The Conflict Between Entrepreneurial Orientation And Uppsala Model Of International Expansion Essay College Application Essay Help

Introduction Entrepreneurship can be conceptualised as the entry into a new venture by an individual or a business. New entry refers to the process of entering into either a new or an existing market with new or pre- existing services and goods. In this regard, new entry tries to explain the processes and initiatives of entrepreneurship (Czinkota, Ronkainen, Sutton- Brady


Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

The foundation of intelligence testing The definition of intelligence is elusive. However, scholars relate intelligence to logical reasoning and adaptation to prevailing situations. Still, there is a challenge over objective testing of intelligence. In order to understand intelligence testing and its basis, we have to look at its origin and theories.

Binet and Simon developed the Binet-Simon test to aid in assigning French students to appropriate classes. Educators had not developed any method to identify learners’ difficulties, such as retardation, behavioral problems, or lack of prior education. These researchers identified that learners did not have the same course of intellectual growth, and learners’ mental capabilities developed at varied rates.

Binet and Simon referred it to mental age (an average level of age when learners can perform intelligence test) but not the chronological age of an individual. They used mental age to assign appropriate tests to learners based on individual’s capabilities. This was the first approach to psychometric testing. Binet cautioned on over reliance on the test and the dynamic nature of intelligence and errors associated with tests.

Lewis Terman developed Stanford-Binet test from Binet test. Terman coined “the term Intelligence Quotient (IQ)” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000). This test related to American children and culture. IQ relied on dividing the “mental age by chronological age and multiplying the quotient by 100 to give the IQ of an individual” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000). Terman adapted IQ tests to reflect individuals’ test scores with the average scores of learners’ peers.

David Wechsler developed Wechsler-Bellevue test and scale of intelligence as a reaction to Stanford-Binet test. He introduced several specialized IQ tests for different groups. He developed scales for both verbal and non-verbal tests consisting 14 tests. He tested “verbal, performance and combined IQ scores of the tests” (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000).

This approach had advantages based on its performance scale and various tests for different age groups. The performance scale was independent of skills like reading, language and writing. Thus, it could test illiteracy, verbally challenged learners and non-communicative aspects.

Theories of Intelligence Testing Charles Spearman developed “the general intelligence known as g” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002). He believed that there was “a single and dominant factor of intelligence” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002). He derived this conclusion from observing positive correlations or associations among grades of various learners in unrelated subjects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Spearman believed that there was “an interaction between g and a specific factor of mental task, S (a person’s ability that was responsible for an individual’s skills in certain mental tasks)” (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002).

For instance, Spearman believed that people who possessed vocabulary skills had a better memory and could also show better skills in mathematics. However, this approach was not reliable. Instead, it attempted to provide explanations why tests scores of the same learner had relations in different subjects (Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J., 2002).

Howard Gardner introduced multiple intelligence theory as an attempt to explain intelligence testing. In his approach, Gardner introduced testing in multiple abilities, such as linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, visual, bodily, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Gardner argued that other approaches to test IQ were not conclusive.

In addition, Gardner also noted that such IQ tests could not predict or show outcomes and success in life or school. Gardner argued that individuals had different levels of intelligence. This explained why people had unique cognitive skills. Gardner’s argument provides a basis of intelligence as both cultural and biological.

Robert Sternberg also introduced Triarchic theory. According to him, intelligence has three elements, namely analytical, creative and practical. Analytical intelligence enables people to provide logical solutions to problems through breaking them down. The fundamental process of this approach is analysis. People with high-levels of analytical intelligence rely on their acquired knowledge in solving problems.

However, such individuals may lack creative abilities in terms of new knowledge or ideas. Sternberg’s creative intelligence entails synthetic thinking. Individuals with creative intelligence use knowledge and understanding for being able to formulate new knowledge in an intuitive manner.

Sternberg notes that people with the highest IQ are not the best in this method of thinking. According to Sternberg, individuals who possess high-levels of creative intelligence do not have sufficiently developed universal IQ tests for rating skills of creativity and problem solving. Practical intelligence involves the use of common senses. Individuals must use both their creative and analytical intelligence on daily encounters for problem solving (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that individuals with practical intelligence can succeed in most settings. They can apply both skills to achieve best outcomes. In addition, Sternberg notes that people can achieve excellence above these forms of three intelligences. Thus, some individuals may integrate all three forms of intelligences and demonstrate high standards of intelligence (Sternberg and Clinkenbeard, 1995).

Challenges to definitions of intelligence by Gardner, Spearman, and Sternberg In reference to multiple intelligences, education systems promote acquisitions of linguistics and mathematical skills. According to Gardner, this is unfair method of IQ testing. For instance, learners who have high-levels of intelligence in other areas may end up in special classes due to the lack of mathematical and linguistics skills. To Gardner and his supporters, educators should find relevant ways of assessing learners’ strengths and weaknesses accurately.

Learners do not learn in similar manners. Thus, uniform assessments are difficult. In this sense, educators should not create uniformity in assessing learners. Lazear argued that knowledge of how learners master skills enabled teachers to provide a reliable assessment (Lazear, 1992). Thus, it is useful for making informed decisions in learning processes.

This approach does not require learners to follow traditional test approaches that have predetermined answer such as multiple choices, essay, but it advocates for giving learners opportunities to respond in their ways through applications of multiple intelligences. However, this process is cumbersome as developing every possible profile of intelligence to match various abilities of learners is time-consuming.

Other critics also note that Gardner’s approach does not have empirical evidence to support it (Waterhouse, 2006; Klein, 1998). In addition, cognitive neuroscience studies did not support Gardner’s theory (Waterhouse, 2006). Other scholars related it to the g factor of Spearman (Visser, Ashton and Vernon, 2006).

Spearman’s idea of general intelligence gained prominent in the 20th century. However, its critics, such as Thorndike and Thurstone, argued that it was inappropriate to test an individual’s IQ using a single construct. However, people still viewed intelligence as a united concept (Deary, 2012).

Sternberg based his theory on meta-components that were responsible for planning and execution of solutions and feedback related to performance and gaining knowledge. Thus, meta-component processes were responsible for individual differences. According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of high-level components for problem solving but not a low-level component of gathering information that supports problem solving.

Critics like Brody and Gottfredson argue that Sternberg’s theory is a statement on manifestation of intelligence than an explanation of intelligence. Further, these scholars have shown “recent reviews of the theoretical and empirical support for the theory do not support the notion that creative or practical intelligences are as important as analytical intelligence (i.e. an approximation of general intelligence) in predicting life success” (Gottfredson, 2003; Brody, 2003).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation of ideal definitions and the basis of intelligence testing Theorists have grouped theories of intelligence into multiple intelligences and psychometric. Psychometric group involves theories of Wechsler, Spearman and proponents. On the other hand, multiple intelligences account for theories of Gardner, Sternberg and others.

The theory of general intelligence shows correlations on individuals’ abilities. Researchers have shown that problems that have high-levels of difficulty rely significantly on the g factor (Gottfredson, 1998). For instance, Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices relied on the g factor in developing its test. This suggests that there is a link between g and cognitive skills.

A number of scholars have also expanded the g factor by providing additional types of g, such as fluid (Gf), and crystallized (Gc). These classifications covered nonverbal and cultural-free aspects along with the skills and ideas individuals collect through acculturation.

General intelligence gained popularity due to empirical evidence from different tests scores that demonstrated correlations of cognitive tests among diverse individuals. The g factor has remained prominent in most psychometric test batteries, diverse individuals and analytic approaches to problem solving.

Scholars note that all forms of cognitive tests, both simple and complex, despite their informational aspects, have elements of general intelligence. We can not view g factor in terms of test materials, their contents or psychological aspects. This is because the g factor is in the brain.

The g factor in both simple and complex tests shows correlations of the tests with other non-psychometric elements. Brain cognitive systems have modular arrangements. However, the g factor shows consistent and positive correlations with every cognitive skill which also reflects differences among people (Jensen, 2000).

Proponents of multiple intelligence approaches argue that intelligence has a number of factors. These proponents believe that components of intelligence are multiple and interact with one another.

They work as combinations in order to solve problems. Gardner believes that the brain has different segments responsible for various skills (Gardner, 1998). He argues that damage to a specific area in the brain only affects a specific skill associated with that particular area. This is why Gardner concludes that there are multiple intelligences.

Most of the critics have argued that multiple intelligences lack supporting empirical evidence. This has made the approach unpopular among educators and researchers. Critics, who attribute multiple intelligences to the g factor, do so because of the Gc and Gf in assessments.

Gardner had argued that assessments of intelligences that focused only on mathematical and linguistics skills were unfair. This has been the trend in traditional standards and schools have encouraged such approaches. From this point, we can note that Gardner’s approach to IQ testing goes beyond mathematical and linguistics abilities and includes other areas of intelligence.

Gardner demonstrates uniqueness of different learners and that every learner has specific strengths and weaknesses. This observation may make proponents of multiple intelligences approaches argue that psychometric approaches are restrictive and apply to disadvantaged groups.

Jensen argues that the g factor also shows differences among people in processing information (Jensen, 1998). He observes that IQ scores may also reflect correlations among tests. Jensen acknowledges differences among tests and needed skills, but points out such correlations do not exist in the factor analysis.

Instead, they reflect the presence of the g factor in learners’ cognitive processes. Thus, Jensen may relate g factor to information processing skills among learners. He also relates the g factor to biological aspects in terms of brain contents and information processing. Researchers that have interests in brain studies have established associations between the brain’s gray matter and high IQ in certain parts of the brain, using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Haier et al, 2004).

Gardner also associates the brain with intelligence, especially in logical-mathematical and interpersonal skills. Haier and colleagues’ study seems to support the approach that differences in weaknesses and strengths among individuals of same IQ occur due to “variation in mental skills that influence information processing instead of interactions among various intelligences” (Haier et al, 2004).

Failures in models of intelligence tests have created issues that seek to establish relevancy of IQ testing. Critics of these models believe that such tests do not have bases because these models do not offer any kind of intervention that may help individuals classified as disabled (Benson, 2003). They also argue that the best approach is to observe an individual’s behavior both at school and home in order to gauge an individual’s ability rather than abstract IQ tests. This is the only way to get appropriate tests for learners.

In conclusion, we must acknowledge that a conclusive definition of intelligence does not exist. In fact, scholars in this field concur that the debate is ongoing through several theories that have emerged over the years. However, when we look at multiple intelligences and psychometric tests, we agree that they differ in manners each theory tries to explain intelligence testing.

However, both sets of theoretical approaches aid in understanding the concept of intelligence and testing. We must also understand the importance of emerging studies in fields of neuroscience and cognitive development. These studies also help people to comprehend intelligence. For instance, we can note the importance of such studies in understanding the g factor, individual differences and the process of problem solving.

On the other hand, multiple intelligence theories tend to demonstrate that intelligences also depend on other factors, such as experiences. In addition, these theories also show that individuals may express their intelligence in forms of behavioral aspects. The theory of multiple intelligences will gain power with emerging empirical evidence to support it. However, the future of this theory lies on evidence from other fields of study, such as neuroscience and genetic, but not on psychometric testing.

The trends of research in the field should prove Gardner’s idea that intelligence has many elements. This theory should also appeal to educators who see learners as unique individuals who have diverse talents and capabilities, weaknesses and strengths. Thus, the theory can support the idea behind learner-centered learning.

The definition of intelligence depends on several factors such as allocation of resources in the education sector. Thus, some of these IQ testing instruments may be biased depending on their origins and purposes. Most governments have advocated individual differences and most of their policies may support such approaches. We should see whether diverse or standard approaches to education IQ testing will yield positive results.

References Baltes, P. B. and Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122- 135.

Benson, E. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing: Psychologists are broadening the concept of intelligence and how to test it. Monitor on Psychology, 34(2), 48.

Brody, N. (2003). Construct validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and reanalysis. Intelligence, 31(4), 319-329.

Deary, I. (2012). Intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 453–482.

Gardner, H. (1998). A multiplicity of intelligences. Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence, 9(4), 19-23.

Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Discussion: On Sternberg’s ‘Reply to Gottfredson’. Intelligence, 31(4), 415-424.

Gottfredson, L. S. (1998). The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific American, 1, 24- 34.

Haier, R., Jung, R., Yeo, R., Head, K. and Alkire, M. (2004). Structural brain variation and general intelligence. NeuroImage, 23 (1), 425-433.

Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor and the Design of Education. Intelligence, Instruction, and Assessment , 1, 1-2.

Jensen, A. R. (2000). The g factor: psychometrics and biology. Novartis Found Symp., 233, 37-47.

Klein, P. (1998). A response to Howard Gardner: Falsifiability, empirical evidence, and pedagogical usefulness in educational psychology. Canadian Journal of Education , 23(1), 103-112.

Lazear, D. (1992). Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation.

Sternberg, R. J. and Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1995). The triarchic model applied to identifying, teaching, and assessing gifted children. Roeper Review, 17(4), 255- 260.

Sternberg, R. J. and Hedlund, J. (2002). Practical intelligence, g, and work psychology. Human Performance, 15(2), 143-160.

Visser, B., Ashton, M. and Vernon, P. (2006). “g and the measurement of Multiple Intelligences: A response to Gardner”. Intelligence 34 (5), 507–510.

Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories. Educational Psychologist , 41(4), 247-255.


E-warehousing (logistics a level english language essay help

The case is an illustration of two ways of taking orders by a hardware; type 1 and type 2. The following is a summary of how these ways of taking orders operate.

Type 1

An order contains one or more products. The online line system identifies product through a unique key. The operator can see the available stock on hand that can be used to satisfy the order. If there is insufficient stock the operator has the opportunity to back order the goods if requested by the store. The operator can also see the expected delivery date for new stock which comes from hardware manufacturing companies.

Type 2

The remote device ordering system is accepted via another system which stores the individual store orders. Every hour the online system interrogates the subsidiary system and transfers complete orders then the online system validates the details on the order. Products are validated for a correct unique key and a decision on back ordering is made depending on the customer preference to have goods out of stock back ordered.

New improvements It is a matter of fact that the warehouse needs to make new improvements to make it perform its function properly. The choices are few considering that the company does not have resources to finance expensive new warehouse system. In addition, the company is consumer centric and has no plan to expand the warehouse physical space. These are the main issues which should be considered while making the new improvements.

Any new improvements made should improve the quality of service the customer receives. The store people need to differentiate between frequently ordered goods from those that are not regularly ordered.

The warehouse could then ensure that the limited space at the warehouse is used majorly to store the frequently ordered goods. This would ensure that the consumer never fails to find such goods in the store. Goods which are not frequently ordered could be kept in manageable amounts so that whenever a customer makes large orders the ware house officials can negotiate for a back date.

In addition, the company could make arrangements with suppliers so that in case of urgent orders, the supplier should be willing to give the warehouse some special treatment like sending goods directly to consumer and then getting the real amount of the goods from the warehouse later after the goods are send to the consumer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This would demand a lot of trust between the ware house and the supplier accompanied with some documentation. This method is effective for both type 1 and 2 ordering methods and would ensure that the warehouse never fails to fulfil urgent orders.

Alternatively, the company could install a similar system of information communication technology with its main customers. Through this, the warehouse person can be able to frequently communicate with these customers and make inquiries about which goods could be needed in the near future and then make arrangements of acquiring them.

The warehouse could also consider making contacts with local suppliers so as to avoid shipments from international suppliers once every two months by sea freights which are costly and time consuming.

In conclusion, the efficiency of the warehouse relies on creating a good relationship with its local suppliers so that it can be able to quickly and adequately respond to urgent orders.


Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction According to Lalley and Gentile (2009), having very clear objectives is one of the important components of the learning process. In this regard, the teacher should have clear goals that serve as the guidelines for the learning process. The goals will help the teacher to be in a position to have an understanding of whether the learning process has been successful or not. It has been postulated that there are three components of the objectives namely- conditions, behavior and criterion.

Conditions refer to the material that the students will either be availed or not availed with when the objective will be assessed. Behavior refers to the activity that will be manifested by the students after the learning process.

Criterion is the standard that is used as a measure to determine whether or not the learning objectives have been accomplished in the learning process. These three components of the objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process, and ensuring that the students grasp the concepts that are taught (Lalley and Gentile, 2009).

Learning Goal 1 In the first goal, the students will be taught how to write the nouns in plural. In this regard, the students will be taught on how to use the suffixes –s and –ies.

Measurable objectives

The objectives of this learning goal will be to equip the learners with the skills that will enable them to recognize the plural forms. Moreover, the learners should also learn how to add the suffix –s to nouns in order to make them plural. At the end of the lesson, the learners should be in a position to read and form plurals that end with the suffix –es.

Additionally, the learners should be able to make a distinction between those nouns that require the use of suffix –s to make them plural, and those that require the use of the suffix –es. For this reason, the learners should know that the nouns that end with ss, x, ch, or sh should end with the suffis –es in their plural forms. On the other hand, those nouns that end in y must change the y to an i and add –es.

Standard addressed

The standard that will be addressed in this session will be the WI DPI Standard (R6). This standard outlines the objectives of the learning process. It can be used as the benchmark against which the learning process is evaluated in order to find out whether the learning process had been successful or not.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This standard set it that the learners must demonstrate the ability to listen, read, view, and the most appropriate thinking strategies and techniques. This goal will be achieved since the students will be in a position to identify words that are in plural form and those that are in singular. This will have an impact in influencing the way that they read these words (Nemec and Bussema, 2010).

Analysis of the learning goals

In this lesson, the learning goal was to teach the students how to read and write nouns in plural. This is critical since it enables the students to communicate effectively. In this regard, the students can make a distinction between the words in plural form and those in singular. This will enable them to accurately communicate their ideas, which is one of the goals of this standard. In addition, this will enable them to distinguish those nouns that use the suffix –es and those that use suffix –s in their plural form.

Learning Goal 2 In the second goal, the learners will be taught how to develop, use, and adapt the language according to the context and purpose. For example, the learners will be in a position to use vocabulary in the right contexts. In this lesson the teacher will make use of flashcards to ensure that the learners gain an understanding of the various vocabularies. The teacher will start with the introduction of the concept of the multi-meaning words. As a result, the students will learn that homophones are words that sound similar but have different meanings.


The learners will be expected to show that they understand the use of words with multiple meanings. Additionally, the learners should learn how to define and identify homographs. In addition, the leaner will be equipped with the necessary skills that will enable them to develop, use, and adapt language in accordance to the context and purpose.

The standard addressed

The goal in this lesson is to enable the learners to select the most appropriate words to use in a variety of settings. This is in line with the standards as outlined in WI DPI Standard (E2). This standard has it that the learners should be equipped with the right skills to enable them to develop, use, and adapt language according to context and purpose. The goal of this learning activity is to ensure that the aims of this standard are achieved.

Analysis of the goal

This goal is very important since the learner will be equipped with the right skills that will enable him to communicate effectively. Failure to select the most appropriate words in a variety of settings will result to a scenario whereby the students might not be in a position to be understood by the recipients of their messages. The learners should be in a position to communicate effectively using the right words and phrases in a way that do not distort the intended meaning.

Learning goal 3 In this goal, the learners will be expected to develop their fluency when communicating using the English language. Consequently, the learners will be in a position to use the right diction, intonation and emphasis when communicating. To ensure that this goal is achieved, the teacher will be expected to facilitate a session whereby all the learners will be given an opportunity to read out aloud. In this case, the learners will be expected to manifest the appropriate intonation, phrasing, expression, and rate.

We will write a custom Essay on Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objectives

The first objective will be to ensure that the learners are fluent while communicating with others. In this regard, the learners should use the correct intonation, emphasis and diction that will help them to communicate effectively. The teacher should stress the importance of reading every word accurately or correctly. Consequently, when the student does not read a word in the right way, the teacher should encourage him to reread in order to clarify the meaning of that sentence. In so doing, the students will improve on their reading skills.

Standard addressed

The standard addressed in this lesson is the WI DPI Standard (R6). The major objective of this standard is fluency. In this regard, the students should be in a position to select and apply the listening, reading, viewing, visual representation, and thinking strategies and techniques. This will enable the students to have the right diction, intonation and emphasis that are required to communicate effectively.

Analysis of the goal

Having the right diction, intonation and emphasis will have the effect of helping the students to communicate effectively. This is because failure to pronounce the words the right way could have the effect of distorting the meaning of the words, and by extension the message that is being communicated. By directing the students to reread the words that they may have mispronounced, the teacher will be impressing on the students to always read and pronounce the words in the right way.

Learning Goal 4 In this goal, the role of the teacher will be to equip the learner with the right skills to enable them to understand the context and the applicability of the text to the contemporary settings.


The students will be expected to be in a position to identify the characters in the story. In addition, the learners will be expected to understand the setting of the story. This will entail understanding the plot of the story, and where possible relate it to the events that are taking places in the current world.

The standard that are addressed

The standards that are addressed in this lesson are highlighted in WI DPI Standard (R4). The major goal of this standard is to promote the comprehension capabilities of the students.

For this reason, the students should be taught how to acquire, organize, analyze, interpret, and evaluate text objectives. This is because there is a very big difference between reading for pleasure and reading for understanding. By understanding, the learners will be in a position to retain much of the information that they come across while reading books (Jiang and Elen, 2011).

Analysis of the goals

Sometimes, the students read books for the purpose of enjoyment and not necessarily to understand the issues that are portrayed therein. However, this lesson will help the learners to have an appreciation of the role of literature in pointing out the issues that take place in the current world. When the student are taught ways of ensuring that they understand fiction, they will be in a position to relate the issues that are highlighted and those that reflect what happens in the contemporary world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Standards, Goals, and Objectives are very critical in enhancing the learning process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To enhance the efficiency of the teaching method used, the teacher will explain the elements of fiction. Students are supposed to learn the themes and setting of the story. Moreover, they are expected to learn the plot and the point of view. By having a better grasp of those concepts, the students will be well equipped to understand the stories that they read, and identify the issues that are portrayed (Jiang and Elen, 2011).

Conclusion It has been postulated that the objectives are very important in the learning process. This is because they help the teacher in defining the learning outcomes. Additionally, objectives ensure that the teachers are focused in their teaching sessions to ensure that the students get the maximum benefits for the learning process.

Additionally, these learning objectives help in clarifying, organizing, and prioritizing the learning process (Jiang and Elen, 2011). The objectives are important in evaluating how well the students have understood the concepts as well as giving them a chance to learn on their own.

Reference List Jiang, L.,


International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism Essay essay help

Introduction Whether the nation state is of any more importance as compared to supranational organisations remains an intriguing question. Ralston Saul, the author of ‘The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World’, as well as Ronkainen Czinkota, Sutton-Brady, and Beal, the authors of ‘International Marketing: Asia Pacific Edition’ come in handy to provide a clear-cut distinction between the two in terms of their importance. Examples of nation states include Japan, Portugal, and Iceland.

On the other hand, supranational organisations involve all the Non-Governmental Organisations, Inter-Governmental Organisations characterised by treaties signed by each member state, collective decision making, and a committee body elected by each member state (Demirpolat, 2009, p.98).

Examples of such organisations are the United Nations, World Bank, Common Wealth, African Union, European Union, and World Health Organisation amongst others. They, too, have their own pros and cons. Though the paper so far is silent in terms of the pertinence of the two, it argues out that the nation state is not as important as supranational organisations.

Why not go for the Nation State Loose of sovereignty

Sovereignty is “the quality of having supreme independent authority over a geographic area such as a territory” (Alenikoff, 2004, p.1997). It is the power of a state to rule and make laws. Arguing against the nation state, Saul criticises the sovereign states like the US referring them to as “confused empires…suffering from negative nationalism” (2005, Chap. 25). The world is constantly changing daily. New forms of technology are being introduced each day in the markets.

This is posing a very great challenge to the nation state, as it has to change constantly with the other people outside its territory. This forces the nation states to join other states to form supranational organisations in order to conduct trade with them. In agreement with Saul, Mukherjee shows the importance of unity among the UN member states.

According to Mukherjee, all the 191 nations who are members of the United Nations had agreed “…to work together towards the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015” (Mukheerjee, 2010, p.593: Alenikoff, 2004, p.1997). They also agreed to work together to fight the challenges faced in the individual states

Internal friction

A nation state can have two different communities in a territory as it is in Rwanda in Africa where there is Hutu and Tutsis communities. In relation to this, Saul relates the nation state to an “Oligarchic giant that squeezes out the less competent or wealthy countries from having an equal role on the world stage” (2005, Chap. 26). Some countries have “different religious groups with different beliefs and practices” (Chatfield, 1989, p.314).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hepburn and McLoughlin, religious or ethno-national cleavage in Northern Ireland that has resulted in violent inter- ethnic conflicts (2011, p.384). Since such groups usually have different number of people, there are minority and majority groups. Majority groups often marginalise the minority culture groups, a situation known as internal friction that Saul addresses as ‘squeezing’.

This can cause conflicts among the people, which can result into internal war. A good example is the genocide that occurred in Rwanda in 1991 leaving over half million people dead. According to the UN reports, the genocide in Rwanda happened when the Hutu started slaughtering the minority Tutsis leaving about 800,000 people dead.

Difficult in migration

In the nation state, the issue of globalism, as Saul says, “…has indeed failed thereby failing people as well” (2005, Chap.26). People in these states do not bother to follow them. Saul addresses this as lack of democracy in the nation state. He says this has “Weakened the nation-state through the idea of inevitable international forces” (Saul, 2005, Cha. 27). This in turn raises the number of illegal migrations, which in turn increases crimes like robbery, rape and drug abuse.

According to the article by Lomsky-Feder, global orientation is a process aiming at reducing migration costs and removing barriers among the states of the world (Lomsky, 2011, p. 593). He further argues that this can only be achieved through international unity. In other countries, to acquire migration documents is very expensive and many people in such countries cannot afford. Migration is discouraged barring “people from moving freely from one country to another” (Chatfield, 1989, p.314).

Conflicts with the opposing groups

Nation states tend to get opposing challenges from the supranational organisations. Not all countries may have all the resources required by a state to live independently. Saul comes with the subject of “Public good” (2005, Cha. 25) as a key goal that the nation state do not uphold. Others need advice and other financial materials. Hence, they have to collaborate with other countries. This forces this state to join international organisations in order to do business and trade with other countries.

Lomsky asserts that ‘global citizen’ competes with more traditional prototype of the ‘national citizen’, which is primarily identified with the nation state system, but the ‘global citizen’ is winning (Lomsky, 2011, p.593). All the nation states are currently getting opposing conflicts from supranational organisations, and it may cause their distinction soon. Nationalism is currently being replaced by supranational organisations!

Soon and soon, each country will have to join the other countries in globalisation. Finally, the whole world will be like one small village maybe with one president. This, as Saul predicts, is the “Free-trade paradise where the inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth” (2005, Chap.28).

We will write a custom Essay on International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vilification of globalism

Those for the idea of globalism have declared nation states as “heading toward irrelevance: that economics, not politics or arms, would determine the course of human events; that growth in international trade would foster prosperous markets that would, in turn abolish poverty and change dictatorships into democracies” (Saul, 2005, Chap. 29).

The world is currently changing. Every person living today will have no choice but to change with it. When one goes to Rome, he/she should behave like Romans. Currently new scientific methods and machines are being invented. Human beings have to adopt those methods for better living conditions. Burgess argues in his journal that European countries are currently accepting changes from nationalism to supranational organisational systems.

This has resulted to the creation of European Union (Burgess, 2011, p.9). He also argues that people “must therefore abandon the forms of the past and enter the path of transformation, both by creating common basic economic conditions and by setting up new authorities accepted by the sovereign nations” (Burgess, 2011, p.14).

Concurring with Saul, he argues that Europe should rediscover the leading role she used to play in the world, which she lost due to division of its states. Globalism and change go together. Globalism is like a policy that places the interests of the entire world above those of individual nations. Nationalism, Saul says, tends to vilify globalism hence making it infamous (2005, Chap. 25). It tends to malign the idea of globalisation.

Increased corruption cases

In the countries, which practice the nation state systems, there is a large number of corruption cases. In fact, Saul criticises the nation states based on their rampant cases of corruption involving money. “You can always tell you’re in deep trouble when people start thinking money’s real” (Saul, 2005, Chap. 23: Bekus, 2010, p.389).

This is the trouble faced by nation states. Having in mind that supranational organisations help to fight corruption, these countries lack pressures from such organisation as the United Nations, which help their members to fight corruption. Wilding argues that, presently, there is increased sense of the global nature of many problems, which can only be dealt by interacting with other states (2009, p.736). He also says that these problems cannot be solved by one nation.

Rather, they require action at higher, transnational or even global level. Problems as increased corruption cases have a negative impact on the lives of their citizens. The minorities live in very poor living conditions while government officials live like kings. Alexander asserts that leaders in nation states have raised the corruption rates while seeking for national dependency (2010, p.868).

Why supranational organisations are Important Economic Importance

Czinkota et al, the authors of ‘International Marketing: Asia Pacific Edition, second Edition’ come in handy in favor of supranational organisations: the stance of the paper. Nations, which have joined hands with other nations to form supranational organisations, get economic benefits. These benefits include trade conducted by the member countries that Czinkota et al (2011, p.23) refers to as ‘international marketing’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Entrepreneurship: Competing models of Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Supranational organisations are international organisations formed by a conjunction of several states. The member countries form intergovernmental organisations, which set rules and regulations by which the trade within these countries should be carried. The cost of the importation of goods is reduced and this in turn boosts the trade between these countries. The international trade has reduced poverty in the member states.

Economic growth is the only result, as Czinkota et al points out based on the increase in the amount of goods and services which are produced by a country, a state, a nation or any economy (2011, p.28). The free trade pact policy in supranational organisations such the UN, the EU and the AU has boosted trade in its members.

Development of member states

Supranational organisations enhance international relations between their member states. In fact, Czinkota et al “focuses on Australian and New Zealand firms looking outwards, principally but not exclusively towards the Asia–Pacific region, as this is the major focus of their international business activities” (2011, p.45). Development can be in many forms. It can be inform of international relations or the physical developments.

Development is a significant event or occurrence that causes change, growth or advancement. It is evolution, progress or expansion in a country or the whole world. Physical development includes urban settings, infrastructure and technology while international relations include intergovernmental friendships or any other relations between two or more states (Hill, 2003, p.56). They also advance common interests of the member countries as well as the common good for the humanity.

They provide financial, technical and humanitarian assistance to the member countries (Czinkota et al, 2011, p.65). This in turn increases the rate of development in such countries. Countries borrow ideas from each other. Ideas of urban planning are passed from one country to another. This is why most urban cities in the world are identical.

These organisations cause development of infrastructure in their member countries. Infrastructure “helps determine the success of manufacturing and agricultural activities. Investments in water, sanitation, energy, housing and transport” (Jan, 2003, p.26), which are parts of infrastructure also improve lives and help to reduce poverty. Information and communication technology that is highly employed in supranational organisations, promote growth; improve delivery of health and other services.

In line with this claim, “European institutions, networks and lobbying organisations have provided an ‘opportunity structure’ for sub-state actors, and European integration has opened up new possibilities to pursue territorial interests that were once ‘closed’ by the expansion of the nation state” (Hepburn,


Organization in the America Red Cross Research Paper best college essay help

Introduction In every organization, the way in which people behave is determined by organizational culture, communication, authority and motivation and other work techniques. A favorable culture is that which makes people feel important. This type of culture should embrace good communication, motivation for workers and good work techniques.

The Culture Embraced At the America Red Cross Organization The culture of an organization can fall under pluralism, dualism or salad bowl. Everyone should be able to adopt their organization’s culture although sometimes it might be hard to assess and understand that culture. As employees interrelate with each other at their place of work every day, their various cultural demonstrations practically begin to disappear and they begin to adopt the organizational culture.

However, how employees behave in terms of workmate relations, enjoyment of work and performance in their duties is shaped by the organizational culture, as stated by Norgren


How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945? Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Throughout history, the world economy has been significantly influenced by financial institutions and rules in the international monetary system, in ensuring financial stability. In particular, these institutions have played major roles, during financial crises, witnessed in recent years.

Even though there are numerous financial institutions, it has been argued that the International Monetary Fund is one of the most influential organs, with immense impact on the world economy (Peet 2009, p. 56). This can be proved by the manner in which it responds during critical financial moments, like during the Global Financial Crisis and the current Euro zone stalemate.

Since its establishment in 1944, at a United Nations conference held in Bretton Woods, IMF has initiated a wide-range of reforms in the global financial market. Importantly, only forty-four governments were represented as they agreed to develop a framework, aimed at enhancing economic cooperation among members.

This move was mainly triggered by devaluation errors, which had resulted into the Great Depression that was witnessed in 1930s (Peet 2009, p. 71). In addition, IMF stepped-up organized exchange arrangement, which was essential in promoting stability among its members. This further sought to eliminate competitive exchange depression, which had dominated the world at the beginning of the 20th century.

Moreover, IMF wanted to eliminate restrictions within the international market, which would hamper expansion of trade around the world. To achieve this, members agreed on the establishment of a multilateral payment structure that streamlined transactions among member states.

It is worth noting that these reforms aimed at stabilizing the international monetary system, which remains crucial in shaping the world economy. These initiatives have also been applauded for promoting economic growth, reduction of poverty and improvement of people’s living standards around the world (Peet 2009, p. 67). Based on ever-changing financial challenges, IMF has considered reviewing its mandate in responding to global financial crises.

This essay focuses on how the role of the International Monetary Fund has changed since its establishment in mid 1940s. More importantly, the analysis will explore some of the factors, which have contributed to the restructuring of the institution, on the basis of the world financial issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this, the paper will also cover the body’s response to recent economic crises, which have had significant implications. Lastly, the essay will discuss the future of IMF, in terms of its functions as it enhances the stability of the international monetary system.

How the role of the IMF has changed since 1945 In understanding the role of the International Monetary Fund since its establishment, a lot of attention has always been put on how its role has continued to evolve. In fact, some people argue that what IMF does today, differs completely from what it used to do immediately after its formation. How has this evolution occurred?

Are there factors, which have contributed to the change of the body’s original roles? These are some of the questions addressed in this segment of the analysis. For better understanding, a chronological performance of the institution will be reviewed, in order to create a link between the past and the current status, of one of the most influential financial organs in the world today.

IMF after Bretton Woods According to the history of the International Monetary Fund, it is believed that Bretton Woods’ agreement, which was signed in the 1945, was abandoned in 1970s. This period was primarily characterized by floating exchange rates, which led to a sharp rise in the exchange rate volatility, leading to a disrupted global financial system (Underhill et al. 2010).

Additionally, the institution appeared to have survived its significance and was unable to contain the bouts of financial volatility which surged frequently. Volatility was highly unpleasant to the market even though it was not easy to realize stable rates.

In addition, there was a high likelihood of reduced pressure due to the high level of uncertainties, and looming inflation that was to escalate as a result of intense devaluations. In this regard, most of the member states were not prepared to cope with uncontrolled floating rates. Nevertheless, developed countries played a major role in coordinating exchange rate policies, even though it was done without involving the IMF and undeveloped countries.

Furthermore, this period saw the International Monetary Fund shift its attention from member states to developing countries. For instance, it terminated the financing of the payment imbalances of developed countries, as its financial support gradually shifted to developing countries (Underhill et al. 2010). To be more specific, the last programs to be financed by the IMF in developed countries were carried out in the United Kingdom and Italy in 1977. This was mainly after the general move by countries to float exchange rates.

We will write a custom Essay on How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unfortunately, the Fund’s shift to support developing countries did not have any impact on its overall view towards the causes and solutions for balance of payment crises, which had dominated the international monetary system. Even after the great crisis, which was witnessed in 1982, and left Mexico, Brazil and other developing countries Bankrupt, the IMF did not initiate any reforms, which would have helped the affected economies to recover easily (Kirshner 1995, p. 34).

The problem persisted until mid 1980s, when the Fund merged efforts with indebted countries to adopt structural reforms. Importantly, there is a new image that emerges by focusing on the adjustment programs, which were negotiated by the Fund in 1990s. In fact, the Fund’s help was mainly based on the structural reforms as opposed to the immediate measures of fiscal restraint.

This was clearly evident in 1997, when the IMF was authorized to take care of East Asian countries; fiscal restraint was temporarily terminated during the implementation of structural reforms (Eichengreen 2008, p. 134). This was the determining condition for the IMF to continue supporting the care-program. The following segment of this analysis discusses the role of the International Monetary Fund in the 90s.

The IMF in the 1990s Unlike the previous period, 1990s was characterized by stable exchange rates among most member states. Despite the fact that floating exchange rates played a major role in defining the relationship between powerful currencies in the world, most countries remained obedient to fixed rates as they struggled to stabilize their exchange rates (Eichengreen 2008, p. 134).

This group comprised of several developing countries, which targeted to use stable exchange rates at the moment to tame inflation or eliminate trade uncertainties that were common for export-oriented economies. This environment of fixed and semi-fixed exchange rates favored the thriving of the International Monetary Fund.

By this time, it was clear that the functions of the IMF had tremendously changed, including its original mission, which had served as a major driving force in early years of its establishment (Eichengreen 2008, p. 172). There was uneven flow of capital in countries, as private capital flows became more dominant compared to public and multilateral flows. Additionally, a conservative anti-government ideology found its way in most Western nations, resulting into massive deregulation of private transactions and numerous privatization initiatives.

Consequently, the views of the IMF with regard to capital controls were treated with a reversal shock. Moreover, the Fund got concerned with not only the efficiency of capital controls, but also their desirability. On the other hand, it paid more attention to the efficacy of domestic financial sectors as it dealt with high volume of resources (Eichengreen 2008, p. 210).

Similarly, the Fund embarked on championing the cause of financial freedom, in order to allow free circulation of capital around the world by eliminating controls and restrictions, which were in place. Additionally, the IMF got interested in improving the financial sector in most developing countries, by allowing them to have access to foreign banks. Furthermore, the Fund went on to interfere with domestic financial policies of its members, through direct support of changes in domestic policies (Dodge


Global Marketing Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help

Introduction According to Yucel et al. (2009), global marketing refers to the international marketing activities of a firm in order to sell its brands in foreign countries (p.95). Nonetheless, in spite of the escalating interest in global marketing, there is insufficient information regarding the optimal global marketing strategy and whether it influences the global market performance of multinational firms (Zou


Saudi Arabian Tourism Proposal essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction The tourism sector plays a significant role in the economic development of any country. Saudi Arabia is a unique tourism destination especially for the Muslim world. This is more so because the country holds the site of pilgrimage for the Muslims, unique Islamic attributes, as well as special traditions (SCTA 2012).

In the recent past, the Saudi Arabian government has made several plans to open up the country to visitors, but in a manner that significantly emphasizes the country’s character, customs as well as traditions. The Saudi Arabian government, the country’s tourism authority, as well as all major stakeholders in the Saudi Arabian tourism industry, have continuously focussed on quality and standards strategy, and action plan to promote the Saudi Arabia’s tourism prospects.

The foundation for a more vibrant Saudi Arabian tourism has been underway for the last decade, and these efforts have recently started bearing fruits. This paper shall review the prospects of Saudi Arabian tourism sector and examine how to make domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia less expensive.

Literature Review By 2008, major plans had been underway for the opening up of Saudi Arabia for both local and foreign visitors. This was through the establishment of quality cultural and historical centre, women-only hotel and spas, as well as leisure and lifestyle resorts in major visitor attraction destinations within the country such as the country’s Red Sea coast.

It is without doubt that Saudi Arabia is one of the largest tourism destination and market in the Middle East, with regard to the number of visitors alone. Being the home to the two most important Muslim holy mosques, Saudi Arabia appeals to many people. According to the Oxford Business Group (2008, p.118), Saudi Arabia had 13.5 million visitors with those performing pilgrimages accounting for 51%.

In the past couple of decades, tourists have visited Saudi Arabia majorly for religious or pilgrimage and cultural reasons. However, those tourists visiting for purely leisure and shopping reasons have remained significantly few (Scott


Global Marketing Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Introduction According to Yucel et al. (2009), global marketing refers to the international marketing activities of a firm in order to sell its brands in foreign countries (p.95). Nonetheless, in spite of the escalating interest in global marketing, there is insufficient information regarding the optimal global marketing strategy and whether it influences the global market performance of multinational firms (Zou


Saudi Arabian Tourism Proposal essay help online free

Introduction The tourism sector plays a significant role in the economic development of any country. Saudi Arabia is a unique tourism destination especially for the Muslim world. This is more so because the country holds the site of pilgrimage for the Muslims, unique Islamic attributes, as well as special traditions (SCTA 2012).

In the recent past, the Saudi Arabian government has made several plans to open up the country to visitors, but in a manner that significantly emphasizes the country’s character, customs as well as traditions. The Saudi Arabian government, the country’s tourism authority, as well as all major stakeholders in the Saudi Arabian tourism industry, have continuously focussed on quality and standards strategy, and action plan to promote the Saudi Arabia’s tourism prospects.

The foundation for a more vibrant Saudi Arabian tourism has been underway for the last decade, and these efforts have recently started bearing fruits. This paper shall review the prospects of Saudi Arabian tourism sector and examine how to make domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia less expensive.

Literature Review By 2008, major plans had been underway for the opening up of Saudi Arabia for both local and foreign visitors. This was through the establishment of quality cultural and historical centre, women-only hotel and spas, as well as leisure and lifestyle resorts in major visitor attraction destinations within the country such as the country’s Red Sea coast.

It is without doubt that Saudi Arabia is one of the largest tourism destination and market in the Middle East, with regard to the number of visitors alone. Being the home to the two most important Muslim holy mosques, Saudi Arabia appeals to many people. According to the Oxford Business Group (2008, p.118), Saudi Arabia had 13.5 million visitors with those performing pilgrimages accounting for 51%.

In the past couple of decades, tourists have visited Saudi Arabia majorly for religious or pilgrimage and cultural reasons. However, those tourists visiting for purely leisure and shopping reasons have remained significantly few (Scott


Venus Inc. Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Problem Identification Venus Inc. is a company located in the United States that deals with medical supplies. Having operated in the United States for 12 years, it hopes to expand its operations across the world. The company has four major departments including sales, marketing, supplying and manufacturing all of which work together to enhance the performance of the organization.

The managing director, Kimberly Johnson, has been the manager of the company for the last seven years and has seen diminished growth of the company in terms of productivity and performance. Indeed, the company has recorded losses for the last three years. This has raised concerns for the stakeholders and Kimberly seeks to reverse the trend by enhancing a positive organizational behavior. Particularly, she has explored various reasons that could have led to the downtrend that the company experiences.

At the outset, she notes that the organization has four incoherent departments. The sales department head, Ryan Kiste has steered his department to growth notwithstanding the poor performance exhibited by other departments. Nonetheless, he has always been at loggerheads with other departmental heads owing to his ability to inspire performance within his department.

During management meeting with Kimberly, the differences among the managers remained apparent, as they have already created divisions among the employees. Kimberly realized that the problem is deep rooted in the organizational behavior of the company. She therefore seeks to see the solutions that the managers would present to respond to the diminishing performance.

It also comes to light that the employees’ motivation has decreased and Ryan pinpoints that lack of a remuneration strategy could have been the major cause of divisions among both employees and managers.

Organizational Level Analysis of Venus Inc Organization Culture

Organizational culture of an organization refers to the prevalent practices are common within departments of a company (McKenna 2000, p. 56). It distinguishes the organization from other organizations and makes it unique. Normally, organizations use their culture as a competitive edge over their rivals. It fosters common beliefs and practices within an organization and cultivates a sense of the belongingness among the employees.

According to McKenna (2000, p. 58), organizational culture is instrumental in ensuring that the practices and beliefs of people remain in line with the organization’s needs and ensures that a company is able to achieve its goals of maximizing on profits and revenues. To that end, all organizational practices and beliefs are synchronized in such a way that they reflect the organizations core values and vision (Black 2003, p. 71).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For Venus Inc., the organizational culture seems to be a major problem. Every department seems to have differentiated practices that have led to a fragmented organization. The beliefs possessed by employees working in Ryan’s department seem to be different from those of other departments.

Therefore, Venus Inc. faces challenges in coming with a uniform organizational culture that guides the employees and ensures that the identity of the organization is upheld. Further, the employees seem to be following the respective departments’ practices and have no shared beliefs, norms and practices that guide their code of conduct. Indeed, it is reasonably hard for Ryan to influence and motivate employees belonging to other departments to achieve their goals.

Hofstede organizational culture demands that all organization’s employees have a shared mentality and assumptions to guide the identity of the organization. This culture entails the ability of the managers to have a mind changing training in which all members get to understand the importance of the organizational culture as a source of belongingness and shared values and beliefs.

It is also noteworthy that informal sub cultures have emerged within the organization. McKenna (2000, p. 83) points out that the managers ought to be wary that subcultures that groups form may be detrimental if they deviate from the goals of the organization.

Organizational structure



Barriers to Creativity and Innovation Essay essay help site:edu

Background of the study Some barriers to innovation and creativity can affect employees considerably. Notably, deprived creativity and inadequate innovation are influencing (negatively) the productivity and expansion of various institutions. Critically, gaining exemplary performance and competitive advantages in business operations requires a high level of innovation.

This is to advance product quality in order to satisfy customer needs adequately. Meeting customer needs entails intelligent understanding of their concerns and designing amicable procedures based on innovative ideals to satisfy the concerned preferences. Indeed, innovation and creativity are fundamental pillars that influence realization of set objectives in diverse institutions.

It is imperative to note that institutions, which perform exemplarily, are driven under innovative and creative ideals. This has contributed in elevating their product quality and service delivery.

Innovation entails the capacity of creating new ventures and production procedures. It sets unique systems of operation that has not been fully exploited to gain competitive advantages. Innovation is achievable through determination and consistent pursuit for knowledge that defines institution’s competitiveness.

As noted, no institution that can leverage its performance without innovation and advancement of products based on creative ideals. Ideally, institutions should develop strong innovative and creative department to drive product growth and eliminate barriers that may hinder commodity development. The department should be operated with determined, intelligent and passionate individuals with requisite capacity of learning new ideals of operation.

They should also be able to carry out detailed research on emerging issues based on quality and the opportunities that are presented by the environment. Organizations that perform better and hold global presence, for example, Toyota Company, develop its products under innovative ideals. The company recognizes that innovation is the key to survival in the current competitive environment.

The company’s management states that innovation is an element that seeks to add value to consumers by delivering products that hold unique but essential features conforming to their specifications. To achieve high standards of innovation, their must be superior communication, training, career development, technology advancement, and performance of research.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Variably, individuals must exhibit positive attitude, perception and eradicate the fear of failure that influences execution of credible concepts (Dhillon, 2009, P, 3). Innovative initiatives are developed through understanding of the current needs and future expectations in terms of product functionality.

Innovators are constantly in pursuit of how well a product can serve its purpose efficiently and effectively. This is guided with available capacity and the needs of consumers. It is clear that innovators are individuals who set realistic, measurable, attainable and specific goals that hold growth orientation.

They are first thinkers (innovators) always keen to provide solutions to complications/problems that might hinder execution of duties in various sectors. Developed nations, for example, US and Japan, are putting more emphasis on innovation as a performance measure. The authorities in the nations asserts that, evident barriers to innovation that includes poor research and lack of resources influences generation of new ideas.

Variably, brainpower, inferior ICT integration, negative attitude, perception and lack of superior communication channels, also hampers production of new commodities and the implementation of new ideas. Proper solution measures should be undertaken to mitigate the complications that hinder innovation.

The nations have developed superior policies with an aim of boosting innovation with the Japanese governing stressing on the kaizen system that presents credible capacities that foster creativity. This study evaluates the barriers that influence innovation and creativity that forms major performance elements in institutions with focus to Toyota and Samsung companies.

Purpose of to study This study strives to unveil how innovation and creativity form credible aspects of employee development. It also shows how some barriers can affect the innovation and creativity among employees. The study is conducted to provide essential and insightful information on the barriers that influence effective innovation and creativity in institutions. It is set to equip policymakers with the imperativeness of enhancing innovation and creativity in corporations.

The study also seeks to relay essential information on the barriers that affect innovation to aid formulation of relevant mitigating mechanism. This is set to ensure that individuals or institutions acquire full knowledge on the relevant steps necessary to improve growth and facilitate production of quality items that conforms to customer specifications.

We will write a custom Essay on Barriers to Creativity and Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rationally, managers should develop a strong performance mechanism that encourages innovation. They should provide pertinent incentives and emphasize on research to advance production of unique products (Griffin