Introduction Historically, intellectual property rights, IPR, have played a pivotal role in safeguarding all types of creators in business, scientific and artistic fields. In media technologies, besides providing effective mechanism of protection, the IPR has provided ethical means in which the creators or inventors can appreciate their efforts.
Although recent years have witnessed a proliferation of creativity and knowledge exceeding the precincts of mainstream protective measures, IPR has continued to evolve, in tandem with these happenings.
Media technologies have witnessed more challenges. These challenges have spanned all spectrums of the society. They include ethical, technological, political, and legislative spectrums, among others. Despite these issues hampering the process of achieving their success, they have granted opportunities for various stakeholders involved in devising methods which fix their effective utilisation.
Hence, in recent years, laws, policies and technologies among other strategies, have been constituted to control how media technologies can be used without compromising the intellectual property rights.
The author describes how the control of intellectual property rights has contributed to the development of media technologies. In achieving this objective, the author notes that various strategies implemented focusing on intellectual property rights have been pivotal in controlling how media technologies are produced, distributed and used.
Measures, such as legislations and technology among others, have provided an elaborate framework in using media technologies. Besides, various laws have been enforced to control or protect intellectual property. Further, the author demonstrates using Napster and Sony Vs Universal Studios as case studies to demonstrate issues that have resulted by not embracing the role of intellectual property rights.
Discussion For several years, legal controls have been used to safeguard the society against threats which can occur unexpectedly. Legal controls have provided an effective mechanism in addressing the issue of intellectual property rights. Presently, the world has become a global village; the dawn of the internet has resulted in what we call digital revolution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the media industry, digital revolution has created what is known as new digital media; hence, digital media has become a common phrase widely embraced in technology and media industries. It is a technology which is enabled by the internet. New digital media has imposed a challenge to conventional copyright policy.
Thus, many organisations owning copyrights argue that the digital media have simplified prospects for intellectual theft. Intellectual Property Online (53) illustrates that new media have provided new challenges in terms of intellectual property rights. Intellectual Property Online notes that devising higher protection standards than was with earlier terms of copyright law will help to neutralise loss of revenues (57).
Legal Control Measures and Controls The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the European Union Copyright Directive
Despite the differences, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, DMCA and the European Union Copyright Act, EUCA, have balanced the opposing differences in protecting digital media. The acts own a similar purpose of fixing a secure environment for relaying digital media contents (Intellectual Property Online 58).
The Acts contain terms making it unlawful to circumvent copy-protection technologies in order to access unauthorised content. The acts also provide protection to other illegal activities such as distribution, production and making content available with intent of encouraging circumvention. Intellectual property owners are concerned about the illegal appropriation of contents as it restricts them from profiting from their efforts.
The DMCA and EUCD with an aim of disciplining unlawful appropriation outlined specific rules to incorporate technology protecting copyright work and granting honest users to fulfill their rights (Lucchi). The anti-circumvention provision of the DMCA prevents three types of misdeeds. According to Digital Rights Management, it outlaws evading technological measures that prevent access to copyrighted work (104). Secondly, it forbids trafficking in devices that can improve circumvented access controls.
Lastly, it restricts trafficking in circumvention devices for technological measures that safeguard the copyright, owner’s exclusive rights such as copying and distribution. On the other hand, EUCD promotes three areas in its strategy. These areas are the distribution rights, reproduction rights and the rights of communication (Lucchi).
The Act also seeks member countries to provide legal procedures to guard against circumvention for technological measures that cover works. It criminalises circumvention in any approach regardless of the rights it protects (Digital Rights Management 106). The two laws, presently in force, provide content owners with a stronger opportunity to implement their own regulations and limits on the use and access of digital content.
We will write a custom Essay on The control of intellectual property has played an important role in the development of media technologies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Intellectual Property Enforcement New European Pattern
To ensure secure digital media content and guarantee strong individual user’s deeds, the EU enforced the intellectual property rights as a regulation that compels member countries to generate decisive, reasonable, proportionate procedures, and remedies against copying and piracy.
Davis explains that these measures were aimed at providing absolute protection to copyright violations (78). The European Union asserted that enforcing the law was necessary because without a careful and effective security, creativity and innovation was deemed to die. This regulation compels that it is necessary to ensure the substantive law on intellectual property is administered properly across the society.
This is because administering is a key objective for success for protecting intellectual property. The European Union notes that a rapid increase in piracy and intellectual property rights and violation of intellectual property is a phenomenon which has a global outlook. When left unchecked, it poses a dire threat to society. Hence, the enforcement measures and other procedures are essential to defeat the challenge.
Many conventional and envisaged applications embracing digital media focus on transferring, recording or finding contents instead of transforming contents to new ones. For instance, applications that would have easily recombined personal media with elements from other public and other mass media, offer new areas in which copyright law and policy succeed (Lucchi). Most copyright regulations have shifted towards giving greater security and universal rights to copyright owners.
According to Litman (2000), this illustrates a shift from the conventional pattern of prohibition by the acceptable use of copyrighted materials to all unauthorised use as illegal. Besides, older protection that was envisaged under the US copyright laws, for instance, is facing a threat with the shift to the digital domain. This, according to Stallman (2004), has led to the role of copyright entirely reversed.
The digital technology has transformed it into a system that allows producers to confine the public into appreciating the works of authors. In the digital communication layout, there are typically developments which have dramatically changed the course of accessing copyrighted information. According to Davis, these developments are zero marginal cost of copying, negligible cost of posting or producing
new information on the internet and zero cost of transmission over the internet (80). With zero costs for duplication of information, the cyberspace technologies feel threatened. Therefore, there is a need to restrict ‘’theft’, by embracing new technological advancement that encourage fair use’ principle, a fundamental aspect of copyright principle (Davis 83).
The intellectual property rights, IPR, have simplified the manner in which the society engages in the proper use and access of copyrighted content. This has been achieved through a concept known as fair use. In the United States, the Fair Use Doctrine encourages acceptable use of copyrighted materials without permission or license, for purposes such as news reporting, comments and teaching, among others. The statute has extended fair use in various ways (Borland).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The control of intellectual property has played an important role in the development of media technologies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This includes time-shifting, in using a VCR to time-shift when a person is viewing television programs and format shifting as in creating an MP3 format version of an audio CD that a person already owns. Assessing when to use of copyrighted content under fair use has been analysed by the courts on a case by case basis.
This has been done using the four codes. These codes include the intent and spirit of the use (whether for nonprofit aims or commercial), the amount and substantiality of the potion used for the copyrighted work and impact of use on the potential market. These codes are covered under the United States Code (Dittmann 7).
However, fixing fair use has been a difficult task because of the contradictory interpretations set forth by legal scholars. The distinction of rationalisation hinges on whether fair use is a confirmatory right that permits copying in specific conditions or just a defense used in cases of copyright violation (Dittmann 6).
When understood along the confirmatory right attitude, fair use is an essential part of copyright law that safeguards the constitutionally guaranteed rights of an individual’s free expression and free speech. On the contrary, when fair use is understood along the defensive line, copyright creators and technologies that enable them can limit a person access to digital media; granting fair use no longer an alternative available to the wider society. Copyright creators would then control access and use of digital media.
Technology Control Measures The rapid technological progress in information and communication has fixed new legislative and judicial effort to restructure intellectual property rights in the digital media. This is to fix equilibrium between consumers and the legal owners. Hence, in today’s information society, technology control is directed by various international conventions and compliance with the state legislative practices. Technology control
legislation then supports enforceability. Acts such as EUCD and DMCA recognise a legal status and offer a candid constitutional protection for copyright management and technological measures preventing unauthorised use and determining the conditions for permitted use (Lucchi).
According to Borland, technology provides no issue to any legal control. It oversees transactions on an authoritative manner (Borland). Because of these characteristics of technology, intellectual property laws have undergone various amendments to support the needs of the technological world.
The role of technology in safeguarding intellectual property has been varied. One of the roles it achieves is preventing users from gaining access or engaging in practices such as copying. It also allows creation of licensing business models.
These models permit holders to have the right of choosing their own discretion terms and conditions for use and access to their work. They also set in technical devices used in accomplishing their tasks. In absolute terms, technology cultivates the authority or grants the rights holder privileges to determine how his/her work should be used.
Borland explains that different technological expressions have been expanding to keep contents from unauthorised copyright infringement and ease overseeing the use of media by the society (Borland).
Terms such as technological protection measures, self-help systems, automated rights and digital rights management systems are springing as a result. These expressions point to an automated architecture that can manage and protect distributing digital works. Besides, these measures provide easy transfer of digital works from inventors and publishers to consumers.
Technological features to Protect access rights and control
The inclusion of copy protection devices has been an element of various digital media. Several methods have been employed to ensure reasonable access to contents is guaranteed (Stenger). These measures are grouped into rights control and access control. Rights control limits a user’s capacity to engage the rights of the content owner.
Access control involves a concept of access privileges to succeed a given operation. Access controls have granted legal protection than conventional controls. The rights holders are guaranteed more incentives of use than rights controls to improve stronger legal protection against circumvention.
Digital media technology has fixed significant changes in sharing and producing information. These changes have had a sweeping effect on copyright law and policies. Dittmann illustrates in his journal, IEEE Multi-Media: “This has had a deeper impact on digital media, that media can easily be expressed in the form or meaning’ (5).
While he noted this transformative characteristic of digital media as a risk to technological and copyright defense actions, it is the transformative environment of the digital media that most promises protection of fair use rights (Stenger).
Media technologists are involved in inventing new ways. These ways make the present and future digital media support intellectual property laws and policies that promote freedom of expressions and fair use privilege.
Hence, the media technologies will strive to safeguard users and not primarily the data stored in it. According to Stenger, technologies strengthen and support transformative elements of digital media by making them available, reusable and accessible through establishing and using metadata (Stenger).
Current trends in information technology have provided new alternatives in safeguarding intellectual property rights. Though some have proved successful, others have contributed to more infringement opportunities. Initiatives to establish barriers, for example, the Secure Digital Music Initiative, SDMI, have emphatically failed. Similarly, other efforts such as the Macrovision’s ‘snaps and crackles’ technology have also failed.
Borland, in his article “Snaps, Crackles May Stop CD Piracy”, illustrates that ‘snaps and crackles’ technology inserts bits in a PCM encoded music on a CD (Borland). When such a CD is compressed with an MP3 algorithm and preserved with the data file on a computer system, the music gets corrupted with audible crackles and snaps on playback (Borland). These industry actions, although viewed as a big achievement, do not guarantee security of content. They are short-term remedies.
Case Studies The Napster – Illegal File Swapping
Illegal file swapping draws a common global threat to intellectual property rights enforcement. File swapping involves having a file sharing software or peer distribution system. The service allows users to freely exchange or share music files or other copyrighted content on the internet.
Because these files are protected from copyright, less legitimacy has been attached to MP3 file size. McCourt and Patrick illustrate that Napster, which was founded in 1999, was a well-known online business which embraced peer-to peer network in heightening illegal file sharing practice (335).
The Napster example illustrates the effect of intellectual property rights issue in the new digital world. Napster was an online music business which provided music sharing services. According to McCourt and Patrick, Napster operated on the idea that when someone pays for a given song or album, he had a right to ‘share’ with others (336).
During the pre-internet days, sharing convention was widely embraced, because any person would give a friend a book or a video cassette without minding copyright infringement. It is well noted that non-commercial consumer copying is a fair use under the copyright regulation. However, in the digital age, things have changed because of the unlimited number of copies which can be made. Napster music sharing succeeded three distinct phases.
The first phase was a user browsed the Napster website and entered the music of choice using his/her personal computer. The user’s machine then searched similar machines on the internet running a similar program. Once the search was over and the music found, the user then selects the device and transfers the MP3 music file containing the music.
The Napster peer-to-peer technology allowed online connected computers to connect without passing, by means of a central file server (McCourt and Patrick, 342). This established a system that constituted internetworked computers with share files stored in a single computer and controlled by simple share software.
Napster had to face many legal issues because of its service of free music sharing. This was because it was violating the copyright rules of the owners of the music. After lengthy and protracted legal battles involving intellectual property infringement, Napster had to submit and presently, the e-business offers subscription services. It pays royalties on copyrighted contents.
Although Napster story has cooled, many other e-based organisations have taken the Napster theory and enhanced it. According to Stenger, among the ideas evolving after Napster collapsed is that some e-based businesses have created offshore Napster sites. These sites blend two lengthy issues of the legal jurisdiction of the internet and the intellectual property rights (Stenger).
Stenger, in his article “Entrepreneur Proposes Offshore Napster Clone”, notes the companies which compete with the Napster ideas use the pig Latin, or other unique misspelling to obscure music filenames blocked by Napster (Stenger).
Napster case shows the challenge that most mainstream music industry businesses have in this internet era. Thus, these issues are anchored on assumptions of technological obstacles that no longer prevail.
Despite the courts neutralising the Napster case, the challenge of music sharing is common; undoubtedly, the future will encounter many problems. Perhaps, possibilities of music intellectual property rights will move away from the ownership model to licensing model. However, whether the strategy will reduce music piracy is still under discussion.
Sony Vs Universal Studios 1984
Sony and Universal Studios were some of the leading media industries in 1980’s. In 1980’s, most media industries used cassette and audio tapes to distribute, play and store music. Besides, using these media simplified copying of music, hence, people would do themselves without much difficulty.
This scenario elicited a threat to organisations producing and marketing recorded music. This was because an entire album could be recorded off the air with reasonable reliability. However, loss of music quality was causing an outcry from the listening public, besides, the copies successfully produced were poorer in precision. Besides, commercially produced cassette tapes would be borrowed and duplicated. These processes contributed to loss of royalties to the musicians.
This was a similar issue that arose between Sony and Universal Studios in 1984, when home video recorder was introduced in the recording industry. Home video recorded made it possible to record video programs such as motion pictures off the air. This signaled that royalties were not paid for subsequent viewing.
This scenario prompted a significant legal battle, pitting producers of blank tape and tape recording devices against content producers. This resulted in a court case between the two media industries. The results of the conflict were that consumers could lawfully record content off the air for personal use, they could also sell. However, whereas commercial practice of using such materials was prohibited, home use was not.
Conclusion Various technological barriers and legal sanctions have contributed to redefining how media technologies are used in contemporary world. Hence, they will continue to be vital in protecting intellectual property rights. This has been successful, especially in preventing corporate piracy. Hence, at a personal level, they will not be sufficient because the technological barrier has decreased and is unlikely to increase by strategies such as encryption methods incorporated in volumes of produced items.
Legal interventions such as Digital Millennium Act and European Union among others, have streamlined media technologies’ use by providing effective guidelines. Hence, with more technologies emerging, these interventions will endeavour to evolve to address the intricacies that come with new technologies.
Work Cited Borland, John. “Snaps, Crackles May Stop CD Piracy, 2012. Web..
Davis, Randall. “The Digital Dilemma,” Communications of the ACM 44, (2001): 77- 83. Print
Digital Rights Management. MIT Alumni Association. Technology Review, (n.d): 102- 109. Print
Dittmann, Jana. “Copyright-Copywrong,” IEEE Multi-Media, (2000): 14-17. Print
Intellectual Property Online. A Landmark Case,” Strategic Finance, (n.d): 52-57,
Litman, Joseph, The demonization of piracy, 2000; Web..
Lucchi, Nicola. Intellectual Property Rights in Digital Media: A Comparative Analysis of Legal Protection, Technological Measures and New Business Models under E.U. and U.S. Law, 2005. Web.
Marc, Davis. “From Pirates to Patriots: Fair Use for Digital Media.” IEEE Multimedia, (2002):4-7. Print
McCourt, Tom, and Patrick Burkart. When creators, corporations and consumers collide: Napster and the development of on-line music distribution. Media, Culture
The ‘Peopling’ Process of Australia since 1788 with Influence of Racism Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
After the arrival of the British colony in 1788, there has been a significant increase in the size of immigrants to Australia. In this regard, the statement that racism has dominated the “peopling” process of Australia is fair. The fact that the European law stipulated that a founder could claim any unused land enhances this reasoning.
The British arrival led to an increase in the conflicts between the original inhabitants, aborigines, and immigrants. The aborigines’ families occupying the land had their own system of traditional governance that was contrary to the British law. With these forms of differences that resulted from the arrival of immigrants, racism arose in the manner of governance and resource distribution in the country (Vasta
Qantas Airways Company Service Marketing Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
List of References
Introduction Qantas Airways has been in operation since 1920 when the airline was founded in Australia. The airline is well known for its comfortable and entertaining services.
Passengers who have traveled using Qantas Airways have had the experience of a lifetime given that the company has been awarded many times for its in flight entertainment facilities. The airline operates in 40 countries while serving 140 destinations (Qantas Airways 2012).
The airline has popularized the Sydney hub since it connects many destinations between North America and Australia. The company is also recognized for practicing excellence in the air transport business.
Qantas Airways is hence recognized for its design, excellence and innovation in entertainment. Customers of Qantas Airlines nonetheless face certain risks when they interact with the company. These are elaborated in this paper.
Financial risks Passengers of Qantas Airways face the risk of financial losses if they fail to make it on time for their flights. This is the same case as for all major airlines which have strict policies to counter lateness. There is always the threat of loss of belongings if passengers are not vigilant while traveling.
Passengers can lose valuable belongings and even money if they are careless while in the middle of strangers. Even though the company is doing well in terms of prestige and flight operations, shareholders are always prone to losses because of uncertainties in the stock markets (Laroche 2003).
For instance, there was a workers strike in 2011 that crippled the airline’s operations. The stock prices of the airline can be affected by such occurrences which affect investor confidence. Flight travel also involves many unanticipated expenses such as entertainment (newspapers/ magazines), extra food and drinks, unknown taxes and cargo charges to and from an airport.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Functional risks Passengers of Qantas Airways face many functional risks. Passengers who pay for flights are assured of excellent services but the quality of these activities is as per the criteria set by the airline. What the managers consider quality might not please customers and so excellence is never guarantee.
For instance, the entertainment facilities installed in the airline in the form of movies and music might appeal to the youth but appear irrelevant to older passengers. Passengers of Qantas Airways carry plastic money in the form of credit cards (MasterCard/ Visa). These do not guarantee successful completion of transactions because some service operators do not accept them in their business facilities. Currency problems also affect many passengers and they may not be able to carry out certain transactions in various locations.
Passengers cannot be certain that their flights will all arrive in time so that they can get to their destinations at the desired time. Some of the functional risks are related to external factors such as unfavorable weather and violence in some regions. These affect the airline’s ability to deliver its services to the customers (Bennett and McColl-Kennedy 2003).
When these situations occur, customers get their flights delayed and they end up arriving late at their destinations. Customers are always liable to suffer from temporal risks involving long queues in airports at certain seasons (Bitran and Mondschein 1997). The airline industry operates on seasons which are described as either high season or low season. During the high season such as around Christmas time, passengers face overcrowding and long queues when boarding flights or booking for air tickets.
Psychological risks Passengers who are not complacent with international languages such as English, French, Spanish or Chinese might not be able to communicate effectively with flight attendants. This makes it difficult for them to ask for snacks or directions to the bathroom. Psychological factors affect how customers perceive certain situations (Shemwell and Cronin 1994).
Since Qantas Airways is based in Sydney, some passengers might not want to be associated with it. People from conservative regions such as India and the Middle East might only want to travel with Arabian or Indian airlines such as Qatar and Emirates Airlines.
They might fear that their friends and relatives might not approve of their decisions to travel in an airline that offers secular music and movies for entertainment. Business clients might also fear that their prestige might be lowered if they do not travel with airlines such as Emirates, Virgin Atlantic of KLM.
We will write a custom Essay on Qantas Airways Company Service Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The safety and comfort of passengers traveling on Qantas Airways might be affected psychologically by the sitting arrangement. For instance, those seated at the back seats might experience smells from the bathroom while those seated where the wing of the plane is might not be able to look outside and view features through the window.
Conclusion Qantas Airways tries to reduce the impact of these risks by elevating the quality of their services to world class standards. Likewise, the airline offers the same services offered by other prestigious airlines. The airline can however strategize on how to how to get sources of entertainment from every region or allow customers to carry their own materials while on the plane.
List of References Bennett, R
Motorola’s Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Motorola is a Chicago based firm that was started in 1928 as the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. It is a top producer of handheld cell phones and markets wireless web devices. In 2003, phone gadgets contributed to 40% of the revenue and 60% of Motorola’s operating profits. Motorola is good in communication and technology creativity.
This has been possible through its strong branding and technological innovation. The firm strives to achieve breakthroughs in technology and to emerge at the top of its competitors (Hitt, Ireland,
Viverra Motors Company Operations Management Report cheap essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Purchasing and inventory management differences
Possible solutions to the problems
Executive Summary Operation management is a branch of management which deals with purchasing and inventory management. It also touches on design and overseeing various business operations. It is concerned with the steps that are necessary to supply chain management.
Viverra Motors is a company that had committed some essential business operation errors. In order to circumvent these challenges the company’s purchasing and inventory systems should be adjusted. These adjustments will have far reaching effects on the future development of the company.
The recommendations that will be provided in this paper include improving transportation and logistics, purchasing and inventory management. However, first of all, the company should reduce new acquisitions.
In order to do this, the company should identify areas of competency and pay more attention to these areas. The company can also outsource the services that other companies can offer without compromising on quality.
Introduction Operation management is a branch of business that deals with the movement of products through the production chain. It also deals with the processes involved in the acquisition of raw materials, as well as the processes that are involved into production of the end products.
Major levels of operation management are strategic, tactical, and operational. Strategic level deals with all activities and decisions that go into production chains. It involves decisions concerning size and location of plants.
Purchasing and inventory management differences Each dealership is supplied by a different supplier and deals with different suppliers in the process of car production. Each dealership should therefore be strengthened to make decisions might have a positive effect on the process of car production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each supplier has its own strengths and weaknesses and the company’s dealerships should deal with the suppliers on an individual basis. As a consequence, each dealership of a company should design a unique supply chain management system to fit its current position (Cooper
Social Class Status Essay cheap essay help
Social class is the status of the society in which individuals are classified on basis of political, economic and cultural perspectives. Wealth, income and occupation are the major aspects of economic social classification.
Political social class is characterized by Status and power, while the cultural group is determined by peoples’ lifestyle, education, values and beliefs (Bernstein 126). The economic, political and social classes can further be categorized in to subcategories of upper, middle, working and lower classes depending on one’s position in society.
It is quite essential for each individual in the society to understand the social position in which one belongs to (Bronfenbrenner 412). This will not only help in addressing the different issues that arise in life but also help in building a strong understanding of the societal needs.
Proper understanding of one’s class helps individuals to get fully prepared in facing challenges that come along in tackling daily activities. People who discern their social environment at an early stage in life constantly keep rising from one class to another.
It’s quite clear that social classes bring about inequalities in resources and life expectations. For instance, individuals with power have direct access to material resources compared to their followers.
Such differences cause economic gap between the different groups and may lead to the low group engaging in unethical means such as theft and corruption in order to bridge the gap (Bernstein 127). On the other hand, individuals endorsed with power may also look for alternatives of fighting in order to remain in power as a means of maintaining their status quo.
In understanding the social classes’ one should be keen in noting that; people in the lower social classes are involved in risky, lowly paid jobs which do not have any form of security unlike their counterparts in upper classes who enjoy better paid, secured jobs with access to medical cover (Bronfenbrenne 411).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most instances, people in the lower class categories provide labor to the upper class; they do so by working as gardeners’ cleaners or any other odd jobs.
Low class individuals in the society lack adequate opportunities to exploit their talents. However, highly motivated individuals can rise to the other classes although they do so with a lot of difficulties (Davis 60).
Education is one way of shifting from one social class to another; children from upper classes have access to good schools and education and as result are able to maintain their class later in life. An educated individual is able to secure a well paying job, accumulate wealth and use the resources he has to gain political power.
The social class also determines the society’s demographics. Many low income earners are likely to stay in proximity to industries (Marshal 30). They reside in poorly constructed houses within noisy environment since they cannot afford better lifestyles (Bronfenbrenne 412).
On the other hand, upper social class individuals prefer to live in private, cool and sparsely populated areas. In addition, people from the low class are more prone to high crime related risks as a result of lack of opportunities and over population. This happens because many of them are unemployed hence hopelessly engage into alcohol and drugs.
Social class also has a very big impact on health status of an individual. Good medical care is only accessed by those who are willing to spend big. The lower class people suffer most because of their inability to access good medical care because of inadequate funds (Krieger 79).
Poor health contributes to low productivity of workers hence poor employment. However, the wealthy and rich are likely to suffer from conditions like obesity and cancer because of the kind of lifestyles they lead. Stress due to low pays, divorce and or conflicts may lead to death.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Class Status specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences in cultures, education levels, wealth, income and other aspects of social class in most instances cause discrimination (Marshall 30). For instance, one may be denied an opportunity as a result of being associated to a certain social class. This has given rise to massive corruption in the society and consequent moral degradation.
In social classes, informal and formal groups arise. The groups are mostly created to cultivate value in their groups and work in cooperation to maintain their status (Dahrendorf 12).
The groups also educate members on the opportunities and threats in the environment in addition to providing financial support to each other. Examples of these groups include Sacco’s which arise in the economic class, political parties and cultural groups.
In conclusion, social class differences create competition among different members in the society. Individuals within the lowest social class always work hard to maneuver their way to the next level. Individuals within the highest social classes have a feeling of having made it in life.
It would be crucial for anyone teaching on social classes to keenly study the economic, political and cultural backgrounds of the learners (Bronfenbrenner 420). This is a very sensitive area which needs serious research in order to avoid creating differences among the learners.
Works Cited Bernstein, Benim. “A sociolinguistic approach to socialization: With some reference to educability.” Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. 12.6(1972):125-126.
Bronfenbrenner, Uenice. “Socialization and social class through time and space.” Readings in 12.5(1958):400-425.print
Dahrendorf, Real. Class and class conflict in industrial society.Stanford: Stanford University Press Stanford,1959.print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Class Status by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Davis, Alvis. “Social-class influences upon learning.” social psychology 15.8(1948):56 89.print.
Krieger, Rowley. “Racism, sexism, and social class: implications for studies of health, disease, and well-being.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine78.7(1993):67-90.print.
Marshall, Timao. “Citizenship and social class.” Cambridge 12.2(1950):28-29.print.
Improving Organizational Performance: Comparison between Wal-Mart and Target Corporation Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Origins and Growth of the Two Corporations
Finance and Management
Philanthropy and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Introduction Wal-Mart is the trading name or more simply the brand name for Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated which is an American public multinational corporation. The Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated has interests in large discount stores and warehouse or depots all over the United States of America. Several Wal-Mart stores are also coming up in other countries with economic stability such as those countries in Europe, China and even South Africa.
The authoritative Forbes 2000 List ranked Wal-Mart as the 18th largest public owned corporation in the world. This ranking was based on revenues the company had amassed last year. In addition, Wal-Mart was ranked as the largest private employer in the world having over two million directly employed and indirectly employed people.
Target Store is the trading name for Target Corporation headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Target Corporation has business interests in the American discount retail market and runs a chain of retail superstores all over the United States of America and in some other countries too. The Target Corporation was in 2010 ranked at position 30 by the Fortune 500 and is considered to be the second largest retail discount trader after the Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
This paper seeks to compare and contrast these two corporations namely the Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated and the Target Corporation. In comparing and contrasting the two corporations, this paper seeks to show the nature of these organizations and how they have strived to ensure organizational performance is improved.
Origins and Growth of the Two Corporations The Wal-Mart Stores Inc was founded by Sam Walton in the year 1962 in Rogers Arkansas. Walton is reported by Walton
The Concept of Diversity in Human Resource Management Report custom essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Diversity changes in the organization
Ethical practices aimed at managing diversity
Consequences of ignoring diversity in the workplace
Executive Summary Diversity has been an issue of concern to most organizations. Due to human activities associated with globalization, such as migrations, even the domestic organizations are not exceptional. Diversity in an organization is an asset that can be harnessed to become a competitive advantage to the organization.
To manage cultural diversity in the workplace effectively, human resource practitioners are supposed to encourage integrative activities such as teamwork, enhance communication channels between the workers, invest a lot of efforts in the best problem solving methods, as well as employ effective means when dealing with varying perspectives, which are portrayed by workers from different cultures.
Ethical practices such as ensuring equality in the workplace, and ensuring fairness in the recruitment and promotion programs contribute to the effective management of cultural diversity in the workplace. The consequences of neglecting diversity include decline in organizational productivity as conflicts and lack of motivation, among the workforce engulf the organization.
Investing in mentoring programs, embracing global diversity as a competitive advantage, and employing motivational approaches that will ensure increased productivity from the workers, as well as organization of talent, are some strategic recommendations for an organization to manage the concept of diversity.
In conclusion, cultural and ethical diversities should be managed effectively if an organization is to achieve efficiency and high levels of productivity. Even in the domestic organizations, these practices should be emphasized as diversity has become a reality in all organizations irrespective of their scope.
Introduction In order to transform global diversity into an organizational asset strategically, human resource practitioners must manage it effectively. Several research studies in the discipline positions both global diversity and inclusion as the source of competitive advantage, which an organization cannot overlook in the ever-competitive global market.
The concept of diversity in human resource management transcends national boundaries. The growing importance of globalization, global mobility and competition and demographic shifts in the labour market broaden the definition of diversity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Domestic organizations that were initially not adversely affected by diversity are not exceptional anymore. This is due to the global mobility in the form of migrations.
Organizations are uniformly faced with problems that are related to ethical and cultural diversities that they have to consider in their strategic planning and policymaking (Morrison 1992, p.306).
The “Think Global, Act Local” approach might be helpful to any human resource manager faced with such responsibility of managing diversity. This report evaluates the key issues related to culture and ethics, which should be put into consideration when developing strategic HRM plans and policies, in diverse organizations.
Diversity changes in the organization Diversity can be defined as the variety of perspectives, experiences, and opinions that arise as differences brought about by factors such as race, culture, ethics, gender identity, and other characteristics (Lynch 2002, p.209).
These dimensions have differing effects on organizational performance, motivation, interaction of employees in the organization as well as the overall success or failure of the organization’s efforts to meet its objectives or goals.
When formulating organizational policies and also organizational strategic planning, the practices and institutions in the organization that present hindrance due to diversity should be examined, analyzed and then removed before the effects become more profound.
Diversity management Diversity management concentrates on checking that different workers’ abilities are harnessed to contribute optimally towards the realization of an organization’s goals and objectives, and this underscores its differences from affirmative action.
We will write a custom Report on The Concept of Diversity in Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Affirmative action, on the other hand, “focuses on specified groups of people in the workforce because of several aspects such as historical discrimination…affirmative action, as opposed to managing diversity, is concerned with emphasizing the legal and social responsibility of the organization while managing diversity mostly focuses on business necessity” (Lynch 2002, p.211).
In order to meet effectively manage diversity in any organization, it is essential to consider the changes that should be effected to satisfy the needs of a diverse workforce in terms of culture, ethnicity or otherwise as a way of maximizing the potential of all employees.
The Human resources practitioner has the duty of ensuring that the organizational culture that does not effectively cater for the needs brought about by diversity in the organization is replaced with a culture that does so (Hofstede 1996, p.101).
Since this cannot be implemented at a go, several practices that shape the organizational culture of any given company should be re-evaluated, and those that contradict these effects are done obviated. These practices include aspects such as language.
Cultural diversity Every organization can attest to the truth that globalization is entirely changing things in the workplace. Migrations due to various reasons have led to the creation of multicultural societies in which organizations look for workers. Even the domestic organizations have been caught up in this situation where they have been faced with the challenge of coping with cultural diversity (Morrison 1992, p.306).
The fact that different people come from diverse backgrounds is evidence that they view things from a remarkably different vantage points. The simple reason that, a person views things differently cannot be assumed that the person is wrong (Danley et al. 1991, p.6).
Their different cultural backgrounds may be forcing them to view things in ways that are different from those of the other people. In order to manage cultural diversity in the organization, several practices should be employed in the human resources management ventures.
These include the following; Communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, as well as mentoring and dealing with the differing perspectives that come because of cultural diversity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Diversity in Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Communication
Human resources managers should ensure that the communication channels, which are employed in the organizations, are considerate of diversity issues and do not discriminate against people in one way or the other.
For instance, if a given organization recognized certain languages or employed certain practices that are considered as discriminative, such practices and the rules that dictate them should be reviewed to ensure that the system becomes all-inclusive to explore the potentials of the workers and consequently contribute towards organizational success (Lynch 2002, p.202).
Communication channels, which bring the workers together by dissolving any differences that block these channels, should be encouraged to ensure that the workers communicate effectively, and are considerate of each other in their communications.
Stereotyping, based on cultural differences, should be handled to ensure that such acts are discouraged, and the human resources department takes quick measure to impose punitive measures on those proven to indulge in the acts (Greenwood 2002, p.261).
Teamwork is particularly crucial in diverse organizations as it provides opportunities, for the different people involved, to interact and appreciate each other uniqueness. This uniqueness is, therefore, used to the benefit of others and in the process, the group gains the collection of skills, and diverse talents required to work towards the benefit of the company (Lynch 2002, p.202).
Activities, which encourage teamwork in a diverse work place, should be put into consideration when a human resources manager or practitioner is engaged in strategic planning or formulation of organizational policies, aimed at managing cultural diversity.
An organization’s workforce is comprised of diverse talents that exist in a culturally diverse resource pool (Peters
The Strategy Tripod Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The resource based view of strategy explains that the performance of companies is impacted by the available resources and capabilities. This approach to strategy is advantageous to the firm as it enables managers to prioritize and effectively use the available organizational resources.
It is indeed true that resources are scarce and limited. Organizations therefore have to use what is available according to the importance of tasks. This view of strategy enables managers to examine the order of importance of various organizational activities. Based on this list, the manager is able to offer the most important activities the opportunity to utilize resources first.
Resources vary from equipment, money, time, personnel and skills. The resource based view forces the managers to strategize on how best these resources can be put to use in their companies.
According to the business-level model of entrepreneurship, optimization of resources is very important. Optimization is defined as making the best use of what is available. The purpose of businesses is to make profits (Morris, Schindehutte and Allen 727). Profitability usually depends on the ability of companies to use their resources well. Resources such as time should be managed using schedules and plans of action.
Personnel and skills can be managed by human resource management techniques and proper leadership. Equipment on the other hand can be managed through optimization whereby the most important activities are accorded the first chance to use them. This approach increases profitability by increasing effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources.
The resource based approach however undermines the firm’s ability to adapt to change. This approach was developed and widely used many years ago. There are newer challenges in the business environment that make it difficult for managers to achieve profitability simply by properly allocating resources.
The corporate-level-model of diversification looks at the interests of the company as a whole on matters such as stability and growth (Rasheed 3). There are many aspects of an organization as a corporate. For instance, professionalism, code of ethics, organizational culture and communication channels are factors that describe the character of corporations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corporate-level-model of diversification describes how organizations have had to broaden their view on business. There has been the need to diversify the approach to management and use of resources in the current world. Despite this, the resource based view of strategy enables managers to make the best use of what is available despite the hard business environment in which they operate.
It is important that resources are allocated to the most important activities so that all crucial matters are taken care of first. This approach however does not react to the changes that occur regularly. Since the environment of today has unique challenges and diversification needs, strategy development should be based on more changeable methods.
The resource method limits strategy development to what is available and capabilities that are already there. The current world requires strategies that seek acquisition of new resources and addition of skills and capabilities.
In summary, the resource based view should be considered by all managers since all organizations utilize what is available so as to achieve their goals. The resource based view can also help in development of the global strategy. This is because even in the global markets, there is scarcity of resources.
Funds limit the ability of organizations to enter new markets, create products and acquire other companies. Implementation of global strategies depends on a company’s ability to optimize on their available resources. Efficiency in the use of resources determines whether a company will successfully implement its global strategies.
Works Cited Rasheed, Howard S. “Growth or retrenchment strategy choices for declining Entrepreneurial firms: The effects of performance and resources”. Journal of Business and Entrerpreneurship. 1-20. Web.
Morris Michael, Schindehutte Minet and Allen Jeffrey. “The entrepreneur’s business model: toward a unified perspective”. Journal of Business Research. 58(2005): 726–735. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/1002583/The_entrepreneurs_business_model_toward_a_unified_perspective
We will write a custom Essay on The Strategy Tripod specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Socio Economic Impacts of the “Enclave Tourism” Development Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Mbaiwa (2005) describes enclave tourism as type of tourism that majorly focuses on maximizing the positive aspects of tourism within a given locale, geographical area or enclave while ensuring that limiting influences from the surrounding environment are dealt with or avoided.1
In most instances, these enclaves come in form of coastal areas that offer touristic attractions such as golfing, horse-riding, tennis, and swimming, among many other amenities. Since enclaves are typically self-contained, tourists who stay in such areas are normally not obliged to get out of their residences to go searching for food or drinks as these are normally provided by their resorts.2
Over the recent times, there have been an increased number of enclaves being created around the world with several cities and countries striving to ensure that their visitors get to enjoy themselves without having to necessarily move from one place to another or even travel long distances just to get the important amenities that they need.3 In essence, several factors contribute variably to the progress or advancement of enclave tourism.
Needless to state, enclave tourism, just like many other financially-oriented industry, has had its fair share of challenges and limitations including: terrorist attacks in countries, limited or total lack of cooperation amongst its stakeholders and shareholders, negative human activity on ecosystems (for example; over cultivation, poaching or even deforestation), internal and external wars in countries, and the unchecked growth of technologies and related facets like globalization.4
As a result, a good number of regions, countries or cities have not been able to maximize their potentialities and achieve full efficacy in their enclave tourism endeavors.
Socio-economic Impacts of Enclave Tourism Indeed, there are several socio-economic impacts of enclave tourism. Some of the main socio-economic impacts of enclave tourism are detailed below.
Firstly, enclave tourism makes it easy for tourists to concentrate on enjoying themselves since the resorts that they stay in are self contained. Having many social amenities in one place also offers a myriad of enjoyment options. As a result, the tourists can engage in as many activities as they want depending on their preferences.5
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, enclave tourism encourages the maximization of tourism amenities and resources in the enclaves such as rainforest, coastal areas, mountains and rivers, among many others.
Thirdly, and very crucially, enclave tourism has been repeatedly said to provide a viable means for making money from the endeavor of tourism.6 For example, to locals, this form of tourism creates an opportunity for people to sell their products and services to visitors at the enclaves which, in effect, makes them some substantial amount of money.
Others can also be employed as tour guides or even guards for some delicate touristic attractions. All these eventually total to some pay, which is a key way of sustaining tourism while ensuring that there is an overall economic uplift of the country/region where such people make their money.7
Fourthly, enclave tourism provides a contextual learning forum for students and researchers. For example, by focusing on a specific enclave, these learners can discover ways in which our ecosystems can be conserved or even bettered Lindsay (2003)8 supports this by saying that “revenues from safari expeditions, for instance, may go to protecting the animals from poaching, while the entry fees from visiting a village may go to supporting education and health care for the local children.” In effect, this greatly helps in poverty alleviation while facilitating the continuity and sustainability of tourism in that particular enclave, and the world, at large.9
Fifthly, enclave tourism acts as a source of pride for enclaves that are endowed with touristic attractions. This is very important in giving national or regional identities which not only boost the morale of the locals to preserve and be proud of their environment; but it also helps in ensuring good rankings in the international arena.
As a matter of fact, most countries with good policies and systems of enclave tourism, more often than not, have relatively stable economic outputs compared to those with poor governance of their enclave tourism industries.10
Sixthly, most enclaves, especially those that are in third world countries, are highly associated with the 4-S tourism (sex, sea, sand and sun). Good examples here include countries in the Caribbean like Cuba.11 On one hand, this is seen as a positive thing based on the self-contained nature of amenities.
We will write a custom Essay on Socio Economic Impacts of the “Enclave Tourism” Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, it is viewed as some form of customization or manipulation of people to engage in certain endeavors. In some enclaves, the tourists are restricted from intermingling with other individuals or even bringing things like “outside” food in the resort promises. Even in the occasions that the amenities at the resort are not of your liking; you have no option but to accept.12
In relations to the above point, Mbaiwa says that in enclave tourism, there is limited interaction between the visitors and hosts.13 Also, since most locals tend to get barred from reaching the enclave resorts; trading endeavors are limited. In effect, only the corporate owners in the enclaves get to profit hugely while the locals get the short end of the stick that has very little to offer to them.
Challenges of Enclave Tourism To begin with, natural disasters have, for a very long time, been the primary challenge faced by tourism destination marketers. In the category of natural disasters, we have events such as typhoons, floods, droughts, famine and earthquakes among others.
Examples here include the Tsunami in Japan (2011), Hurricane Katrina on the north central Gulf Coast of USA (2005), and Tsunami in Indian Ocean (2004) which affected the tourism industries in Thailand, Maldives, Andaman
Production and Operations Management (POM) Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Operations at Hudson’s
Introduction Production management “deals with decision making related to production processes so that the resulting goods or services are produced according to specifications, in the right amount and by the schedule demanded and out of minimum cost”.
Thus, POM is concerned with designing, redesigning and supervising business operations that facilitate production of goods, as well as, services. POM ensures efficiency and effectiveness in production. Efficiency involves economical use of resources while effectiveness is concerned with meeting customer’s needs.
In this context, POM can be defined as the area of management “concerned with managing and directing the technical functions of a firm, particularly, those relating to development, production and manufacturing”.
POM functions include but not limited to plant management, production control, systems analysis, and cost controls. This paper argues for the premise that using different production methods on the same plant and equipment lowers production efficiency. The relevance of this premise will be illustrated by analyzing the operations issues affecting Hudson’s Alpine Furniture.
Operations at Hudson’s Hudson’s Alpine Furniture specializes in the production of custom-made pieces of furniture which are sold to owners of ski lodges and operators of holiday cabins. However, the company has since ventured into the production of more standardized furniture for commercial ski lodge operators.
As a manufacturing firm, Hudson’s depends on its production systems to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Production system refers to the “manufacturing subsystems that include all functions required for designing, producing, distributing and servicing a manufactured product”.
Hudson’s uses the job-shop production system to manufacture its products. A job shop production system involves manufacturing small quantities of products according to the specifications of the customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The specifications, in this context, include the cost, quality, delivery time and quantity. The job shop system suites Hudson’s because the firm serves a specific market with different furniture needs.
The job shop system used at Hudson’s is based on the following factors. Concentrating in the production of custom furniture necessitates production of a variety of products. Each customer gives unique specifications on how his or her furniture is to be manufactured. For instance, the customers normally choose the quality or type of wood to be used for their furniture. Consequently, each order tends to differ from the rest.
Besides, each type of furniture is produced in low volumes since they are meant for specific customers and not the mass market. The uniqueness of each order, however, may require a lot of time in production using the Job shop method (Chakhlevitch, Keller and Glass, 2011, pp. 39-47). Additionally, the uniqueness of each order discourages automation.
Production of a wide variety of products requires great flexibility in the production system. The flexibility enables the firm to adapt its production system to the quality and design expectations of the customers. Hudson’s has ensured flexibility by adopting the use of general purpose equipment.
This type of equipment can be used to produce different types of furniture. However, flexibility comes at a high cost due to the frequent set-up changes associated with it (Chakhlevitch, Keller and Glass, 2011, pp. 39-47).
Producing a variety of products using the job shop system requires detailed planning. The manufacturing department must properly sequence the needs of each product in order to meet the quality specifications. There must also be proper scheduling of production so that products can be manufactured in time and in order of importance.
Consequently, Hudson’s production department has focused on planning for both capacity and production inputs. The firm operates a single production plant in which all pieces of furniture are produced. Equipments within the factory are arranged according to their functions.
We will write a custom Essay on Production and Operations Management (POM) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This promotes efficient transition from one function to the other. Operating a single production plant has the advantage of reducing transportation costs associated with moving work-in-progress and raw materials from one plant to the other.
Much of the raw materials used by the firm are obtained locally, thereby reducing shipment costs. Hudson’s also uses batch production system in order to achieve economies of scale in the manufacture of commercial ski furniture. However, the expected economies of scale have not been achieved since the cost of producing the commercial ski furniture continues to rise.
The high cost is, perhaps, a reflection of the complex planning and control associated with batch production. In most cases, batch production involves irregular and longer work flows which complicate the process of handling materials. Additionally, batch production involves long and costly down-time.
The company’s decision to venture into the production of commercial ski furniture seems to be the root cause of its production problems. The new orders for commercial ski furniture are not only increasing the production costs but are also causing production bottlenecks.
Production management aims at achieving four objectives namely, “right quality, right quantity, right time and right manufacturing costs” (Wang, Li and O’brien, 2010, pp. 463-474). However, the rise in orders for commercial ski furniture prevents Hudson’s form achieving these objectives. Ideally, the right quality should be based on the customer’s specification.
In reality, however, the right quality depends on cost of production, as well as, the technical requirements for producing the product. The high cost of producing commercial ski furniture limits the firm’s ability to invest in technical operations that can enhance product quality.
Since the market for commercial ski furniture consists of price sensitive buyers, premium prices can not be charged for the commercial orders. This translates into reduced revenues and constrained investment in quality production.
The stringent delivery requirements imposed by commercial buyers coupled with the increase in demand for commercial ski furniture limit the company’s ability to meet time and quantity objectives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Production and Operations Management (POM) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two lines of product have to compete for production time. Since the production capacity is limited, the lead time in production has significantly increased. This means that the furniture can not be produced and delivered in time as required by customers.
Timeliness in production and delivery is an important indicator of the effectiveness of the production plant. An effective production plant should facilitate production and delivery of goods within the set deadlines. An ineffective production plant on the other hand will take a longer time to produce goods.
Thus, the high lead time means that Hudson’s production plant is no longer effective. As the lead time increase, the stock of work-in-progress also increases. The company has also been forced to hold a very large amount of raw materials and finished products.
The resulting increase in warehousing costs is a reflection of the firm’s inability to hold the optimal or right quantity of inventory. The high cost of holding the excess inventory is also an indication of uneconomical use of resources. This illustrates the reduction in the efficiency of the production plant. In a nutshell, the increase in commercial orders has resulted into serious capacity constraints at Hudson’s Alpine Furniture.
The current capacity constrain has strategic implications for the operations of Hudson’s. In particular, the capacity constrain directly impacts planning, organizing and controlling activities. Additionally, it affects the behavior of managers, as well as, the firm’s business model.
Planning involves defining objectives that guide the operation subsystems of the firm. It also involves formulating the policies and identifying the procedures which can be used to realize the objectives. In the case of Hudson’s, planning activities focus on trade-offs that ensure effective use of the existing capacity.
Implementing the trade-offs requires proper organization. For instance, the production manager must make decisions on role structures, as well as, flow of information in order to coordinate the production of both commercial and custom furniture.
In order to realize the planned production target, control must be exercised over the production process. This involves comparing actual and planned output. Thus, decisions must be made concerning the acceptable costs, quality, as well as, production schedules.
The process of planning, organizing and controlling the production process in order to optimize the limited capacity is quite challenging. In most cases, managers adopt a planning model such as aggregate planning to enhance optimization of existing capacities.
Regardless of the model chosen, the management at Hudson’s must make the following decisions in order to optimize the limited production capacity.
First, the operations manager will have to make a decision on the product to produce. Currently, decisions on which product to give priority in production depends on expected profits. Thus, custom-made pieces of furniture are give priority since they are more profitable.
The management will also have to decide on the level of product quality to maintain. Since capacity constrain can affect quality negatively, the management must identify the quality standards it can achieve under the existing capacity.
Since the two product lines compete for production time, the management must decide on the quantities of each product to produce on a daily basis in order to meet the delivery deadlines. Second, the operations manager will have to make decisions on plant utilization.
Decisions in this area will focus on the time required to operate the plant, productivity of the plant, as well as, reliability of equipment. The duration for running the plant impacts directly on its productivity, mechanical condition and safety standards. Thus, deciding on the expected maintenance costs and safety standards become apparent.
Third, capacity constrain necessitates changes in production process. When production capacity is fixed, output can only be increased in the short-run by changing the production method or adopting several production methods.
For instance, Hudson’s is currently using both job shop and batch production methods. Each production method requires different skills, and is associated with different production costs and safety standards (Wang, Li and O’brien, 2010, pp. 463-474).
Hence, decisions must be made concerning skill requirement. In this case, the management might decide to introduce new training programs or hire new employees in order to access the required skills.
Finally, effectiveness in production is contingent on workers whose skills and motivation vary. Under constrained or fixed capacities, employees are normally over-worked in order to achieve production targets. Thus, the main workers-related decisions that need to be made at Hudson’s include the following.
The management must decide on the wages and salaries that will motivate the workers to increase their productivity. Acceptable work conditions such as safety standards and ability to join unions are decisions which should be made. Lastly and most importantly, the management must decide on the communication channel to be used in the firm.
This is because communication facilitates most production activities such as planning, scheduling and ensuring team work. Thus, a wrong decision on the communication channel to be used by the employees might have serious negative effects on productivity in the firm.
The operations problems created by the move to produce commercial furniture are likely to have significant effects on Hudson’s financial structure. Financial structure refers to the “mixture of long-term debt and equity that a company uses to finance its operations”.
The financial structure determines the percentage of the firm’s cash flow that will be paid to creditors and the percentage that will go to stakeholders. As discussed earlier, the move to produce commercial furniture has resulted into high costs and constrained capacity.
The main financial implication of these problems is that the profits of the firm are likely to reduce significantly if production can not be increased in the short-run to cover the rising costs. Other implications include lose of customers and reputation in the market.
This will happen if the firm is not able to fulfill the orders within the set deadlines and according to the customers’ quality and quantity specifications. In this case, customers will leave the company and source their furniture from efficient producers.
Consequently, Hudson’s market share and sales will reduce. Attempts to solve the operations problems, thus, are likely to focus on either cost cutting measures or expanding the production capacity.
Any restructuring initiative aimed at solving the current operations crisis will require significant amount of financial resources. For instance, expanding the existing capacity will require heavy investment in plant and equipment.
Similarly, changing the layout of the factory in order to create more space will require significant investment in consultancy and engineering services. Cost cutting measures such as outsourcing and lean production also require a lot of money for implementation (Vinod and Rich, 2011, pp. 127-146).
For instance, outsourcing activities such as transportation, might lead to laying-off workers in the transport department. Hence, the firm will incur high costs as it pays terminal benefits to the laid-off workers.
Given the fact that profits have not met the expectations of the management, the firm might not be able to raise enough money to finance its restructuring program. Consequently, the firm might opt for alternative sources of funding such as bank loans. In this case, Hudson’s will have a high debt-equity ratio, especially, if a lot of money is borrowed from financial institutions.
A high debt-equity ratio can adversely affect profits, especially, in the short-run due to the following reasons. First, debts are normally obtained at interest rates which might be very high. Thus, paying for the interest rates represents additional cost to the firm.
Second, expansion programs normally take a long time due to the required construction works. This implies that, there might be no immediate payoffs from capacity expansion initiatives. Therefore, the likely scenario is that a better part of the firm’s earnings, especially, in the short-run will go to the creditors.
In the long-run, the firm is likely to benefit from an expanded production capacity. A larger production capacity will enable the firm to produce more furniture. Hence, the firm’s revenues and profits will increase.
Conclusion The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that using different production methods on the same plant and equipment lowers production efficiency. Hudson’s initially focused on the production of custom-made furniture. Consequently, the firm adopted a job shop production method. This production method allowed the firm to produce the right quantity and quality of furniture.
Besides, the firm was able to meet its production deadlines and operate within acceptable costs. The move to produce furniture for the commercial buyers necessitated the use of batch production method. The objective of using batch production was to achieve economies of scale in producing commercial furniture.
However, this objective was not achieved since job shop production and batch production involves different procedures. Job shop production requires a lot of time. This led to an increase in lead time since production of custom furniture was prioritized.
Additionally, production costs increased due to the fact that both job shop and batch production involve frequent set-up changes. Batch production requires automation in order to promote efficiency (Wang, Li and O’brien, 2010, pp. 463-474). However, this could not be achieved since production of custom furniture was based on job production which discourages automation.
Finally, unlike job shop production, batch production involves long down time which led to high production and storage costs. Besides, a lot of money was tied up in inventory and work in progress. The resulting capacity constrain led to severe reduction in efficiency. This leads to the conclusion that using different production methods on the same plant reduces efficiency.
References Blecker, T., 2005. Changes in Operations Management due to Internet Based Productions Concepts. Economia, Seria Management, 8(1), pp.169-175.
Chakhlevitch, K., Keller, H., and Glass, C., 2011. Batch Machine Production with Perishable Time Window and Limited Batch Size. European Journal of Operational Research, 210(1), pp. 39-47.
Dura, C., 2010. Possibilities of Increasing Effeciency within Serial Production Management. European Journal of Operational Research, 10(2), pp. 125-136.
Hameri, P., 2011. Production Flow Analysis: Cases from Manufacturing and Service Industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), pp. 233-241.
Huang, R., 2010. Multi-Ojective Job-Shop Scheduling with Lot-Spliting Production. International Journal of Production Economics, 124(1), pp. 206-213.
Murthy, R., 2007. Production and Operations Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rastagi, M., 2010. Production and Operations Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stefaneska, R., 2006. The Production Operational Management Concept. Economia, Seria Managemnt, 4(1), pp. 204-208.
Vinod, V., and Rich, S., 2011. Simulation Modelling and Analysis of Due-Date Assignment Methods and Scheduling Decision Rules in a Dynamic Job Shop Production System. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(1), pp. 127-146.
Wang, X., Li, D., and O’brien, C., 2010. A Production Planning Model to Reduce Risk and Improve Operations Management. International Journal of Production Economics, 124(2), pp. 463-474.
Industry-Based View of Strategy Essay essay help: essay help
The strengths and weaknesses of the statement that the firm performance is fundamentally determined by industry-specific attributes in light of the business-level model of global competitive dynamics
When an organization follows the business-level model it usually focuses on the development of the company in the context of a single market with paying much attention to the positions of the competitors.
Thus, the peculiarities of using the business-level model depend on creating the conditions of the rivalry between the competitors in the industry (Peng). That is why to get the leading positions in the market, it is necessary for the company to focus on determining the advantages of its product in order to accentuate them while presenting the product or service to the customer.
The orientation on the customer and his needs is one of the most significant peculiarities of this strategy. The success within customers emphasizes the higher positions within the industry.
The quite narrow perspective for the competition and realizing the company’s potential requires focusing on the details of the industry’s development and on the product’s features (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson). According to this point of view, industry-specific attributes plays the decisive role in determining the strategy for the company’s progress and the effective competition within the industry.
The phenomenon of global competitive dynamics accentuates the necessity of concentration on providing the difference between the company and its competitors’ positions within the industry market which will help to reveal the advantages of the product or service (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson). Thus, the business-level model is oriented on the strengths of the industry-based view of strategy.
The strengths and weaknesses of the statement that the firm performance is fundamentally determined by industry-specific attributes in light of the corporate-level model of multinational strategy
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corporate-level model provided by companies is oriented on the development of the multimarket activities (Peng). Thus, the strategic scope determined for the company with the help of this strategy is wider in comparison with the business-level model and involves different markets and different geographical regions where it is possible to present the product or service.
Thus, the main concept provided by the strategy is the principle of market diversification (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson). Following this model, the company pays attention not only to the strategic activities within the market but also to the economic and industrial environment.
That is why it is also necessary to focus on the industry-specific attributes, but they are not so influential at the global economic level as in the situation with the business-level model (Peng). Therefore, this statement has definite weaknesses in relation to the corporate-level model.
The potential contributions of the industry-based view to the formulation and implementation of a firm’s own global strategy
To develop and implement the effective strategy for the definite company, it is necessary to concentrate on the industry-specific attributes while following the business-level model as well as using the corporate-level model. In the first case, the industry-based view is necessary for providing the successful competition within the industry and its market.
In the case of the corporate-level model, the industry-based view is significant for determining the advantages of the company and its products and services in the context of the industry market with references to the possibilities of realizing the company’s effective multimarket activities in the future (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson).
The firm performance within a definite industry is meaningless without paying attention to the industry-based attributes which influence the peculiarities of the industry’s development. That is why the industry-based view can be considered as effective for contributing to the company’s forming the global strategy and to its progress.
Works Cited Hitt, Michael, Duane Ireland and Robert Hoskisson. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization, Concepts. USA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Industry-Based View of Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Peng, Mike W. Global Strategy. USA: South-Western College Pub, 2008. Print.
Grass roots Vs. Elite Sports Report (Assessment) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Sporting is a very important activity for Australia as a nation. Previously, sporting activities have been funded through a ‘top down’ approach that is now inadequate for the maintenance of the nation’s sporting glory (Houhlias, 2011). The ‘top down’ practice has led to widespread claims of imbalance between funding of the elite and grassroots sports (Antaris, 2010).
This paper seeks to outline and critique the key arguments in relation to the direction of Australian sport. The paper will specifically address the arguments for and against funding priorities to support sports either at the grassroots or the elite level. The approaches will be analyzed in relation to the extant Australian sport policy and funding approaches. The paper will then give recommendations in regard to the present implications and future expectations.
Main Arguments There has been a lot of debate concerning the delegation of money for sporting activities in Australia. The media has been particularly consistent with reports on funding inequalities between the grass roots and the elite level.
To underscore this inequality, David Crawford, the head of independent sports panel, released a report in 2009 that questioned the rationale for allocating more funds towards elite sporting activities (Earle, 2010). In the report, it was recommended that more funds should be set aside to support sports at the grassroots level in the country.
Those who think that more resources should be set aside for grass roots sports activities argue that grass roots sports are critical for the overall health of Australians other than developing talent for elite sports. Thus by supporting grass roots sports today, the country is in effect developing elite athletes for tomorrow and at the same time keeping its citizens in good health. Proponents of more funds for grass roots sports fail to see why majority of the sports funds are allocated to elite sports that have low participation compared to the grass roots sports that have high participation(Houlihan
Millennium development Goals Report college essay help online
A Report on the MDG Progress The contemporary world is faced with a lot of challenges and difficulties. As an organization that was formed to combat crises globally, UN has to ensure that these challenges are being tackled. The Millennium Development Goals were formed in 1990 to try and meet the needs that cannot be met by a member country on its own.
Based on six goals, this paper will give a detailed report on the international community’s progress towards meeting the targets Goals chosen and why The following are the goals that have been chosen for review on their progress internationally: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
These goals have been selected due to their urgency. According to Bojo and Chandra (9), hunger, disease, poor education systems and gender inequality are the most dominant challenges that are facing many countries. Apart from that, the rate at which they affect humanity reduces the rate of social, economic and political growth (Bojo and Chandra 9).
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger According to the UN Report (6), the first target of this goal is to cut by half the number of people whose daily income is below $ 1 between 1990 and 2015. The second target is to accomplish productive and decent employment for all people. Within the same period, this goal is also supposed to reduce the number of people suffering from hunger (Devarajan, Miller and Swanson 18).
Most of these problems, as Devarajan, Miller and Swanson (18) assert, have been caused by the economic dwindling experienced throughout the world, especially the developing nations. Measures are being implemented to meet this goal. Firstly, the number of people living in poverty has reduced from 1.8 billion to 1.4 billion between 1990 and 2005.The percentage of people living in extreme poverty has fallen down from 46 to 27 also.
The developing world is meeting this target in that, the number of underweight children has fallen down. The UNESCO Report of 2010 also shows that most African countries, especially Kenya and Namibia are implementing hunger policies (“Education Counts: Towards the Millennium Development Goals” 44).
African governments are putting aside extreme amounts of funds in their budgets to solve the hunger, poverty and unemployment challenges. By 2015, things ought to have improved and the targets met fully. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education This goal targets to achieve help poor countries make improvements in offering education to their people. The most targeted region is Sub-Saharan Africa, where most children are out of school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the MDG Report of 2010, inequality between boys and girls in developing countries is also supposed to be done away with to make universal education possible by 2015 (“Assesing progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals” 51). There is good advancement in meeting this target because by 2008, there was a 6% increment in the primary school enrolment from 83% in 2000.
This has been realized through efforts in most developing countries to abolish school fees. Children in Kenya, Nepal, Tanzania and Burundi no longer pay fees for their education. According to UN Report, children in these countries are provided with free meals, water and even sanitation towels to help increase the numbers.
As much as there is a little improvement, the rate at which things are progressing is too slow to meet the target by 2015. According to the UNESCO Report of 2010, 69 million school-age children are out of school and half of them are from Sub-Saharan Africa. 18 million of the number is in Southern Asia.
By 2015, things will have improved but the target will not be met. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women This target of the goal is to eradicate gender inequality in both secondary and primary education by 2005 and in all levels of education by 2015. Poverty and traditional beliefs remain to be the major factors hindering girl education in developing countries. Job allocation and salary payment still remain high for men.
The World Bank Report of 2003 shows that, women can only access informal jobs that do not pay (“Getting serious about meeting the Millennium Development Goals: A comprehensive Development Framework Progress Report.” 12). The realization and progress of this goal is proved by the improvement in school enrolment for girls in developing countries. The number of girl enrolment in school was 96 when that of boys was 100 in developing countries.
In terms of employment, men are still enjoying the higher notch even thought there has been a slight improvement in terms of gender balance. According to UN Report, women empowerment politically in Africa has improved greatly as the number of women in parliaments has gone up. Although it is evident that there is progress in meeting this goal, the rate of its advancement still shows that, it will still be far from reality by 2015.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality This goal targets to decrease the rate of under-five child mortality rate by two thirds come 2015. Many children in the developing nations die due to unavailability of vaccines and proper medication. As much as this might be a threat, progress has been shown because the number of “children death reduced from 100 to 72 per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2008” (Quoted from UN Report, p. 31).
We will write a custom Report on Millennium development Goals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this goal is not being met as expected. The World Bank Report 2002 shows that, the number of children still dying from poor medical attention is still high in many developing countries (“Linking Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management: Policy Challenges and Opportunities” 21). Only 10 countries out of 67 are strictly following the convention to meet this goal. This is far from meeting its target and by 2015, things might not be any better.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health This goal targets to cut down the number of maternal deaths by ¾.Giving birth in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan countries is very risky. Skilled midwives are few, forcing many women to give births using traditional means, which are risky. Another target is to realize universal access to reproductive health by 2015. Poor education in proper hygiene during pregnancy leaves many mothers at risk.
Poverty, according to the MDG Report 2010, is another hindrance to the practice of good pregnancy hygiene for most mothers in Asian and African countries (“Millennium Development Goals Report” 51). There is Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality (CARMMA) in most African countries including Nigeria and Rwanda. However, these targets are not being met fully and this still leaves pregnancy or childbirths risky.
The UN Report of 2010 indicates that, “more than 350,000 women die every year during pregnancy or childbirth” (31). Developing countries suffer more of this because out of 30, 1 woman dies during pregnancy or childbirth. This is high as compared to developed countries, where the ratio is 1: 5,600 (“The Millenium Development Goals Report” 60).
The progress of things shows that this goal might not meet the deadline. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases By 2015, this goal is needed to have accomplished stopping HIV/AIDS and embarked on the reversal of its spread. Many young people lack the necessary skills to control and combat HIV/AIDS.
This goal also targets to make accessible universal treatment to all the HIV victims. Apart from that, the goal is aimed at stopping malaria and other major diseases by 2015 and then embarking on its reversal. This goal is being realized because the number of HIV infections is reducing steadily. According to the UN Report of 2010, there has been a steady fall in the number of HIV infections from 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008. Funds are being directed to fight this pandemic in many countries across the globe, especially African states.
Young people are being educated on how to fight HIV and in Botswana and Kenya, free antiretroviral treatment is being provided (47). The campaign against malaria in India and most African countries is also on its highest toll (“Millennium Development Goals Report” 41). Conclusion From the report, it can be deduced that efforts are being done to meet most of these goals. However, some goals still lag far much behind and by 2015, their targets will not have been met.
The efforts to reduce poverty and hunger by providing self sustainability to most poor people are helping greatly. Provision of universal education and introduction of measures to curb HIV/AIDS and malaria is also progressing well but the rate at which things are happening is still too low. Realizing gender equality, maternal health for women and reduction of child mortality rates should be stepped up in order to meet the targeted results. Generally, there are efforts to achieve these targets but countries should put more efforts to meet the deadline.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Millennium development Goals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Assesing progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals. Web.
Bojo, Jan and Rama Chandra. Poverty reduction strategies and the Millenium Development Goal on Environmental Sustainability: Opportunity for alignment. Web.
Devarajan, Shantayanan, Margeret Miller and Eric Swanson. The costs of attaining Millennium Development Goals. Web.
Education Counts: Towards the Millennium Development Goals. Web.
Getting serious about meeting the Millennium Development Goals: A comprehensive Development Framework Progress Report. Web.
Linking Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management: Policy Challenges and Opportunities. Web.
Millennium Development Goals Report. Web.
The Millenium Development Goals Report. Web.
UFV Bookstore Marketing Plan Recommendations Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Curriculum The curriculum gives attention for requirements in 2015 to be based on protecting the core mission and tasks of the college store. It is designed to offer all the fundamentals needed for the learners to complete study. This core mission of curriculum is to support the instructive procedure and campus lifestyle of scholars in all dimensions.
It is not merely the storeroom for textbook, school equipments, T-shirts, giftwares or snacks. This indicates that one among the foundational offers of the storeroom in the college is the curriculum.
Scholars will need access to numerous kinds of material for the completion of the course which include traditional kinds of test books a part from new kinds of books based on new capacities, digital interactivity and technology modernization of college students.
Curriculums also have an opportunity to give many alternatives to scholars. College stores must get ready for 2015, by preparing for offers and various curriculum-based services that view every type of curriculum as opportunities to meet the core consumers’ requirements qualitatively rather than viewing these latest formats as rivals to the textbooks’ offer.
The curriculum must be capable to buy, borrow, rent or sell all the course materials required for the students. In addition, this must act as the guiding principle in meeting all the requirements of the student. One of the recommendations to improve the curriculum of the college store room is that it must focus on the collection of items and materials required foe the specific area of study.
All the basic items such as folders, notebooks, backpacks, are to be maintained by the curriculum of the college store. Curriculum must also add e-sales book through website and rental books. It must also be capable of installing sale print-on-demand in affiliation with Xerox.
UFV bookstore strives to be an area of learning that identifies respects and consists of indigenous methods of knowing. It is big enough to recommend variety of learning, and however very small class sizes permit scholars to get to recognize their teachers and learn in hands-on surroundings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More UFV bookstore can be a home for all the graduation information because it is filled completely with helpful information. UFV is division of a worldwide network of all the universities, which consists of higher education organizations in South America, North America and Europe.
And also it defines itself as global and open university stimulated by Catholic values. UFV is open to public, for the reason that no one is barred on the basis of their social or cultural environment, or fiscal means. So it called as a home for all the information.
Accusation of Note Wagon in the college store, that assists to facilitate learning through peer-to-peer. It is an online academic resource permits learners to exchange content of course through the selling and buying of classrooms notes in the course of incentives and tokens.
A. Organize educational resources more successfully and professionally to
enhances the percentage of learners graduating in four years,
generate a way for learners to complete the course,
Create more successful employ of faculty resources, and
Preserve or improve the learner’s experience.
Maintain or develop the experiences of the learners particularly in times of resource limitations in the course of events planned to get rid of redundant course-taking.
B. Conduct various programs during the vacation times
Frequency One of the key challenges for the storerooms in college is that storeroom traffic will naturally shirk off due to numerous factors like-
Fewer scholar campus visits.
Smaller amount of “book buying” journeys. (As more course supplies are purchased through online or not purchased at all).
Student storeroom must construct frequency drivers into every facet of the offer. To diminish the traffic tendencies in college stores, the process must enable scholars to visit the storeroom on a more recurrent basis.
We will write a custom Term Paper on UFV Bookstore Marketing Plan Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stores in college can do so in part by executing various thoughts already presented, connected to construction of business model abilities for the period of 2015 (e.g., generating appropriate and inspiring marketing/promotions).
These frequency drivers of the student store vary from fresh foodstuff and beverages to other regularly consumed foodstuffs to store experience rudiments, for example spaces for scholars to eat, read and mingle.
The Frequent Buyers program is the one of the main promotional program for the students; it is a type rewards program for all those book lovers. Reward for the students helps for coming back repeatedly.
Rewards program of the bookstore in the colleges must include discount for the members on various types of services. This program works tremendously well with storerooms whose clients shop frequently for the particular kinds of products.
Recommendations 2015, college stores frequency offers must deliberately speak to each of the classes, at least to some amount, as dictated by obtainable storeroom space, college- inflicted limitations on foodservice and various types of limiting factors:
Expediency grab-and-go fresh and new grocery.
Eat-now food outlets such as snack bar, coffee bar, coffee shop, café etc.
Various types of personal care and beauty care items must be maintained
Collecting space for eating, reading and mingling with other people.
Work space of the student store room must be arranged with tables and chairs.
A variety of fresh and expediency groceries must be maintained.
Provide various promotional means to the students.
Give various types of frequency buyer rewards program for the students.
The Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 Case Study writing essay help
The two key sectors that take the blame for the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 are the financial sector and the real estate industry. The financial sector generally receives blame for its activities, which included high risk lending, and high-risk investment in derivatives.
The real estate sector on the other hand bore the brunt of the activities of the financial sector because when people started defaulting on loans, banks and other mortgage financiers foreclosed homes, and repossessed properties whose owners defaulted.
Soon, there were too many properties in the market against the prospects of dwindling demand, eventually leading to a collapse of the property markets.
Other sectors that receive blame for the crisis include regulators, and legislators. On one hand, regulators seem to have failed to offer direction for the finance sector until it was too late.
One count is the ease with which lenders offered credit without due diligence because of their excessive capitalization, and demands by government to provide cheap credit. People who did not have the capacity to pay back loans took them anyway and there was no one to stop them.
Legislators created this situation by repealing of the Glass Steagall Act in 1999, which many people consider “to be one of the more critical regulatory changes that played a role in the financial crisis”. This act originally prohibited one institution from acting as a commercial and an investment bank, or as a banker and an insurer.
The key issues that the case presents include the role of government in industry, the effectiveness of regulation in industry, human behavior versus market forces, and the question of institutional learning. The traditional role of government in industry, especially in capitalist economies is regulatory in nature.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government creates the rules within which all parties play and creates institutions to enforce those laws. When the government intervenes in industry such as through the bailouts the Federal Government gave to the big banks, then it means that there is a widespread systemic failure.
On the other hand, too much regulation stifles business. The government must find some sort of balance as it creates the laws to govern industry, and as it enforces regulations.
The next question is that of human behavior versus market forces. Human behavior in this context refers to the values and activities of both consumers and industry players. The western world is very materialistic. Success and status in society comes from the kind of things a person owns.
Therefore, there is a very big motivation for consumers to keep looking for more things even if they are beyond their means. Industry players on the other hand typically respond to demand in order to make profit.
Therefore, when there is demand for something, industry will strive to provide it to turn a profit in the process. However, when industry makes profit the super aching goal despite values, then the result is a financial crisis. There ought to be some kind of value-based system for industry to operate within if the economy will have balance.
Institutional learning is important for the prevention of the recurrence of challenges that an institution undergoes. This seems to be sorely lacking in the financial sector in America. The repealing of the Glass Steagall Act of 1929 showed that the legislative arm of government did not appreciate the consequences of its actions.
In this sense, repealing the law reset the economy to pre-1929 days, which was “the last time the level of debt was 100% of GDP”, hence the exposure.
We will write a custom Case Study on The Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the executive has not instituted stronger regulatory measures that can allow for the documentation of crisis in the same way as engineering or medical associations do. The lessons simply do not stick long enough because there is no institution to collate them.
There are a number of options available to prevent the recurrence of the events of 2008-2009. They include nationalization, stronger regulation, and self-regulation within a stronger legislative framework. Nationalization is the least popular way of handling economic problems in a capitalist system.
The main argument against it is that the government is not supposed to be a market player because of its multiplicity of concerns. Government is also very slow to innovate and slow to adapt hence the sector will stagnate if the government runs it.
If the government chooses to nationalize any bank, “it is important to ensure that the bank returns to the hands of private investors after the liquidity crisis is over by giving the bank the ability to call back or repurchase the equity it issued to the government”.
On the other hand, it means that the sector will not be profit driven hence it will not have the same appetite for risk compared to that of the private sector. In addition, the government can afford to bail itself out in case of any problems without involving the entire economy.
Another practical solution is simply limiting the size of financial institutions. This will make sure that if one of them is in trouble, then the normal systems for dealing with the problem can follow without affecting the entire economy. The current size of banks gives them undue influence on policy and their collapse has a huge impact on the economy.
The other side is that this will be against the capitalist ideals. It means that the system will punish the most innovative and hardworking participants in the industry. In addition, enforcement will be difficult because companies will simply divest and have independent companies under a single umbrella.
The third way is to strengthen “banking supervision and regulation” through relevant institutions and legislation . This option will more or less allow financial institutions to carry on with their duties but with more scrutiny and under stricter rules. The scrutiny should aim at identifying trouble before if turns into a catastrophe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It may have been possible to halt the forces that led to the financial meltdown if there was some consistent source of information regarding the operations of the financial sector. Stricter rules do not also mean limited operations. It just means that the things financial institutions should do must be clear just as what they should not do.
The recommended way of approaching this issue is by using stronger legislative and regulatory measures. This approach will ensure that there is the least government interference in the running of the private sector. In addition, the government will play its more accepted role as a regulator and arbiter industry.
The market forces should do the rest of the work in ensuring that consumers get the best level of service within the broader framework defined by government. As compared to the other options, it actually utilizes less resources and already established institutions.
The process of nationalization would require so many people and the government simply do not have the experience to run financial institutions.
The industry will suffer as a result. Limiting the size of financial institutions will send capital away to places that do not have similar restrictions. The overall impact on the economy will be negative. In conclusion, the best way to stem the recurrence of these events is regulation.
Reference List Black, K. (2009). Business Statistics: Contemporary Decision Making. John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY.
Chacko, G., Sjoman, A., Gunawan, H.,
Analysis of Setting, Character Development, and Symbolism in the Play A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen. Essay essay help: essay help
At a glance, Ibsen’s Doll’s House recounts a story about the place of women in society, as well as marriage stereotypes and norms accepted in the 19th century. Further considerations of the text connotations, setting, characters description, and symbolism reveal the contrary beliefs.
Certainly, the story focuses on the relationships between males and females and underlines the role of hierarchy, but these aspects fall into the background, since the central focus is made on the problem of deceitful appearances and concept of humanity.
The main heroine, Nora Helmer is compared to a doll who is manipulated by all other characters, including her husband, dearest friends, and relatives. However, this pressure is not tolerable for human because each person has the right to self-expression and individualism.
In this respect, Ibsen underscores the right of humans to freedom and independence from other decisions irrespective of gender affiliation, social positions, and accepted beliefs. All these aspects are explicitly revealed through describing setting, character development, and symbolism depicted in the play.
In the play, the author creates the unity of setting so as to underscore the feeling that the main heroine Nora is the prisoner of her life. Thus, the setting for action remains the same throughout the play which frames the environment in a simple and conventional fashion.
At the same time, the setting contributes to a sense of limits imposed by society and surrounding people, whereas its conventionality reveals the emphasis placed on respectability and image. While describing the setting, the author applies such words as “comfortably and tastefully” (Ibsen 7).
Most importantly, the description of the Helmers’ apartment provides a standard vision of a 19th century house where all requisites of traditional life are present. Aside from place characteristics embracing stereotypical visions of the house, there are typical time characteristics uncovering the norms and standards of social standards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the play represents within a short period of time, which also imposes certain limits on characters’ actions and development. Importantly, while describing the setting Ibsen applies to the parallel situations to highlight the central predicament of the main heroine.
Judging from the description of furnishing and design, it is possible to judge about conventions of furniture layout, which corresponds to the accepted traditions. Once again, the setting provides the frames and restrictions enhancing the established conventions and norms within society.
Just like the standard design of an apartment, the main heroine takes the standard place of a model wife and hostess in the house, as it was required by the societal norms. At the beginning of the play, Nora enjoys her role of bourgeois wife and encourages her husband giving her different pet names.
She seems reluctant to understand the reality and follows the rules established by the surrounding people, including her husband, Torvald, her friend Christina, lawyer’s Krogstag, and Dr. Rank. By taking different roles imposed by others, Nora forgets about herself as a personality with personal wishes, goals, and desires.
Her husband gives her different names that are usually given to animals or inanimate objects, such as “my little skylark”, “my squirrel”, “my little lark” “little Nora” (Ibsen 11, 13). By adding the epithet “little” to names, Torvald as if neglects Nora’s personality and rejects her right to choose and decide.
However, further development of the play reveals Nora’s self-evaluation and apprehension of husband’s real intents and goals. She becomes more aware of the reality and of what is going outside the apartment.
Hence, while reading the final conversation between Nora and her husband, it is possible to trace the changes occurred to the heroine in terms of her attitude to marriage and relations.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Setting, Character Development, and Symbolism in the Play A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She suddenly realizes that the house she lives in “…has never been anything but a playroom” and that she has never “…exchanged a serious word on a serious subject” (Ibsen 99). At the end, the discussion of her position and role reveals an intelligence that has made her understand the uncomfortable reality of restricted moral and ethical codes that are represented by Torvald.
The play contains elements of symbolism proving Nora’s insignificant position with regard to other people manipulating her. The author draws the parallels between the heroine and the Christmas tree, that is a beautiful addition to the overall decoration of the house; at the same, it is considered as useless thing, merely an element of traditional design.
While analyzing author’s descriptions of the tree, one can find similar traits in Nora’s character: “the Christmas is….stripped of its ornaments and with burnt-down candle-ends on its disheveled branches” (Ibsen 49). Once again, the author compares the main heroine with inanimate object serving as an additional elements in the apartment interior.
In conclusion, the author provides criticism of social order in the 19th century, when society imposed social and moral restriction on people and limited their human rights.
Nora, the main heroine, is the victim of the settled stereotypes about marriage norms and relations between a wife and a husband. By following these norms, she loses the sense of identity and forgets about her right to be an independent personality.
Works Cited Ibsen, Henric. A Doll’s House. US: Arc Manor LLC. 2009. Print.
Biological Underpinnings behind Child Abuse Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Infants at the period between birth and one year and toddlers between one and two year old normally grow very first with their physical or bodies changing in a intense and quick manner. Bodily growth is normally taken to refer to changes in biological structure that is experienced in children as time continues to pass.
Among the vital and very critical elements that determine the development of bodily growth in toddlerhood and infancy are brain and bodily adjustments; expansion of reflexes, feelings, motor skills, sensitivities and learning abilities; and health matters.
The period between birth and the fourth week is normally known as the “postnatal period”. The majorities of babies weighs around 5.5 to 10 pounds, and are around 17 to 22 inches long. With male infants, they are a little bit longer and heavier compared to their female counterparts.
Babies who are delivered either two or more weeks after their supposed date are termed as post mature babies. Both post mature and premature infants are normally critically prone to complications such as illness, mental or brain damage, or even transience, than when they are fully developed babies (Achenbach
Bill Clinton Leadership Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Leadership of Bill Clinton
Introduction Bill Clinton is one of the most famous politicians in the History of the United States of America. He served as the governor of Arkansas and later on became the president of the United States of America serving between 1993 and 2001 (Mas 325).
It is during his reign as the president that USA exhibited the concept of effective leadership. This was achieved through the leadership of President Bill Clinton. This essay shall therefore focus on Bill Clintons leadership qualities, styles and the success that he achieved as president.
To achieve this, the essay shall focus on the qualities that Clinton had and the impacts of his administration during the two terms that he served as president.
Leadership of Bill Clinton For an individual to be an effective leader, he/she needs to possess several qualities. Such an individual needs to be visionary, understanding, rational, conscious of the culture, team player, ambitious, reliable, possess communication and social skills, humble, able to influence masses and be knowledgeable (Cohen 8).
Bill Clinton possessed most of these qualities. This may have contributed greatly into developing him into a successful and effective leader.
In the process of his leadership, Bill Clinton experienced ups and downs. An example is his demise was his scandal with Monica Lewinsky. It should be noted that during the time when Clinton was facing this scandal, he remained confident and charismatic.
He was not destructed and performed his duty as the president of the United States to the best. This showed that he had empathy; a factor that enabled him to maintain a positive public figure. Giving the United States priority at this time proved that Clinton was an effective leader (Mas 327).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More USA, like many other nations all around the world has always been striving for social, political and economic sustainability.
Despite the fact that the nation has always been regarded as one of the best in terms of socio-political and economic sustainability, it is during the reign of Bill Clinton that USA experienced much of its economic growth. Through his leadership practices and policies, USA experienced a tremendous growth in its economy from 1993-2001.
An effective leader is one who keeps the promises that he has made to his people. During his presidential campaign, Bill Clinton made several promises to the people. He vowed that he would improve the economy of the United States.
Clinton became the president of USA just after the end of the Cold War, a period that USA spent a lot of money in the race for arms supremacy. As a result, the nations economy was in a deficit. Thus, as a result of this economic recession, USA required strong economic strategies that would lead to economic recovery.
To achieve this, Clinton came up with a combination of economic, fiscal and economic policies with an aim of modernizing the government of the United States (Stewart 15). This made the government to be entrepreneur oriented.
As a result, much of the powers that were concentrated on the central government were distributed to federal and local governments. This resulted to an increase in the government efficiency and a reduction of the size of the central government hence incurring lower costs as compared to the expenditure of previous regimes.
Clinton came up with tight monetary policies that reduced the expenditure of governmental institutions (Stewart 17). For instance, Clinton implemented the tight monetary proponents. This implementation had an effect of stabilizing and reducing the consumer price index.
We will write a custom Essay on Bill Clinton Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, goods and services within the nation became more affordable to a larger proportion of the population. Clinton also implemented several monetary policies. In 1997, Clinton passed the Taxpayer Relief Act into law that reduced the tax rate on capital investments from 28% to 20% (Stewart 18).
This increased the rate at which individuals made in investments within the nation. It also increased the rate of foreign investments hence boosting the economy.
The employment rate in USA during the Clinton administration also increased. Increasing the employment rate was one of the promises that Clinton made to the people during his 1992 campaigns. To deliver his promise, Clinton through his administration managed to create over 22 million jobs.
This tremendously increased the GDP of USA between 1993 and 2001 (Mas 326). Clinton also managed to reduce the national deficit that had accumulated as a result of the arms race during the cold war. Before Clinton became the president, USA had a trade deficit of -90.500 USDs. When Clinton left office, the trade deficit was roughly above -400,000 USDs (Stewart 14).
To ensure that this economy is maintained, Clinton embarked on a trade expansion activity. It is during this time that he developed warm diplomatic relations with countries such as Mexico and China. With the desirable relationship that these nations developed, trade between then also improved especially after the free trade deal was passed (Robinson 470).
Conclusion Bill Clinton is one of the renowned and leaders in the history of the United States as a result of the role that he played in reviving the national economy amongst other things. During his reign, he also managed to achieve social and political sustainability. He also possessed desirable leadership qualities that made him to be an effective leader. This made him to an effective leader.
Works Cited Cohen, Simon. “Effective Global Leadership Requires a Global Mindset.” Industrial and Commercial Training 4.2 (2010): 3-10. Print.
Mas, Andrew. “Racial Bias in USA Presidential Election.” American Economic Review 99.2 (2010): 323-29. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bill Clinton Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Robinson, Allan. “Global Leadership in a Cultural Diverse World.” Management Decision 46.3 (2008): 466-80. Print.
Stewart, Benjamin. “Race, Region, and Vote Choice in the US Elections: Implications for the Future of the Voting Rights Act.” Harvard Law Review 3.2 (2010): 11-18. Print.
Concepts to Consider as Marketing Manager Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Employing concept of ROMI
Data that should be collected
Recommendations (Micro view)
Recommendations (Macro view)
Employing concept of ROMI Return on Marketing Investment is the revenue acquired from the increased sales of the company that have resulted from the marketing done by the company. Viewing marketing as an investment will necessitate the urge to get returns from it. It is calculated as ROMI=Increased Revenue-market expense.
NB: Where the increased revenue is the amount of extra money received as a result of the advertising. It is calculated as, Revenue after Marketing-Revenue before Marketing.
Marketing should be viewed as an investment and money spent on it should be expected back. The first step would be to invest a considerable amount of money in marketing with an aim of improving the sales of Alta Moda. This will be done by first assessing the current sales of Alta Moda and the revenue generated from the same, we would then invest in marketing through advertising in the media and women magazines (Arnold 2010).
In the magazines, we would portray Alta Moda products as something the lady’s really need to have, we (as a marketing department under my leadership)would engage in roadside promotion which is meant to answer any concerns from the clients about the our products (Barro, 2008).
Data that should be collected To calculate the ROMI we will need to collect certain pieces of information that will facilitate the computation. The first thing to do would be to have a record of how much revenue the company receives and what level of sales is made without the marketing(Increased Revenue). This is going to give us the sales baseline for the company.
We then need to have a very clear data and enough information from the budgeting carried out on how much we are likely to spend on the marketing of the Alta Moda products (Marketing expenses). Any incremental in the expenditure on the marketing and promotion activities should be recorded for the purposes of assessment on the success of the marketing (Arnold 2010).
Dashboard The dashboard indicates the projection that as a marketing department we would be spending during the year in both promotion and advertising activities. The different months will have different expenditure. This shows that different periods will need different costs in the expenditure. As shown below:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Column1 Jan Feb March April May June July August September October November December Promotion $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 Advertising $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 Other executives in the company will follow the lead of the marketing department and assist in the promotion and advertising of the products as the success of the company will help all of the company.
Recommendations (Micro view) Improving the sales for the store will need more of promotion hence the promotion activities in the dashboard. This is aimed at increasing the margin acquired from the marketing hence improving the return on investment (ROMI). Such ideas will also reduce on the marketing expenses since such promotions strategies tend to reduce expenses as compared to their advertising counterparts.
Recommendations (Macro view) Extensive and creative advertising should be aired. This is aimed at increasing the margin acquired from the marketing hence improve the return on investment. The putting up of a creativity department will ensure there are creative adverts being aired which is what the company wants in order to attract more clients to the stores of the company. While advertising, several factors should be considered:
The products should be portrayed as superior to the competitors
The clients of the company should be portrayed as of superior character
Conclusion It is only through creativity and employment of the above ways that the marketing department can gain considerable return on the money spent in the marketing of its products. Reduction of the marketing expenses while at the same time ensuring a high gain from it in order to increase the revenue earned as a result of the marketing. This will award the company handsomely insofar as ROMI is concerned (Barro, 2008).
References Arnold, RA. 2010. Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning: Chicago.
Barro, RJ. 2008. Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach: Cengage Learning. Chicago.
The Tool Box Project Report college admission essay help
Design fundamentals: The tool box “ The product selected was based on concepts such as productivity, uniqueness and ability to meet the specified requirements and JAG requirements. The tool box was designed to satisfy various user needs, including the ability to hold tools of various natures, from large industrial tools to small hand held tools. The tool boxes have a few features incorporated based on their specific use.
For instance, a tool box in a vehicle comprises a rubber matting to prevent movement, and another anti vibration mat that reduces noise and clashing of rattling tools. Other designs of the tool box include the slanted tool box, lock-in-tray, under ute tray and the LPG cylinder storage box.
The product was designed to satisfy various functional requirements such as security and wear resistance, as well as non-functional requirements such as durability, portability and the use of environmental friendly materials in fabrication. Other than these, there were design requirements by JAG Corporation, which controlled the selling price, construction tools and the construction process.
The project involved two markets: the primary market, comprising retailers whose purchasing price was set at $90; and the secondary market that included distributor such as construction companies. The latter were expected to buy in bulk for their workers, hence the selling price of $80.
These prices were according to the JAG requirements, which set the maximum price at $100, and limited marketing to trade persons and construction companies. The product proposed is viable, since the project concept involves various components that collectively address various requirements that make it profitable and competitive within the market.
Surveys conducted on the potential customers indicated that the target market is about half of the customers, who were dissatisfied with their current storage products due to their locks, corrosion, water leakage and inability to carry heavy loads.
Out of the dissatisfied customers, most of them were especially keen to have their heavy duty tools organized better for equipment in their vehicles. In addition to that, they indicated their need for tool boxes that provided security from theft and weather, to avoid delays during work, or replacements and repair costs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The customers were also looking for heavy duty toolboxes with hooks at their four edges, so that they could be connected to the ute tray, making them more stable when driving, and increasing safety of their tools and equipment.
The price of the product was satisfactory to most of the customers, since 65% were willing to pay an amount above $70, provided they satisfied their primary concerns, which included heavy withstanding, water resistance and secure locks. The surveyed customers did not have any concerns regarding additional features or material that the product was made from, and just required it to be a tool box that could cater for their needs.
The products dimensions are 120cmx60cmx50cm to be a reasonable fit a ute tray or the back of a van. The product may include hooks to allow a better restriction of the product as responders requested. For the convenient storage of small tools, the storage box has been divided into compartments and installed along the top shelf to increase accessibility.
This will make it easier for the user to locate, retrieve, place and store items which are used on a regular basis. As for larger tools, the tools box has an easy access compartment at the base, made possible by a sliding door. To maintain durability, the prototype will be constructed out of steel as to prolong is lifetime use. The product will assist the tradesperson in making good use of storage space in their vehicle or garage.
Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng Essay a level english language essay help
Wu Cheng’en’s best known novel Journey to the West, which is also translated as Monkey: A Folk Novel of China, provides an account on the pilgrimage of the Buddhist monk, along with his disciples, to save the sutra on transcendence and good will and rescue China from moral digression.
Aside from sophisticated account of the adventure of the four, the novel reflects a historical and religious background of late imperial China during the reign of Ming Dynasty.
In particular, Monkey is an allegorical representation of the three religious practices enhancing the concept of moral lesson that the Chinese people should learn.
Drawing the parallels between the story and the historical background, Cheng’en attempts to represent the synthesis of three religions as the moral foundation for the Mind China people to adhere. Among the moral principles, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism complement the existing practices introduced by Ming Taizu.
In this respect, to uphold the moral and religious beliefs of the Chinese society, Wu Cheng’en puts Buddhism over the other two religions and considers its philosophy as the main way to salvation.
At the same time, the author represents other religious movements – Confucianism and Daoism – that complement the ideological foundation of beliefs and attitudes in the time of the Ming Dynasty.
By highlighting the pantheon of Buddhist streams in the form of bodhisattvas, Wu Cheng-en attempts to reflect some philosophical and religious beliefs of the Chinese society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buddhism, as the core stream in the novel, is strictly observed by the protagonist of the story Tripitaka who became the central figure in legendary adventures. His major accent on Buddhism school of thought is strongly associated with moral concerns, specifically with the necessity to direct people through the path of salvation and reconciliation.
At this point, the protagonist proclaims, “a priest…should be ready to die rather than commit acts of violence” (Cheng-en 133). In this respect, even those people who surpassed the moral conduct of Buddhism had the right to salvation through penance.
Similar to the story revealing the utmost Buddhist beliefs, the historical evidence highlights the transformation of the Ming dynasty to “a national moral crusade” (Theodore De Bary et al. 780).
Projecting this outlook on Cheng’en’s story, it should be stressed that the emphasis on Buddhism should be made to rescue the Ming China from sins and introduce new moral codes that would control and guide people’s behavior.
One of the Tripitaka’s disciples – the Monkey called Sun Wukong – personifies the Confucian tendencies by pursuing the practices of Taoism. Adhering to these teachings, the Monkey firmly beliefs in the natural foundation of the world and, therefore, he harmonizes himself with primordial essence of the world creation.
Being part of the nature, Sun Wukong asserts that the principle of “The Five Elements” is the basic condition for achieving immortality (Cheng-en 24).
Moreover, the Monkey, upholding all three religious teachings as the primary attributes for achieving moral and religious harmony, Wukong, along with Tripitaka, begins his path to reconciliation through Taoism to cognize the main pillars of Buddhism. In other words, Confucianism shapes the principal foundation for the other two teachings.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning of the novel, we see Monkey as the one who embodies wisdom and intelligence. As per the policies and trends in the Ming Dynasty period, Taizu also saw Confucianism at the core of all religious teachings. At this point, though emperor expands on the necessity of introducing three religious teachings in combination, he still places Confucian visions on the first place.
Synergy of the Three Teaching is brightly revealed in the novel, and pertains directly the main protagonist of the story. Their searching for the original morale, as well as for individual harmony brings all the characters to one conclusion that the moral conduct should be premised on the three pillars – Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism.
At this point, Taizu’s teaching also led to similar outcomes. Specifically, the emperor agrees with the idea that “the Three Teachings contain things that are abstruse and vital [in substance], yet solidly efficacious when put into practice” (Theodore De Bary et al. 792). The necessity to favor all three religions is grounded on different nature of people who have different beliefs, goals, and concerns in their life.
A complicated mixture of beliefs makes reliance solely on one religion meaningless because it cannot provide a universal policy for people to acknowledge their sins and enter upon the path of wisdom and humility. Taizu’s views are congruent with the ones declared in Cheng’en’s story.
At this point, Monkey argues that all three religious teachings allow him to become immortal (Cheng’en 24). Using the power of the five elements, monkey gradually refers to the study of Daoism and Buddhism to achieve wisdom and relieve himself from mortal sins.
Judging from the above-presented assumptions, each character of the novel possesses both virtues and vices that should be either enhanced or conquered on their way to enlightenment. In this respect, the monkey possesses intelligence and courage by means of which he manages to break the past boundaries and discover the “new land” of knowledge.
Tripitaka is a human who demonstrates humbleness and modesty, yet lack of faith prevents him from overcoming the obstacles. As a result, Tripitaka advocated the Buddhist concept of filial piety while being on the search for the Buddhist sutras. Finally, other characters – Pigsy, Sandy, and Dragon – represent the utmost sins and vices of society which should be exterminated.
They fall under the guidance of Tripitaka to change their moral and religious positions and seek enlightenment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Studies. “Monkey: A Folk Novel of China” by Wu Cheng by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Notably, all three disciples, except for the only human, represent supernatural powers, which are typical of Buddhism and Daoism, but they are confined to nothingness and vacuity when being represented apart from Confucianism (Theodore De Bary et al. 792). In such a manner, Cheng’en reasons the presence of all “The Three Calamities” (24).
As all the pilgrims seek to uncover new knowledge and reveal themselves from boundaries and restrictions, Xu Guangqi, an acknowledged scholar and mathematician living in the Ming China, believed that learning new ways of cognition beyond the traditional visions was possible through learning more about Christianity.
According to the scientist, Christianity preached similar views on the idea of personal virtues, as well as the necessity to cultivate wisdom and intelligence, which was the only condition to serve Heaven and realize Heaven’s care for people. Moreover, Xu Guangqi proclaims, “the protection and the salvation of the soul are grand essentials; fidelity, filial piety, compassion, and love are to be universally exercised” (Xu Guangqi n. p.).
While analyzing this position in the light of Cheng’en’s Journey to the West, one can notice a strong association between the Christian visions observed by the Xu Guangqi and the beliefs pursued by Tripitaka who also chooses a path of salvation through penance and compassion.
While deliberating on the concept of Buddhism and its dependence on Confucianism and Daoism, it is purposeful to compare the presentation of the governmental hierarchy in a historical context with the one reproduced in the novel.
At this point, Taizu applies to the principles of Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to eradicate the past order and introduce new ideological foundation. Making people believe in supernatural powers, as well as divine origin of the emperors allowed Taizu to control people and place them within strict moral frames where Confucianism cannot be a sole ideological basis.
Similar views were upheld by Cheng’en who introduced Confucian principles in Heaven’s hierarchical structure with the Jade Emperor to be at the head of it. With the authorities of Buddhism and Taoism reporting to the Emperor, the author rigidly criticizes tyranny of the Chinese imperial system. Consequently, Heaven reflects the Chinese bureaucratic system since there is there is no place for equality and good is as dominating as evil.
The attitudes expressed in the narration reflect the practice and purpose of religion in the times of Ming China. To begin with, the text attains to the historical period of Zhue Yuanzhang’s legacy, which has a potent impact on decision-making, and has specific views on the role of religion.
In particular, religion was beneficial because it imposed positive social outcomes on the Chinese society and, as a result, Zhu’s decision reveales that all the three teaching should be synthesized and equally observed by people to deliver social benefits.
During the reign of Wang Yangming, the three practices played a significant role in harmonizing all spheres of social life, including educational system, family institutions, and politics. Advocating self-cultivation and sage was at the core of ideologies of that historical period because it increased competition among people, as well as their aspiration to enrich their knowledge.
Looking through this perspective, Cheng’en was also congruent with the idea that each individual is responsible for his/her future and personal development, irrespective of the mistakes he/she had made in the past.
In conclusion, it should be stated, that the story represents an allegorical journey of the Chinese society on the way to salvation and penance.
Because Monkey provides a picture of human character transformation, with all its weaknesses and strengths, it is strongly associated with the transformations occurred to the Chinese people during the reign of the Ming Dynasty.
Cheng’en firmly believes that despite the evil nature of people, they have the right to redemption by committing themselves to good actions and aspiration for enlightenment. Therefore, the characters involved into the religious pilgrimage endeavor challenges, obstacles, and dangers and, despite these difficulties, they manage to find their ways.
In this respect, the author perceives religion as a sophisticated mixture of several teachings shaping the basis of moral conduct. The story becomes philosophical because it provides an insight into the new Buddhist philosophy.
At the end, Cheng’s states, “never again follow false doctrines nor follow foolish courses, but know that Three Religions are one” (249). Overall, the narration is an important historical source representing important historical events as well as visualizing the problems and constraints in the times of the Mind Dynasty.
Works Cited Cheng’en, Wu. Monkey: Folk Novel of China. Grove Press. 1984. Print.
Kuang-chi, Hsu. Memorial to Fra Matteo Ricci, 1617. Fordham University. 1998. Web. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1617hsukuang.asp
Theodore De Bary, William, Irene Bloom, Wing-tsit Chan, Joseph Adler, and Richard Lufrano. Sources of Chinese Tradition. US: Columbia University Press. 2000. Print.
African American Literature and Parody Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
“African American Literature is a thematically arranged, comprehensive survey of African American literature” (Gilyard 1). Gilyard notes that “the unique thematic organization of the anthology allows for a concise and coherent assessment of African American literature” (1).
An important tactic of African American literature is parody, a form that allows the writer to take on important qualities of a prior text or a literary tradition, and modify them with subversive intent.
This tactic has been employed by Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed to parody the work or earlier writers thus, making important cultural points. This paper examines how the use of parody is symbolic in the African American literature.
Hutcheon argues that “parody is repetition, but repetition that includes a difference; it is imitation with critical imitation distance, whose irony can cut both ways” (37). Parody utilizes two ironic versions that include trans-contextualization and inversion, in its formal operatives.
Pragmatic ethos of parody ranges from scornful ridicule to reverential homage (Hutcheon 37). On the other hand, the English Oxford dictionary (1182) defines parody as “a composition in prose or verse in which the characteristic turns of thought and phrase in an author or class of authors are imitated in such a way as to make them appear ridiculous, especially by applying them to ludicrously inappropriate subjects; an imitation of work more or less closely modeled on the original, but so tuned as to produce a ridiculous effect”.
“A critical distance is implied between the original text being parodied and the new in cooperating work; a distance usually signaled by irony” (32). The pleasure of parody’s irony comes not from humor in particular but from the degree of engagement of the reader in the intertextual bouncing between complicity and distance (as cited in Foster).
Thus, parody is an imitative work written to comment upon the original work, trivialize or mock at it. Humorous, ironic and satiric imitations are used in a parody. Parody is an important tactic of African American literature, a form that allows the writer to take on important qualities of a prior text or a literary tradition and modify them with subversive intent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bright examples of parody may be observed in the works written by Ralph Ellison namely “Invisible Man” and “Mumbo Jumbo” written by Ishmael Reed. It should be noted that the parody used in Reed’s and Ellison’s works is primarily parodic narration or internal polemic.
Through reviewing Ellison’s “Invisible Man” and Reed’s “Mumbo Jumbo”, this paper demonstrates the general peculiarities of African American literature where parody is skillfully used and plays an important role. The review of secondary sources allows for a deeper understanding of the peculiar characteristics of Reed’s and Ellison’s parody by black writers.
In his book titled “The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism”, Gates Henry takes into account the parody in African American literature. Gates argues that at the time when the study of literature is characterized by what many scholars feel to be undue concern with literal theory, parody should not lead to a drift from the original text.
He suggests that the primary aim of parody should be elaborative. Gates quotes the Russian scholar, Mikhail Bakhtin, who observes the use of parody through double-voiced discourse subdivided in parodic narration and internal polemic. These two types of double-voiced discourse are merged together in Ellison’s “Invisible Man” and Reed’s “Mumbo Jumbo”.
The author points out the correlation or as he calls them “the direct black lines” which connect Ishmael Reed with Ralph Ellison, Hurston and Toni Morrison (Gates, 111). Reed uses two autonomous narrative voices, which is the parody of two simultaneous stories of detective narration. The narrative of the past bears an ironic relation to the narrative of the present.
Criticism of the text is a sort of self-parody which is extensively used in Reed’s works. In addition, Reed imitates the dualism used by Ralph Ellison in his “Invisible Man”.
Gates notes that novelists such as Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed created texts that are double voiced in the sense that their literally antecedents are both black and white novels, but also modes of figuration lifted from the black vernacular tradition.
We will write a custom Essay on African American Literature and Parody specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gates further argues that black tests are “mulattoes’, with a two toned heritage. These two texts speak in standard Romance or Germanic languages or literally structures.
Thus, to locate and then theorize about, these formal differences are to utilize certain tools of close reading that facilitate explication. Gates notes that the black tradition has theorized about itself, explicitly.
Whereas Reed seems to be about the clearing of space of narration, Walker seems to be intent on underscoring the relation of her text to Huston’s in a joyous proclamation of antecedent and descendant texts.
Benard Bell in his book entitled “The Contemporary African American Novel: Its Folk Roots and Modern Literary Branches” critically analyzes the works of African American writers including Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed.
Parody is one of the ethic forms of oratory, the black vernacular, which is first developed by boys in play to assert masculinity among people and to achieve the sense of security in their contact with the hostility of a larger society (Bell, 79).
These ethnic forms of speech are used by a number of black novelists such as Charles W. Chestnut, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Ishmael Reed, John O. Killens and others.
Benard wonders whether race class or gender is the dominant issues in Afrocentric, Eurocentric and Americentric cultural theories. Bell agrees with many black African feminists who contend that race, class and gender are inseparable matrix (13).
Bell argues that in practice the social, cultural and literal criticism of popular black feminists like Bell Hooks, invariably privileges the empowerment of women over the two. Benard Bell agrees with Bell Hooks’ idea that patriarchy is the arch enemy of social systems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Literature and Parody by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bell also agrees with his peers including Reed and Ellison that race, ethnicity, class and gender are intimately linked. However, Benard Bell stresses ethnicity and race over class and gender for three reasons.
First, Benard Bell questions the authority of post colonial discourse on immigrant groups crossing boundaries and assimilating into a nation that misleadingly stresses surface similarities over historical, geographical and cultural differences.
Second, Benard Bell challenges the authority of agency of the implied authors, narrators and characters who believe that man corrupts everything and that the feminization of men is the panacea of patriarchy as system of male domination.
Third, Benard Bell feels compelled to respond to narratives and discourses by black feminists, critics and pundits that reinforce and perpetuate negative images of black males. Such black feminists see black males as drug addicts, domestic abusers, moral degenerates, sex-crazed dogs and dead-beat dads. Ellison narration shows how he had hated his grand father.
He believed that his misfortunes were caused by the grandfather. Bell seems to parody Ellison’s work by distancing himself from ‘tainting’ the image of black men as he puts it. Benard Bell puts it clear that his neither an Africanist nor Egyptologist and that he is not concerned with the African discourse on the ancient civilianization during pre-colonial, African past.
Instead, he is concerned with renewing and reinvigorating discourse on the liberating impact of cultural and literally production by Americans of African origin (Bell14).
Page is another author who points out the role of parody in the development of African-American literature. In his book titled “Icons of African American Literature: The Black Literary World”, Page uses parody in evaluating various authors of African American literature.
Apart from this, the book is devoted to the bright representatives of African American literature who have influenced the history of this literature. Ralph Ellison’s works are observed particularly, namely “Invisible Man”. Ellison uses the background voices of various strains of Black Nationalists, Marxists, and religious leaders in his “Invisible Man”.
Page provides basic motifs covered in African American literature and the use of parody to reinforce the actuality of these topics. Page argues that iconic authors like Ralph Ellison and Ishmael Reed and their works, have played a significant role in the canonization of African American Literature.
Page argues that although Ellison was given a National Book Award, he could not escape from the fact that in many circles, he was a black writer who had written what many considered another facet of the black experience. In fact, white publications and publishers’ sought Ellison’s pronouncements, on the latest black novel. However, Ellison invariably refused to do so.
Page indicates that Ellison believed that the racial novel did not exist and that black writers should stay away from racial polemic. This opinion has been seconded by Page. Page notes that the literary legacy of Ralph Ellison continues as successive generations have evaluated and reevaluated the breath and scope of his literal intellect.
Page appreciates the recognition that Ralph’s work gets. Every year, a new perspective of the Invisible Man in the form of dissertations and critical essays and a scholarly appreciation of Ellison’s work essays on Jazz and African American Culture occurs. Page clarifies that biographer Rampersad also analyzed Ellison’s work.
Rampersad notes that Ellison pointed antipathy directed towards the emergence African American female writers during the 1970s. The African American female writers severely criticized the depiction of black women in the Invisible Man especially his depiction of the wife and daughter of the incestuous sharecropper, and the Mummy like figure of Mary Rambo.
Page argues that Invisible Man, perhaps, makes more sense today than it did in 1952 because its scope and structure were an unknown territory for African American writing. Page notes that although the work has been hailed as an exploration universal modern man, it is unmistakably black in its use of signification, African American folks and musicality (34).
On the other hand, Bruce and Zemliansky argue that the most controversial and innovated novelist of African American literature is Ishmael Reed. The two writers parody nine novels written by Ishmael Reed.
They observe Reed’s Neo Hoodoo aesthetic, which combines parody and satire, fantasy and comedy, myths, history, African and American religions, and other forms of culture. They observe double-voiced discourse in reed’s works and its role in passing to the reader the main ideas.
Observing the parody used by Reed in his works, the authors highlight how the use of parody is important in the African American literature. Bruce and Zemliansky argue that Reed has emerged as the most innovative and controversial African American writer despite his belief that he and other black male writers have been misinterpreted and virtually ignored in the press (2).
In addition, Nadel Alan points out the role of parody in Ellison’s works in his book titled ‘Ralph Ellison and American canon: invisible criticism’. Ellison employs modernist techniques such as the use of parody to establish his ethnic identity and the more we examine his text as a modernist one, the more it reveals that black American identity.
Nadel refers Ralph Ellison to the American literature canon demonstrating that allusions from “Invisible Man” changed readings of such American writers as Twain, Emerson and Melville (4). Ellison uses the parody, which does not mock at other literary works, but he imitates the style of writing of many writers of the American canon.
Nadel argues that the issue of canon formation has elicited a great deal of attention, a phenomenon not incidental to the influence of literary study of post structuralism, feminism and, ethnic consciousness. These approaches mandate modes of thinking which urge distance and skepticism.
Applying such modes to the realm of literature makes it hard to take it for granted the great authority canons have wielded over the last century. Nadel notes that the problem of speaking form invisibility and making the absence visible pertains not only to the public functions, but also to the speech itself.
Nadel points out that Ellison demonstrates this memorably when his invisible and nameless narrator speaks to an invisible and nameless audience, attempting to uncover in their shared otherness the voice which had encoded into silence, excised from the canon. Nadel narrates that the aim of the Ellison’s work, Invisible Man, is deeply informed and framed by the issue of canonicity.
The phenomenon enables a writer to speak to, and through tradition without sacrificing the speaker’s voice or denying the tradition it tries to engage. Nadel argues that this engagement with tradition is necessitated by a complicated interaction of historical and critical events which affected the erasure of the black’s role in the crucial parts of American history and literary history (1).
According to Nadel, Ellison used allusion, consistently and effectively to engage the issue of canonicity. In Nadel’s parody of Ellison’s work of the Invisible Man, the systematic use allusion exploits literal critical potential and creates a coherent subtext of literal criticism.
The subtext created by Ellison is one that engages the issues of marginality and decentering, of ethno- and logo centrism. This allows for encoding and interpretation in ways which anticipate much more contemporary European theory, and much American ‘rehistoricizing’ in regard to the role of the black in the American canon as the sense of canonicity itself (2).
Moreover, Braman parody of reeds work suggests that in Mumbo Jumbo, there are fundamentally two sides of humanity. One side is familiar to any reader and is, in essence, the society in which one lives.
Characterized by organized, serious, characteristically white people, this side of humanity populates most schools, governments and industries. Those who live in a controlled society habitually go through life as if it were a business transaction. As the title, Controlled Society suggests, people who survive this way are very controlled as well as petty.
Rarely happy, these people believe in absolute truths that lack an innate, humanistic foundation. This was the life style of the black community in the pre-colonial period (Braman 1). Brahman argues that this phenomenon has been illustrated by Ishmael Reed’s Mumbo Jumbo. Thus, organized and monotheistic religions reign absolutely.
They are untrue to themselves and contain their genuine emotions, wants and needs. It seems that people who live under a controlled society voluntarily sacrifice their human natures for the ‘greater good,’ but it becomes apparent that they are simply unable to have a human nature in the first place. These people treat art as they would treat a religion; they are happy to be simply in its presence.
This lack of depth is represented in Mumbo Jumbo’s art heist, and supports John Locke’s theory in Two Treatises of Government that people who comprise a society voluntarily forfeit a portion of their freedom to maintain a common public authority (Braman 1). They do not live, they merely subsist.
Ishmael Reed’s and Ralph Ellison’s lists of published, stirring works are impressive and their stylistic, fervid writing has become a critic’s reverie. Not only Reed and Ellison are notorious authors, but their proficiency of professing their knowledge is known in various schools like Harvard, Yale and Dartmouth.
What their students do not know is that most of Reed’s and Ellison’s novels and poetry are brimming with satirical representations of American religion and government, calling to question the ideals that existed in America hundreds of years ago.
Conclusion The paper has elaborated the importance of parody as a tactic in African American literature. The paper has discussed how the parody of Reed’s and Ellison’s top work has been used to make important cultural pints.
The paper has used Hutcheon’s definition of parody. Hutcheon argues that “parody is repetition, but repetition that includes difference; it is imitation with critical imitation distance, whose irony can cut both ways” (37).
The paper first examined “The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism”, in which Gates Henry parodied African American literature. Gates pointed out parody should not lead to a drift from the original text. The paper then examined Benard Bell’s book entitled “The Contemporary African America.
Bell argued that Parody is one of the ethic forms of oratory, the black vernacular, which is first developed by boys in play to assert masculinity among people and to achieve the sense of security in their contact with the hostility of a larger society (Bell, 79).
The paper also examined Page’s book titled “Icons of African American Literature: the Black Literary World”, in which the author indicated that Ellison believed that the racial novel did not exist and that black writers had to stay away from racial polemic.
The paper also illustrated how Bruce, Zemliansky and Nadel parody Ellison’s and Reed’s work in their books titled “The Critical Response to Ishmael Reed’ and Political Philosophy of John Locke respectively. Moreover, it concluded by examining Braman’s parody of Reed’s top creativity as illustrated in Mumbo Jumbo. This paper has demonstrated how the use of parody is symbolic in the African American literature.
Works Cited Bell, Benard. The Contemporary African American Novel: Its folk roots and literary branches. Massachussets: Massachussets University Press, 2004. Print.
Braman, C. Political Philosophy of John Locke. Chuck Braman 1996. Web.
Bruce, Dick and Zemliansky, P. The Critical Response to Ishmael Reed. California: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.
English Oxford Dictionary. Parody. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Gilyard, K. African American Literature. New York: Longman, 2004.
Hutcheon, Linda. A theory of parody: the teachings of twentienth century art forms. London: Routledge, 1985.
Nadel, Alan. Ralph Ellison and the American Canon: Invisible Criticism. Iowa: Iowa University Press, 1988. Print.
Page, Yolanda. Icons of African American Literature: the black literary world. Washington: Libray of Congress Publishing, 2011. Print.
Problems with International rights Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Executive summary Human rights refer to the basic rights and freedoms that every person across the globe is entitled to. The recognition and implementation of these rights by the states is the foundation of freedom and ultimately result in justice and peace all around the world.
The violation of these rights has led to barbarous acts which have led to disastrous consequences and impacted negatively on the relationship between countries.
The rights this report will focus on are women’s rights that have not been well implemented and those that have been neglected. It will focus on human rights and state sovereignty. It will also focus on the question of who is liable as well as western influence in the policy making and implementation of human rights.
The states should agree and unite as one to implement with no compromise or prejudice stricter policies all across the globe. No rights should be neglected and a form of liability should be evident once ones rights are violated.
All groups should be considered in the implementation of human rights and the task of policy making and implementation of human rights should be left to a neutral structure that runs without external interference.
Context and importance of the problem These problems impact negatively on global activities and international relations.
Rights that are based on gender
The universal notion of human rights does not fully focus on the problems that women face. Though some articles in the various human rights declarations and conventions try to push for a woman’s place in the family and workplace positively, some factors are still suppressing these policies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rights of women are hard to implement while some are being ignored (Wight, 2006, p. 38). Poor salaries and working conditions are some of the problems women are discriminated against in the work place. In some countries they are isolated and labeled as “home workers”.
There are a lot of cases of mistreatment and harm to women. These include sexual abuse and rape as a tool in times of war. There are incidences of forced motherhood in Ireland. Domestic violence as part of the honor code is done in Brazil and Italy. Such cases are not protected against by the human rights conventions.
Women and children bodies have also lobbied against activities like the sex workers market for tourists found in countries like Philippines and Barbados and the use of sex workers to serve the American armies at their bases as well as the use of prostitutes from Eastern Europe in Western Europe using force by the mafia gangs.
Some equality rights although made for good, are left out, hence, making their implementation hard e.g. equal employment rights (Wendt, 1999, p. 36). Though this right is really important, some factors like transformation in maternal arrangements should be put in place so as to facilitate it.
Claim liability at times is not clear
In some cases, it is not clear against who a specific claim is made and to what extent the claim can be made. Individual rights are meant to be made against the state, but in some cases it is hard to make claims as the state may not recognize the claim or even the party that has violated a human right.
Such cases make it very hard for an individual to lay claim. An example is the case of the claims that were being made against the Nigerian Oil company Shell which is a body.
The influence of the west
The west exercises a lot of power when it comes to the making and implementation of human rights. The rights are shaped as per the western perspective. This makes their application in other areas of the world hard.
We will write a custom Assessment on Problems with International rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A further contradiction is the fact that some rights are neglected in the west. Some Muslim groups feel that the west objectifies women and that the thriving porn industry is an indicator of the neglect of the rights.
The west also has a tendency of politicizing aid terms to the developing countries, hence, increasing their control and influence, instead of just aiding the countries.
Individual rights and state sovereignty
Rights are neglected in cases where a state does not recognize them (Waltz, 2001, p. 82). This leaves some states to carry out some barbaric acts without fear of consequence or consideration of morals. These cases are evident in the Rwandan genocide and Kosovo crisis where the rights were neglected.
Critique of policy options
The policy that advocates for gender equality does not lay consideration to the fact that this policy cannot stand on its own. Equality in the work place should also amend other policies like maternal leave so as to accommodate the needs of women, hence, giving them a better chance of competing.
These rights are there but they are not implemented, hence, some people take advantage of this and strip the rights and freedoms of women.
Though the UN charter states that claims should be made on the state, some states do not even recognize these rights. For this reason, it becomes hard for the individuals to claim. Some rights are violated by bodies of which there is no clear guideline on how to make claims against such organizations.
The west offers aid to developing countries as per the policies of the UN but at the same time they tie the countries down with terms and conditions which eventually increases their control and dominance over them.
Some sovereign states do not implement the conditions of the UN; hence, they neglect the consequences of human rights violation (Drezner, 2011, p. 88). This has resulted in mass killings and other barbaric acts as the individuals are not prosecuted by the state and in some cases they are even protected by the state.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems with International rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policy recommendations
The policies put in place to aid women should also be backed up with policies that will boost them. The policies should focus on every detail that may disrupt implementation, e.g., in terms of equality in the workplace.
Policies should also be put in place to support it in this case a maternity period should be granted and should entail things like paid leave and job security in order to avoid unnecessary penalties.
Policies should also be put in place to cover all the problems women face thus leaving no loop holes. States should also implement stricter policies so as to discourage people from violating them. This could be in the form of increased sentences and penalties.
States should be encouraged to recognize vital rights so that the citizens can be able to lay claim in case ones right is violated. This will be achieved through the states recognition and implementation of the right. Policies should be put in place as per the states laws to be able to prosecute bodies in case they violate an individual’s rights.
A structure free from political interference and national self-interest should be put in place to make policies relating to human rights. It should consider the fact that different countries have different ideologies based on their beliefs and practices. The policies should consider the difference in religions, tribes and cultures.
Aid given to the developing countries should not have any terms attached to the agreement, hence leaving the countries free from western control. The countries in the west should also be pushed to implement the policies that they have advocated for.
States should be encouraged to give high priority to human rights. A strict agreement should be put in place to deal with cases like those of national rights violation, and it should have stricter policies that outline the consequences of state violations or protection of human rights violators. These policies could be stricter sanctions and cut off in relations with other countries (Weber, 2009, p. 51).
Conclusion A neutral structure based solely on morals should be put in place to ensure an unbiased implementation of human rights. States should prioritize human rights. Rights consideration should be made in reference to the differences across borders.
The rights of women should be prioritized and states should put strict measures to ensure their implementation, hence ensuring that women are protected. The implementation of these policies will greatly boost the global perception of human rights, leading to freedom, justice and peace.
References Drezner, D W 2011, Theories of international politics and zombies, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
Waltz, K N 2001, Man, the state, and war: a theoretical analysis, Columbia University Press, New York.
Weber, C 2009, International relations theory: a critical introduction, Taylor
Consumer Behavior: How, Why and When Consumers Buy Goods? Report essay help online: essay help online
Discussion Consumer behavior can be described as how consumers buy and consume goods and services. Consumer bahaviour is basically concerned with studying the various consumers purchasing and consumption patterns. Consumer behavior will address the fundamental questions of how, why and when consumers buy goods.
It is also concerned with how consumers consume goods and later dispose them. It looks at the various reasons why consumers buy a certain bundle of goods. Consumer behavior is also concerned with the time period when consumers buy certain types of goods and services (Schiffman, 2010).
Consumer behavior varies from place to place and also among individuals. This variation can be attributed the following reasons: variations in cultures and beliefs, variation in consumer tastes and preferences and the purchasing powers of consumers. Consumers have different tastes and preferences.
These varied tastes and preferences largely determine how consumers are going to buy certain goods and services. For example, consumers in china have different tastes and preferences compared to those in another country like France (Schiffman, 2005).
Also, consumer cultural practices have an impact on how consumers behave with regards to product purchase and consumption. The cultural and religious practices have a positive correlation to consumer’s preferences.
For example, in most parts of Africa, some religious practices forbid the use of some animal products. Such a generation is likely to consume less meat products which in turn affect the consumption pattern in that area.
Consumer behavior is also largely affected by consumer purchasing power. This is determined by the availability of capital or money a consumer has for purchasing goods and services. If consumers have a lot of cash, then they are likely going to spend more and purchase more goods and services (Schiffman, 1997).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, if consumers have less money, then they are going to have a low purchasing power which will eventually affect their purchase behaviours. For example, in most developed countries, there is a high level of consumption of goods and services.
This is attributed to the fact that, the economy of such countries is stable and most consumers have enough money to spend on consumption. On the other hand, in most parts of the developing countries, consumers, on average, have low purchasing power which reduces their consumption trends.
Consumers in such countries have less cash at their disposal hence they cannot afford most of the goods and services (Tyagi
An Analysis of UK’s and China’s pharmaceutical markets Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Many firms are trying to improve their sales revenue by expanding into new markets. In this case, globalization plays a crucial role in helping the firms to achieve their set goals. In their assessment of the international theory of globalization, Johanson and Vahlne (1990) have identified three distinct phases of globalization.
During the first phase of globalization, the firm tries to establish itself in the local market. During the second phase of globalization, the firm launches its operations in the neighbouring countries.
Usually, neighbouring markets have similar characteristics and as such, the experience of the firm with the domestic market is crucial. In the final stage of globalization, a firm launches its operations in the international market.
Before a firm can decide to introduce its products or services into a new market, there are several factors that it needs to consider. For example, a Canadian pharmaceutical firm wishes to introduce a new type of painkillers in either China or the United Kingdom.
Before the firm can decide on the most appropriate market, several factors have to be put into consideration. The paper therefore focuses on the factors that the Canadian company should take into account before venturing into either the UK or Chinese market. It offers a critical analysis of benefits and shortcomings of each market.
Discussion Approaches to globalization
Before introducing the new drug to the international market, the Canadian company can choose between using a direct approach and entering into a strategic partnership with another firm that has already established itself in the desired market.
Under the direct approach, a company sets up the premises from where it will distribute the drug. A strategic partnership would involve the use of local partners for purposes of distributing the drug. Goldstein (2005) observes that China is one of the fastest growing markets with an average annual growth rate of 8%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the Canadian company may require a local partner because the Chinese market is large with a diverse culture. Although identifying and contracting a reliable local partner would be a costly undertaking, there are several advantages associated such an approach.
For example, international partners may rely on the experience of the local firm in the market. On the other hand, the UK’s pharmaceutical industry is still reeling from the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis. The pharmaceutical market in the UK is expected to grow at an annual rate of 0.4% (Epsicom n. d.)
In addition, the National Health Service is expected to implement budgetary cuts, and this would effectively reduce its expenditure on new drugs. This would affect the pharmaceutical industry greatly and also derail efforts by the Canadian company to breakeven.
Competition and Market Share
China’s healthcare system is run by the socialist government whose aim is to provide quality healthcare to all its citizens. The government has implemented several policies aimed at improving the healthcare system (KPMG 2010). Among the proposed policies is the upgrade of health facilities and enlarging insurance coverage to include the rural population in China.
In China, small-scale firms account for 80 % of the pharmaceutical market (KPMG 2010). Plafker (2011) states that small companies have room for growth in China’s expansive market. On the other hand, the UK pharmaceutical market is dominated by international pharmaceutical giants.
The major players in the UK pharmaceutical industry include GlaxoSmithKline, Merce
How Do Genetic and Environmental Factors Contribute To The Expression of Depression? Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Statement of Question
Description of Neurochemistry or Functional Neuroanatomy
Limitations and suggested future research
Abstract Depression affects very many individuals in the world and results in reduced productivity in the workplace. Depressed individuals experience feelings of hopelessness and helplessness which makes them have negative perceptions about their immediate environment and some even develop suicidal thoughts.
This paper will look at the link between genetic factors and the environment on expression of depression. Some research studies that have been carried out have shown that some individuals might be predisposed to depression more than others. Such individuals might have body systems that either produces excess stress hormones or neurotransmitters that are not as balanced as they should.
The result is that an individual’s mood is affected which might affect their work and relationship with their family and friends. People who are predisposed to depression should avoid excessively stressful situations to avoid imbalance of the endocrine or nervous system. The paper will also look at methods, results and recommend areas that can be further researched on concerning the area of depression.
Introduction Depression is a clinical condition that affects the way an individual thinks or acts. Depression has been mentioned to result to sadness, feelings of stress and hopelessness about situations in an individual’s life. Depression affects physical functioning, thoughts, mood, behavior and communication.
Often, depression is mistaken with sadness but it should be noted that sadness usually goes on for too long. Depression usually results in a change in an individual’s life in a negative manner. Depression does not dictate on gender, age or race. Depression affects about 9.5% of adults in the United States of America (Ebert
The Facility Management in the Tourism Industry Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Opportunities challenges and trends
Technology and facility management
Drivers of change
Introduction It is doubtless that advancement in technology is one the achievements of the 21st century. From office motivation to online marketing, many firms around the world have embarked on incorporating technological ideas into business in order to promote performance and profit making (Cotts, Roper
Mao Zedong’s Rise to Power Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help
Historians provide various explanations for Mao Zedong’s rise to power. This person can be regarded as a skillful political strategist and tactician who could manipulate, forestall, and coerce his opponents into defeat. Yet, he can also be considered as an opportunist always able to take advantage of various circumstances, even those ones when he made obvious mistakes.
Thus, it is necessary to show how modern scholars describe and assess Mao Zedong. In particular, we can compare Maurice Meisner’s evaluation of Mao with the assessment offered by David Apter and Tony Saich. To some degree, the works of these historians represent opposing views on Mao Zedong political struggles.
Meisner emphasizes his efforts to appeal to various social classes. He shows what Mao Zedong gained the trust of his potential supporters. In turn, Apter and Saich attach greater importance to his rivalry with various people who could undermine his authority.
First, it should be mentioned that these scholars pursue a similar objective; in particular, they strive to explain how Mao Zedong gained supremacy in the Communist Party, and became a symbol of a leader for the Chinese people. Yet, these texts differ greatly in the style of presentation.
In his work Maurice Meisner looks at Mao’s succession to power from a strictly chronological standpoint. He discusses a series of events that contributed to Mao’s ascendance to power. His attention is focused on the Long March, the Japanese invasion of China, the establishment of Red Capital in Yan’an and so forth.
He shows how these events helped to gain the support of people with “proletariat consciousness” (Meisner, 45). In their turn, Apter and Saich discuss separate strategies and tactics that Mao employed to overpower his opponents among politicians, intellectuals, administrators and military.
Additionally, it is important to compare the data that these scholars analyze. For instance, Maurice Meisner discusses quantitative demographic data that shows how many people supported Mao and many people lost their lives because of his initiatives. Still, he also gives preference to quantitative research methods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He focuses on Mao’s description and perceptions of his successes and failures. The data that this historian discusses mostly comes from primary sources such as Mao’s books, articles, and interviews conducted with this political leader.
He also uses secondary sources, especially, the books published by other historians and journalists. In contrast, Apter and Saich don’t use quantitative data. They give preference to qualitative data that allows the reader to understand the opinions of Mao and his opponents. Their data come from primary sources such as letters, diaries, pamphlets, and books published during that period.
There are some similarities in conclusions that these authors arrive at. One of his arguments is that Mao was able to transform his failed initiatives into victories. For example, the Long March which resulted in thousands of casualties, was later transformed into a symbol of “will, spirit, and revolutionary consciousness” (Meisner, 34).
Mao understood that this March could have been ruinous for the Communist Party, but he never admitted his errors and attributed them to his political rivals.
This idea is shared by David Apter and Tony Saich who also think that Mao Zedong was good at “turning defeats into lessons, and lessons into claims to truth” (Apter and Saich, 37). Overall, the authors agree that he was able to shift the blame for his failures on others.
However, these scholars have different perspectives on Mao Zedong’s strategy. For instance, David Apter and Tony Saich focus on the so-called “four struggles” of Mao (Apter and Saich, 35). This term describes Mao’s attempts to win military, ideological, intellectual, and administrative leadership in China (Apter
Multiculturalism Should Continue To Be Promoted In Canada Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Multiculturalism and Culture
Racism and Employment
Multiculturalism at workplace
Introduction The freedom of the people would be hindered if they were contained only in a certain cultural society by natural birth or language. Thus, it is important that every person in Canada, irrespective of their race or cultural origin, is provided with an opportunity to be exposed and learn any other language from countries in which Canada cooperates with in terms of business, politics, and other issues.
Multiculturalism policy inside a bilingual background has been seen by the government as a highly appropriate way of guaranteeing the freedom of culture within people of Canada (Tierney 6). This policy should further be supported since it has helped break down discriminatory thoughts and hatred among cultures.
Natural unity, whether it is to signify something in the totally individual sense, have to be established on self-assurance in one’s own personal character. Through this, everybody would generate respect to the other people and readiness to share thoughts, suggestions, and ideas.
Multiculturalism and Culture A strong multiculturalism policy will aid make this first self-reliance and it can create the foundation of a society that is derived from fairness for everybody. Additionally, multiculturalism informs people about other people or society origins and anyone in Canada can be informed about various cultures.
Because of the multiculturalism which is there in Canada, everybody can have an opportunity to learn about Greek, China, and African food in Vancouver without being in these countries. People can also learn about various fashions and religions in a community which is multicultural and it will also introduce different languages in Canada.
If a person desires to learn the second language, it will be easy to get a native speaker (Mooney 251). This will help then get a native speaker who can teach them to speak a certain language with appropriate pronunciation and accent. Therefore, the idea of multiculturalism enables various cultures and societies to learn from each other.
The government should maintain and promote different ethnic and culture clusters which provide liveliness and arrangement to societies in Canada. They should be promoted to share their cultural idioms and values with the rest of Canadians and as a result will add to a better-off life for everybody (Parada
Manager’s Role in Change Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The management roles that are easily observed in organizations include: directing navigating and interpreting. The directing and navigating roles involve the manager imposing the vision upon the members of staff.
This is an authoritative approach whereby the manager controls the operations of the organization since he or she is the final decision maker and interpreter of the vision. The interpreting role involves the CEO being the only party that is relied upon for interpretation of the vision.
This role places the CEO at the heart and central location of the organization given that without this person, operations would not run smoothly.
I am most comfortable with these management roles since they maintain power at the top thereby allowing managers to practice their leadership styles effectively. When the power to impose directives is held by the managers, change management is halfway guaranteed.
The directing role has the benefits of ensuring that organizational activities are controllable. Since the manager directs personnel on what to do and what to avoid it becomes easier to direct organizational activities towards the achievement of the vision.
When this approach is used indiscipline is easily dealt with and the manager can lead to creation of a reputable organizational culture. Directing however does not foster participative leadership which s the best method to influence behavior.
The navigating role also involves the manager controlling organizational activities but being subject to external factors which affect the outcome of change. The benefit of this approach is that there is room for the organization to be dynamic so as to adapt to changing needs of the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however does not provide certainty about achievement of successful change management. The interpreting role had the advantage of avoiding confusion within the organization since all directives come from the CEO who also interprets the vision.
If many parties are allowed to interpret the vision, this will lead to confusion and lack of a common purpose. However this approach is dictatorial in nature and it leads to overdependence on the CEO or centralization of power.
The nurturing, coaching and caretaking approaches have several shortcomings. These roles involve the manager consulting with employees before decisions involving the organization are made.
This creates a barrier towards organizational effectiveness since employees do not always require to be consulted. Where the manager seeks to shape the change process by influencing behavior of individuals, a strong stand should still be maintained so that there is no deviation from the vision.
It becomes difficult for the manager to work towards a vision when consultations always have to be made with the personnel who are being coached or taken care of.
I have been in an organization that concentrates on the nurturing and coaching approach. In this organization employees were always consulted whenever there was something to be done.
The end result was that the decision making process was too long. At times the consultations ended in stalemates and there was no mutual decision that was arrived at. The lack of consensus during consultations made the manager unable to direct the organizational activities since he could not impose decisions upon the employees.
We will write a custom Essay on Manager’s Role in Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strategy that can be used to overcome these shortcomings would be to allow the leader to be the final decision maker even after consultations have taken place since this would allow for exercising of effective leadership skills.
Report on Local Acts New Information System Report college essay help
Explanation of SDLC Steps Required for Developing the System Preliminary analysis
The scope of organization is to ensure successful coordination between the managers at all levels and minimize the cases of the delays of the event preparation and completion. The problem lies in overloaded e-mails and indirect transfer of information between the managers, which decreases the reliability and efficiency of the system.
Using online self-service venue booking system can allow all the managers to view the booking arrangements, as well as all information attached. The book manager, along with the venue managers and facility managers should made corrections to the events and introduce all possible updates, which can be viewed by others.
In order to introduce this system, it is necessary to prescribe new instructions for all the employees. Specifically, each employee participating in the event should have an access to the database to track the updates and carry out the assigned duties.
Similar approaches will be presented to introduce online sales for advertising packages. The only difference is that they will be available for the top managers and the clients who will receive a specific identification code to view the variants and choose the most appropriate one.
The database will have different request forms where all the duties and systematic instructions will be posted for each employee to be aware of their responsibilities. The system design will include a set of information system on one website.
The access to each department (booking, payment, venue preparation, ordering, and facilities arrangement) will be available to each employee in accordance to the responsibilities he/she performs. For instance, the Booking Manager will have an access to all the items, the Venue Manager can access venue preparation, ordering, and facilities arrangement.
All these issues will be regularly updated so that each manager should keep track of those changes. The Facility Manager will have facilities arrangement and venue preparation at his/her disposal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As soon as the project is put into effect, the manager can view all the details of the preparation. Finally, each employee can view the request forms with regard to the project. Their names and surnames, along with other important information, will be attached to specific project data.
An important part of program implementation is test data generation. This procession implies creating a set of information for testing the efficiency and adequacy of software applications.
To carry out the test, it purposeful to fill out the order request in accordance with the above-presented categories to check whether all updates and processes can be viewed and analyzed by other departments.
The second step will be introducing a path model composed of three steps – software control flaw chart construction, path choice, and test data generation.
Introducing a new information system will significantly improve the internal information flow and the will regulate the coordinate both at virtual and horizontal levels. In this respect, employees can report to top managers online and inform them about the shifts and processes they accomplish.
The manager can access the results and introduce the corresponding changes. In such a manner, it is possible to foster time management approaches and significantly facilitate the overall process of order arrangements. Because automated steps deprive the managers of certain steps of operation, they can be more concentrated on the project accomplishment.
Moreover, online availability of the project can attract more clients and increase the number of orders. As a result, the director of the agency will receive maximum benefits will reduce the amount of employees needed for the venture. This is also a great possibility to expand the number of the venues and introduce more services.
We will write a custom Report on Report on Local Acts New Information System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Possible Effects of Project Failure In order to identify the possible pitfall of the information system work, it is necessary to split all the steps of implementation into smaller components. It will help define the degree of failure and damage that might occur if the software fails. For instance, the first level will include the actual information data posed online.
In case the system is arranged according to the principle of cloud of computing, the threats of invasion will be minimized. However, if there is a possibility of breaking the system. All information preserved on the online self-service system will be lost. However, similar outcomes can occur to the old system of e-mail exchange.
In this respect, the system should have additional hardware preserving all information. This electronic storage should be updated at least once a week to be able to preserve as much information as possible.
If the failure occurs to the second level of the information processing, namely the input and output of information between employees and their top managers, there will be a high probability of the event preparation failure. As a result, the calculation can lead to the loss of money and reduction of revenues.
Besides, it can negatively contribute to the organization culture, as well as the policy of employee retention. Second, insufficient training of employees can lead to the misinformation and late delivery of the final projects, which can also minimize the chances for success.
Centralising the Treasury Operations Essay college essay help: college essay help
The treasury in a business environment is the unit in charge of the management of the funds’ flow. Usually, the treasury fulfils its roles through cash flow and liquidity management. In addition, it controls the management of all the financial risks in an institution.
Globally, treasury managers in international banks encounter immense challenges concerning the overseeing of transactions across vast geographical locations and different time zones (Bragg 2010, P.34). Centralisation enhances an organisation’s management, assessment, and transparency.
By 1990, the redevelopment of the first sharing services had occurred in the US. The centers’ obligations were to increase and maximise the American corporations’ investment returns by employing project-planning solutions.
Afterwards, the multinational organisations and banks realised the outcome and importance of consolidating their treasury. In this regard, these organisations could merge and process numerous tasks and information in one central location.
Moreover, the organisations realised that centralisation enabled them to deliver efficient and transparent services while attracting qualified expertise.
Apart from its financial advantages, centralisation offers a chance for organisations to streamline their control and administrative procedures at the treasury level.
Likewise, the reengineering and rebuilding of an organisation’s processes enhances effective control. Therefore, multinational firms must redesign their structure to benefit from centralisation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methods of treasury centralisation Banks and organisations must consider several factors before settling on the centralisation of their treasuries. As a bank expands, its treasury expands too. This creates the need for the selection of an appropriate model of operation.
Therefore, banks must consider the major aspects affecting their operations. These include the scale of the broadened operations and intricacy of the treasury desired. These aspects correlate to form a basic decision matrix tool for any treasury model.
The process of centralisation should reflect the growth and nature of the treasury’s tasks. Additionally, it is crucial to reflect the disparity in the execution of corporate finances as well as the cash flow activities.
With the technological advancements and improved financial markets, the financial support and prevarication management from a central location has become a possibility (Hudson 1994, 256). With cheap and efficient management practices, multinational banks and companies can utilise highly trained personnel to execute and manage their transactions.
Centralised treasury management Banks and organisations should centralise their treasury as per the cultural and geographical setup of their business tasks. Organisations employ appropriate database systems to run their management activities in different parts of the world.
In this regard, the organisations gain economies of scale as well as reduced operational costs, which result in improved returns and the creation of a favorable environment for business growth.
Additionally, the treasury’s centralisation allows affiliate companies to demonstrate their value adding processes to an organisation. Therefore, in this regard, banks achieve reduced costs and financial risks, increased investment returns, and the acquisition of qualified expertise.
We will write a custom Essay on Centralising the Treasury Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Outsourcing For the international banks to attain additional economic gains, they must embrace outsourcing and through centralisation. Banks’ treasuries often encounter numerous challenges such as the need to globalise treasuries and the attainment of efficient cash flow management systems in the ever-changing markets.
A combination of these forces and the limited resources and infrastructure has compelled treasuries to adopt outsourcing. Working with several outsourcing partners, banks can provide their workforce and clients with flexible and efficient services.
More so, through outsourcing, banks can allow their treasuries to tackle domestic and regional challenges. Currently international banks and organisations setups require treasuries that are more dynamic. Thus, several middle level companies have resorted to outsourcing part of their treasury to the international banks.
Similarly, companies with regional treasury can exploit the benefits of outsourcing when setting up new branches in new territories without investing more on their treasury budget.
This approach enables the treasury units to allow the treasury administration to focus on the vital aspects of its work while letting the service providers handle the operational related issues.
The impacts of globalisation on centralisation With more corporations and international banks increasing their operations worldwide, ethics, principles and payment procedures in the international market need regulation and standardisation. The centralisation of the international banks’ treasuries tackles these challenges as the banks have the capability to cater for both the domestic and regional treasury issues.
Regional treasury centers When deciding on the location for a new treasury organisation, the selected location should be central and its legal and tax policies should concur with the companies’ tax policies. By so doing, a company will significantly minimise its cost while expanding its investments.
For instance, Nokia chose Singapore over Australia, Malaysia, and Hong Kong in setting up its centralised treasury because Singapore’s tax systems were more favorable (Greuning 2009, P. 234). In this regard, it is important that banks do not solely major on returns and corporate tax, but also focus on their revenue contribution to the state.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Centralising the Treasury Operations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Phases of the treasury centralisation Normally, there are three phases of centralising the treasury (Greuning 2009, P. 254). The initial phase is the creation of a central treasury unit. The unit aims at dealing with the risk management and interest rates of an organisation.
The central treasury units can further be sub-divided into multicurrency cores and in-house banks. In-house banks provide organisations with the needed banking services in the subsidiary levels. Within the In-house banks, the central treasury can obtain information regarding the cash level.
The second phase of the treasury centralisation comprises the centralisation of money and liquidity administration. The creation of a regional multicurrency pooling system within the local banks enables the achievement of this cause.
This process is referred to as cash concentration. International banks are required to have several cash balances on diverse bank accounts in different currencies across different banks worldwide.
This enables the banks’ treasury management to concentrate their extra cash balances on a single account in one location facilitating the maximum control of the liquidity position as oppose to the case of a global spread (Greuning 2009, P. 255).
Thus, multinational banks have established complex strategies to concentrate their offsets and renovate their cash scales to achieve a single balance stand through the year.
The third phase of centralisation comprises the centralising of all the transaction processes within an organisation. This achieved by centralising the incoming, outgoing, and documentary payments.
By establishing new consolidated entities referred to as payment factories, banks and other organisations can achieve this objective. With these payment factories in place, an international bank can centralise the standard accounts from its subsidiaries enabling a single payment distribution to banks (Greuning 2009, P. 157).
The risk of treasury decentralisation In a decentralised setup, banks allow their subsidiaries to control and manage their own payment procedures. Each bank relies on its own staff and infrastructure to run its operations. In this regard, flexibility is achieved.
However, the system results in a weak visibility of monetary and high interest rate risks due to the absence of pooling methods. Consequently, the lack of standardisation and automation in the banks’ treasury can present transaction risks caused by the erroneous outgoings and data dismissals.
Decentralised banks can only benefit from their ability to manage all the factors within their business setups. Thus, the managers of such banks should be convinced to adopt centralisation to improve on their tax returns and attain effective treasuries.
In the end, such banks will benefit from the improved profits and a highly qualified workforce upon the adoption of centralisation.
Near shoring In Europe, this term refers to all the shared services between various companies. The system has thrived in Hungary and Czech Republic because both countries have no legal restrictions on the treasury centralisation leading to advanced skills within their banks’ workforce (Greuning 2009, P. 257).
In addition, the location of these countries has significantly benefited them since they are nearer to the manufacturing facilities, which provide them with a large market.
Conclusion Currently, multinational banks are encountering significant challenges concerning the creation of firm and effective treasury infrastructures to cater for the ever-evolving market demands. To achieve this objective, they should focus on the reduction of their operational costs and develop viable operations that enhance their growth in the market.
Furthermore, the banks should remain conscious of the international payments standards that are subject to change (Hostetler 1989, P.123). Despite the benefits of the treasury centralisation, many organisations’ treasuries encounter several setbacks due to their incomplete control and utilisation of centralisation.
Furthermore, small banks and organisations lack the proper infrastructure and technology to implement this system. These setbacks affect the treasury departments negatively.
Although there is immense pressurisation on several multinational companies to adopt the appropriate treasury structures such as centralisation, the treasury discipline as a whole is still immature compared to other financial and accounting disciplines.
Therefore, to optimize on this system, increased research and academic attention need to be directed on the treasury management in order to realise effective treasury operations in the international banks.
References Bragg, S. M. (2010). Treasury management the practitioner’s guide. John Wiley: Hoboken, N.J.
Greuning, H. v.,
Microserfs and Identity Disruption by Technology Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
It is undeniable that IT plays a significant role in contemporary life. The fact that most people do not comprehend the machinations behind flicking on the TV, reading e-mail, buying things using credit cards clearly defines the transparency of IT among its casual users and its ubiquitous nature.
Private and public companies invest huge sums of money every year to update their IT infrastructure in order to remain technologically informed.
In the education sector, universities experience constant pressure to maintain their technology savvy image in order to attract new students who anticipate wireless internet all over the school premises, technically knowledgeable lecturers and online course resources.
Since IT is around the people and invisible to the eyes, individuals must watch the technology they use carefully in order to determine its impact on their self identity.
Coupland’s MicroSerfs is a novel that revolves around a group of information technology workers of mid-1990s whose residence is the Eastern suburbs of Seattle in Washington. The novel loosely tells the real life experiences of Microsoft employees and precisely captures the lives of individuals of the dot com era.
Their identity is affected by the invention of computers since they can blindly spend so many hours in a day blindly staring at their computer screens. Most of the characters in Coupland’s novel exhibit an almost religious devotion to IT.
Their personal identity is completely subsumed under their all inclusive desire to work in the Information technology industry. Some say that without their computers they are useless (Coupland, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the characters in the novel, technology is central in the development of personal values and self identity. It has the potential to pose significant challenges both in the religious and social realms. The characters strife to master their computers the same way they master their lives.
Coupland explains how dehumanizing life is at Microsoft which is one of the most technological enterprises in the world. In the novel, Michael who is the most outstanding programmer in the group receives an email from the founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates that criticizes his work.
The email traumatizes him such that he decides to keep to himself in his office as he refuses to get in touch with the rest of the world. Daniel who is the narrator points out that with the main focus of dominating the IT and software industry, the life of individuals in the IT industry revolves around work only.
The identity of workers disappears as evidenced by Michael who locks himself up in the office and refuses to eat, simply because his work in the IT industry is been criticized by the president of Microsoft (Coupland, 2008).
As a result of technology, the Microserfs are always stressed in addition to the low salaries they are paid. Apart from their work in the IT industry, their lives have minimal satisfaction. Some of them admit that their world consists of Microsoft, home and Costco.
The working environment in the IT industry does not give them a chance to establish relationships hence most of them remain single even when they are supposed to be married. They start relationships but they are soon taken over by their works.
Having families is an integral part of reinforcing the identity of individuals but the IT industry disrupts their identity since it denies them a chance to establish their families.
We will write a custom Essay on Microserfs and Identity Disruption by Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stress associated with the efforts to construct technology sometimes causes isolation as opposed to the connection which supposed to be achieved. Coupland says that workers stay close to each other yet they do not visit each others office as is the case with Daniel and Karla, who have never gained access to the office opposite theirs.
The workers only get to engage in a genuine conversation for the first time outside their work station when they get a break. The interpersonal gaps occasioned by technology cannot even be bridged by emails since once they are send, they is no chance of connecting with the people.
This clearly portrays how technology disrupts identity. It makes it difficult for people to identify themselves with their friends or colleagues at work because they either do not have time to interact or because they can simply connect by using technology (Coupland, 2008).
Coupland relates the emptiness caused by technology and how it disrupts identity to the specific Microsoft conditions. As the characters in the novel embark on a mission of reinventing and rediscovering their humanity, their attempts seem to be defiance against the dehumanizing and depriving effects of technology at Microsoft.
The rather complicated reevaluation of identity and humanity in the novel comes out strongly as the novel comes to an end. Daniel’s mother suffers a stroke, prompting the interiority community to surround her, remaining with her and willing to support her go over the unfortunate condition.
After trying to assist her for two weeks, an idea strike, that they should provide a computer keyboard for her to type messages for them to read. Michael assists her to move her fingers and through that method, they are able to communicate with her once again.
Reference Coupland, D. (2008). Microserfs. New York: HarperCollins.
Impact of online social media in conflict situations Essay online essay help
The internet has been credited by the United States of America’s Secretary of State Hillary Clinton as one of the most powerful forces for the advancement of freedom and political change. Clinton has called for consideration of internet based technologies such as twitter for the Noble Peace Prize.
Clinton’s remarks come at a time of heightened social media activities in conflict situations. While this raises the question of impacts of social media in conflict situations, the sobering reality however, is that it is quite impossible to enumerate the exact impacts. Nevertheless, social media has had both positive and negative impacts that have in one way or another shaped conflict dynamics.
A study commissioned by The George Washington University indicates that determining the actual effects of the new media in conflict situations is cumbersome due to methodological challenges and the newness of the subject.
The use of the term new media within the study refers to nontraditional media especially social media tools such social networks, blogs and mini blogs, wikis and others. Regardless of the aforementioned challenges, the study expose sufficient evidence which indicates that new media has significant positive effects in conflict situations.
The study reveals that in most of the conflict situations, the new media has emphatically changed people’s perceptions and actions with regard to issues in contention. With time recurrent activism gains popularity; followers are able to join and follow such activism at the click of the mouse.
As a result it becomes easier to facilitate collective action and thus spur mass movement (Aday, Farrell, Lynch, Sides, Kelly and Zuckerman 2010).
Aday et al.’s (2010) work indicates that the new media impacts conflict situations in four broad based areas. These include exposing individuals to new information flows such that an individual gains new competencies. The new media also improves how groups relate, thus improving inter and intergroup communication channels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By affecting group activities, social media enables such groups to form mass movements in politically charged conflicts (Eltantawy and Wiest 2011). Lastly, conflict situations easily gain international attention with the help of mass media tool such Facebook, twitter and blogs.
This has effectively led to social media to be referred to as the “magic bullet”. The phrase “magic bullet” is particularly used with reference to the impacts of twitter in spreading the Green Movement philosophy and the calls of political change in Iran (Aday et al. 2010; Esfandiari 2010).
The impact of social media goes beyond increasing the participation of the people in conflict situations. The dawn of social media has also given rise to new avenues through which peace, conflict prevention and resolution is attained.
Social media tools especially social network sites such as Facebook as well as blogs and mini blogging site such as twitter have had significant impacts in the search for peace, justice and conflict prevention in conflict zones. It is imperative to note that social media in itself cannot prevent or solve a conflict; neither can it ensure that justice prevails.
Nevertheless, these tools offer new and effective possibilities through which the avoidance and prevention of conflict occurs. One such example is the 2007/2008 post election violence in Kenya.
Through Facebook and popular blogs such as “Ushahidi”, Kenyans were able to report the occurrence of sporadic acts of violence which conflict prevention and resolution was attained. People used reports from social media to not only evade conflict but also intensified calls for end to the violence.
Additionally, heightened calls for justice through “Ushahidi”, underlines the usefulness of social media in conflict resolution (Goldstein and Rotich 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of online social media in conflict situations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assertion made by Goldstein and Rotich (2008) indicate that in conflict situations social media has also helped to push the boundaries of journalism. As reported by Communication for Social Change Consortium social media has come in handy in countries where access to traditional media is limited (Monzani 2010).
While Monzani (2010) cites countries such as Iraq, Burma and Gaza as some of which social media has helped to highlight the nature of conflict, Aday et al. (2010) survey indicate that Iran also falls under this category.
Social media tools have given the rise of citizen journalism thus helping to eliminate or counter biased reporting by the mainstream media, which in most cases is usually under the tutelage of authoritarian regimes. While citizen journalism significantly lowers the quality of professional journalism, it nevertheless enables direct involvement citizens in conflict zones.
Citizens communicate with the outside world through social media news feeds. Such communication impacts the conflict situation in two major ways; it counters biased reporting from the mainstream media is as well as giving the citizens opportunities to voice their afflictions.
In the Syria protesters, realizing the need to back up activism with sufficient evidence, have turned to social media tools especially YouTube. According to Rafif Jouejati, the Syria opposition wing spokeswoman “Social media has became a powerful tool in getting the word out” (Sterling 2012).
YouTube is thus being used to smuggle news about the atrocities committed by President Bashar al-Assad’s regime, to the international community.
The assertion made above are likely to indicate that social media as inalienable from the successes achieved in successful conflict situations. It is therefore imperative to state that social media impact in conflict situations is exaggerated. In some situations, social media has had no effects at all while in others social media activities have exacerbated the conflict.
Aday et al. (2010) note that oppressive regimes have learned to use social media effectively to quell dissent form the experiences of other regimes. Aday et al. (2010) cites China’s example where, anticipating the Uighur protests, the Chinese government blocked twitter after the “Twitter revolution” in Iran.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of online social media in conflict situations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More But this is not the most negative use of social media by oppressive regimes. Stepanova (2011) notes that the Iranian government used social media tools such as twitter to institute oppressive countermeasures during the 2009 green movement revolution. Social media enabled Iranian authorities to trace and arrest protesters.
In resolving any conflict, Friedman, Tidd, Currall and Tsai (2000) assert that focusing on the interest of other parties involved in the conflict necessitates effective conflict resolution. The use of social media has effectively led to generating social capital necessary for mounting successful revolution in countries such as Libya and Egypt (Howard and Hussain 2011).
However, in most of these situations social media activism is largely uncoordinated and driven by self interest. Most of the social media activists seem to have concealed self interest. As a result social media activism obscures the real issues on the ground while propagating populist propaganda.
For instance, in Iran the while the revolution was based on political change much of the social media activism called for regime change since it was driven by selfish interest. Thus, in Iran social media activism largely ignored genuine interests from all stakeholders (Aday et al. 2010). This is perceived as one of the reason why the revolution was unsuccessful.
While social media is largely credited with positive impacts in conflict situations, the failure in Iran raises doubts about its actual effectiveness. Scholars from The George Washington University hypothesize that the use of social media fails to create the necessary vertical hierarchies to mount a genuine revolution.
As such the use of social media in conflict situations alters the political structures such that a lot of international attention is gained at the expense of shaping internal revolutionary activities. Thus, within the physical border of the conflict zones, social media activities are merely passive and largely fail to save the victims of the conflict.
For instance in the southern Sudan conflict, the “Save Darfur Movement”, while attracting enormous sympathy from the international community failed to generate any positive effects on the ground. Similarly, the twitter revolution in Iran failed because is seemed to have been designed for the international community, while the Iranians government continued unabated to oppress protesters (Aday et al. 2010).
The use of social media has had significant impacts in conflict situations. Heightened social media activities increase participation of individuals, empower groups to share crucial information and increase awareness by the international community.
This has had mixed impacts in different conflict situations. In Egypt, Lybia and Tunisia social media activities has largely mediated in toppling oppressive regimes, while in Kenya blogging supported the avoidance of conflict as well as the search of peace and justice.
While the failures in Iran, Syria and Sudan blot an otherwise positive record, it is nevertheless worth to note that social media activities have positively shaped the outcomes in conflict situations.
List of References Aday, S., Farrell,H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., Kelly, J. and Zuckerman, E. 2010. Blogs and bullets: New media in contentious politics. Web.
Eltantawy, N and Wiest, J. 2011. The Arab Spring| social media in the Egyptian revolution: reconsidering resource mobilization theory. International Journal of Communication. Web.
Esfandiari G. 2010. The twitter devolution. Foreign Policy. Web.
Friedman, R., Tidd, S., Currall, S. and Tsai, J. 2000. What goes around comes around: the impact of personal conflict style on work conflict and stress. The International Journal of Conflict Management 11(1).
Goldstein, J. and Rotich, J. 2008. Digitally networked technology in Kenya’s 2007–2008 post-election crisis, internet and democracy case study series. Harvard business Review. Web.
Howard, P. and Hussain, M. 2011. The Role of Digital Media, Journal of Democracy 22(3).
Monzani, B. 2010. Media in conflict prevention and peace building: an opportunity for E.U. Leadership. Web.
Stepanova, E. 2011. The role of information communication technologies in The “Arab Spring”: implications beyond the region. Web.
Sterling, J. 2012. For Syrian activists, YouTube is a sword and shield. CNN. Web.
The Australian superannuation industry Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Executive Summary The Australian superannuation industry is one of the largest companies both in financial assets and members in the country.
As a result, there are a number of companies that offer these services in the market which offers a wide pool of potential clients as the pension scheme is mandatory to all Australian citizens.
Consequently, there is competition among industry players as they try to control a larger section of the market and thereby increase its profitability. For any company to survive, it has to adopt strategies which will ensure that its products sell more, at a premium and developed using the least cost.
There are a number of strategies that a company can adopt to ensure that it meets its target. The choice of strategy will depend on the market position of the company, its objective and asset base and future objectives nevertheless; expansion of the market ought to be a key issue to any superannuation company keen to weed out competition.
In order to achieve new market segments, companies ought to come up with new and innovative products while at the same time minimizing on their production costs. Thus in order to achieve this, this paper has critically analyzed the superannuation industry in Australia.
It takes into account porters theories on competitive advantage how those theories affect the day to day running of the Australian superannuation industry.
In addition, it takes a closer look at one of Australia’s leading Superannuation companies, Perpetual Limited. Perpetual limited offers a broader and more personal analysis on how the company has maintained its competitive edge against rivals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the paper offers recommendation which both the Australian superannuation industry and Perpetual limited ought to take account in ensuring that the industry remains lucrative and companies continue maintaining a competitive edge.
Industry Overview The superannuation industry in Australia is a program that caters for the provision of a pension fund scheme for Australians. It’s therefore compulsory under the Australian law that all citizens be part of the program as it caters for their welfare once they retire.
Under the program, registered employers are required to submit a given percentage of employees income based on a given proportion to a given superannuation fund.
The need for the industry was given by the projected analysis that, with time, the Australian demographic map was changing drastically with more aged citizens increasing thus putting a strain on the government and national economy as it would seize to be economically feasible to support the retirement program.
Over time, the Government has come up with additional policy changes meant for ensuring the scheme is up to date with the current market and demographic changes (Pelham, 1999 40; Cartwright, 1993 55).
Key risks As the Industry is liberalized with many players, negative practices have increased in the last decade with players engaging in unethical practices.
In addition, there isn’t a robust framework which the custodians of the scheme can effectively use to control the vast players in the industry. As a result, the industry players don’t take into account the regulations that the custodians call for.
We will write a custom Report on The Australian superannuation industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political and Legal There has been a strong political will to control the superannuation industry to ensure that the interests of all stakeholders are taken care of without bias and exploitation (Conner
High Ethical Standards in Business Essay college essay help online
Introduction Ethics refers to the “conscious reflection on our moral beliefs and attitudes through the use of normative ethical theories and principles” (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 11). Ethical principles describe the generally accepted human obligations and the normative ethical systems. In the context of business, ethics refers to the accepted code of conduct that guides the behavior of all stakeholders of a firm.
Thus, the behavior of all stakeholders in a business is expected to conform to the accepted ethical standards. Adhering to the ethical standards enables businesses to avoid breaking laws. Thus, businesses that uphold high ethical standards are able to avoid the costs associated with breaking the law. Additionally, a business is likely to be more competitive if it upholds high ethical standards.
Engaging in ethical activities or behavior enables businesses to protect the interest of their customers and employees, and this improves their competitiveness. This paper focuses on business ethics by analyzing two articles. The ethical issues in the articles will be highlighted and discussed. Additionally, recommendations on how the ethical issues can be addressed will be suggested.
Article 1 Title: Anger at Goldman Still Simmers
Media: New York Times (magazine)
Date: Published on March 25th 2012
Overview of the Article
Following the 2008/2009 financial crisis, Copper River made unexpected losses and collapsed. Copper River was a successful hedge fund with assets worth over $1.5 billion before the crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The owners of Copper River argued that the collapse of their firm was mainly caused by the actions of Goldman Sachs, rather than the financial crisis. Goldman Sachs was the main brokerage firm that conducted Copper River’s trades.
Copper River relied on Goldman Sachs to conduct its short sales as required by the law. According to securities trade regulations, shares must be borrowed before a short sale can be conducted. Consequently, Copper River paid Goldman nearly one hundred million for the purpose of borrowing shares.
Copper River was likely to make heavy losses if the shares were not borrowed while Goldman Sachs was likely to be investigated by the regulators. According to Copper River’s owners, Goldman Sachs did not borrow the shares as required. Overstock.com which is an internet-based retailer also accused Goldman Sachs of failing to borrow shares to facilitate short sale.
Attempts by the owners of Copper River to save their company failed when Goldman Sachs refused to allow Copper River’s short positions to be transferred to BNP Paribas bank. Goldman Sachs also thwarted the decision to have Copper River’s positions taken over by Farallon Capital.
The failure by Goldman Sachs to borrow shares to facilitate short sales eventually caused the losses that led to the closure of Copper River. After the collapse of Copper River, another firm, S.C.E also accused Goldman of willfully failing to pre-borrow shares before making a short sale.
A former employee of Goldman Sachs also complained that the firm pursued its interests at the expense of its clients. For instance, Goldman Sachs established a mortgage firm, Abacus, which was financially weak. However, the firm sold Abacus to its clients without disclosing its financial position.
The ethical issues that can be identified in this article include the following. First, failing to borrow shares on behalf of a client in order to facilitate a short sale is an unethical behavior. According to the regulations governing securities trade “failing to borrow shares on behalf of customers is illegal because of concerns about market manipulation”.
We will write a custom Essay on High Ethical Standards in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The customers are also likely to be exposed to rising prices if the shares are not borrowed. Hence, the cost of trading in the shares would be very high. Second, Goldman did not disclose the financial position of Abacas before selling it. Instead, Goldman took advantage of its clients’ ignorance and sold a company that was already in financial distress.
This is unethical since Goldman Sachs intended to make a profit illegitimately and at the expense of its clients. Third, the decision by Goldman Sachs to stop the transfer of Copper River’s short positions was unethical.
Goldman Sachs prevented the transfer of the shares so that it could avoid being questioned by the regulator for failing to pre-borrow shares. However, preventing the transfer denied the owners of Copper River the opportunity to save their company.
Discussion of the Ethical Issues
According to the theory of utilitarian ethics, the outcomes of behavior should be based on the principles of “achieving the greatest good for the greatest number” (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 76) for both the firm, as well as, its clients. This implies that the behavior or actions taken by a business must benefit the business and its clients. Additionally, such actions must result into the greatest benefit for both parties.
In this context, businesses must consider their customers an end in themselves rather than a means to an end (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 77). However, the failure by Goldman Sachs to pre-borrow shares did not benefit the clients. While Goldman Sachs made profits by trading in its clients’ shares without pre-borrowing the shares, the clients incurred heavy losses.
Goldman Sachs’ actions were not right since they did not result into as much good as complying with the law. This is explained by the fact that the accusations labeled against Goldman Sachs had a negative impact on its image. Copper Rivers and other clients considered Goldman Sachs a racketeering firm that does not care about the effects of its actions.
Additionally, Goldman Sachs was placed under regulatory scrutiny, and was also forced to compensate some of its clients due to its fraudulent actions. The firm could have avoided all these risks and expenses if it had chosen to comply with the law. The principle of consequences requires businesses to assess their actions based on the expected positive and negative outcomes (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 91).
Goldman Sachs seems to have focused only on how its actions would benefit it. According to the harm principle, businesses or industries must be regulated so that their actions do not harm the clients and the society in general. Hence, Goldman Sachs had to be put under regulatory scrutiny.
Not sure if you can write a paper on High Ethical Standards in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the theory of contract ethics, businesses must behave in accordance to the contracts that govern their relationships with the customers (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 95). Hence, Goldman Sachs, as a brokerage firm, was expected to honor the contractual agreements with its clients.
However, Goldman Sachs did not honor the contracts due to the following reasons. First, Goldman Sachs infringed its customers’ right to information when selling Abacus. The principle of justice asserts that clients have a right to information in order to make informed decisions (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 97).
Second, Goldman Sachs obtained illegitimate advantage overt its competitors by failing to pre-borrow shares and preventing the transfer of Copper River’s short positions. For instance, both BNP Paribas Bank and Farallon capital could not benefit from Copper River’s short position since the transfers had been stopped. Additionally, the owners of Copper River missed the opportunity to strengthen their business.
Hence, Goldman Sachs’ decision to block the transfer of Copper River’s positions contradicted the principle of opportunity. According to the principle of opportunity, competing businesses must have equal access to existing opportunities (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 98). Thus, illegal business practices should not be used to overcome competition or to make profits.
Goldman Sachs denied all accusations of fraud by highlighting the weaknesses of the arguments of its clients. In the case of Abacus, Goldman was forced by the regulators to pay $550 million as compensation to the clients. In the case of S.E.C, Goldman Sachs agreed to pay $450,000 but refused to admit or deny the accusation of failing to pre-borrow shares.
These actions contradict the principle of openness which requires businesses to be open to opposing views. Goldman Sachs refused to accept the view that its actions were wrong. Consequently, it continued to defraud other firms after the collapse of Copper River.
The dispute between Copper River and Goldman Sachs remained unresolved. Mr. Cohodes who was one of the main shareholders at Copper River did not sue Goldman Sachs for damages. Additionally, Mr. Cohodes abandoned the securities business. Copper River’s owners should have sued Goldman Sachs due to the following reasons.
First, Copper River could have been compensated for the losses it incurred as a result of Goldman Sach’s failure to pre-borrow shares on its behalf. The compensations could have enabled the firm to continue in business or to refund the investors’ capital at the time of the firm’s closure.
Second, Copper River’s owners were not under any obligation to accept losses resulting from the actions of their agent, Goldman Sachs. The principle of “rationality asserts that legitimate actions must be supported by generally accepted reasons” (Crane and Malten, 2007, p. 98). However, the decision by owners of Copper River to accept losses that they were not responsible for seems to be irrational.
The fraudulent actions of firms such as Goldman Sachs can also be prevented through effective regulation of the securities market. The rules or regulations governing trade in securities should not have loopholes that can be used by firms to engage in unethical behavior.
The rules should be based on the principle of impartiality so that all parties to a dispute can have equal access to justice. Reasonable penalties such as fines and compensations should also be used against firms that engage in unethical behavior. For instance, a fine could have discouraged Goldman Sachs from consistently failing to pre-borrow shares on behalf of its customers prior to making a short sale.
Finally, the clients should have exercised their right to information while dealing with Goldman Sachs. Upon suspecting that Goldman Sachs was not borrowing shares as required; the owners of Copper River should have demanded for information about their securities that were sold by Goldman Sachs.
Consequently, Copper River could have identified the irregularities and taken timely action. Additionally, the clients who bought Abacus could have avoided losses if they obtained all information about the firm’s financial position.
The affected stakeholders include Goldman Sachs and its clients such as Copper River and S.E.C. Ltd. Additionally the customers who invested in the companies that were defrauded by Goldman Sachs were affected. Each of these stakeholders was affected in the following ways.
The immediate effect on Goldman Sachs was the compensations it was forced to pay to its customers. In particular, the compensations required a lot of financial resources. Hence, paying out the compensations had a negative effect on Goldman Sachs’ revenues.
The accusations also had a negative effect on the image or reputation of Goldman Sachs in the market. In the future, clients are not likely to use Goldman Sachs as their stock broker. This is because Goldman Sachs is associated with fraud and unethical behavior. Hence, Goldman Sachs’ revenue and profits are likely to reduce in future.
The immediate effect on the clients was the loss of revenue as a result of Goldman Sachs failure to pre-borrow shares. In the case of Copper River, the investors lost their capital since the business collapsed. The losses are likely to prevent the clients from expanding their businesses due to insufficiency of financial resources.
The customers who invested in the companies that were defrauded by Goldman Sachs also incurred losses. This is because the funds managed by companies such as Copper River, essentially, belong to individual investors/customers. Thus, if the firm makes losses, its customers also share the losses.
Therefore, the affected customers are not likely to realize the expected returns on their investments in future. Additionally, the investors may have to look for alternative companies to invest in the future.
Goldman Sachs’ actions were unethical since they were meant to benefit the firm at the expense of its clients. In particular, Goldman Sachs failed to pre-borrow shares prior to conducting a short sale on behalf of its customers. Pre-borrowing shares is a requirement that is meant to cushion investors from the risks of market manipulation and stock price fluctuations.
The collapse of Copper River is partly attributed to the unethical behavior or actions of Goldman Sachs. Goldman Sachs was able to engage in unethical behavior due to the weaknesses of the regulatory framework of the securities market. Goldman Sachs was able to evade the rules that govern trading in securities. Even though Goldman Sachs benefited financially from its unethical behavior, it also lost its reputation in the market. Consequently, businesses should follow the utilitarian principles of ethics in order to remain competitive.
Article 2 Title: Ex-advisor Tells Court he gave Inside Tips
Media: New York Times (magazine)
Data: Published on March19th 2012
Overview of the Article
An investment adviser named Scott Allen was found guilty of providing classified business information to his friend. The information was about the sale of a drug company worth $ 2.6 million. Mr. Allen admitted that he illegally shared information about the acquisition of Massachusetts-based biotech firm referred to as Millennium Pharmaceuticals.
The pharmaceutical company was to be acquired in 2008 by a Japanese firm referred to as Takeda Pharmaceuticals. In 2009, Mr. Allen also illegally shared information about the acquisition of the American drug manufacturer, Sepracor. The American drug manufacturer was to be acquired by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharmaceutical Company which is based in Japan.
Mr. Allen told a “United States Court in Manhattan that he had” discussed with his personal friend the details of the companies which were to be sold. Consequently, his friend used the information to trade on the shares of the companies which were to be acquired.
Mr. Allen further admitted that he gave the information for financial gain, as well as, for the purpose of their friendship. Mr. Allen who worked for Mercer L.L.C was found guilty of securities fraud, as well as, conspiracy to engage in or commit securities fraud.
Mr. Allen also confirmed that he knew his actions were illegal and regretted his decision to disclose the classified information. The court freed Mr. Allen on a bond of $ 500,000 as he awaits his sentencing which is scheduled for August.
The process of acquiring a company involves the transfer of the shares of that company from one shareholder to the other. In the context of a publicly traded company, change of ownership is likely to affect the prices of the company’s shares in securities markets. Investors in securities markets usually make their decisions based on the available information.
The relevant information, in this case, should give insights on the firm’s future performance. In most cases, those involved in the management of the firm or the consultants involved in the sale of the firm have more information about the firm than the investors.
Consequently, the parties with more information about the company are prohibited by the law from using such information for their personal gains. Additionally, they are not allowed to share the information with a person who can use it for personal gain.
Disclosing the classified information is not allowed since it benefits those who have it at the expense of those who do not have it. Additionally, it can lead to manipulation of securities markets. It is against this backdrop that Mr. Allen’s actions are considered unethical and illegal.
The principle of double effect asserts that, “an act with intended and otherwise not reasonably attainable good effect and an unintended yet foreseen evil effect” (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 88), is licit as long as there is a justified balance between the intended benefit/ good and the accepted evil.
However, an ethical dilemma arises when a person is obliged to avoid evil by abstaining from a good action (Jones and Parker, 2005, p. 89).
In this context, Mr. Allen was also in a dilemma since he had to choose between keeping the classified information and losing his friendship and the expected financial gain. Under such circumstances, the actions of the agent (Mr. Allen) should be guided by the following principles.
First, the object or essence of the act should not be contradictory to the agent’s fundamental commitment to his neighbor (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 57). This means that the action should conform to the regulations of the securities market.
However, Mr. Allen’s actions were intrinsically contradictory to his commitment to his employers and their clients. He knew that disclosing the information about the acquisition of the firms was illegal and had the potential of distorting share prices. Nonetheless, he failed to avoid evil by sharing the information.
Second, the direct intentions of the agent should aim at achieving beneficial effects, as well as, avoiding foreseen harmful effects.
This means that the agent should not willfully cause harm to others. Contrary to this principle, Mr. Allen’s intentions were meant to create harmful effects. Even though he could have benefited financially by sharing the information, other investors could have been negatively affected.
Third, the foreseen or expected beneficial effects should equal or exceed the expected or foreseen harmful effects. In Allen’s case, only two people were to benefit at the expense of all other investors. Thus, the foreseen benefits were less than the expected harmful effects.
Finally, the expected beneficial effects should not be attained “by the means of the foreseen harmful effects” (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 62). Thus, Mr. Allen and his friend were not expected to take advantage of other investors’ ignorance to trade on the shares of the companies that were to be acquired. This leads to the conclusion that Mr. Allen’s actions were unethical.
The theory of contract ethics asserts that the relationship between businesses should be based on mutuality and reciprocity (Ferrell and Fraedrich, 2011, p. 71). Mercer L.L.C had been entrusted with the task of handling the sale of the American companies.
Hence, it was expected to reciprocate by restricting access to information about the transactions. This was not achieved since Mercer’s employee, Mr. Allen, disclosed the information. According to the principle of opportunity, investors should have equal access to transaction information. Thus, non-public information should be inaccessible to all investors.
Mr. Allen’s unethical behavior or act can be avoided through the following measures. First, the management of Mercer L.L.C should focus on selecting the right employees. The human resources department should identify a set of attributes that must be exhibited by potential employees (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430).
For example, financial advisors should be able to keep classified information and uphold high ethical standards. The identified attributes should then be used to screen applicants during the selection process (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430). Hence, the company will be able to select and employ people of integrity or individuals who understand the importance of business ethics.
Second, the employees should be sensitized on the importance of engaging in ethical behaviors. This can be achieved through on-the-job training programs. The trainings should enable the employees to differentiate between ethical and unethical behavior (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430).
Additionally, the training program should enable the employees to understand the consequences of engaging in ethical or unethical behavior. In this context, the employees should learn the beneficial effects of ethical behavior and the harmful effects of unethical behavior.
The training programs should be reinforced with mentorship programs. The mentorship programs should involve the senior and junior employees so that ethics become part of the organization’s culture (Djurkovic and Maric, 2010, pp. 410-430). The mentorship programs will also enable the employees to identify with the ethics that guide their company.
Third, disciplinary action should be taken against employees who deliberately fail to respect and follow the company’s ethical standards (Vitell, Ramos, and Nishishara, 2010, pp. 467-483). Besides, employees who make an effort to follow the prescribed ethical standards should be rewarded.
Disciplinary action will discourage employees from engaging in unethical behavior. The rewards, on the other hand, will encourage employees to engage in ethical behavior (Vitell, Ramos, and Nishishara, 2010, pp. 467-483). Finally, access to classified information should be restricted.
Sensitive information should not be accessed by unauthorized employees. For example, passwords can be used to restrict access to files and databases that contain important information.
The affected stakeholders include Mr. Allen and his friend, Mercer L.L.C and the investors who were interested in the shares of the companies which were to be purchased. Each of these stakeholders was affected in the following ways. Mr. Allen incurred high costs in terms of legal fees and the bond he had to pay in order to be freed as he awaits his sentencing.
These costs, possibly, had negative effects on Mr. Allen’s personal investments. In future, Mr. Allen is not likely to get a job as a financial advisor due to the following reasons. Currently, he is 45 years old and the offence he committed attracts a penalty of up to 20 years in jail.
Thus, by the time he completes his jail term he shall have also reached the retirement age of 65 years. He is also not likely to be employed due to his criminal record. Most American companies prefer to employ individuals with no criminal records.
Mr. Allen’s friend enjoyed the beneficial effects of the unethical behavior. In particular, he is likely to have gained financially, by using inside tips to trade on the shares of the companies that were to be acquired.
The immediate negative effects on Mercer include the loss of their employee, Mr. Allen, as well as, a bad reputation in the industry. Mercer had to incur the costs of employing a new advisor as Allen goes to jail. Additionally, the company is likely to be associated with unethical behavior.
Thus, investors are not likely to use Mercer L.L.C as their financial advisor in future. The resulting effect will be a reduction in profits and market share. The investors who held shares of the companies which were to be sold are likely to have incurred losses. This is because the information shared by Mr. Allen is likely to have negatively affected the share prices.
Mr. Allen was found guilty of committing securities fraud by illegally sharing with his friend inside tips concerning the sale of two companies. His behavior was unethical since it did not conform to ethical principles. In particular, his behavior was meant to benefit him and his friend at the expense of other investors.
His behavior also had negative effects on the reputation of his employer, Mercer L.L.C. Above all sharing inside tips with third parties for the purpose of financial gains is prohibited by the laws that govern trading in securities.
Mercer can avoid such unethical behaviors by verifying the integrity of its employees during the employee selection process. The company can also sensitize its employees on the importance of ethical behavior. In conclusion, unethical behaviors normally have adverse effects on the stakeholders of a firm. Thus, all businesses must encourage ethical behavior in order to remain competitive.
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