Modern tendencies in the progress of all the aspects of our life require our quick reactions to them and proper examining of their peculiarities. That is why it is necessary to find new approaches to the analysis of many aspects of our everyday life.
From this point of view, critical thinking is one of the most effective ways to consider the facts, events, phenomena and situations of our present-day society. There are some aspects of critical thinking according to which people can set definite objectives for their further realization.
They can be realized with the help of means of critical thinking which principles can be available for everyone. Thus, present-day reality gives us a lot of possible objectives for developing of our ability to critical thinking.
What are the reasons for becoming a better critical thinker? The necessity of improving of our skills in critical thinking greatly depends on the requirements of our private life and our studying process or career.
When we set definite goals in our life we should analyze their priorities, and we should determine the approaches for their achievement and make some conclusions. Thus, we should be rather objective or think critically.
It is important to remember that “critical thinking starts with logic. Logic is the unnatural act of knowing which facts you’re putting together to reach your conclusions, and how” (Robbins, 2005). Moreover, logic often determines the majority of studying and business processes.
That is why it is significant to develop your logical abilities to achieve higher results in your professional life. We should also be able to think over all our successes and failures critically to set next goals more objectively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, critical thinking is necessary for your making right decisions. When you should make some choice it is important for you to make the right one (Robbins, 2005). There are a lot of situations in our life when we must choose and make important decisions or react immediately.
To be sure that you are right, it is necessary to think over all the advantages and disadvantages of two or more factors or things among which you should choose critically, with analyzing of all the significant points.
Furthermore, the ability to think critically can help us to learn the principles of determining of the key aspects of definite things, situations, and phenomena. It is very important to know how to pay much attention to the most important aspects and not to think over less important ones.
Such skills can increase the level of your productivity at classes or at the workplace greatly, and it also can help you to be more aware of the circumstances in your private life. It is especially effective, if you learn how to determine the truth in different kinds of the information which you get and also determine truthful actions or reactions to the situations (Robbins, 2005).
One more important aspect or objective for improving of your critical thinking is the necessity to consider every situation in your life from different frames (Robbins, 2005). Why is it necessary? To have the whole and complete picture of a definite situation and to make right conclusions, you should analyze the situation from various possible points of view.
Moreover, this approach can help you to broaden the possibilities of your mind. In addition to that, there is always the human factor and it is important to be objective in your numerous interactions with people.
Nevertheless, our emotions often can prevent us from making right conclusions (Robbins, 2005). This fact increases the necessity to follow the principles of critical thinking greatly. It is very important to know the ways how to cope with our feelings and emotions in order to be successful in the life.
We will write a custom Essay on The Development of Ability to Critical Thinking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ability to think critically helps us to follow all the modern tendencies of our constantly developing society and be successful in private and professional life because of fulfillment of all our personal and career goals.
Reference Robbins, S. (2005). The path to critical thinking. Web. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge for Business Leaders. Retrieved from https://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/the-path-to-critical-thinking
Language and Communication for Business and Commerce Essay essay help site:edu
Communication in any organization is a very important aspect as it can make or break an organization. Companies generally do not have a public language (Lang, 2010). It is of great importance that when the hiring is taking place, there is absolutely no tribalism or nepotism going on and that people are hired purely on a merit basis. Cultural identity helps in facilitating an extensive role in organizational interpersonal relationships hence being of great relevance when it comes to cultural identity.
Culture is often defined as “the coherent, learned and shared view of a group of people about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, furnishes attitudes about what things are appropriate, and dictates behavior” (Jameson, 2007, p. 5). When it comes to organizations, people or groups of people are known to be the main components of cultures.
This is evident in that when individuals want to spend a substantial amount of time in an organization working together, they end up thinking alike and sometimes taking up the organization’s cultural practices though not necessarily.
If one was to study different organizations and the different professionals involved, one would understand this concept. For example in the defense force, the culture of hierarchy is very well displayed in that they themselves can tell the ranks that their fellow officers are in and they have a way or some form of respect for those in high ranks. This is evident when one watches them in their places of work.
This is a culture that was developed and has been passed on thus not an easy form of culture to disband. Most professions require that before you are indicted into the profession formally, you ought to sign a code of ethics and conduct stating that you will adhere to the laid out guidelines and procedures in a bid to live by the governing code (Coopl, Etzion
Positive Psychology Chronicle: A Retrospective at the Results Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Positivity Ratio Assessment
Satisfaction with Life Scale
Strengths Finders Assessment
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Because of the negative factors that have the most deplorable impact on most people nowadays, positive psychology as a means of letting a certain amount of positive emotions into people’s lives is absolutely inevitable.
Once considering the specifics of one’s character and realizing the issues that prevent the given person from efficient work and the relaxation, one can come up with specific ideas on how to improve the existing situation. With the help of the given chronicles, the mechanisms of people’s emotions and the change in the latter can be approached.
Thus, analyzing the peculiarities of people’s strengths, one is likely to come to certain conclusions about the role of positive psychology in the modern life and its impact on people.
Positivity Ratio Assessment Allowing me to assess the emotional state that I am most often in, the given activity offers rather fruitful discoveries concerning my own character and the main features of the temper.
Although the given test suggests only the figures that imply quite concise information, the Positivity Ratio Assessment is a perfect way to learn if the situation requires certain improvement.
The Positivity Ratio Assessment allowed me to evaluate the degree of positivity in my vision of the world. Providing a statement and offering me to evaluate how close to the truth the given statements are, the test allows to single out certain features of my character. The test helped me to figure out how positive my thinking is.
It is important to mark that in the given assignment, it is quite essential that five variations of answering the question are offered so that the results of the test could be more precise and, therefore, more credible. However, it is still worth keeping in mind that, even answering the questions of the test, one might not be sincere enough.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the obtained results, the score equals 1.17, which means that certain improvements should be made. Positioned as the “tipping point” (Fredrickson 2009) of the test, score 1.17 presupposes that certain progress towards a more positive life perception can be made.
Satisfaction with Life Scale I must mark that Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire presupposes much more room for specific clarifications and comments on each of the questions, and, thus, a larger variety of results.
The score that was the result of answering each of the questions made 31, since the points from 1 to 6 were labeled as “Strongly Agree” (as cited in Snyder, Lopez
Democracy in Canada Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Democracy in Canada
Canadian Democratic Gap
Introduction Democracy is a form of government where people have equal rights, make decisions concerning their lives and have a direct or indirect participation in the social, economic, cultural and political pillars within their country. This represents a political system where the choosing and replacing of the government is done by use of a free and fair election where there is active participation of citizens both in politics and civic life.
Democracy in Canada Canada is not only a federal state, but also one of the most developed economies in the world and in a world democracy audit of 2010; its democratic stature saw it clinch position 8 worldwide (1).
This represents a strong standing within its democratic structure and governance. In a nut shell, Canada is an independent constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy where the government is steered by a parliamentary system which consists of elected members of parliament. Canada also has a number of political parties and the government is headed by a Prime Minister.
Canadian Democratic Gap Though Canada is among the countries which are highly ranked in the realms of democracy around the world, it has a number of limitations and in-adequacies within its political system. Over the last decade, there have been a number of intensified calls for reformations within the democratic political institutions within Canada. This is in regard to how the democratic institutions serve to confer legitimacy upon the power of the Canadian state.
This democratic gap has been as a result of the populist tradition which is in dominance. The populist tradition holds that democracy is instituted by the practice of voting hence ignoring that these democratic societies are characterized by a number of other factors such as the rule of law, individual rights and protection liberties, freedom of press.
One of the challenges that the Canadian democracy has been facing is the lack of conforming to the Westminster parliamentary system especially when it comes to the administration of democratic procedure. This is as a result of the wide spread ignorance among the people and institutions on how the Canadian political system functions.
According to populists view, politicians are supposed to serve as public agents who propel the values of the population, but in Canada this is not the case because the public is divided on a number of interests that are related to pluralism of fundamental values (2). This is visible in that, the political tradition runs from the old Social Credit party, cuts through reform (The Canadian Alliance) and finally to the Conservative party.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aids the proponents of the populist tradition who hold that all political legitimacy should be anchored through a popular vote. This proves that there is a deficiency of knowledge and information among Canadians who are misconstrued by the government’s opinion poll. Thus, most of them do not understand and are ignorant on the mechanisms within which the government operates in the tenets of economic and political systems.
This has encouraged irresponsibility within the formations of political opinions as well as biasness in putting social preferences in order. For example, the fact those voters have to choose between parties while voting in respect to the current Bill which prefers Liberals to Conservatives and Conservatives to NDP party.
The other prevalent problem is the fact that the current democratic model supports and encourages a strategic orientation to the political process that it is inclined to serve the individual private interests as opposed to the Canadian population. This has decapitated the population from actively participating in political agendas. This shows the extent to which parliament has aggravated to individualist mode of rule as opposed to the public interest mode of approach.
Another pressing issue in the Canadian democratic structure is the mode of leadership approach. Democratic politics central function is to create government which is the same primary mandate for the parliament. This is not the case in Canada because parliamentarians blindly endorse whatever legislation that is tabled by the cabinet such as same sex marriage legislation in 2005 which brought a lot of issues within institutions, parliament and from the population.
The first-past-the-post system in Canada has had a number of negative effects where it has greatly promoted regionalism. It has also promoted the formation of majority governments in the provincial level where some of the parties which did not have a popular vote have been instrumental in creation of these majority governments (3).
The fact that the Canadian senate members are appointed rather than elected has led to low levels of popular legitimacy and representation of a number of people such as Aboriginal people. This has also brought in a compromise within the senate where small provinces have taken advantage of the reform to create a fifth column for provincial interests within the federal government.
Conclusion Issues pertaining to Canadian democracy raise the arguments as to whether Canada still stands to be among the most outstanding democratic states around the world. But in counter to this, it has had a number of commendable amendments which also propels it to be among the best. For instance, the Canadian government initiated a new youth program that is meant for the youth to be actively involved in the country’s politics.
We will write a custom Essay on Democracy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List 1. World Audit. (2010). World Democracy Audits: World Audit Website, Web.
2. Daniele A. (2004) Cosmopolitan Democracy and its Critics: A Review, London School of Economics
The ‘Obesity Epidemic’ and the Analytic Model of Bio-power Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The unhealthy child
Bio-power and Obesity
Introduction Childhood obesity is a term used to refer to children who are overweight by virtue of having excessive body fat, which can negatively affect their health and wellbeing. In light of the increasing number of children who are overweight and the embedding risk of young people developing complicated health problems, obesity in children has been referred to as an epidemic (Aphramor 2005, p. 315).
As a result, school health syllabuses, community resources, websites, television programmes, and health/physical education textbooks have been widely used to target young people in campaigns and intervention programs aimed at teaching them various ways of living healthy.
In so doing, societies and popular media have achieved to influence the way young people are thinking about their bodies and eating habits (Bordo 2003). In this paper, we will look at the various ways the society and popular media construct ‘the unhealthy child’ relative to the notion of bio-power.
The unhealthy child As mentioned earlier, one of the major discourses driving the changes in the way people think about their bodies and eating habits is the ‘obesity epidemic’. Here, the notion of biopower has been used to create certain ‘truths’ or ‘imperatives’ about childhood obesity, which are now widely accepted and used to regulate bodies and certain desirable qualities of health among the young people (Aphramor 2005, p. 317; Bauman 2001).
These ‘truths’ are explicitly delivered through various avenues including physical/health education in schools and communities. Therefore, through various media and information sources, people are led to believe that there is a clear causal relationship between overweight and obesity, which in turn affects one’s health.
In most cases, obesity and overweight have been used interchangeably, which then follows that one major instrument of measurement (Body Mass Index) has been used for both concepts.
Besides the body mass index (BMI) scales for characterizing overweight people, the children’s weight has been directly linked to various behaviors including playing computer games, lying around on the couch, and watching too much television among others (Jutel 2000, pp. 113-125).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, unhealthy children are also associated with poor eating habits such as consumption of sugary foods, less fruits and vegetables, and foods high in saturated fats. All these are major ‘truth’ claims, which are implicated in the way the society views overweight or obese children.
In the long run, it is common practice to have overweight or obese children being stigmatized and victimized because they are referred to as the ‘other’. And the most immediate risk of objectifying overweight children as the ‘other’ revolves around the way in which other groups of children relate or treat them.
Various surveys document that most overweight people get accosted in streets or reprimanded by their personal physicians for their poor health practices.
These and other acts of humiliation suffered by the overweight people lead them to blindly accept the imperatives underlying the obesity epidemic and the need to change their bodies and lifestyles in order to fit into the normalized social health prescriptions (Jutel 2000, p. 120).
Bio-power and Obesity According to Foucault (1997), the notion of bio-power involves certain truth discourses regarding the desirable attributes of human beings, authorities with the ability to hold the truth, intervention strategies to sustain life and health, and modes of subjectification, which allow people to work individually or collectively for the benefit of life and health.
As a result, the significant aim of bio-power is to improve life through seeking productive control over individual or collective life. Accordingly, the elements of bio-power highlighted in the foregoing discussions play a role in sustaining the idea of obesity epidemic in the society and popular media in many aspects.
Here, the obesity epidemic is treated as a ‘truth discourse’, thereby occasioning the popular intervention strategies delivered through various information channels such as health promotion policies, school curricular, and the media (Rabinow
Models in problem formulation and identification Essay essay help online: essay help online
There are several approaches to problem formulation and identification. Most of these models employ the use of various techniques. A person can choose one model over the other depending on the nature of the problem to be identified, and solution to be formulated.
Problem identification and formulation is rather a creative process. Therefore, this essay shall focus on creativity models used in problem formulation and identification. These models rely on problem definition as the key to its solution.
The simplex model use creativity to provide a practical method for a collaborative win-win problem solving model. The underlying technique in this process is the deliberate use of creativity in defining a problem. The model approaches a problem situation with a joint creative problem definition to provide a room for win-win results.
The model has four stages. The first stage involves the generation of the problem and fact finding, and then conceptualizes of potential definition, and idea of the problem. The next stage involves optimization of ideas, and the preferred action plan. Finally, the parties gain acceptance and implement the solution (Bateman
The role of the line manager in managing under-performance Report essay help online free
According to Swamson, 2009, human resources are the most precious factor of production that an organization has; to benefit from their intellectualism, an organization need to manage them effectively.
Human resources department has the role of ensuring the right number of staffs in terms of quality, quantity, and experience are maintained within an organization. to conduct their role effectively, personnel managers need the support of the entire workforce particularly those in management positions.
Line managers have the role of heading revenue-generating departments and are responsible for achieving an organization’s main goals; to effectively undertake this task; they need to manage their human capital effectively.
When managing their immediate subordinates, line managers play a crucial role in enhancing performance among the staffs; they act as team leaders, mentors, coaches, and team players (Armstrong, 2006). This paper discusses the role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs.
Human resources performance management Performance management within an organization refers to activities undertaken by an organization to facilitate the attainment of their corporate goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner.
The focus of effective performance management is to improve an entire organizations performance; it may focus on a certain area, department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service with the sole aim of ensuring that efficiency has been attained in an organization.
The concept of performance management was coined by Dr. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s where he looked at an organization from a scientific angle; he suggested that there is need to focus on total improvement of the organization for both behavior and results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human resources need to be managed effectively to facilitate the improvement of efficiency in the organization; the rate of performance as well as the processes they are using to attain high results need to be vetted to improve them accordingly.
Performance management aims at attaining three main corporate objectives as facilitating financial gain of an organization, enhancing and growing motivation in the workplace, and improving management control.
Performance can be seen as the difference between actual results verses desired results; it is always the desire of a company to record high actual results than the desired results/budgeted result.
Performance management is a continuous process that entails not just evaluation of the rate of performance of an organization but enacting such measures that enhance the improvement of processes within the firm.
Other than focusing on human capital, performance management aims at improving structures, infrastructures, and physical components of an organization; it involves partnering of teams of workers for future improvement.
To improve future processes and results, there is always the need to measure, gauge and analyze past and present performance of an organization (Bandt and Haines, 2002). Performance management can be analyzed into four main stages as:
At this stage the management has the role of setting goals and objectives to be attained with a specified period of time considering the available factors of production.
We will write a custom Report on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When setting the standards of the company, the management has to be very genuine on how it will evaluate the outcome of the organization; this calls for vetting the resources available and making the right combination of available assets.
The standards can only be attained if processes are improved and people skills enhanced to facilitate high performance. Performance indicators should also be placed and indentified as they assist keeping the company accountable of its current performance (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010)
With set standards and expectations, leaders should develop performance measurement indicators, the measures enacted include gap-analysis (gap analysis involves considering the difference between the set standards and the actual standards attained), outcomes of data systems, and statistical responses.
Reporting of progress After comparing the outcomes of a performance management process, the next most crucial aspect is to make regular reports to analyze the progress of the process.
There are times that the process may give mixed reports likely to suggest that the business is not keeping pace of the standards expected; in such an event the management have the role of enacting remedies to the process.
quality improvement process
With the standards set and the right pathway determined, the next most crucial exercise that managers should do is to document the determined right path of operation. It is through the documentation that changes can be effected within processes and human resources training and learning exercises are set.
Line managers Line managers are mandated with the role of managing micro-teams within an organization that accomplish a particular exercise in an organization. In current management strategy, tasks are divided among different task forces that are mandated with the role of giving a certain output to the organization.
For example a manufacturing company may have the following departments, manufacturing, processing, human resources, supplies, procurement, sales, marketing, finances among others; the above departments may be lead by departmental heads assisted by line managers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In small organizations, departmental heads can double up as line managers. Line managers have the role of improving their employee’s performance through their actions and leadership skills (John, 2004).
The role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise. They manage underperformance through:
team spirit enactment and reinforcement
Line managers are team leaders of the sections they head; they have the role of ensuring that their team is effectively managed.
Effectively managed teams have the capability of enhancing the growth of strong team spirit that leads to efficiency, innovation, invention, and creativity within teams. there are different management practices that line managers should enact to facilitate the growth of team spirit, they include enacting effective communication systems where team leaders and members can discusses issues freely, creating a favorable working environment, and acting as the linkage between subordinates and top management.
Management experts have suggested that one of the most causes of underperformance or poor performance among staffs comes from lack of team spirit and ineffective teams. When teams are weak, opportunities are lost and businesses exposed to risks.
The understanding of this major role of creating a favorable working environment is the parting-point that line managers need to understand and take effective measures as a result.
Orchestrate teams are created when line managers have effective teams management strategies thus issues affecting his team are addressed effectively to avoid chances of failure; orchestrate teams are highly productive.
line managers and talent management
Under performance within an organization can be managed if human capital talents and intellectual capabilities have been managed effectively. At the level of line management, managers at this level need to understand how to handle their employees to facilitate the growth of their talents and intellectualism.
Line managers should take their time and understand the strengths and weak points of their team members and enact such policies that combine strengths and weaknesses optimally for high results.
One area that results to low human resources performance is when their talents, skills, and strengths fail to be matched with the kind of job in their company; they tend to become bored and unsettled.
When tapping human capital talents, line managers should have the skills, professionalism, and right attitude to build a winning team. An organization made of well managed talents has a competitive advantage over its competitors as this is an asset that is limited to individuals.
Other than managing talents, line managers should have the capability of combining their human capital effectively; the combination should be able to take advantage of human capital strengths and mitigate against any human resources risks.
Morale and attitude of employees is determined by the kind of relationship the company develops with its employees. When morale and attitude is low, it follows that the employee’s production is low and inefficient.
When managing a large team, line managers should have the team further divided into smaller micro teams on a certain basis, this helps in dealing with matters from a micro-angle which is likely to bring better and more satisfying results to the company.
involving employees in decision making
Decisions are the driving force of an organization, organizations that have effective, quality, and timely decisions have strong competitive strength. In contemporary management systems, management gurus are emphasizing the need to make decision via scientific decision making process; scientific decision making process requires that management involve their subordinates when making business decisions.
The inputs of subordinates are considered crucial as they might have some insight information either derived from experience, education or their intellectualism. When human resources are engaged when making decisions, they develop ownership to the decision and work hard to ensure that it has been attained.
By itself, engaging human capital when making decisions results to highly motivated staffs that are willing to work an extra mile for the benefit of the company.
In the event of failure, the human resources are willing to learn from the past activity; they take it as if it is them who wronged thus they are willing to take up the entire blame. Since line manager is the person on the ground or who is close to the subordinates, he should be the first element to involve his human capital in decision making.
He should learn how to guide the subordinates in giving their views, how to disregard that information that is not essential, and how to differentiate quality input by employees without hurting either. With such a policy, the human capital become motivates and willing to give their input to the organization.
Looking at involvement from another angle, when subordinates are involved when making business decisions, and the decision give rise to better working condition and improved performance, they become motivated and willing to learn. the satisfaction that subordinates derive from the knowledge that their input has given positive results is enough motivation to assist them work harder and improve their performance in terms of efficiency and loyalty.
With this in mind, line managers have the responsibility of ensuring they have structures that involve subordinates in decision making and communicating the results of the decisions with time.
Any challenge that comes along should be discussed and solution sort for the same. as a manager, line managers should be given some float to assist them arrange some social activities like team building with the aim of thanking subordinates and involving them when forging the way forward for the organization (Swanson, 2002).
enhance learning and training in the organization at micro-level
Business processes are changing fast, for competitiveness and high competition, organizations need to have employees who are dedicated, experienced, and well versed with the changes in their industry. Line managers’ act as coaches, trainers, and mentors in their departments; the extended role of line managers means they need to be knowledgeable of what changes are taking place in their industry as well as how to handle the situation.
When training, mentorship, and coaching is well embraced, leaders learn the weak areas of their subordinates and make such efforts that will assist them improve in the said area.
Line managers have the role of establishing the training needs in an employees and enacting such measures that enhance training by the subordinates; by so doing the line manager is assisting human resources and top managers enhance performance and productivity in the company. training can be done by internal parties who are experienced in a certain area or can involve third parties like experts, gurus, and professionals in particular areas of interest.
line managers in recruitments, promotions, demotions, and performance appraisals
When making decision on the employee to deploy, human resources managers should consult line managers who advise them on the right candidate to deploy in terms of education, experience, age and gender.
It is through recruitment that an organization is able to get the right caliber of employees who can handle the business situation of the company effectively. In the event that line managers fail to offer such quality advice, they are likely to mislead the company and get employees who are inefficient, inexperienced and who have little input to give to the company (Pause, 2009).
When the right candidates have been selected for a particular position, line managers have the role of orienting them to the company systems and organizational culture. With the move to include them in organizational culture, the companies need to have a positive culture that will enhance production.
Positive organizational culture involves having structures that facilitate the development of favorable working conditions and informed decision making procedures.
After recruitments, line managers should be actively be involved when appraising employees, the appraisal model should be a balance score board system as it assists the management know the exact strength of its human capital and make decisions on the kind of interventions they can make to facilitate an orchestrate team.
When appraising line managers should give their recommendations on what they think is fit for the company and the employees at large. the appraisal method adopted by a particular company can break employees or build them, in the event they are appraised by a person they are sure understands their issues, they are likely to give some personal business related information that can be of much benefit when making decisions.
Sometimes differences occur between the appraisal gotten by an employee and what the employee think its right for him or her, in such cases, the employer has the right to determine the right approach not to discourage or de-motivate the employee.
In most cases, appraisal comes with an appreciation or an acknowledgement to the staff; the right performance appraisal is thus important as it will assist the company give the right appreciation to the right person for the good of the company.
Line managers play a direct role when choosing the kind of employees that have to be deployed in their organization; they need to advice the management on the right candidate and enact such policies that will see them get the employees on board.
The growth of a candidate in an organization is determined by line managers thus they need to be fair and just to their subordinates. When the right employees have been deployed, chances of under-performance will be reduced; there will be structures that will enhance staff skills development for the benefit of the company.
Management gurus have suggested that one of the best methods to ensure high productivity in an organization is to have the right number and quality of employees at all sections (McGoldrick, Stewart and Watson, 2001).
line managers and fulfillment of psychological contracts
One area that many organizations have ignored is the appreciation that they have engaged in some psychological contracts with their employees; they are affected by the psychological and emotional well-beings of their human capital.
Human beings have different attitude, potential, emotional intelligence, and perceptions; the differences need to be professionally managed as it affects the performance of employees. effective line managers ensures that the psychological contracts of their employees have been fulfilled; in the book, “Organizational Behavior” by, MeShane, Olekalns, and Travaglione, the writers are of the observation that for a highly motivated staff, managers should look into their psychological, emotional, and intellectual well-being; this looks into the social aspects of employees and assists keeping them at peace with the system.
The advantage that line managers have is that human behavior can be predicted as well as molded; the most important thing is to know the right intervention to make to facilitate positive behavior reinforcements. line managers assisted by policies enacted by human resources management should enact policies that will facilitate the growth of positive behavior in their organization; the right method create an environment that enables a favorable working condition where employees feel their emotional and psychological needs are respected (Legge, 2004).
In managers in top management decision making and advising their subordinates When making corporate goals and decisions, line managers have the role of participating in the decision making and making sure that the right decisions have been made.
When in top management meetings, line managers should understand that they are representing a certain section so any decision that is likely to affect the section negatively should not be made. In this case, the line manager should understand that he is a link between the top management and subordinates staffs thus should keep a top gear approach which looks into issues from all sides.
Underperformance may result from decisions that are not attainable; this means that it might be optimism on the part of the management as they might not understand what is actually happening on the ground.
Line managers should be up to the challenge where they advise on the attainable targets as well as advice on what should be done to make the attainment of the goals even easier.
For instance they might recommend the adoption of a particular technology, buying of machinery or any other business action that will facilitate the attainment of corporate goals and objective.
It adds no value for line managers sit in top management positions without offering insight details that can assist in making the right attainable targets for their team. Despite this, the attainment should be justified and one that will ensure that the talents, capabilities, and skills in the team have been utilized effectively (MeShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2020).
Conclusion Line managers have the role of managing micro-teams within an organization; they are team leaders mandated with the task of enacting policies that fit their organization model. The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise.
To manage underperformance line managers should work with top management and subordinates to determine their organizations strengths and weakness.
With an understanding of their organizations strengths and weaknesses, line managers should actively be involved in decision making to ensure their team’s interests has been considered. Some of the management practices that the managers need to take include talent management, skills development, psychological contracts fulfillment, and performance appraisals.
References Armstrong, M., 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. New York: Kogan Page.
Bandt, A. and Haines, S., 2002. Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.
Beardwell, J. and Claydon, T. ,2010. Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
John, B.P., 2004. Organizational Behavior, from theory to Practice. New York: Wiley.
Legge, K., 2004. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
McGoldrick, J., Stewart J.,
Intercultural Awareness Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages of Intercultural Communication
Introduction Culture implies different things to different groups. For example, anthropologists define culture as the way people live. Others define it as the system that incorporates the biological and technical behaviors of community within their verbal and nonverbal systems.
NASW (2001) defined culture as “the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communication, actions, customs, beliefs, values; and the institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group” (NASW, 2001, 1).
It is the totality of behavior passed from one generation to the other. Intercultural awareness campaigns try to figure out how people understand each other irrespective of their cultural differences (NASW 2000). 21st century living is described as a multicultural society in a global village.
Therefore, one may ask, what kind of communication and interactions are required to create a climate of respect, diversity tolerance with unified common goals? More so, one may wish to find out whether it is possible for neighbors to embrace their cultural differences (NASW, 2007).
Bennet outlined a great scenario on how a group of primates gathered around a bonfire would fight or take off on the sight of another group of primates heading to their fire place. This is exactly how it happens even to the more advanced primates Homo sapiens.
Arguably, our ancestors avoided people from other cultures in the best way they could. If all measures to avoid their interactions were unsuccessful, they opted for other measures such as converting them into their way of life.
Those who became stubborn to assimilations were ripped out of existence through killing; there is evidence of genocide from the history. Therefore, dealing with cultural differences, understanding it, embracing it and respecting it is vital to intercultural awareness and especially communication (Bennet 1998).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Intercultural Perspective Understanding objective culture is very different to understanding a foreign culture. There exist perspectives, which view that learning about other cultures, their social, economic, political way of life, their linguistics, arts and so forth are sufficient to understand culture.
However, there are professors, in such sectors as linguistics, who still are unable to communicate with people from that particular community irrespective of how broad their knowledge is. Understanding objective culture merely adds knowledge about the foreign culture but does not generate much cultural competence.
On the other hand, understanding phenomenological features that define a group, and the way the group reasons and behaves will mark a step to identifying with the culture of that group. It is defined as subjective culture.
Subjective culture is defined by Bennet (1998) as “the learned and shared patterns of beliefs, behaviors, and values of groups of interacting people” (p. 1). This type of perspective is said to be more likely to lead to intercultural competence. However, it requires understanding objective culture to understand subjective culture and to have social reality (Bennet 1998).
Many people ignore the advantages of cultural orientation. Most of them, view intercultural communication as the grammatical rules applied in spoken and written practices.
To some, learning about cultural practices poses a threat to their values. Some of the non verbal perspectives of communication from various cultures are picked from TV programs and movies, which have very little for communication purposes or, which may be of faulty conceptions (Bennet 1998).
Another problem with cultural perspectives is stereotyping and generalization. For example, it is very common to take notice of people discussing that a certain lady is not behaving like a Latin woman and so forth. This is so especially with the Arabic culture and Islam where gender roles are strictly divided.
We will write a custom Essay on Intercultural Awareness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is hard to find women from such communities in leading positions in politics or other fields. Stereotypes occur when behavioral assumptions are held by all members of a particular culture as shared traits. Such characteristics assumedly common can be respected by the observer (positive stereotype) or be disrespected (negative stereotype).
Either of the stereotypes is negative in intercultural communication because they often give false conceptions regarding the community or have partial truth in them. Secondly, stereotyping is an act of encouraging prejudice among the cultures.
However, it is important for a culture to develop identity to make a cultural generalization. Assuming that each person is an individual may lead to naive individualism (Martin
Process Analysis and Problem Solving Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction The level of competition in different industries in which organizations operate today is high and calls for increased competitiveness. In order to improve the competitiveness, firms could engage in different firm activities that may include process improvement.
This may call for analysis of the problem and seeking different ways of solving the issues. In order to improve business processes, an organization needs to have the necessary knowledge and expertise. The business process could be attained through establishment of change such as business process reengineering.
In spite of the good intentions of the changes, there is always resistance to change that could lead to project failure as examined in this paper. In addition, this paper examines reengineering as an example of process improvement in organizations.
History of Process Improvement Change is a constant element in organizations given the dynamic business environment that firms operate in. Organizations operate in many business environments that are characterised by free entry and exit, increasing competition and technological advancement.
In order for organizations to maintain their competitiveness, they need to embrace change and improve their manufacturing processes, service delivery and operations. Process improvement has occurred in firms over many years.
Over many years, quality improvement in firms was done using regular inspection and changed over time to total quality management and the modern six sigma approach. Process improvement concept was first used by Harrington James in 1991 when he published in his book on process improvement.
The method involves redesigning and reengineering business process in order to improve quality of an organization’s output while gaining a competitive edge at the same time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since its introduction, process improvement has been able to be applied in many firms. The application of information technology in the process is a vital ingredient that will revolutionalize the future of process improvement in firms.
Process Improvement in Firms The improvement of business processes in an organization has not been smooth for most firms. As the management of an organization introduces change in the company, there is always resistance to change with most employees opting to remain with the current processes of the firm.
According to Hammer