a general sense, hegemony refers to the spontaneous loyalty that any dominant social groups obtain from the masses by virtue of its supposedly superior function in the world of production. It is the totality of a world view, the enormous complex of prejudices, assumptions, half-thought-out notions and profound ideas (Miliband, 1969: Page 180).

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Ralph Miliband’s book, “The state in capitalist society” is a piece of work that has remained to be an important work and has played a major role in the development of the social as well as the political theory beginning from the mid twentieth century. In this book, Miliband presents arguments which, to this day, remain to be “sharp and insightful”.

He has presented his ideas in a plain manner so that any one who reads his work can have to understand his ideas with ease. He offers a Marxist critical evaluation of the liberal theories pertaining to modern capitalist state, and mostly, the evaluation of “pluralism”. In this evaluation, Miliband attains great success.

He depicts pluralism as an ideological construct playing a role to make justifiable, a “state system” which upholds an intrinsically separated society, and in this manner bringing forth “relations of domination and subordination. An insistent and firm challenge to the present political compromise is presented in the book by carrying out the presentation of the strong option of taking on socialism as the main concern encountered by civilization and the critical circumstance of carrying out considerable advancement.

However, the weakness that can be seen in the book is that the author does not offer an all-inclusive examination of the state from a “Marxist” point of view. In the whole book, it can be seen that there is no comprehensive examination of the “Marxist politics”. But on the other hand, such a weakness does not render the book to be of less importance because the purpose of the book was merely to give out a critical analysis of “liberal conceptions”.

This book maintains its great importance, especially when it is put in to consideration that it offers to readers a noticeably created analysis of bourgeois philosophy on the state; and it provides a chain of past cases of “mid-20th century state activity in capitalist societies”

List of References Anonymous, (2010). Reclaim the “state debate”. Web.

Anonymous, (2009). The state of the capitalist society – 40 years on. Web.

Anonymous, (2007). New left review. California: University of California Press.

Barker, C., (1978). The state as capital. Web.

Kirkpatrick, G. R., Katsiaficas G. N., and Emery, M. L. (1987). Introduction to critical sociology: New York: Ardent Media.

Mead, S. P., (2008). A brilliant critique of liberal theories on the state. Web.

Miliband, R. (1969). The state in capitalist society. London: Widenfeld and Nicolson.

Panitch, L., (2009). The state in capitalist society book description. Web.

Smith, N. and Harvey D. (2008). Uneven employment: nature capital, and production of space. Georgia: University of Georgia Press.


Criminal Evidence and Legal Issue Essay essay help online free

The principal restriction of impeachment, by the use of evidence of misconduct, can result in a conviction of a witness According to the principal restriction of impeachment, the use of evidence of misconduct can cause the conviction of a witness. Any misconduct that is compliant with the truthfulness of the witness’ evidence can result in impeachment of a witness even if an individual was not convicted for the kind of misconduct as a crime. If the witness intentionally gives false evidence and it is proven by the court, the witness can be convicted.

There are two main restrictions which need to be observed by a cross-examiner before asking a witness any provocative questions with the aim of questioning his/her trustfulness and possible impeachment of an individual as a witness. These are the factual basis for asking particular questions because “no unfounded fishing expeditions are permitted for this form of cross-examination” (Garland, 2006, p. 160).

According to the second restriction, the interrogator has to accept the witness’ answer as it is if the witness is not convicted for this particular misconduct in the past. “Extrinsic evidence of instances of conduct that show false statement or dishonesty is not allowed” (Bocchino and Sonenshein, p. 157). For example, if a witness lied on his/her tax returns but was not convicted for it, the examiner can ask a related question because it can shed light upon the witness’ trustfulness but the answer should be accepted as it is.

Specific acts of misconduct can be related to the witness’ credibility but proper procedures of cross-examination need to be observed for using this evidence of misconduct for the impeachment of a person.

Examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self incrimination Under the current legislation, the witness’ privilege against self-incrimination can be waived at the witness’ discretion. It is significant, that the right for this privilege can be claimed only by the witness and waiving it, the witness will have to keep to this decision throughout the whole case.

If the accused decides to take the stand in most cases it would mean waving the privilege against self-incrimination though there are rare exceptions to this rule. Thus, taking the stand and waving the privilege against self-incrimination, the accused will not be able to testify only about the issues which are favorable to him/her and then reject to answer the questions relating to unfavorable issues.

Still, the privilege against self-incrimination can be retained by the accused who takes the stand under particular circumstances. “Unless the defendant, during direct examination, testifies in such a way as to deny the crime generally or testifies to facts and circumstances relating to the crime, there is no waiver of the privilege” (Garland, 2006, p. 170).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, if a person is accused of robbery in a particular place and somebody claims of recognizing him because he was seen nearby a high school some 8 years ago, the defendant can take the stand for saying that he/she did not attend the school in question without waiving the privilege against self-incrimination. In this case, the defendant’s evidence is not linked to the crime or related circumstances.

Thus, the privilege of the accused against the self-incrimination has been retained and the prosecution will not have the right for the cross-examination.

Making a decision to waive the privilege against self-incrimination, an individual should bear in mind the waiver would be applied to the entire investigation and cannot be used for answering only the questions on favorable matters. The privilege can be retained by the accused who decides to take the stand in case if the evidence he/she gives is not related to the crime.

Reference List Bocchino, A.


Website Launch and Rebrand Essay college essay help near me

This proposal will address the need for rejuvenation of our company’s communication materials, namely, our website. The current website, launched in 2009, contains outdated content, a user panel that confuses site visitors, and as of yet has added relatively little value to the organization as a whole.

It is also text heavy and contains images which do not relate directly to the goals of the company, nor do they foster the mission of the company. The company’s “key offering” is not clearly apparent to the site visitor with no prior knowledge of our organization and its products (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 1; Brand, 2009; Burson, 1987). Site visitors must comprehend our organization’s key offerings within the first few seconds of arriving at our web portal, and at the present time, this is not the case (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 1).

The current site does not leverage the organization’s assets and gifts, and as a result, potential high profile, highly desirable web traffic from prospective customers remains down. More troubling is the fact that our site has developed a reputation amongst other public relations professionals and communication specialists of being disorganized, bewildering, and difficult, which spreads through the network of desirable customers and potential clients and affects our bottom line.

The fact that peers view our website as unprofessional and ineffective reflects badly on our whole organization, namely, because it feeds two negative assumptions: first, that our company is technologically backward, and secondly, that our company does not respect the changed landscape the internet brings to public relations at large. (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21). The importance of a website as a communications tool has long been understood (Hill and White, 2000: p. 32).

A decade ago, public relations theorists recognized that “web sites are used to keep stakeholders up-to-date, provide information to the media, gather information about publics, strengthen corporate identity, and a host of other public relations functions. Most Fortune 500 companies use Web sites for external communication, focusing on promoting the company image and enhancing public relations rather than for direct sales or other revenue generating activities” (Hill and White, 2000: p. 32).

However since that time the web has evolved to become the front line of public relations, and how a company looks online now significantly affects its appeal to potential clients, and hence its revenue generating capabilities. As Kent and Taylor (2003) state, “web sites, for better or worse, are the windows through which organizations are viewed” (p. 14).

As public relations professionals it is our job to communicate the face of the organization to the world. Increasingly, the first line of intersection between the face of our company and the public occurs online. Public relations professionals must present a technologically sound face; failure to do so actually results in lost traffic, and the inadequacy of our current communication tools spreads virally through the network of peers and customers alike.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Senior management has given us the mandate to rebuild and relaunch the website and has asked us to focus on income generation, profile building, and to provide a forum for senior management to communicate with the world. Under the authority of the CEO, the public relations department henceforth contributes not only to the company’s bottom line but will help set and implement our company’s mission, goals, and sales targets via the rejuvenated website (Dozier, 1995: p. 88).

As Dozier (1995) logically deduced, the power of any public relations department “is seen in their contributions to strategic planning. Communicators cannot influence the strategic decisions of dominant coalitions unless the membership of that coalition values and supports communication. Influence, then, is circular. (Dozier, 1995: p. 88).

Public relations professionals in general now understand how vital a functional website is to the positive reflection of the company overall. “Practitioners believe a Web site symbolizes an organization’s competitiveness, enhances an organization’s image, and increases the practitioner’s personal sense of professionalism” (Hill and White, 2000: p. 31).

It is imperative that our organization present an attractive user friendly and inviting site that highlights our corporate philosophy and corporate responsibility. The bulk of our potential customer base is technology literate and as such, we need to become “technologically savvy in monitoring as well as using such media” (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21).

Senior management understands that the internet cultivates a “participatory culture,” wherein potential clients are members of the “wide consume classes around the world…which pursue vast selections of content that race from one media system to another all over the world in different media economies – content that is available in nearly endless combinations and permutations of media channels and sources…Not only can consumers obtain information, they can reshape content created by organizations and they can create their own intellectual property….they are able to respond to subtle shifts in culture” (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21; Jenkins, 2006).

These shifts occur quickly and turn on a dime, and create “dramatic shifts in consumer tastes and trends that are hard to monitor, let alone shape, by large organizations” such as ours (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21; Jenkins, 2006).

According to Botan and Hazelton (2006) “businesses are expanding their marketing and sales strategies to the Internet [and] companies world wide are moving from a physical presence location to a virtual presence location. All together, this means that the interaction between an organization and its audience will increasingly be carried out through the use of Web sites” (p. 422). Competition is fierce and the pace of change is blistering, therefore we must move now lest the company be left behind.

We will write a custom Essay on Website Launch and Rebrand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plan to develop the new website’s content and structure will involve several steps, as outlined here. Firstly, the public relations department will liaise with a group of technologically minded stakeholders within the company from the IT department, senior management, and sales. Our goal will be to develop a practical website relaunch plan for the company.

The public relations manager will take on the responsibility of content manager, under the auspices and direction set forth by the CEO and senior management. Our group will work to illustrate the company’s major offerings as well as highlight our product strengths and mission visually with the larger goal of raising the online presence of the company and becoming more attractive to potential customers.

Top of the agenda is to create a site that generates buzz while promoting our company’s corporate philosophy, highlighting the strengths of our senior management team, especially the CEO, and promoting “two way communication” between our company and our consumer web audience (Mackey, 2009: p. 51).

Our website partnering strategy group will collect the necessary information from the company’s leaders to allow us to competently convey information about the company, its senior management, its professional expertise, and its formal strategic marketing directives.

The website partnering strategy group will also conduct an informal survey of competitor websites to ascertain the level of strategic transparency that our competitors convey in their online presence.

The website partnering strategy group will assess what content needs to be developed to champion the company’s marketing proposals. Emphasis will be on coalescing content on the website with other strategic corporate communications and external public relations tools.

The website partnering strategy group will liaise with the IT department for input on the any existing security concerns. The IT department will be on board to consult with the viability of the projected website rejuvenation plan and to help structure our implementation plan. The website rejuvenation plan will cover an 18 month window, unless otherwise directed by senior management and the CEO.

Once the proper content has been identified, the website partnering strategy group will formally compose the website rejuvenation plan document, with goals, growth projections, sales targets, and profile raising objectives in place.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Website Launch and Rebrand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The website partnering strategy group will seek input from external parties such as trusted vendors to garner feedback on the website rejuvenation plan document and polish the plan if need be. At this time the website partnering strategy group will also delineate the time frames for the conclusion and launch, as well as and establish projected costs.

The website partnering strategy group will then formally meet once again with senior management to gain approval on the direction and strategy of the website rejuvenation and establish a set calendar of completion dates. The company’s senior leadership and the CEO have expressed a sense of urgency and their backing of the plan is expected to “grease the wheels”.

As Tice-Wallner (2010) states “website overhauls can cost up to a $100,000 in technical, graphic design and marketing support, [therefore] any disconnect between the work of the group and the direction set by firm leadership can be costly and scuttle success (p. 2).

Once senior management has approved budget and strategy, the website partnering strategy group will then officially kick off the website rejuvenation plan.

The website partnering strategy group will create information collection protocols to facilitate easy tracking of the success of the website rejuvenation plan. This entail sustained communications between all stakeholders – senior management, the CEO, sales, marketing, and the IT department.

Along the way the plan will be continually assessed in relation to senior management goals and priorities, and the website partnering strategy group will produce all required alterations to the plan as they occur. Senior management and the CEO will be kept aware of the plan’s advancement through weekly meetings with the public relations manager.

The website partnering strategy group promotional plan involves primarily working to make the site attractive to media, who will indirectly promote the site through viral networking. Once a prototype of the new site has been created, the website partnering strategy group’s first priority will be to ensure that the site is technically sound. As Kent and Taylor (2003) state:

The speed at which your site loads, and the quality of the homepage are also important. How long does your Web site take to load? From a networked computer, most Web sites load in a matter of seconds. However, more than half of all Americans access the Web from home. And a majority of those connections will still be through slow modems.

Given this dynamic, organizations that want to attract media professionals and encourage them to devote some time to exploring their site need to employ a few simple principles. First, put all important information (or links to this information) on the first page (links to how to contact the organization, how to order products, how to invest, etc.) Second, create lean pages that load fast and are easy to navigate (p. 15).

As intimated at the outset of this document, the public relations department has received feedback that our visitors to our present site do not immediately understand what our company markets or what or offering is. We require an immediately recognizable “saleable message” that site visitors can absorb within the first few seconds of arriving at our site (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 2).

A major focus of the website partnering strategy group’s promotional plan will be to include a specific section of the first page for the media, one that contains clear directives for media visitors, given that a successful relaunch depends heavily on a positive response from journalists who cover the business beat (Kent and Taylor, 2003: p. 16).

The public relations department’s existing relations with the members of the business media provide us with insight that some media find our existing site overly complex – “byzantine” in the words of one journalist – and that some have essentially stopped visiting our site as a result.

Others have admitted that they are not immediately aware of the media relations link when they arrive at the present site. As Kent and Taylor (2003) have shown, “one of the first icons to load on your site should be the link that tells the media folks where to go for information specific to their needs; don’t hide media links behind other links or in tiny text at the bottom of the page.

You should create a specific section of your Web site for the media. Some organizations call this space the “Press Room,” or “Journalists.” It is important that this link be prominent, perhaps on the upper left side of the homepage…so that media representatives do not have to hunt around to find it” (p. 16).

The website partnering strategy group also will place special attention on maintaining the freshness and viability of the site. As Tice-Wallner (2010) points out, companies often “make big investments in their websites, and then fail to update them or utilize the many enhancements created by the developer to ensure that messages get out to clients and potential clients on a timely basis” (p. 2). This was the mistake we made in our earlier site when we did not craft an action to suit our message.

Also, the website partnering strategy group will pay extra mind to base all of our decisions on our marketing strategy, less so than on the ideas put forth by the web developer. As public relations professionals, it is our job to tell the world about our company and ensure that our key messages are received. The website partnering strategy group remains confident that with the help of senior management and our many talented stakeholders we will be able to launch a website that does our company proud.

References Botan, C.H. and Hazelton, V. (2006) Public relations theory II. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Brand, J. (2009) Public relations: an overview. In: J. Johnston and C. Zawawi (eds) Public Relations Theory and Practice. Crows Nest, Australia, Allen


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Source and Background of the problem The occurrence of hurricane Katrina came one year after the Department of Homeland Defense (DHS) had already created an emergency response plan following a series of national disasters that had caused havoc in United States. For instance, one unfortunate incidence that left the country in a state of desperation was the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the twin towers, the Pentagon building and the World Trade Center.

In fact, the creation of the National Response plan was aimed at setting the right platform for dealing with emergency disasters in future, whether artificial or natural catastrophes. Nonetheless, the response level of hurricane Katrina was deemed as a big failure as documented in myriad of Congressional reports released later.

For example, a report by the House Select Committee in 2006 summarized the response to the hurricane as having lacked initiative right from the state to federal government level. Hurricane Katrina is one of the worst natural disasters ever witnessed in the history of United States owing to heavy loss in life and property.

A White House report on the response to the hurricane pointed a blaming finger on all levels of the government since there was lack of coordination. Another report by the Senate noted that the victims suffered for a longer period than necessary due to delay. The report confirmed that “these failures were not just conspicuous; they were pervasive” (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, 2006).

Similar to all the prior natural calamities that have ever struck US, early warning signs were released as part of the initial plans to tackle the natural disaster. Unfortunately, the warnings were not heeded by government officials. These officials failed to take sufficient action on the forthcoming disaster.

In addition, Levees had already been built in New Orleans as part of protecting the area against such disasters. However, these structures were not strong enough to wither the strong storm. Moreover, the government had already put in place critical elements of the National Response Plan although the execution of the very elements delayed.

On the other hand, the military are usually ready to deal with natural disasters by assisting in the evacuation process. Further, there were voluntary agencies as well as non-governmental organisations that offered invaluable help in responding to the disaster and recovery process (Brunsma, Overfelt


Managing Innovation Essay essay help free

Innovation can be referred to as the “incorporation of new ideas or new methods used in business with the intention of winning customer loyalty” (Klein). Innovation is an important process in any company since it helps in evaluating the performance the firm (Ettlie 74). For any company to survive in a competitive market, it must have effective strategic management policies. This can be achieved by focusing on innovation within the firm.

Managing innovation enables managers to gain the knowledge that will enable them to manage their businesses in a given business environment. The knowledge gained through effective management of innovation facilitates the development of products that meet the expectations of the clients. The level of competition in the modern market is very high (Adam 73). Thus firms should be in a position to identify and take advantage of the weaknesses of their competitors.

One of the most important factors to consider when analyzing the level of competition in the market is the level of innovation. All firms need to incorporate new ideas in their operations in order to survive in the competitive market. This is because the level of technology changes everyday and new products are brought into the market on a daily basis. Companies that intend to have the best reputation in the market must upgrade their level of innovation (Adam 82).

Innovation is a process of “thought change since its main intention is to come up with new ideas” (Adam 87) that can be implemented in the market. There are several types of innovation. However, they all focus on the development of the organization through new ideas and strategies (Adam 91). Innovation can be disruptive or sustaining (Adam 97). When analyzing the types of innovation, much emphasis is usually put on disruptive innovation since it is the most important as far as business is concerned.

Innovation is a long process that occurs in stages or phases within the organization. For example, the development of a new product begins with the thought process. This is followed by the manufacture of the product and ends with the marketing of the product. The process of innovation thus begins with the thought process. This involves developing a vision of what is to be achieved.

Innovation is therefore considered to be “the incremental or radical changes that take place in an organization” (Bessant 67). The changes relate to the manner in which decisions are made, the production of goods and services and the distribution process. The advancement in technology focuses on improving all aspects of a business in the modern economy through innovation (Klein 101). According to Pixar seminars, managing innovation is a very important process since it facilitates growth and resilience.

The second stage of managing innovation is more advanced and involves the implementation of the new ideas (Harvey 65). Thus at this stage the new ideas are “transformed into actions that are important for the survival of a firm in the competitive market” (Ranchhod 87). At the implementation stage, the management must provide the necessary resources. This is because lack of adequate resources can undermine the firm’s ability to realize its innovation objectives (Ettlie 89).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the financial resources, the firm must invest in appropriate technology that will help in the implementation of the innovation plan (Ettlie 90). This can be achieved through an assessment program that aims at identifying the technical weaknesses in the organization. Outdated technologies should therefore be replaced with new ones. Besides, there should be on-the-job training programs that aim at improving the competence of the employees.

Entrepreneurs who focus on innovation in their businesses are able to increase their rate of production in their respective industries. The increase in production is attributed to the high level of efficiency, cost saving and creativity that is associated with innovation within an organization (Bessant 103).

Managing innovation might only be possible if the managers in a given firm have the skills and knowledge that enables them to inspire their employees to be initiative. This means that the process of managing innovation is not only the responsibility of the management team. The process must bring together all members of the organization and the potential clients (Harvey 78). The perspectives of all the concerned parties should be considered.

Due to the large number of employees within an organization, the suggestions concerning the expected changes will definitely vary or even contradict each other. Thus the organization must develop an evaluation mechanism that will be used to vet the ideas presented by all individuals who are involved in the innovation process. Only the best ideas should be chosen and implemented by the organization (Bessant 114). It is not possible to implement all ideas due to lack of sufficient resources.

A company is considered to be the pioneer of innovation if it succeeds in overhauling its production and distribution processes ahead of other firms in the industry. This will enable the firm to improve its competitiveness in the industry (Ranchhod 99). Consequently, the firm’s revenue will increase as it increases its productivity and market share.

However, with time other firms in the industry will begin to restructure their operations in order to remain competitive. As firms reposition themselves in the industry, the competition in the market becomes more intense. Thus, firms will begin to focus on product differentiation with the aim of positioning themselves as the best in the market.

The most important tool in managing innovation is research and development. The decisions made at each and every stage of managing innovation must be supported by adequate and relevant research. Engaging in research at every stage of managing innovation will help in making the right decisions that will help the organization to achieve its objectives (Ettlie 100).

We will write a custom Essay on Managing Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reviewing research findings on particular issues concerning innovation can help in solving a dilemma. Decisions that are based on facts are likely to be more effective and will help the organization to achieve its objectives.

Works Cited Adam, Jolly. Innovation: harnessing creativity for business growth. New York: Kogan Page, 2003. Print.

Bessant, John. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2007. Print.

Ettlie, John. Managing Innovation: new technology, new products, and new services in a global economy. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2007.Print.

Harvey, Dershin. “A framework for managing innovation.” International Journal of Business Innovation and Research 4 (2010): 598-613.

Klein, Stefan. Managing dynamic networks: organizational perspectives of technology enabled inter-firm. Frankfourt: Birkhauser Publication, 2006. Print.

Ranchhod, Ashok. Marketing Strategies: A Contemporary Approach. New York: Prince Hall, 2007.Print.


Arab Music and Arab Cinema: Historical Development and the Role of Western Culture Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Historical background

Theoretical thesis work/ Technical approach

Works Cited

Abstract Arab music and cinema have gone through shifts of rapid progressional changes particularly because of the influence of modernity. Stemming from a purely religious framework, the two art forms have made radical turns in their development in order to compete effectively with other musical and film developers.

With most of the Western artistes tending to portray the Arabic culture, the Arab musicians and film makers have in recent days come out strongly to challenge such opinions through their works. This project seeks to analyze the development in both Arabic music and cinema. To this end the research shall cover all elements of progress covered in both the historical development of the two art forms as well as highlight on the modern day challenges being faced by the artistes in the field.

Historical background Music has played a fundamental role in the development of the Arabic culture since time immemorial. The works of anthropologists in various Arabic regions have unearthed different music instruments collected from both religious and secular environments, revealing that music has definitely been part of many Arabic rituals (Barakat 206-238).

Unfortunately, from research conducted by various scholars in the field it has been revealed that most of the traditional forms of Arabic music did not have a well laid down system of notation. As such, most of the musical transference only happened through a generational inheritance in which children learn from their parents. Arab music can easily be traced back to the 3rd Century

With the entry of modernity and civilization, Arabic music has had to borrow some elements from other cultures, a factor which has led to the development of such genres as Arab pop and Arab rock. The commercial prospects of the music industry have seen various individuals such as Ilham Al Madfai, Fairouz, and Magda El Roum develop music that appeals to the younger generation.

They have learnt to package their products professionally including going the extra mile of producing music videos to further attract more audiences. However, even with all the developments going on in the trade, modern day musicians still play allegiance to the masters of Arabic music including Umm Kulthum and Mohamed Al- Qasabji.

Even though some musicians have chosen to stick with traditional Arabic melodies, the influence of Western conventions has necessitated the development of pop cultures which are indicated by the development of competitive forms of ranking popular hip and urban music (Lughod 135-161).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, these changes have not been without controversy as some of the developing younger-generations musicians have from time to time been accused of being negative influences to their peers. Syrian musician Abu Khalil Al-Qabani, for instance had to go on self imposed exile to Egypt to avoid falling victim to extremists. In Cairo, he established the first genuine Arabic music orchestra with his work receiving acclaim from all sectors of the music society.

Like music, Arab cinema has gone through intense evolution (Boyd 3-11). Since the production of the first Arabic film in the 1930s, various genres and aesthetic elements of production have been developed which weave into the elements of literacy, story telling and the development of music.

Most of the Arabic films have been developed in Egypt though some of the other Arabic states have greatly contributed to the development of the art form. Hollywood has had its influence in Arabic cinema particularly touching on the writing and production methods. Like with all other modern day forms of art, cinema has been heavily influenced by Western politics particularly when it comes to censorship and the usage of cinema as agent of resistance.

However, unlike Hollywood, Arabic cinema tries to portray the culture in positive light, by covering some of the broad aspects of social issues plaguing the people. In this regard, the films do not portray Arabs as nothing more than terrorists but as human beings who undergo normal everyday strife (Wild 200-209).

Theoretical thesis work/ Technical approach The role of images to mould people’s thought processes through alteration of their states of mind will be analyzed based on secondary data. Data will be extracted from various journals, articles and books. The criteria of selection for the literature will be relevance to the research topic and the year of publication.

Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries were visited to access the data. Some of the online databases that were accessed include Ebsco, Questia, Emerald and Science Direct among others. This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field.

Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay. Information from the books will serve to provide explanation as regards to the psychiatric effects of images and graphical representations. This is very vital information that will make the research appeal to both professionals and the general public.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Arab Music and Arab Cinema: Historical Development and the Role of Western Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the latter, it may require that some of the information obtained from the books and other publications be broken down into simple language and at the same time illustrations drawn from the commonly applied functionalities of the stock market. Empirical data will also be collected from various cultural and scientific studies, with numbers and figures used to illustrate the evolutionary process of Arabic music and cinema.

In such a practical-based field, the strength lies in the figures and numbers obtained from real life scenarios to support collected evidence. With this knowledge in mind, effort will be made to obtain relevant information to the particular topic in question and this will be accompanied by adequate exemplification.

Works Cited Barakat, Halim. “Creative Expression” in The Arab World: society, culture, and state. Ed. Halim Barakat. Berkeley: University of California press, 1993. 206-238. Print.

Boyd, Douglas. “Developments, trends, constraints” from Broadcasting in The Arab world: a survey of the electronic media in the middle east. Ed. Douglas Boyd. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1999, 3-11. Print.

Lughod, abu Lila. Dramas of nationhood: The politics of television in Egypt. Cairo: The American University of Cairo press


Management Tools and Technique Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Decisions form a critical part of management in an organization. Both individuals and organizations often make decisions on particular issues. Each decision that is taken by an individual or an organization is associated with some consequences. The impacts of a decision can be positive or negative.

Consequently, it is important to evaluate the various available options in order to arrive at the best decision. This calls for an effective and efficient decision-making tool or technique. The use of a reliable decision-making tool enables policy makers to avoid failures and conserve scares resources (Haan


“The little store” Essay college admissions essay help

“The little store” is a short story written by Eudora Welty who was born and brought up in Jackson, Mississippi. This is a small town where Eudora finds materials to include in her stories through observation and imagination (Welty 1). She lived with her family and enjoyed living in this small town because it seemed exciting to her since she was a child. All the activities going on in the little store amuses her and she would give anything to visit the store as many times as possible.

Eudora grew up in state capitol of Mississippi where her mother kept a little pasture for their only cow, which produced their daily milk. Her mother was a homemaker and did all her home chores but never visited the grocery. Most of their groceries were delivered to the doorstep upon making an order and in case of emergencies, Eudora would always ran the errand to the little store. The store was owned by Mr. Sessions who together with his family managed it (Welty 2).

It was one of the groceries in the area that recorded high sales revenue on a daily basis due to the frequent visits made by children to get groceries for their families. Most children along that street knew the store as they knew their homes because it provided a good site for them to skip, play jacks, cycle, and even skate. It was more than a grocery; though it was small, there were a lot of activities that were taking place.

Eudora remembers the little store as a place where she spent most of her time during her childhood. She had played with her friends and brothers in the street near the store until darkness came. She even thought that the little store was made for children because she had never seen a grown up near it and would not have imagined that the owner’s family lived in the same building.

She was actually surprised the moment she saw Mr. Season’s family in the building because according to her, they did not look like a family because they never did things together nor did they eat from the same table. Near the little store, there were other houses, some with single occupants while in others lived family members, for instance Eudora’s family. In one house lived the principle of Eudora’s grade school even during the vocation, which got Eudora scared.

Near the down corner lived a little boy by the name Lindsey where a big chinaberry tree titled forward and backward. Eudora was a frequent visitor to the chinaberry with her skates waiting for the berries to fall and roll so as she could collect as many berries as possible before Lindsey caught up with her. However, she was not that fortunate because she and the little boy suffered from a flu epidemic at the same time that might have been caused by the berries.

The little store was in a world that made any child feel ineradicable. Every child dreamt of being in that area, which formed part of their daily lives. Although it was in the midst of family houses, “it alone hadn’t any yard in front, any tree or flowerbed. It was a plain frame building covered over with brick” (Welty 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its inside was incomprehensible with all lots of smells coming out of it. This may be one of the reasons why the Eudora’s mother preferred to make orders outside the street and only sent her daughter to the store when she run out of stock. Apart from the smells, dust was all over; on the floor, shelves, and on most of the products.

To make it worse, the shelves were not properly arranged, Eudora notes that, “shelves climbed to high reach all the way around, set out not too much of any one thing but a lot of things” (Welty 4). It was easy to forget what one had gone to buy because he had to search from all the shelves.

To make sure that the children came back to the store, Mr. Sessions kept standing scales by the door where the children could check their weight at every visit to the store. He could even memorize what each weighed last time and tell them how much they had gained.

In this essay, I have attempted to give a general overview of the activities and the condition of the little store which contracts with the way of life of many families in Jackson. The little store is an example of what really goes on in many streets in which there live different kinds of people with different perceptions about life.

Even though the store was small and disorganized, it still served the purpose it had been set for although many adults preferred to send children to the store rather than go to it because of its condition. Even the family that lived in the store’s premises seemed to live their own life and they were never seen together.

Work Cited Welty, Eudora. Modern Nonfiction; “The little store”.


Writing on women Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The Revolt of “Mother” by Mary E. Wilkins tells the story of a woman who defies tradition and rebels against her husband. The protagonist Sarah Penn decides to take action and provide a new house for her family after waiting for forty years for her husband to do so without success. She does this by moving her family into the new barn her husband had made for his cows and a new horse. When he returns home and finds his family in the new barn, he complies and agrees to make it a proper house.

The author of the story, Mary E.Wilkins lived during a time in history when patriarchy was so strong and the women submitted to their domineering husbands silently. The author seems to have been highlighting the struggles of women in a male dominated society. Through her works, she shows that women could overcome the dominance if only they took decisive action.

Thus, Wilkinson and the female protagonists in her stories fight against patriarchy. For instance, Elrod (1997) urges that Wilkinson’s story reveal the odds that women had to contend with in New England’s religion and the possibilities of emancipation.

The women being patient bring about the possibility of freedom and Sarah Penn had to wait for forty years before she got a new house (Tritt, 2004). The woman in her story goes against the tradition of the time and triumphs by challenging it and gaining a new self-identity. Thus, Wilkins was a domestic writer who was willing to critic the tradition in her society that clearly oppressed the women.

Wilkins lived in an era, which considered religion very important. She underwent many teachings in religion and thus she uses her knowledge of religion to speak to her audience using biblical illusions. In the story, Sara Penn alludes to the biblical Sara, the wife of Abraham. Sara was a woman to reckon with because she spoke her mind out to her husband for instance telling him to lie with her maid Hagai to bear him a son, as she was barren at that time.

Later she tells him to send Hagai and her son away after God and been merciful to her and she gave birth to Isaac. These actions changed the lives of the next generations just as Sarah Penn’s did. Sarah Penn changed her family’s living conditions as well as her son’s view of women. For example when Adoniram her husband returned from his trip, his son Sammy tells him that they had moved into the barn to live there.

His attitude seems to have changed from the Sammy we met earlier who was so similar to his father that he could not tell his mother or sister about the plan to build a new barn yet he had known for three months. Therefore, through Sarah Penn, Wilkins shows us a woman who confronts male dominance head on and through an unorthodox behavior and achieves independence (Westbrook, 1988).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author uses this story to address the issue of women oppression that was rife at her time (Brand, 1977). The men oppressed the women by silencing them or failing to communicate with them like Adoniram did with his wife whenever he was asked a question he would not speak.

Adoniram’s behavior of putting animals before the welfare of his family was a wanting behavior that had to be confronted because a man is supposed to put his family before all else. Therefore, Wilkins using her story The Revolt of “Mother” addressed the issues facing women in the nineteenth century and showed that there was hope for the women just as Adoniram had been defeated so would patriarchy.

Reference List Brand, A.G. (1977). Mary Wilkins Freeman: Misanthropy as Propaganda. The New England Quarterly, 50, 83-100.

Elrod, E. R. (1997). Rebellion, Restraint, and New England Religion: The Ambivalent Feminism of Mary Wilkins Freeman:’ Literary Calvinism and Nineteenth-Century American Woman Authors. Michael Schuldiner (E.d). Lewiston, NY: Mellen.

Tritt, M. (2004). Freeman’s The Revolt of Mother. The Explicator, 62, 209-12.

Westbrook, P.D. (1988). Mary Wilkins Freeman. Boston: Twayne.


United Nations Peacekeeping operation in Northern Africa Essay cheap essay help

Proposed action: Any course of action taken to tackle the developments in this war torn Northern Africa country have to be based on the United Nation’s security mandate in peacekeeping operation within the country.

Every so often, these Security Council’s mandates are created within a general attitude that is usually neutral, consequently making a contradiction that has the possibility of destabilizing UN operations en bloc. In the case of this scenario presented, where the situation is volatile and deteriorating very fast, the only action left to take is to comply with the military faction leader’s orders to evacuate in the next 48 hours.

Despite the huge population of refuges, very few personnel to carry out the evacuation, and no sign of help coming from other sources, the UN peacekeeping force commander is left with no choice but to evacuate since the faction leader is known for his brutality in addition, buying of time through negotiations cannot provide for a solution to the issue. (Klinger, 2005)

This new turn of events will now change the initial mandate of the peacekeeping force, which was to protect displaced persons and assist in the safe return to their homes; support in demobilization of combatants after a peace treaty is agreed upon and signed by all warring parties.

The start of this war ten years ago has seen more displaced persons increasing such that the peacekeeping force cannot handle. As the commander, try to seek for help since the resources at hand are not able to handle the huge operation and the UN force’s mandate is not to engage in war but promote peace.

However, at the same time it is important to try and start of the evacuation so as to protect the people as their safety is vital, and avoid provoking the faction leader (Pushkina, 2006). Also as an added measure, reopen negotiation channels and try to buy some time to fully evacuate everyone to safety (Goulding, 2001; Bellamy