Executive Summary In the recent past, Indonesia has been experiencing an improving gross domestic growth rate and purchasing parity despite the global financial crisis of 2007. However, the economic growth rate is hampered by unfavorable economic, political and social parameters like inflation, corruption, nepotism, and racism. In the 1960s, the country suffered an economic crisis which was believed to have been caused by corruption and inflation in the country.
Governments, nongovernmental organization, and civil groups have joined efforts to alleviate corruption; however it still is persistent. Indonesia is among world’s most inflated countries with inflation of more than 10% since the 1960s; with such a record in inflation, the country has continued to suffer a reducing purchasing power parity (PPP) (Fane, 2003). Corruption can be found among political leaders, public institutions, individuals, and private institutions; the “culture” hinders rapid growth in the oil rich country.
Statement of issue The main issue affecting the country is to determine when corruption will be completely alleviated and who should be held responsible of the situation in the country. When will there be corrupt free institutions in Indonesia? Corruption is the main cause of all the problems in Indonesia; then the big question is, is there an effective policy that can completely eradicate this big problem? Has Indonesia been using the wrong development strategy?
Introduction In the 1960s Indonesia suffered political instability that did not spare the economic situation; it was during this time that the country’s then president, Suharto was classified among the most corrupt leaders by transparency international. It was in 1990s while Suharto was still the president, that corruption gained momentum to a point that the government was not able to clear its debts or collect outstanding debts from its debtors. There was a high level of bankruptcy and the government was not able to bail out those who were bankrupt.
Moreover, the legal system was very weak to control any economic activities of the country. Businesses were carried out normally although the economy did not grow as expected because of corruption. Trade was carried out devoid of payment of tax and banks were also involved in corruption and their processes were unrefined. Lending was security based and lending regulations were not followed keenly. There were many barriers to domestic trade and export trade (Fane, 2003).
This led to low activities in businesses which contributed to increased poverty. Despite the high level of inflation during this time, there were no domestic subsidies and this led to hunger and poverty (Fane, 2003). Many people, about 70%, were living below the poverty line during this period; these problems distorted the economy of Indonesia greatly (see the appendix).
In 1998 Indonesia was in real economic crisis as inflation reached 80% and it was expected to reach 100% by the end of the year. Many people in Indonesia were faced with food security problems; people were hungry and poor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This triggered students in Indonesia to start demonstrations demanding the President to put an end to corruption, favoritism and conspiracy. The students pointed out that corruption; favoritism and conspiracy were the main causes of economic crisis in Indonesia. They demanded for good governance which would liberate Indonesia from economic crisis (World Bank, 2008).
There were also problems in healthcare systems because the money allocated to them was not enough. Public health facilities did not have enough drugs. Further, health promotion and prevention programs were not in function due to lack of funds.
In addition, natural resources were depleted as a result of poverty because people relied on natural resources, such as fishing and agriculture for their survival. The population increased and this led to deforestation leading to low agricultural yield. There was food insecurity in the whole country. All this problems were as a result of corruption (Pettis, 2001).
Policy applied to recover Indonesia economy. The policy of open economy was applied which was not as effective as expected. People termed it as premature because there was crisis in financial sector. Other countries have responded positively to an open economy policy but this was not the case for Indonesia. The question has always been, is Indonesia using the wrong development strategy? All the blame has been put on corruption and conspiracy. This has prevented Indonesia from globalization.
Emphasis has been put on good governance and good development strategy. The Policy of liberalization has been put in place to ensure that Indonesia is able to maintain an open economy. The country has also attempted to raise domestic interest rates and tightened its monetary policy as way of controlling corruption. International monetary fund came into an agreement with Indonesia to stabilize macroeconomic activities and eliminate programs that were affecting the economy.
The government of President Suharto then weakened and he was removed from office (Pettis, 2001). Abdurrahman took the office of presidency in 1999. He signed an agreement with international monetary fund for an extended fund facility. The economy was then at a poor state, but president Abdurrahman managed to put new administration and as a result inflation reduced by 2% by the end of 1999 (Muchhala, 2007).
Policy critique In 2000 president Abdulahiman signed another agreement with international monetary fund for extended fund facility. This program targeted economic reform, structural reform and governance reforms. With the new administration the economy has been accelerating and recovery has been on the positive.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Economic Development of Indonesia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poverty reduced from 17.8 to 16.6 percent in 2008 (Muchhala, 2007). The rate of unemployment has also been reducing. With oil contributing the biggest percentage of export, Indonesia is now one of the fast growing economies in the G20 developing countries. It has also industrialized and its economy has expanded.
The international monetary fund increased its focus on the country by raising it to 3.4 from 2.5 percent. The country has been able to implement its financial reforms by reducing public and external debt. Banking facilities have also been reformed and its vulnerability has reduced. Businesses have been strengthened and this has had great impact on individual development. Banks have been capitalized and supervision strengthened to make sure that there is no corruption (Miller, 1997).
Before the new administration was introduced, the use of open economy had failed because it was implemented by corrupt leaders. Presently, Indonesia has a market economy where the government is actively involved and owns many enterprises. The government has also been controlling prices of products such as oil and other basic products (Kaufman, Krueger,
Economic development of Thailand Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Political instability
Thailand is a Southeastern Asian state that endured sixty years of military political governance from 1932 until 1973 when a democratically elected-government assumed office. After the change of governance, the country has been experiencing growing economic growth rate; however the country heavily suffers from unstable balance of payment (BPO).
The economic situation of the country can be pegged to its participation in international trade with exports accounting for two thirds of its gross domestic growth product (GDP). It has seen its GDP grow of 2% in the 1985 to 10.6% in 1996; in 2010, the country recorded an economic growth rate of 8.0% (Roger, Sedghi
Alfred Adler’s individual psychology Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Major Principles of the Theory
Differences between Gender and culture
Changes in Personality over the Lifespan
Individual Psychology in the Modern World
Major Principles of the Theory In his work of developing classical Adlerian psychology, Adler emphasized seven major principles which include; utility of the individual. According to this principle things like feeling, thinking, behaviors and emotions can only be understood well if considered as being subordinates of one’s lifestyle. “People are neither divided internally nor battleground of forces that conflict each other but every concept of individuality heads in the same direction” (Shultz,
The Importance of Arizona Law Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The creation of a powerful and properly evidenced argument is not an easy thing. There are a number of issues to be taken into consideration and certain opinions to be evaluated. However, when the nation undergoes certain legal changes, many people are ready to share their personal opinions and ideas about the steps taken. The question of illegal immigration and its role in the development of Arizona society plays an important role for a long period of time.
Usually, people want to be in safe and feel protection of their government; still, they are not always ready to accept the legal changes offered. One of the latest reforms taken by the government and critically accepted by society was Arizona S.B. 1070. In fact, this legislative Act is considered to be one of the strictest anti-illegal immigration issues in the state of Arizona as well as in the history of the United States of America.
In this paper, the ideas of two different authors will be thoroughly analyzed: Roger Mahony, a famous American cardinal, whose thoughts and activities are supported by millions of people, and Kris Kobach, one of the principle drafters of the Act under consideration. Mahony’s “Thank You, Arizona!” is an attempt to describe the measure taken as a “mean-spirited and useless” measure that deprives people of a chance to be free and to be equal in society (Mahony 17).
And though Kobach’s “Defending Arizona” introduces absolutely another point of view, this article should not be regarded as an opposition to Mahony’s work. The two authors share their opinions about the reform taken and try to persuade the reader. Mahony makes use of religion as a powerful weapon to achieve the required justice and protect immigrants from unfair judgments.
And Kobach helps to analyze the worth of Arizona S.B. 1070 admitting that many people’s “charges are completely false” and lead to “a vastly disproportionate response” (Kobach 31) . Kobach and Mahony are the writers, those words may be interpreted in a variety of ways; they are not only helpful and influential in the world of politics and religion, but they established the key points according to which governmental activities may be properly evaluated.
Summary/Analysis To understand those ideas may play more crucial role in understanding of the worth of Arizona S.B. 1070, it is necessary to analyze each article and the approaches preferred by the authors. Kris Kobach is the drafter of the Act, so, his opinion and explanations of this governmental change should be thoughtful and properly organized.
At the beginning of his article, the author admits that many political leaders “from President Obama on down” jumped into criticizing the law without its thorough analysis. The point is that some opponents, such as Eric Holder and Janet Napolitano, say that they have not read the whole text of the law, still, they are ready to argue the importance of the reform.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question is if it is reasonable and normal to create some judgments without clear arguments. Personal opinion should not be the main claim to rely on while arguing the activities of the state Governor. “Defending Arizona” is Kobach’s chance to explain why so many misunderstandings take place around the law offered. He identifies three charges which are wrong and give clarifications. The point is that the law does not introduce as many influential changes as people actually think.
The main claim of the article is not to make fast decisions and find more time and analyze the law from a variety of perspectives to understand that Arizona officers are provided with appropriate instructions to follow during the contact with illegal immigrants, racial profiling does not become a crucial point, and certain order of immigrants’ documentation is important.
Kobach’s supportive facts are powerful indeed: he takes some extras from the law to prove that people’s judgments do not have any grounds, he remembers real-life examples such as “Gonzales v. City of Peoria” case, and he clearly explains the role of documentation provisions in this particular reform.
The tone chosen in this article is persuasive, not hostile. It helps to explain the reader that the author is not satisfied with the conclusions made by some people and is ready to point out the mistakes and give informative explanations. His evidence is his personal experience and desire to create appropriate living conditions for the citizens of Arizona.
Still, the creation of appropriate living conditions may be interpreted in a variety of ways, and one of them is introduced in the article by Roger Mahony. A crucial aspect of this work is the attention to religion. The main claim of the article makes many readers realize that Arizona S.B. 1070 is a successful decision for the citizens of Arizona as it is defined by Kobach.
What he suggests is to comprehend the importance to consider immigrants “no longer as strangers or statistics, but to see and hear them as real, flesh-and-blood human beings – neighbors, family members, whose lives are adversely affected every day that our leaders fail to enact just and fair immigration reform” (Mahony 18).
On the one hand, this claim has clear humanistic evidence where God’s role and impact play an important role. People should be kind to each other and do not use the idea of citizenship as the main criteria for human separation. Attention to the Bible and the necessity to hear the stranger may be regarded as an influential factor.
We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Arizona Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Still, it is necessary to admit that not all people are ready to live in accordance with the rules identified in the Bible. So, on the other hand, people’s attitude to the role of the Bible and the ideas supported by a particular religion should not influence the political sphere of life. It is wrong to combine religious and political aspects to create one comprehensive law.
What Mahony offers is to consider the Catholic community as one of the main issues to human justice. The point is that the immigrant experience is familiar to the vast majority of people: we are immigrants in society, religion, education, etc. And a properly organized opinion about immigration reform should be “a matter of justice” as well as “a part of our identity, of what we are as a church” (Mahony 19).
Mahony uses rather convincing tone in the article. He does not want to provide people with any other choice but the one he supports. And his thoughts and devotion to religion are the main factors of his argument.
Response Though the question of illegal immigration did not touch me personally, I cannot neglect the impact of this reform on human lives. The articles chosen for the analysis in this paper help to comprehend how it is easy to create inappropriate judgments and follow them in life. I found the both articles rather interesting and educative for many people. Kobach and Mahony make a decision to consider the same issue from absolutely different perspectives.
If Kobach rely on his personal experience as the drafter of the Act and analyze thoroughly misunderstandings which take place around the issue taking into account different aspects of the, Mahony fails to consider various opinions but choose his religion as the only correct point. It is hard for people, who are far from some religious beliefs, to understand Mahony’s desire to unite politics and religion.
This is why I want to say that I have more common grounds with the author of the article “Defending Arizona”, Kris Kobach. First, this writer does not rely a lot on his personal understanding of the reform but uses the facts. Second, he analyzes what has been already said and explains why the conclusions made should be regarded as false.
And, finally, he does not want to convince the reader to accept one particular side but be able to evaluate all ideas discussed in the Act. Certain information in the article turns out to be new. For example, it is interesting to know that some leaders are ready to make conclusion without having clear grounds and reading the law itself. Such attitude to the case can explain why some people are not able to comprehend true essence of the reform offered.
This is why the preferred article by Kobach makes me think about many things and understand that each law and reform offered should not be judged superficially. I like the way Kobach introduces facts in his work. Though I cannot say that I dislike the way chosen by Mahony, still, I would like to admit that his approach is less understandable for me and does not correspond to my ideas to rely on clear facts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Arizona Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Kobach, Kris, W. “Defending Arizona.” National Review 62.10 (2010): 31-33.
Mahony, Roger. “Thank You, Arizona!” America 202.19 (2010): 17-19.
We Can Stop Poverty in Ghana Today Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Critique of policy options
Introduction Since the day of announcing Ghana as an independent country (1975), it has been trying to solve the problem of poverty. Many problems which exist in the country are either caused by the poverty or can influence it.
People don’t get appropriate health care, children don’t receive education, living standards and nutritional status are very low (Whitehead, 2006). The inability even crop farmers feed themselves is caused by the lack of technical support which cannot be purchased by rural citizens (Sackey, 2005). Both rural and urban citizens suffer greatly.
The issue cannot remain unsolved anymore, as people die. Previous programs were effective only for a short-term period. The main idea of the policy is to make it effective for a long period of time.
Critique of policy options The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS I) and the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) were the main policies aimed at solving the problem of poverty in the region up to 2009. The problem of making a new policy appeared, but it remained an unsolved issue up to June 14, 2011, when a new Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies for 2010-2016 was adopted (Parliament adopts report on poverty reduction strategy, 2011). Current policy options:
This program covers many problems and poverty is only one of those. One of the main disadvantages of the document is that the problem of poverty isn’t considered separately, but only as a part of other economic and social problems. However, it gives an opportunity to see the connection of the issues (Mills, 2011).
Lack of governmental support is the main disadvantage of the previous program. The program failed as it was directed at short period of time and didn’t presuppose the governmental support.
Policy recommendations This policy pays attention to the mistakes of the previous variants, that is why it may be considered as the most effective way for solving the problem of poverty. Having many options which may help solve the problem immediately, we would like to focus on modernization of the agricultural sector.
First of all, we recommend help those farmers who live in the unfavorable areas, like northern Ghana, which depends on rain-fed agriculture (Molini, Keyzer, Van den Boom, Zant,
Social Movement and it’s Influence Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The goal of a social movement is to influence the political sphere. A social movement is a movement that is formed with an aim of addressing social concerns of a group whereas a political sphere in this case shall be used to mean a field of politics. This paper shall discuss this statement in relevance to two Australian social movements namely: the Aboriginal Movement and The Labor Movement.
The Aboriginal Movement came into existence in early 1960’s with the core aim of addressing problems that were faced by the Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians were not allowed to reside and labor where they wanted, wed anyone, be responsible over their children, receive equivalent wages for equal labor, obtain education, participate in elections and to manage individual property (Brennan, 1997).
The Aboriginal Movement was aimed at obtaining political influence, interaction and connections amid the American experience and the Aboriginal (Butlin, 983).Before the formation of this movement, Aborigines’ was politically marginalized. They were denied the right to register and vote in national elections. However, in 1962 as a result of the movement’s mediation, aborigines’ were let to register and vote during the lections.
Up to 1967, Aboriginal Australians were officially barred from Australian nationality and were not enumerated in the Census (Brennan, 1997). The provision for voluntary electoral enrolment for Aborigines was abolished in 1978, therefore placing Aboriginal electorates on the same level with white voters. The Commonwealth Electoral Act was modified in 1983 so as to make electoral registration and voting essential for Aborigines.
The statistical and political segregation of indigenous Australians, together with the outcome of financial weakness and social displacement, made the Aboriginal assembly more influential in the parliamentary prejudiced system (Verity, 2005).
The liberal democracy had no array for indigenous Australians causing changes since Aborigines lacked the statistics to apply force on the electoral procedure, either straight through the election of contenders in place of the Aboriginal welfare or somehow through the load of Aboriginal view.
As a result of political influence, several Aborigines are currently elected as certified candidates for the main parties to the congress all through Australia. However, autonomous Aboriginal candidates have all unsuccessfully been voted, except at local management level in a few areas (Gooder
What freedom entails Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Aspect of freedom
Texas: People and Events Surrounding its Birth
Aspect of freedom North America of the seventeenth century provides a clear understanding of what freedom entails. Many episodes happened portraying the essence of freedom. Freedom is a synonym to liberty and independence and refers to the absence of unnecessary restrictions and/or an opportunity for an individual to exercise his/her powers and rights.
People need to have freedom to choose what they deem right or correct and without any restriction from authority or individual. Therefore, people are free when they can independently decide their religious affiliations, economic systems, political groups and their social groupings without any objections or restrictions whatsoever.
North America is therefore a good example, as the people were denied freedom, witnessed in form of slavery, religious persecutions, property ownership, and indentured servants among many others. Indentured servitude provides a model in the North American during the 17th century showing one degree of freedom: the social freedom.
In pursuit of such social freedom, the servants sold their labor voluntarily for a certain period of about four to seven years after which they were freed and given freedom dues inform of cash, clothing, land and tools. In practice however, this form of providing labor was violent in that a number of English women and men were kidnapped and forced into becoming servant, which saw many die before being freed (Pope 1480). This form of servant’s is believed to have ushered in slavery.
Slavery flourished in North American during seventeen century. “Among the indigenous people in northern America, slavery was seen as a ritual of passage or away or a method of assimilating outside individuals into groups as opposed to a property or ownership right” (Pope 1482).
Slaves provided a source of labor hence they were a stimulus to economic growth of the North American. African slaves were preferred as opposed to the Indians who were familiar with the environment and less resistant to diseases like malaria. In addition, African slaves could not escape easily like the Indians.
Religious freedom also played a major role in the history of North America especially in the 17th century (Wood 86). The Roman Catholic and the Church of England had their conditions, which violated the freedom of its people. This denial of freedom made many of the European to migrate to the North America in fear of persecutions from the churches. This led to the start of the protestant churches, which were opposed to the ideologies of the Roman Catholics and the church or England.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Puritans then came up as English Protestants who wished to nurture reformation and had the passion of purifying the Church of England, which they believed to be a product or a residue of the Roman Catholic. They therefore moved in North American from England in order to have liberty and freedom to worship God as they chose. These puritans suffered a lot of agony due to their stance. Some were imprisoned and even subjected to physical abuse.
Economic freedom is another important factor in the history of northern America especially in the 17th century. It entailed concepts of free markets, welfare, and idea of private property, justice in distribution of products and freedom of the individuals and freedom to engage in collective bargaining.
Free market in perspective of economic liberty or independence implied the freedom of the people or the country to engage in production, trade, consumption of goods and services, which were acquired without any form of threats, use, theft or fraud. This degree of freedom therefore came in through “…the establishment of laws like the rule of law, property rights and freedom of contract, openness of markets, property right and economic initiative freedom” (Wood 89).
During 17th century, economic freedom in northern America was limited, as the colonialists imposed restrictions on the conduction of trade. For instance, the manufactured products were not allowed or exported to countries within the Britain’s trade empires. Exportation of products like wool, woolen cloth and yarn from one state or colony to other was also limited. This affected negatively the economic level of the northern America and hence the cry for the freedom, which was later realized.
There also exist some similarities and differences between these forms of freedoms. For instance, in the indentured servant, the people captured served as labor forces for a certain period after which they were freed. However, when it came to slavery, the slaves were subjected to physical violence, as they were supposed to work under harsh environments and were not freed from their slavery. Religious freedom was also different from other countries like England.
In northern America, there existed freedom of worship, as people were free to worship their God. The Puritans therefore found home in these parts, which led to the inception of protestant churches. The differences that existed in these versions of freedom, economic and religious is that in the economic sphere, the most important thing was labor while in the religious freedom, people wanted that liberty to make decisions for themselves about the God to worship.
Constitution balance Like any other society, there exist interests among different sections of the society in the governance and resource ownership. It is therefore important for those given the mandate to frame the constitution to consider all the competing interests in order to come up with a document that will be acceptable to the majority of the people to be governed by the constitution.
We will write a custom Essay on What freedom entails specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In North America, the framers of the constitution had to put in mind all these competing interests for them to satisfy many of their citizens’ expectations. For instance, on the sectional interests, ownership of property was an important area especially the ownership of land.
The framers of the constitution treated private or individual property as one of the cornerstone of a free society. People would be contented when their right to own individual property is recognized in their constitution. This meant that people could work hard and acquire their own personal wealth in form of ownership of property. The framers of the constitution encountered problem in the debate of whether, the right to own property was to be validated (McDonald 46).
This led to debate whether the owners of slaves were to be compensated for their deprivation. This is an example of how the framers of the constitution encountered competing interests. Because of the fear of the breaking of civil wars, such a move of compensating the slave owners was abolished hence, serving to address the interest of inferior people.
Furthermore, the framers of the constitution also sought consent of views from various states like the Virginia, Pennsylvania that affirmed the all people had the natural, essential and inherent rights of possessing acquiring and protecting property. Therefore, they insisted that under whatsoever condition would a person be deprived of his liberty, life and be affirmed the right to gain or acquire property.
The assertions and affirmation originated from the magma Carta, which stipulated the respect of freedom or liberty of the state to respect and allow free acquisition of property. The framers of the constitution had to follow these suggestions in their coming up of the constitution. The framers also had to come up with the bill of rights, which clearly illustrated the right of every organ in the constitution that every citizen was to abide by.
The framers had to solicit views from an array of people who provided some views on the bills of rights. The bills were meant to provide guidelines on the law that was to govern the state in administering and enforcement of laws. Furthermore, the framer had to subject the constitution to the citizens for their approval (McDonald 76). The citizens were to vote for the constitution in order to approve it. This is a sign of democracy whereby the people empower themselves by either agreeing to the laws they would wish to govern them or not.
This is a fair method and an inclusive form of ensuring that every citizen is able to make a decision based on the laws to govern them. Therefore, in summary, the framers of the constitution had to consider all the interests of the society by seeking their approval to the laws. They also had to consult with all the institutions and interested groups in order to capture their interests and views. This therefore led to the coming up of a constitution that captures all the interest of the society.
Texas: People and Events Surrounding its Birth Texas is the second largest states of the United States in terms of the population size and the area of coverage. The birth of Texas dates back from the early 1400s. Before the arrival of the first European explorers between Rio Grande and the red river were occupied by the Indians of Texas.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What freedom entails by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the mid 1519, Alonso Alverez de Pineda a Spanish explorer sailed from Jamaica and was the first European to explore and map the coastline of Texas. In 1528, Cabeza de Vaca pitched camp on the Galveston Island, traded in the region for a period of six years, and later explored the interiors of Texas as he moved his way to Mexico. Searching for seven cities of Cibola during the years 1540-1542, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led an expedition to the South United States across North Texas (Andrews 656).
During February 1685, Fort St. Louis was established at Matagorda Bay by Robert cavalier, Sieur de LaSalle that was to form a basis of France’s claim to Texas but unfortunately after two years LaSalle was killed by his own people. In 1689, Alonso de Leon a Mexican explorer reached Fort St. Louis and found it had been abandoned.
This was during his expedition to reestablish Spanish authority in Texas. For the whole of 18th century, Spanish people began establishing catholic missions in Texas towns like San Antonio, Nacogdoches and Goliad. In 1812, Gutierrez Magee, with around 130 strong men, went to Sabine from Louisiana during a rebel movement that was against the presence of Spanish and their rule in Texas.
During the years 1817-1820, Jean occupied Island of Galveston, which he used as his smuggling and private operations base. However, in 1823, 3 January, Stephen Austin began colonizing the region of Brazos River after being granted a grant from the Mexican government. The constitution of 1824 had some limitation since it gave Mexico republican kind of government but did state the rights of every state within the republic, Texas being inclusive.
This led to indentation of relationships between Mexico and Texas when Mexico placed restrictions of emigrations to Texas by people coming from United States. This saw the battle of velesco result in this indented relationship. After fighting for few days, Mexicans who were under leadership of Domingo de Ugartechea surrendered because of lack of weapons and ammunitions.
Dissatisfaction with polices in the Mexico City government triggered the formation of the convention of 1832 and 1833 during the period 1832-1833. Revolution began in 1835 in the battle called battle of Gonzales in which Texas reused detachment of the Mexican Calvary, the Goliad campaign of 1835 ended with the storming of 4 Texas by Ben and George Collingsworth.
A consultation was held in which a document called organic law was signed in order to reach an autonomous rule in Texas. The document outlined all the functions of the new provisional government and organization (Andrews 645). A fight by the name Grass Fight was won by Texas under the leadership of Jim and Burleson, which saw Mexicans surrender to Texas because of the siege of Bexar. Ben succumbed to death because of the extended siege.
In 1836, Texas declaration of independence was signed by convention of 1836 members, which saw the formation of an interim government for the new republic of Texas. Attacks between Mexico and Texas continued with many people succumbing to death. For instance, in 1836 around 400 Texans were killed by Mexicans in the Goliad massacre under the leadership of Santa Anna until the American troops intervened.
In 1845, President James Polk promised to Annex Texas trough signing of legislations, which made Texas to become 28th states of US. Boundary disputes cropped out which saw south boundary of Rio Grande River fixed up, payment of debts in the compromise of 1850. This saw the reconstructions of Texas begin with Texas being readmitted to the union (Andrews 630).
In 1874, the Coke Davis’ dispute ended in peace in Austin, which saw Davis relinquish governor’s office, and a democratic part dynasty was kicked by Richard Coke, which lasted unbroken for over 100 years. These counts of events have contributed to the long history of rebirth of Texas. The states then set out policies and laws, which were to govern them. The discovery of black gold in 1901 led Texas into a century of exploration of oil, and business at large.
Works Cited Andrews, Gregg. Black Working-Class Political Activism and Biracial Unionism:
Galveston Longshoremen in Jim Crow Texas, 1919-1921. Journal of Southern History 74.3 (2008): 627-668.
McDonald, Forrest. We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
Pope, James. Contract, Race, and Freedom of Labor in the Constitutional Law of “Involuntary Servitude”. Yale Law Journal 119.7 (2010): 1474-1567.
Wood, Nicholas. A Sacrifice on the Alter of Slavery. Doughface Politics and Black Disenfranchisement in Pensilvania, 1837-1838. Journal of the Early Republic 31.1 (2011): 75-106.
The issues in business management Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
One of the issues in business management and growth arise from the application of characters in order to realize business goals. One of the issues that make character to be of importance than other issues is dependence. This is the aspect of having something with which someone relies one. While this is an inborn aspect, dependence contributes a lot in business management. One of the areas within which business contributes to development is in the decision-making process.
While many businesses have been known to operate under independent environments, the aspects of having dependence is known to influence many issues in business (Bowie
Corporate social responsibility Essay college admission essay help
Explain the concept of corporate social responsibility Defining the concept
The term CSR was first coined in 1953 following the publication of the article, ‘Social Responsibility of Businessmen’ by Bowen (1953). The article sought to establish the responsibility of businesspeople to the society.
This definition was later expanded by authors on the subject in the 1960s suggesting that organizations were responsible to the society in other ways, other than through legal obligations only (Carrol 2000). Academic discussions on the concept registered tremendous growth in the 1970s and 80s, but the first publications of a social report occurred in 1989. Shell was the first company to publish a CSR report (Marlin
Internet should be free from all government control Research Paper scholarship essay help
Introduction The debate on whether governments should censor internet usage has raised much criticism as it has drawn support. The role of government, as well as government agencies, has come under spotlight in the recent past over what has been seen as infringement of freedom of speech by censoring internet content (Reporters without Borders 4).
While governments have defended themselves as intending to protect the public goodwill, effort to control the use of internet have been found to be more detrimental than advantageous, therefore, the Internet should be free from all government control. It is however safe to argue that despite the much acclaimed advantages of unrestricted internet access, there may be genuine concerns that justify government censorship of internet use. This paper is an argument for internet that is free from all government control.
History of government censorship of internet and definition of terms Government censored internet access can be traced to the commissioning of CSIRO by the United States government in 2001to look into the effect of censoring the use of internet through filtering softwares (Mehlman para 2). This trend has been subsequently picked by governments all over the world. Governments contend that it is their responsibility to protect their netizens from the harmful effects of the open world of internet.
Currently, the most vocal governments that support and actually do censor internet content include Australia, China, Iran, Egypt, Tunisia, Iraq, Saudi Arabia among others (Reporters Without Borders 11 – 49; Alharbi 2010). The term netizens mean citizens who use internet. Internet is an information network that uses the web, while filtering software is a special kind of program that restricts access to certain websites in particular regions.
There are three basic ways through which internet can be censored. The most common one include technical filtering where website are blocked using a proxy. There is also the use of search result removals where undesirable content is removed from content by internet search companies.
Furthermore, governments do encourage self censorship where content publishers do limit the publication of information that may be against the public good (ONI ‘About Filtering’, paras 3 – 5). The diagram below depicts the Great Firewall of China showing the negative effects of government censorship of internet
Source: GFIC. Cyber Information Control – China Great FireWall
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of uncensored access to internet Argument I: Unrestricted internet access leads to personal and societal development.
Unrestricted internet access is seen as a leverage through which all people in the society have equal means to personal advancement. The internet is one of the key pillars for economic development.
A report by the group of eight most developed countries in the world, the G 8, indicates that information and communication technology is one of the most powerful forces that will play a decisive role the realization of the economic potential of many nations in the 21st century.
Furthermore, information and communication technology is billed as a key driver for global economic growth and as such there are infinite opportunities for economic growth (Kenny 99).For countries that are interested at expanding economic, as well as social growth, the internet is seen as one of the major avenues that will facilitate this expansion.
Where the internet is well developed, it constitutes a significant part of the national infrastructure. Furthermore, it is easier to develop the internet as a form of infrastructure. This will facilitate easier access to socio-economic opportunities by people in areas that would have otherwise been unreachable.
This is evident in comparison studies done between African and South America. South America has double the number of people who have access to internet than Africa and as such the rate of economic development is more than double in South America as compared to Africa’s (Madon 2).
In addition, the internet, because of its infinite potential, has endless economic opportunities that it provides for people (Kenny 101). However, under ordinary circumstances, it is expected that some people do benefit more than others in exploiting the economic opportunities for themselves.
According to Rawl’s social constructivism, concentration of wealth and economic advantages on one segment of the society has detrimental effects to the society at large. As such, a just and moral society must have a fair distribution and access of economic means. Furthermore, no one should have too much wealth at the expense of others. Everyone thus deserves a chance to justified means of social economic, as well as personal development (Quinn 89).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Internet should be free from all government control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Societies must strive to provide equal opportunities, as well as advantages, to all for social, economic and personal development. While there may be economic inequalities, those inequalities must be justified by providing the most benefits to the least disadvantaged. Therefore, free and uncensored internet is a way of providing the most economic benefits to the disadvantaged in the societies.
Argument II: Internet for a free and open society.
The internet is one of the major components of a country’s infrastructural development and thus it opens up societies to the wider world. It is also one of the platforms through which people are guaranteed free speech. Therefore, the internet is one of the most powerful manifestations of free and open societies.
It is one of the tools for strengthening democracy because it is an avenue for free speech. Email, blogs and social network sites such as Facebook and twitter among others provides an opportunity for free speech and thus lead to the flourishment of democratic governance (Reporters without Borders 4).
In Saudi Arabia, a country that aims to maintain a very strong religious identity, the government maintains a very strict control over the use of internet. This government censorship has increased public anger and activists are now protesting and demanding for free internet access. The figure below shows a censored website in Saudi Arabic.
Source: Alharbi: Internet Censorship in Saudi Arabia.
While Saudis have turned to blogging as a tool for free speech, the Saudi government maintain a keen eye on internet content especially one that is deemed critical to the government. Due to the strict control of public inter-gender socialization; many women are now turning to the internet as an avenue to socialize (ONI ‘Saudi Arabia’, 1, 2). The table below shows that internet access by Saudi Arabians is still very low due to government censorship.
One of the principles of the Social Contract Theory is that all people are equal and have a right to equal access to means that would ensure social and economic advancement. Every person in any society regardless of social standing and background has guaranteed inalienable rights and basic liberties such as freedom of expression, association, conscience, right to own property, right to life, and education among others.
People have the right to enjoy those basic rights and liberties provided the enjoyment is not to the disadvantage of others in the society (Quinn 88). Since the Saudis only want freedom to freely associate with others without causing harm to both fellow Saudis and the government, then government censorship of internet access is not justifiable at all. The diagram below shows the level of internet access in Saudi Arabia.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet should be free from all government control by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: ONI: Internet filtering in Saudi Arabia
Argument III: Internet censorship is against the rule of law.
The passing of the bill by the United States Senate Judiciary Committee in 2010 that proclaimed to be combating online infringement and counterfeiting in online content is against the rule of the law. Even though the bill has gained much support from major stakeholders in such as Hollywood, the bill aims to blacklist certain website for restriction. This will be attained by blacklisting certain website domain names.
Since it will be impossible to issue court injunctions to website owners, most of who are located outside United States, website registrars within the States will be issued with a court injunction to limit such access. The main problem with this move is that website domain name registrars will be required to keep large catalogues of blacklisted websites, and as such wrongly connect them to counterfeiting activities.
This is unfair and against the rule of the law as website registrars have nothing to do with infringing activities of these websites and the court injunctions will be issued on mere accusations of infringement. Furthermore, they will neither be notified nor have an opportunity to contest with the injunction. This bill is thus unconstitutional and against the First Amendment of the American constitution (Lee paras 1 to 4).
This move violates Neo Kantian constructivism which stipulates that an action can only be termed as moral if is it is justifiable beyond any reasonable doubt by those acting. Neo Kantian theorists also argue that an action must be for the goodwill of all and should also result to justice for all (Earman 138 to 144). Quinn adds that an action is only justifiable if only it is for the purpose of the achievement of goodwill (71).
Goodwill is defined as the intension of an action that is in line with duty (what ought to be done rather than what people want to do). The Bill is thus unjust because it violates Kantian ethics as it unjustly accuses website registrars of infringements. The government wants to censor internet but in doing so violates the constitutional rights of Americans. One of the government’s cardinal duties should be to protect the rule of the law. As such, the government should not censor the internet.
Counter argument: Demerits of uncensored internet access Despite the fact that the internet is a way of opening up the world to new endless opportunities for social economic, personal and cultural developments, this should not obscure the fact that it also has detrimental effects. Consequently, some cases have warranted censorship by some governments in order to promote public common good and reduce chances of moral and social retrogression.
Counter argument I: Unrestricted internet access might lead to personal,as well as societal retrogressiveness.
Internet usage needs to be regulated as it might lead to societal retrogressiveness. The government needs to censor the internet against transmittal of obscene content and thus limit the spread of such vices that lead to moral retrogressiveness, such as child pornography. Research demonstrates that countries that have stringent laws prohibiting the internet pornography do have very low rates of rape and murder.
Therefore, some countries such the United Kingdom passed the Obscene Publication Act that made it an offence for someone to use the internet to transit any material that is considered depraving or corrupting the morality of people (Bott 2). In the United States of America, research by University of New Hampshire shows that States such as Nebraska, which have as much as five times access to internet pornography have eight times the number of rape cases than those States with limited access to pornography (KACST para 6).
According to the Divine Moral Theory, there are a number of major religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hindu, Judaism and African traditional religions. Each of these religions has an established set rules and beliefs which form the basis of the establishment of morality for those who ascribe to that religion.
Despite the fact that there may be variance in belief between these religions, they all believe in the existence of one supreme creator who made the law, which adherents of that particular religion consider sacred and supreme. Islam stipulates that Allah prefers that people should not have access to any thing that might turn their attention away from Him (KACST para 7).
Since pornography is against the wish of Allah, then most of the Muslim countries censor the internet against pornography. It therefore becomes necessary for the government to control the use of the internet, in accordance with Divine morality ethics, for purposes that are outrightly morally harmful to the people.
Counter argument II: Unrestricted Internet usage may cause harm to others
Despite the fact that uncensored internet is for the advantage of free and open societies, freedom to use internet should not lead to any form of harm to others. Some governments claim that unrestricted internet is detrimental to the society as there are people who have been known to publish or transmit information through the internet for malicious purposes.
This includes publishing private information about other people without their consent. It is also notable that people may tend to use the internet to publish or transmit private information for their own selfish gains.
Most states in USA, such as California, New York, Florida, Indiana, Texas and many others, have implemented laws to prohibit any one to publish or use another person’s name or private information, no matter how factual it is for exploitative purposes. Citizens of these States thus have the right to stop any individual or organization from using their names, or private facts.
Such limitations include using the name or fact about a person without their permission for economic or any other gain that is not for public good. Furthermore, it is illegal to use the internet to publish or transmit information that may lead to the malicious damage of person’s reputation, no matter how factual that information is. It is sufficient to say that publishing information that is considered malicious is only allowed if it is not done maliciously and whose effect is for public good.
This law was implemented by the United States government, as well as other governments, to avoid cases where by people use the internet to cause harm, disrepute or injure a person and thus protect such people against public embarrassment (Citizen Media Law para 1 – 4).
This law follows the Principle of Utilitarianism based on the act of utility, which stipulates that an action is right if it promotes the greatest happiness to all, and wrong if it reduces the happiness to all. The measure of overall happiness and unhappiness is the net effect. If the net effect of happiness outweighs the net effect of unhappiness than the act that lead to such happiness is ethical. Furthermore, act utilitarianism argues that an action is wrong if it causes harm to someone (Quinn 72).
Publishing information on the internet maliciously has a bigger net effect of unhappiness and as such the act causes personal harm and thus unethical. This justifies why the government needs to censor internet use to reduce chances of causing great unhappiness and harm to others. Such law has been to the advantage of the influential, public figures and celebrities.
Counter argument III: Internet censorship to protect the rule of law.
The government needs to censor internet usage so as to protect the rule of law. Suicide in whatever form is illegal and thus the internet should not be used for transmission of information that may lead to loss of life. The government of Australia sees it as its own responsibility to protect its citizen’s from such detriments and consequently has passed very strict laws that control the use of internet within the country’s borders. This law is contained in the Broadcasting Services Amendment Act 1999.
Under this act the government of Australia has criminalized the use of the telephone, the fax, as well as the internet, to pass any information that may cause people to take away their lives. Any information intended to be published or transmitted through these media is vetted by a government controlled body. Contained in this law is the Suicide Related Materials Offences Act which bars the transmission of any information that promotes the act of suicide amongst Australians (Commonwealth of Australia 1).
According to the Devine Moral Theory, there is a supreme being who is the creator and controller of life. As such, morality is defined by the Supreme Being. An action is only morally right if it pleases the Supreme Being. According to the Devine Moral Theory, life is sacred and no person has the right to take it away.
Therefore, it is unethical to use internet to promote or help a person end his or her life or provide others, through the internet, with information that will be used for the purposes of termination of life. This theory is intended to promote the dignity of life and argues that no one has the right to end life other than the Devine creator (Quinn 66 – 68).
Rebuttal: Unrestricted internet access is still beneficial than restricted access
Despite the genuine causes for internet censorship, Internet access and usage should be free of all government interference. According to the G8, internet is one of the most effective tools earmarked as drivers of economic growth and development in developing countries, as well as economic prosperity for developed countries.
This is because internet provides infinite opportunities for social-economic development of the majority in communities. These eventually lead to improved standards of living and personal development. As such, uncensored internet promotes general well being, common good and advancement for all.
Conclusion Internet should be free from all government control. This is because free internet has a number of advantages in comparison to censored internet access and usage. Internet is a fast and reliable means of efficient transfer of information and therefore opens up people to a world of free information.
Therefore, not only does it lead to economic growth but it is also a means of better governance. Through the internet, democracies flourish, so does free speech. Despite the fact that the internet has been used negatively to cause harm to people, as well as deny them individual rights, its benefits have ensured that the common good and happiness for the majority is achieved.
Works Cited Alharbi, Khalid. Internet Censorship in Saudi Arabia. 2010. Web.
Bott, Frank. Pornography, the internet and the law. Department of Computer Science, University of Wales. 2006. July 20, 2011 http://users.aber.ac.uk/mfb/Talk for BCS Leicester.pdf
Citizen Media Law. Publishing personal and private information: understanding your legal risks. 2008. July 20, 2011 http://www.dmlp.org/blog/2008/publishing-personal-and-private-information-understanding-your-legal-risks
Commonwealth of Australia. Criminal Code Amendment (Suicide Related Material Offences) Act 2005. Com law. 2011. July 20, 2011 https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2005A00092/Html/Text#para2.39
Earman, John, inference, explanation, and other frustrations: Essays in the philosophy of science. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1992. July 29, 2011 https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft4f59n977
The role of management in business Deductive Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Management is an important part of business for both commercial and non commercial organizations. Management can be described as an act that brings together all resources belonging to an organization including people with the aim of achieving and utilizing them optimally to achieve overall corporate goals (Watson 2006, 34-40).
Organizations are governed by missions, vision and values which stakeholders are part of and it thus becomes the duties of organizational managers to plan, organize lead and control various activities and individuals who possess certain talents within the organization in order to ensure that the organization succeeds in its objectives (Camillus 1986, 54-56). Effective management theories can be the basis of a success in a business.
Management in any kind of organization can learn from the tried and applied management ways. Top leaders are often enthusiastic to adopt the most recent theories in their organization. For instance if the latest change management concept is espoused with a big fanfare, the staff are trained properly, only for the benefits to be accrued insignificant after some time. And when the programs stutter to a stop the management turns its interest to another management craze.
Today’s volatile business environment has even made the role of managers within organizations become more imperative and complex hence making the technical and rational depiction of managing differ largely with realities of being a manager. Thus, the level of ambiguity in the commercial environment may require managers to defy logical and textbook descriptions of management descriptions in order to maximize their performance.
Organizations are often divided into different functional areas which are similar to sub systems that exist within the entire organization. It is thus the duty of managers to plan, organize, lead and control the various functional areas with the aim of ensuring that the entire organization moves towards the same organization (Roberts 1984, 287-302).
Main Body Managers are individuals who must possess certain set of skills that will enable them carry out their intended responsibilities, this is why in some cases managers must be individuals who have the necessary technical skills, communication skills, logical reasoning skills and analytical skills that will often assist them to plan, organize, lead and control the organization in the right direction.
But it is in times of crises that reality strikes and it demands quick decisions be made managers thus they may not follow conventional theories of management but may rely on their own wits or internal mechanisms to make decisions. It’s therefore important to have technical and rational knowledge of being a manager but when it comes to real life situations managers are often required to go an extra mile to successfully carry out their roles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Looking at companies like HP, IBM, BMW, Samsung, General Electric, Toyota, Apple, Google and other leading multinational organizations, it becomes clear that the managerial skills within their managerial pool in their organizations have made these organizations very successful despite some of them being very big conglomerates and spreading their operations across many nations ,this is simply because they have trained managers to adapt to varying situations and not only rely on what they learnt on the book. (Johnson
The significance of the Prison Films Essay college admission essay help
Introduction Film noir is a categorical description of Hollywood crime movies especially the ones whose main plot is driven by cynical attitudes and sexual intentions (Conrad 2006 3-4). Most of the films in this category are the ones that emerged from the Hollywood mills in the period between 1940 and 1950.
These movies were mainly done in black and white and their cinematography was mainly inspired by Expressionist cinematography originating from Germany. The storylines of the films that fall into the film noir category of the period were mainly inspired by the criminal outcrops that arose in the United States in the period after the Depression.
Even though the concentration of Film noir was in 1940s-50s, many other films in decades to follow had characteristics of Film noir. However, these films being not typical noirs were branded Film neo noir meaning that they had both cinematic and thematic elements of Film neo noir but were essentially hybrids of various styles (Conrad 2007 1-10).
This essay seeks to shed light on the distinguishing features and characteristics of film noir. To this extent the works of two popular directors (Park Chan-wook and Quentin Tarantino) shall be assessed with the aim of identifying the noir elements in them.
Later, a comparison of the styles of both directors shall be presented with an aim of establishing the elements that they do in a similar way as well as establishing the fundamental differences in their work. To this end a various literature, spanning print to electronic shall be consulted to provide background material for the essay.
Existential characteristics of film noir There are various elements that are used to distinguish film noirs. These components cover both visual and stylistic aspects as well as the narrative element. For instance, it has been generally agreed that the typical film noir has to have a tragic ending (Donovan 38). Below is a detailed explanation of the film noir distinguishing factors:
Most of the distinguished film-noirs carry low-key lighting schemes where there are clear contrasting between dark and bright elements. This style has been defined as chiaroscuro. In some scenes of noted noirs, the faces of characters were partially (or sometimes fully) covered in darkness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These effects were in some instances achieved through obscuring the artificial lights used in sets with things such as banister rods. Another visual element that must be present for a film to be classified as a noir is the omission of color. However, this is not a categorical element as some color films have been routinely classified as noir by various film scholars.
As far as shots and camera work is concerned, noirs are notably known for using low, wide and skewed angles. Some shots are taken through translucent glass or other items that could result in distortion. In the primary film noir era, night shots were taken at night which was a stark contrast to night shots being shot during the day in modern filmography.
Narration and structure
The plots of film noirs are generally not straight-forward. Most of them involve frequent flashbacks as well as various other editing styles that end of distorting and to some extent shadow the sequence of the narrative. In some films, the fundamental narration is presented as an independent flashback.
When voice-overs are used to complement the visual narrative they to some extent end up appearing as noir hallmarks. Experimentations have been done with some noirs being narrated from the point of view of the protagonist, and some being presented without ever clearly revealing some characters.
Storylines and characterization
A majority of film noirs are characterized by plots that revolve around crime and mostly the element of murder. Other society-shunned vices such as greed and jealousy are regarded as the basic motivation for the criminal activity informing the story.
Once the criminal has been identified, the story shifts to introduce an investigator, whose main purpose is unveil the crime and ensure that justice is installed. Unlike in other film categories, noirs generally the characters of heroes are to some extent questionable and these characters end up appearing alienate. A number of other characters appear archetypal such as corrupt policemen and writers going through mental block. In most film noirs cigarette smoking is commonplace.
The setting of most Film noirs is urban and certain towns such as Los Angeles, New York and Chicago among others form the popular location. Bars, animal-fighting dens, boxing arenas and gambling hideouts shape most of the scenes for the films in this category. Some movies in the film noir classification happen in complex settings such as railway stations, factories and warehouses. On average, in most film noirs, there has to be a scene where rain falls, and this scene happens at night.
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The tone of most noirs is ‘downbeat’ and hopeless, and lacks the excitement that is typical of films in other genres. Film noir is generally described as primarily pessimistic with most of them presenting the stories of individuals who find themselves in unbearable situations. Most of them find themselves in such situations that are propelled without them playing an exacerbating role. To some extent, these individuals will more often than not be fighting against fate. These films present the world as fundamentally immoral.
Existential characteristics of film noir in the movie Old boy
The movie Old boy , directed by Park Chan-wook is a cinematic translation of the Japanese comic going by the same title and written by Nobuaki Minegishi and Garon Tsuchiya (Lee 203). This film is sequel in The Vengeance trilogy and it presents the story of an individual named Oh Dae-Su, who spends around fifteen years of his life locked up in a hotel room.
From the outset, it is easy to identify the noir element of this film in the plot of the story. First, Dae-Su does not know what he did for his captors to torture him for that long (Ridely 38). Secondly, when he is finally let free, he still finds himself entangled in a web of crime and violence. The darkness is further propagated by the fact that he is so much engulfed in his quest for revenge (Tomkins 73).
However, he still maintains a loveable trait when he falls in love with a beautiful Sushi chef. The sexual motivation that is characteristic of noirs is presented in the fact that Dae-Su ends up discovering that the Sushi chef, Mi-Do, with whom he has had sex is actually his daughter, and that his captors had actually plotted from the beginning to get him to commit incest (Philips 97-98).
Dae-Su again involves himself in irrational actions when he slices off his tongue as a presentation of the extent he is willing to go to get the silence of Woo-Jin, who was one of his captors. Woo-Jin tragically takes away his life, essentially contributing to the darkness of the film (Spencer 18-20). Towards the end of the story, Dae-Su gets hypnotized and the film winds up on a rather unconventional note with him in a relationship with Mi-Do.
Various flashbacks have been used in the film especially when Dae-Su recalls the growing up of his daughter to culminate with the revelation that the daughter he has in mind is actually Mi-Do. These are the types of flashbacks that were typical of the 1940s-50s films and have ended up giving up this film a noir characteristic (Lee 203-219).
As far as the setting is concerned, various locations have been chosen and combined with strategic lighting to give the film a characteristic noir look (Lee 203-219). For instance, the fight in the corridor is well played out to partially obscure the participants from time to time. Another scene that that has been consciously presented with noir elements in mind is the final scene whereby the shots on snowy landscapes end up distorting the viewers regard of the passage of time.
Critical reception of Old boy
Old boy generated a lot of warmed-up opinions, particularly by film critics. This is particularly in regards to the ending which left most viewers uncertain of the safety of Dae-Su’s secret. Robert Egbert, a reviewer with the Chicago Sun-times found the film superior and described the violence in it as purposeful. Salon.com, through its writer Stephanie Zacharek also finds the film interesting and praises the noir element that according to her words makes the film ‘beautiful, anguished and desperately-alive”.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The significance of the Prison Films by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, there are a number of reviewers who found the film either too shallow or too confusing. Among these individuals are Manohla Dargis and J.R. Jones of the New York Times and the Chicago Reader respectively. Dargis says that the film leaves the viewer with very little to think about while Jones claims that too much critical information has been left out. He actually describes the film as over-glorified.
The other two films in the vengeance trilogy have had a lukewarm reception with the first installment, Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance receiving more acclaim for its cinematography, which is mildly noir and regarded by Elaine Perrone of efilmcritic.com says that the film is more visually striking than its successor.
The last installment of the trilogy, Sympathy for Lady Vengeance has characteristic noir elements particularly in its narrative and plot. It received numerous positive reviews for its music, which was seen to complement the narrative hence increasing the weight of the story.
Existential characteristics of film noir in the movie Pulp fiction
The movie Pulp Fiction was made in 1994 and was directed by Quentin Tarantino. Like Park Chan-wook’s Oldboy this film is a neo-noir as it has characteristic noir elements from the outset.
The story has a rich and satirical combination of humor and violence which play a big role in making it both easy to watch and also more effective as far as driving the message home is concerned (Tarantion 1-360). The storyline in its direction has inherent noir elements. This is because it employs various intersecting storylines of individuals in the dark world of crime.
It is not immediately easy for viewers to tell the direction of the story because the presentation follows a scatter-sequence format. Tarantino, in his characteristic style, avoids chronological sequencing it takes some time for a first-time viewer to catch on with the ‘fluctuating-pace’ story. The humor presents in the dialogues of characters and most reviewers have regarded the film as dark-comedy and definite example of a post-modern film.
The entire structure of the story is flipped such that the end comes at the beginning, making the film appear like one whole flashback. It is actually the sequence at the end of the movie that informs the viewer that the credit-roll after the very first scene was actually strategically and accurately placed. This is an editing style that was typical of a number of noirs and Tarantino employs it appropriately with the result of making his film neo-noir.
The choice of location also makes the film classically noir. The scenes at a small diner, boxing arena’s and dark criminal dens are elements of setting that distinguish a noir and have been appropriately used in this film to give the slow and classical pace of the 1940s-50s films.
The kind of film stock that was chosen was also intentionally-picked with the aim of giving the film the pace of a noir while at the same maintaining the clarity of a modern film. These two elements combined to give the film the visual appearance of a neo-noir.
Critical reception of Pulp-fiction
Pulp fiction received very favourable reviews from some of the most respecteds film critics in the world. Robert Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times described it as very well written and consciously designed to be a hit. Richard Corliss of Time magazine also gave the film a thumbs up declaring that it had towered over other films to ever emanate from Hollywood.
He went on to say that it is such films that will encourage the come-back of the theatre culture. Other critics who found the movie appealing included Owen Gleiberman and Peter Travers of the Entertainment weekly and Rolling Stone who both said that the film made individuals rediscover how enjoyable film watching can get.
However, even with these positive reviews, there were a number of critics who found the film wanting to some extent especially with the noir effect that Tarantino wanted to present. The lighting of the film was distinctively and this is one of the elements that make the film not qualify as a typical noir.
Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times concluded that there is no way this film could be defined as noir or a parody of noir as it was very clean and failed to give room for operatic death and other characteristics of traditional noir. Stanley Kauffman of The New Republican found the movie extravagant on the effects and very little on content.
Park Chan-wook vs. Quentin Tarantino
The direction of both Chan-wook and Tarantino from the films Oldboy and Pulp fiction appears to be drawn towards resolution of conflict at a very slow pace.
Both films capitalize on extreme violence to capture the attention of the viewer as well as distract him/her from directly getting the gist of the story. Even though both films were done in the 21st century, the two directors ensure that they bring out noir characteristics which are essentially the features that make the movies very compelling to follow.
Comparison and contrast of character development by Chan-wook and Tarantino
Chan-wook develops his characters by introducing characters gradually and with the pace of the story. He dedicates a lot of time following one character which makes it easy for the audience to understand and appreciate the persona of the character. Existential characters are also brought in gradually and the reader is given ample time to appreciate their inherent nature.
Tarantino on the other hand develops his characters at a much faster pace than Chan-wook . He introduces his characters in a sequence of cross-linking scenes early in the film essentially making the viewer aware of the presence of a number of protagonists and antagonists as well as side-characters. Oh Dae-Su in the film Oldboy presents as a victim from the outset especially because he is not aware of why he is in the situation that he is in.
This ends up leaving the viewer more sympathetic to him and even leads one to be tempted to support him in his cause. Jules Winnfield from Pulp fiction on the other hand is a toughened character who knows the direction he is headed right from the time he is introduced. It is therefore easy to predict that the film will end with him on top of the case. This is unlike in Dae-Su’s case where the viewer cannot immediately tell whether or not he will succeed in his mission.
Differences between Korean and American film values
Korean films are more reserved and tend to steer away from over glorifying crime. This is well ensured by making criminals shoulder their own burdens and making victims triumph to some extent (Cage 123-143). American films on the other hand are never shy of controversy and may actually make the antagonist dominate the show.
Nudity and violence are provided in American films as long as they can be used to capture the attention of the viewer. This is in contrast with Korean films where the two elements (nudity and violence) are only portrayed whenever the situation calls for it. The Korean style of narration is also very straight forward as has been detailed in the film Oldboy.
This makes it easier for any individual to follow the story. American movie makers on the other hand have a pre-conceived notion of who the film is targeted at and this makes the complexity of their presentation target a particular section of society. This segregation element has been presented in Tarantino’s Pulp fiction which to some extent requires some degree of film style understanding to watch comfortably.
Conclusion Each film is an independent work of art and it will tend to have unique structure particularly in terms of the narrative and structural elements and this will primarily depend on the choices made by the creator. This essay has analyzed the narrative structure of the film Pulp fiction directed by Quentin Tarantino and Oldboy directed by Park Chan-wook.
Focus has been on the assessment of the general narrative, visual techniques and elements of characters and characterization that are applicable, particularly in the regard of the films being easily characterized as Film noir. Various forms of literature have been used to provide the background for assessment of the films and this has come in handy to help in further explaining the element of film noir.
Works Cited Cage, Rober L. “The Good, the Bad and the South Korean Violence, Morality and South
Korean Extreme Fim.” Choi, Jinhee Wada-Marciano, Mitsuyo. Horror to the extreme: Changing boundaries in Asian Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. 123-143. Print
Conrad, Mark T. The philosophy of Film Noir. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006. Print
Conrad, Mark T. The philosophy of Film Neo-noir. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007. Print.
Donovan, Barna William. Blood, guns and testosterone: action films, audiences and a thirst for violence. Lanham: Scarecrow press, 2010. Print.
Lee, Nikki. “Salute to Mr. Vengeance!”: The making of transnational auteur Park Chan-wook.” Hunt, Leon Wing-Fai, Leung. East Asian cinemas: exploring transnational connections on film. London: I.B Tauris, 2008. 203-219. Print
Philips, Kendall R. Controversial cinema: the films that outraged America. Westport: Praeger, 2008.Print
Ridely, Jim. “Film: (Very) Oldboy.” The village voice (2009):38.Print
Spenser, Liese. “Revengers tragedy.” Sight and sound (2004): 18-20.Print
Tarantino, Quentin. Pulp Fiction: A Screenplay . New York: Hyperion/Miramax, 1994. Print
Tomkins, Joseph. “The political unconscious of Park Chan-wook: The Lofic of revenge and the structures of Global capitalism.” Essays in film and the humanities (2008):69-8.Print
Effective Communication Process Aspects Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Characteristics of the audience
Appropriate communication channel
Important considerations due to audience diversity
Ensuring effectiveness of the message
Introduction Effective communication is a desire of anyone involved in the process. As a result considerations have to be made with respect to type of meeting, characteristics of the target audience, appropriate communication channels and considering the diversity of the audience. Each of these considerations shall be examined singly.
Characteristics of the audience The presentation is in-person and its information quarterly sales. The target audience a group, which constitutes stakeholders: managers, sales people and customers. For such like mix of the audience, the characteristics to be considered are physical abilities of the audience, the age profile gender, race and ethnic backgrounds of the audience.
These characteristics determine the how the presentation is going to be executed. For instance, some section of the audience may require a special attention in order to communicate due to their physical ability aspect, thus determining and influencing the choice of communication channel.
On the other hand, gender is a characteristic that must be carefully considered during an in-person meeting. Aspects of language such as sexist language should be avoided in a meeting constituting of diverse audience. In addition, race and ethnic backgrounds of the audience is also a consideration that must be put in mind.
This diversity has a lot to do with the cultural aspect of the audience. Since the customers are part of the audience, probably constituting the majority, we would expect to have a good feedback at a later stage. If your communication touches the positive attributes of the ethnicity and racial aspects without any edge of discrimination, then the sales information will reach the diverse audience, leading to good feedbacks.
Appropriate communication channel Channel selection for communication must be given the same caution and weight as the message to be communicated. In this incidence, the sales information is to be presented in-person to a group of people. Since this is an in-person communication, the most appropriate channel an orally presented speech, which will integrate other media to pass the message. Oral communication has persuasive capability to an audience. Media such as power point presentation.
It also has the power using gestures to convince the stakeholders of the company about the performance in the sales for the quarter just ended. Besides, brochures and printouts can be distributed to the audience to enable them to have an updated follow up of the presentation ever time the speaker puts across a point. Another importance of using oral communication in this presentation is that the presenter is given an opportunity to assess attentiveness, which is an indicator of appropriateness of the communication process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the presenter realizes that the message is not getting to the recipient as intended, he has an opportunity to rectify and use an appropriate means (Trehanu,
Leila Khaled: Freedom Fighter or Terrorist? Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Leila Khaled a freedom fighter
Introduction It is usually easy to regard any forceful and violent behaviour as an act of terrorism rather than a cause of justice, this is normally true when extreme actions are used to voice plights of a community. A case of a Palestinian woman named Leila Khaled is analysed.
This essay elaborates her intentions with the support of academic sources and her movie in order to demonstrate her cause of action as a freedom fighter for her country and not a terrorist as perceived. Khaled extreme actions were inspired by suffering Palestinians in their tents. This essay therefore analyses Khaled cause as a freedom fighter and not a terrorist.
Leila Khaled a freedom fighter Leila Khaled has strong basis to support her claims as a freedom fighter rather than a terrorist despite her extreme actions. In 1969, Khaled and another male companion decided to hijack a TWA plane from Los Angeles in route via Tel Aviv.
Their intention was not to harm the passengers but rather voice their grievances. According to Eager (2008, p.186) Khaled clearly states that her intentions of hijacking planes was driven by her urge to attract international attention which had not been addressed as thousands of Palestinians languished in tents.
From her intentions, it would be wrong to dismiss her actions as a mere act of terrorist. It should however be considered cause to liberate Palestinians. If indeed her intent was to inflict pain on innocent people, she could have blown up the plane with the passengers onboard as terrorists did in the U.S. during the September 11 incident.
As Khaled sat while hijacking the TWA plane she saw young children sited in the palms of their parents. She was concerned about the consequences that her actions could cause in case the plan backfired and the plane exploded as a result of the explosives that her male companion had. While she was still meditating on her thought, she recalled what thousands of other Palestinians children underwent while in camps. She was then convinced to let the world acknowledge their grievances through any means that she could master.
In the end, Khaled succeeded by landing the plane and allowing the passengers to leave before blowing up the plane. This incident attracted the attention of the international community and thus making her a strong female figure among the Palestinians and other women worldwide. She consequently became a sex icon not only for her cause but for other revolutionaries that were making their concerns known worldwide.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her video, she struggles to put forward the message of her revolutionary intentions rather than terrorism by clearly distancing herself from terrorism. As noted by Buxton and Provenzo (2010, p. 66) Leila Khaled was the first female activist who used extreme tactics to get the world’s attention on the plight of the Palestinians. Despite her actions and other several attempts to hijack planes that eventually led to her arrest and later released as a result of hostage exchange, Khaled altered the world’s image women.
Although her actions tainted her image and Palestinians image during that period, her actions had indeed spoken to the world about the plight of Palestinians during their conflict with the Jews in early 1960’s. Based on these fundamental facts, the actions of Khaled have not in any way created a bad image to the Palestinians but rather ensured that their cries were heard by the international community (Martin, 2009, p. 70).
As stated by Eager (2008, p.186) Khaled also explains her intentions in her book titled My People Shall Live. This book seeks to clear the air on her intentions in the cause of her revolution. On the contrary Martin, (2009, p. 70) believes that Leila Khaled is a violent extremist as a result of her actions; she is considered a political activist with extreme and terrorist behaviors.
More so, she seems to have created a foundation for other freedom figher who have committed terrorist acts by blowing themselves in order to die with passengers. Khaled has however genuinely distanced herself from such individuals and such actions. It can thus be genuinely considered that her cause was the motivation behind her extreme actions and not terrorism intentions.
Conclusion As evident from the above analysis, it is clear that Khaled is not a terrorist but rather a freedom fighter despite using extreme tactics to get the attention of the international community. Her actions were a result of the international community failing to hear Palestinians cries from their tents.
More so, the Palestinians image has not been damaged as a result of Khaled actions, her actions achieved her goal of getting the world’s attention to the plights of many Palestinians. Without her extreme actions, the world could not have recognised the sufferings of Palestinians.
References Buxton, C. A.,
The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Growth and Development of the Broiler
Issues Affecting Broilers
Introduction Chicken production in industrialized countries has undergone huge changes in the course of the last century. In the past, chickens were fed on farm diets and kept to produce eggs and meat. This has changed with the establishment of specialized industrial production systems that are characterized by factory farms. Nierenberg and Garces (2005, p.11) define industrial farming as “a system of raising animals, using intensive ‘production line’ methods that maximize the amount of meat produced, while minimizing costs”.
Chicken factory farms have thrived significantly in the past 2 decades and they supply the largest share of chicken meat demands in the country. This paper will set out to offer a detailed description of the process of raising factory farm chickens. The paper will focus on the environmental conditions that chickens thrive under as well as their food.
Growth and Development of the Broiler The lives of the chickens that are raised in the factory farm begin at the hatching machines. Here, thousands of fertilized eggs are placed into incubators which play the role of brooding hens. In the incubator, the temperature and humidify levels are carefully controlled and monitored so as to ensure successful hatching (MacDonald, 2008).
In 21 days, the breeding cycle is complete and the chicks are hatched successfully. When the chicks are hatched, they are delivered to the broiler shed where they will be raised for meat. In order to increase their chances of success, it is necessary to transport the chicks to the farm quickly and begin feeding them in the proper environment. Before being transported to the farm factory, the young chicks which will become broilers are administered with vaccinations to help them overcome diseases that are common to chickens.
Monitoring the climate conditions is of most importance for chicks since they lack the ability to regulate their body temperature for a period of up to two weeks. Preheating the house is therefore crucial for the survival of the chicks. The air temperature should be 86F while the litter temperature should be 82⁰-86⁰F (Aviagen, 2009).
The relative humidity (RH) of the houses should be relatively high when the chicks arrive from the hatchery. This is because RH at the hatchery is high at the end of the incubation process (approximately 80%) and if the chicks are taken to a house with low RH, they may suffer from shock and will be predisposed to respiratory problems. The ideal RH for the first few days should therefore be 60-70%.
The chicks which are kept as broilers are specially selected fro their high growth rates and low feed to gain ration. Broilers are raised to 35-42 days of age by which time they have acquired a weight of 1.5kg. The Aviagen (2009) stresses that it is important for chicks to be able to feed and drink freely upon their arrival to the house.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The water should have low mineral content while the food should ideally be in the form of pellets. Pellets are preferred to mash feed since they encourage food intake and performance by the chickens. The nutrients levels in the pellets are balanced and have ingredients with high digestibility. This reduces the amount of energy needed to eat the feed hence increasing performance.
In the first days of their lives, chicks are fed with crumbled feed or mini-pellets. The main objective of the starter feeds is to give the chicks a good appetite and ensure optimal growth within the first 10 days. After the starter feed, the chicks are introduced to grower feeds which consist of pellets.
The pellets have a high concentration of energy and amino acids and during this intake, the chicks’ exhibit dynamic growth. Chicks are fed grower feeds for a period of up to two weeks. The final course of feeds is the finisher feeds which are given from 25 days until the day of processing which is generally at 42 days.
Antibiotic use in poultry factory farms is high due to the crowded conditions in which the chickens live. Antibiotics are used both for preventive and curative measures. As curative agents, they are used to treat bacterial infections which the chickens may succumb to. As preventive agents, antibiotics are used to prevent and control the spread of diseases which would otherwise overwhelm the entire farm. Aviagen (2009) recommends that the antibiotics be distributed though the water that is given to the chicks.
When the chickens have reached the desired weight, they are taken to the processing companies. Before the birds are taken for slaughter, it is important to withdraw feed so as to eliminate pharmaceutical residuals that are in the bird’s system due to the constant use of antibiotics during the bird’s growth.
Housing The housing provided for the broilers is crucial to the survival as well as the productivity of the flock. The MacDonald (2008) notes that housing is of great importance in the chicken production industry since housing influences the feed efficiency as well as the mortality rate of the chickens. A typical house has a side curtain that can be lifted or dropped to control the climate in the house through natural ventilation. Even so, more modern houses have climate control equipment installed to give the farmer greater control over the climate.
MacDonald (2008, p.8) asserts that they two most important climate control equipment are “tunnel ventilation and evaporation cooling cells”. The Tunnel ventilation systems are made up of huge fans at one end of the house and air inlets at the opposite end of the broiler house. The fans pull the air through the house thus creating a wind effect while removing the excessive heat in the house. The evaporative cooling cells provide further cooling by lowering the temperature of the air as it moves through the pads and the chicken house.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Litter material is spread up to a depth of 4inches on the floor of the building that is to house the chicks. Litter is mostly made up of soft wood shaving material. This litter is important since it helps to raise the temperature of the floor. It is therefore important that the litter remains loose and dry through the entire period that the chickens are in the house.
Lighting is also an important consideration when constructing the house since light plays a role in the performance of the chickens. Lighting programs adopted by the farm are such that log day lengths of 23 hours are provided with only an hour of darkness per day. Continuous lighting ensures that chicks have an optimal feed intake which increases their growth rates.
Issues Affecting Broilers While in the house, chickens face a number of contaminants that adversely affect them. Common contaminant emissions from the houses include nitrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia.
If these contaminants of air are not properly regulated, they may lead to the damaging of the birds’ respiratory tract which will result in reduced performance. Continuous lighting is another conditions that negatively affect the welfare of the chickens. Aviagen (2009) reveals that continuous lighting throughout the life of the flock results in abnormal feeding and drinking habits due to sleep deprivation.
Another important issue is that of stocking in the houses. Decisions on the stocking density are made on an economical consideration since profit maximization is the primary goal.
Aviagen (2009) asserts that “stocking density influences bird welfare, broiler performance, uniformity and product quality”. With these considerations in mind, it makes sense to avoid overstocking which not only increases environmental pressures on the house but also reduce profitability due to low bird performance. The US recommends 2 birds per ft2 with the live weight of each bird being 3lb.
Wise and Jennings (2002) report that the growth rate of bones in broilers is greatly outpaced by the growth of muscles and fat which results in the chickens not being able to support their weight efficiently. As a result of this, many boilers suffer from leg deformities or even lameness.
Researchers conclude that “birds might have been bred to grow so fast that they are on the verge of structural collapse” (Wise and Jennings, 2002, p.286). Also, Rauw et al. (1998) assert that broilers that have been genetically modified for faster growth are susceptible to a myriad of diseases as a result of the weakened immune system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion This paper has described how producers raise chickens with particular focus being paid to the conditions and environment under which the chickens are raised. From this paper, it is clear that the major concern for most factory farms is high productivity which translates to greater profitability.
As such, the welfare of the chickens is secondary to profitability. Even so, chicken welfare is linked to higher performance and because of this, most farms aim to provide conditions that are conducive for high productivity. Through broiler meet produced through factory farms, the dramatic increase in broiler meat demand has been met effectively.
References Aviagen (2009). Ross Broiler Management Manual: Chick Management. Web.
MacDonald, J.M. (2008). The Economic Organization of U.S. Broiler Production. USDA.
Management information resource Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The IT industry is among the fastest growing avenues of business and investment. It also bears an equal measure of risk and volatility and therefore requires informed and competent decision-making. The objective of any business is to make profit and this depends on the strategy adopted in managing and hedging against costs while keeping a reasonable margin of quality. It therefore falls upon the cio officer to make appropriate choices in as far as making or buying a product or service or constituent factor of production.
Literature review Companies and industrial scientists have developed and recommended various schemes and approaches to the build or buy decisions. These have been all based on the situational analysis of each proponent hence making their strategies limited to a specific situation. Therefore, there is no foolproof method or formula to the issue. However, it is common ground among all these proposals as to the factors that a manager should consider before making a build or buy decision.
In line with the profit-making objective of the firm, the manager should evaluate the economic benefit of the existing or proposed outsourcing option. Clearly, the economic aspect lies heavily to influence the manager’s decision in as far as buying or making. The manager should obviously consider the cheaper of the options for implementation. This factor is however to be considered alongside other factors.
If he chooses to go fro an out sourcing option, he should also consider if the outsourcing option can be r negotiated in future. If the manager decides to go for an in sourcing option he needs to consider the costs involved in transitioning from the buy to the build option. If tit is the first time, the manager needs to evaluate the decommissioning costs of the building option. A build option also means that there will be an interruption in the IT resources within the organization and therefore a need for a re-evaluation of the department.
Undeniably, both options have their own benefits besides the cost. The outsourcing option for instance guarantees variety and quality since the outsourcing firms invest a lot of talent and expertise in the creation and provision of the product or service. A build option on the other hand is a cheaper option in the long run since it reduces the dependency of the business to external factors.
It therefore gives the business a competitive advantage by allowing it to alter the product to suit emerging trends at little or no cost. The manager should also evaluate the growth prospects of the build option in as far as talent expansion and growth.
Keeping all these in mind the general trend among companies has been to maintain equilibrium between their build and buy options. This involves outsourcing secondary services and building primary functions. This allows the firm to balance the level of external dependency while still making the best of the outsourcing options
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion Designing and Building infrastructure is a costly and lengthy process. In an organization that has an existing outsourcing option, would consider the odds of switching from the existing option against the building option. The building of infrastructure also attracts a competitive advantage to the business and therefore is the more viable of option. If the infrastructure is pat of a primary function then I would go for a build option
Customer support is a secondary service to an infrastructure and therefore would be cheaper if bought from a vendor. This reduces the workforce involved in the infrastructure and cuts on costs. It is a growing aspect of the infrastructure that needs constant expansion and growth. The outsourcing option can always be renegotiated in the future (Buxbaum 2002, pp5-16).
Infrastructure maintenance is a recurrent cost in the organization. It affects the primary functions of the infrastructure and therefore should be internally sourced. It is cheaper and reliable if in sourced due to the effect on operations
Infrastructural upgrades are accessories that can always be replaced. The upgrades provided by a vendor have more quality and skill invested in them. It would therefore be preferable to purchase them from a vendor.
Decommissioning of infrastructure can go either way and therefore depends n the cost of either buying the service or performing it from within the organization. In most cases, however most firms prefer an in-house decommissioning option due to the value attached to the resultant salvage value.
The market for applications has gown greatly over the years especially due to the onset of android and cloud computing technologies. It has therefore received heavy investment by interested parts and development partners. The outsourcing option for applications has proven profitable and convenient since there are numerous application developers who have driven the outsourcing cost down. I would therefore consider adopting an outsourcing option in the short run.
Customer service for applications goes to the primary function of applications and therefore requires in-house attention control and regulation. In effect, I would prefer an in-house customer service strategy to ensure that the organization has a firm grasp of the operation of the organizations customer base.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Management information resource specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Maintenance of applications is also an important aspect of application services. The organization therefore has a competitive advantage if it has its own personalized maintenance strategy since the risk of an in effective maintenance mechanism is far too high. It also allows the organization to identify and grow talent for future design purposes.
The development and improvement of an application requires an independent perspective. Developing upgrades from an in-house source limits the creativity and diversity. Outsourcing firms also invest a lot of resources and funds in developing new upgrades and therefore present the better option in as far as upgrades are concerned.
Since the preferred design and development method is an outsourcing option, it follows that the decommissioning of application is best done by an outsourcing firm or vendor. This saves the organization the overhead costs that accrue to decommissioning (McCall 2010, pp 13-29).
Conclusion It is important to establish equilibrium in the strategy adopted while keeping a clear hedge between the implications and benefits of each option. The outsourcing option has however grown tremendously and continues to present pertinent advantages and alternatives to firms.
References Buxbaum, Peter. Bringing IT back home. . Retrieved from: https://www.computerworld.com/article/2576557/bringing-it-back-home.html
McCall, Owen. Insource, Outsource, Everything as a Service. . Retrieved from: https://www.cio.com/article/2418837/insource–outsource–everything-as-a-service.html
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The project was headed by a global leadership team working under the management of Beauty Care Global Business Unit. The intention of the unit was to ensure that the project would be a skincare line in Japan (Bartlett 1). The meeting to deliberate on whether there is need to start the line of skin care in Japan took place in November 1999.
The panel had to meet to deliberate on the budget presented, organization and the expansion of the project that would see the start of the project in Japan. The project needed to have convincing blueprints to make sure that it gives a high threshold competition to existing manufacturers. The project had faced challenges in the name of organizing and restricting the programs of the global project. The organizers of the project are meant to make sure the project meets global standards so that it does meet global standards.
To make sure that the project meets the intended standards to be at the helm of global competition; the management should be strategically positioned to make sure that the company adapts to the local businesses in the market (Bartlett 2).
For the company to hit global standards like other competing ones, the management should be in a position to ensure that it is suited with right strategies to help it in the production of products and services that meet global standards. Products produced should be made in standards that please all consumers globally in order for it to compete with other manufacturers.
However, in the effort to making sure that it makes competent goods, it is likely to face challenges such as the cost of running the company. Funding for development laboratories and plants made the company reduced its profit margin. After setting up such a huge company that needs to meet global standards, it should adopt technology changes and the most recent technology.
To make sure that the company attains the needed global impact; its management should strive to attain global management skills. P
FIFA World Cup Essay essay help
Table of Contents Historical overview
Summary of soccer’s influence
Historical overview Soccer (sometimes known as football) is a sport whose earliest development was in the Middle East over three thousand years ago. Even though these early presentations had some elements that the modern-day sport can associate with, the rules then were not similar to what is currently used.
ne of the earliest forms of soccer was a game called Cuju, played in ancient China, which featured anything between two and ten players a side (Helmer and Owens 1-16). The aim of the sport was to direct a ball towards a miniscule hole with players being allowed to touch the ball with any part of part of their body but the hands. Any fouls were penalized through point deduction and in the end the team with most points was announced the winner.
Other regions in the world that had games similar to soccer include South America and Greece. Over time, the sport’s popularity gradually began to move towards Europe where it began to take shape and acquire the characteristics of today’s soccer. Between 1307 and 1327 AD, King Edward banned it in England due to its brutal nature and constant reports of injuries (Helmer and Owens 77).
However, even with the ban it continued growing until the regime had no option but to legalize the sport again. By 1863, various soccer clubs had been established and later that year founders of the clubs sat at a meeting where official rules of the sport were drafted. The rules were gradually redrafted and gradually the sport acquired professionalism, and rose to become the world’s most popular sport.
Summary of soccer’s influence Soccer’s most popular event is the world cup which is held every four years. In this event over 800 qualifying matches are played before 32 teams meet in the finals to pick out the best. With a average viewership of 26 billion in 2010, the soccer world cup is the single most watched sporting event (Michaels 1).
During this period all forms of technological access were utilized to follow the event with both traditional (TV and radio) and modern (avenues) recording record-breaking numbers. For instance, ESPN registered an average of 355,000 viewers per minute during the semi-final clash pitting Germany and Spain (Chong 1). MobiTV, a company that facilitates mobile access to live television was reported to have streamed 1.8 million hours of ESPN Mobile TV of the 2011 World Cup (Chong 1).
The soccer world cup is also the biggest generator of sporting earnings both for the host nation and FiFa, the organization governing the sport. For instance last year, FiFa reported over 2.5 billion sterling pounds in profits at the end of the twelve-month long event while South Africa, the host, made over 300, 000 pounds in tourism revenue alone (Michaels 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumer profile The viewership and earning numbers are both on an upward trend. The World Cup earnings to Fifa in the year 2006 were $3.4billion and went through a 85% increase to reach $4billion (Wyludda 1). Viewership in 2006 was recorded at 14 billion and moving to 26billion in 2010 went through a 36% increase. The increase in viewership can be linked to the increase in popularity of online and mobile television (Dunmore 1-2).
Based on figures from the 2010 World Cup viewers, in the United States over 49% of the audience were between the ages of 17 and 50 (Chong 1). Of these number 56% was male while 44% was female (Chong 1).
Business case The soccer gear market is one of the sources of earnings for most stakeholders. Around the globe, the soccer gear business is estimated at almost three billion dollars. This section of the industry has witnessed a 67% growth from $1 billion in 1998. The major participants in the apparel market include Adidas and Nike controlling 40% and 20% of the soccer market share (Cengage 1).
It is worth noting that the aspects of supply and demand are probably the most important determinant of market forces for any product. These are the two factors that would make any market be either competitive or monopolized. These elements of business as well determine the pricing of commodities and services especially in regard to how they influence each other.
For the soccer market, the field of supply and demand is by far the most critical area of analysis since it is from here that one can explain situation that could arise with market trends. Aside from this, it is also interesting to realize that the supply and demand are always present alongside each other in every element of the growth of the sport because the demand cannot exist without the presence of supply and vice versa.
External growth External growth means the growth of the outer components of a firm. For the case of soccer, improvements in external factors have been present in five different factors. These are political, economical, social, technological, and ecological factors. Positive changes in any of these factors have led to operational excellence for the sport.
For instance, an increase in the spread of the internet and participation of broadcasts in the sector has seen the consumerism of the sport reach an unprecedented high. Favourable political climates have also contributed to the growth of soccer and its popularity. For instance, for a long time the sport had been outlawed in Middle-East on religious grounds. However, with changes in regime, some bans have been relaxed making it easy for the sport to penetrate in such regions.
We will write a custom Essay on FIFA World Cup specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The target consumers of soccer are individuals between 15 and 50years and these are persons who have completed high-school all the way to early retirees. By nature a majority of individuals in this group are drawn to non-participatory sporting entertainment. Therefore, in order to capitalize on all opportunities, all key stakeholders have had to ensure that they use all available opportunities.
For example, in Africa, it has been a common trend for multinationals like Coca-cola to establish World Cup viewing centers for individuals who cannot afford television, radio or the internet. From these set ups it becomes easy for them to market their products as well as adequately sell their name.
Conclusion From a personal point of view the sport is estimated to grow even more. This is because with advances in technology it is becoming easy to penetrate hitherto unreachable areas, consequently leading to an increase in the number of followers of the sport.
Another element that could effectively contribute to the growth of soccer is the gradual appreciation it is developing in countries such at the United States where other sports such as baseball and American football have been given prominence. This is an advantage that will see the sport gain more fans, essentially bringing in more income.
Works Cited Cengage. Online Case 10.1 Addidas, Nike and Umbro. Cengage learning. n.d. Web.
Chong, Kristie. Breakout Year for ESPN Digital Media in 2010. ESPN Media zone. 14 Jan 2011. Web.
Dunmore, Tom. 2010. World Cup ratings: Time is on American soccer’s side. Pitchinvasion. 16 July 2010. Web.
Helmer, Diana Star and Tom Owens. The history of soccer. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000. Print
Not sure if you can write a paper on FIFA World Cup by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Michaels, Steve. World cup viewing figures prove that this really is the world’s game. 29 May 2010. Web.
Wyludda, Angie. The Impact of a Mega Sports Event for a Nation: Analysis of the FIFA World Cup 2006 in Germany. GRIN Verlag, 2009. Print
Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Poems, short stories, novels, narratives among other literary works offers us a means through which we can see and understand our nature as human beings, as well as, various cultural, social, and political features of our society which are critical to our societal and individual well-being. They act as a mirror through which individuals and a society can attain self realization particularly in relation to its desired destiny in terms of social, political and economic development.
Academically, they are usually a creative and constructive way of condemning and attacking evils such as corruption, impunity, gender violence, general moral decadence and discrimination among others which are understandably a stumbling block to realization of societal dreams in the eyes of the intellectuals and wise people, as well as political leaders, of good will.
Due to their significant contribution towards progress of a society poets and authors should strive to be clear in their writings so that readers of different intellectual and educational caliber can understand what they are trying to articulate through their works. The purpose of this paper is to discuss Christina Rossetti’s poem titled “Goblin Market” as a guide to behaviour for children and adolescents.
“Goblin Market” as a guide to behavior for children and adolescents Children and adolescents’ good behaviors are not only necessary in school where they are required in order to create a favorable environment for learning but also in general life where they cushion them from engaging in things and activities that can potentially endanger their young lives.
Even though at times Rossetti asserted that her poem which features considerably sexual descriptions was not intended for children, she frequently stated in public that the poem was meant for children. Rossetti wrote many children’s poems after her masterpiece “Goblin Market” written in April 1859 and published in 1862 (Barfoot 248).
“Goblin Market” is a story a bout two sisters Laura and Lizzie who dearly loved one another, goblin merchants from whom the title is derived and another girl called Jeanie (Rossetti 1). Lizzie comes out as the eldest of the two sisters who are the main characters because she seems to be well aware about the goblin merchants.
Laura like a good loving sister knowing too well the consequences that would befell one if he or she ate the forbidden fruits of the goblin men following the death of a girl from their village known as Jeanie advised and cautioned her sister Lizzie against looking at the goblin merchants as well as buying their fruits (Rossetti 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Laura, they were not supposed to eat the fruits of the goblin men which they sold in fantastic abundance, savor and variety because it was not known to any one let alone themselves what kind of soil the ravenous roots of their fruits were fed of (Rossetti 1: Rossetti 2). A keen look at Laura’s stern warning to her sister against eating fruits of the goblin men clearly indicates that they were poisonous and fatal. This fact is well demonstrated by the death of the girl called Jeanie whose story Laura told her sister.
Unfortunately, despite Laura’s advise and caution to Lizzie against buying fruits from the goblin men, Lizzie as curious as most of our typical adolescents and daring children partook the forbidden fruits like Jeanie.
That became the beginning of her horror and a slow death. She first lost her hearing ability and then since she was not able to purchase more of the forbidden fruits from the goblin men, she was constantly sickly and immediately fell into a slow physical weakening and depression. With time she was unable to undertake her household chores.
A seed from the fruits of the goblin men she had kept bore nothing when she tried to plant it. Her sister Lizzie despite Laura’s disobedience and failure to honor her advice against eating fruits from the goblin men was however determined to save her disobedient sister from an immature death. Lizzie finally managed to safe her sister though at a price that would have too left her harmed by the malicious and wicked merchants of death.
Certainly Rossetti’s poem “Goblin Market” has valuable lessons for our children and adolescents who are easily swayed away by anything that glitters and ‘good’ things of our intensively complicated world that is full of many selfish people who are determined to exploit and take advantage of the simple and the less experienced in our society.
Children should learn to genuinely listen and honor advice and cautionary information from their parents, guardians or elder sisters and/or brothers in order to avoid putting their young lives into unnecessary irreversible dangers.
They should avoid despising caution and advice from elders however traditional or old fashioned their opinions and ideas may seem in relation to their adventurous and daring attitudes which have ended up putting many in to undeserved dangers and even sending some into an early grave.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children and adolescents should strive to practice high degree of self-control when they find themselves in tempting situations rather than bowing down to their bodily desires which mostly enables them to realize short term gratification with dire consequences.
For instance, if a child or an adolescent finds himself or herself in a situation that can force him or her to engage in pre-marital sex he or she should consider physically running away from the scene in order to avoid the temptation that may eventually lead into addiction to sex and expose them to dangers of contracting Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or the deadly HIV/AIDS or even falling into the trap of unwanted pregnancies.
Even though we are inherently curious beings children and adolescents should just like traditionalists learn to practice restraints upon their curiosity which has the potential of getting them into trouble that we can live to regret the whole of our lifes or which can even result into unnatural death.
We should not for instance be over curious to find out how it feels like to be high on narcotics however fashionable it may be made to appear to us by our peers or others. Trending into such dangerous paths can turn out to be the beginning of your physical and mental deteriorations due to narcotics’ adverse effects up on an addict’s body and mind like in the case of Laura in “Goblin Market” who fell in to a quick physical deterioration and depression after partaking the forbidden fruits from goblin merchants.
Conclusion Even though Christina Rossetti’s poem “Goblin Market” at a high level of literary analysis has deeper themes about Rossetti’s world and its people especially women, it is certainly a good guide to behaviour for children and adolescents.
It teaches Modern children and adolescents to learn the value of adhering to conventional wise sayings such as all that glitters is not gold and when a deal is too good think twice in order to avoid fatal traps set by the wicked and selfish with an intention of exploiting the undiscerning, the simple and the carelessly curious in our society.
Children and adolescents should learn that although they can easily get away with a wayward action in the short-term they can hardly get away with dire consequences of deliberate disobedience and uncalculated curiosity.
Works Cited Barfoot, Charles. And Never Know the Joy: Sex and the Erotic in English Poetry. New York, NY: Rodopi, 2006. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rossetti, Christina Georgina. Goblin Market and Other Poems. New York, NY: Courier Dover Publications, 1994.Print.pp 1-15
Different educational systems Report custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons why giving students grades do more harm than good
Introduction Educational growth and development is a complicated process that requires professional and proper management. First, it requires the cooperation of all stakeholders involved, including general school managers, teachers, students, parents, top education officials, and the wider society where learning institutions are located.
In addition to quality management and cooperation of all relevant educational stakeholders, learning requires the application of effective and efficient content delivery approaches and an evaluation or assessment of the methods. Various educational schools of thought have put forward numerous educational theories on the most effective evaluation methods. One such school of thought holds that giving students grades does more harm than good.
It is thus proposed that schools should replace grades with written evaluations of the student’s strengths and weaknesses. Scholars who have adopted this school of thought maintain that doing so would benefit not only the students, but also their parents or guardians in terms of keeping abreast with the children’s overall educational progress and performance. This task is an argumentative report against this school of thought.
Reasons why giving students grades do more harm than good All relevant education stakeholders are concerned about the need to regularly evaluate how well their students are performing academically. Consequently, different educational systems found in different countries have crafted diverse evaluation approaches with a view to determining the education growth and development of their students on a regular basis in relation to their desired ultimate educational goals and objectives (Kohn, 1994).
Opponents of grading as an evaluation and assessment approach have offered various reasons to elucidate why giving grades to students does more harm than good. First, they argue that grades cannot adequately be dependent on in effectively classifying students (Kohn, 1994). Secondly, grading is counterproductive to one of the major rationales of education, which is to motivate students to put more effort in their studies so that they can receive a favorable evaluation (Kohn, 1994; Casas, 2009).
Thirdly, avid critics of the grading system contend that grades are an absolutely inadequate method of accessing the other main rationale of education, which is to provide a feedback to the learners so that they can do a self-introspection and work harder towards achieving higher grades in their studies (Kohn 1994).
The first underlying principle of grading is to sort students or designate them on the basis of their academic performance. However, this principle has been criticized from three points of view. To begin with, it is argued that grading as an instrument of labeling students in accordance with their performance does not enable educators to put individual students into the right group (Kohn, 1994).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is interesting to note that numerous studies have consistently shown that learners’ performance does not get better when educators grade their students more rigorously and on the other hand making it considerably easier for students to get a good grade does not make students to do inferior work.
As a result, critics argue that grading is not sufficiently reliable to as a yardstick with which to efficiently categorize students (Kohn, 1994). As a matter of fact, a larger disparity emerges when a given piece of work is assessed by more than one instructor. Critics thus contend that grades do not of do not offer anything meaningful evaluation rather than “…a subjective rating masquerading as an objective assessment.” (Kohn, 1994).
Furthermore, critics also argue that when grading is used as an instrument of sorting student on the basis of their performance, it is not clear if it is done to set apart learners by their abilities and teach them separately. They therefore dismiss sorting as a process that is not only different but also often mismatched with the objective of assisting students to gain knowledge.
The second rationale of grading which like of any other assessment strategy is supposed to motivate students to put more efforts in their studies has also been severely criticized. It is argued that since more often than not, grades function as rewards or punishments instead of useful pointers to students regarding what part of a test or exam was done well and which part needs improvement, they are counter helpful (Hargis, 2003).
According to Kohn (1994), this argument is anchored on the premise that in real life, there is a significant and qualitative difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Critics assert that these two motivational orientations tend to pull in opposite directions (Kohn, 1994; Casas, 2009). Critics argue that grading is essentially an extrinsic motivator that has the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation.
For example, Casas (2009) argues that grading makes learners with performance goals orientation struggle for better grades or put every effort in acknowledging their abilities because they are largely anxious about how well they are performing when compared with their classmates. Critics of this aspect of grading therefore argue that by and large, it overshadows the most important goal of studying for purposes of self-improvement.
Grading thus makes students prone to be trouble about their assignments and over concentrate on achieving good grades and basically, to focus on finishing their work rather than taking pleasure in the process of learning (Hargis, 2003). In the long run, since grading makes students look for extrinsic incentives like good grades, rewards and honors, they easily resort to poor cognitive approaches like cramming and memorization (Casas, 2009).
We will write a custom Report on Different educational systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third justification of grading is also criticized on the grounds that even if it is okay to assist students internalize and pull up their socks for a better performance, it is likely to occur effectively when learners understand success and failure as meaningful information pointing to where they were strong or weak in a given exam and not as rewards or punishment (Kohn 1994).
In other words, critics argue that assessing a student’s work in terms of a mere number or letter can hardly help a learner because a letter B on top of a student’s paper informs a student nothing regarding what was inspiring about his or her paper or how it can be made better. In short, critics such as Butler and Nissan cited in Kohn (1994) contend that even though grading can put emphasis on quantitative aspects of studying, it largely discourages creativity, encourages fear of failure and undermines students learning interests.
It is perfectly safe to argue that there is no particular evaluation or assessment strategy in learning that can be effective on its own in classifying and helping students to work hard for better performance.
Even though written evaluation is greatly helpful in evaluating students’ strengths and weaknesses it also has its own inherent weaknesses which must be complemented by other evaluation strategies like conventional grading which is quantitative and thus fairly reflective though numerically of the average performance of a student (Riner, 2000).
Teachers can only give a meaningful and conclusive written evaluation of a student on the basis of a number which is in turn assigned a letter to represent a grade. In other words, grading has its own shortcomings and as such, it should be thoroughly complemented with written evaluations which are more informative in terms of guiding students where they were strong in a given paper and where they need to improve (Nunan, 1992).
Conclusion Learning is certainly a complicated process which requires evaluation and measurement on a regular basis so that teachers, students and parents and other concerned educational stakeholders can determine their progress in relation to their overall educational goals and objectives. Different educational systems have varying evaluation strategies some of which are more quantitative while others are quantitative.
Even though grading is largely quantitative and have other shortcomings it cannot be entirely be replaced with written evaluations without risking objectivity of evaluating in the learning process. It should therefore, be supplemented with written evaluations rather than being replaced with grading completely. In short, there is nothing in learning and examining like an exhaustive or comprehensive evaluation or assessment strategies which do not need to be supplemented by other approaches.
Reference List Casas, M. (2009). Enhancing Student Learning in Middle School. New York, NY: Taylor
Wireless Carriers in the United States Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Historical Strategic Issues
Key Players and their Operations
Historical Strategic Issues When it comes to wireless carriers in the United States the most common historical strategic issues revolves around price, performance, and customer service.
The key players in this industry had to mindful of all three factors because the consumers in the U.S. market can easily switch to another carrier if they are not satisfied with the value they are getting for their money and the kind of service that they believe they deserve.
Take for example the ability to SMS or to text one another. There was a time when this type of service was non-existent in North America (Gow
Youth Culture under the Globalization Time Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Spread of American Pop Culture
American Pop Culture and Political Globalization
Globalization and Communication Technologies
Globalization and Business
Effects of Globalization
Introduction Globalization is an evolving phenomenon that is complex in nature; it involves the interaction of many economic, cultural, technological and social trends of different nations. Many nations embrace economic globalization because it allows access to consumer goods not available locally. Economic globalization involves production and distribution of commodities.
However, globalization, in economic sense, disrupts local production and affects local producers. Globalization also involves international trade in cultural products such as music, movies and films. This increasingly exposes the local societies in many nations to foreign cultures. The exposure to foreign cultures, more frequently, has profound impacts on the local traditions and values. One notable impact of globalization on national cultures is the effect it has on cultural identity.
The globalization of local cultures, the effects of “increasing interaction between people of different cultures”, is more common in youth culture and the youth’s sense of identity (Turkle, 1995, p. 13). The youth comprises the part of a society that is more receptive or susceptible to influences of foreign cultural practices especially in modes of dress, aesthetics, language and ideologies.
More often, the youth are more receptive to the dominant culture, which occupies center stage in global cultural industry. Among the major concerns of the globalization of culture is that it not only results to homogenization of world cultures but also represents the U.S. cultural values and traditions. The globalization of culture that the American “pop culture” dominates has profound effects on youth cultural identities all over the world.
The Spread of American Pop Culture The imperial nature of American pop culture among the majority of youth in the world is due to a number of reasons. The wealth of the US economy and the large size of the US consumer market, about 300 million consumers, put it in a dominant position. Additionally, the widespread of US corporations in all parts of the world has greatly affected the local cultures in other countries (Burnett, 1996, p. 109). Among the effects of globalization on culture is the spread of pop culture, which many see as actually “Americanization”.
Their view is justifiable because the US is the major producer of pop culture products, which represents the culture of American consumerism. Its global influence on the youth is significant. The spread of pop culture around the world occurs through movies, television shows, clothing, fast foods, consumer goods and entertainment.
The Western entertainment agencies produce and transmit most of the world’s entertainment products. Estimates show that the American mass media revenues constitute about 75% of the world’s broadcast revenues (Burnett, 1996, p. 117).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Burnett (1996) argues that the global media, largely dominated by the Western media, propagates an American centered culture that ignores the diverse cultures and perspectives that exist in the world (p. 111). Most of the images viewed by the young people originate from the West, which evidences the dominance of the American pop culture among the youth in the world.
The dominance of American pop culture has both economic as well as political impacts. The power dimensions of cultural globalization are evident. Burnett argues that global culture and by extension, the American pop’s culture, relates to institutional and material elements that underlie the globalization of culture (1996, p. 129), thereby implying that globalization is an economic phenomenon.
He further argues that contrary to popular belief, globalization does not involve the development of a single global culture but a political struggle for dominance. In this respect, globalization is a both political and a cultural phenomenon.
American Pop Culture and Political Globalization Popular culture provides a platform for political struggle involving the traditionally subordinate groups resisting the interests and values of the dominant group, usually the older generation. Many of the issues raised by various groups find their way into popular entertainment in the media, in a bid to enhance their legitimacy.
Through comedy and humor, pop culture challenges discriminatory views held against minority groups such as gay people, racial and ethnic groups as well as undermining the traditional view about women’s position in the society. The American media, therefore, has promoted specific issues traditionally viewed as illegitimate to a popular level in many societies and in the process; it has transformed many societies in the world.
The popularization of culture in democratic societies like the American society provides a means for political communication. Many contemporary societies have replicated this culture in their political systems. Robertson (1992, p. 321) argues that politics and pop culture are related especially in aesthetics of style and performance much of which is fundamental to pop culture. Most societies have become more democratic by integrating politics with pop culture.
Robertson argues that pop culture provides means through which citizens communicate their collective political experiences (1992, p. 358). The new media, including social networking sites and the internet, offers a means through which the public debate their views as well as political issues hence promoting spread of democracy. While most popular shows and media spaces primarily offer entertainment, they also provide topics and themes that evoke discussions contributing to the expansion of the democratic space.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Youth Culture under the Globalization Time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The media, as an institution, shapes the values and beliefs of the citizenry and provides an arena for political talk (Burnett, 1996, p. 127). In addition, the popular media through its many programs, allow knowledge acquisition with regard to politics. While the level of political knowledge, which media provides may have some limitations, it nevertheless provides a wide range of knowledge to the masses irrespective of their social status.
Globalization and Communication Technologies Globalization manifests itself in different ways; the modern world articulates it through economic, political and cultural globalization. These different articulations of globalization have led to emergence of various manifestations of cultural identities in many parts of the world.
In particular, cultural globalization resulting from western cultural influence, has affected the values, traditions and the sense of identity among the various cultures of the world. Assimilation of the cultures into Western culture in the wake of cultural globalization has affected the articulation of global identities of the respective cultures.
Modern technology in transport and communication has promoted the interaction of people in all round the world in areas of education, trade, commerce and welfare programs. However, the dominance of the US cultural products in these areas has promoted the American consumerism, particularly among the youth while at the same time affecting the other cultures.
One of the main factors that drive globalization in the new world has indeed been the communication and technology, which has promoted the spread of Western culture across the world. Castells (1996, p.107) contends that globalization is a product of developments in communication technology intertwined with economic, cultural and political features.
Increased reliance on new information communication technologies characterizes globalization. The need to have a networked global society, where people from different cultures are connected through information communication technologies (ICT) accelerates globalization in the modern world.
The “global network concept” or the “cyberculture” represents the cultural neutrality acceptable by all people (Castells, 1996, p.97). However, the concept of global village removes the national boundaries and cultural differences and thus presents a form of colonialism. ICT is vital in the achievement of this concept and is itself a feature of globalization.
Globalization and communication technologies are essential in promoting prosperity and democracy in many countries. ICT provides the means of information dissemination, promotion of peace, health, social justice and gender equality. Therefore, without access to ICT, societies risk exclusion from economic and social development that comes with globalization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Youth Culture under the Globalization Time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the domination of the ICT by Western societies creates a new form of colonization as the ICT lacks a global identity. Although ICT has facilitated globalization, it has had profound impacts on political, economic and cultural features of many societies. The flow of ideas and cultural products enhanced by ICT from the US to other nations has had major economic, political and cultural implications (Castells, 1996, p. 121).
The concept of global village dominated by Western media can serve to eliminate racial, ethnic and cultural differences and bring people together. Castells observes that a new generation, free of old cultural prejudices, is emerging from the current digital technology such as the internet (1996, p. 124). However, cultural imperialism by the Western media has led to a single culture that eliminates cultural diversity and traditions.
Globalization and Business ICT development particularly the spread of the internet has led to growth and expansion of multinational companies into virgin markets of developing countries. There is an increased drive by multinational companies to capture new markets.
Hoogvelt (1997) argues that this trend perpetuates the digital divide that exists between Western media and other nations (p. 54). It also spreads the Western culture of consumerism while benefiting a few corporations. This in turn causes inequality and emergence of ‘social class’ in the society as globalization benefits only a few corporations.
Although globalization is a multidimensional concept, its economic dimension has the most implications. Globalization creates a global economy, an economy where coordination of essential activities occurs on a global scale and in real time. Thus, capital and most capital markets are global. Additionally, the value of investments and savings in all countries are dependent on the global financial markets.
In the 1990s, multinational corporations directly employed about 70 million workers. The total output constituted a third of the total private output globally (Hoogvelt, 1997, p. 67). This indicates that multinational corporations involved in financial services, manufacturing and processing, along with their network of subsidiary companies are essential to the global economy.
Additionally, the researchers have concentrated the scientific research and technology essential in economic growth and development in research centers in the US. The innovations and technological products overwhelmingly produced research centers in the United States. US sets up research centers linked to the US research centers in foreign nations and employs local workers. This means that labor mobility is increasingly becoming global.
At the same time, a large proportion of jobs may not be global but local or regional. However, the living standards of the workers is ultimately dependent a globalized economy through production and trade relationships. The recent developments in global technological infrastructure have enhanced the global economy.
Advancement in air transport, along with the development of high-speed trains, information systems, cargo transport, telecommunications, improved manufacturing and processing are essential for global economy. For an economy to be truly global, it must encompass all territories across the globe ((Hoogvelt, 1997, p. 71). However, the new global economy is exclusive; it links up valuable systems while leaving out producers and consumers. Thus, the global economy is selective based on the dominant values or interests.
In a global economy, there exist networked financial institutions. The national Central banks, therefore, cannot adequately control the financial trends in global financial markets. Additionally, various factors influence global financial markets and these factors do not conform to common economic rules.
As a result, national governments created supranational organizations such as the World Bank and the IMF or regional cooperation agencies to manage global or regional capital flows. In sum, globalization of economies is a form of capitalist restructuring according to the dominant values and interests, which in this case are US interests.
Innovation and competition among multinational corporations characterizes globalization and is dependent on the new information technologies. Additionally, most wealthy nations including the US offer agricultural subsidies to manufacturers making US commodities cheap. Thus, small farmers in other nations find it increasingly difficult to compete effectively creating a trade conflict.
Effects of Globalization The modern world associates social media with youth culture, and thus it serves as the agent of socialization and influences the beliefs of the young people. Globalization contributes to the spread of the dominant culture such as pop among the youth across the world. It also aims at establishing a global economy and markets by propagating the Western culture of consumerism. Non-consumerism, on the other hand, results into economic exclusion and inequality.
Furthermore, globalization increases consumer expectations, which once unfulfilled results into frustration, social alienation, and criminal tendencies and in some cases, social strife (Turkle, 1995, p. 37). In developing countries, images of American consumerism including lifestyles and items are common. This can be problematic because these lifestyles are not usually accessible particularly to the poor members of the society.
The global culture is an essential component in many youth’s lives. The youth more than any other social group rely heavily on the global consumer culture. Culturally, globalization increases the cultural divide as the youth in developing countries consume the cultural products from the US.
This creates cultural conflict as well as income inequality as the availability of resources in many nations is not comparable to the US. Globalization creates economic inequality especially in developing nations as multinational corporations and advertising agencies compete in promoting the US consumer culture among the youth. The efforts to promote consumerism serve to increase social divisions in many societies.
The global media and the new technologies allow the young people to define their identities and attitudes. Young people are consumers of global cultures, which influence their lifestyles and attitudes (Turkle, 1995, p. 34). However, since US dominates the global media, the young people model their behaviors and attitudes based on global capitalist’s ideologies.
The global capitalism, through multinational corporations, target young people for their cultural products. In this respect, the dominant US cultural values embraced by most young people promote global economic divisions with the youth constituting the majority of the poor members in the society.
Conclusion The cultural impact of global economics varies in many countries. Evidently, globalization comes with increase in market power and dominance, which some players may misuse. The effects of globalization including unaccountable multinational corporations, cultural consumerism and economic inequality have a direct impact on the lives of the youth.
In global economic terms, globalization represents the values and interests of the US that adversely affect segments of the population in other countries. The youth in other countries are more prone to cultural and cultural globalization as they lack necessary opportunities and financial resources to adopt the American culture of consumerism. Thus, the experience of the youth in globalization is negative as it increases economic inequalities and social conflicts.
Reference List Burnett, R. (1996). The Global Jukebox: The International Music Industry. London: Routledge.
Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hoogvelt, A. (1997). Globalization and the postcolonial world: The new political economy of development. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Robertson, R. (1992). Globalization: Social theory and global culture. London: Sage Publications.
Turkle, S. (1995) Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon
Discipline as an integral part of effective police supervision Essay best essay help
Introduction The police department, as faction of the judiciary and law enforcer, cannot be allowed to be tainted with traces of indiscipline. It is a ridicule and an outright insult to the judicial system in its totality. The duty to ensure that unbecoming behavior and unacceptable professional conduct does not gain ground in the police force is bestowed on the police supervisor.
For the effective role of supervisor to be fully realized, the individual supervisor cannot overlook the importance of a disciplined force. Without discipline, the supervisor will have failed as an individual and failed the whole institution as well. This essay looks into the maintenance of discipline among the police as an integral part of effective police supervision.
Fostering discipline in the police force Supervisors as disciplinarians
The ability to maintain discipline among the subordinates is one way of measuring the suitability of a supervisor for the role. The sergeant is the most important party in the police force, and his position the most challenging one. “It is the sergeant…who plays the pivotal role and, in large measure determines whether the police department will face unfair labor practice charges, costly arbitrations, lengthy litigation, and more union activism,” (More
Stacy’s Pitaman Chips Cinnamon and Sugar Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction The free market economic model dominates the world economy. With the exception of china, Cuba and North Korea, the rest of the world’s economies are dominated by free market principles where forces of demand and supply dictate market trends.
In the theory of the firm, business operate in conditions dictated by the two forces but that operate on larger context of microeconomic and macroeconomic environments. The microenvironment represents the market conditions and/or elements that a firm has control over and which it can easily be manipulated to suit its marketing operations.
They are the factors that determine the firm’s provision of goods or services. The factors may include intermediaries, the competing firms, and conditions within the firm itself. On the other hand the macro environment refers to the expanded business space that is characterized by forces beyond the individual firm’s control.. They include demographic factors that largely involve characteristics and trends of the population, economy, political climate, cultural characteristics, technology, and natural forces.
In the free market environment, firms are in business to make profit. One of the most important concepts in capitalism is marketing. Due to competition, firms try to entice customers to buy their products to make extra money. Competition is brought due to the presence of multiple players in different industries and sectors in the economy. Food and snack industry is one of the biggest scores in the above economic order that employs millions of people in the US and worldwide.
Stacy’s Pita Chip Company, a manufacturer of healthy, baked, natural snack foods, and a leading player in the snack and food market will form the basis of analysis in this paper. Both the micro and macro business environments in which it operates will be analyzed as well as the marketing mix that it has adopted to sell its products. The company has wide variety of products on offer to its customers.
This paper is supposed to specifically analyze the marketing approach of cinnamon and sugar chips. It’s important to note that the company has no explicit marketing approach that explicitly focuses on the product. The marketing strategy that it has adopted focuses all the products under the Pitaman brand name. The paper will therefore be focusing on cinnamon in reference to the overall strategy adopted by Pitaman.
Macro and Micro business environment Microenvironment
The microenvironments in which Stacy’s operate as include the company itself, marketing techniques, intermediaries, suppliers, and competitors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current environment of the company refers to the departments and management of the company. The various departments may include finance, research, development, and accounting. All the departments have a role to play in the making of marketing decisions.
Stacy’s is a relatively small company compared to industry leader such as Frito North America or Kraft Foods Inc. before it was purchased by PepsiCo, the company only had a handful of employees and served the city of Boston. However, popularity of its products and capital injection from new owners has enabled its expansion and presence of its products nationwide. By the end of Q1 of the year 2005, the company had over 200 employees comprising of both permanent and contracted staff.
In the microeconomic environment, suppliers form one of the most critical aspects of a firm’s operations. Delay in receiving supplies has a negative ripple effect since customers will not be served in time. This is likely to lead to customer satisfaction and customer relationship is likely to be affected as a result.
Stacy’s operates in a highly competitive environment where snack manufacturers are very specific about supplies. Stacy’s has however managed to keep reliable suppliers and there is not any time that customers have experiences delays due to shortage f the snacks they offer.
In marketing intermediaries can be referred to as a “necessary evil”. Intermediaries have grown to be one of the most critical elements in the microeconomic environment.
They include distributors, resellers, marketing agencies, and financial providers who help in the distribution channel of the products to the customer. They help in the promotion and distribution of its products to the consumer at the end of the distribution channel. Stacy’ operates in a microeconomic environment where they have engaged the services of major reseller chains such as Wal-Mart.
According to the company, “its products can be found in food retailers across the nation including Shaws, Stop
Gender inequality in Canada Definition Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Do you think gender inequality exists in Canada? Why or why not?
What is heterosexism?
What are some key gender issues in contemporary Canada?
Do you think gender inequality exists in Canada? Why or why not? The term gender describes the physical difference between people. Gender gives an individual personal a trait that the societies commonly attach to as being either of male or female gender. Gender inequality on the other hand is unequal distribution of privileges between men and women in terms of different issues like employment opportunity, wealth, and power position.
Women are the most affected victims of gender inequality and they deserve a top priority among any other group as action to address inequality issues are being put across. Canada is described as a society that lives in denial of the fact that there exist gender inequality issues. The persistence in gender inequities is becoming a major problem as Canadians seem even more confused on issues pertaining gender and how to address the problem.
According to (Naiman 123), although it is certain that men and women have actual differences particularly physically, most of the social indifference perception are not because of the biological connotation but because of the over time cultural practices and beliefs. There exists some kind of gender discrimination in markets as well as in systems of public provision and due to its prevalence presence associated with factors outside the household they are shaping peoples perception about gender inequality.
The significance of women unpaid work for their capacity to respond to market signals shows inequality. Gender inequality extends in societies where there exist unequal roles, responsibilities and distribution of resources in the household. This leads to men and women feeling constrained in their response behaviors.
What is heterosexism? Heterosexism is predisposition towards people who are heterosexual who include gay, lesbians, bisexuals and the transgender (GLBT) members of the community, the word is commonly used to express societal institutions biasness in wanting people to behave as if they are all heterosexual. Heterosexism firmly embeds the existing customs and traditions of the society. It depicts the ideological system that disgraces any person who is not heterosexual.
An individual who claims to be homosexual is usually seen as abnormal because the society believes that only heterosexuals are normal beings. Heterosexism seeks to judge these particular groups of people (GLBT) making them appears as weak, low social status and inferior as compared to the ‘straight’ people. It allows the society to make judgments towards them and deny the homosexuals the same rights and privileges given to the heterosexuals members.
What are some key gender issues in contemporary Canada? In the 20th century the Canadian state introduced policies and programs that defined a new form of citizenship in Canada. Women could now vote while human rights legislations protected basic freedoms and prohibited fundamental forms of discrimination. Despite these efforts, there is evidence that there are certain groups of people who are privileged over others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gender role defines the attitude and activities communities believe to best suite different sexes. This is among many issues related to gender. In contemporary Canada context the male is obligated to be an ambitious person and every competitive while his female counterpart is expected to be fragile and emotional.
Gender biasness is also experienced in most parts of Canada as many women continue to experience sexual discrimination, unequal treatment, and unfairness. Another gender issue is superiority. Males are perceived as superior beings more competent than women even though there are several instances where by women are equally as intelligent as men this is why they are underrepresented in important professional fields like medicine, engineering and law (Naiman 233).
Schools are known to encourage boys to attain good grades in mathematics and science as compared to girls. Canadian government is encouraged to ensure that men and women have equal rights and opportunities in all areas of the economy and the society to achieve a sustainable social and economical development.
Work Cited Kuper Island: return to the healing circle. Dir. Welsh Christine and Peter Campbell. Gumboot Production.1998. DVD
Naiman Joanne. How Societies Work: Class, Power and Change in a Canadian Context. Winnipeg. Fernwood Pub. 2008. Print
Saint Claus Myth Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Origin of Saint Claus Myth
Introduction A social practice can be viewed as that practice observed in the society though without any legal foundation. In the American culture, there are a number of social practices in which people are engaged in their lives. Some of them are occasional while others are demonstrated in their day to day practices. A social practice is that activity in which people are involved into without any legal direction, but as a custom. A person usually tends to engage in these activities continuously.
One of the common social practices in the American culture is the Santa Claus myth. Santa is a figure who is very common in American culture. It is more prevalent in the northern American culture. Santa Claus is believed to bring gifts in the houses of the good children on the night before the Christmas day. Santa Claus can be related with a historical figure known as Saint Nicholas who was widely known as a gift giver.
Thesis Statement In American culture, there are a number of things in which Americans are involved in by custom rather than by law. People are engaged in such practices in their day to day activities. One of these social practices is Saint Claus’ Myth. Over the past, the practice has been integrated in people’s activities through the customs.
The Origin of Saint Claus Myth In the contemporary American culture, the belief in Saint Claus has significantly influenced how the Americans have been celebrating the Christmas day. Over the past, the phenomenon of Santus Claus has been integrated in the American culture. Many children have been introduced to the belief in Santus Claus as soon as they reach the interaction stage where they can understand their environment.
As already noted, Santus Claus phenomena can be traced back to Saint Nicholas. Nicholas is one of the most beloved saints among all the saints of the times (Bucher Richard Par 6). Most of the churches (both from Western and Eastern) accorded him great respect than any other saint, for instance, Justinian who was an emperor built a church in honor of him (Allhoff and Lowe 107).
According to Siefker (2006), the idea of Santa Claus in America can be traced back in the seventeenth century when the Dutch established their colony in America (10).
The Dutch came along with the idea of the Sinter Klass (Saint Nicholas). After some time, the colony was taken from them and the place was renamed New York. However, the English children longed to have their own Sinter Class through which they can be able to receive gifts. However, the day was changed to December 24 because the English Protestants did not recognize saint days.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the past, there have been several legends that during the feast of Nicholas, he would come from heavens and visit children in their homes taking gifts to them (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 35). It was believed that he would reward the good children. The legends also had it that he distributed gifts to the people through windows (Allhoff and Lowe 106).
Dr. Clement played an important role in shaping the modern version of Santa Claus in America (Bucher Richard Par). For instance, he wrote a poem about Santa which has been cited over the past. Through his poems, Moore has significantly influenced the contemporary version of Santa.
For instance, he described the way Santa comes at night through the chimney where he leaves behind toys (Moore
Psychodynamic play theory Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Play therapy is a way of expressing feelings in children especially where stressful events are involved since children are unable to communicate by mouth as effectively as adults. Thus, they make use of play to express their inner feelings and interpersonal conflicts. Psychodynamic play therapy is utilized where a therapist is involved in listening to the details of a child’s play and emphasizes the causes of the child’s experiences in regard to motions of the child’s body.
Therefore, the child is able to express and cope with certain difficulties with the help of the therapist. This is done by the therapist getting involved in the context of the play to help the child identify the difficulty, express it emotionally and engage in solving it. The therapist, therefore, has to interpret the play in a meaningful way and then communicate with the child to elucidate indifferent engagement(s) expressed by the child during the play.
In order for this to work effectively, the play or activity involved should be made interesting to the child. For instance, a therapist may choose to engage in an argumentative puppet conversation with the child. The argument could be based on a topic that is sensitive to the child or one that the therapist had noticed some reaction from the child.
This way, the therapist identifies certain feelings from the child through verbal expression and this puts him/her in the best position to engage in problem solving. This could as well be done as part of the play. For example, the therapist may continue with the puppet conversation but this time, focuses on addressing the solution by telling the child what needs to be done about the problem in discussion.
Psychodynamic play theory functions in finding out the complexity associated with a child’s behavior. Psychodynamic play therapy provides education, ego support, and therapist activity which are not present in the common psychotherapy. The recommendation of this type of therapy implies belief that it applies to children with a certain mental diagnosis and is preferable to other approaches, and assessment that the child is capable thereof.
Psychodynamic play therapy could be linked to treatment of psychological disorders in many children especially autistic ones. Autism represents a syndrome or collection of symptoms originating primarily from a basic neurological deficit in information processing and emotional communication.
Consequently, psychological defenses against states are experienced as a result of those deficits. Lack of crucial socializing experiences during development as a result of both the deficits and the defenses is also associated with autism in children. Moreover, and whatever the origins, the autistic child’s development is profoundly altered, for better or worse, by his or her early environment and the critical interaction with his/her family.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There exists a wide range in the severity of the initial biological predisposition and the early life experiences, such that some children may be born so disabled that parents, however healthily nurturing, make limited impact; whereas other children may be born with a milder innate vulnerability, but encounter significantly damaging parenting.
However the situation, psychodynamic pay therapy may significantly make great impacts in the lives of autistic children by getting to understand how they feel about their conditions. This way, they may be engaged in playful activities to make them feel as part of the society and also to interact with other normal children.
Psychodynamic play theory is not only therapeutic to children, but also educative. Through such plays, children get to learn many things alongside getting therapy and having fun.
The Management Systems Related to Internal and External Environment Report college essay help near me
Attitudes towards employees: Employee benefit Wages, Salaries, Annual Leave and Sick Leave
The organization maintains these expenses on an prepayment basis. They are therefore accounted for after they fall due. This therefore implies that they are partially reflected in the books of accounts of the period concerned. In effect the report reflects the payments due for services up to the final day of the reporting period.
Employee Share Plans, Long Service Leave, Long Service Leave
The net value of the amount due and payable to all the employees is reflected as an expense to the employees corresponding to an increase in the organizations equity. The amount due is measured and evaluated for the period within which it is unconditionally payable. With the exceptions of un-qualifying shares the amount is recognized in whole of the total entitlements.
Defined Contribution Superannuation Plans, Defined Benefit Superannuation Plans and Employee Termination Benefit
The organization adopts an individualistic strategy that makes single and individual computations for each plan. The present value of future benefits its therefore calculated by discounting the future benefits at a discounting rate that is a balance on the maturity dates of government bonds.
This incorporates the projected unit credit method by a certified auctorial. if benefits that accrue to every employee increase the amount is distributed on a straight line basis implying that the employee will receive an amount of the increase immediately it falls due. This increase is also reflected in the company’s consolidated income statement of the reporting period.
The past service costs on the other hand are measured as the growth in the present value of the permanent or fixed benefits that the employee is entitled to in previous and current periods.
Attitudes towards Customers: Aircraft configuration meeting customer demand
Like any other business the company has over the past few years faced a great increase in the number of customer as well as consumer needs. The company has therefore made a structural adjustment by increasing the number of aircraft to take care of the addition al capacity. Growing consumer demands have also forced the company to adjust the seating arrangements to improve the customer service experience. This also ensures that the customer service level meets international standards.
Qantas provide their customer to combine points from flying, credit and debit card spend and retail spend into single account
The technological trend in the airline industry has favored the use of plastic money. Amidst the pertinent and obvious structural concerns, the credit card system has ensured convenience security and flexibility in transactions specifically in the transport sector. Passengers get to earn points as a form of motivation and marketing for every flight they take. The points can either be based on the mileage traveled or the amount spent. The points my be used to upgrade a ticket or purchase products at the convenience of the customer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Qantas services their customer by another brand of aircraft which is called Jetstart’s
The diversity of the consumers goes requires the company to make provision for all levels of income earners. The company has taken advantage of the low income segment by partnering with a smaller airline that offers alternative cheaper but equally quality service. This falls in line with the price segmentation strategy in consumer marketing
Caring for customer
Customer care s a fundamental and important aspect of a business. It offers a basis and rationale for the formulation of the companies strategies and policies. The company has made an initiative to ensure that their customers are satisfied and assisted in every possible means. It has engaged consumer service surveys to measure the performance and effectiveness of their customer care. This has generated alternative consumer satisfaction strategies that will allow the company to grow and offer better service ( Qantas annual report, 2010).
Attitudes towards competitors: Higher performance in every thing
The transport sector has over the last two decades grown to become among the most competitive volatile and revolutionary sector in the world economy. The situation is even more aggressive in the private sector with every company seeking a piece of the large consumer base.
The company therefore has a competitive and visionary attitude towards its competition. It has installed strategic mechanisms that constantly review the companies performance ratings as against its competitors to ensure that it remains in front or at least on the front line.
It is every customers requirement that their means of transport be safe and reliable. The government as well as industrial requirements for safety are clear and strict. The airline has therefore given paramount importance to its safety precautions and guaranteed its customers an ultimately safe experience. It has invested in health safety programs such as health surveillance monitors that ensure that the customers along with the employees operate in a safe environment.
Training and development
The airlines employee base attracts a variety of professional limits that allows the labor force to benefit from a wide range of skills. Majority of these employees are based locally and are therefore easily accessible to the company.
Updating market needs
A pertinent characteristic of the contemporary consumer market is the changing preferences and tastes. It is therefore important for every company to constantly redefine and re- evaluate its consumer needs data to ensure that it keeps abreast with the recent trends. The airline has responded to the changing consumer needs by simplifying and easing the check in experience.
We will write a custom Report on The Management Systems Related to Internal and External Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strong complementary Brand
In a market full of substitutes a company needs to diversify its portfolio to increase the chances of consumer following. The company has therefore partnered with an alternate smaller airline that allows it to access the low fare market. This makes sure that it maintains a presence in all areas and segments of the market
Reference Qantas annual report. (2010) The Sum. Web. Web.
Information Technology in People’s lives Rhetorical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Background
The Social Impact
The 20th century saw the emergence of the Information Age. Beginning in the late 1980s information technology (IT) began to dominate the lives of people, especially those in the Western world. This was made possible by two major technological breakthroughs: the invention of the personal computer and the creation of the Internet or World-Wide-Web.
These two distinct yet related technologies were combined to create a powerful network of computers that enabled the high-speed sharing of information and ideas. It did not take long before people began to utilize it for information dissemination, business, and social networking. There are a lot of positive things that resulted from the use of IT.
On the other hand unscrupulous men and women also used the same to make dishonest gain, torment others, and to commit crimes beyond the limitations of geographical borders. It is therefore imperative to develop an international coalition that would establish common laws and ethical standards to govern the use of IT, especially when it comes to the World-Wide-Web.
Background One of the most amazing consequences of information technology is the ability to communicate over long distances. Although long-distance telecommunication was common even before World War II, it was only during the advent of IT when people can communicate to somebody living in another continent and do so without having to spend a great deal of money. As a result websites and other IT applications were developed at a frenetic pace as businessmen and private individuals discovered how IT can enhance their lives.
The proliferation of websites coupled with the increase in computer literacy ushered in the Information Age. At the same time globalization became more evident. It is true that international relations were a reality for centuries.
Nevertheless, the realization that nations were interconnected and that human beings were citizens in one global village was only apparent to national leaders and not to the common people. In the past, two people living in two different countries can establish a relationship only through letters and telegrams.
The process was terribly slow; it is possible that messages can only reach the intended recipient after many weeks. But with the Internet, globalization was a concept readily understood by the average person and not just international businesspeople. The following definition explains why IT fast-tracked globalization:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The World-Wide-Web is an infrastructure of information distributed among thousands of computers across the world and the software by which that information is accessed. The Web relies on underlying networks, especially the Internet, as the vehicle to exchange the information among users. (Dale
Phonograph Invention and Evolution Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Phonograph is not a new concept or tool. Different names have been used to refer to it in different places for instance record player, turntable or gramophone. The device was introduced towards the end of the 19th century, in 1877 by Edison Alva Thomas while he was carrying out his normal duties at his laboratory in New Jersey. The purpose of the phonograph was to record and reproduce sound recordings.
The phonograph has undergone a lot of notable evolutions, the first invention being marked by some wavy lines that were either etched or grooved on a cylinder that rotated in order to produce the desired results (Pingree, 2004). This paper gives a general overview of the phonograph with much emphasis being given to its invention and evolution as well as how it has affected arts and its connection to humanities.
The time period the phonograph was invented and the circumstances that led to the invention.
The Edison’s phonograph was invented in 1877. The device comprised of a drum in a cylindrical shape which was wrapped in a tinfoil and mounted on an axle threaded in an organized manner. It also had a mouthpiece through which sound would be recorded. The invention was a product of Edison’s other inventions, the telephone and telegraph.
Although the phonograph is greatly attributed to Edison’s efforts, various people had come up with the idea earlier, for example Kruesi and Charles Cros.
The circumstances that surrounded the invention of the phonograph include the desire of man to have documentation whereby they would have a reference of what happens for instance expression of the human voice/ speech and various artistic performances such as music that proved a bit hard to preserve in the human memory. The need for entertainment also contributed to its invention since things like radios and TV were not present at the time (Moore, 1908).
How the phonograph has evolved over time and the effects of the evolution on later time periods Just like any other development, the phonograph was not invented in one day. It took some time, considerations and combination of different ideas. Its evolution has been deemed to have a lot of impact on various life aspects especially in art and humanities. The early invention involved use of tin foil cylinders. Wax cylinders were later developed to deal with problems associated with tin foils like wearing out quickly. Hard plastic cylinders were then developed in the early 20th century.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The invention and advancement of the phonograph and its operations has had a part to play on other inventions. This is because the later inventions like radio and TV have drawn ideas on the earlier phonograph and made some improvements to enhance efficiency and effectiveness (Millard, 2005).
How phonograph affected the arts within the time period it was invented Phonograph has had a part to play in the different forms of art including music, theatre and drama among other arts. Phonograph has been deemed to have contributed positively to the field of art and humanities through bringing about diversity which in turn makes these fields interesting.
The phonograph added importance to the art arena by providing a way through which the different works would be recorded and archived for use at a convenient time by any individual that could own the instrument.
Music and drama would for example be recorded and reproduced later and this aspect contributed to the growth of the art industry where artists enhanced their talents and were able to create their presence among the public as opposed to earlier times where they would only be known at the time of performance since there was no form of retrievable storage (Du Moncel, 1974).
How the advancement of phonograph is connected to the humanities According to Ramadhan (2011), the invention and advancement of the phonograph has not existed in isolation but rather amongst many other concepts where some form of dependence has been witnessed. It has, for example, played a great part when it comes to the field of humanities.
The phonograph has made human life easier because they don’t have to rely solely on their memory for their works. People were also in a position to bring different aspects of the world into their homes, an aspect which led to the emergence of a global culture as a result of integration of different elements from different cultures provided by the recordings. Entertainment was also enhanced by the phonograph in a great manner.
Conclusion Technology advancement is inevitable. It is a concept that has been there all along with the speed and sophistication increasing day by day. The phonograph is an instrument that is deemed to be a reference point when it comes to the field of art and humanities especially Music.
We will write a custom Essay on Phonograph Invention and Evolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Later developments have drawn ideas from it and made some improvements. There are various circumstances that surrounded the invention of phonograph as mentioned earlier and with the changes of times, there have been implementation of modifications in making of instruments to incorporate the changes.
Reference List Du Moncel, T.A.L. (1974). The Telephone, the Microphone and the Phonograph. New York: Arno Press.
Millard, A.J. (2005). America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Moore, C.C. (1908). A Treatise on Facts: Or, the Weight and Value Of Evidence, Volume 1. New York: Thompson Company.
Pingree, B.G. (2004). New Media, 1740-1915. New Jersey: MIT Press, 2004.
Ramadhan, A. (2011). Facts about the Phonograph. Retrieved from https://ourpastimes.com/history-vinyl-records-5373550.html
Non-alcoholic beverage industry Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Industry competitive structure analysis
Gross profit Margin comparison
Financial comparisons of key competitors
Analysis of the Financial Statements
Accounting Ratios for PepsiCo since the year 2000
Introduction Pepsi Company is one of the world leader producers of food and non-alcoholic beverages. It has got a snack branch in North America known as Frito-Lay, PepsiCo Beverage International and what is known as Quaker Foods also in North America.
Research reveals that the non-alcoholic beverage industry comprises of three major competitors which are PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Schweppes. PepsiCo is known to currently control around 21% of the total market share within beverage industry. However, Frito-Lay controls 60% of the total snack-food market share within the U.S market (Pepsi Company Overview).
Industry competitive structure analysis The structure of the industry is oligopolistic; this is since the industry is dominated by three major players which are Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Cadbury Schweppes. Analysis and description of beverage products in relation to competition focuses on market share owned by Pepsi in relation to its competitors.
The industry’s relatively slowing market is characterized by tremendous and stiff competition. The rivalry has majorly been between Pepsi and Coca-Cola for fairly longer time. Top ten ranked companies in beverage market based on market coverage includes; Coca Cola, Pepsi, Snapple, Cott, National heritage, Hansen natural, Red bull, Big red, Rock star and others with Coca-Cola at the top and Rock star at the bottom rank with only 0.4% market coverage (Pepsi Company Overview).
Coca-Cola Company owns four soft drink brands which includes; Minute Maid Juices, Minute Maid Lemonade, Fruit Drinks and others. Minute maid orange juices have tremendous success within the market. The success of Coca-Cola in business is based on conducting effective advertising and promotional programs which still keeps them ahead of competitors (Coca-Cola Company).
Pepsi Company deals with products ranging from Fritolay Brands, Gatorade Brands to Quaker Brands and best range of Tropicana juices under the Tropicana Brand. However, PepsiCo has shown improvement over the years in building great brand name.
Example of the companies struggling within the beverage industry is Snapple Juice Company. They have not succeeded yet in consolidating range of Snapple juices through retailers which could be of benefit in efficient product delivery to the target markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has also found it difficult to cope with the pricing which are always affected by costs of raw materials determined by their availability. They have been unsuccessful in offering Snapple brand having the capability of attaining to consumer’s level of health consciousness. Their new flavors have not yet been fully accepted within the market (Pepsi Company Overview).
Gross profit Margin comparison Pepsi (%) Coca-Cola (%) Cadbury (%) Industry Average (%) 2000 60.46 69.67 53.86% 61.77% 2001 59.46 69.92 52.86 61.43 2002 53.67 63.68 47.9 55.8 2003 53.6 62.9 48.6 55.8 2004 53.7 64.7 49.3 56.98 The comparison of the gross profit margin shows some great concern within PepsiCo’s profitability based on sales. Coca-Cola has clear gain of more profit on sales as compared to other competitors. This gives some hint on PepsiCo’s ability in the management of the cost of production since most of its values are less than industry average.
Financial comparisons of key competitors Despite the low concentration of firms within the beverage industry, the three major firms PepsiCo, Coca-cola and Cadbury Schweppes accounts for almost 80% of the entire global market. The largest market share within the industry is under the command of Coca-Cola accounting for almost 50% while PepsiCo controls around 21% of the total global market share, Cadbury has below 10% coverage. The level of competition amongst these firms is basically based on product differentiation.
Some of the key accounting policies applied in the analysis and valuation of the company’s financial status include revenue recognition, income tax expense and ascertained accruals, quality of brand and valuation of goodwill as well as stock compensation expenses. For the purposes of maintaining high reputation for superior products, PepsiCo resorts to recognizing their revenue upon delivery of products (Sila and Ballard 13-46).
Evaluation on the accuracy of PepsiCo accounting policies gives clear picture of their economic reality within the industry in comparison to other companies. All the companies within beverage industry recognize revenue upon transfer of products.
They also apply the use of credit terms allowing payment to be made within 30 days of delivery, at the same time PepsiCo and Coca-Cola applies the same principle on brand and goodwill valuations. Indefinite intangible assets are not amortized while definite intangible assets are amortized within the beverage companies, the three companies also applies the use of fair value methods for the purposes of accounting for employee stocks (Sila and Ballard 13-46).
Analysis of the Financial Statements Overall operations of PepsiCo outside United States have proved viable since it generates approximately 35% of the total net revenue. Twenty percent of these are obtained from potential hubs such as Mexico, United Kingdom as well as Canada. The other percentage ranging between 13-15% is generated from other countries of the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Non-alcoholic beverage industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, PepsiCo’s market penetration is exposed to threats such as foreign currency and political unrest. Prevention of such risks involves strategies such as entering into forward contracts having terms of no more than two years (Sila and Ballard 13-46).
Accounting Ratios for PepsiCo since the year 2000 2009 2003 2002 2001 2000 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1.28 1.08 1.06 1.17 1.17 Quick Asset Ratio 1.0 0.75 0.72 0.76 0.8 Inventory turnover 9.76 8 7.84 7.51 7.87 Receivables Turnover 7.8 9.5 1.0 13.0 11.4 Profitability Ratios Gross profit margin 53.6% 53.56% 53.67% 59.46% 60.46% Net Profit Margin 14.4% 13.23% 13.19% 9.88% 10.68% Asset Turnover 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.24 1.11 Return on Asset 15.05% 14.09% 14.11% 12.26% 11.90% Return on Equity 31.24% 30.15% 35.81% 30.76% 30.11% Capital Structure Ratio Debt to Equity Ratio 1.07 1.14 1.53 1.51 1.53 Examination and analysis of several accounting ratios helped in determining the liquidity of PepsiCo. The current year financial breakdown and previous years gives the clear analysis on the changes experienced within PepsiCo. The ratios reveal the company to be relatively liquid.
The current ratio reveals favorable status, the increase from 1.2 in 2000 to current 1.3 shows that the current assets have increased compared to current liabilities. The firm’s liquidity is further revealed by quick ratio which determines its ability to meet current obligations on the basis of improved liquid assets.
The improvement could be recognized from 0.8 in 2000 to 1 in the current year, showing that current and future obligations of the company can now be solved faster than previously. However, receivable turnover have since decreased posing some threat to liquidity. Inventory turnover has experienced considerable increase indicating valuable productivity in the use of inventory, the increase from 7.9 in 2000 to current 9.76 clearly indicate this (Sila and Ballard 13-46).
The level of profitability for PepsiCo is considered moderate as revealed through the financial analysis. The company has experienced decrease in Gross Profit Margin, indicating an increase in the level of cost of goods sold over the years. This means that the company spends more on the production of their products compared to the output.
There is an increase of around 0.12% from the previous years. Net profit Margin has since changed creating some positive impact; the notable increase has been around 4.4% since the year 2000. Asset Turnover has however decreased from 2000 indicating that PepsiCo has got trouble in converting the available assets to sales (Sila and Ballard 13-46).
Conclusion The analysis of the financial ratios indicates that PepsiCo has slightly positive results on the capital structure. The ratios show positive Debt to Equity ratio, hence the company’s ability to finance its businesses debt free. The level of liquidity ratios revealed indicates that PepsiCo has got the capability of meeting short-time obligations better off than other competing beverage companies within the market.
Works Cited Coca-Cola Company. Hoovers, 2006. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Non-alcoholic beverage industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pepsi Company Overview. PepsiCo. Web.
Intelligence testing Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Theories of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence
Multiple intelligence theory
Effectiveness of intelligence testing
Introduction Intelligence entangles one of the subjects widely addressed in psychology. However, many scholars do not have a harmonized definition of what it constitutes. Some of the scholars hold the opinion of intelligence as a general ability, while others stick to the idea that intelligence entangles varying aptitudes, talents and skills.
Theories of intelligence Spearman “…a psychologist from Britain, used the factor analysis concept to describe an intelligence theory he referred to as the general intelligence by examining various mental aptitudes” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 2) Charles observes that individuals who performed excellently in one cognitive test had the highest probabilities of doing better in other tests.
Those who did badly in one test also reflected so in other tests. Consequently, he concluded that “intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 3).
The theory of primary mental abilities, put forward by Louis Thurston, looks at intelligence from a seven-mental-capability perspective point of view opposed from a general single ability point of view. The seven abilities that he described include reasoning, spatial visualization, perceptual speed, numerical ability, associative memory, verbal comprehension and word fluency.
In the Triarchic theory, Sternberg (1985, p. 45) laments that intelligence is “mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life”. Multiple intelligence theory, postulated by Howard Gardner, ignores the test score analysis subscribing eight intelligences laid on the foundation of abilities and skills appreciated within differing societal cultures.
Triarchic theory of intelligence Triarchic theory takes into corporation three facets: practical or conceptual sub theory, analytical or experiential and componential or analytical sub theories.
According to this theory, one can measure and test analytical intelligence theory using his/her capability levels of solving academic problems such as analogies or puzzles, which correspond well to the individual’s prior componential intelligence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sternberg (1985, p. 47) strongly inclines to the idea that “Analytical Intelligence (Academic problem-solving skills) is based on the joint operations of meta-components, performance and knowledge acquisition components of intelligence”.
The meta-components have the responsibility of evaluating, controlling and monitoring the cognitive processing abilities of an individual constituting the highest hierarchical order components that organize all other components of performance. The creative facet entangles insights capacity to respond to various noble stimuli and synthesis of these stimuli. Practical facet draws the capacity to grasp followed by amicable understanding of information then reflected in daily routines.
Sternberg (1985, p.103) says that the intelligence encompasses “Purposive adaptation to, shaping of, and selection of real-world environments relevant to one’s life”. Practical intelligence is a repercussion formed by the capability to actively adapt with respect to the environment so as to ensure objectives and goals are met, adjust accordingly as the novel situations vary and in case the priory mentioned two combinations fail, the individual relocates to a new environment.
Multiple intelligence theory Howard Gardner claims, “…expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people’s abilities” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 5). In his theory of multiple intelligence, therefore, he deviated from Charles Spearman’s theory approach, which indicted that “intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 6).
Gardener described eight characteristics that he totally believed could constitute intelligence. The intelligences in this theory include naturalistic, musical, logical mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, verbal linguistic, bodily kinesthetic and visual spatial intelligence. This theory offers the criteria for selecting the abilities that warrants for inclusion in the formation of any intelligence model for testing.
Effectiveness of intelligence testing Based on methods such as those put forward by Stanford Binet, Wechsler (WAIS) and WAIS-IV, intelligence testing proves effective in several ways. For instance, it gives opportunities for determination of the students who critically require special services. The intelligence testing methods prove effective in the determination of risk factors when it comes to delinquent behavior relationships particularly when deficiencies in students need to be determined.
Consequently, “By administering the IQ test, educators stand a good chance to determine which students have deficiencies, as well as what these deficiencies are” (Anastasi, 1996, p.53). Realization of such deficiencies in good time is vital if at all, the teachers wish to get the appropriate corrective measures worth implementing to ensure students back to norm in good time.
We will write a custom Essay on Intelligence testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More IQ tests too stand out as effective measures of intelligence since their results correlate with the measures of general knowledge such as SAT and ACT. “The American Psychological Association has found that those students who score well on an intelligence test have higher grades and learn/retain more of what they are learning in school than classmates with low IQ scores” (Anastasi, 1996, p.87).
Even in the light of effectiveness of the intelligence testing methods, critics’ record some dissatisfaction by arguing out that they poses some downfalls. One enormous down fall is that the intelligence testing fails to incorporate environmental factors which may account for the observed differences in the intelligence levels among students.
The tests also do not cover a wider spectrum of variables that may constitute intelligence such the ones identified in the multiple intelligence theory. Consequently, a larger number of students remain left out based on the consideration of their giftedness. This omission is critical since one can use IQ tests to determine an individual’s ability, which in turn reflects itself in job performance.
Conclusion People perceive intelligence as the general ability or their varying aptitudes, talents and skills. As discussed in the paper, four theories need substantial consideration in arriving at a parameter to measure intelligence levels. However, the existing intelligence testing methods among students remain crucial if at all academic deficiencies in schools need be identified and solved fast enough before students possessing them get out of track.
References Anastasi, A. (1996). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Cherry, K. (2011). Theories of intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/theories-of-intelligence-2795035
Sternberg, R. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
A Critique of Locke’s Natural Law of Property Essay a level english language essay help
Natural Rights Locke viewed property as a natural right derived from a natural law. Locke put forward that the natural law could be known by all the people through their reasoning (Tuckness, 2010)
His view on natural law is normative rather than descriptive. It is what should be happening in society and not what is happening in the society. Once man had been created, he has a right to live. Secondly he has a right to freedom, as long as it does not interfere with other’s people right to life. The third right is the right to property as long as it did not affect other people’s right to life and freedom.
His right to property comes from his right to live given by God and as such it would not be right to deny anyone their natural rights. Locke put forward that man had changed the natural order of things
Looking at Locke’s theory on natural law, there are a few points that I disagree with. There are natural rights such as the right to live and freedom if one adheres to the law of the land. However when it comes to land or property, with the introduction of a monetary medium of exchange, it ceases being a natural right.
That is why the governments of this world have two categories of land: public land and private property. Private property system allocates land to an individual and others are excluded from using the land without his or her permission (Waldron, 2010) Public land belongs to the state and no one can say they own it. One will only have access to land and its use if they have bought it at a price from the previous owner. Others cannot use the land without the owner’s permission.
Natural right to property Locke put forward that when God created man he gave him the right to property. All men had the opportunity to have land and enjoy it. The second activity that took place is that people started to apply their labor to the land and thus took possession of the land. Locke saw labor as something that was owned by the individual, the concept of self-ownership.
Whatever the man mixed with his labor became his (Locke, 1988 , II, para 27). As they applied productive labor to the land there was enough goods and services for everyone (Forde, 2001). However, further along in the society there was the introduction of a monetary medium. Now people could accumulate land.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it reaches this stage, it created the need of a political and social order (Suits, 1977). The government was put in place by the people and would only operate if the people consented to the government. Locke wrote that if the government did not ensure that the people got their natural rights of life, freedom and property, it would be overthrown.
Locke also saw labor as something owned by the individual however that is not the case now in the capitalist community. Marx put forward that in the capitalist society, the workers would not even own their own labor. It would come a point where they would have to work or starve to death as there was a reserve of unemployed labor in the market anxious to get employed. The worker’s labor therefore belongs to the rich (Simmons, 1992, p 335).
The worker therefore ends up working for low wages and he does not enjoy his productivity. It is the employer who ends up becoming richer. The poor laborer or worker, once the land becomes scarce cannot equitably enjoy the fruits of labor with the landowner. Furthermore, when the worker puts his labor on the land it does not become his, it is still held by the owner till he can afford to purchase it.
I agree with Locke on the need of a political and social order on the administration of property. Land is a scarce resource. It therefore needs a means of allocation that is measurable and equitable. Locke recognized this and that is why he stated the creation of a political society to see the allocation of property (Tully, 1980, p165). It therefore ceases being a natural right. One cannot just demand for a piece of land unless they have the financial resources to buy the land (Hume, 1978, p 489).
I agree with Marx that the government cannot be relied on to ensure Locke’s natural right to property as it would be under the control of the rich elite. (Marx