Table of Contents Introduction
The rise of Radical Islam
Consequences of Radical Islam on society
Introduction The late 20th and the early 21st centuries were characterized by the revival of the role of religious ideology on the political stage. Radical Islam gained widespread popularity during the time due to the prevalence of Islamism ideology as an important facet in the rise of religious political ideology across the globe (Farmer, 2007).
In the past, the definition of Islam was clear and simple; all those Muslims who testify that God is one and Muhammad is His prophet and who pray towards Mecca (Farmer, 2007). Islam allowed for a substantial diversity of both beliefs and practice but certain limits had to be observed.
However, this changed with the emergence of radical Islam. Radical Islam, commonly referred to as Islamism, refers to a set of ideologies which hold that in addition to being a religion, Islam is a political system which has led to the emphasis for political unity among contemporary Muslims. The movement has thrived primarily due to the economic and political distress spread across most regions of the world as well as social strain and communal humiliation.
The rise of Radical Islam Islamism is generally viewed as a struggle for religious supremacy and rejection for modernity. Radical Islam emerged as a movement against western influence and modernization which they considered as conflicting with the practice of pure Muslims. Consequently, the movement targets those who are responsible for these innovations such as the Western countries and perceives them as ‘The enemy’.
With the rapid and unstoppable spread of Western influence, the radical Muslims continue to perceive the world as “the prison for believers and the paradise for unbelievers” (Schanzer, 2002 p 1). While most Muslims were flexible and adapted to the rapid changes resulting from industrialization, modernization and westernization, radical Muslims rejected these changes and instead created a rigid ideology that borrowed heavily from traditional values and laws of the Koran.
This gave rise to the modern day radical Islamism. They argued that the Islamic laws were being replaced by Western values and further claimed that Allah was angered by His people for accepting the western values and was consequently punishing them. With time the radical Islam vision crystallized and in addition to rejection of the Western values, the movement began rising against Arabic governments which supported the West. Consequently, political reforms became one of the major agendas of radical Islam.
Consequences of Radical Islam on society The ideologies and beliefs held by radical Islam have led to actions that directly or indirectly affect the society. Radical Islam introduces a conjunction between supreme value and rent seeking behavior which needs to be emphasized upon when discussing the economic impact of the movement in the society (Inbar
Deviant behavior: Prostitution Essay online essay help: online essay help
Deviant behavior is an act that breaches the cultural norms. Norms are considered to be the behavior standards that define the actions that are acceptable in the society. Thus they form a paradigm for predicting actions or behaviors in the society. This means that deviance is any “thought, feeling or act” (Clinard
The Dangers of Dogmatism With Approaches Adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Martin Luther King Jr.
Introduction Dogmatism essentially refers to strict adherence to rules and procedures at the expense of reason and alternative views. The opposite of dogmatism can therefore be referred to as rationalism. Dogmatism is essentially a leadership approach practiced by many leaders across the globe and has its own advantages and disadvantages.
This study will however focus on the dangers of dogmatism with regards to the leadership approaches adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato. This analysis will be analyzed in two segments of the study where the first approach will analyze Martin Luther King Jr and the second part will analyze Plato.
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King contributed a lot to America’s civil rights movements and because of his contribution; he continues to receive immense acclamation to date. Some of the most memorable iconic events in King’s life were the Montgomery bus boycott and the historic march to Washington where he addressed close to a quarter million people in the “I have a dream” speech (Hall 1). Most of King’s beliefs can be traced to the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi who also fought for the same course he did (Hall 1).
King’s time as a civil rights leader was characterized by fearless fights against the government and social injustices which evidently brought him a lot of trouble in the eyes of the law and which ultimately caused him his life. Some of King’s boldest opposition against social repression and the government earned him the title of the “most effective and notorious Negro leader” who existed in his time (Hall 10).
However, it is important to note that King had an unfound positivism in reason that consequently provides the background to this study because he was in open opposition to dogmatism which was advocated by leaders who tried to silence his activities.
The letter from Birmingham is one main event which is characteristic of King’s civil rights movements. The letter from Birmingham is essentially a representation of King’s opposition to dogmatism which was also being advocated by other civil rights leaders.
The letter of Birmingham was a letter written in response to specific clergymen from Alabama who were in contempt of King’s civil rights actions which were being carried out in the streets. It was written in April 12th 1963 in response to recommendations by the clergymen that King should have undertaken his civil rights fight in court and not on the streets (Hall 17). This point of view was characteristic of dogmatism where the law was upheld at the expense of reason.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The courts signified an oppressive channel where civil rights causes could not be achieved because of the prejudice and injustices that existed in the judicial systems at the time. In fact, this sentiment was also harbored by King because in a section of the letter, he made the clergymen know that the aims of his civil rights movements could not be achieved in the courts but on the streets (Hall 17).
This viewpoint can be equated to reason because the Alabama clergymen were not heeding to reason when advising King to take his civil rights fights to court. Moreover, King justified his pursuit of justice on the streets from the fact that the protests he organized were essentially peaceful and nonviolent; meaning that all he was trying to do was get his message across to the leaders in the most peaceful manner possible.
Moreover, King justified his street actions through the letter after identifying that the courts were basically very slow and therefore, waiting to get justice through the system almost meant that the people would not get justice altogether. According to him, he was justified to protest on the streets because he was essentially advocating for the repeal of unjust laws which were repugnant to justice. In fact, the letter is quoted as having contained the famous statement, “injustice anywhere is a threat to justice anywhere” (Hall 18)
King’s refusal to pursue other means to undertake his civil rights activities exposed his inclination to reason (a diversion from dogmatism) which was blind to any alternative means to coerce him out of his main objective of liberating the oppressed. This is the scenario evidenced from the Letter from Birmingham jail where he wrote to express his opposition to people who thought that his civil rights acts were unwise and untimely (Hall 24).
In fact, his unstoppable quest to liberate the oppressed can be generally perceived as inconsistent with the will of a minority people who wanted to maintain “status quo” by denying the people justice through the courts. The diversionary tact advocated by the clergymen was blatantly illogical, considering the courts were also a means to oppress the poor and deny them justice.
Plato Plato was a world-renowned Greek philosopher who had a significant contribution to basic disciplines such as epistemology, metaphysics and other others (Hare 1). Most of the current western philosophic composition and scientific developments were basically built on Plato’s philosophies.
There is enough evidence (based on Plato’s’ life) of his open refusal to heed to unjustified claims to convict Socrates, who was one of his teacher (through an analogy of the Trial and death of Socrates). The trial and death of Socrates essentially talks of two unjustified claims that were used to try and sentence Socrates to death (Jowett 1).
We will write a custom Essay on The Dangers of Dogmatism With Approaches Adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Plato was one of Socrates’ students, Plato gives a firsthand account of the trial of Socrates, although evidently, through his narration of the trials, he portrays Socrates in a positive light. This portrayal categorizes Plato as a unique leader who essentially fights dogmatism (though not firsthand).
This fact is affirmed by the fact that Socrates’ trial and death was essentially aimed at upholding dogmatism because it was not based on reason but rather a bunch of false allegations that were aimed at silencing him. Plato’s open portrayal of this fact clearly manifests his intention to uphold reason in the midst of mediocrity.
These factors withstanding, it is important to note that Plato significantly underscores the dangers of dogmatism because they essential go against it, even though the issue in contention was essentially highly politically charged and with significant consequences. This can be evidenced from the fact that Socrates was sentenced to death on false grounds because he was also against dogmatism (Jowett 1). Plato upholds this view.
In Plato’s Republic, we can also see how Plato underscores the dangers of dogmatism when he tries to establish the concept of justice by identifying whether just people are happier than unjust people (Cornford 2). After undertaking this research, Plato identifies that justice is better than injustice.
From this point of view, we can see that Plato is more sympathetic to reason as opposed to rules and procedures which essentially define the concept of dogmatism. However, the empirical reality is that justice is not an obvious reality for most people and even though many people struggle to attain it, it comes at a high price. This is comparatively the concept Plato tried to underscore in his republican excerpt, where he advocates for justice (which comes at a high price) (Cornford 2).
Conclusion This study notes that dogmatism has a lot of dangers if it is succinctly followed. However, Plato and King actually underscore its dangers by advocating for principles that are against dogmatism. King underscores the dangers of dogmatism from the fact that he heeds to reason at the expense of bureaucracy and the law. This is evidenced from the fact that he refuses to listen to the Alabama clergymen who proposed that he takes his civil rights fights to the corridors of justice, as opposed to the streets.
He therefore writes the Letter of Birmingham to protest against this view, even though he was in jail for organizing such protests in the first place. The danger of dogmatism can be evidenced from the fact that he was jailed for organizing civil rights protests in the first place, but his quest to fight on, against all odds, is a significant diversion from the ordinary (because he was oblivious to the consequences that may befall him if he continued to do so).
Plato also exposes the same concept of anti-dogmatism approaches from the trial of Socrates because Socrates was tried and sentenced to death for advocating for reason, in spite of the fact that most people at the time were not for the idea of reason over law. Portraying Socrates in a positive light was therefore a big risk for Plato because he could have been pursued in the same manner as Socrates. The same cause is also pursued from excerpts of the Republic where Plato advocates for justice at the expense of injustice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Dangers of Dogmatism With Approaches Adopted by Martin Luther King Jr and Plato by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Comprehensively, we can conclude (by learning from King and Plato’s bravery in the mid of mediocrity) that though dogmatism has its dangers, it always pays to heed to reason because this is what essentially sets leaders apart from the rest. Evidently, we can see that Martin Luther King is a legend to date and Plato is equally celebrated in his own light. These acclamations are traced from their fight against dogmatism and their bravery as well.
Works Cited Cornford, MacDonald. The Republic of Plato. Plain Label Books, 1945. Print.
Hall, Michael. Martin Luther King Jr.: Civil Rights Leader. New York: ABDO, 2008. Print.
Hare, Richard. Plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. Print.
Jowett, Benjamin. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Four Dialogues. Barnes and Noble Publishing, 2004. Print.
Mixing Black and White: The Wall of Misunderstanding Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents The Way It All Started: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
The Passing: Halfway to Freedom
The Time to Crop: Dead or Alive?
Success and failure are the sides of one and the same coin, and sometimes everything depends on the angle you take to look at them. The Civil Rights Movement emerged, reached its climax and slowly withered, yet it has brought its results. Only because of the fact that in the end of the great battle the issue of financing came to the forth and literally stifled the movement, there is no ground to claim that people gave up the will to fight for their rights.
The Way It All Started: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Inspired by the most rebellious and yet so natural urge to become a part of society and casting off the label of outcasts, the Afro-Americans had the heart to start the longstanding battle which brought much suffering and pain to all those involved.
It is completely incredible that even children, feeling the rebellious atmosphere, participated in the protests as far as their feeble flesh and strong spirit allowed them. Feeling that the freedom gets one step closer to them with every beating of their hearts and every word said in defense of the Afro-Americans, the black people came united to create the unparalleled movement. This was much like an escape from the prejudice and injustice of the world of white people.
Among Moody’s reminiscences there is the following one: “I was called to the front door of the church to help lead the marches in a few freedom songs.” (49) Nowadays there are probably very few people who could understand the stinging feeling of grief which Moody’s words are shot through with:
It’s a shame, it really is a shame. This morning Medgar Evers was murdered and here you sit in a damn classroom with books in front of your faces, pretending you don’t even know he’s been killed. (Moody 47)
It was clear then that the movement was to succeed. The people were so much determined that there was hardly anything that could stop them. At least, so it seemed then.
The Passing: Halfway to Freedom Things changed dramatically when the movement was considered to be “all over” by “white liberals” (Walker 81) and was supposed to be unprofitable for them. However unbelievable that might sound, this very pathetic reason drove to the cessation of the movement. There are still a lot of issues to consider about it, though. As Walker said, recollecting the old black lady and her participation in the rallies and the movement itself: “For such a woman the Civil Rights Movement will never be over as long as her skin is black.” (81)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was obvious that the movement could be called to halt as long as people remembered where they belonged to and who they really were. A matter of self-identification and the national pride, the movement could not be stopped, especially in such a trivial way. Deep in their hearts, the black people were sure that the game was worth the candles. These bloody battles did have their effect, and the positive results were to come – though, perhaps, only the descendants could see them.
The Time to Crop: Dead or Alive? No matter what politicians might say about the cessation of the movement and its uselessness, it did bring its crop, rather bitter though, with the tough battles and with shedding the blood of the innocent. Fading away as time passed, the pain subsided, but people still remember about the sufferings which they had to survive and the fights they had to take. As long as they keep all those reminiscences, the movement cannot be called a failure. The first victory in the long-lasting battle for pride and liberty, it will stay in people’s hearts for good.
Works Cited Moody, Anne. From Coming of Age in Mississippi. The Portable Sixties Reader. Ed. Ann Charters. New York, NY: Penguin, 2003. 45-51. Print.
Walker, Alice. The Civil Rights Movement: What Good Was It? The Portable Sixties Reader. Ed. Ann Charters. New York, NY: Penguin, 2003. 80 86. Print.
Are human activities behind the exacerbating level of global warming? Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Global warming has caused a lot of destruction in various ecosystems. The worse part of it is the fact that a consensus is yet to be reached on what actually causes it. This fact has led a number of individual scientists and research organizations to conduct research in a bid to establish what the causes of global warming are. Although a number of findings have came out of such research activities, most of these research activities lead to the conclusion that global warming is a result of human activities.
Introduction Global warming has, for a number of decades, been a major issue affecting humans worldwide. Its environmental effects are so adverse that it has led to the extinction of several species of both flora and fauna. Despite the controversy surrounding the causes of global warming, there has been substantial academic research showing that human activities are responsible for the continued warming of the earth’s surface.
Some critics of this fact have been arguing that the sun is continually getting warmer, but their arguments are based on speculations. This paper is a proposal for a research seeking to establish the cause of global warming, and determine if global warming is as a result of human activities (Global Warming 2009, p. 1).
Literature review As stated in the discussion above, the question of the cause of global warming has sparked a lot of controversy from both environmentalists and their critics. While most environmentalists believe that global warming is caused by human activities, their critics argue that the sun is continually getting hotter, and thus they are of the opinion that human global warming is not a result of human actions.
Despite this controversy, reliable research has shown that the production of greenhouse gases by the activities of humans is the leading cause of global warming. These are gases like carbon dioxide and methane. Their effect on the atmosphere is that once they accumulate in the atmosphere, they form a blanket of greenhouse gases that cushion heat from escaping to the atmosphere. This leads to continual heating of the earth’s atmosphere.
Some of the activities that produce greenhouse gases include burning of fossil fuels, incomplete combustion of gas in faulty automobiles, and the like.
The main problem with global warming is that it is self sustaining. For instance, global warming leads to the melting of ice caps on the highest points of mountains. These caps normally act as heat reflectors, and thus when they are molten, heat from the atmosphere has worse effects on the earth’s surface. As mentioned earlier, global warming creates harsh living conditions in a variety of ecosystems, and endangers the existence of species existing in these ecosystems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology This research can be conducted by integrating both field research, and desk research. This is because a lot of research has been conducted on this topic and it is imperative that existing knowledge on this topic be utilized.
The field research will thus be used to fill the gaps in the existing research, and also establish the truth behind the possible negative effects of past synergies in a number of research documents. This will ensure that the findings of the research are credible, and that they are guided by the most probable cause of global warming (Godfrey, 2010, p. 1).
Conclusion As evidenced in the discussion above, global warming is caused by human activities. The proposed research is bound to prove this fact, and thus be in agreement with research that has been done on this topic. The research hypothesis can thus be formulated that “global warming is not caused by human activity” so that in the end, the hypothesis is rejected.
Since global warming has been proven, by past research, to be caused by human activities, the proposed research will act as a reinforcement of this fact, and bring fresh ideas on the measures that can be taken to mitigate the effects of global warming. It is thus of essence that once this kind of research is completed, its findings and recommendations are taken seriously and implemented diligently.
Reference List Global Warming. (2009). Global warming. Web.
Godfrey, G. (2010). Global warming. Retrieved from https://editors.eol.org/eoearth/wiki/Main_Page
Concept of Consumer Society in Modern Society Essay custom essay help
Key Concepts Living in the modern world people live in the consumer society. To get a closer understanding of the notion ‘consumer society’, people should pay attention to the life style they follow. Having a lot of different goods at the market, people consume those and buy more and more other goods. One of the main characteristic features of a consumer society is that while consuming different products people do not do it independently, in vacuum.
People are inevitable participants of the consumer society, as buying products they want to buy more and more other related or dependant ones. For example, when people buy a toothbrush, they are unable to use it isolated from other objects, they need toothpaste to get the highest effect from the bought product. The same is about other products, buying some goods, people always want to buy more.
Ideology is a notion which may refer to different spheres of human life. One of the broadest meanings of this notion is the way people think. Ideology is not just the ideas people have in their minds in the relation to one specific problem. Ideology is a set of rules and norms people live with. People should not confuse ideology and culture as these are two absolutely different notions. Culture is an objective notion which just exists in the society.
Culture is created out of traditions which have been formulating for many years. Ideology is a personal subjective treatment of the surrounding world, the attitude to each other and the desire to show a piece of a picture as a whole. Ideology tends to make complex notions simple. Propaganda is one of the sides of ideology, as its main idea is the conviction of other people that his way of thinking is the only correct.
Semiotics is a notion which is aimed at exploring different signs and symbols. One of the best practical applications of semiotics is the creation of different planned or constructed languages. Living in the modern world, it is impossible to imagine contemporary life without computers.
Programming languages are an inevitable part of any computer program and software. Being divided into different branches, semiotics studies different qualities of sign systems, the relation between signs and symbols and their meaning, the connection between symbols their interpretation. Speech and language are the main objects of research in semiotics.
Envy, Desire and Belonging in Advertising
Envy, desire and belonging in advertising are the notions which can exist only in the consumer society. When people watch advertising they want what they see. The feeling of desire may be provoked by a number of reasons. It is not a problem when people want what they see because they need it, advertisement just helps them choose a brand. The problem appears when people want to buy a product because they envy those who possess it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is called an advertising belonging. No matter whether people need this product or not, they will surely buy it as their desire to possess the thing others have is too big. All these notions, envy, desire and belonging in advertising are closely related. To become free from advertising belonging, people should either stop envy those who has an opportunity to belong a specific product or should enclose themselves from the desire to buy it.
There are a number of different definitions of mass culture, and depending on the stress the author makes in his/her definition, this notion have either positive or negative connotation. Having referred a contemporary culture to both mass and popular, it is possible to compare and contrast these two different opinions.
On the one hand, “mass culture is not and can never be good” (Macdonald 43), on the other hand, being mass, “popular culture is linked, for so long, to questions or tradition, of traditional form of life” (Hall 442). Thus, identifying the notion of contemporary culture, we have faced the problem whether to consider it as a positive or a negative issue.
To answer the question whether mass and popular cultures are the elements of contemporary culture and whether they are identified as positive or negative phenomena, we are going to consider different opinions and key arguments offer by the following thinkers, Stuart Hall, F.R. Levis, Dwight Macdonald, and Raymond Williams.
“Mass Culture Is not and Can Never Be Good”
Having stated this idea, Macdonald strictly supports it with the arguments. He is sure that a culture is something individual, which is created by and provided for a human being. Mass use of culture eliminates the very idea of individuality that makes this notion lose its primary meaning.
The following idea is used in support, “a large quantity of people [are] unable to express themselves as human beings because they are related to one another neither as individuals nor as members of communities – indeed, they are not related to each other at all, but only as something distant, abstract, nonhuman”( Macdonald 43).
Looking at the problem from this angle, it is possible to agree with Macdonald, but to investigate the truth, it is important to check the meaning of the word ‘culture’ to make sure that the author considers it in a proper way. Reading an essay by Raymond Williams who tries to explore the origin and etymology of the words ‘culture’ and ‘mass’, many different definitions of the word ‘culture’ was identified. But, there was not mentioned that culture means individual expression or a possession to a specific human being.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Consumer Society in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Raymond underlines that the variations of whatever kind of the word ’culture’ “necessarily involve alternative views of the activities, relationships, and processes which this complex word indicates” (Raymond 28). Thus, the word culture does not mean a specific characteristic of one particular person, it is a set of issues which characterizes a group of people.
The Benefits of Mass Culture
According to Hall, popular culture has a positive connotation as it reflects traditions people have. To make the discussion clear, popular culture is a mass culture, as “the things are said to be ‘popular’ because masses of people listen to them, buy them, read them, consume them, and seem to enjoy them to the full” (Hall 446). The main idea of this opinion is that if the culture is mass and people like it, it is popular and there is no need to speak about negative connotation of mass culture.
But, Levis tries to contradict this point of view by means of providing some negative effect of such mass popular culture. It is not a secret that culture changes.
The changes which occur in the society may be too fast and people may not even notice those, but, if too look at the problem broadly, it can be easily noticed that parents are unable to understand their children, “generations find it hard to adjust themselves to each other, and parents are helpless to deal with their children” (Levis 34). Thus, the generations which are so close have different cultures.
The inability to have an individual or at least family culture leads to misunderstanding and conflicts. Hall can contradict this opinion stating that it is not the culture which changes and makes people become different, it is the change in the relationships. Culture changes when a specific tradition becomes dominant over another one. He states that “almost all cultural forms will be contradictory in this sense, composed of antagonistic and unstable elements” (Hall 449).
Contemporary Culture as Mass and Popular One: Personal Opinion
Having considered an opinion of different thinkers on the problem devoted to culture and its essence, I came to the conclusion that contemporary culture is a mass popular culture which denotes the present ideology of people. Thus, I definitely disagree with Macdonald and his point of view that “mass culture is not and can never be good” (Macdonald 43).
The problem of likes and having a personal opinion appears in the frames of this issue. Living in the age of mass entertainment, some people still manage to appreciate high and avant-garde culture.
So, it may be concluded that popular culture in the contemporary world is more than just an opinion of the vast majority of people, being interesting to a limited group of people, a specific culture may be popular as well. It is not the opinion of a separate individual, so it is also mass. Being in demand among a group of people, it is considered to be popular and mass. Mass in this meaning may denote something revolutionary and opposite (Williams 32).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Consumer Society in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Turning to the personal opinion, I mostly agree with Hall who states that popular culture is a mass one which expresses the ideas of people who consume the cultural products. Culture should be and is referred to the tradition. It can be even stated that culture and tradition are interconnected notions which should always come together. Still, I also agree with Levis, who highlights that culture is in crisis now (34), thus it is impossible to discuss this problem.
One may state that culture and tradition are not related as there are numerous directions in the modern culture of one specific nation. A close consideration of this problem allows us state that the culture of one specific nation is changing by means of influence and domination of different streams, but still, there is always something traditional in ach new trend which makes this very culture related to the national tradition of people.
Conclusion In conclusion, contemporary culture is both mass and popular as the characteristic features of these notions coincide with the understanding of the modern culture. I strongly believe that culture should be connected with traditions as only in this way each nations will remain particular and unique. Cultural and traditional features are the most characteristic for describing different nations.
Works Cited Hall, Stuart. “Notes on deconstructing ‘the popular.” Cultural theory and popular culture: a reader. Ed. John Storey. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 1998. 442-453. Print.
Levis, F.R. “Mass Civilisation and Minority Culture.” Popular culture: a reader. Eds. Raiford Guins, and Omayra Zaragoza Cruz. New York: SAGE, 2005. 33-38. Print.
Macdonald, Dwight. “A theory of mass culture.” Popular culture: a reader. Eds. Raiford Guins, and Omayra Zaragoza Cruz. New York: SAGE, 2005. 39-46. Print.
Williams, Raymond. “’Culture’ and ‘Masses’.” Popular culture: a reader. Eds. Raiford Guins, and Omayra Zaragoza Cruz. New York: SAGE, 2005. 25-32. Print.
The impact of mergers on consumers, industry, and the society Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Merger is the process whereby two or more companies combine together such that all their operations are carried out as one. Over the recent past, there have been several mergers of firms within oligopolies. When two or more companies merge, the control of their assets becomes vested on under one control.
However, there are some regulations which guide the process. In this study, there is a need to distinguish between a merger and acquisition or takeover. The main difference between the two is that in the merger the company retains a shared interest in the corporation formed after merging.
On the other side, one company may buy a larger fraction of its partner’s stock which leads to imbalance in the ownership of the new formed company. The main aim for the companies to form merges is to increase their profitability. When two companies merge, the resultant company enjoys the advantages of bulk buying of the law materials, which significantly reduces its production costs.
There are several types of mergers. The first type of merger is known as vertical merger. This is the most common type of mergers in the business world. This is a form of merging where a corporation merges with its client (or suppliers) in order to build up on the chain of supply. The second type is horizontal merger.
This is a type of a merge between two companies which are direct competitors in the same market. In most cases, this involves a larger company taking the small one. After combining, the two companies can significantly reduce their operational costs as well as their financial obligations. Another type of merger is conglomerate merger. This type involves two companies in different businesses. These businesses are not related in any way. This form of a merger is fueled by the craving of a firm to get better its (financial) wealth.
The major concern with mergers is that they may eliminate competition in the industry. This leads to a situation where customers are left prone to exploitation by the producers. Different efforts have been laid to discourage the competitively harmful mergers. Commissions encourage the competitively beneficial or neutral mergers. These are not likely to cause suffering to the consumers. In other words, some form of mergers can lead to overexploitation of consumers.
Discussion In most cases, the Federal Trade Commission has to be notified in advance about any proposed merger in order to access the impacts of the merge to the consumer. This is in attempt to protect the customer from unnecessary merges which can be dangerous. The commission has the right to stop any merger which poses a major threat to the consumer’s welfare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the proposed mergers involves Keystone Holdings and Compagnie de Saint-Gobain’s Advanced Ceramics Business. This merger raised a major concern by Federal Trade Commission over its effect on the nature of competition. It was projected that the merger was likely going to affect the competition for alumina wear tile in the Northern America Market (Federal Trade Commission, 2010, Par 1). In such situations, the commission is forced to put certain restrictions in order to protect the customers.
Alumina tiles which the two companies deal with are used in a number of plants which plays a significant role in the well being of the economy. Alumina (wear) tiles are employed to insulate equipments from rasping wear by forming a (top) coating.
This type of tiles is used in a wide range of equipments used for different functions e.g. hoppers and the pipes used in ferrying ash and coal (Federal Trade Commission, 2010, Par 1). It is also used by asphalt and cement industries as well in mineral processing equipments. These tiles come in two broad categories. One category comes in different shapes while the other one is designed in order to fit unique shapes.
The commission feared that if the transactions were left to proceed as structured, the consequences would significantly affect the nature of competition in the market for these two types of tiles. This is because Saint-Goban and Keystone are the only key companies which represent a significant share of the Northern American market. Therefore, the consequence would be a significant reduction of competition in the market. These two companies also supply the best quality tiles in the market.
Reasons For and Against Mergers Over the past, mergers have impacted both negatively and positively in the economy. These impacts can be viewed in different perspectives, that is, the impacts of the mergers to the industry, society, and consumers.
Reasons against Mergers
Mergers have a significant impact on the top level management. That is, it may result in conflict of the egos. For instance, merger between Goban and Keystone can affect the management. These two merging companies were managed differently by different managers before merging. There are differences in the cultures between these companies. Consequently, managers may find themselves being forced to use strategies which may not be familiar or verified to them.
This presents a challenging environment for them. When this occurs, the company’s management attention gets diverted from the normal activities of an organization as the leaders try to settle the matters arising from organizational differences. However, the extent of these complications is determined by the skills of the managers. A qualified manager will take less time to adjust while less qualified managers may face too many complications.
We will write a custom Essay on The impact of mergers on consumers, industry, and the society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mergers have significant adverse impacts to the society, customers and the industry in general. This has raised a concern of whether mergers should be encouraged in the economy or not. Another effect of mergers lies on the employment level in the economy. Merging companies can significantly affect the employment level in the society. According to Gugler (2003), “a merger can significantly affect the quantity of labor supply (p.4)”. It has affected the employment level in different ways.
However, Gugler (2003) noted that “the effect of merges on the employment level is ambiguous (p. 5).” In other words, a merger can lead to an increase or decrease in the employment level. For instance, a merger may lead to a reduction in the level of output, which is followed by lay off.
For instance, due to an increase in power after the merge hence increasing the returns to scale which consequently leads to a fall in the level of employment. On the other hand, a merger may increase the level of output for instance due to the combined efficiency of the two merging companies. However, Gugler’s study has indicated that a company can reduce demand for labor by about 10% (2003, p. 18),
In situations where there is cross cultural mergers, the acquired organisation may sometimes be forced to lay a significant number of its employees. Again, this increases the level of unemployment hence affecting the society negatively in general.
According to the Maps of the World’s report (2000), when two companies come together, they can be able to hire less workers to perform a particular task (par 2). Consequently, the company will cut down its work force. Again, this will increase the level of unemployment in the society.
Combination of two companies affects the shareholders of the acquiring company most. The shareholders are affected to a great extent especially by the debt load. This presents a suffering to the society.
Merges also results in low innovations in a company. Merger encourages the new firm to pay less attention on its innovative efforts below the level of innovation that prevailed before the companies merge (U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission.2010, p. 26).
For instance, when Goban and Keystone forms a merger, the resultant company will pay less attention on innovating in the alumina tiles. The Northern America market will continue receiving coating tiles which are never improved. This is characterized by less attention to continued product improvement and development efforts. Since the resultant company will be dominating the market, it will pay less attention on innovations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of mergers on consumers, industry, and the society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In most cases, innovations are encouraged by competition in the market. This is because companies will not be facing competition for customers from its competitors. In competitive environment, companies will concentrate on innovations in order to please their customers. In the case of a merger, the resultant company will dominate the market which will consequently reduce their efforts to innovate.
For instance, when Gobain combines with Keystones, the resultant company will gain monopolistic power over North America’s market for alumina tiles. This is because the largest share of the market supply comes from these two companies. As we have seen, the resultant company will therefore be reluctant in encouraging innovations since it will have no threats from any competitor.
Since merging of the two companies reduces the level of competition in the market, there is a likelihood of a rise in prices. Competition will be more affected if the combining companies are dealing with less differentiated products. In this case, both Gobain and Keystone companies deals with alumina tiles which are not very much differentiated.
The newly formed company after merging will consequently raise the prices of the tiles. This consequently leads to an increase in consumer prices by the other firms. For instance, after the combination of Keystone and Saint-Gobain into one company, the company will raise the prices of the tiles. This forces the firms to raise the consumer prices altogether from their initial level.
As a result of prices manipulation through merges, there will be a reduction in consumer surplus. This oppresses the customers at the expense of the producer’s surplus. It is also important to note that mergers may have varying impacts on different consumers. This occurs when the newly formed company practices price discrimination. For instance, a company may decide to raise the prices for a certain group of consumers. In this case, some customers suffer more than others.
Mergers are likely to lead into low quality goods
Representation of Family in “A Good Man is Hard to Find” Essay college essay help near me
The short story “A Good Man is Hard to Find” by Flannery O’Connor is one of the most appealing in the American Literature, revolving round family matters. The short story’s main actress, Bailey’s mother, commonly called grandmother dominates all the actions unfolding in the entire story.
Since she stays with her son’s family, the grandmother presents herself as a good mother, despite her being selfish. It is clearly brought out that, the nuclear family is not in coherence with the grandmother, since most of the actions the family undertakes seem to be against her wishes (Ochshorn, 131). This is reflected when she requests that they go to Tennessee, while on the other hand, Bailey’s family considers Florida as the best place to go. This paper focuses on the presentation of family as represented in the entire short story.
After the family gets involved in an accident, the famous ‘Misfit’ and his gang holds up the family and threatens to kill them. In reaction, the grandmother attempts to save her own life by pleading with the murderers to leave her alone. According to Bandy (134), the selfish nature of the grandmother and her disregard to her family is evidenced when she seems to care the safety of the other family members. Quite significantly, there seems to be weak bond of love between the grandmother and Bailey’s family.
More about A Good Man is Hard to Find What Is the Plot of a Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 42 What Are the Main Characters in a Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 17 What Are the Examples of Verbal Irony in A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 21 What Are the Literary Elements in A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 14 What Is the Style Of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 12 Who Wrote A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 13 This is reflected by her unfeeling nature of watching the entire family die around her, as she pleads for her life. As held by Ochshorn (135), the family presented in this story seems incoherent not in actual family-love bond, since there seem to be not feeling for the other(s) when they are in danger. As a result of the grandmother’s selfish nature, the entire family is killed, since if she could have kept quite, no member of the family could have died.
However, the grandmother may seem wicked in the last part of the story, but her initial personality implies that she was a good grandmother to her family. As revealed by Bandy (127) in the onset of the story, the grandmother treats the whole family with a lot of respect, in spite of their ignorance of her opinions. Even if she seems manipulative to the children to go and see a house which was not there, she said it craftily.
Though she is manipulated by the family to go to Florida against her wish, she tries to maneuver ways of avoiding Florida creatively. With reference to Ochshorn (137), the grandmother is trying to relate with her family well, though using twisted goodness. On the other hand, Barley and her family seem not to consider the wishes of the grandmother, implying their selfish nature as well.
Conclusion It should be noted that, the grandmother’s final action is by no means a charitable act of trying to defend the family from being murdered, but rather a strategy to save herself. Though it may be argued that, the grandmother’s final moment was a gracious to the entire family, but her goodness is a pretended one since she seems not to care the death of the other family members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically, the grandmother emerges as having pretended good life by respecting her family, yet she had no actual family love for them. Generally, the unfolding of various events revolving around the grandmother brings her out as being self-centered, despite of her pretended goodness to the entire family.
Works Cited Bandy, Stephen. Means, Meaning and Meditated Space in “A Good Man is Hard to Find”. The Southern Quarterly. 44.4, (2007): 125-142.
Ochshorn, Kathleen. A Cloak of Grace: Contradictions in “A Good Man is Hard to Find”. Studies in American Fiction. 32.4, (2004): 129-138.
American History: the Greatest Generation Grows Up Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Greatest Generation Grows Up
Introduction The circumstances that surround people govern the decisions they make in future. Kriste Lindenmeyer has concisely illustrated the condition in which American children’s had to endure when growing up. 1930’s was a period when the world was going through the Great Depression. It was a moment of reflection for the whole nation.
Many have grappled with the meaning of freedom for a very long time. Actually, freedom stands for so many things. It for instance stands for the right to do things out of free will. Though freedom may mean being allowed to do what you want to do, it is not good for one to trample on other people’s lives.
The Greatest Generation Grows Up Freedom and children has been an issue worth reflecting. Children went through many trying moments at this particular time. For example, they were subjected to hostile working condition in plantation farms and factories to complement family earnings. This therefore made it possible for them to attend school. In other words many dropped out of school as a result. Disease and starvation greatly affected this segment since their parents or guardians were no longer able to afford the necessities like food shelter and clothing too.
The older generation did not view freedom as the younger generation. But as time went by one can feel that they may have learnt a few things. For instance at one time one can see parents took themselves as the ones who could decide what was good for their children. They hardly differentiated between adulthood and childhood. That is why Lindernmeyer talks of parents letting their children to work on farms to supplement their income.
These political, economic and ideological factors had an impact on the way the generation understands freedom. For example we are told of how there was discrimination during this period. There was poor treatment of immigrant workers. As one grows up them we can see the children then learnt the vagaries of such discrimination.
This could be solved through legislative solution. People were also discriminated according to gender. We are told for instance that women were allowed to stay at home and take care of children alone. But during this period they could be forced somehow to work to supplement income of the family as well. It is from this period that we see nowadays laws put in place stressing non-discrimination based on gender.
In a nutshell freedom could be seen by this generation as being able to live in a free and secure environment. The government could also come in here.The generation must also have grown to cultivate an identity with the state. During the great depression we saw how the government worked to alleviate the situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it was seen through electioneering period with which leader put across ideals they would pursue once elected. Such bordered on things like economy and social welfare in general. For example universal healthcare was an idea highly pursued; though the New Deal failed to achieve it.
The state can help in identifying what is right, this generation might have discovered. One could see this from the way the state later on insisted on teenagers to remain in school. This showed a great relationship between the state and its children. This means that it is the duty of the state to protect such a segment. Besides, the state is expected to protect the masses by ensuring economic prosperity since failure to do this might lead to desperation of the masses, hence the suffering of the children as during the Great Depression.
Most social safety charities were overwhelmed. These charities included the Bohemian Charitable Association and the Jewish charity in Chicago. The state was equally in deep trouble as it was unable to fund the overwhelming numbers of the needy. Banks and other organizations left their responsibilities to the government. This greatly caused a political anxiety as President Herbat Hoover came to symbolize failure. He dismissed any legislative measures to tackle the economy troubles that the nation faced.
The nomination of Franklin Roosevelt, a Democratic brought a new era in the United States. Roosevelt promised a new beginning which he called ‘first New Deal’ for Americans. Under this were programs known as the ‘first’ and ‘second’ New Deals. Roosevelt came up quite passionate about one relief program known as the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).
In this one he had a firm belief that it would impact positively to the young men in cities and even the countryside. Many were engaged in road construction and trails in the national parks. Some children even worked in factories after they had dropped out school.
One mother wanted money to save her cow so that her young children could have milk. Here we can see clearly the children of starvation that was lurking in the faces of children. During the farming crisis many faced such related challenges. However, the New Deal did not do much to help the rural poor.
We are told for instance that the price supports and price controls only benefited the landowning farmers but not the peasants. The landless subsistence poor were left out. The migrant Mexican workers, black and white sharecroppers and even the far most tenants were left out. One can only guess the impact of this state to their families and children in particular.
We will write a custom Essay on American History: the Greatest Generation Grows Up specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the Great Depression children suffered a great deal since thousands of schools were forced to close down. This was because there was not enough money to keep them running. Many children thus left schools. In fact many were going hungry and their parents could not afford clothes for even winter.
This means that hard choices had to be made. There were therefore modern policies that would govern the changing attitudes towards the children. For instance, the responsibilities of the children were to be separated from those of the adults. This meant that children were to be taken as children and shielded from the vagaries of adult responsibilities. Child welfare advocates majorly championed these.
The changing attitude towards the children played a major role towards making sure that the children grew up under a conducive environment. For instance Aid to Dependent Children Program took care of the children who were under sixteen years of age and by this children would still benefit whether they had parents or not. Thus, the caregivers were given some relief to take care of the children under their custody.
However, this amount was so little hence many still wallowed in abject poverty. Minorities and many blacks were segregated. In most cases, they were branded ‘immoral’ and therefore denied the needed aid. Some segments of the society did not enjoy the freedom as enshrined in the new spirit of the nation. The definition of those who deserved aid remained obscure and controversial.
The biggest question at the moment thus would be how this generation would have defined freedom. We know that during this period there were many challenges as the crisis played a big role in influencing the children and the youth. For example, children who grew up during this period can be said t be the first ones to experience the fact that it was also the responsibility of the government to protect its vulnerable members.
During this period, the state, as earlier seen, enacted legislation that protected and recognized the children and youth as being a distinct segment from adults.
I think the generation learnt that sometimes that freedom could be enshrined through regulations. But there could be some interesting exception. For instance if you give people freedom to do what they want before they reach age for decision-making. That is why Lindenmeyer stressed on the importance of education that time. Going to school is therefore important for the child and nation at large.
She gives the example of Cesar Chavez who worked alongside other children in the nation’s urban factories. The certain rights and requirements that were passed made sure that people could not infringe on others’ freedom to decent life like fair labor.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American History: the Greatest Generation Grows Up by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This generation might have developed expectations. For instance, government has the responsibility of shielding its citizens from any vagaries arising out of the economic situation that may be unfavorable. We saw how policies were developed to improve the livelihoods of the majority who were already suffering from the pangs of economic downturn. Economic security should be what the bureaucrats should care for most as it has a lasting impact on many.
The expectations on work can be seen from what was happening in the labor market. For instance, there were challenges such as long hours of work, meager pay, employment of under-age workforce etc. This generation as it grew up may have expected that there be proper labor laws protecting mainly the worker. Presently we have seen proper labor laws being enacted that cushion the employee from exploitation and general poor working conditions.
We were earlier told the type of segregation that touched on race, gender, ethnicity and even class. Lindermeyer, through various anecdotes, has illustrated how different groups faired on during the Great Depression. She for instance shows a white boy playing with an erector.
This was in sharp contrast with what other minorities groups’ children were going through. We are equally told of how women were required to stay at home and sometimes-denied gainful employment in the pretext that theirs was to take care of the children. This generation that would vouch for equality. This could be done through legislation.
Unlike the older generation, the ideal childhood could be seen as effort worth striving for. Since children are vulnerable to so many things, it is important that the state consider such a segment seriously through strict legislative measures.
Concisely 1930s is a period of seriously looked at protected childhood. If such measures, as discussed, were not taken then the future generation could be doomed. The major step was recognizing childhood as a segment different from adulthood.
Bibliography Boydston, Jeanne and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010
Lindenmeyer, Kriste. The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005.
McGerr, Michael and others. Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes, – Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009
Footnotes Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.213
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.123
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.568
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.254
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.602
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.186
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.258
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.102
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.712
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.376
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.445
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.97
Michael McGerr and others, Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes,- Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009, P.56
Michael McGerr and others. Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes,- Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009,P. 453
Michael McGerr and others. Of the People, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 By James Oakes,- Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009,P. 87
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.563
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.117
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.245
Kriste Lindenmeyer, The Greatest Generation Grows Up: American Childhood in the 1930s. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Publisher, 2005, P.123
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P.825
Jeanne Boydston and others . Of the People: A Concise History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865.Oxford: Oxford Univ Pr, 2010,P. 563
Femme Noir as the Queen of the Night: Fantastical Transformations of a Woman Essay (Article) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Women played a crucial role in art and fashion in different periods of time. Some females were muses for artists and poets while others tried to break the rules established in society and introduce their own perspective of the world through their works of art. As such, it is necessary to see how women can contribute to the innovations and development of both art and fashion.
A new creative project called ‘Art Meets Fashion’ is aimed at showing the benefit of using such exhibitions for educational and informational purposes. Experience gained by the participants of the project is sure to change their perception of the art and design as well as fashion in whole. The project consists of several teams each including an artist, a fashion designer, a representative of school, and a documenter.
So, the team Femme Noir consists of an artist Duke Windsor, a fashion designer Osbaldo Ahumada, a documenter Susan Lazear, and a school representative Andrea Marx from SD Mesa College. The project Femme Noir was inspired with the image and the entire mood created by the Queen of the Night and her aria in The Magic Flute by Mozart. Fantastic and close-to-life elements can be found in the sculptures being a golden middle of the fashion and art meeting.
Femme Noir is the name of the team that emerged from the image of a woman who knows how to survive in the world of the dark middle ages. So, the team members managed to apply the historic perspective and mood of the aria to the sculpture and painting in a fashionable manner using extravagant colors and irregular shapes. The exhibition of this team’s project will take place in Dolcetti Boutique to encourage the audience to join the world of fashion through art and vice versa.
People that are interested in collaboration between representatives of different fields and development of technologies and useful ideas can find something new in this project as it is aimed at showing the transformation undergone by a queen from Mozart’s aria to fashionable issues created by the Femme Noir team.
Works Cited Art Meets Fashion. Art Meets Fashion, 2009. Web.
Information Technology and Low-Cost Airlines Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Intranet
It is very difficult to make a profit when it comes to the airline. This is because of the cost involved such as such as the purchase of aircraft and its maintenance. However, a new concept emerged that could be used to make airlines more profitable and it is by transforming a traditional organization into a low-cost carrier. This is made possible by many factors but it can be said that the most significant component is the use of information technology specifically the utilization of the Intranet and Extranet networking system.
If this company is considering a major change in order to transform an airline based on conventional systems, and turn it into a low-cost carrier, then it is imperative to look at the way technology is shaping and continue to change the business landscape. The world has gone from the Industrial Age to the Information Age in just a relatively short period of time.
For thousands of years the tools needed to conduct business and even to communicate with one another is accomplished through the use of indigenous materials and crude technology. However, when the computer was invented the whole world was turned upside down because it radically altered the way people do things. The invention of computers and the creation of massive networks connecting computer all over the nation and all over the world revolutionized all aspects of business.
The world became smaller in terms of communication through the use of instant messaging systems. Business transactions are being done through the internet, and recently through a refined system called the Intranet and the Extranet (Muller, 2002, p.343).The last two are all computer networks but engineered to work for specific organizations.
Intranet Before going any further it is important to have a clear understanding of what a network is all about. A basic definition of a network is to have two or more computers that are linked together so that information can be exchanged between them. The following are the basic components of a network: a sending device; a communication link; and a receiving device (Cox, 2007, p.10).
A sending device can be a computer or server and the receiving device can be another computer, server or equipment (Cox, 2007, p.10). The communication link is where communication signals are transmitted. In other words a network is a system that enables an airline to make easy, fast, and efficient communications.
The development of computer networks is the answer to the urgent need of airline companies to receive and send information quickly and efficiently. This is not like the manufacturing business where a slight delay is tolerated. Most of the time a passenger has a small window of time when it comes to scheduling flights. A minor error can turn a vacation into a catastrophe in terms of missed flights and missed opportunities. In this regard there is a need for a more sophisticated IT infrastructure that can help airline managers and employees make the right decisions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Robert Thierauf explains it this way, “Today’s worldwide marketplace provides not only more customers, suppliers, and competitors but also increased complexity for the decision-making process. The speed of communication simultaneously makes the environment less stable and predictable and reduces the available time for examining business information, knowledge, and intelligence” (Thierauf, 2001, p. 65).
An Intranet is one of the best tools that an airline company can use to increase its efficiency and therefore reduce costs. This in turn will allow them to evolve from an airline characterized by conventional methods into a low-cost airline. This company can only become a low-cost carrier by slashing costs. This is where the Intranet comes in.
The Intranet is basically a network that is limited to internal usage within the company. This is its limitation because the system can only be used by the employees and all the staff that works in the said organization. However, the upside to this arrangement is the significant savings that it can bring when it comes to their communication needs. Aside from that the flow of information is significantly enhanced.
This company can learn so much from looking at the Intranet model developed by Ryanair. This company is based in Europe and is an industry leader. In 2005 Ryanair invested in what they call their Cable and Wireless high-speed network. This system was worth £1.3 million to build but Ryanair said that they can easily recover their investments.
This assertion is based on the assessment of Brona Kernan, the airlines IT head who said that it is because the system is user-friendly. It is also because of its speed and capacity (The Sunday Times, 2005, p.1). Kernan also pointed out that the whole system is run by a staff of just 16 IT professionals (The Sunday Times, 2005, p.1). Kernan also added another feature of the Intranet that explains why the company saved a great deal of money and she said:
By using the Ryanair intranet, pilots, cabin crew and check-in staff carry out a range of activities from booking annual leave to obtaining the weather reports needed for each flight. Engineering staff can get the details needed to maintain the aircraft … The crews come in , use the self-service terminals to print off everything they require, such as fuel reports, go to the aircraft and fly (The Sunday Times, 2005, p.1).
This is an efficient system indeed. However, it is severely limited when it comes to scope because the customers cannot access it. Most of the time an Intranet uses computer terminals and computer networks within the company headquarters. It can also be accessed from a satellite offices or branches, however, it is still a closed system because only employees and staff can use it. This is the reason why the Extranet was developed.
We will write a custom Essay on Information Technology and Low-Cost Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Extranet The number one challenge for modern management information systems is the creation of a seamless IT architecture that can ensure an error free e-business (Cox, 2007, p.20).Shifting needs, rapid changes in technology and the increasing sophistication of hackers are the major reasons why developers and creators of a company’s IT infrastructure are having a hard time dealing with external threats.
If this company decides to use an Extranet then it has to be protected from hackers and corporate spies (Flouris
Prices of Milk Powder, Cooking Oil and Rice Report essay help: essay help
Introduction Trade industry is one of the most dynamic of all activities done by man. Price of commodities changes from time to time due to various reasons. These factors or their combination work either to increase or decrease the market price of one commodity or another. Some of these factors may be man made while others are due to the changes in nature.
Governments influence prices of commodities by regulating imports and exports, taxation and subsidies. Weather conditions either favor or affect different produce. Seasons determine planting and harvesting which in turn determine supply. Costs of production of different commodities are usually transferred to the consumer hence affecting the prices.
Customer confidence on integrity of a given commodity determines demand and thus influences the prices. Festivities such as Christmas seasons increase demand for certain commodities hence dictating their prices. These and many other factors determine whether price of a given commodity will either go up or down. This paper discusses some of the factors that affect the price of milk powder, cooking oil and rice.
Influence on price of milk powder Milk is one of the most important commodities consumed by man all over the world. Milk is used in different forms such as fresh milk, skimmed milk, milk powder, ghee among others. Milk price depends on different factors. These are some of the factors that determine the price of milk powder:
Milk powder is a by product of milk a product obtained from cows. The amount of milk produced by cows depends on how well the cows are fed and the prevailing weather conditions. When there are enough rains there is more feeds to give to the cows and hence more milk.
The cost of producing milk at this time goes down and this means more milk at a low price. Due to more supply than demand the prices of milk goes down. However when there is drought or other catastrophes such as cyclones and floods as was witnessed in milk producing areas such as Australia and new Zealand cows produce little milk as there is less feed and at the same time the cost of producing milk goes up and this cost is transferred to the consumer thus the price goes up.
Disease Outbreaks and Contamination
Milk powder being a food product is vulnerable to contamination and food poisoning. When there is disease outbreak the government will always issue a ban on exportation or importation of milk and milk product hence increasing the price of the few stock of milk powder left in a country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Customer confidence may be eroded when such news of disease outbreak or milk contamination comes out. Customers are afraid to take milk and milk products and prefer other alternative sources. This was witnessed when milk from China was suspected to be contaminated and people avoided milk powder hence making the price of milk to shoot down. Disease out break may affect cows making them produce less milk hence the demand surpasses the supply causing the prices to shoot up.
Milk powder is usually more consumed when the fresh milk is scarce or more expensive. This means that when the rainy seasons come, fresh milk supply is more and at a low price thus people consume fresh milk more than milk powder due to the low cost hence the prices of milk powder goes down.
During dry seasons fresh milk becomes very expensive and people prefer powdered milk instead thus increasing demand which in turn raises the prices. Milk producers make more milk powder at time when there is plenty of fresh milk and then sell it when it gets scarce.
The government always has the upper hand in regulating the prices of commodities in order to protect its citizens from high prices. A very good example is the total export ban of milk and milk products from India the worlds biggest milk producer. By doing this the government has regulated the price in that country and at the same time this caused increase of the price of milk and milk products to other countries where that milk is exported.
The government may also subsidize the production of milk and thus the price of milk and milk products such as milk powder reduces. Government taxes may also affect the price of milk powder. When the government raises tax on milk and milk products the price of milk powder is likely to go up and also go down when government decides to waive taxes on milk the price goes down.
When there is inflation in a given country prices of all commodities increase. This means that the price of milk powder will go up since the cost of production will have gone high. When the opposite happens and the economy of the country improves all the costs of production goes down and hence the price of milk and milk products goes down as well.
Price of other related goods
When prices of other related products change the price of milk powder will also change. The price of other complementary goods such fresh and long life milk may change due to various reasons such as cost of production of those commodities. The price of fresh milk may be low during rainy season and high during dry season and this affects the demand of milk powder.
We will write a custom Report on Prices of Milk Powder, Cooking Oil and Rice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If their prices goes up then demand shifts to milk powder which is likely to make prices go up however when the price goes down people shift from milk powder to complementary products hence demand decreases which makes prices to go down.
Changes in the cost of production
Milk powder heavily depends on heat processes to steam the milk until all the water has evaporated. Many milk factory plants use either electricity or fuel to process milk powder.
When there are changes in the prices of electricity or fuel as it happen when global fuel prices increase the cost of production and transport increases hence raising the cost of production for milk powder resulting to increased consumer prices. The reverse happens when the cost of energy goes down. However the greatest determinant of the price of milk powder is the changes in seasons which heavily affect the supply thus affecting the prices.
COOKING OIL Cooking oil is a commodity that is very important to man due to its wide variety of uses. The price of cooking oil depends on a number of factors or a combination of factors. Some of these factors include weather conditions, cost of production change in other uses among others.
Cooking oil is produced from plants that produce oil seeds which are processed to make cooking oil. Some other forms of cooking oil are processed from animal products.
Weather conditions affect both plants and animals. When there is adequate rainfall and other climatic conditions that are favourable for growing of these plants then production cost increases and this increases supply hence the prices goes down. When there are droughts or other unfavourable weather conditions such as floods, supply reduce and consequently the prices go up.
Costs of production
The processing of cooking oil demands use of high temperatures during the process of hydrogenation. This implies that when the price of energy increases as it happens when global oil prices goes up the cost of production goes up and thus the price of cooking oil also goes up. When the cost of energy especially global oil goes down the cost of production goes down and thus cooking oil prices go down too. Cost of farm inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides are usually transferred to the consumer hence increasing prices of cooking oil.
Other oil products
There are different uses of vegetable oils especially in the industries such as soap, candles, cosmetics and other products. When the demand for these products increases manufactures prefer investing more on producing these products and this implies that the supply of cooking oil will reduce hence increasing the prices.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Prices of Milk Powder, Cooking Oil and Rice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic stability of cooking oil producing countries
Most of the oil consumed in the world is processed from palm and soya bean which thrive well in certain countries. United States of America is believed to be the world’s largest producer and exporter of cooking oil and other related products. This implies that the price of cooking oil will largely depend on the economic stability of the producing countries. This can be seen when cooking oil prices increased during the U.S economic crisis period. The prices later went down when the economy stabilised.
It is believed that the world’s population is increasing with time due to various factors. When the population increases in certain areas especially due to urbanisation then demand for cooking oil surpasses the supply and this causes the prices of cooking oil to go up. This can be seen in countries that have recorded high urban development which have made demand to go up in those areas.
Cost of other related goods
Cooking oil is used for cooking various foods. Different kinds of food are made in different communities. When food supply is high the demand for oil to cook the food also goes up and this means that the price of cooking oil will rise up. When food supply goes down there is relatively less food to cook with the cooking oil and thus demand for cooking oil decreases making the prices to go down.
There has been claims that some cooking fats and oils contain a substance called cholesterol that has been linked with heart and other related diseases. Due to relatively higher cholesterol levels in cooking fat than in cooking oil then the population prefer using the safer alternative and that is cooking oil.
This increases the demand of cooking oil hence increasing the prices. This is more common in markets where the consumers have the ability to spend more on the safer alternative. The same effect is usually observed when health experts intensify the campaigns towards safe cholesterol levels since customer awareness makes them to prefer cooking oil rather than fat hence increasing the demand of the latter.
Technology of producing cooking oil
A lot of input goes towards production of cooking oil. The efficiency of the production processes determines the overall cost of production. Due to the current advancement in technology new production techniques especially in crushing and hydrogenation processes have been invented and this has resulted to low production costs. This is clearly observed in the developed countries such as America where they use more efficient production technologies as compared to other oil producing countries in developing world.
This is likely to reduce the prices of cooking oil in developed countries as compared to developing countries. Market forces and other factors behind production and selling of cooking oil have resulted to relatively constant prices of cooking oil throughout the year as compared to other products such as milk which may fluctuate in different seasons of the year.
RICE Rice being a cereal is one of the most important food commodities in all communities of the world. It is a staple food for some communities a very important source of starch and energy. There are many other uses of rice such as rice Bran, husks, milk pudding and so on. Rice prices depend on many factors some of which include.
Its believed that weather conditions such as the amount of rain, temperature and other factors greatly affect the production of rice which largely depends on enough water and soil moisture during the planting season and a dry weather conditions during harvest season, when these conditions are favourable the supply goes up hence the prices goes down. When there are calamities such as draught and floods then production reduces and this increases the price of rice.
Rice being a cereal has many substitute products such as maize and wheat. When the price of other substitute commodities goes down, consumers shift towards them as an alternative hence reducing demand of rice which results in reduction of rice prices. When prices of other substitutes go up, people shift to the cheaper alternative, demand for rice increases thus raising the prices.
Rice is heavily dependent on seasons due to its requirement of special growing conditions. The supply is usually high during harvest season and this increases supply thereby reducing the prices. The prices then shoot up during planting season when the supply is less than demand.
Government plays a very influential role in regulating prices of commodities. Government may subsidise rice production, regulate export of rice. This in turn may reduce the cost of rice on its country and on the other hand government may ban exports of rice to other countries for various reasons. This makes the supply of rice in those countries to go up hence raising the prices.
Rice is used for making a wide variety of products such as rice adhesives, vinegar, paper, beverages, rice milk and other products. When the demand for these products increases more rice is needed and this makes supply less than demand resulting to increase in rice prices.
Advancement in technology allows production of rice at a lower cost and this makes it possible to reduce the price of rice in the market. Other factors that may influence the price of rice include festivities such as Christmas seasons. There is more rice consumption during these times as compared to other times especially in communities where rice is not the staple food.
This makes the rice price to go up during these seasons. Competition with other rice producing countries makes the supply to increase and as different suppliers fight for the available market they reduce prices. The price of rice is dynamic and is likely to change in different seasons of the year due to different factors such as planting and harvesting seasons and festivities.
Countries that produce rice often compete for the available market. When the supply is greater than demand then the producers reduce the prices in order to capture the market this makes the prices to go down. On the other hand when there are few producers compared to the available market the producers may increase the prices if the competition is low.
Demand of rice may rise due to various reasons such as increase in population of a given community or country, urbanisation which raises population in urban centres. Demand may also increase when the economic status of the consumers increase. There are more consumers who have the potential to buy rice and these increases the demand. When demand is high the prices go up.
Conclusion There are different factors that influence the price of commodities at the market. These factors either directly or indirectly affect the price of one commodity or another. Sometimes the price is affected by a combination of many factors.
Milk powder prices have been seen to be affected by different factors such as prevailing weather conditions which affect production, disease outbreak and contamination which affects consumer confidence. Changes in seasons along the year have been observed to be the largest factor affecting milk powder production. Government policies, inflation and cost of other related goods contributed to changes of price of milk powder.
Different factors were observed to affect the price of cooking oil. These factors were seen to vary from weather conditions which increase or decrease production of cooking oil, cost of production as production process uses a lot of energy, economic stability of producing countries. Other factors include influence of emerging markets, cost of related goods, health factors and technology.
The price of rice was observed to be affected by different factors such as weather conditions during the growing season, the prices of other substitute commodities such as wheat and maize, seasons which determine supply during harvest and planting periods. Government policies such as export regulation, taxation and subsidies could affect price of rice. The cost of production, production technology and festivities were other factors that could either result to rise or fall of price of rice.
The price of cooking oil was observed to remain relatively constant along the year with probable slight fluctuations due to increased demand as observed during festive seasons. However the prices of milk powder is greatly influenced by change in season with prices going up during dry seasons when there is more demand and goes down during rainy seasons. The price of rice was also observed to be volatile rising up during planting seasons when supply is low and goes down during harvest seasons when the supply is high.
Beef, Mutton, Chicken Report essay help online
Introduction Products such as beef, mutton, and chicken have become regular staples in the diet of billions of people around the world and as such they command a significant level of consumer demand however just like any product various external influences can result in a dramatic shift in their prices especially if their means of production are directly affected.
Today, the prices of beef, chicken and mutton have invariably changed compared to what they were several decades ago. While it may be true that salaries have also risen along with the prices of certain goods the fact remains that modern means of agricultural production have greatly improved since the early to mid 1900’s resulting in a far more efficient and faster means of raising cattle, sheep and chicken.
One basic economic principle dictates that demand should match supply in order for the most efficient means of production and distribution to occur. Lately various statistical data has shown that the amount of supply created (beef, chicken, mutton) actually exceeds the amount of demand in cases with large excesses of production.
One example of this can be seen in the various countries of the E.U. due to the CARP (common agricultural policy) which has helped in creating an overabundance of certain agricultural products (beef, mutton and chicken included).
Despite this factor, prices of beef, chicken and mutton have not been going lower and in fact there is a growing trend of significant increases in their prices especially in developing and third world countries. This indicates that other factors are at work in affecting the prices of these products since despite the abundance of supply prices have not been going and instead have been increasing.
Understanding Tariffs, Protectionist policies and their effect on the importation of beef, mutton and chicken It is a well known fact that when it comes to producing certain goods or services some countries are better at it than others. A truly ideal situation would if countries focused on what they are best at making and not produce anything else.
Unfortunately various countries tend to diversify their production capabilities in order to remain, in their words, “economically competitive” when in fact their production of a plethora of various goods is not as efficient as producing what they are good at and taking the methods of production of that particular commodity to their zenith.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Various countries have their own agricultural means of raising cattle, sheep and chicken however due to their limited capacity in doing so there remains a distinct necessity to import such products from other countries in order to make up for the lack of supply.
The inherent problem with this is that most countries tend to erect protectionist policies such as limiting the amount of beef, chicken or mutton being imported into the country or imposing strict tariffs which increase the price of such products. Such measures are done in order to protect local industries from being overwhelmed by cheap foreign imports.
Mentioned earlier was the fact that some countries are basically better at producing a certain type of product as compared to others. As such the overall prices of goods that are produced can be significantly lower than that of other countries that have a harder time in producing the same type of product.
If tariffs and various other protectionist policies were not put into effect, as defined by a free-market system, then most people would prefer the obviously the cheaper and plentiful foreign imports rather than the expensive and limited locally produced products.
Taking such factors into consideration it can thus be assumed that countries with a limited production capacity for beef, chicken and mutton would thus have stringent protectionist measures in place to prevent cheap foreign imports from flooding their markets and driving local farmers out of business. In such a case beef, chicken and mutton prices are artificially raised not out of a lack of supply but rather out of the necessity to protect an inefficient system of production.
While such a system may not make sense from an economical standpoint it does from a socio-political one since the backlash from farmers who have significant influence in various political groups would cause potential problems for the government. There is also an ethical standpoint to consider since the oldest businesses in most countries are often agricultural enterprises and as such knowingly allowing them to go out of business in order to let consumers have lower prices is morally ambiguous at best.
The oil industry and the added costs of transportation For those of you that follow the news on a regular basis a distinct relationship can be seen between the price of oil and that of products such as beef, chicken and mutton. The price of oil at any given date adversely affects the price of products in the global economy which in turn affects the prices of basic commodities such as food. In order to better understand this concept it is necessary to take into account three distinct factors:
We will write a custom Report on Beef, Mutton, Chicken specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cows, chickens and sheep are usually raised in areas far from where they are actually eaten
Gasoline fueled trucks are needed in order to transport them to locations where they will be butchered and then from there to supermarkets where they will be bought for consumption
Lastly, while the international exportation of beef, chicken and mutton is cost prohibitive in certain cases there are instances where demand is so great that the added cost of tariffs is negligible
The first and second factors are easy to explain, since cows, chickens and sheep are located in farms that are beyond most city limits the added cost of transportation is factored into the price when such meat or poultry products are sold. As such there is an inverse relationship at play wherein the higher the price of gasoline gets the higher the price of meat and poultry products become despite no added value being introduced into the products themselves.
The third factor to consider deals with the fact that international oil prices affect large container ships just as much as they affect cars, trucks and buses, while container ships may be able to offset prices by adding more cargo items to their manifest the fact remains that this is only a temporary stop gap measure and eventually rising oil prices will affect the price of international transportation.
This presents a problem for international exporters since if a country has high protectionist rates for certain types of meat and poultry products and is combined with the increased cost of transportation prices of beef, chicken and mutton would of course have to be increased as a result.
The inherent problem with this lies with the fact that overly high prices would discourage consumer consumption of certain goods and since meat and poultry products rot easily there is a possibility that various exporters would lose money over the products they export.
How droughts and natural disasters affect the price of grain and corn which in turn adversely affect the price of beef, chicken and mutton In the past cows, chickens and sheep were fed natural agricultural products such as corn, maize or were merely grass fed. While such a practice continues in isolated farms up to this day a majority of farms feed their livestock using corn meal or pellet derivatives that come from corn products.
The reason behind this is that this special type of agricultural feed contains higher levels of carbohydrates which helps to easily fatten cows, chicken or sheep. As seen in numerous documentaries animals that are fed such products grow faster and are far larger than other animals fed on natural products.
One unfortunate consequence of this is that should areas that produce the corn that goes into the pellets be affected by an external force the price of the pellets go up which as a result affects the price of animals sold due to the increased cost in feeding them. Various abnormal weather patterns, storms, hurricanes and typhoons that adversely affect corn producing regions have the effect of increasing pellet prices due to affected supplies which in turn affects the price of beef, mutton and chicken.
The Status of the Global Economy and how this affects meat and poultry prices When the global economy entered into a recession following the U.S. housing collapse overall consumer demand dropped creating an adverse effect on the prices of beef, mutton, chicken as well as other commodities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Beef, Mutton, Chicken by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to show the proper relation between the recession and its effect on prices what this paper will do is conduct an examination on how consumer preference over product choice changes depending on the status of the global economy. When the 2008 global recession hit not only did this result in the collapse of multiple companies but also brought forth a concept called “consumer fear”.
This particular concept posits that a chaotic external financial environment will result in a lack of consumer confidence in the stability of companies as well as financial institutions resulting in distinct reluctance for them to spend. Such a situation was clearly seen at the start of and in the years during the financial recession where the distinct lack of consumer spending was one of the main reasons why the financial crisis continued to exacerbate the way it did.
The price of goods and various commodities are inherently linked with the rate of consumer spending, the lower the amount of people buying products at any one time the greater the likelihood of companies choosing to lower prices in order to entice customers to spend. Unfortunately lack of consumer confidence in the economy continued to worsen the stagnation of consumer spending habits resulting in even lower prices however no one was actually willing to commit to buying.
One of the reasons behind this lies with the fact that as the financial crisis worsened millions of people around the world lost their jobs and as a result lacked the appropriate amount of consumer confidence to actually buy certain amounts of meat or poultry products due to the limited amount of funds available.
An unfortunate consequence of this is that suppliers try to balance the amount of supply and demand by reducing operations, unfortunately this resulted in various supermarkets losing a vast majority it of meat and poultry inventory which gradually increased the prices of the remaining stock however in this case the continued lack of demand caused intense fluctuations in prices that they changed on an almost monthly basis.
On the other hand once the economy had recovered to a sufficient level and consumer confidence returned prices continued to remain high as the previously reduced level of operations meant that despite the higher level of demand suppliers could not match it. This resulted in another series of price fluctuations until finally both the supply and demand side stabilized as a result of an increase in operations on the side of the supplier.
It is based on this that a definite relationship can be seen between the prices of beef, mutton and chicken and the state of the global economy. On the other hand there are exceptions to this; countries such as the Philippines, South Korea, Indonesia and Taiwan were not greatly impacted by the financial crisis so as a result no great degree of price fluctuation occurred in their markets for meat and poultry.
It must be noted that while the global economy can directly impact the prices of beef, mutton and chicken the fact remains that what affects one country may not affect another and as such one of the best indicators to determine the rise or fall of prices is to look at supply side of the production line since prices of produced commodities are more likely to be affected by changes in how they are made or transported rather than the financial system where they are bought and sold.
State of the Local Economy One interesting aspect that must be mentioned is the fact that it is not only economic depreciation in the form of a recession that also affects prices but also excessive economic appreciation. When examining the prices of products sold in the U.S. with those sold in countries such as the Philippines and Taiwan it becomes apparent the basic commodities sold in the U.S. are apparently more expensive than those located in other countries despite them being exactly the same.
The reason behind this is a combination of two factors: first is the inflation of the U.S. economy over the past few decades and the set minimum wage in the country. Inflation can be described as a distinct rise in the level of prices of certain good, commodities and services within a particular economy over a set period, usually in the span of a few years.
As the price level of commodities rise the ability of currency to purchase those types of goods goes down. On the other end of the spectrum the minimum wage allotment for workers also plays a crucial role in the rise of prices as the high minimum wage rate in the U.S. compared to various Asian countries actually causes prices to go higher. Businesses have to set a certain price for goods and services that takes into account the wages given to employees of the business.
The higher the amount of the allotted minimum wage the higher the price of production and services would be. On the other hand Asian countries have a far lower rate of minimum wage as such the price of commodities such as beef, mutton and chicken is far lower as a result. As such while the purchasing power of the U.S. is high in other countries within its own borders it is actually quite low compared to what a person could get for the same amount in another country.
Understanding When Price Shifts Occur and Why When it comes to understanding how and why price shifts occur for beef, mutton or chicken over a given year it must first be stated that due to differences in overall biology price shifts for chicken are distinctly different than that of beef or mutton and as such must explained separately from there. The cattle and sheep industry actually revolves around a cyclical cycle that expands and contracts over an 8 to 12 year period due to the biological cycle of the animals.
There is actually a 3 year time lag in the time it takes a producer to receive the signal to expand herds to when calves/lambs are produced and the older cows and sheep are slaughtered by companies for various meat products. As such the cycle follows a distinct cycle of herd expansion and herd liquidation. It is due to this that price shifts naturally occur during the periods of herd expansion and herd liquidation.
If a certain year falls during a date where herd expansion is in place it is unlikely that prices would be low due to the lack of animals actually being slaughtered, on the other hand during years where herd liquidation is in effect prices would of course be lower. The thing is though periods of expansion and liquidation are not set to a particular industry standard with different producers choosing different times for either expansion or liquidation.
It is due to this that price shifts naturally occur between countries depending on the schedule animal ranchers adhere to with the price of beef and mutton either increasing, decreasing or staying the same depending on the extent of cattle operations in that particular country or on the amount of beef being imported or exported. It must be noted though that the cycle of expansion and liquidation is actually vulnerable to changes in the weather, inflation, shifts in grain prices, and changes in the overall structure of the industry it is part of.
Such changes do not reflect on that particular year but are seen later on in the succeeding year as the amount of animals actually slaughtered may be far lower due to culling measures undertaken in order to reduce the costs of operations. Chicken prices on the other hand are dictated by seasonal factors and the cost of grain or grain derivatives that are fed to chickens.
The fact is most chicken feed is derived from various form of grain and corn meal, during times of the year where grain is in abundance chicken prices usually go down however if there has been a drought the resulting increase in grain prices will adversely affect chicken prices.
Seasonal factors also play a factor in this, winter months are usually not as conducive to raising chicks as compared to spring, summer or autumn as such the chicken population suffers as a result especially during instances where an increased rate of liquidation occurs.
Variances in consumer demand over the course of a year also affect prices, holidays in particular cause sudden rises in prices as the demand for particular products exceeds that of the available supply. Consumer holidays such as Christmas, New Years, Thanksgiving and various other holidays attributed to different religions all play a part in increasing demand and as a result the price of commodities.
Beef, mutton and chicken in particular are in great demand during such occasions and as a result prices increase in order to take advantage of the demand. It must be noted though that at times prices are increased without any problems with the supply line of a particular product. Various stores are able to match or even exceed demand with stored supplies yet increase prices due to the almost assured level of profits that they would incur over the holiday period.
“Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte Essay college essay help near me
Introduction “Jane Eyre” is a tragedy and romantic novel which was written by Charlotte Bronte. It was adapted into film by Robert Stevenson in 1944. “Jane Eyre” is partly an autobiographical novel which filled with romance and tragedy in the life of Jane Eyre. At the age of nine, Jane Eyre had lost her parents and was an orphan. She went to live with her aunt Mrs. Reed. (Bailey, 115)
Mrs. Reed was a sister to Jane’s father and her family was the only family Jane had so; she went to live with them. But the Reeds did not see Jane as a blood relation rather; she was treated as an outsider. While in the home of the Reeds, Jane was physically and emotionally abused by her aunt Mrs. Reed and her children. (Niemann, 214)
This comparative essay will highlight the differences between Stevenson’s 1943 film of “Jane Eyre” and Charlotte Bronte’s novel. Apart from Stevenson’s film not maintaining a first narrator as the novel does, it is arguably the best adaptation of Charlotte Bronte’s novel.
A central theme that Stevenson’s film emphasizes which is not a prominent theme in the original story by Charlotte Bronte is Jane’s perseverance all through the story. Bronte’s original story narrates Jane’s story as an orphan who finds joy at the end of the story but Stevenson’s film tells the story of Jane as a person who went through a lot of pain and discrimination but did not give up.
The problems which Jane faced as an adult and a child will be discussed in this essay.
Comparing the film “Jane Eyre” to Bronte’s original novel “Jane Eyre” is a novel which was originally written by Charlotte Bronte and it has been adapted into film 3 times. It was adapted into film in 1913, 1915 and 1921. Out of all the adaptations, Stevenson’s 1943 adaptation is considered the best because; his adaptation has a unique and slightly different pattern of the Jane Eyre story. (Rowland, 241)
In the original novel of “Jane Eyre” written by Charlotte Bronte, Jane was portrayed as an evil child and she was treated badly for this reason. (Rowland, 281) Jane’s extended family perceived her as an evil child and this same notion of Jane been an evil child manifested again when her employer stumbled from his horse. After Jane’s employer stumbled from his horse, he accused Jane of been an evil person and the reason why he stumbled from his horse. (Niemann, 302)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Stevenson’s adaptation of the “Jane Eyre” story, the problems of Jane Eyre are shown as norms of a class-oriented society. People usually want to associate with other people who are of the same class to them. So, Jane was maltreated because her parents were dead, and she was seen as a poor girl. Life is usually tough and obstacles are always encountered in the process living. (Bailey, 400) There has never been life without problems.
With the examples given above, there is a slight difference between Robert Stevenson’s adaptation and the original novel by Charlotte Bronte. Apart from the film not maintaining a first person narrator, it also, ends a little happier that the original story and this is noticed when the adaptation is constructively compared to the original novel.
The ordeals of Jane as narrated by Robert Stevenson and Charlotte Bronte respectively Jane faced a number of problems in her life as a child and an adult respectively. (Bailey, 510) In the beginning of the story, Jane lost her parents to a deadly disease known as typhus and she became an orphan at the early age of nine. After losing both parents to the cold hands of death, she was compelled to live with her uncle’s family. Although Mrs. Reed perceived Jane as an evil child and she abused her physically and emotionally. (Rowland, 321)
After leaving the home of the Reeds’ Jane goes into another world full of hatred in Lowood institution. While in Lowood institution, Mr. Brocklehust became Jane’s new tormentor. But, Jane soon finds happiness in Lowood Institution when she meets Helen. (Rowland, 212) Jane and Helen subsequently became friends but Jane’s happiness was cut short when she lost her only friend and confidant to the cold hands of death. (Niemann, 202)
After leaving Lowood institution, Jane works as a governess for a very wicked and selfish employer, Mr. Edward Rochester. (Niemann, 412) Jane experiences a tough and difficult stay at thornfield but she and her employer Mr. Rochester eventually fell in love but they were forbidden to express it. (Bailey, 401)
All these instances mentioned where the ordeals which Jane Eyre encountered during the course of the story. In spite of the fact that, Jane found happiness at the end of the story, it was a terrible and tough experience for Jane growing up. (Bailey, 615) There was no difference in her adult age and this made the story of “Jane Eyre” a tragedy.
A central theme emphasized in Stevenson’s film that is not a prominent theme in Bronte’s novel Robert Stevenson produced the film “Jane Eyre” as a tragedy film but the central theme emphasized all through the film is the resilience and perseverance displayed by Jane. (Niemann, 815)
We will write a custom Essay on “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the tender age of nine’ Jane had lost her parents to the cold hands of death due to typhus. This seemed to be the beginning of Jane’s turmoil. Been orphaned at that tender age, could have broken any child down but Jane persevered and overcame it. (Rowland, 116)
After the death of her parents, Jane went to live with her aunt Mrs. Reed. But Mrs. Reed had her own reservations about Jane due to her daring spirit. (Niemann, 356) Mrs. Reed had expected Jane to be a withdrawn and timid child due to the fact that she had lost both parents at a tender age. But contrary to Mrs. Reed’s expectation, Jane was a daring child and not even the death of her parents affected her. (Bailey, 444)
Mrs. Reed more or less discards Jane off to Lowood institution and she had already misinformed Mr. Henry Brocklehust that Jane was an evil child. (Niemann, 358) Mr. Brocklehust was in charge and ran the school. Due to Mrs. Reed’s accusation, Mr. Brocklehust harassed Jane in an environment which was already filled with impoverished and orphaned kids. (Rowland, 718)
For other children, this could have been the breaking point because of the pain and torture they had already encountered. But in Jane’s case, the pain and torture did not deter her. This type of resilience is what is needed in our today’s worlds to survive. (Rowland, 788)
While in Lowood institution, Jane for the first time in her life found happiness through her friend and only confidant Helen. But that happiness was cut short when Helen eventually died. After leaving Lowood institution to work as a governess, Jane was still faced the challenge of been considered as an evil person. But even in the face of such torment, Jane still manages to make her hostile boss fall in love with her. (Bailey, 623)
Conclusion Charlotte Bronte’s novel portrays Jane as a character who went through a lot of pain and societal discrimination but eventually found happiness at the end of the day by marrying the man of her choice. But in Robert Stevenson’s film, the character Jane is portrayed as a person who in the face of adversary and abuse, never gave up or broke down but rather persevered and conquered. (Rowland, 514)
The central theme of the film “Jane Eyre” is resilience and perseverance. This is clearly expressed by Robert Stevenson as he highlights the problems of Jane and the things she lost while struggling to succeed. (Niemann, 611) During the course of the film, Jane endured the struggle between principle and passion.
Also, during that period, she endured and overpowered temptations of the flesh and spirit. While Bronte’s novel simply portrays Jane as someone who eventually finds happiness after societal and family abuse, Stevenson’s film portrays Jane as a character who had resilience and was never gave up even when it seemed like all hope was lost and this made Jane a conqueror and a hero who eventually finds her heart desire due to her inner strength. (Niemann, 800)
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Bailey, Hilary. Mrs. Rochester: A Sequel to Jane Eyre. New York: Sloane hall, 2010. Print.
Niemann, James. A Novel Inspired by Jane Eyre: Jane Eyre told from the first person- perspective. New York: Blackwell, 2010. Print.
Rowland, Wiley. Jane Eyre. The Graphic Novel: London: Amy, 2003. Print.
The Love Canal Tragedy and Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction The Love Canal is named after William T. Love, the man who envisioned the idea of creating an 11-km canal between the two sections of the Niagara River to produce electricity for powering his planned city in the 1890s. However, his plan failed and the pit filled with water over the years.
In 1940, Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation purchased the land for use in disposing chemicals. Nearly a decade later, the company had disposed more than 22,000 tons of toxic wastes, and the Love Canal was almost full. The land was later used to build schools and residential homes, and soon, residents started reporting strange odors and the presence of heavy metals. In 1976, heavy rains caused a large amount of chemicals to move to the surface, contaminating the whole area.
In the years that followed, the area reported abnormally high rates of stillbirths and miscarriages, and a similar number of babies born with defects. Eventually in 1978, more than 1,000 families were evacuated from the area, and an EPA study found out that of the 36 people tested, 11 had deformed chromosomes, and that of 15 babies born in the area between 1970 and 1980, just 2 were well.
In the early morning of August 19, 2006, residents of Abidjan city of Ivory Coast observed trucks with freshly painted logo dumping liquid wastes at various locations within the city, this went on for more than three weeks. A few weeks later, several residents began reporting a fowl smell, and tens of people were said to have died.
After several investigations by foreign journalists and the Ivorian government agencies, it was discovered that a Dutch company, Trafigura, had contracted a ship to dispose chemical wastes from its plants in Ivory Coast. The wastes consisted of over 500 tons of a mixture of fuel, caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide), hydrogen sulfide and phenols that Trafigura had failed to dispose in the Netherlands due to high costs. The waste had come from the process of stripping coker gasoline to obtain naphtha.
The company had then contracted a ship, Probo Koala, to deliver the wastes in Abidjan, and collaborated with a local company to dispose the wastes throughout Abidjan. The disposal is estimated to have caused the deaths of more than 17 people while close to 40,000 suffered various illnesses after inhaling the harmful gases released by the wastes.
Parties Involved Hooker Chemical factory was solely responsible for the Love Canal Tragedy, however, the government was also responsible for failing to carry out conclusive studies on the long-term effects of the wastes on the area as had been done by Dr. Robert Mobbs. Dr. Mobbs had investigated the relation between insecticides and cancer and made his reports public, but the government failed to take it up. Eventually, millions or dollars were used to clean up the area, with Hooker Company contributing almost $130 million and the rest by the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Ivorian case, Trafigura was at fault, however, the Dutch government through the port of Amsterdam was also at fault for allowing Trafigura to move the waste back into the Probo Koala after realizing that the disposal fee was too high. Eventually, the Ivorian government and Trafigura paid for the victims’ hospital bills, the clean up exercise and other related expenses.
The ‘Superfund’ was created in 1980 to collect funds from gas and chemical companies for use in clean-up processes identical to the Love Canal. A second legislation, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was passed in 1976 in the US to monitor the disposal of solid wastes and toxic wastes. Superfund is implemented under the EPA and has been successful in cases such as the Kaiser Aluminum
The Essentials of Initiating a Fire and Rescue Project Report best college essay help
Introduction Almost all organizations and firms find themselves in dire need to initiate a project to circumvent a particular predicament or to increase their revenues.
Quite often, projects are aimed at pursuing goals and aims of the organization in the most effective way. Project management is the practice of organizing several resources in a systematic manner with the aim of achieving predetermined goals. Mainly, managers are expected to provide guidance on the amount of human resources, money, and materials required to realize the desired results.
Regardless of the organization’s goals, the manager is required to come up with a clear blueprint to direct his actions effectively bearing in mind the risks and uncertainties, which would arise in the course of execution of the project. This report endeavors to highlight the essentials of initiating a fire and rescue project that would ensure reduction of sickness absence in an organization.
Background Almost all organizations if not all find themselves facing challenges on how to reduce sickness absence among its employees. To this respect, managers with the aim of ensuring continued production need to ensure that all their work force is available and in good health to carry out their obligations.
Launching this project would ensure the organization have the best safety tools to foster good working environment as well as reducing sickness absence. In a broader perspective, the management will strive to cater for a safer humanly working condition, safety equipment and apparatus should be equipped to ensure workers are less vulnerable to accidents. Although this project is an expensive venture but its payoffs have proved to be rewarding.
Reduction of sickness absence has facilitated continuous revenue generation through the year. Finally, analysis of the revenue foregone by sick workers has by far surpassed capital cost of launching the fire prevention project.
Objectives This report endeavors to address the following objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To ensure that the fire and rescue plan is installed in time
To ensure competent and skilled personnel’s are for the project.
To ensure that the project meets it predetermined goals.
Benefits Several benefits are derived by the project such as ensuring that the firm has a continuous production. Since the capital for initiating the project is less than the forgone revenues due to sick leave, the organization will be in a better financial condition. In addition, since this project will be able serve organization both in the short run and in the end. Once the initial capital is provided, the other stages would automatically fall in their rightful place.
Cost This entails capturing the cost items that are related to the project. These include the material costs, labor costs, transports and staffing and overhead costs. The project will involve the following cost items
Item Duration Amount($) Chief manager 11 months 25, 884 Supervisor 11 months 19, 000 Labor 13 months 47,199 Materials 54, 700 Stationery 20, 000 Other costs and fees* 200, 000 Miscellaneous (@ 10%) 34, 090 TOTAL 374, 989 Business Case This involves setting up a rescue project to help the organization in dealing with emergencies and fire outbreaks. A functional project would ensure that the firm’s reduces the sickness leave as well as safeguarding materials, machinery and other assets from fire damage and other hazard.
Initiating the project would help the firm to prevent mush of the losses and poor services delivery due the effects of damages and sickness leave. The management will ensure that all the relevant procedure and activities are carried out in the right time. The business case will also stipulate the activities and the sequence in which they would be handled. In addition, staff required to do the activities, to ensure smooth running of the activities there should be a well-laid organization structure and job description chart.
Tasks The management should ensure each staff is assigned to a single activity or a range of activities. Generally, a list of all activities is generated to ensure smooth operations stipulating the number of workers that will be able assigned to each. The task schedule should have break down as follows.
1 Activity workers 2 Write and agree PID Entire committee 3 Acquire construction material tender 4 Initiate construction 24 5 Acquire and install safety equipments 15 6 Advertise for staff HR Dept 7 Hire and train the staff 18 8 Evaluate the project functionality 5 Precedent chart This chart is a tabulation of all the activity and the duration that it is expected to take. The precedence chart is recorded in months or weeks depending on the time scale, that was used in planning.
Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 Staffing At this point, the manager is required to ensure availability of staffs that are competent to work. These staff should be recruited through advertisement of an interview to attract the best skills in the market. After the recruitment process, the management should ensure that a thorough training and orientation process is conducted.
We will write a custom Report on The Essentials of Initiating a Fire and Rescue Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The post of supervisors should be filled with highly competent and experienced persons; the bearer of the position should be able to deal with fire emergencies and rescue operations. Other positions should equally, be filled with competent and work oriented individuals.
Risk Management Plan The management should ensure the fire and rescue committee is versatile and vigilant in its dealing its mandate. However, risk aspect being uncertain makes its estimation to be difficult to ascertain. Thus, the managers should take their time in ensuring that all risks aspects are taken into consideration. Generally the rescue team should always be prepared to act incase of any emergency or risk occurrence. Finally, the amount of resources deployed should depend on the susceptibility of the organization to fire risks.
The purpose of the document The main purpose of this document is to provide a stable guidance on how and why the project should be carried out. The document also highlights some of the benefits that are associated with the project. Apart from giving a well elaborate procedure on how the fire rescue project would be developed; the document also outlines the relevant steps to be followed.
Owing to the diverse nature of the project, the document provides a simplified outline on the procedures, cost and the benefits emanating from the project. To conclude with, the document provides a well elaborate outline on all activities processes and the time scale associated with each activity.
Complex Problem solving theories Largely, many firms and organizations find themselves in a situation, which requires a prompt action to salvage their welfare of the organization from imminent danger or losses. The most devastating risk is posed by fire and rescue operations. The two calls for exigency and expertise to be able to save lives of the casualties. To this effect, renowned academicians and scholars have proposed several theories to be employed during such predicaments.
The first theory that prominently stands out among others is the “Robotic hypothesis”. Frensch and Sternberg (1991, p. 300) argue that often risk in fire operations is so complex that no realistic measures can be thought of and implemented towards averting the same. At such instances, managers are encouraged to adopt the robotic hypothesis, which allows action depending on the situation at hand. In such condition, a robot being inanimate proves to be the solution because it has no life and therefore it is able to venture even to the heart of the bonfire.
This theory has become so popular to the extent that the demand for robots has been on the increase in the previous few decades. In most cases, the theory has been proven due to the reliability of the robots in major infernos. The flexibility of the theory cannot be over emphasized due to robots diversity in application and easy of manipulation.
According to Frensch and Sternberg (1991, p. 310) the flexibility of the robots to avoid delay has also proved reliable in other calamities apart from the fire tragic. Engineers have been able to design robots to avoid delay by making the supersonic and more efficient their actions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Essentials of Initiating a Fire and Rescue Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Risk management plan Fire and rescue operation Project plan
To effectively deal with the problem that is posed by fire, the management needs to set up the fire and rescue plan. The rescue plan has a hierarchical structure where commands and instructions follow a straight line downwards. The top most section comprise of chiefs who operationalizes the whole action group by issuing directions to the immediate subordinates who in response relay the same information to the junior officers and eventually to the casual laborers.
This structural foundation is important in dealing with rigidity that is often associated with complex structures that impends the urgency at which the action is carried out. The structure gives room to the policy department, which formulates the new guidelines after carrying intensive research in collaboration with the research and redevelopment (R
Youth Crime as a Major Issue in the World Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of Youth Crime
Consequences of Youth Crime
Preventive Measures to Be Taken In Regard to Youth Crime
Introduction Youth crime has become a major issue of concern worldwide because most youths have been indulging in crimes at very high rates. This has raised the need to take some steps in an effort to either minimize or avoid the involvement of youths in criminal activities. Youth crime also referred to as juvenile delinquency entails some abnormality in the youths’ behaviour in regard to societal or even legal expectations.
There are many factors that are considered to facilitate indulgence in crime by the youths for instance poor up bringing, poverty and unemployment, lack of education and peer pressure among others. This research paper will look into the various aspects that are associated with youth crime for example the causes, the delinquent behaviours involved, and the preventive measures undertaken to handle the delinquencies.
Causes of Youth Crime There is no distinct factor that can be pin pointed as the root cause of youth crime. This is because youths engage in criminal activities as a result of the different situations that they face in life. The situations could be as a result of either social, economic, cultural or even family problems.
Different economic, social and cultural conditions in different countries causes the difference in the causes although some common causes can be drawn since all hail from family relationships, the social environment and the economic situation surrounding the youths.
The relationships that exist in the families of the youths could facilitate the indulgence in criminal activities for example when the parents are involved in crime, when there is poor parental guidance and supervision, in case of neglect and isolation or harsh treatment by parents hence the development of defiant behaviour, where there exist family conflicts and the youths feel overburdened, ineffective or lack of communication between the parents and the children hence lack of forum for discussing the problems that the youths could be having, disrespect and irresponsible behaviour among family members that may make the youths take it as a normality, family break-ups and violence among others.
An economic condition on the other hand entails aspects like the political situations surrounding the youths, poverty and unemployment among other aspects (Western, Lynch and Oquilvie 45). The political situation in a nation may also lead to indulgence in crime by the youths for example in instances where there is political instability, the youths may tend to look for means through which to secure a better future hence engaging in criminal activities in search of a livelihood.
Lack of employment opportunities for the youths is also a major contributing factor towards delinquency. Some of the youths have got education but lack employment chances making them hopeless and susceptible to anything that may come their way, crime being one of them as they try to survive and establish a source of living.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poverty and inequality also contributes to criminal activities. This is because no one is ready to accept living in poor conditions especially where others have better living conditions. As the youths tend to move away from the poverty situations they find themselves engaging in criminal ventures in an effort to make life favourable and comfortable.
The social conditions that may facilitate the indulgence in criminal activities by the youths include inequalities in terms of services provision and power sharing, poor or lack of leadership in the societies hence loss of focus among the youths, discrimination among the youths, peer pressure and influence of the media for instance where the media portrays violence and crime to be prestigious making the youths to emulate people involved in crime among others. It is therefore evident that to prevent crime, the above named causes should be dealt with from the roots (McCord et al 25).
Consequences of Youth Crime There are numerous consequences that are associated with youth crime. The crimes affect not only those undertaking it but also the society at large. This is because of the uncertainty linked with the criminal activities which leads to tension and anxiety among the society members as they don’t know what may happen to them.
The crime may also be dangerous to the youths themselves for instance the abuse of drugs and other substances may lead to deterioration of their health, they may also be physically injured in the event of perpetrating the criminal activities and more so, they may get themselves behind bars facing legal sentences once they are convicted for the crimes committed hence suffering from lack of freedom and harsh treatment (Elliot, Huizinga, and Menard 29).
Preventive Measures to Be Taken In Regard to Youth Crime Since the problem of youth crime is real and in existence, there is need to establish some measures aimed at reducing or avoiding the chances of engaging in crimes by the youths. A good approach is however the identification of the root causes of the crimes and dealing with them appropriately.
The measures include reduction of inequality and poverty levels among communities. This could be achieved through aspects like effective taxation that ensures that the well-up people are able to support the less fortunate through the taxes hence reducing the inequality. Poverty can also be reduced through provision of employment opportunities and increasing the minimum earnings.
This will in the long run reduce the chances of the youths’ indulgence in crime as they will be involved in more productive activities in the economy. Reduction of the availability of drugs and other substances is also a recommended step as it reduces the number of youths who can access them hence avoiding their abuse (Blyth and Solomon 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Youth Crime as a Major Issue in the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another effective method that could be applied is the youth awareness programmes for instance on the importance of education and general positive living. Education should also be made affordable to the majority including the poor as education enhances an individual’s well being in terms of decision making and making choices as well as increasing the possibilities of securing job opportunities hence have a stable source of earning.
There should also be efforts to reinforce the law enforcement strategies with an aim of reducing chances of crime as the youths caught committing crimes are sentenced hence serving as examples to the others who may think of indulging in crime. Corruption is a contributing force towards crime execution of since the offenders feel free to commit the crimes without minding the consequences as they know they can bribe the law enforcers and get away with it.
Reduction of the corruption will in return result to reduction of crime rates as the youths will be held responsible for their criminal activities and hence they will tend to avoid it. These preventive measures among others will help reduce crime rates through dealing with the root causes of the crimes (Muhammad 9).
Conclusion It is evident that youth crime is a problem in most countries as young people are increasingly getting involved in criminal activities. The problem however lies in the establishment of the main causes of crime youth but once this is clear, the problem can be dealt with appropriately through prevention of its crimes rather than waiting for its occurrence and intervening since this is much more tasking and entails aspects like rehabilitation which can be avoided through prevention.
Works Cited Blyth, Maggie and Solomon, Enver. Prevention and Youth Crime: Is Early Intervention Working? United Kingdom: The Policy Press, 2009.
Elliot, S. Delbert, Huizinga, David and Menard, Scott. Multiple Problem Youth: Delinquency, Substance Use and Mental Health Problems. Springer: New York, 2009.
McCord, Joan et al. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. USA: National Academies Press, 2001.
Muhammad, Ali. “Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies”. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), Paper No. 17223, 2008. Mar. 4 2011.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Youth Crime as a Major Issue in the World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Western, Stuart John, Lynch, Mark and Oquilvie, Emma. Understanding Youth Crime: An Australian Study. USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003.
Annotated Bibliography The following are the additional sources to be included in the annotated bibliography.
Blyth, Maggie and Solomon, Enver. Prevention and Youth Crime: Is Early Intervention Working? United Kingdom: The Policy Press, 2009.
This book is very essential in this study as it gives an insight to the prevention of youth crime. It specifically touches on the importance of prevention rather than cure in regard to any given problem and in this case the authors give the benefits accrued to the prevention process as opposed to the cure. It focuses on the need for early intervention programmes that should be put in place in an effort to preventing the young children and the youths from engaging in criminal activities.
It is a book that incorporates contributions from various experts in their effort to examine critically the government policy in relation to early intervention programmes, which are directed towards supporting families and preventing young children and youths from being involved in crime. It generally looks into the effectiveness of early intervention as a measure towards preventing youth crime.
McCord, Joan et al. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. USA: National Academies Press, 2001.
This book has combined efforts of different authors to bring about an understanding of why the young people decide to turn into delinquent acts. The book specifically looks into the patterns of crimes undertaken by children and youth offenders. It gives a detailed insight into the contributing factors for instance parental care, peer pressure and how the society influences this.
Apart from the reasons for indulgence of the youths in crime, the book highlights some of the solutions to youth crime for instance the interventions to be implemented in the juvenile justice system, the part played by law enforcers and other preventive measures.
Muhammad, Ali. “Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies”. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), Paper No. 17223, 2008.
This is a very informative research paper as it covers a wide range of aspects in regard to the topic of study, Youth Crime. It gives in depth details in relation to the factors that may facilitate the youths’ indulgence to various criminal activities and the consequences associated with the involvement of the youths in criminal activities including those faced by the offenders themselves and the society at large.
Apart from the causes and effects of youth crime, the author recognizes the fact that the ordeal of crime is in existence and more so it is in the rise and therefore outlines in details the appropriate measures that should be adhered to in an effort to preventing and avoiding the engagement of the youths in criminal activities emphasizing that dealing with the root causes is very crucial in preventing youth crime.
Scott, S. Elizabeth and Steinberg, Laurence. Adolescent Development and the Regulation of Youth Crime. The Future of children, volume 18, Number 2, fall 2008, pp. 15 – 33.
This journal article explores the changes that have taken place in the conception of the law over the past years. The authors shows of how the youth offenders were initially treated, the same way as adults, which is not right as the youths are quite different from the adults for instance in terms of the offences they commit and the punishment they can stand.
The laws to be adopted for instance emphasizes on the application of aspects like rehabilitation as corrective measures as opposed to punishment which is employed in case of the adult offenders. It calls for attention to the application of the juvenile justice system to the delinquents as opposed to subjections to the adult courts.
Western, Stuart John, Lynch, Mark and Oquilvie, Emma. Understanding Youth Crime: An Australian Study. USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003.
The authors in this book give some good and educative information that can assist us in understanding the general overview of the aspect of youth crime. Although the case study is in the Australian population, it gives the idea of the relationship between the youths and crime. According to this book, the youths are in their transitional process from childhood to adulthood and they are susceptible to numerous troubles including criminal activities.
The book focuses on an Australian study that was carried out to determine the major social factors that are deemed to have some impacts on the general lives of young people. The study was conducted on 1,300 youths which is a total representative sample and from this a general overview is drawn which enriches our understanding of youth criminality.
Personality Theory Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of Lisbeth’s Traits Based on Personality Theories
Introduction Personality theories are conceptions that have been propagated by psychologists and academicians from time immemorial. The attempt at defining personality is guided by the intent of trying to understand and explain the psychological distinctiveness and similarities that people exhibit. This essay will critically analyze the cause of different personalities or character traits among individuals. The analysis will put into consideration the various theories that have been posited in effort to explain the same. This essay is largely informed by chapter 11 of the book “Psychology” by Hockenbury
History of Easter Sunday Essay best essay help
Easter Sunday is a very important celebration because it marks the resurrection of Jesus. Easter originated when the first Christian missionaries started to preach the gospel in Europe in an attempt to convert the German Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
The four gospel books in the bible offers some insight on the emotional effect the first Easter had on Jesus’ followers including his crucifixion to his miraculous rising from death. There is detailed explanation on what took place and the location but none on the time or period it happened.
The first two decades of Easter celebrations could have been celebrated by those who were present during death and resurrection of Jesus nevertheless there is no record of the services of the early anniversaries (Collins 5). There is a belief that there wer persecution of most of the earlier Christians and hence the celebrations could have been conducted secretly. Those who could worship in a free manner were satisfied to live a life similar to that of Jesus, with constant memory of the events.
Easter Sunday does not have a fixed date and for a long period of time it was celebrated at diverse times on the basis of the end of winter or the Passover feast as celebrated by Jews. In 325 A.D. there was a meeting by church leaders, the council of Nicaea, meant to harmonize the celebration by Christians and the report was handed to Emperor Constantine.
Setting the date for Easter was difficult because some Christians celebrated it along with the Passover, which is dependent on the moon’s cycle, and a resolution was arrived at that it should continue. Thus, it turned to be a flexible festival since no specific weekend could be dedicated for Easter. The range of dates is March twenty-one to April twenty-five and hence known as the movable feast but Christians from the eastern orthodox a Julian calendar.
Christians observe a lent period, forty days of prayer and fasting, as they prepare for Easter with the last week being considered sacred. The preceding Sunday is named Palm Sunday in memory of Jesus entering Jerusalem just before his crucifixion, Thursday the last supper while Good Friday is a celebration of forgiveness of sins (Laderman and Leon 605).
In America, Easter Sunday also involve celebrations that are not religious with the most popular being the yearly Egg Roll on Monday that was started by James Madison and takes place at the White House’ south lawn. Initially, these celebrations took place in the capital grounds and eggs are most important in household Easter celebrations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of eggs has its origin from Europe where springtime presents included decorated eggs and Americans made some modifications to it. Normally, hard-boiled eggs were colored and the adults would hide them in order for children to look for them in what was referred as Easter egg hunt (Laderman and Leon 605).
In Britain and Northern Europe, people used to celebrate after winter when there are long but cold days and the spring resulted to a relatively warm weather devoted to the spring gods. Some cultures celebrated the bringing of warm weather by the goddess Eostre which the missionaries converted to Easter since they could not end the pagan custom. It could simply be put that Easter was developed from one of the goddesses, Eostre, of Europe.
Works Cited Collins, A. “Stories behind the traditions and songs of Easter.” Florida: Zondervan. 2009. Print.
Impact of Control Mechanisms on the Management Functions in Boeing Company Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Control mechanisms are utilized by business organizations in order to have successful management of the businesses. The control mechanisms provide an avenue along which the managers move to bring up the level of productivity, boost innovation, and to ensure there are shared values and beliefs in the company.
One of the control mechanisms that have been successfully used by the Boeing Company is the “employee incentive programs”. According to Bateman and Snell (2009), “employee incentive programs” are utilized in order to control employee productivity and this is carried out by encouraging the employees and giving them rewards for their hard work.
The Boeing Company has taken an initiative to offer rewards as well as incentives to its employees. Among these incentives offered by the company include; “health insurance, vacations, wellness programs, and retirement benefits’ (“Boeing”, 2011).
In addition, the company also offers limited legal and financial advice to the employees at without charging them any fee. As a result of the implementation of these programs by the company, the employees have achieved satisfaction and this has made it possible for it to effectively carry out the management functions of organizing and controlling on human capital.
It is of great importance for any manager of an organization to raise the level of “employee incentives” and lead. Indeed, those business managers who are effective have also the ability to play the role of leading. The management is offered with precious opportunities by such mechanisms (employee incentives).
This control mechanism tool will develop the capability of the manager to have power over the employees and also facilitate the company’s growth. Leading, as a function of management, operates together with employee incentives and this is for the reason that incentive programs give encouragement to the employees in a number of ways.
Through these programs, the employees will be in a position to feel appreciated and at the same time, there will be increased motivation among the employees as well as increased productivity. It is quite vital for the management of an organization to make use of this control mechanism at the time it is making an effort to lead and this is because; employees want their great efforts in their work to be rewarded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, working with motivated employees makes it easier for the management to carry out its functions. It will be easier for the management to plan for activities in the organization with an assurance that they will be effectively carried out. More so, controlling, organizing and coordinating of the activities will be effective. This is the reason why the Boeing Company has been successful in its operations through the use of the employee incentive programs as a control mechanism.
Therefore, it can be concluded that, all organizations’ management should make use of the control mechanisms. Such control mechanisms as “employee incentive programs” is the means that is used to ensure there is motivation and enthusiasm among employees. This offers several benefits to the organization and its management as well as to the employees.
The “employee incentive programs”, as a control mechanism, has a great positive impact on the management functions, especially the function of leading. This function is given a positive instrument for development and transformation by the control mechanism of employee incentives. Through the use of this control mechanism (employee incentive programs) in an effective way, the Boeing Company’s management has been able to perform its functions effectively.
Reference List Bateman, T.S. and Snell, S. (2009). Management: leading and collaborating in the competitive world (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Boeing Company. (2011). Pay and Incentives. Retrieved from http://www.boeing.com/
Poverty in Russia during the Late Nineteenth Century Essay best college essay help
Poverty is regarded to be one of the lowest statuses of life of people living in the world. Most individuals are not privileged enough to be of equal status as compared to those of higher status in life; thus, usually they are treated with contempt and they end up living miserable lives. In some cases, they have ended up serving as slaves because of they are considered not to be human beings.
Usually, the poor are forced to depend on those of higher status quo in life for them to earn a living and this makes them to be unfortunate individuals living in the world.
This practice was more prevalent in the past though it is still a norm in some places around the world. During the late nineteenth century in Russia, “peasants were deprived of the light of knowledge, and they suffered an oppressive poverty” (Tian-Shanskaia, 169). In the book, Village Life on Late Tsarisat Russia, the authors, Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia and David L. Ransel, depict the poverty situation in Russia before the revolution.
In writing the book, the authors had a desire to represent the life story of peasant life in Russia. The life background of Tian-Shanskaia reveals that he had this interest beforehand.
She was born in 1863 into one of the very famous and scientific families of that time. Her father, Pytor Pertovich Semyonova, was a prominent geographer, explorer and statistician; thus, he instilled these skills to his children from an early age, Tian-Shanskaia included. Worth mentioning, through the investigations he championed, he was recognized by the nation’s authorities and given many titles.
Most importantly, Pytor Pertovich Semyonova role was instrumental in the life of the peasants living before the revolution since he championed the passing of rules that were intended to guarantee the Russian peasants of their freedom. Thus, one of his children, Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia, had the desire to continue doing this by illustrating the deplorable condition of peasantry life during the late Tsarist Russia.
The social history of peasants in Russia during the pre-revolutionary period is detailed in the book. Tian-Shanskaia, an ethnographer and a painter, vibrantly illustrates the harsh living conditions of the Russian peasant families. She spent close to four years during the 1890s studying the way of life of the people in a central Russian province before coming up with one of the best ethnographic portraits of this situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author describes the common practice at the turn of the twentieth century in which women and children were not treated with respect (Tian-Shanskaia, 142). She also tackles some other issues such as marriage engagement, sexual habits, child mortality, giving of birth, raising of children, employment issues, dietary customs, and investments among the people.
In direct opposition to the habit of depicting peasant families as living a good life by most high-class observers, the book, which is a firsthand portrait of peasant family life, illustrates the deplorable living conditions of the peasants. In addition, the book also indicates that there is usually brutality in the peasant families (Tian-Shanskaia, 148).
One element of the peasant life that is worth mentioning is the type of houses they dwelt in. The pre-revolutionary peasants lived a life that was full of insufficiency and there was evident lack of sophistication in their lives (Tian-Shanskaia, 1). More so, their conditions of living were generally unhygienic.
Their places of residences were most of the time polluted, lacked good ventilation, and did not receive enough light. Most of their houses were made such that there was a main structure for spending the night and dining. Other structures outside the main building, such as barn and cellar, were also constructed.
Since the peasants relied so much on keeping of livestock, they often build a lawn for this sake, and all their houses were constructed from either wood or clay, as they were the most readily available materials. Worth mentioning, the roof of every building in the complex was made of thatches, and the sharing of the houses between animals and people led to unhygienic living conditions.
The author makes this clear, “like the houses, threshing barns are covered with thatched roofs; the roof framing, however, is supported by studs rather than by rafters as in a house” (Tian-Shanskaia, 123).
The peasant houses were made to be one large room and the common characteristic of these houses was that they had a stove that was employed in cooking and increasing the temperature of the houses, especially during cold conditions (Tian-Shanskaia, 119). In a situation in which the stoves lacked a chimney, the houses would be filled with smoke from the burning fuel and this worsened the hygienic conditions of the dwellings; however, the places of residence that had chimneys were cleaner, less stuffy, and well aerated.
We will write a custom Essay on Poverty in Russia during the Late Nineteenth Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The dwellings of the Russian peasants had a red or attractive corner in which they placed copies of Orthodox Byzantine icons for performing religious duties (Tian-Shanskaia, 12). Concerning their sleeping arrangements, the stoves were constructed with sleeping places for at least two members of the household while the other members spent the night in a loft or on benches inside the house.
They used straws for sleeping before using them as fuel in the morning; thus, it was a major source of the unhygienic living conditions that the pleasant houses were known of (Tian-Shanskaia, 119). More so, the peasants brought in their animals inside the houses during cold temperatures and this worsened the condition further.
Comparing the deplorable living conditions of the Russian peasants to that of the modern Russia seems to be full of irony. The author says, “Russia in the late nineteenth century was a society in crisis” (Tian-Shanskaia, xi). However, during the twentieth century after the successful revolution, Russia rose to become one of the most respected countries globally.
Currently, it is still being considered as one of the nations with the best living conditions. The country takes pride in having averagely high earnings per employed person and the minimum amount of wage for its workforce is among the highest in the world. Before the turn of the century, the living condition of the Russian peasants is described as follows:
“A small hut about twelve feet (3.6m) square – with a door through which a medium-sized man can only go by stooping – the floor made of earth, the ceiling so low that a tall man cannot stand upright, tiny windows letting in little light . the whole building made of thin wood . the entire family lives in this room, sleeping on benches and on the floor all together, men, women, children and cattle”(“Modern History”, para. 3).
However, these conditions of living are incomparable with the modern housing that Russians take pride in. Currently, an average Russian stays in a house that is adequately equipped with all the necessities of life. The children, both boys and girls, are usually given their own rooms.
The parents usually have spacious rooms. In addition, the kitchen and the dining room are also well equipped with modern housing facilities. And, if the family has animals, they never share the same roof as they are usually have their own shades away from the residential area. This situation is generally diametrically opposite to how the peasants of the late nineteenth century lived their lives.
In conclusion, the book, Village Life on Late Tsarisat Russia, gives an interesting and captivating depiction of the living condition the peasants in Russia before the turn of the twentieth century.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Poverty in Russia during the Late Nineteenth Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More so, it is important to note that the book is an important basis for measuring the progress that country of Russia underwent during the better part of the twentieth century. Currently, the thought of visiting Russia is a dream that many would like to achieve.
The background of the writer together with her desire to illustrate this condition makes the account to be credible since he observed the happenings personally. In general, the book plays a pivotal role in historical evaluation of the ancient Russia and the Russia today. In the former, poverty was outstanding.
The peasants were living in abject poverty beyond what would be regarded to be reasonable in Russia today (Tian-Shanskaia, 139). Thus, poverty is the outstanding theme in the book as all other misgivings tend to revolve around this theme. Poverty is the only justifiable ground to portray the deplorable standards of living illustrated by the writer.
Works Cited “Modern History.” Sdehs. Sidney Distance Education High School, 2003. Web.
Tian-Shanskaia, Olga Semyonova. Village life in late tsarist Russia. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1993. Print.