The Concept Of God In World Religions Descriptive Essay Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Introduction

The concept of God in Judaism

The concept of God in Christianity

The concept of God in Islam

Works Cited

Introduction God is the English name conferred to an extraordinary mortal in theism, and deistic faiths and in a number of other faith systems. This singular being is both the one and only divine being in monotheism, or a sole divinity in polytheism. Many people oftentimes regarded God as the ghostly maker, and as the superintendent of the universe.

Theology experts have attributed a multiplicity of characters to the numerous notions of God (Bhattacharya 1). The majorly popular among these consist of having immeasurable knowledge, having limitless power, ability to be everywhere at once, disposition to do good, divine simplicity, and everlasting and indispensable subsistence.

Many religions also envisage God as being immaterial, a special mortal, the starting place of all ethical commitment, and the supreme imaginable existent. Early Jewish, Christian and Islam theology thinkers also backed these qualities of God. The Jewish had Maimonides, Christians had Augustine of Hippo, and the Muslims had Al-Ghazali. A lot of distinguished philosophers of the Middle Ages and those of the modern times have come up with propositions, and oppositions for the subsistence of God.

The concept of God in Judaism In Judaism, the idea of God is firmly monotheistic. God is a supreme being, inseparable, unmatched and he is the utmost source of all creation. Judaism practice is of the idea that the proper facet of God is beyond anyone’s understanding and thus it is inexplicable. Judaists consider the source of creation as the exposed side of God, and they believe that this aspect relates with human beings and the world.

In the practice of Judaism, the sole God of Israel is the God of renowned believers like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He is the leader of the world, set free Israel from bondage in Egypt, and bestowed them the 613 mitzvoth at Mount Sinai. They also regarded him as the one who bestowed the entire human race with the Seven Laws of Noah.

This God of Israel has an appropriate name, written YHWH according to the Judaism Bible. This name means the surviving one. It speaks about God, as He actually is, His exposed essence, which surpasses the entire creation, and it is as well a symbol of His kindness towards the world (“Beliefs and Ideas”1).

In Judaism practice, the other name of this Supreme Being is Elohim, a reference to the interface involving God and creation, as He is clear in the corporeal world. It chooses the fairness of God, and has the meaning of a being that is the entirety of abilities, strengths, and causes in creation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the viewpoint of Maimonides and a number of other Judaism intellectuals, there is actually not much that can be proclaimed about God save for His existence, and even this can just be affirmed ambiguously.

Judaism has a stern monotheism. This canon affirms the faith in a sole inseparable God. The adoration of numerous gods and the idea of a particular God having a number of individuals are as well unthinkable in Judaism. The proclamation to a degree of excellence based on classifying God is the Shema Yisrael, which initially came out in the Hebrew Bible.

God is everlasting according to Judaism. He is also the creator of all that exists and the starting place of integrity. He has the capacity to arbitrate in the world. Thus, the reference God matches up to a real ontological existence, and is not just a projection of the human-being mind.

Because the entire creation originates from God, whose life is not reliant on anything else, a number of Judaists distinguished God as penetrating the entire creation, which itself is a demonstration of His existence. In this manner, the practice of Judaism is comparable to being pantheistic, while forever and a day asserting real monotheism.

The thought of God as a dichotomy or threesome is dissident in Judaism. They actually believe that it is the same as polytheism, the worship of many Gods. God the creator of all is sole. He is not one in a pair or one in an element made up of several aspects.

The concept of God in Christianity In the practice of Christianity, God is the everlasting being that brought about the existence of all creation and cares for it. A majority of those who practice this faith believe that He is among and in everything, whereas others are of the belief that the arrangement of liberation reveal that He will be of this quality afterward.

Many Trinitarian Christian believers are of the idea that God is outside space and time, and as a result everlasting and incapable of alteration by forces existent in the universe (Fowler 1). From the New Testament, only God the Son, Jesus, was in the world at the time of his Ministry and will come back in the Second Coming to accomplish his promises as the Christian deliverer.

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of God in World Religions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More God is normally perceived to have the qualities of saintliness, fairness, having unlimited power, having unlimited knowledge, disposition to do good, present everywhere at once and permanence.

The Christian Holy Scripture does not talk of God in an impersonal manner. In its place, it gives reference to him in personal terms. It says as one who is, who speaks, who sees, etc. It portrays God as one who holds a resolve and persona, and one who is all controlling, heavenly and caring mortal. The bible characterizes him as being mainly concerned with humankind and their deliverance.

Trinitarian Christian believers take God to be God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Spirit. He is a never-ending Godhead of three separate individuals who exists both inside and outside of nature. The majority of Christians take the canon of the trinity as a central part of their devotion. As from the 4th century, both Eastern and Western Christians have held this canon as true. The term trinity does not openly come out in either the Old or New Testament.

However, Trinitarians are of the belief that the idea reflects itself in a number of biblical passages. The most broadly distinguished Biblical establishments for the canon’s expression are in the Gospel of John. Christians therefore strongly protest the idea that the concept of the trinity of God is equivalent to tri-theism. This is the conception of three different gods acting jointly as one. The trinity of conventional Christianity is therefore, a sole God noticeable as three different, but not detached, and equal beings.

Christians mainly refer to God as Father in a plainer manner, in addition to being the maker, and one who cares for all creation and the giver for his children. They also believe that The Father has an everlasting association to his only son, Jesus Christ, which has the implication of a special and cherished acquaintance.

In the conventional interpretation of the Bible, the second being of the trinity, due to his everlasting association to the first person, God as Father, is the Son of God. Christians regard him as the equivalent of the Father and the Holy Ghost. He is entirely God and entirely person.

The son of God comes from his heavenly personality whereas his human nature is from the family tree of David. The center of Jesus’ personal understanding was his filial or genetic awareness, his association to God as kid to parent in some distinctive manner. His task on earth came out to be that of making it possible for people to recognize God as their Father, which Christian believers take as the fundamental nature of everlasting life.

In conventional Christianity, the Holy Spirit is one of the three heavenly entities of the Holy Trinity who constitute the sole substance of God. Christians believe that the third part of the trinity, The Holy Spirit, acts in relation with, and has a common and vital nature with God the Father and God the Son.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of God in World Religions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Christian divinity of the Holy Spirit was the final item of Trinitarian theology to get full investigation and expansion. Because of this, there exists larger theological diversity among Christian understandings of the Holy Spirit as opposed to understandings of the Father and the Son.

The concept of God in Islam In Islam, Allah refers to the special or individual name of the one true God. Muslims believe that there is no other thing, or individual who is equivalent to Allah. This name has no plural or sexual category. This actually brings out its distinctiveness when compared with god.

The two have different names and thus many people consider them as different entities. The word god is at times made plural to read gods and as well womanly to read goddess. This is the foremost indication of the distinctive notion that Muslims bracket together with God (Naik1). To this faith, Allah is the gigantic maker and sustainer of all that is in existence. Muslims therefore liken him to nothing, and nothing is comparable to Him.

Muslims rebuff any act of classifying God in any human type or showing him as being of goodwill to some people or nations on the grounds of affluence, authority, or race. He made people as co-equals. Individuals may differentiate themselves and get his goodwill by way of being virtuous and faithful in him.

The ideas in Christianity mainly that God took a rest on the seventh day of creation, that he had a brawl with one of his soldiers, that he is envious against humanity and that he is in the flesh of any person are all taken to be wicked in the Islam faith.

The only one of its kind usage of Allah as a special reference to God is an indication of the faith’s highlighting on the cleanliness of the trust in God that is the fundamental nature of the communication of all God’s envoys. Because of this, the faith takes any association of any divinity or individual with God as a devilish offense that God will never let off. This is in spite of the teaching that God may forgive all other wrongs.

A Muslim believer is devoted to and is thankful to God for the blessings he has extended. However, being in the know of the reality that his good acts which may be psychological or corporeal, are not near being proportionate with heavenly goodwill, he or she is at all times concerned for the fear that God should chastise him.

The punishment can be here on earth or in future. Therefore, a believer has fear for God, submits to him, and serves him in grand humbleness. An individual cannot be in such a psychological condition minus being more or less all the time heedful of this Supreme Being.

In order to be a Muslim, that is to say, to submit oneself to God, it is essential to accept as true the oneness of God. This is in the idea of him being the only maker, and the belief that he has concern for all creation. However, this belief, referred to as Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah, is not sufficient in itself. Many of the believers thought that the Supreme Being was solely able to accomplish all this. Nevertheless, this was not sufficient to make them Muslims.

To Tawhid ar-rububiyyah, one has to put in Tawhid al-‘uluhiyyah (Naik1). This is to say, a believer recognizes the truth that it is only God who is worthy of worship, and therefore one has to keep away from adoring other things or beings. Following this, the sentiment of thankfulness is so essential that Muslims refer to non-believers as kafirs, which translates to the unthankful.

Works Cited Beliefs and Ideas. “God in Judaism.” 2011. Web.

Bhattacharya, Saurabh. “Concept of God, a Quest for Understanding God.” 2011. Web.

Fowler, James. “Towards a Christian Understanding of God.” 2002. Web.

Naik, Zakir. “Islam 101.” 2011. Web.


Gatsby college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction In the book The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby is the main character and the protagonist who acquires wealth illegally by trading in stolen securities, crime, and illegal distribution of alcohol. According to Fitzgerald, Gatsby is “a mysterious and wealthy thirty-year-old man who holds extravagant parties every Saturday in his Gothic mansion situated in West Egg” (12).

In his turn, Jean Valjean is the title character and protagonist in the book Les Miserables. Jean Valjean comes out as an ex-convict who is struggling with the society’s acceptance after the criminal activities that he had committed before. This paper will compare and contrast the two characters, namely Gatsby in the book The Great Gatsby and Jean Valjean in Les Miserables.

Jay Gatsby


Organizational Change Management Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Job Design Approach

Cross Functional Requirements

Job Enrichment Program

Hertzberg’s Checklist

Ethical Issues and Legal standards


Job Design Approach It is incumbent upon intelligent business executives to strategically align organizational employees to its business strategy. Business organizations which thrive on success have tailored specific jobs for specific employees by tactically integrating efficient job design principles incorporated in functional job requirements reflected on an organization’s innovative strategy.

Success could therefore depend on how the organization’s employees work efficiently and effectively in attaining the organization goals and objectives envisaged in its strategy and vision. This calls upon the organization’s business managers to innovatively set a benchmark for productivity and performance improvement.

Therefore productivity and performance improvements could be witnessed in the organization based on an efficient job design for the relevant departments. Appropriate job design could be the key element in identifying employees with the required abilities and self motivation in propelling the organization to higher levels of productivity and performance based on performance improvement plans and benchmarks.

Job design has the benefit of offering employees the possibility of promotions and future career developments incorporated in the organization’s strategic approach to human resource management.

Cross Functional Requirements Once the job design component is integrated in the organization’s corporate strategy, its mission, vision, goals and objectives will be tailored to reflect the new strategy with clearly defined cross functional requirements. This strategic approach to change management initiatives calls upon the development of plans and programs for tactful implementation of the change initiatives.

These initiatives should sustainably reflect the organization’s corporate responsibilities by incorporating a well defined ethical approach to the proposed business goals. This approach demands a dynamic involvement of employees in initiating change. In addition, the business leaders should identify the fact that human resources form a fundamental component for initiating change.

Therefore, to induce change could rest on the tactical abilities of the business managers to influence the human resources in the company in the pursuit of its mission, goals and objectives. In addition to the job design, a job enrichment scheme should be adapted based on the significance of the jobs and work tasks for departmental employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Job Enrichment Program According to the article, Advancing Employee Productivity (2010), the job enrichment program could motivate de-motivated employees by incorporating among other concepts job identity and job rotation programs, calling upon employee appraisal programs including employee motivation schemes.

Excellent motivation and compensation practices embedded in an organization’s job description and job design should be integrated in an organization’s business culture.

These could help address problems associated with insufficient compensation for the employees of the business organization in question (Human Resources, 2010). Adequate compensation plans coupled with good organizational and individual culture if efficiently utilized could act as a driving force in employee effectiveness in reaching the business organization’s goals and objectives.

Employees should be assigned sufficient work units for the period they are at work, information on work progress should be collected on a regular basis by ensuring good interdepartmental, vertical and lateral communication within the organization. Specific tasks should be assigned those employees with specialized skills, and employees should be made to exercise authority and freedom at the workplace.

This could lead to employee empowerment in decision making regarding specific tasks within the organization. These could result in adequate employee satisfaction and improved productivity.

Hertzberg’s Checklist Another approach to adapt is Hertzberg’s checklist in job design. This checklist incorporates components which include conducting a cost benefit analysis on technical changes and incorporating those with the least costs, analyzing the causes of job dissatisfaction, integrating performance improvement measures, analyzing cost implications in hygiene, and initiating change (Advancing Employee Productivity, 2010).

All members in a business organization should work with concerted effort in initiating and bringing about change. In addition, business managers should be well skilled in change management initiatives to ensure a smooth transition from the old to the new vision.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Change Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Brainstorming employees on the type of changes to be incorporated in the change initiatives inspires and prepares them for culture change. Motivational factors should address each employee and the right mechanisms should be used in motivating them. However, when conducting a job design, employee involvement may be undesirable as bias and other conflicts may be generated. In addition to this, change should be evaluated effectively.

Culture acts as a driving force in individuals. Staffing schedule could be addressed by incorporating the element of culture in the organization’s employees based on individual responsibilities. Individual needs could be incorporated in the scheduling scheme to address employee needs, making the working environment conducive.

Good leadership skills could help the business managers address staffing needs by addressing individual and organizational needs. Good leadership is characterized by honesty and integrity. According to Lindenberger (1999), a good leader must address employee needs in a competent manner by clearly setting goals and objectives and communicating these to the respective employees.

Employee involvement should be incorporated. A forward looking business manager with inspiring qualities, characterized by fair-mindedness and intelligence with straight forward imaginative skills, should steer the organization from its current position which spells doom to a brighter future.

Personal issues such as culture, work description, employee needs and responsibilities, organizational needs, should form key elements in employee scheduling (What are the Skills Needed to be a Good Manager, 2000).

Ethical Issues and Legal standards Ethical issues and legal standards should form fundamental components in managing organizational behavior. Desired standards will be achieved by integrating an ethics program without intruding on individual privacies. This calls upon business managers to identify ethical values and norms in the relevant department and of the organization at large.

Ferrell (2005) identify key components of an organization’s values and norms. These includes the ethical values and beliefs of trade associations, values and norms of competitors, ethical values and norms of environmental groups, values and norms of customer groups, and values and norms of employee groups. Ethical leadership could be fundamental in avoiding ethical disasters. Purposeful leadership should be value based in planning and bringing about organizational change.

Ferrell (2005) assert that personal values play a vital role in decision making in an effort to bring about change. These could guide decisions and policies which could guide change. In addition this could rely on a continuous effort from the business leadership in providing leadership in improving performance on the job in regard to established legal standard.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Change Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, leading change could be a continuous effort embedded in the organization’s culture. This will be based on a strategy that identifies the appropriate job description, appropriate job design, job rotations to enhance productivity, appropriate job staffing techniques, and ethical considerations and legal standards.

References Advancing Employee Productivity. (2010). The Characteristics of a Leader: Demonstrating Good Leadership Skills. Web.

Ferrell, O.C. (2005), “A Framework for Understanding Organizational Ethics,” in Business Ethics: New Challenges for Business Schools and Corporate Leaders, R.A. Peterson and O.C. Ferrell, eds. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 3-17.

Human Resources. (2010). Employee Motivation, Recognition, Rewards, Retention. Web.

Lindenberger, J. (1999). Management and Human Resources. Web.

What are the Skills Needed to be a Good Manager. (2000). Web.


Intellectual property laws Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Intellectual property laws have long been known to serve as market stabilizers. This function is especially achieved by getting rid of the low success rates for upstart companies occasioned by open systems that allow some people to use other individuals’ creations especially for intangible goods like what MoneyGram offers.

Intangible goods are generally viewed as an easy way for earning profits since not much investment is required in terms of physical assets as would be the case in institutions involved in production of tangible goods. Unfortunately, this intangibility has the drawback of it being easy for other people to reproduce the said intellectual creations without any limitations and in the process ‘stealing’ some of the clients from the initial innovators.

In reality, the latter would be losing profits and customers that rightfully belong to them. Intellectual property rules and regulations are thus created to guide and stabilize the market eliminating counterfeits as well as to encourage innovative business ventures. This stability once established in a particular market helps reduce the risk associated with innovation.

As long as rules are in place to protect the respective rights of the creator of a business idea, the more likely are his or her chances of success in the market. In the case of competition, these rules serve to ensure that the competitor does not illegally gain advantage by merely imitating the new product that has been brought into the market.

The Brazilian market has been secured by the introduction of vital measures targeted at ensuring its stability. Corporation laws have over time been improved tremendously with the major aim being the promotion of cooperation among stakeholders as well as safeguarding the interests of minority shareholders.

The Brazilian government has been at the forefront in the creation of suitable environments that encourage innovation of technology based institutions. Stability in such ventures however has been achieved by ensuring that the intellectual property strategies of the companies are well respected. This has been entrenched in the industrial property law that was instituted into the constitution of the country a few years ago.

Developments in the legal systems of the land so the introduction of intellectual property and copyright measures particularly for software. A recent proposal is what is commonly referred to as the Innovation’s Law; a legal measure that is expected to support the transitioning business strategies from paper to the real market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Brazilian federal agency for fostering innovation embodies rules and regulations that guide how intellectual property rights will be used in the securing of contracts. This means that the agency promotes full refunding in case a contract is breached. This is particularly important for companies like MoneyGram which enter into the market without distinct goods to use as guarantees.

While presenting the idea to the relevant state authorities for approval, care will be taken to ensure that a proper valuation of the new intangible assets being introduced into the market. The risks involved while going into the venture should be minimalized to ensure that decent gains are made from the project.

Since Money Gram is already in operation in the country, the idea to introduce a multiple send currency remittance will be received as supportive intangible property to the entire enterprise. The ownership of this introduction will be on a third party basis and this is where the intellectual property laws will come in- to ensure that the innovators receive their due rights especially in terms of gains made from the idea.

Trademark Protection The multiple send currency remittance feature that is set to be included to the Money Gram program is an independent and autonomous feature. It can therefore stand on its own as a subsidiary under the whole company and will therefore need to have identity features unique to it that will be used to distinguish it from other services offered by the company as well as competitors.

A trademark needs to be registered for this service and this will include features such as the name of the service, a special logo created to distinguish the service, colors designated to be used in the logo. All these have to be registered in compliance with rules applicable within the country.

When filing a trademark in Brazil, it is worth noting that the Industrial Property Law 9279/96 gives innovators the right to withhold information on what they intend to do with the trademark; at least until the time of registration (Garland, 1979). This is very important as it will ensure that intellectual property rights are respected by eliminating the situations that could lead to an individual’s idea being used elsewhere without his/her knowledge.

The Brazilian property law also generally ensures that the first person to file the logo gets full rights to use it. However, article 129(1) allows for the individual who has been using a particular logo (or one similar to it) in good faith for a period of at least six months to have first priority (Gadbaw,


The Health Care Sector in Taiwan Research Paper scholarship essay help

The question regarding whether Health care organizations in general are concerned with competitive advantage or are content operating as “Sole sources”, often within niche markets should be of extreme importance given the value that quality service in this sector adds to community as a whole.

It is for this reason that the discussion presented in this paper will attempt to provide information to show that Health care organizations are actively improving service delivery and gaining competitive advantage.

To justify this position, the case of the health care sector in Taiwan after the inception of the National Health Insurance Scheme in 1995. Following the implementation of this scheme there has been marked increase in competitiveness in the health sector in the country.

The population of the country has also become increasingly aware of the importance of quality service and as such there has been an increase in demand for quality services. The policy in place requires that health care coverage follows a plan which sub divides the region into sub regions with an aim to provide equal coverage and improve living standards.

This has led to a scenario where selection of appropriate locations involves the use of sensitivity analysis and analytic hierarchy to decide on the most suitable site for a health care center. Thus, it appears reasonable to justify the stance in favor of health care organizations and efforts to improve competitive advantage (Wu, Lin


Employment Relations college essay help near me

Table of Contents Background Information

Human Resource Management Strategies

Human Resource Objectives and their effectiveness

Issues in Employment Relations and HRM in the Company

Areas of Improvement



Background Information Ingvar Kamprad founded IKEA in 1943 when he was just 17 years old (Aaker, 1992). During its early days, the company was dealing with fledging company fish and the sale of charismas cards. The founder of the company conducted these small operations at his small farm in a remote village in Sweden. To maintain his customers and earn new ones, Ingvar ensured that he delivered the goods to the homes of his customers. This strategy was successful, and later on developed to be the tradition of IKEA (Bian and Moutinho, 2009).

In the process of development, IKEA faced a lot of challenges. This included competition from rivals, sourcing for raw materials and manufacturing firms, entry into new markets and maintenance of high quality of its products and selling them at low prices.

Through hard work, strategic planning and determination, the company was able to overcome these difficulties and now it is one of the leading furniture selling companies in the world. At the present moment, the company is operational in over 35 different countries, has over 285 stores and a workforce of 127,800 individuals (Kotler, 1997).

The vision of IKEA is to create a better everyday life for many people (McGinnis, 2008). To achieve this vision, the company has developed and applied a number of strategies, goals and objectives. Some of these have had short-term effects while others have had long-term effects.

The firm has also a strong corporate structure that has enabled its operations to be smooth. This structure is divided into operations and franchising. Operations mainly deal with the running and management of the stores while franchising deals with marketing and expansion of the firm (Miner, 2007).

To ensure that the operations of the company are effective and efficient, the company has maintained a stable organization structure and culture. The managerial strategy of IKEA is formal, non-hierarchical, and based on a teamwork (Peter et al, 2009). This ensures that all the employees have a duty of care and respect for one another. As a result, employees at IKEA do not have titles or get special privileges.

There is also effective communication among the employees. This ensures that the correct information is passed from one employee or department to another. As a result, the efficiency of operations within the organization is maintained (Gofman and Mets, 2010). IKEA also believes in recruiting young employees who are creative and innovative (Egan, 2000).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This not only reduces expenditure on salaries but also ensures that the company remains the best in terms of creativity and innovation (Jugger, 2009). The future goal of the company is to expand its operations into many more countries. It is projected that IKEA will be opening 20-25 stores annually in the near future (Schein, 2005). This will guarantee the sustainability of the company in the long run.

Human Resource Management Strategies The vision of IKEA has been to provide a better everyday life to many people. To achieve this goal, IKEA has come up with several strategies aimed at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. Having an effective human resource has been one of the key goals of the organization.

This is due to the fact that an effective human resource will ensure that the workforce of the organization is effective and performs its duties as per the expectation of the company. As a result therefore, the employees are able to meet the goals and objectives that have been set by the company hence they are able to satisfy the needs and desires of the consumers through their services.

For the human resource of IKEA to achieve this, its goals and objectives have been designed in a way to be in line with the overall goals and objectives of the organization. Offering a strong leadership, embracing teamwork and building a strong organizational culture have been the main goals of the human resource management of IKEA (Nicolini, 2000).

These form part of the main goals and objectives that the organization wants to achieve in order to realize its vision. Therefore, IKEA greatly depends on its human resource department to achieve its short-term and long-term goals and objectives (Stone, 2008).

Human Resource Objectives and their effectiveness The first objective of the human resource management of IKEA is to develop a strong organizational culture. Organizational structure is a framework that an organization uses to run its operations (Wether and Chandler, 2006). It entails the ways and means through which an organization arranges its authority lines, communication, roles, duties and responsibilities of individuals and departments, and how all these components are incorporated into a single unit.

To achieve this, the organization has adopted and applied a decentralized leadership model through its human resource department. With this model, the employees at all levels of the organization are involved in the daily running of the firm. They are always asked to offer their opinions and their views are always respected. In addition, they are also involved in the decision making process. This not only motivates them, but it also enables them to work in an effective and efficient manner (Hannagnan, 2007).

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Adapting Business to the New Consumer Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction As technologies change, so does the consumer needs and preferences. This raises the need for businesses to ‘change with the times’ in order to retain their customers, attract new ones and remain competitive. The hospitality industry is one among the many industries that are faced with changing demands from the consumer on a daily basis.

Unfortunately, the same industry seems to be quite slow in regards to adopting the use of new technologies for purposes of marketing its products and providing services to the consumer. This report thus seeks to provide insight into some of the ways that businesses in the hospitality industry can adapt to the changing needs of the new consumer.

The report then recommends some of the viable actions that business owners and managers in the sector can adopt for purposes of ensuring that they are at par with the new consumers.

Understanding the new consumer A business can only adapt to the new consumer if it indeed understands who the consumer is, and what his needs and desires are. As such Williams (2002) argues that businesses should be able to explore the new consumer behaviour in order to devise hospitality approaches that will serve the consumer satisfactorily.

Further, understanding consumer behaviour allows players in the hospitality industry to develop marketing strategies that will effectively market the products and services in the postmodern consumer market.

The use of technology and other modern approaches by the consumer has changed the traditional consumption approaches which assumed that a consumer analyzes products or services objectively or rationally before deciding whether to purchase them or not.

In its place, hyper reality, globalization, communication technologies, symbolism and ritual-focused perspectives are the aspects that determine consumer behaviour (Williams, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The hospitality consumer is defined as the user of hospitality services, which include restaurants, clubs, hotels and bars (Williams, 2002). Generally, the hospitality industry provides the consumer with food, drinks and accommodation when he or she is away from home. But why is it referred to as an industry?

Well, according to Evans (2000), its mere expanse, and the practical needs presented by organizations therein, seeking commercial success means that hospitality players, their activities and the money generating capacity can be grouped as an industry.

For the industry to be successful amid the changing consumer needs and preferences however requires managers, regulators, policymakers and other stakeholders to acquire knowledge regarding the issues that face the contemporary hospitality industry. Notably, the stakeholders must be ready to use managerial interventions in functional business areas such as human resources, marketing, finance, accounting, strategic management and operations management (Evans, 2009).


One of the key factors that have affected the hospitality industry is identified by Buhalis


Luther: man between God and the Devil Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The dying scene

Liberal thinking

Reformist, teacher, doctor or preacher?

The reformation

Luther’s Death


Works Cited

Introduction The preface to Luther by Heiko A. Oberman gives the reader a sneak preview of what to expect while reading the book. In his opening sentence however, Oberman warns the reader that discovering Luther is something that cannot fit within the confine of scholarship exposition. To understand Luther however, Oberman notes that people must be ready to leave behind their views about the world and life.

This is because Luther’s world was different from what the contemporary man knows; the church had so much power that it was equated to heaven, while the emperor’s represented the “powers of heaven” (xix).

Reading through the book, one gets the impression that Oberman shares in the religious and spiritual issues that he documents about Luther having gone through. He relates the Luther experiences and discoveries both in terms of emotional and physical struggles as the same as what people in the contemporary society face.

In the preface, one gets the impression that Oberman does not give religion or the state of the society as much weight as a factor that affected Luther’s life. This is made clear by the phrase, “It is not the Catholic, protestant or modern Luther we are looking for…” (xix).

He however acknowledges that “we” will encounter religions and society’s state in the course of reading the book. The use of “we” in preface gives the reader the impression that he/she is not alone in discovering Luther. Oberman makes himself part of the journey too.

The dying scene The main body of Oberman’s books starts with the dying scene where Luther is being attended by the “Reverend father”. It was February 18, 1546 when Luther Died. Before his death, Luther went through some final testing where witnesses were summoned by his friend Justus Jonas just to confirm that Luther had “died steadfast in Christ and the doctrines that he had preached” (3).

Oberman notes that Luther had always prayed that he would always be able to resist the devil to the very end believing that resisting Satan, who is branded as the ultimate and bitterest enemy to human kind would be his ultimate liberation from the tyranny posed by sin. Oberman also notes that Luther believed that a trust in God convinced him that the agony that he suffered in his life would be nothing more than brief blow upon his death (3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Liberal thinking Oberman further succeeds in portraying Luther as a person who had his own way of thinking. As indicated in the book, the author narrates that Luther adjusted his time with benchmarks rather than tolerance, enlightenment, modernity or progress to determine time. In order to understand Luther therefore, Oberman suggests that “we” need to read Luther’s history with a non-conventional perspective (12).

Luther’s influence on the politics of the day seems to have been known to him more than anyone else. In one scene for example, Oberman states that Luther knew he posed a risk to the policy in Saxony. Since he did not want to break the sovereign’s freedoms that would be contained in political actions, he made the Saxony’s elector an attractive proposal that if accepted would have seen him leave the land (22).

In a bid to stop Luther from leaving, the elector summoned him and promised to take a neutral position, while granting Luther the academic freedoms necessary to discuss scriptural questions with his students without any hindrances.

Yet, Luther’s affair with the law was not always smooth. In 1520 for example, Pope Leo announced a conditional excommunication to Luther based on his works, which the pope defined as “heretical, offensive and false” (Oberman 22). The pope however gave Luther 60 days to submit a response.

Luther however could do nothing like that and finally in 1521, the Pope signed the excommunication letter, hoping that it had finally settled the troubles that arose from Luther. Luther’s supporters argued that the excommunication was motivated by the fact that the church could not stand reformation, yet a time for the same in the church was long overdue (Oberman 24).

Reformist, teacher, doctor or preacher? Oberman’s book further notes that Luther’s influence on reformation would have ended sooner were it not for the death of Emperor Maximilian I in 1519. Before the death of the emperor, the Elector Cajetan in Saxon had done a lot to protect Luther.

However, his protection of Luther stood no chance of surviving a final decision by the Papacy in Rome. Luckily however, the death of the emperor created a political upheaval in succession, which for a fair amount of time shifted attention from the Luther question.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Luther: man between God and the Devil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The controversy between the Germans and the Papacy regarding Luther was clear as one end held that no one could be placed under a ban without being accorded a suitable hearing, while the other side maintained that Luther was under an automatic ban due to his incorrigible and notorious heretics (Oberman 36).

While the Papal attracted critics, Oberman portrays Luther as having gained more public support especially from his writings which criticized how cases were “nipped in the bud” when they were tried in the imperial, papal or local courts (36).

Having argued that no one deserved being banned without being given fair hearing, the Germans succeeded in convincing the Papacy to grant Luther a hearing. In 1521 therefore, Luther appeared before the Bishop’s court sought to find the reality about the accusations of heretics placed on Luther.

During the hearing, Oberman portrays Luther as a tactical and knowledgeable person who refused to answer non-specific questions. Asked whether he recognized the books written in his name as his own work, Luther sought to have the books mentioned individually (38).

According to Oberman, the mentioning of the books served to dispense the notion that Luther was a “stupid monk” to anyone in the court room who may have held that idea. Asked whether he could recant, Luther requested the court to give him time to think. On his return the following day, his answer was an indirect one.

He said that his books were neither polemical nor sharp. He stated that his writing addressed the Christian faith and life as directed by the gospel. To this end, he stated that not even the opponents would find anything objectionable in the books.

About the books that addressed the Papacy, Luther told the court that he had addressed how the papal office had ruined the church, weighed the human conscience down and oppressed the empire. He therefore argued that he could not renounce anything he had written in his books because by doing so, he would be encouraging tyranny.

By recounting this episode, Oberman portrays Luther as a person who stood steadfast with what he believed in regardless of whether he had the support from others or not.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Luther: man between God and the Devil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a documented recounting of the proceeding that took place in the hearing, Luther is portrayed as a watchful person who not only realized that the hearing was not intended to gather information, but rather to accept the anticipated recantation by Luther or uphold the ban.

Since the hearing was made of Germans, Luther argued that instead of acting independently, the Germans had acted childishly, allowing themselves to be fooled by the Romans.

Oberman observes that though Luther’s evaluation of how the interrogation was conducted was indeed valid, he (Luther) was wrong about the Germans acting childishly. Oberman argues that no where in western Christendom would people find it politically viable to protect a seemingly rebellious monk against extradition from Rome.

More so, obtaining a public hearing like what the Germans did for Luther who was perceived by Rome as a notorious heretic was also unusual. According to Oberman therefore, the same Germans who Luther has termed “follies” had kept his issue alive in such a long time such that the ban imposed by Rome was stifled (Oberman 40).

Oberman’s book gives a clear picture of Luther’s attack on Rome and the papacy and gives the reader the actions that made Luther such a bitter person against the actions of Rome. At some point in the book, Luther is quoted saying that every person in Rome had gone crazy and “…had become inane fools and the devils” (Oberman 43).

His reason for such strong wording about Romans was the fact that they had accepted the information passed by the church in Rome in that time, which Luther referred to as lies, which were being passed on as truths.

According to Luther, Rome was the devil’s gateway to the church, yet, Christ sought representation through people who were willing to work, preach, suffer and die. Instead however, the office of the Pope which was supposed to act as the servant of Christ leading the way for the church followers had become the “ruler of rulers” (Oberman 43).

Reading this book however, one not only identifies the character of Luther, but also Oberman’s character as well. For instance, by making the devil a central agenda in his biography of Luther, one gets the impression that Oberman shared the convictions that Luther had about good and evil. One also gets the impression that not only does Oberman find the justification for a faith in Christianity, but he also finds “a new belief in the devil” (104).

Surprisingly, Luther and Oberman are from different centuries. Luther was from the middle ages, while Oberman just wrote the book in the 19th century. Yet Oberman’s writing succeeds in portraying the devil not as a medieval residue, but an astonishingly modern reality. Oberman specifically portrays Luther’s role giving the reader a new understanding of Satan’s role in a person’s life.

Through Luther’s believes and discoveries regarding Satan, Oberman gives the reader a few insights about how Satan allegedly operates. For example, as opposed to what many people may think; holiness and sanctity does not necessarily mean that the devil is absent.

According to Luther, acts of Christianity which include preaching the gospels, people gathering to hear God’s word and other things that Christians do in order to strengthen their faiths provoke Satan to attack Christians even more.

Luther also notes that in an attempt to ‘mislead’ Christians, the devil ties people down to religiosity. To this, Oberman adds that one is entangle in self devout analysis. He thus concluded that the ideals of divinization, perfection and holiness are Satan’s way of misleading the Christian faithful. Unlike a person who seeks Christ because he or she is “filthy and sinful”, Oberman notes that those who think they are divine, perfect or holy do not see the need to do so.

Oberman is also successful in drawing a distinction between modern Protestantism and what Luther believed. Most notably, Oberman documents the high regard that Luther had for the sacraments. Despite his protests against the act of the Catholic Church and the papacy, Luther is quoted as having said “I am undeserving, but I rely on the faith of the church- or of another believer.

Whatever my situation, O Lord, I must be obedient to your church, which bids me to go to communion. If I bring you nothing else, at least I bring you this Obedience” (Oberman 242). Further distinction between modern Protestantism and what Luther believed is portrayed by Oberman as his demand that Christians go to confession at least once annually.

To this, Luther stated that instead of people approaching the sacraments with fear and humility, they should have faith and be confident when taking part in the sacraments. Through abandoning humility and fear and embracing faith and confidence, Luther argued that people would stop seeking worthiness, since no one could be worthy before God.

Luther’s stand about the sacrament did not go unchallenged. Oberman notes that the Swiss for example questioned the profit that people got from assuming that Christ’s flesh was represented in the Holy Communion, while Christ himself had dismissed the flesh as having no profit. Further the Swiss questioned Luther how obedience can replace insufficient faith. With no clear answers from Luther regarding these questions, the Swiss branded Luther a neo-papist and a captive of the middle ages (Oberman 242).

As a reformist, Oberman portrays Luther as a person who attracted more foes in high ranking positions than was prudent to do at that day and age. For example, he challenged the supremacy of the papacy and the mandate given to councils.

Though he acknowledged that the pope deserved respect as the bishop of Rome, while the papacy deserved being held in high regard especially because it was an institution created by agreeing people, he said that neither the pope nor the papacy deserved to serve as the standard of obedience. Instead, the Gospel should be used as the measure of obedience (Oberman 246).

Oberman once again portrays Luther as a person who had a firm believe in himself and the things he did. For example, while his friends tried to dissuade him from publicly questioning the authority that the pope and the papacy office had on Christianity, Luther rendered an account based of St. Peter who the pope is modeled after. To this, he said that though Peter had a prime and honorary position among other apostles, his position did not give him any legal supremacy or authority to “make, send, govern or ordain other apostles” (Oberman 247).

Oberman also portrays Luther as a man who believed that the institutions in the church should have been formed under the guidance of the Gospel. This he suggested should have been the case if people adhered to the gospel adequately instead of depending on heresy.

According to Oberman, Luther insisted that the unwavering theology of the cross of Christ could not support either catholic-subjectivism or the protestant individualism. Rather, true theology would further unity in Christianity regardless of the denominations and would thus succeed in letting people know the need to heed God’s commandments.

A reoccurring image of Luther throughout the book is that of unwavering and often fearless man. One gets the impression that Luther knew the possible implications of his words and actions but still chose to criticize or point out the evils that bedeviled the society mainly because the church then refused to play its rightful role and instead chose to engage in power games and governance.

In 1519 for example when his ties with Rome were still intact, Oberman observes that Luther said that the church “was an accumulation if schisms” (249). When the church in Rome finally excommunicated him, he burned the canon law and the bull of the pope to show his rapprochement. This was seen by some as the final act of revolt that Luther had started in 1517.

Oberman notes that attempts by those opposed to Luther’s action to brand him a Hussite failed. Hussites had previously waged war against the Catholic Church and labeling Luther as one would no doubt would have cost him some support. Luther is however portrayed as a person who would have cared less about the labels that his opponents gave him.

Luther is also portrayed as a person who attached meaning to his dreams. In Oberman’s account, it is stated that Luther had Utopian and devilish dreams, which he quickly recognized as traps set by Satan. In his interpretation, Satan conjured up images of purity for people and then encouraged them to understand the evil contained in their words, actions or thoughts (64-66).

The reformation Oberman starts the chapter on reformation breakthrough by creating the Luther that people would have expected to see. Having become a doctor of theology, Oberman states that Luther was now in the same ranks as some stupid monks who spent their time arguing about nothing in specific.

The monks perceived themselves as guardians of the proper doctrine and piety, yet, they were barely able to “count their own toes” (151). Oberman therefore portrays Luther as a truth seeker therefore contradicts public expectation of what the learned theologians of his time were used to doing.

Oberman credits the reformist ideas of Luther to the fact that he (Luther) encouraged people not only to agree to the idea that God is just, but rather seek him with their entire beings, which included their thoughts and actions; bodies and souls; and suffering and love. Oberman also observes that the search for salvation as championed by Luther suggested that all people; whether educated or not could engage in the same exercise.

Still, Oberman portrays Luther who did not allow his understanding of theology to alter his perspective or raise his voice to critique the medieval theologians who were regarded as authorities at that point in history.

Central to the reformist ideas of Luther as noted by Oberman was Vicar General Staupitz. The latter is credited by Luther for “first of all being my father in this doctrine, and having given birth [to me] in Christ” (Oberman 152). Having introduced Luther into the doctrine, Oberman’s book indicates that Staupitz gave him a longing to seek the reality of the principles therein from the scripture.

Still, not everything in the scriptures made perfect sense to Luther. More specifically, Oberman quotes Romans 1:17, as a scripture written by the St. Paul as an obstacle that Luther struggled with. The scripture reads: “For therein [in the gospel] is the righteousness of God revealed” (Oberman 152).

During his study of the scriptures however, Luther appear to have come as one thing as the absolute truth; that God’s righteousness is the eternal law through which all men and women will be judged on doomsday.

According to Oberman, the righteousness of God is not distributed to humankind like talents; rather, it put men who are willing to abide by God’s teaching in a position where they can attain righteousness. Luther’s discovery about God righteousness however suggests that it is united with Christ’s righteousness, further confirming that Jesus Christ and God the father are one.

According to Oberman, Luther’s ability to think originally gave him the reformist qualities. More so, he was willing to test the discoveries he made while studying the scriptures against the prevailing laws used by the church.

Luther’s discovert about the righteousness of God was unheard of during his time. He used it to discredit the doctrine of good works as championed by the church and to human action; he discredits the reward and merit ideals which were at the time the main motivators for human action (156).

According to Oberman, tribulations and struggles make the true life of a theologian as opposed to speculation or philosophizing. Notably however, Luther’s experiences as a reformist reduce the fears, hopes, successes and struggles to two stages: 1) a desperate monk; and 2) the self-confident reformer.

Oberman however notes that Luther astounds scholars because his works seems to have taken some form of systemic research, from which drew conclusions and finally delved into the world of reform. Accordingly, Luther’s reformist ideas were drawn from lesson from St. Augustine and St. Paul. After seeking a deep understanding of the scripture, he indulged in conflict with the pontifical church through logical accusations and arguments.

Luther’s reformist role is not only covered by Oberman alone. Other writers like Levi et al (259-284) have included Luther among the reformers who contributed schismatic solutions towards the renaissance and reformation.

Luther’s Death Oberman gives the reader the impression that Luther’s death was not only waited by Luther himself, but his adversaries too. Most notably was Johannes Cochlaeus who first wrote about Luther. Unlike Oberman however, Cochlaeus did not have any kind words for Luther. He instead denounced him as the devil’s spawn that is portrayed in the Bible as the seven-headed dragon.

What no one could not establish beyond Luther’s death however was whether his soul was taken by the devil or whether God rewarded it by taking it to everlasting happiness as Luther all along wished for in his life.

Their books takes special note of the role that the reformist idea played in Germany at a time when Rome had taken the reigns of power in Europe through the office of the papacy and the pope as the power figure. In this book however, one gets the idea that Luther’s ideas only set ablaze the feelings about Rome that had simmering in Europe and especially Germany.

In an effort to solve the mystery of who between God and the Devil took Luther’s soul, Oberman’s book (3) gives an account of how simple believers and people in the academic world sought to establish the truth. The not-so-informed believers simply imagined that whoever was fast would snatch Luther’s soul first.

The academic scholars on the other hand argued that a descent into hell could be easily diagnosed medically. According to their argument, Luther’s death would have been abrupt if the devil took his soul because, “the devil [would have] snipped the thread of life…, thus leaving the church unable to render its last assistance” (Oberman 3). As such, they argued that Luther’s slow death meant that he had commended his soul into the hands of God.

Initially, Oberman (4) succeeds in portraying Luther as a patient, understanding and cheerful man who understood the reality of death in such a way that many men would have difficulties doing.

More specifically, he describes how Luther knowing his death was imminent chose to spend his last days in his birth place in Eisleben where he mediated a protracted battle between two brothers. Weeks before his death, Luther is portrayed as a patient man who despite his despise for lawyers, spent hours sitting between the two parties trying to mediate them.

Oberman also succeeds in portraying Luther as a man who had the nerve to accept that the inevitable death was eventually going to catch up with him. He even seems to have made fun of the fact that in death, he “would lie down in [his] coffin and give the worms a fat doctor to feast to on.”(5).

Oberman also portray Luther as a man who had a firm believes in life after death although he did not state it as a fact. Rather, he said that “it was very likely” that people’s spirits in heaven would be renewed. He however stated that it was also likely that man’s spirit and body would remain undetached for people who would end up in hell (5).

How closely Luther’s friends associated him with a man of God is evident when the news were first broken to his friend Melanchthon. Struggling for control and struggling to get the right words to break the news about Luther’s death to his students, Melanchthon used a phrase used to describe Prophet Elijah’s death. He told his students that the “charioteer of Israel has fallen” (Oberman 6).

Having been the personality behind the evangelical movement and the reformation, Luther left a gap that had no immediate successor. To this end, Oberman manages to bring out the difference in tact between Prophet Elijah and Luther. Unlike Elija who had picked Elisha to be his successor, Luther had refrained from such a thing believing that the Gospel would be strong enough to charge its own way (Oberman 7). Unfortunately, not every one shared in the Pope’s opinion.

Conclusion Overall, reading about Luther gives one the impression that he was an argumentative, single-minded person, who hard an enormous amount of self confidence and believe. This characteristic mainly comes across because he did not waiver even when he faced opposition for his writings or spoken word. Being branded a heretic meant that he could face death by fire.

Yet, even with controversies regarding his 95 theses raging, he could not renounce any of his written works or apologize for the same (Cep 5). He strongly believed that he had written the right thing and that apologizing for pinpointing the evils in the society would only lead to more tyranny.

His writings and actions however led to his excommunication from the Catholic Church by Pope Leo and since Luther knew he could not reform the church from outside, he began the process of building a new church (Cep 14). This marked the beginning of the protestant church, which was based on the concepts of freedom and liberty.

According to Oberman, Luther never referred himself as the reformer; rather, he used the titles professor, preacher or doctor because he believed his role in Christendom was proclaiming the good works which were necessary for the survival of the real religion on the threatened world. Yet, Luther did not fail to have a fair share of shortcomings.

Oberman notes that Luther, the ex-monk at some tome adopted the role of a new layman who was eager for the joys and pleasures that come with secular jobs. According to Brady, the new form of apocalypticism and worldliness that overtook Luther at some point meant that he became an alien to reformation (41).

The progressive reformation that was as a result of Luther’s actions was far from his initial intention. Reading through Oberman’s account of Luther, it is clear that though Luther imagined a world where the devil was forever pursuing God’s children, he adopted a sober view of Christianity and hence adopted a reformist role.

Works Cited Brady, Thomas. The work of Heiko A. Oberman: papers from the symposium on his seventieth birthday. PA Netherlands: Brill Publishers, 2003. Print

Cep, Casey. “The ecstasy is real”. The Harvard Book Review. Dec. 2008. Web.

Levi, et al. Renaissance and Reformation: The Intellectual Genesis. New Haven, CT: Yale University press, 2004. Print.

Oberman, Heiko. Luther: man between God and the Devil. California: The Doubleday Religious Publishing Group, 1992. Print.


Organizational studies and human resource management Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Successful business organizations rely on the ability of its employees to work efficiently and effectively in attaining organization goals and objectives. Key vital components for business managers to count and thrive on success include well organized leadership skilled in conflict resolution, best business practices, and excellent leadership style.

Good leadership is characterized by active listening, excellent communication abilities, and the ability to regularly hold meetings with company employees. Excellent motivation and compensation practices embedded in an organization’s job description and job design should be integrated in an organization’s business culture.

These could help address problems associated with insufficient compensation for the flight attendants of the business organization in question (Human Resources, 2010). Adequate compensation plans coupled with good organizational and individual culture when efficiently utilized could act as a driving force in employee effectiveness in reaching the business organization’s goals.

A well tailored job design incorporated in the business organization could be an effective organizational tool in addressing employee needs in addition to meeting organizational goals and objectives. This calls upon good leadership in the identified case study to evaluate the flight attendants current jobs and carry out job enlargement schemes for the underutilized employees to achieve organizational efficiency (Advancing Employee Productivity, 2010).

According to the article Advancing Employee Productivity (2010), the job enrichment program could motivate de-motivated employees. Employees should be assigned sufficient work units for the period they are at work, information on work progress should be collected on a regular basis, specific tasks should be assigned those employees with specialized skills, and employees should be made to exercise authority and freedom in the workplace. These could result in adequate employee satisfaction.

Another approach the management could adapt is Hertzberg’s checklist in job design. The components incorporated in the checklists include conducting a cost benefit analysis on technical changes and incorporating those with the least costs, analyzing the causes of job dissatisfaction, integrating performance improvement measures, analyzing the cost implications in hygiene, and initiating change (Advancing Employee Productivity, 2010).

All members in a business organization should work with concerted effort in initiating and bringing about change. In addition, business managers should be well skilled in change management initiatives to ensure a smooth transition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brainstorming employees on the type of changes to be incorporated in the change initiatives inspires and prepares them for culture change. Motivational factors should address each employee and the right mechanisms should be used in motivating them. However, when conducting a job design, employee involvement may be undesirable as bias and other conflicts may be generated. In addition to this, change should be evaluated effectively.

Culture acts as a driving force in individuals. Staffing schedule could be addressed by incorporating the element of culture in the organization’s employees based on individual responsibilities. Individual needs could be incorporated in the scheduling scheme to address employee needs, making the working environment conducive.

Good leadership skills could help the business managers address inefficiencies experienced in staffing by addressing individual and organizational needs. Good leadership is characterized by honesty and integrity. According to Lindenberger (1999), a good leader must address employee needs in a competent manner by clearly setting goals and objectives and communicating these to the respective employees.

Employee involvement should be incorporated. A forward looking business manager with inspiring qualities, characterized by fair-mindedness and intelligence with straight forward imaginative skills, should steer the organization from its current position which spells doom to a brighter future.

Personal issues such as culture, the type of work, employee needs and responsibilities, organizational needs, should form key elements in employee scheduling (What are the Skills Needed to be a Good Manager, 2000).

References Advancing Employee Productivity. (2010). The Characteristics of a Leader: Demonstrating Good Leadership Skills. Web.

Human Resources. (2010). Employee Motivation, Recognition, Rewards, Retention. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational studies and human resource management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lindenberger, J. (1999). Management and Human Resources. Web.

What are the Skills Needed to be a Good Manager. (2000). Web.


Wrestling with Ethics Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help

Nowadays marketers play a significant role in the development of people society, since these are marketers who “search for unmet needs, encourage the development of products and services addressing these needs”, and due to their efforts we now have so comfortable, helpful, beautiful and delicious goods (Kotler, 2004, p.35).

But sometimes people in their chase for comfort or pleasure want things that can be extremely harmful for others and even themselves, so here a dilemma for marketers emerges: should they or they should not develop and promote goods, which can constitute a threat for consumers or the society on the whole.

To my mind, it is highly important to make goods work for people, but not make harm to them. It is clear that the major aim of the companies is gaining profit and one of the main ways to reach this goal is to satisfy consumers’ needs, and at present even to foresee these needs and provide consumers with what they want even before they want it (Gorchels, 2006, p. 5).

But, I believe, that successful firms can and should choose among customers’ need and develop only those goods and services which are really needed for society development and can never be harmful. And big companies already understand that and try to develop new safe goods. For instance, PepsiCo has made a decision “to shift its flagship brand to Diet Pepsi, rather than regular Pepsi” (Gorchels, 2006, p.17).

This became a result of growing problem of obesity and “aging Baby Boomers” which “have impacted sales” (Gorchels, 2006, p.17). Of course, this only reduces negative impact of Pepsi, and makes it a bit healthier, but it is not enough. In my opinion, they should continue researching to find the way to maintain the taste, for this is what consumers like, and replace the harmful ingredients with healthy ones or, ideally, with useful ingredients which will contribute into human body development.

Moreover, our technology can make all this come true. But more immediate results can bring the method of “increasing “sin” taxes” (Kotler, 2004, p.33). And this can be very effective, since, first of all, people will have to pay more for their doubtful pleasure, so they will think more whether they need to harm their health (and social programs make people aware of all that harm) and pay even more, and, finally they can come to a conclusion to get involved into sports and healthy hobbies.

The second outcome of this method is that the government gets more money that can be used for social programs to prevent people from using such harmful goods, or for development of medicine and promotion of healthy way of life. But I’d like to add that, though Kotler mentions charity donations of big companies, for example McDonalds, (2004, p. 32), it is obvious that it is not the way out.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is impossible and really cynic to believe that such big company’s mischief will vanish after its giving some money to a hospital or orphanage. But instead Kotler (2004) gives the possible way out even for McDonalds suggesting them to provide more healthy food and very its menu, enriching it with different salads, etc. (p. 32).

Thus, it is necessary to promote social responsibilities within big or even international enterprises with the help of government and consumers’ education. But, to my mind, it is necessary to pay more attention to education even from the kindergarten to grow responsible people who will understand the importance of providing necessary and socially friendly goods.

Reference Gorchels, L. (2006). The Product manager’s handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Kotler, Philip. (2004). Marketers Wrestle With Ethical Questions: Is Marketing Ethics an Oxymoron?. Marketing Management. 13(6), 30-35.


Accreditation policies and their effects on the Canadian economy Term Paper custom essay help

Abstract The main aim of this paper will is to evaluate the impacts of the policies implemented during the accreditation of immigrants in Canada so as to ascertain whether they are effective and their overall impact on the Canadian economy. In the course of the years, the number of immigrated who have been granted entry into Canada has been on the increase at an alarming rate necessitating the coming up with control measures to monitor and manage this numbers.

The immigration policies in Canada is seen to be complex at the very least especially to the public who are at a loss explaining why Canada is being flooded by foreigners each year. This paper shall therefore examine the major features of the Canadian immigration policies by categorizing these policies according to their goals and implementation period throughout the Canadian history line.

In addition to this, the paper shall analyze the extent to which these policies and regulations have been successful in achieving their goals and objectives and a cost benefit analysis shall be carried out to examine whether they are of benefit to the social and economic realms in Canada.

The issues that may arise from immigration shall also be addressed and critically analyzed in a bid to answer the question; Do policies of accreditation of immigrants in Canada effect the economy? The research done will assist in establishing the extent to which these policies are beneficial to the overall socio-economic welfare of the Canadian government and most important of all its citizens.

Introduction Immigration refers to the movement of people from one geo-political region to another mostly in search of a better livelihood. In the context of human beings, this may range from better job opportunities and standards of living to political stability. However, immigration is a complex matter with various factors coming into play.

In almost all country there are rules and regulations set in place to monitor this movement and avoid over population and other diverse impacts to the host country. As such, nations have through the decades come up with policies that dictate who should be allowed into the country, for what purpose and for how long they should stay.

If unchecked, immigration has been known to cause serious series of problems and policies have to be implemented to prevent these devastating issues from occurring (Wallis and Kwok, 2008). This paper argues that the immigration policies in Canada are beneficial to the county’s economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To reinforce this assertion, this paper shall set out to provide an insight into how the policies of accreditation of immigrants in Canada affect the country’s economy. A brief history of the same shall be given and the effects, advantages and disadvantages highlighted.

History of the Canadian immigration policies A report by Alan Green (1996) documents that the first immigration act was written in 1869 during what is referred to as the first period (1870-1913). This act was part of the national policies which were implemented to support three major issues which were: the building of the intercontinental railways, protection of the industrial sector of Canada and helping of people settle in the west.

At this stage, such acts were made through the council’s select committee without any intervention from the cabinet. Later on in 1910, this act was amended and gave the cabinet control over all immigration related issues such as composition and the level of immigrants that were allowed into the country.

The goals of this act were mainly to protect and secure farmers, women and farm workers. It managed to achieve this because in time, the population growth rate increased, the native tribes in Canada were pleased with the act and best of all it was at par with the national policies that were set.

However, there arose some complications in the regulatory process in that some people suffered deeply due to this act. For example, business men and those who owned land enjoyed the opportunities that came with while the laborers especially the unskilled risked losing their work. In addition to this, the government promised to recruit immigrants from specific (traditional) countries but instead sourced from other countries.

This act had immense economic gain due to increased skill labor, and a high inflow of human capital which not only increased productivity but also maximized on the economies of scale and consequently increased the overall GDP of Canada (Harris, 1999). However social effects of the same were not as appealing; many unskilled workers were faced with unemployment and racism due to cultural diversity was on the rise.

To help deal with the issues in the act, some revisions to the act were made in 1919. A literacy test was introduced and mandated to all potential immigrants, the government put itself in charge of dictating the number of immigrants that were allowed in within a given period of time and also as part of the requirements, all immigrants were supposed to have valid documents such as passports and visas depending on where they came from.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Accreditation policies and their effects on the Canadian economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Green (1996) further asserts that the government also selected the countries from which the immigrants came from and introduced the field for “nationality” in the custom papers so as to enable the identification of the immigrant’s home country.

However, this did not factor in the boom and recession periods and in 1918, the government established the Employment Service Council whose main purpose was to regulate the number of immigrants that came in during high unemployment periods and vice versa in the Canadian economy.

These revisions ensured that the number of skilled labor in Canada was high; racism was minimized as most of the immigrants were from the United States and Britain (whites).

In addition to this, the established council effectively checked on the unemployment levels thereby maintaining good standards of living for the people and maintained levels of output from the economic sectors. In short, the amended act covered both the social and economic welfares in Canada.

Over the years, more amendments have been made to regulate the levels of immigrations. For example, admitting people according to the different needs in the various sectors, allowing people with promising potential to development such as agriculturalists, investors and those who can come in handy while facilitating international trade and businesses.

Currently, the Canadian government is using an act which contains the following regulations: the immigration levels must be contained at 1%, management of refugees is handled separately and has its own separate goals and resources, equality is maintained even if it means not reaching the speculated target, the educational levels and language (English or French) proficiency has been increased in point value of between 16 and 20 points.

In addition to this, a program has been established to identify all sectors that are low on labor and emphasis is put on the economic aspects of immigration so that the immigrants do not become social burdens to the government and the general public.

Effects of the policies to the economy Research strongly indicates that the accreditation of skilled immigrants does not necessarily improve the economic standing of the host country. An article by Schellenberg and Boyd (2008) theorizes that as is with all countries, many immigrants find it difficult to get employment in their areas of expertise when they go to other countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Accreditation policies and their effects on the Canadian economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because most immigrants lack the general knowledge of the host country and are unfamiliar with the structure of the labor markets in both the local and national levels.

In addition to this, problems such as language barriers, lack of well established social networks which may assist them during the job search, Canadian work experience which is important to the employers and most important of all most of them lack certificates licensed through Canadian professional associations.

As such, while the accreditation policies recruit persons in relation to their potential economic contributions to the Canadian society, such barriers may limit their ability to fully utilize their skills and as a result, they end up being under employed or even undergoing the re- accreditation process so as to meet the Canadian standards.

This process consumes time and money that could have otherwise been relocated to other beneficial use. This whole issue ironically leads to increased unemployment levels as the immigrants join in the existing pool of the unemployed as a result of the aforementioned issues. This reflects negatively on a country’s GDP and economic growth.

On the same note, Boyd (2008) concedes that age and qualifications from Canadian educational institutions take precedence over other equally important attributes during the employment process. According to the 2001 census statistics, the number of foreign doctors and engineers working in their area of expertise was very low.

It was noted that this was due to the fact that the number of vacancies offered to qualified non-Canadians in this sector is very limited and the process taken to get licensed in Canada for these fields is often hard and differs in every institution.

Economic advantages of accreditation policies to Canada The immigration and refugee protection act (IRPA) is among the implemented policies from which Canada has benefited the most. The act is responsible for regulating the number of immigrants allowed into Canada. The immigrant entity is crucial to both the social and economical well-being of the Canadian economy.

Without it the economy would fall into total chaos and the population would not grow leading to low GDP and productivity (Alboim, 2009). The act provides the immigration authorities with the ability to select and protect the needed human resource with relations to their skills (educational and professional) and absorb them into the various sectors that are in need of such.

Consequently, this assists in filling the gaps in the labor markets and improves on unity between the different cultures. Such unity is a crucial occurrence in our world which is progressively becoming more globalized. On the same note, within the IRPA are policies which facilitate the categorization of immigrants in accordance to their various abilities and reason of entry.

One such policy is the economic class which regulates the inflow of immigrants especially the skilled ones. This category of immigrants presents the host country with investment opportunities, better innovations, trade opportunities and a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the different cultures.

According to Cornelius (2004), immigrants come with extra economic benefits to the host country. He suggests that a larger population means a larger domestic market and an equally large economy which in turn leads to better standards of living and an increase in wealth accumulation.

Immigrants increase consumer demand of the local products thereby leading to higher production and if they come in as investors, they help in creating employment avenues and opportunities to the local labor markets.

The technological transfer which comes as a result of the same may help improve the productivity of the local industries. In addition to this, immigrants offer stiff competition to local employees and companies therefore forcing them to improve on their performances and as a result, more quality goods are produced with high efficiency rates. However in every good thing there must be some flaws.

Economic disadvantages of accreditation policies to Canada Immigration has over the years led to undesirable results in many host countries and Canada is no exception. Racism has been on the increase as a result of ethnic and cultural diversity that comes with the immigrants. In Canada, ethnic discrimination is high especially when it comes to the employment process. In addition to this, immigration has been seen as a source of deterred progress when it comes to salaries and wages.

According to Kazemipur (2005), immigration is believed to lower the wage rates in all economic sectors. This is attributed to the fact that most of them are either not fully qualified for the jobs or even to the fact that most of them are desperate to get jobs irrespective of the pay. To put more emphasis on this, immigrants who are under-employed produce less than their potential capacity.

This on the other hand has serious psychological, social and economical impacts such as low standards of living, increase in violence and crime, and stress disorders which collectively reflects negatively on the GDP levels of the host nation.

Additionally, immigration if unchecked leads to over population. This has been known to yield undesirable results in the past. As a result, the host country may be faced with such vices as increased unemployment due to job shortages in the labor markets, inflation as a result of increased demand and low supply, scarcity of resources due to overexploitation by the growing number of industries, and worse of all environmental degradation due to pollution and search for expansionary land.

In Canada, it has contributed highly to the income inequality gap among the people and also to the uneven distribution of industries and resources across the nation (Beach, 2003).

Analysis of the immigration policies in Canada Since the first immigration act, the policies made always aimed at safeguarding three main aspects; the growth of the economy, reunification of families and humanitarian efforts as regarding to aid given to refugees (Alboim, 2009). However, there are some policies that questioned Canada’s efforts towards achieving these goals.

For example, the 1885 Chinese immigration act was established specifically to discourage Chinese immigrants from venturing into Canada. This was done by imposing a 50$ head tax to all incoming Chinese immigrants especially after the conclusion of the Canadian pacific railway project.

This act was purely based on racial profiling as were other immigration policies implemented back then such as the 1919 immigration act through which the Canadian authorities carefully selected the countries from which its immigrants originated from. The list excluded Asian and African countries but included US, Australia and European countries (Dyzenhaus and Moran, 2005).

Over time, as the need for immigrants increased, so did the need for reforms to the various accreditation policies being used. The 2002 IRPA has so far been the policy that yielded the best results as a result of the reform and amendments efforts displayed by the Canadian authority in relation to the accreditation of immigrants.

In terms of economics, this act dictates that immigrants be recruited mainly on basis of their ability to positively contribute to the national economy. As such, the government has actively introduced new policies and regulations to further tap the benefits that come from immigrations.

However, the impacts that these policies exert are worrying to say the least especially when we factor in the lack of debate characterized when formulating them. Evidently, little to no consideration seem to be given when implementing these new policies especially in regards to their long term impacts to the immigration system and consequently, the Canadian economy at large.

Also, through the e federal skilled workers program, the government has been able to identify immigrants who have high economic potentials and as such hasten their accreditation (2-4 months) process and even less time to those immigrants who have secured job opportunities in the various sectors (economic class).

On the same note, the sponsorship policy implemented in 1996 by the Canadian immigration Centre (CIC) has helped most of the incoming immigrants cope with the changes facing them and as a result assist them in settling in much faster than before (Briskin and Eliasson, 1999).

The amendments and accreditation policies mentioned above are very noble but they dismiss the fact that most qualified immigrants may require re-accreditation to fully conform to the Canadian standards. Also, these regulations assume the fact that most of them lack established social networks which may be useful during the job search process.

In this global community, people are finding it easier to work from wherever they want and such restrictions only eliminate one choice; Canada. In the long-run, this may have hard economic impacts as fewer people apply for work in Canada which may result to a labor deficit and reduction in the population levels which acts as a major indicator of economic growth.

Zaman (2006), states that the current policies have been designed in such a way that the immigrants are grouped according to their purpose and length of stay in Canada. This also is a great initiative as it helps monitor and regulate the number of immigrants that are present in a particular category within a given period of time.

However, it cumulatively leads to the marginalization of women who through this process are always very few (25% in the skilled category). This therefore paints a bad picture of Canada especially in terms of fighting discrimination and promoting equality.

In addition to this, the government recently removed all the restrictions that governed the criteria used and the number of immigrants that were allowed in a given province. As such, the duty to carry out these decisions was left to the province.

While an overview of this government undertaking may be seen to be benevolent to the immigrants, a closer look reveals that it may lead to problems in the future because each province has the ability to get as many people as it deems fit without any restrictions.

During the low labor demand periods this may lead to a countrywide unemployment wave which would have inconceivable socio-economical effects to the country as a result of inflated unemployment levels. Civil unrest would almost inevitably follow leading to further economic and social disaster.

Edmonston (1996) iterates that the point based system of evaluating immigrants is to some extent disadvantageous to the Canadian labor market. In some cases, employers sometimes need temporary low skilled workers to help balance the levels of production to the demand especially during the boom periods. However, the educational points are too high for low skilled people to actually manage to migrate to Canada.

In addition to this, too much time is used in processing the required papers and this ends up frustrating both the employers and employees not to mention the huge losses incurred in economical terms. Despite all these flaws, there are some policies that have actually helped in the quick recruitment and settlement of immigrants.

For example the transition to permanent residence was in the past a hectic process and in some cases unsuccessful. This was because the Canadian government stipulation that all immigrants were expected to go back to their countries and apply from there.

This was very discouraging especially to those immigrants who had established social niches and realized stability within Canada, or those whose nations had stringent policies against brain drain or even red tape in such issues.

This imparted huge losses on the Canadian labor market. The government therefore formed the Canadian Experience Class where specialized immigrants like students and temporary but skilled workers would apply from within Canada for permanent residency.

On the same note, the government has also established a program that links immigrants to potential employers thus saving them the hustle of manually looking for work. Additionally, another program has been created which helps in the retraining and settlement of skilled immigrants in Canada.

These programs have come a long way in solving the major issues that affected the immigrants once they were accepted in Canada. Consequently they make the process of job searching by immigrants relatively easy and also help them in adapting to the advantages and disadvantages that come with moving to a new geographic location.

Also, the government has over the years formulated laws and policies that safeguard immigrants and other people from sexual, racial, age, cultural and ethnical discrimination. This has in turn provided the minorities with equal opportunities in the labor market, in status and in the distribution and allocation of resources thereby creating a sense of unity and integration between the locals and foreigners that exist within the Canadian geographical boundaries.

The Canadian government has always set its immigration policies in such a way that they encourage the selection of citizens rather than workers. This move has given Canada an added advantage because not only does it support Canada’s population base but it also increases the number of people in the working class age limit thereby improving on productivity and economic growth.

This is as opposed to many other western countries whose primary basis for granting immigrant status is the economic viability.

Recommendations As is with most industrialized nation, Canada is facing a serious problem in maintaining its local population base. This is because the reproduction rates are low in comparison to the desired fertility rate. Statistics indicate that by the year 2030, Canada will rely 100%on immigration to cover the population deficit that will ensue.

It is common knowledge that without a working-age population, even the jobs that require low skills shall be vacant. As such, more emphasis should be put in improving the current immigration policies so that they encourage more immigrants to come to Canada.

On the same note, the number of immigrants coming to Canada is reducing due to the intense competition for skilled labor in the global contexts. Also, countries like china and India from which most immigrants came from have over the years developed rapidly thus creating more job opportunities for their own people. Canada can therefore apply the following recommendations in its accreditation policies in order to compete favorably for these skilled laborers:

The Canadian government should try and formulate vision that is shared by the whole nation through public debate and dialogue. As earlier mentioned, the Canadian government has over the decade made immigration policies without a care for the public’s opinion. As a result, many of these policies have been ineffective because of the constant challenges that are imposed by the various social groups.

Having a dialogue will therefore resolve the key issues that may hinder the success of such policies and at the same time, come up with effective and more realistic policies. In so doing, Canada will realize balance between the economic sectors, households and also within the various categories that they have set for immigrants leading to gradual positive economic growth.

The government should also prioritize the skilled workers program because it is the only program that allows them to recruit future citizens in regards to their potential economic contributions. This policy is very important to the Canadian nation especially if we consider the long term ramifications of a low working-population.

In addition to this, the immigrants in this category have over the years proven that they posses the ability to quickly adapt to the Canadian environment as a result of their educational qualifications and fluency in the desired languages. To effectively do this, the government should allocate adequate resources to the departments that process these candidates in order to eliminate the delays experienced during the recruitment process.

Another recommendation would be the amendment of the Federal Skilled Workers Program so that it can meet the exact needs of the labor market. The proposed revisions should evolve around the point based system of assessment.

For example increasing points given to young applicants within the working age, people who have family connections in Canada, creating mandatory language tests for all the immigrants that come from countries that do not speak French or English and at least fast track the applications of those that have received job offers within Canada.

Also additional points should be awarded to those immigrants who intend to work in sectors that are experiencing labor shortages. These amendments will encourage more people to apply for the recruitment and at the same time pinpoint the skills that are required by the various sectors while avoiding entrance of those that have undesirable traits (Knowles, 2007).

According to a Maytree publication, Canada should also work towards the elimination of the Low skill Pilot Project (2009). This was an initiative that was introduced by the federal government in a bid to allow in temporary low skilled workers into Canada. However, this has been a basis for exploitation and abuse especially for the women who are at this category.

If something is not done soon, the program may end up being part of a bigger problem as human rights launch investigations to clarify this. If the total elimination is not a possibility, then they can formulate another program similar to the Live-In Caregiver Program which has a mechanism that facilitates the transition to leaving in Canada permanently.

To assist in doing this, employers should endeavor to advertise these low skill jobs to the citizens and immigrants that are within Canada. This will reduce exploitation because as a result of permanency, they have a right to these jobs and are protected by laws against any form of discrimination or exploitation.

As is the case with all countries that imports skilled labor, these immigrants upon arrive and after the accreditation become the responsibility of the federal government. Therefore, the government should ensure that they provide ample support and directions to all the provinces that hosts immigrants so that they can be able to effectively monitor and help these immigrants quickly settle in their selected environment.

In addition to this, they should ensure that the working conditions are favorable and equal among the locals and foreigners. If this is done, Canada will reap off a lot in terms of both economic and social benefits because the immigrants will continue flowing in due to such incentives and also fully utilize their potential in their areas of expertise with ease and freedom of both body and mind.

The key to successful marketing lies in the techniques used to inform the public about the product in question. Canada has been engaged in “marketing” ventures over the years but more needs to be done on the international scene if Canada is to compete fairly with other nations for the skilled labor.

For this to work, the Canadian government should start expanding their coverage areas to include more countries and also to provide more overseas services in those countries so that they can reduce time wasting and prepare the immigrants from their safe zone. So far, the government has been offering information about the qualifications, the job opportunities and other requirements.

This is not enough and as Omidvar (2006) suggests, the government should also incorporate services such as beginning the assessment program from the immigrant’s home country, or employment recruitment from the same.

This services if provided will encourage more people to apply because it minimizes the complications that arise when the same is done on Canadian soils. For example, Lack of enough money or lack of a accommodation for a prospective immigrant as he/she seeks for work or even applies for recruitment have been know to be major contentious issues for most people.

Finally, the government needs to create accreditation policies that cater for potential investors separately from other immigrants. They should ensure efficiency in time management while clearing potential investors. Also, they should dedicate the available resources to investments that will yield positive results to the Canadian society and economy.

This is important because these investments will protect the immigrants from total poverty all the while creating opportunities for them and the country to grow (Magill, 1997). This can be done by reducing tariffs to those investments that have high potentials of thriving in Canada and those that have high demand of foreign human capital.

Conclusion The immigration phenomena is common place in most developed countries and while it may be seen as beneficial, dire consequences may follow if it is not controlled in some manner by the use of effective policies. This paper set out to argue that the Canadian accreditation policies are mostly beneficial to the country both socially and economically.

From this paper, a brief history of the Canadian accreditation policies have been offered to father assist in envisioning where Canada has come from. The advantages and disadvantages of economic immigration have been provided and an analysis of the current policies given.

It is evident from the discussions presented in this paper that Canada needs some reforms on its present policies. As a result, favorable recommendations have been made as to how best Canada can capitalize on the opportunities that are associated with immigration.

Today, Canada’s need for immigrants remains as strong as ever. This is mostly as a factor of the aging population and the low fertility rates which are prevalent among most Canadian’s.

So as to safeguard the country’s future as one of the world’s power strongholds, the government should implement policies that will encourage immigration into Canada. This will ensure that the country continues to enjoy the economic benefits that spring from this sector thus securing Canada’s future.

References Alboim, N.


Contrast of Youth Employment Methods between American and other countries Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online

The Youth Employment and Demonstrations Projects Act (YEDPA) was enacted in 1977 by the federal government of the United States to control the high levels of unemployment and related issues that affected American youth.

Federal funding earmarked for youth employment programs was from then on vastly augmented to cater for the needs of the youth. Though it was later ended in 1981, YEDPA provided a blueprint for the current youth employment methods (Gillespie, 2007).

The first method is the Occupational Skills Training Programs which are essentially aimed at imparting to the youth skills that are pertinent in particular occupations. Such programs include the Job Corps and Youth Initiatives in Apprenticeship which are aimed at training youths that are not attending school.

Labor Market Preparation Programs are also a method used for youth employment and the programs provide information on occupational opportunities and requirements, work habit and attitude, ability and interest testing as well as job search techniques (Sloman, 2004).

In addition, the programs offer direct work experience together with orientation to the working environment. The programs are also responsible for remedial basic education skills training together with General Equivalency Diploma (GED) preparation.

Temporary Job Programs are also used to provide youth employment by providing transitory sponsored employment (Gillespie, 2007). These programs are similar to Job Placement Programs which on the other hand offer the youth direct assistance in finding and securing employment.

In addition to providing job referrals the Job Placement Programs also offer supplementary services such as workshops on preparing resumes, instruction on appropriate behavior during a job interview and support groups for job seekers. Programs such as Job Factory and Job Track are included in this category and are essentially employment procurers for the youth (Sloman, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Various countries have built youth centers that are aimed at monitoring and controlling the rate of youth unemployment. Depending on the country and the nature of the programs, centers can be limited to neighborhoods or can also be targeting a particular group with similar age, gender or race.

Some of the centers have a regional or national reach depending on the funding and the impact they have on the youth. European countries for instance conducted a joint evaluation of the youth employment situation through the European Commission (Gillespie, 2007).

Projects such as the Youth in Action Program are designed to educate the youth about business and financial management as well as open up opportunities for self employment. Youth-Pass is also joint European programs which is aimed at providing informal education for the youth as well as provide job opportunities in the informal sector such as in farms (Sloman, 2004).

African countries have also taken issue with the rising rate of youth employment and various projects have been initiated since the late twentieth century to create youth employment. Most African governments have a Youth Fund which is basically a specific sum of money set aside in the annual budget to specifically create employment for the youth (Gary, 1994).

The youth in Africa are especially encouraged to procure informal jobs such as mechanic, construction and farming due to the low academic diversity perpetuated by the high educational fees in most African countries (Gillespie, 2007). It is for this reason that most African countries have reduced or completely eliminated the fees charges in order to crate more opportunities for future youth.

Asian countries have also experienced the same problem but countries such as china, South Korea and India have taken up the task of conducting higher education reforms in order to empower the graduating youth (Sloman, 2004).

Youth Employment Methods of the USA are basically more advanced and diverse when compared with Youth Employment Methods in other countries. Youth employment programs in the USA are numerous per given area than most countries since different projects can be found in a single area.

We will write a custom Assessment on Contrast of Youth Employment Methods between American and other countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance a neighborhood could have a local youth employment project, while other different programs may exist at the district, regional, state and national level. American youth employment projects also cover a broad cross-section of the young adult’s life. Some projects specialize in employment education, other projects deal with preparation of the youth for employment while other projects help the youth in acquiring employment (Sloman, 2004).

An American youth can therefore advance faster while compare to the youth of another country since there are projects at every level from finishing school to attaining employment. The major problem in employment at a domestic level is scarcity of jobs where there are numerous qualified individuals but few or no job opportunities.

This leads to a high rate of unemployment which conversely translates to higher crime rate (Sloman, 2004). Academic qualification is also a domestic and international problem in employment where few individuals have the necessary academic prerequisites for a given job (Gillespie, 2007). This leads to importation of labor or outsourcing which leads to indirect draining of the affected economy.

Youth also have the tendency to associate informal jobs with lower social status or poverty and hence few youth engage in informal jobs such as farming, mechanics, construction and embroidery unless as a hobby or family business. This creates a void in the affected industry and consequently deterioration in the net income of the industry (Sloman, 2004).

References Gary, F. (1994). The Unemployment Effects of Minimum Wages. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 74-81.

Gillespie, A., (2007). Foundations of Economics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sloman, J., (2004). Economics. London: Penguin.


President Obama’s National Export Initiative Term Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


The strategy

US exports: An overview

Major factors affecting US exports

Why exports?

Mission impossible?



Introduction The World Bank defines globalization as “the growing interdependence of countries resulting from increasing integration of trade, people and ideas in one global market place” (The World Bank, 2001 p. 66). Accordingly, participating countries are able to access foreign markets more freely, thus enabling them to produce goods and services not only from their domestic markets but also the foreign markets.

The World Bank (2001) argues that globalization offers consumers more product or service choices since they can choose from a wide variety or imported or domestically produced products. Manufacturers on the other hand learn the art of efficient production especially for purposes of beating international competitors.

The national export initiative proposed by President Obama is meant to boost export trade by a double margin in a five year period and is also expected to create approximately 2 million jobs in two years. The sectors that the president and his team of advisors target to make this initiative a reality are renewable energy, biotechnology, health care and environmental good/services.

In relation to globalization, it is evident that president Obama was intending to create a channel through which the US can benefit more from globalization and international trade (Radush


Since everyone was contradicting themselves left and right in the last discussion, we need to do this one again… Perhaps there was ambiguity in my questions, but nonetheless, this is an important di college application essay help

.. Perhaps there was ambiguity in my questions, but nonetheless, this is an important dilemma for Locke and we’re going to get it right.There once was a boy who stole from a neighbor. Much later, this boy grew into an old man that now has ZERO shared memories with that boy. John Locke would say that the boy and the old man are not the same person because “person” means “recognizing one’s self over time”, which is impossible to do without shared memories. We even use phrases like “he’s not himself anymore” when referring to why people with Alzheimer’s act so differently than we have grown to expect of the person.Do you need to recognize yourself over time to be the same person? If not, what makes the same person the same over time?Again, please comment with your own original post, then reply to two classmates.


Setting an Agenda for Social Justice Essay (Article) college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Major Thesis

Article Summary

Reflection and Personal Evaluation/conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Written by Mark Brundrett and Rachel Anderson de Cuevas in the journal of Management in Education, and published in 2007, this article is titled Setting an Agenda for Social Justice through Leadership Development. According to Wilkinson (2007), Brundrett is a professor of Educational Research in the Faculty of Education, Community, and Leisure and the head of the Centre for Research and Evaluation, in the Liverpool John Moores University.

On the other side, Rachael de Cuevas is a PhD student in the School of Tropical Medicine in the Liverpool John Moores University (Theobald, 2010). Professor Brundrett started as a primary school teacher before progressing to middle and secondary school teaching and finally becoming a professor in the Liverpool John Moores University.

He holds masters degree in education, and arts, bachelors degree in arts, and a doctorate degree in philosophy and education. His research has been mainly on education where he has authored and co-authored 12 books and numerous scholarly journals. Moreover, he is a board member of many advisory boards of different international journals.

Major Thesis This paper addresses two main issues; one, the implicit nature of commitment in leadership development programs which until recently, has been practiced in the United Kingdom to enhance social justice through management of school system. Secondly, this article argues that recent legislations in education have fostered crucial reforms that would facilitate active involvement of school leaders in promoting social justice whilst in training.

Article Summary The United Kingdom has undergone increased funding in leadership development evidenced by formation of the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) and upsurge in national programs of leadership development. Nevertheless, these reforms came only after the election of a government mandated to advance social justice in 1997, that is, the New Labor administration.

Hitherto, there was no elaborate system to incorporate leadership development in schools but this has changed with the creation of NCSL, which deals with improving leadership training in schools to align with the increased regulatory and accountability clause in the 1988 Education Act.

The NCSL was established to “ensure that our current and future school leaders develop the skills, the capability, and capacity to lead and transform the school education system into the best in the world” (Brundrett


The War of 1812 Essay a level english language essay help

The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the provinces of the British North America, especially the Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island and Bermuda. It took place between 1812 and 1815 and was staged mainly at the Atlantic Ocean and the waters along the Northern Americas.

There are many immediate causes that led United States to declare the war. It all began in 1807 when Britain came up with trade restrictions to hinder the United States from trading with France, which was a strong rival of the Britain. The United States argued that according to the International laws of trade it was wrong to impose the restrictions.

Apart from that, the British military had assisted the American Indians to attack American settlers in the Northwest further worsening their failing relations. The Indians attacks prevented the U.S. from expanding towards the Northwest Territories, which is currently occupied by states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. The British argued that the aim of the U.S. was to annex some parts of Canada (Pearson, 254).

Another cause of the War of 1812 was the fruitless attempt of the United States to exploit its irredentist and imperialistic interests and uphold its honors as they considered the Britain challenge to be insult. This war led to massive loss of lives and property but neither of the irredentists lost their territories.

The war ended with signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which created the “status quo ante bellum” assuring the rivals to retain their territories. Unites States and the British North America later came up with the Treaty of 1818, which adjusted borders. The British North America considered the War of 1812 as a success as they defended their territory and it instilled confidence and the militia myth, which led to nationalism among the Canadians.

The Battle of York was staged on 27th April 1813, at York, which is nowadays known as Toronto. During the War of 1812, an American unit backed by a navy flotilla docked on the Lake Ontario shore near the West, fought the defensive British unit and captured the city and its dock.

The victory of the mission was blemished by acts of plunder and stealing done out by the American units on the British supply chain, which later justified the Burning of Washington by the British units.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Battle of Stoney Creek was staged in 6th June 1813 at the time of the War of 1812 in what is nowadays known as Stoney Creek, Ontario. The Americans had victoriously fought the Battle of Fort George, which made the British armies to attack the American camps during the night. The British emerged victors in the war due to the capture of two senior officials of the American unit and the overconfidence of the Americans over the British (Pearson, 310).

The Battle of Beaver Dams was fought on 24th June 1813, at the time of the Anglo American War of 1812. The battle broke out after Laura Secord delivered a warning of an American effort to attack a British colony at Beaver Dams, Fort George. The Americans were ousted by Native warriors and later surrendered to the commander of the small British deployment.

Major-General Sir Isaac Brook was a British Army official, in charge of Upper Canada since 1802 defending the Upper Canada from the Americans.

Whereas many people in Canada and Britain thought that war could be avoided, Brock was preparing his regiment for a battle that was foreseeable and when the War of 1813 broke out, Brock and his army were ready and easily defeated the Americans in Fort Mackinac and in Detroit. Brock was killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights, which British won.

Tecumseh was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a great tribal confederacy, which fought against the Americans at the Tecumseh War and at the War of 1812. At the time of the War of 1812, Tecumseh and the tribal confederacy united with the British troops in Canada and assisted in the capturing Fort Detroit.

The American unit under the leadership of Harrison, an American commander, initiated a counterattack on Canada, which led to the Battle of the Thames where Tecumseh died (Pearson 344).

Works Cited Pearson, Greg. Canadian history: a sense of time. Vancouver, BC: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2006. Print.

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“Just in time” – philosophy of management Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction “Just in time” is a philosophy of management that intends to minimize wastes due from manufacturing processes. This is done by manufacturing only the correct amount and combination of the required components at an appropriate place and time. The criterion is that wasteful practices accrue from activities that incur costs without any revenue generation or addition of value to the product as it were.

These are like transferring stocks from one store to another or by just storing them. In JIT the main objective intended is to reduce the operations that do not add value and those inventories whose turnover is too low.

The effect is a reduction in the time for materials to go through the production process, reduced lead times for deliveries, greater utilization of equipment, lowered space use, lowered costs and hence much more profits realized.

This system found its beginnings in Japan and has been utilized since the early of 1970s. Taiichi Ohno who is its brain child aimed at meeting the demands of customers with minimized delays. Previously it was not simply intended to reduce waste but to attend to the precise needs that customers brought.

Also known as lean production, JIT has been able to successfully reduce the levels of inventory at different levels of production. This system also has the name, stockless production. Proper coordination among the stations is quite important so that what one station produces is exactly what the second station requires. While at it, a station will only draw in what it needs from the previous station.

It is important that various capacities of the stations that are involved are properly balanced and matched. This will help to totally reduce any hitches that are involved in the production processes. Queuing or stoppages in the manufacturing processes are minimized.

JIT incorporates the pull system which assists greatly in the movement of inventories through production lines. In this system, the needs of the subsequent station particularly affect what will have to be produced in the preceding station. Under JIT, processes are defined by how the pulling components in one station to another are enhanced.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More JIT does work best in the production flows where change is not eminent and there is repetition of processes from time to time. This is particularly used mostly in the assembly of vehicles where each car will have to receive the same treatment as that previous one.

Semi conductor companies have equally used JIT in beneficial ways. However, not all the semiconductor companies utilize the JIT system since their operations are too complex to be accommodated by the system. JIT therefore does pose the challenge of having to effectively create a set up that can accommodate processes.

Benefits of JIT JIT system has several benefits to it. Minimization of daily running expenses is one of the benefits that accrue to this method. Equally, greater performance and through put are witnessed in the utilization of this system. While the through put is being processed, quality is assured in the use of JIT. As previously noted, the delivery will be improved so that no stock outs are witnessed.

Customers are in a position to feel the satisfaction that they receive using JIT. Flexibility is an attribute that accrues to the system of JIT. This is in addition to the innovativeness that the system brings with it. All the benefits of this system tend to be woven in the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of the processes that are involved.

JIT Components According to Hirano (2009), JIT has various components to it. These include the following: Production Leveling Good housekeeping, Small Lot Production, Setup Time Reduction. One of the most pronounced components is the Kamban. Kamban is mostly used as a communication tool in JIT. A label is attached to every box as the various components move through the assembly line.

A member of the next process does collect what is sent from the previous system and leaves a Kamban to indicate that the delivery of the specific parts was received. The same kamban is normally sent back to maintain records and order for new parts to be used. The kamban works to help in the coordination of inflows and outflows of the production.

Main benefits of JIT include JIT systems have helped to improve the productivity of capital by the immense benefits that they have received. Set-up time has been reduced greatly. This will help to reduce to a great extent the inventory changeover time. Toyota has been able to benefit a lot from the quicker production rate caused by the reduced time for setting up.

We will write a custom Research Paper on “Just in time” – philosophy of management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dell a computer company using this method has had an improvement in the flow of goods from the warehouse. Lot delay of inventories has been minimized while the flow of inventory has been very much improved.

Multi skilled employees have been utilized through this system. There has been division of labor and specialization which has led to improved deployment of employees to their relevant positions, and higher quality at the shortest time. There are lowered defect rates in this system. Equally, the tied up capital is minimized as the inventory in the store will be that which is required. Capital is hence utilized effectively.

Production scheduling has been improved at great length. This is because there has been a synchrony between the demand in the market and the output that is consistently produced per unit of time. No output is produced if there exists no demand for the products. Savings have been realized from reduced overtime pay among other costs.

There has been an enhancement in the supplier relationships. This has been evident at Dell which acquires the suppliers from various suppliers before assembling their computers. No part shortages have been witnessed in this system. Regular supply has also been ensured anytime of day when the production process is in course. This is caused by the synchrony that is improved between the production demand and the optimal levels of inventory to be maintained.

A case of Dell An order coming from a customer for a computer, will be processed and assembly of the computer done within 12 hours. The delivery of the same happens within this duration.

This system has led to immense cuts in production cost so that Dell has cut its price by between 10 and 15%. Equally the JIT has enabled the company to grow at five time what the industry rate is. The costs of storage are minimized. While Compaq and IBM stock in dealer shelves for months incurring the costs, Dell will simply order components on booking in of an order.

Minimization of costs is thus imperative. During this period Dell takes advantage of price fall in the parts. The parts are averagely 60 days newer than those of Compaq and IBM. A 6% advantage is realized through these components alone.

Electronic data interchange According to Zimmerman (2003) EDI refers to the electronic transmission of data between organizations in a way that is structured. It is a Business to Business model of electronic commerce that has really enhanced the communications between companies. The procurement of supplies is made so much easier.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Just in time” – philosophy of management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The traditional letter of inquiry can digitized so that instead of wasting time drafting and sending by mail, the letter is transmitted electronically via web based applications. Other documents like the catalogue, checking documents among others are also transmitted online.

Immense benefits have been derived from the use of EDI. Collaboration between companies has been very well facilitated. The speed of transaction processing has also been accelerated. The accuracy in the systems presents verifiable applications and therefore EDI.

Advantages of using EDI There has been an improved efficiency rate by use of EDI just as much as there has been cost savings realized. Lowered error rates and quicker processing times are witnessed compared to paper based systems. The inventory that companies have to hold has greatly been reduced by tying the products to be manufactured to the inventories that are ordered. Postage costs have been reduced just as much as the expenses that are incurred and the space that would originally have been accommodated.

EDI has lowered the delivery times of the supplies from previously days to hours. Procter


Factors influencing successful buyer–seller relationships Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Purpose of the article

Concepts employed in the research


Reasons for choosing this article

Questions arising from the article


Purpose of the article Understanding the factors that influence the relationship between the buyer and the seller is of great importance in developing and maintaining such a relationship. Previous research has identified these factors but the relative importance of the factors had not been determined empirically.

The article reports the research by Powers and Reagan, where the factors that have overall importance to a buyer-seller relationship are determined and the most important factors at different stages of the relationship are also determined.

Concepts employed in the research The buyer-seller relationship considered in the research is a long-term non-contractual relationship and the stages analyzed are partner selection, defining purpose, setting relationship boundaries, creating relationship value and relationship maintenance. Partner selection is the first stage in the relationship and it involves the firm becoming aware of potential partners and ultimately selecting the appropriate one.

The defining purpose stage involves the parties defining the purpose of the relationship and clarifying their mutual goals. In the setting boundaries stage, the partners become increasing interdependent on each other’s resources and benefits.

The next stage is creating relationship value where the competitive advantage of either one or more of the partners is improved as a result of being in the relationship.

Finally, the relationship maintenance is the stage where the partners have probably acquired enough satisfaction such that they are willing to maintain the relationship.

From previous research, the following factors were determined to influence the relationship between a buyer and a seller: reputation, performance satisfaction, trust, social bonds (mutual friendship and liking between the buyer and seller), and mutual goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others are power/interdependence, technology, non-retrievable investments, adaptation (where one partner adapts its processes to accommodate the other partner), commitment, structural bonds, cooperation, and comparison level of the alternative.

In this research, the researchers hypothesized that the influence of these factors may be of greatest importance at one or more of the buyer-seller relationship stages or the importance may be equal across all the stages. These hypotheses were tested against empirical data obtained from surveys mailed to purchasing managers.

Results The results showed clear difference between the overall importance of the relationship factors with mutual goals being the most important and social bonds the least important. In the importance of the factors at different relationship stages, partner selection had mutual goals and adaptation being the most important.

In defining relationship purpose stage, cooperation was the most important factor and setting relationship boundaries had mutual goals and trust as the most important factors.

Adaptation was the most important factor in stage four (creating relationship value) and together with mutual goals, they were most important in relationship maintenance stage. In general, most relationship factors were found to be of importance during the later stages of the buyer-seller relationship.

Reasons for choosing this article To develop a competitive advantage over other competitors, a firm must have a successful buyer-seller relationship. In doing this, the responsible manager must understand the factors that influence their company’s relationship with its partners. This article reviews these factors and therefore provides more information to managers engaged in developing and/or maintaining such a relationship.

Buyer-seller relationship is a complex issue and involves several stages. At the different stages, the partners involved have different sources of satisfaction and therefore it is important to understand these stages. The way partners derive satisfaction from every stage should also be considered.

We will write a custom Essay on Factors influencing successful buyer–seller relationships specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Previous research had not provided conclusive information on this. On the other hand, the research work reported in this article determines the important factors in each stage of the relationship and on the overall buyer-seller relationship as well as providing empirical evidence to prove its hypotheses

Questions arising from the article The researchers in this article had an objective of empirically proving that relationship factors have varying importance at the various stages of the buyer-seller relationship. However, the views represented are from a buyer point of view only.

Someone using the information may wonder, what about the point of view of the sellers? Therefore, before concluding on the importance of the factors, it is important to take into consideration the points of view of the two parties.

In most cases, firms are involved in buyer-seller relationship with other firms as well as non-corporate individuals like final consumers. The article is more inclined towards firm-firm relationship and mentions nothing about the relationship a firm may have with non-corporate bodies.

Conclusion From a buyer point of view, the relationship with a seller is a stepwise process and different factors influence the relationship at the different stages. Managers should focus efforts on the most important factors depending on the stage of the relationship since focusing on all the factors has no enhancing results on the relationship.

Some factors have very low significance on the relationship and therefore require minimal consideration. The research reported in the article shows that more work is needed to fully understand the factors influencing buyer-seller relationship.


Service marketing Report college essay help

Waitrose puts a lot of energy and investment in research as a strategy of ensuring that it always has an edge over its competitors in the market. Two types of shopping have been found to be points of emphasis. These are secondary and one stop hopping.

Waitrose as would be expected faces a lot of competition in its niche of market. Some of its major competitors include Wegmans, Sainsbury, Morrisons, Asda, and HE Butt in the United States and Somerfield.These are the main competitors particularly in the area of online shopping.

Waitrose launched an online organic product service which allows customers to buy online have their produce delivered to them. Their website allows customers to register with them and be able to do their shopping from the comfort of their homes. It has managed to restore confidence in its buyers about online shopping security by being innovative; they allow customers to swipe their own items and use hand print identification to ensure security.

Most competition on online shopping therefore is based on innovation and security of client money. Wegmans for instance has come up with a new feature that allows shoppers to develop a shopping list online while spotting saving and filling a feed back form. This allows them to go to the stores while sure of how much they will spend.

Wegmans also allows users to for example check out recipes online and buy the ingredients in their recommended amounts. This innovative venture ensures convenience and a free service (online recipes) and helps retain customers.

HE Butt on the other hand uses to facilitate their online shopping. Research has shown that sales increased rapidly with introduction of their one clip coupons (Prevor 2008). HE Butt also gives the customers the option to have their goods delivered. This enables them to counter Waitrose’s after sales service

Morrisons have invested in keeping their clients and partners very informed about their services, location and offers. This has been enhanced even more by use of a very wide and informative website. Their website is very detailed in terms of service provision, their location and any due offers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Asda, another competitor in the retail business, has a different strategy. They base almost all of their promotions on pricing. Their main marketing tool is making all perceive them as the store with the lowest prices. This is a good reputation because it attracts low end consumers who form majority of most populations.

It however has a negative effect on the upper and high class clients because they hold class dear to them and would not like to be associated with ‘cheap’. These promotions are advertised o their shopping sites and attract lower end users.

Sainsbury have recently set up strategies to attract farmers. They introduced anew and wide range of fresh produce available online. They also have innovative by developing an online catalogue that allows users to check out and purchase their products by a click of the mouse.

In general therefore, online shopping competition is centred around innovation and bringing the service as close to the customer as possible. Mainly assurance of security and convenience score for which chain taps the most market.

List of references Prevor, J P. 2008, Wegmans Phasing Out Tobacco, Perishable Pundit, available at


Elviswald Code of Ethics Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Summary


Vision statement

Mission statement

Core values


Our guiding principles

Our general moral imperatives

Specific professional responsibilities

Employees covered

Implementation and communication

Enforcement and reporting

Organizational leadership imperatives



Summary The code of ethics for us is vital. In this, we find the accepted behavior with which our staff is to follow. We have the vision statement, the mission and the core values entrenched in here. The vision for us shows our dream end where as a management consulting firm we intend to be at in future (Briscoe, 2008). This will be at our optimal point of efficiency.

The vision entrenched here in represents the road map with which we shall trace out to follow through to our dream end. On the other hand, the core values are those norms and principles that as a firm we hold on to and envision that will help enhance progressive culture (Caroselli, 2007).

We have general imperatives that guide the acts of all employees in the firm; specific professional ethics that will instruct our management consulting profession and other guidelines thereof. Discussed also is implementation, communication and reporting of the ethics and their efficacy.

Introduction Elviswald Ltd is a private company that is incorporated in the United Kingdom. Formed in February 2002, the firm is steadily growing as a force to reckon with in the area of management consultancy. Our firm has been growing especially in the central parts of Europe. To this end, our clients range from individuals looking to establish their firms through to well-established firms.

We are very diligent in our operations and do carry out our activities with purpose in mind. Strategic advice is one that we like to offer. Struggling businesses have been revived by the help of our well trained consultants are also. We are an ISO certified company and so the quality of our systems is beyond doubt the best ever.

Vision statement To become the leading management consultancy firm in central Europe serving clients with dignity, care and precision.

Mission statement Our mission statement is that, “With due cooperation from the relevant stakeholders, offering the best management consultancy services and ensuring that organizations hit the peak of business existence.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Our mission is to offer the most apt information on business revival while strengthening interrelationships among the relevant stakeholders. In our institution we follow through purpose driven activities towards attaining our goals.

Core values Our very strong values have to a great extent contributed to our success as a firm and our endeavor to get to our vision by the use of our mission (Briscoe, 2008). These values are standards and morals that we hold on to diligently knowing that for us to bee established in the market as a leader in management consultancy, it is vital that we hold on to them. These include our baseline values:

We believe that for the firm to achieve its vision, it will call for the utmost cooperation from all the faculties of the firm. Further our belief is that the needs of our clients inform the decisions and performance that we carry out. We identify the society in which we operate gave us a charter to do our business. We therefore believe in giving back t the society and social corporate responsibility is invaluable for us.

Our staff is the best asset we shall ever have to deliver our vision; we therefore endear to hold on to mutual respect, cooperation and teamwork to better attend to the needs of our customers. In as much as perfection seems a milestone, we believe that our clients have to receive the best there is. Value for the clients’ money is our desire.

Preamble The society that we currently operate in is increasingly complex and dynamic. Caroselli (2007) insinuates that competitiveness in the management consultancy field requires that we have a great set of values and ethics in place so that we achieve competitiveness in the industry.

Our guiding principles The establishment of our code of ethics will be set up along certain regulatory guidelines. The following are the guidelines that will inform all our code of ethics as Elviswald ltd:

All our staff will be required to operate in a courteous yet attentive manner towards all our clients and guests that will be visiting the company. This guideline will cater for all categories of staff from the top level mangers through to the operational level staff. No visitor to the organization shall be left unattended for more than five minutes.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Elviswald Code of Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Staff of our organization will be required to be punctual in carrying out their duties. The stipulated reporting time for our firm is 8am. Staff will be required to report on or before this exact hour unless they have given notice in advance of their inability to get to work on time.

Efficiency and effectiveness is core for us. All or processes aim at achieving results in the shortest time yet assured of quality. Staff will not only be required to do the right thing but also do it the right way.

Our employees will be required to establish trust and work synergistically towards achieving the overall organization of the firm. Individual goal shall always be subordinate to the group goals as the targets of the firm are looked into.

Due diligence by our staff will asked of them. In this, the staffs are required to act in ways that will minimize wastage of resources at the firm. This includes general measures like switching of lights when leaving in the evening, turning off running water and other measures that would reduce the wastage at the organization.

The employees of the firm will be required to maintain the image of the firm and this will call for responsible behavior by the staff. The employees of our firm are encouraged to keep up with diligent study for self improvement. This is because we expect that the employees will keep improving in their performance and service to our clients.

Our general moral imperatives The staff of our organization will also be expected to have their behavior at our institution conforming to certain given moral imperatives. These include the following: Work towards the wellbeing of all the members, affiliates and stakeholders of our organization. We shall also expect that our employees will carry out themselves in an honest and trustworthy manner.

Responsiveness is essential and will be required of all the employees of the firm. In these, any issues emerging that need the attention of our employees will have to be handled promptly so as to alleviate any challenges that may crop up in our company.

Our organization is an equal employment institution and would like to treat everyone fairly. Employees will be required to operate in ways that will not depict any discrimination in any way. This could be racial or otherwise.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Elviswald Code of Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Our employees will equally be required to carry themselves out in ways that will acknowledge and honor property rights like patents and copyrights. In line with this, we shall require that all our staff operate in ways that give credit to intellectual property.

Our employees are also required to honor the privacy that is due to the fellow employees, clients and the secrets of the firm. According to Durkheim (1994) confidentiality of the company data and records is to be ensured buy all the employees.

Specific professional responsibilities In line with the business that we do carry out, we shall require certain behavior of our employees that will in agreement with management consultancy profession. These responsibilities will require that the employees:

To strive to get the best of quality ever by ensuring that effectiveness with dignity are maintained. Products of the professional work will be expected to be remarkable and commendable. Will strive to not only acquire but work towards marinating professional competence. This will be inclusive of not only knowing but working towards respecting the laws that regulate the management consultancy profession.

Employees will be required to provide having accepted professional review. This will work towards unending improvement of the quality of the employees and the services that are offered (Koehns, 1994). We also expect that employees will give comprehensive yet adequate analysis of any risks that may be eminent in our organization.

Our staff is also required to honor all the contracts that they enter into on behalf of the firm, any assignment s thereof and follow through any responsibilities that are assigned to them.

Members of our team as an institution will also be required to work towards improving the public understanding of the management consultancy profession so as to enable the firm to also grow the brand name in the process. Consequences of this profession are also to be made known to the public by our staff at an opportunity of this.

Employees covered Our code of ethics would cover all the professional employees. The consultants, Receptionists, analysts and the middle level managers shall be covered by the same code of ethics that are general. However there are codes of ethics that are particular to specific departments like the catering, cleaning department and the more professional departments.

The management consultancy department for example will be required to set up their own code of ethics that will govern them. This I because communication for them will be easier and convincing them to be acceptable before the staff. At the same time, the catering department, finance department and the other departments of our organization shall structure the code of ethics that will be best suited to govern them.

Implementation and communication Implementation and communication of the code of ethics for our firm is very important. This is because for us to get the support of the staff members, we need to inform them of the importance the code of ethics. Further, we shall establish teams that will set out to communicate the importance of the ethics to the members.

The members will be informed of specifically what they will be required to do and what they will not required doing. Equally, the staff members will be required to sign against the code of ethics forms that will stipulate the regulations governing the behavior of our employees.

Enforcement and reporting For proper enforcement of our code of ethics, evaluation of the same will be carried out on a regular basis so as to ensure that the staff members are in apposition to identify with them. The staff members will be encouraged to own the ethics and to know the benefit of having to incorporate such ethics in the firm.

Employees will be required to sign against the code of ethics to show that they agree with them and that they will obey the code of ethics as it were. As an institution we realize that to be effective and efficient we need the ethics. For as to have peaceful and harmonious relationships in the organization, the ethics need to be present in the organization.

Organizational leadership imperatives The leaders of our organization despite having the other code of ethics to govern them will be imperatively required to carry themselves out in a certain way. As an organizational leader, it calls for positive character and influence thereof to ensure that the other subordinates are inline and can relate to the leaders who are ethical.

Leaders are expected to articulate the various social responsibilities of the various members of the organizational unit. They should also work to improve the full acceptance of the various responsibilities by the staff members.

The organizational leaders will also be required to design systems information and the like, that will work to enhance the quality of life at the work place. The leaders have a responsibility of ensuring the environment they set up is conducive for the working of all other employees.

Leaders are also required to not only support proper use of organization resources but also to acknowledge the same. This will ensure that resources are put to meaningful use. Ensure that all the employees have their needs clearly stated so that all other requirements in the organization are fully and equivocally catered for.

The leaders also need to validate all the needs in the organization so that cost cutting measures are put in place. Leaders have to not only articulate sound policies of the organization but also to protect the dignity of all the employees and other stakeholders that work and associate with our firm.

Our leaders in the organization will also be required to create opportunities that will enhance the continued development of the staff members both professionally and as individuals.

Conclusion Our organization hopes and seeks to have the support of all the employees towards the realization of our vision and the running of our mission. We shall from time to time get feedback form our employees as regards their view on how the code of ethics does operate for them. We look forward to setting ourselves out as an efficient organization by the use of our code of ethics.

References Caroselli, M. (2007). Give Your Ethics A Good Workout, Executive Idealink. Web.

Briscoe, S. (2008). Finding Your Ethical Compass. New York: Associations Now. Web.

Koehns, D. (1994). The ground of professional ethics. New York: Routledge.

Durkheim, E. (1992). Professional ethics and civic morals. New York: Routledge.


Team Building Interventions Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help

There is a widespread impression, evident from popular research and casual empiricism, of the inability of scholars and organisations to accurately evaluate the effectiveness of team building in measuring changes in skills or attitudes. Often what the evaluation tools do is evaluate the team before and after team building event in anticipation of valuable outcomes.

However, the methodology employed in team building evaluation has not been successful in gathering and assessing data that would serve conclusive. One major short coming of team building interventions is that is the research employed does not even attempt an evaluation.

Across the social science, skill is a fundamental yet problematic concept and the inaccuracies of evaluation methods may be linked to the phenomena under investigation and the circumstances under which the data is collected that does not produce conclusive analysis.

In this paper I will discuss three leadership styles using my past work experience. Then I will go through some aspects of teamwork. Finally, I will give a summary about myself as a leader and how personal characteristics influence leadership style.

Key theories, concepts and empirical research carried out to evaluate team building interventions (TBIs) have proven frustrating leading us to examine what has been done to overcome this problem.

To obtain conclusive, data was collected from 22 full time MBA students on a three day trip via open ended questionnaire to determine what’s happening both within team and individuals involved in team building event in order to determine the kinds of practices, support and resources used to ensure effective data collection.

Each student for this case was given a responsibility to record their negative and positive events on a daily basis bearing changes in themselves and their team members (Rushmer 1997, p.316). Since team building interventions used open ended questionnaires to collect data, I found it difficult to process and analyse large amount of data in limited time. Open ended questions for my case would be hard to record my exact feelings which would be measured to provide conclusive results.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the changing economic and social context of employee relations, there’s need to evaluate the effectiveness of team building Interventions (TBIs) in organizational development projects.

Schools and organisations for this instance should recognise the inherent benefits associated with such evaluations such as their ability to justify direct and indirect costs of interventions to organisations and providing evidence to its validity to scholars to ascertain whether programs are truly operational and beneficial.

However, in my analysis, the journal’s weakness is that the team building strategy used in measuring outcomes has not been able to adequately gather or assess data that would serve as conclusive. Plenty of evidence suggests that students who are more likely to integrate into groups were more likely to get through their course completion and to successfully gain their award.

Evidently from my analysis, students grouped into teams are able manage through their academic years either due to the emotional support received from fellow students, the practical advice gained from drawing from each others skills, expertise and experiences, opportunity to clarify their ideas with each other or it could possibility be a combination of all these factors.

Therefore, as the MBA students undertake their full time residential period, TBI takes place in their first week of the program to “build the teams” at the beginning of the course (Rushmer 1997, p.316). I therefore support the journal’s theory of group integration in team building activities since it provides reliable analysis to support the evidence.

Participation Participants age group ranged from 22 to 37 with an average age of 25 combined with a great range of cultural background, a strategy that was not put into consideration in regard to how their participation would affect TBI.

In this case, I stand against the team building theory since the spit groups in regard to gender were not considered as female participants of ages 35 were not likely to stay full time in the residents due to family ties hence making the data collected unreliable. The groups were further divided into three groups; teams, gender, nationality and age and stayed together during the TBI duration (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Team Building Interventions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Methodology Data collected from the 22-full time MBA students teams on a three day outward bound residential team building course was done through open ended questionnaire in order to allow participants to answer freely in their own words.

This strategy was used in anticipation that extensive data will be collected on how each member perceived changes and developments during their trip rather than forcing themselves into YES and NO replies on pre-existing scales designed around the authors beliefs.

The advantage of this journal article was that the method of data collection used by students to record raw information and report the findings on the sensitive issues to map the phenomena was reliable. On the other hand, the sorting through large amount of data served as a disadvantage since it would take considerable amount of time jeopardising the credibility of data collected (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

Open ended questionnaires are disadvantaged to the sense that the answers produced were inadequate and missing valuable data that were to be measured against at the end of the project.

Poor warded questions may prevent responses from answering individual questions, therefore increasing unit non response. The project supervisor should have opted for more explicit questions that would produce accurate answers to be used for School surveys as a self administered mode of data collection.

Participant observation The author was actively involved in TBI exercise and task taking which enabled him obtain tacit knowledge and experience, team membership and team functioning which helped him extract qualitative data from questionnaire returns and assemble them into themes in reflection to what happened in TBI and to report the events as close as it was. The author classified important stages in the process of becoming a team as the following;

Emergent themes

The themes of “Speaking to” and “getting to know” were introduced at the beginning of project, a strategy that facilitated the process of getting to know each other. On a social level, “speaking to” enabled the relationship between the team members to develop although there is no strong indication that all team members got along successively.

One of the participant reported that, once team members were able to speak to each other, everyone was friendly and they felt relaxed and even made friends at the end of the process. The themes, “speaking to” and “getting to know” was identifies as the first step in facilitating the process of team building.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Team Building Interventions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Here, Maslow’s theory of motivation which stipulates that team members draw satisfaction from safety and belongingness of membership of the team was identified. Maslow’s theory of motivation that proposes the model of how happy, healthy and functioning people are, are only based on concrete observations of people rather than coming up with an ideal formular for basing their theory.

The motivation theory explains where “self-actualising” personality comes from which reacts too much on reductionism. Though the theory has taken into consideration the existing healthy personalities, the observations are more detailed than the theory can predict and the data contradicts the theory to some extend (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

The data collected in the group dynamic theory that stipulates that people sometimes join groups in order to gain comfort, security and friendship was also identified. Since the project was task oriented, participants in day three began to notice strength and weaknesses of team members and learned how to work with each other.

In my opinion, when there is no “speaking to” and “getting to know” then there would be no way of knowing what different teams can or cannot do in terms of skills, expertise and experience. It is to this i conclude that socializing was more fruitful strategy in the task orientation since teams reported more communication and unity (Rushmer 1997, p.316: Hays 2004).

Refusal of leaders

Following the dynamics of group behaviour, the teams refused to provide group leaders at the beginning of the project but allowed it to happen naturally as the project went on. One of the team members become one of the spokesman, a role that made him feel commanding often perceived with linked to negative comments. Strong leadership is seen to destroy both unity and coherence of the team.

An Egalitarian team? In the process of team building, I can see egalitarian team developing where leaders are allowed to guide and the team members are satisfied when everyone takes part.

This theory may be misleading in the sense that leadership has often been perceived as a force that directs action, tasks, unifies group and suggests solutions but we can see that this activities were not solely directed at one person, but were directed by different team members depending on task t hand, therefore not bale to base our conclusive result on (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

In relation to organisations, management should set realistic goals of their team members by making it clear of the expected outcomes making clear of the task to be carried out to prevent unnecessary de-motivating influences and unrealistic expectations which often cause disappointments.

This is often experienced in organisation with complicated communication channels through policies and practices. Organisation should also reduce the formal appearance of hierarchy since employees often link them with negative comments. Leaders should fully participate in organization projects to allow acquisition of new skills (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

The project strategy was also aimed at determining who would enact leadership behaviour for example in tasks requiring physical strength and for this case, it was the biggest member of them team that took the role. Likewise, when rock climbing, team members who had initially experienced similar exercise appeared to direct the others.

It’s therefore concluded that a given task is determined by ones skills, expertise or experience. Leadership as evident from this project may seem to be influenced by expert’s power, rather that permanent role of a particular individual (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

Benefit of the team

Participation of team members forces them to try out new behaviours and acquire new skills, team members attest to that. One member attests to this by saying that the he tried out new things he wouldn’t without the team work. This brings me to conclusive evidence that teamwork modifies behaviour for the sake of the team, hence the theory of “team will”. This however supports the assertion that ‘team’ is a body that forces people to do things they would not have done on their own.

Members reported to have gained self confidence which were often rewarding and made the team experience enjoyable. There was also a “feel good factor” that enhanced positive feelings and stimulated team spirit. One of the participants regarded his team to be the best because of the fun and motivation received. The ability to identify with the team helps build the feel good factor (Rushmer 1997, p.316).

Since the participants were eager to undergo new experiences, learn new ideas and skills, Maslow’s theory calls for accurate perception of reality which is inconsistence to ordinary people’s ability to deny, repress or deform perceptions to fit their own prejudices.

Here Maslow’s theory agrees with the experiences of participants’ intuitive levels and their conscious on rational levels. The general concept to this self-actualizer is that may be attracted to the unknown rather than being afraid of it.

Achieving the task: Process, outcomes and motivation

There is a strong indication of positive outcomes in complimentary with task orientation to teamwork as it motivates and heightens team’s efforts to achieve their tasks. Since everyone participated in the task, everyone celebrated its success hence the theory of “one for all, all for one” ethos of success.

In task orientation process, the pathways travelled in order to achieve this outcome helped them recognise important process in accomplishment of these stages which determines the effective functioning of the team as the actual achievement of the outcome. The outcome helped the team recognise real organisation, planning, discussion and action to be the major component of their team building.

In relation to task orientation, the task outcomes and task process did not give conclusive results on how the team operates. We also realised that demanding tasks gave rise to supportiveness, encouragement which stimulated relationship orientation behaviour since members desired to help each other to succeed.

Task difficulty challenged members to rise up to cooperation and encouragement within the team. We therefore conclude that team work motivated people to work together and stay till the end of the project (Hays 2004; Rushmer 1997, p.316).


Team members also complained of cold and wet weather in which they were required to exercise and not all activities required them to work as a team. Therefore motivation as part of team building spirit departs from the theory that states that team work encourages full participation of members.

Conclusion Since individuals were inclined to pre-set groups, team members were unable to mix and talk freely and therefore knowing each other’s skills and expertise was only limited to the preset groups.

Structural and geographical arrangements were also a hindering factor to team operations. People should read the article because it encourages organisation to implement more challenging tasks as a strategy to pull all members participation towards task accomplishment.

Challenging task as i have already mentioned help members gain positive side effects and increases participation thereby enabling development of new skills, increases confidence and motivation and built team spirit and co-operation.

This should therefore be incorporated in work places by rewarding hard working employees by their skills, experience and length of service. People should also read the article because it teaches new learner on methods of data collection and different theories applied in team building activities

List of References Hays, J. 2004, Building High-Performance Teams: A Practitioner’s Guide. Argos Press: Canberra

Rushmer, R. 1997, ‘What happens to the team during teambuilding? Examining the change process that helps to build a team’, The Journal of Management Development, Vol. 16, pg. 316


Methods of Engagement in Afghanistan Essay college essay help

In a more instinctive manner, there is need to redefine Afghanistan’s security, economy and identity in order to minimize the increasing rate of poverty, tension and insecurity in the country (Kinsman, 2006). According to neoliberal theorists, Afghanistan has lost its ability to pursue self-interests in the international realm.

Evidence derived from comprehensive analysis indicates that lack of human security; poor narcotic economy and identity crises have affected the rate of development in all sectors of the economy. Underdevelopment in the country has been manifested through low gross domestic production, literacy level, low life expectancy, frequent attacks and identity tension. This implies that firm steps must be taken to eradicate insecurity, violation of human rights and economic decline.

By so doing, this guarantees increase in national security, economic growth and identity achievement (Kinsman, 2006). Furthermore, protection of human rights will help to overcome identity conflicts. Recently, economic relation theorists have raised concern on the state of economy, security and national identity in Afghanistan (Manley, 2007).

Moreover, the theories have constantly insisted on the essence of national security, economic development and identity in response against international pressures. It is on this ground that this paper attempts to address and recommend how the economy, security and identity in Afghanistan can be eradicated.

Theoretical approach From a theoretical perspective, it is evident that Afghanistan has lost its capacity to govern its self-interests in the international sphere (Kinsman, 2006). From a liberalist perspective, every country needs to have a central role to play in the international cooperation. Failure to this, the theorists perceive the state to have lost its power to the core states (Manley, 2007).

Due to problems related to security, identity and economy, Afghanistan is unable to govern its national interest and thus can not offer a direction of its policies without external influence. To some extent, it has become a threat to international security due to Al-Qaida terrorist groups (Manley, 2007. However, these problems have been discussed in details below.


It is apparent that security in Afghanistan has posed a great threat to the economy and identity of the citizens in particular (Ghaznizada, 2010). Evidence has been derived from the fact that the US army has been doubled to ensure security in the country as at 2009. For a long time, the US army has focused its effort in the country in order to eradicate the remnants of the warring groups (Manley, 2007. Frequent wars have left the country unstable for development and as well threatening the international community.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Numerous steps have been made in the effort to increase security. Such include establishment of a transitional government and consultative forums through which a new constitution have been formed (Kinsman, 2006). According to the liberalists, the survival of the country will only be determined by the present state.

An objective has been set on how to defeat armed insurgent and terrorist groups in Afghanistan. It is imperative to note that though efforts have been made to enhance national security, such agenda has been left in the hand of coalition allies and NATO forces (Kinsman, 2006). Nonetheless, security enhancement in Afghanistan requires comprehensive strategies in order to achieve better results.

From the perceived evidence external force from NATO and USA might not make a predominant change toward the current state unless the critical demands of the warring Taliban are met (Ghaznizada, 2010). Liberalist confirms that there can be no improvement in the security sector unless efforts are made to develop the economy and suitable political wing.

In this case, it is perceived that such sectors are likely to evoke violence whenever there is any form of imbalance. Nevertheless, there rose a huge controversy over who is responsible for enhancing security in Afghanistan. According to liberal theories, the state should take a legitimate position in ensuring the security of the population.

However, critics have given their views upon US, UN and NATO role in enhancing security in Afghanistan. Liberalists are against the idea through which the US army uses force to ensure security and protection of human rights in Afghanistan (Ghaznizada, 2010). To them, they perceive this as imperialism of the highest degree. In this case, they argue that great powers tend to assert their power over younger nations and thus they deprive them their self interests.

According to this theory, a country should be set free since it understands its indigenous problems better and freedom from the contemporary challenges lies on the hands of the nationals. For this reason, issue of security in Afghanistan has been of great concern in the international relation realm.

Recommendations have been made permitting the government to delegate some of its responsibilities to international agencies and external military forces. Additionally, commercial and non-government, organizations, should reinforce the government in bearing the ultimate responsibilities (Ghaznizada, 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Methods of Engagement in Afghanistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, we can not ignore the fact that though liberalists insist that the indigenous government should assume the role of fostering security, there are some constraints. For instance, Afghanistan government has been prone to shortage of resources, poor political ideologies and historical needs.

In this case, there is a huge dilemma on how security can be enhanced through such a fragile political base. Therefore, external efforts from the US army, UN and NATO have made a tremendous mark in reinforcing the government to combat insecurity in Afghanistan (Kinsman, 2006).

From a status review, it is evident that the US troops has unlimitedly donated resources in order to reconstruct the country irrespective of several limitations face. In this case, liberalists do not dismiss the role played by the ally groups. Furthermore, they confirm that there is need for there to be an international consensus in order to foster unilateral actions of rebuilding the country’s security.

As mentioned earlier, it is therefore advisable to employ combined efforts where the indigenous government and the international organizations such as NATO, UN and US army will work together to enhance security in Afghanistan (Kinsman, 2006). In line with this, there are several recommendations in which this security as a major objective can be achieved in order to enhance ultimate success in Afghanistan.

One of the recommendation involve establishment of provincial reconstruction teams (Manley, 2007. These teams are essential in ensuring that security reforms are followed strictly. Such reforms include disarmament and demobilization policies. In line with this, such teams strengthen the government’s ability to administer at the provincial and district levels.

Another recommendation is use if international military to intervene and fight against terrorism. By so doing, this will help to establish both domestic and national security (Kinsman, 2006).

In addition to this it is recommended that programs of demilitarization, reintegration and demobilizations should be formulated. Moreover, the programs should be well designed in order to reduce heavy armaments and acceleration of training activities for the terrorist groups. Such programs also help to devise alternative means of training and employing middle-level forces.

That not withstanding, it is also recommended that the country’s national army should be adequately trained (Radek, 2004). This makes them to become more equipped to fight and combat terrorist groups. This also enhances their warlord power over the existing militia terrorists.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Methods of Engagement in Afghanistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government should also give them incentives in order to foster cooperation. In the long run, it will be possible to achieve national integration and security. Other than international organizations, there are other tools that can be used to ensure ultimate security in Afghanistan. For instance, the non-governmental organizations can be used to enhance a humanitarian security aid that is vital in rebuilding the nation.

In addition to this private sectors can also be used to reinforce the state’s efforts in providing security services and other primal responsibilities (Radek, 2004). It is also advisable to use numerous tools that are diplomatic, economic and military while addressing the problem of security.

International groups have used military tactics that has been successful in combating warring groups. Besides this, they have also used economic tactics such as providing the country with food donations and medicine for the population (Kinsman, 2006).


Insecurity in Afghanistan has resulted to grave challenges toward the country’s economy. It thus beyond doubt to comment that the economic development in Afghanistan lingers an outlying hope (Anon, 2009). The viability of the economy highly depends ultimately on the presence of a legitimate government.

Researchers conform that the current state of the economy is almost collapsing. It is imperative to note that Afghanistan economic trend is not sustainable to support the demands of the population. The lucrative trade of opium products has been posed by enormous international threats (Anon, 2009). In this case, there exist three categories of the economy.

There is the war, shadow and coping economy and each has its own dynamics. However, it is evident that the economy has been faced by stiff challenges thus making the rate of living to be very high. Since the economy highly relies on farming farmers lack incentives and economic security thus they tend to collaborate with criminals and terrorist (Anon., 2008).

Therefore, they purchase poppies which they later convert to narcotic drugs for sale. After a period of time Afghanistan economy was turned into an illicit one and has been countered by the west. It is important to note that under such an economy, the country has not been able to resist threat from military group and pressures from the west.

Furthermore due to the increased pressure, we can refer to the economy as a “war economy” (Anon, 2009). This is due to the fact that international power holders have always question Afghanistan government for allowing such an illicit economy. Moreover, the nationals put pressure to the government since it was unable to cater for their upkeep. Forcefully, they transited into the illegal economy in order to advance the opportunities for existence.

However, efforts have been made to transform the economy from drug dealing to a more legitimate one (Anon., 2008). That’s not withstanding, transforming the economy is not a smooth sail since it requires a collective efforts in order to enhance better systems of security and development. In this case, there are recommendations that should be taken into consideration in order to eradicate the illicit economy and as well promote sustainable growth.

According to liberalists, a change can not be achieved in the traditional ways always. Therefore, there is need to integrate multiple means In order to eradicate economic challenges. For instance, one of the most suitable tools involves use of economic tactics. Examples of such tactics include providing alternative means in which farmers would generate viable money, provide incentives and enhancing economic security (Anon, 2009).

Moreover, the government should also castigate opium growers and as well the distillers in order to eradicate risks associated with nominal illegality. Establishment of security institutions would also make it hard for traffickers to smuggle the drug. According to liberalists, the government should make the demands of the people to be superior and thus such illegal activities are justifiable since they are means of attaining basic amenities.

In this case, there should be economic incentives that need to motivate people to abandon the illicit activities (Anon, 2009). For instance, diversification of food crop might not be effective unless the government provide the people with infrastructural facilities. The international organizations have played a large part in fostering economic security in Afghanistan in the past 6 years.

International relation has established counternarcotics operations in Afghanistan. For instance, the USD agencies have declared a Jihad for the poppy production through sentiments such as drug control strategies. Instead, the US agency has tried to encourage licit agriculture and this has made poppy production to drop by 37% as at 2007 (Anon, 2009).

However, I recommend that non-governmental organizations to be used as tools that will reinforce the government in encouraging licit farming. Notably, efforts have been made to finance licit agriculture such as availing affordable farm equipments, quality seeds and fertilizers (Anon, 2009).

Moreover, other international agencies such as the NATO have encouraged small scale businesses by providing financial aids in terms of loans. This has facilitated toward the growth of agro-processing and crop exports. Foreign aid and engagement from external agencies have emerged crucial for rebuilding Afghanistan’s economy (Kinsman, 2006).

Due to the fact that the country still remains poor, liberalists confirms that there should be an increased role in which the indigenous government takes to promote economic growth (Kinsman, 2006). Therefore, it is recommended that for there to be economic progress the government of Afghanistan should be autonomous of eternal influence to determine the fate of its people.

Nevertheless, this can be very tricky since the government has been unable to eradicate the peace spoilers in favor of illicit activities. For this reason, no matter how much we try, it is impossible to do away with external organizations such as UN, US and NATO agencies (Anon., 2008). In this case, it is upon the government and international community to come together to foster comprehensive economic growth in the nation.

Identity: The issue of identity has been debated upon in the international relations arena. In this case, international relation has devised tools and recommendations concerning identity as a political problem. In the context of Afghanistan, there exist two components of identity namely ethnic and religious identity. According to liberalists’ view, identity crises are inevitable particularly when a country is at its initial stages of political, social and economic evolutions.

It is on this ground that the international relations aim to persuade Afghans to embrace religious beliefs that are not tied to violent extremist organizations. It is apparent that in Afghanistan there are several religions such as Islam and Christianity. However, Islam has the majority of the population. Ethnic identity guards the people toward their historical and social groups (Phillips, 2011). In this case, different ethnic groups have different values and relations.

From the period of independence, Afghanistan has faced identity crisis even though there are no clear boundaries distinguishing each group. However, different identities in line with ethnicity have been used as a political tool thus creating tension. However, there have been factors that have influenced people’s identity. For instance the central government has played a major role in influencing people’s identity in a way through education and the media (Radek, 2004).

The main goal of the government was to establish a common social identity referred to as the Pashtuns. The issue of identity has given rise to many challenges since there are people who decline to associate themselves to a particular identity. Due to identity tension, some people have denied their own identity and other have opted to keep it a secret for fear of confrontations.

Differing upon a common identity has made the country to lack a national familiarity and thus it become complicated to define Afghanistan in the international arena (Phillips, 2011). It is imperative to mention that by paying much attention on the traditional social groups people have been resented and thus decline to associate themselves to a particular social group.

Therefore, due to resentment these groups waste time in acrimonious activities rather that taking time to develop an identity. For instance, there had been a Jihad war among the communist coup during the evolution of national identity (Radek, 2004). This war caused division among social groups each undertaking its own national duty on its own volition.

However, the international relation agencies have tried to persuade the Afghans to embrace ethnic and religious beliefs that are not tied to violent extremist organizations. To achieve this goal several recommendations can be used to ensure success.

For instance the international community, Afghanistan’s government and non-governmental organizations should encourage education for all (Kinsman, 2006). Through a unified education system it becomes easier to integrate individuals of different identities to interact and thus accept individual differences without tension. In the long run, education will help to weaken ethnic divisions (Narayanan, 2010).

Moreover, it is recommended that international relation should try to persuade the Afghan’s government to increase large number of ethnic groups being represented in the central government (Manley, 2007. According to liberal theory, separate social groups have various demands to make depending on the national needs.

Therefore it is not enough to let few ethnic groups such as Pashtuns and Tarjik to represent other groups (Radek, 2004). In this case, to achieve an identity, there is need for a larger representation by strongly-developed ethnic and religious groups in the government. In a shift of focus, the only tool that is suitable in solving identity problem is the Afghan government. This is due to the fact that it is only the government that understands the indigenous difficulties concerning identity.

Conclusion Imperatively, liberal theory is the best theories when addressing and giving recommendations to be followed to achieve success in terms of security, economy and identity issues in Afghanistan (Manley, 2007. The theorists conclude that security in Afghanistan has gone past the call for auxiliary international forces to in the country.

However, It should not be enforces by increased armed force against the nationals but through a genuine reconciliation at the national level. This will help in addressing the grievances and demands of the Afghans. On the other hand, regardless of the wavering hope on the economy collective efforts can help to achieve sustainable growth of licit economy as opposed to the vast growing lethal economy. Concerning the issue of identity, Afghans need to identify themselves with non-extremist identity.

By so doing, the country will be able to bear the external critics in the international arena. In a nut shell, problems of security, economy and identity can only be addresses through integrated approaches. Therefore, a combined effort from the government, international agencies (NATO, US, UN) and non-governmental organizations are required to see these problems solved.

References Anon. (2008). Asia: No quick fixes; Afghanistan’s opium poppies. The Economist, 387(8585), 54.

Anon. (2009). Opium Takes Over Families and Villages in Afghanistan. News for You, 57(41), 3.

Ghaznizada, W. (2010). Afghan Air Force training facilities rebuilt after 20 years. Web.

Kinsman, J. (2006). Afghanistan comes home. Policy Options, 28(1), 58-61.

Manley, J. (2007). Afghanistan: meeting the development challenge. Policy Options, 28(9), 6-12.

Narayanan, D. (2010). Afghanistan: Emerging From the Rubble. Web.

Phillips, M. (2011). An Airline Magazine That Makes Travelers Want to Pull the Rip Cord: Safi Shows the Real Afghanistan, From Dog Fighting to Dry Swimming Pools. Web.

Radek S. (2004). Meanwhile, in Afghanistan. National Review, 56(19), 34-36.


France and Talleyrand Descriptive Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

According to Historical sources, Talleyrand was a unique and extraordinary person. To some people, he was regarded as an arrogant person because of his confidence which earned him the most successful diplomat of his time. Through his tactics, he managed to survive the regimes of Dictators Louis XVI through to the leadership of Napoleon and Louis Philippe.

As observed from his tactics, he had the ability to predict Political events and placed himself on the side of the political victors. One of the events that clearly illustrate this characteristic is the role he played in the Vienna Congress to restore the position of France as a political leader in Europe. Unlike Napoleon, the approaches he used were not dictatorial because he used legitimate advances and public policy laws.

The main role of Talleyrand in the Vienna conference was that of a protector and not a peace maker because peace was already prevailing in France. He entered the conference fully convinced that he had a duty to bring back France to its rightful position. Previously, he had actively participated in the signing of ‘The Treaty of Paris’ which ended the ‘Napoleonic Wars.’

When Talleyrand entered the conference, he had the sole purpose of maintaining the power of France among the countries of Europe (Cooper, 1967). Despite the fact that France had narrowly escaped destruction when it signed the treaty of Paris, Talleyrand was convinced that France had not gained her rightful political position in Europe.

Talleyrand arrived a week earlier before the meeting started and had gathered information that ministers of powerful nations had met privately to decide on submissions of the congress. In order to counter these advances, he gathered the ministers of smaller powers and convinced them to select France to represent them because it was in a good position to champion for their rights and defend them from oppression from powerful states.

As the congress progressed, his methods proved to bare fruits because the opinions of France were heard. He also participated actively in pressing for the start of the congress which earned him an invitation by Prince Metternich of Austria together with other four ministers of powerful nations.

During the meeting, he questioned why he was the only representative of France in the meeting yet other countries had more than one representative. He calmed down after it was explained to him that the Secretary of State for Spain was not in the congress while Humboldt was in the meeting because Prince Hardenberg had earring problems (Cooper, 1967).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Talleyrand went further and criticized the use of the word ‘allied forces’ in the meeting yet the word was only relevant in fighting Napoleon who was long gone. He argued that word should no longer be used against France because peace was prevailing and that France should be part of the Allied forces.

During the proceedings of the meeting, Talleyrand argued that the four Nations had no authority to assume authority over others. He did not agree to any of the proposals of the four powers without inclusion of France. He further argued that any agreements reached before the start of the congress would be ignored which was a big blow to the other representatives of the other nations.

To some level, he had succeeded in undermining the powers of the powerful nations. His main aim was to put France in the same position as other countries of Europe.

The meetings that the powerful nations had held in confidence led to more confusions and France, which was not included gained favor. The skills that Talleyrand used were exceptional, and can only be supported by the fact that he loved France and was determined to place it among the powerful nations of Europe. As seen from the proceedings of the meeting, his views were critical in determining the outcome of the meeting.

Reference Cooper, D. (1967). Talleyrand. California: Stanford University Press.


TQM in Dubai Metro System Report essay help online free

Serco emerged as part of the Radio Corporation of America in the United Kingdom in 1929. First, as a service provider to the cinema industry, Serco, after changing its name, branched out to become one of the most prominent London Stock Exchange listed company.

Serco’s areas of operations are extensive and range from home affairs to transport, scientific research, detention services, defense, aviation and health among a few of them. It has become one of the biggest industries in United Kingdom. Serco is currently operating in over 35 countries with more than 50,000 employees to date.

Serco has recently partnered with the Dubai metro system and involved in the Dubai government to create the world’s most advanced metro system. Inspired from the well planned and detailed railways systems of the UK, Dubai metro system aims to accomplish the same feat with more technical gadgetry.

The Roads and Transport Authority or RTA has joined the Dubai government in creating this transit system to expand not only within Dubai but also between Dubai and other Emirates of UAE. Serco stands out because it represents a major force of builders working on the Dubai metro system.

The primary reason why these three companies remain in an area of interest is their application of Total Quality Management principles in a successful manner (Ferretti and Parmentola, 2007, 137). Alongside, the innovation and integration of other concepts such Regional Innovation System or RIS are other efforts to create systems that are well integrated and planned to allow the best service provision (Ferretti and Parmentola, 2007, 137).

What Is TQM? The TQM or Total Quality Management concept has been in the application within Dubai for some time. In all of its developmental areas, Dubai has been involved in improving over all the quality of its products and services to its people (Shaaban, 2011).

TQM, in essentiality, means creating services and processes that enhance and improve the quality and quantity of production (Sashkin and Kiser, 1992, pp 27). In order to achieve a phenomenal result, all the levels of work and processing must be seen through the critical examination and investigation (Sashkin and Kiser, 1993, pp 28).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, Total Quality Management is a step by step process where weaknesses and faults are identified within the system which then reforms it to make it more effective (Sashkin and Kiser, 1993, pp 28). The Dubai Metro has been engaged in the same methodology to create the best metro system of the world. It has, therefore, spared no effort to hire the best professionals from all around the world to transfer its vision to them and put them on to work.

The benefit of TQM is that, contrary to other quality improvement systems, TQM can be applicable to all the kinds of systems and projects where technical or other features may not allow to apply some forms of improvement initiatives. In addition, many TQM managers and leaders within the Dubai metro system should show the government’s commitment towards its overall improvement.

The customer and the comfort with which he or she can travel in a metro system remain of primary importance. This method will help to reduce commute times and put Dubai on the map again. Alongside, the TQM principles will allow identification of major weaknesses in the system and how they can be overcome.

Conclusion TQM is a new concept to introduced principle of management. It allows to apply positive methods of identification of a problem and how each member of team can learn to perform at his or her best.

References Ferretti, M. and Parmentola, A. (2007). The Creation of Regional Innovation Systems in Emerging Countries: The Case of Dubai. International Journal of Globalization and Small Business 2(2), 137-165.

Shaaban, A.( 2011, November 30). Continuous Upgrading Must for Excellence. The Khaleej Times. Retrieved from

Sashkin, M. and Kiser, KJ. (1993). Putting Quality Management to Work: What TQM Means, How to Use it and How to Sustain it Over the Long Run. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

We will write a custom Report on TQM in Dubai Metro System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Ruth St. Denis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Background


The technique Ruth St. Denis brought to the fore

Are they first or second generation pioneers?

Background on their company

Reference List

Background Ruth St. Denis was born in 1879 in New Jersey to Ruth Emma Denis who was a physician by training. Saint Denis was very strong willed and highly educated. She died in 1968.

Training St. Denis was encouraged to study dancing at the formative stages of her life. She learnt Delsarte technique in the early stages of her life. Her bullet lessons were conducted by an Italian ballerina Maria Bonfante. She also received training in social dance forms and skirt dancing. Her professional career began in New York in 1892. She worked as a skirt dancer in New York where she performed in dime museums and vaudeville houses.

Dime museums traditionally hosted leg dancers who did brief dancing routines. In a day, Ruth did more than eleven brief dance routines. David Belasco spotted Ruth in 1898. By then David was a Broadway producer and a director of repute. David then hired Ruth to perform as a featured dancer in his large company. In fact while working with David, Ruth earned her stage name St. Denis which stark with her forever.

She was later to be known as Ruth St. Denis. After the tour where ‘Zaza’ was being produced Ruth got to know many important European artists like Sado Tacco and Sarah Benhardt an English actress great of her time. These people positively impacted her life as evidenced by her desire for dance and drama of Eastern cultures. Her interaction with Bernhardt made her like her melodramatic acting style. This later influenced her acting career especially the tragic fate of her character (Sherman, 1983).

The technique Ruth St. Denis brought to the fore At the onset of the 20th Century St. Denis began formulating her own theory of dance and drama. These were greatly influenced by the drama techniques she had a brush with early in her dancing training. The theory of dancing was also influenced with her readings on scientology, philosophy , and the history of ancient cultures.

The works of Benhardt and Yacco also played a role in defining her theories. In 1904 when she was touring with David Belasco, she came a cross a poster of the goddess of Issis that advertised a cigarette for the Egyptian Deities. This poster overwhelmed her imagination and she later resorted to reading a lot about Egypt and India. St. Denis later quit David Belasco’s company to start her path to the career of a solo artist.

It is during this time that she designed her exotic costume and created a story of a “mortal maid who was loved by the god of Krishna, Radha”. This dance style was premiered in New York’s Vaudeville House. She intended to translate her understanding of the “Indian culture and mythology to the American dance stage through Radha”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When plying her trade a solo artist Mrs. Orlando Rouland quickly discovered Ruth St. Denis. Ruth St. Denis began performing Radha in Broadway theatres when her wealthy patron started sponsoring her. Ruth had a conviction that Europe had more to offer than any other place would do.

That is why in 1906, together with her mother she went to London. She managed to travel in many European cities where she performed a series of translations until 1909. She later returned to New York to give a series of well received concerts in New City when she was touring United States.

Up to 1914 she still toured United States dong exotic dance. She was labeled as a classic dancer in the same category with Isadora Duncan despite the fact that they were two different dancers in the perspective of their approach to solo dance. In fact St. Denis sought the universe in the self whereas Isadora Duncan sought the self in the Universe. St. Denis interpreted exotic world through “the vantage point of her body” (Shelton, 1981).

After 1911, solo dance on the professional stage faced a eventual death. St. Denis therefore gave lessons to such women like Gertrude Whitney. Her problems were later compounded by the death of her major patron Henry Harris who died on the titanic. Her financial woes forced her back to the studios where she initiated new exotic dance. The difference however was that the new exotic dance had Japanese theme.

One of these exotic dance was O-MIKA which “was more culturally authentic than her other translations”. It was not successful though. This prompted St. Denis to include some other performers in her productions. Ted Shawn came on board in 1914. Ted was a stage dancer who had strong Dalsartean leanings. Hilda Beyer had ballroom preferences.

St. Denis continued with her solo translations where as Shawn brought popular dance forms like ragtime and tango. Shawn and Denis later became lovers and dance partners. This partnership marked the end of her career as a career solo artist (Shelton, 1981).

Are they first or second generation pioneers? Ruth St. Denis, Isadora Duncan, and Loie Fuller are considered some of the pioneers of the modern dance. They were against formalism and “superficiality of classical academic bullet”. These dancers wanted to introduce their audiences to both inner and outer realities.

We will write a custom Essay on Ruth St. Denis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ruth in particular employed pictorial effects that featured in her ritualistic dance of Asian religion. She specifically used elaborate costumes and improvised movements that characterized Egyptian and Indian descent. In fact because of her versatility, she integrated Native American dances and dances from other ethnic groups (Shelton, 1981).

Background on their company After her marriage to Shawn in 1914, they together formed Denishawn Company. The company was started in 1915 Los Angelus California. Through this company they managed to popularize modern dance throughout the United States and abroad. Through this company talents were nurtured and a second generation of modern dancers was conceived. The second generation dancers that passed through this company were Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, and Charles Weidman.

The Denishawn School of dancing prioritized bullet and experimental bullet dance. The school was first housed in a Spanish style mansion in Los Angelus with spaces for technique classes and Denishawn technique. Technique classes were taken in bare feet and students had to put on one piece black wool bathing piece. The classes ran for three hours each morning. Shawn took the students “through stretches, limbering and ballet barre”.

Floor progressions and free form center combinations were also done by Shawn. St. Denis was in-charge of “oriental and yoga techniques”. Shawn’s classes were in fact laden with ballet terminology. The classes finally closed with the learning of another part of dance. Denishawn trainings were characterized by a theory that one learns to perform by performing and this made a part of concert repertory (Shelton, 1981).

Reference List Shelton, S. (1981). Divine Dancer: A Biography of Ruth St. Denis. New York: Doubleday.

Sherman, J. (1983). Denishawn: The Enduring Influence. 1. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers.


Imagine that you are part of a local group developing a grant-funding proposal for a crime prevention program targeting businesses best essay help: best essay help

Imagine that you are part of a local group developing a grant-funding proposal for a crime prevention program targeting businesses in your community. After a rash of recent burglaries, thefts, and fraud schemes directed at businesses in the area, a local benefactor has offered $300,000 for a one-year crime prevention program. In your research, your group has determined that the $300,000 is helpful but will not cover the necessary funding. Your group will be submitting a proposal to obtain the funding. Describe common grant types and identify possible sources for your proposal. Identify funding agencies that could possibly fund the grant. Provide teamwork strategies you might implement when developing the proposal. Create a logic model for a fictitious, grant-funded project. Search the internet for sample logic models to use as an example. Include the resources needed for project implementation in your logic model in a 700- to 1,050-word paper. You should submit your logic model in addition to the paper. Format your paper in accordance with APA guidelines. Submit your assignment.


Workplace Ethics Report essay help

Introduction Ethics has been a major issue in the contemporary world in the field of business and the society. Madison defines ethics as acting in conscious of the policies of an organization, laws and regulation, morals and standards of a given country (41). Ethics is very vital for the prosperity of any given organization or individual. There are standard ways in which an individual is expected to behave when in a given context.

These expectations must be met so that the society may approve of the individual (Tribe and Dorf 36). However, an individual may find himself/herself in an awkward situation when there is need to balance between the expectations of the society and the demands for job. One may be forced to make a decision that may contradict what the society considers moral because of the requirements of job. The cases study below is a reflection of situations where one has to make hard decisions and remain ethical in the face of society.

Environment: Something is Rotten in Hondo- a Case Study Ethical Issues

George Mackee is a diligent man who is determined to make a positive differential change not only to his friends and relatives, but also to the entire society of Texas and the United States of America. He sees himself as a responsible citizen who should work hard in order to provide for his family and friends.

He also values the environment as the source of future livelihood. However, George finds himself in a difficult situation. The problems arise from the need to preserve the environment from pollution by his company. He has the following problems to face and handle carefully.

The company’s emissions are beyond the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency. The company will therefore be fined in the meantime for the damage they have caused in the environment and for the breach of contract, they signed on environment protection. The company will then put preventive measures in order ensure that this pollution ends. However, the company is not in a position to buy new scrubbers due to the financial constrains. A solution must be found as soon as possible.

The second problem is the need to move out of Hondo as a measure to avoid the fines imposed by the environmental agency. This will not only deprive Hondo of infrastructural development, but also render many individuals of this area jobless, some being friends and relatives of George. He must be sensitive of the needs of the society and avoid a situation that may make it view him as one who does not care about their concerns.

Possible Alternatives

In the first problem where the company is fined for environmental pollution, this manager may opt for of the two options: either relocate to Mexico or consider scheduling their heavy omission at night. By moving to Mexico, the company shall have eliminated the stringent rules put in place by the environmental protection agency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They will be free to do their production at any time of the day without the worry of breaching any law or regulation. This will help them recover more margins so that they may be in a position to purchase new scrubbers to curb the pollution rate. Since the management is not able to find a solution to this problem as at present and the environmental regulator is continuing to issue fines that are hindering the company’s finances, this may be a very attractive solution to the management.

This is specifically so because the business owner has already made inquiries about the new locations and the authorities there have given him the green light. The other solution may be to reschedule the heavy omission to be at night. Other companies doing the same are getting away with it. The environmental agency has fined this company while other companies, which are in worse states, are doing their passing the set standards simply because they are doing their production at night.

The second problem is to move out of Honda hence rendering many people in this location jobless. There may be two alternatives to this problem. The company may decide to move out of this location for a while but promise the workers of a quick return the moment they are able to adhere to the demands of the environmental agency, or to compensate the workers as an appreciation and make a permanent exit from this town.

Ethics for the Alternatives

In the first problem, the first alternative was to move to Mexico. The ethics in this will be that the company shall have avoided the direct confrontation with the environmental agency. It will be going to a place that considers its rates of pollution as normal. This decision focuses on the properties inherent to the action; hence, it is based on non-consequential theory. The second alternative of rescheduling heavy omissions at night is considerable unethical.

However, this may be the only option if the company is to stay any longer in this location and continue offering the locals job opportunities, which they need most. This option is based on consequential theory as the stay will continue offering the locals job, but should the environmental agency realize the new strategy, the fine can be more severe.

The fist alternative in the second problem is very ethical. The company is very sensitive both to the needs of its current employees and the environmental body. It is a virtue based theory as it plans to move away for a while till it is able to abide by the law and then come back to offer the locals job opportunities. The other alternative of compensating the employees is also ethical. It is an appreciation for their good work. It is based on non-consequential theory, as the company may not directly feel the outcome of the compensation.

The Best Action Plan

In the first case, the company should consider moving to Mexico as the best decision. In so doing, it will avoid long court cases and huge fines that may arise if the environmentalists realize the new tactic of polluting the air at night. It will be sensitive to the need to have a clean environment.

We will write a custom Report on Workplace Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leads us to the best alternative for the second problem of moving out of Hondo. The company should consider moving out of this location just for a while and come back when they are able to keep up with the regulations of the environmentalists. By moving to Mexico, they will still be polluting the environment, which is not ethical. This alterative is based on virtue ethics as it aims at restoring the jobs of those who will be laid off after some time.

Commercial Banking: The Curious Loan Approval – a Case Study Ethical Issues

Adam is concerned that his boss, Mary Ryan may be involved in unethical business practices as a commercial loans officer Farmwood National Bank. The issues that arise in this particular case study are as follows. Mitchell Foods was overleveraged in its application for a short-term loan.

This company did not meet the requirements necessary for it to be awarded the loan. When Adam tried raising the issue with the boss, he was brushed off and told that the criteria he was using in the evaluation was not always a priority to the credit committee. The memorandum he had Sure enough, it went through this committee and the loan was awarded.

The second issue concerns the same boss. She is awarded a personal mortgage loan at abnormally attractive rate. She is allowed a 100 percent, fixed rate financing for the next five years at a 2 percent below the normal rate.

Possible Alternatives

Adam has two alternative course of action for the first problem. He can keep quite about the issue and try to work as per the advice of the boss. The credit committee has approved the request and things are running normally. Moreover, the boss is known for her shrewd approach to her work. She is a role model and for him to reach where she has reached, she will need to be an ally to her. It is only through this that they will be able to work as a team.

Alternatively, he can raise the concern with the management. It is weird that a company that has not qualified for a loan is awarded such in disregard to the laid down regulations. From his college he was taught to always maintain integrity in all his duties as a credit officer. The fact that the memorandum he had written about the issue was brushed off by the boss raises further suspicion. The management should therefore be alerted about the same and an investigation should be launched about the same.

In the second issue of awarding Mary a mortgage loan at abnormally low rates, he can take either of the two options. He can approach Mary and inquire from her how she managed to get the mortgage. He should inquire from her if the mortgage that was awarded to her is related to the loan that was awarded to Mitchell Foods. They can address the issue between them and if need be, he should advice her to always be ethical in her undertakings as a professional credit officer.

Alternatively, he can raise the issue with the management. He can decide to link the controversial loan awarded to Mitchell Foods to the mortgage loan given to Mary. This is because the chair of the board at Bay Street Savings (which awarded Mary the mortgage loan) is also the owner of Mitchell Foods.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Workplace Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ethics for the Alternatives

For the first case, Adam may keep quite because he is not sure of the irregularity. He is just a few months old in this firm and he is not aware of some of the modalities that take place in the department. The management approved the loan just as his boss had informed him.

It may be painful that the memorandum that he had written about the same was disregarded, but it is not very advisable to start brushing shoulders with everyone the wrong way. He will be avoiding the repercussions that may be accompanied with direct confrontation; hence, it is a non-consequential theory. He should take his time and learn the job. He will be able to know when there are irregularities in the operations in the bank. He shall have also known the best approach to take in case of such a situation.

The other alternative of raising the issue with the management is ethical, though the accompanying consequences may be devastating. He can talk to the management about the memorandum that was neglected and the omissions that were made when the board sat to approve the loan application. This is a consequential theory as this action may raise serious reactions that may result in a punitive action taken should there be a proof that there was a malpractice in the process of awarding the loan.

For the second issue of controversial award of mortgage loan to Mary, Adam can directly approach Mary and talk to her about his suspicion. This is ethical because the two will be able to talk as colleagues and settle the suspicion. They are teammates and should not loose trust of each other.

This approach will build trust and they will be able to approach future cases in an amicable way. The decision to involve the management is a sure way to fight unethical issues in running of the activities of the bank. He will be standing firm with the set rules and regulation set for the running of his job. It will be a clear show that he tolerates not, unethical behavior.

The Best Action Plan

For the first case, the best cause of action will be to keep quite and monitor the activities taking place in the department. He should not rush as this may result in actions that may be regrettable. He should therefore consider having an understanding of the department and the field in general, before he can take an active measure should the case happen again.

For the second case, it is recommendable that he talks to Mary in order to clear any suspicion. He should approach her and get the information concerning this reward in an amicable way. This will make them continue working as a team as the trust would be strengthened.

Product (Harmful Ecological Impact)-Case Study Ethical Issues

Robert is faced with an environmental issue that requires balance between the sustainability of the business and environmental concern (76). The two issues in this case are either to disregard environmental concern and produce aerosol stain remover, which is marketable, or continue with the production of the liquid stain remover and face the eminent danger of elimination from the market.

Possible Alternatives

The two issues may be given two approaches. If Robert considers profits other than environmental concerns, then he may choose either of the two options. He may choose to produce aerosol dispenser as a way to get quick finance for his business. As a product manager, he should aim at building a customer base that is large enough to sustain the company. By giving marketing an outward-in approach, he should give the customer requirements a priority and provide them with what they value most.

Alternatively, she can produce both types of dispensers (pump and aerosol) in a bid to balance between the need for profits and the desire to maintain the environment. He can produce aerosols that are enough to cover for the costs of production, and produce the pumps to act as the margins.

If he considers environmental concern, he can then increase its promotional campaigns among the customers of the dangers of aerosols. The company should continue producing environmental friendly products but maintain promotion. Alternatively, he can petition the environmental agencies to put regulations on the industry. All the players should be limited to packaging their products in a manner sensitive to environmental concerns.

Ethics for the Alternatives

The decision to produce aerosols will have the best result in terms of profits. It will enable the company attract the customers they had lost because of the unattractive product.

This will enable it sustain itself in the competitive. However, this approach may not be ethical as it disregards the environmental concerns. Producing a certain percentage of aerosol dispensers and the other percentage as pump dispenser appears ethical as it shows that inasmuch as the company is determined to get profits, it is sensitive to environmental concerns (Bonheoffer 34).

If it considers environmental concern, the option of continuing to produce environmental friendly products is ethical as it give emphasis to the need for a clean environment at all cost. The alternative of seeking regulatory restrictions put in place by the government will be an indication that he is ready to defend the environment through all means.

The Best Action Plan

If Robert considers the need to generate profits, then he should consider producing both types of dispensers as a measure to reduce pollution. It is the best decision as it is sensitive to both the needs of the business and the environment. If he considers giving environment more concern, then it should consider government intervention on environmental preservations. This is to ensure that market competition is leveled, with everyone doing his/her part to conserve the environment.

Taking Credit for Work: Might Makes Right- Case Study Ethical Issues

Janice is a very successful executive who is lucky to have gotten a good job with a good salary. However, his assistant is very frustrated as the salary he gets is hardly enough to cater for his expenses. However, through his hard work, John develops a program that is relevant to the organization. Janice demands to present this program as her own, reward John with a promotion and pay rise. If John rejects the offer then he will be fired. He has to choose between his job and his integrity.

Possible Alternatives

If John decides to maintain his job, he will have to allow his boss to use his work and present it as his. He will get what he had been yawning for so much-promotion and pay rise. Alternatively, he may refuse the usage his work by his boss and raise the concern with the senior authorities. If he decides to quit, he may decide to consider suing his former boss for harassment and demand for compensation. Alternatively, he may decide to quit this job quietly decide on a new path.

Ethics for the Alternatives

By allowing his work to be used by his boss, John will be employing consequential theory, as he will be expecting to be rewarded by job. It is worthy decision as John will be in a position get what he had been looking for in life. By deciding to stay in the firm but refuse to allow usage of the program, john will be fighting for his integrity.

Conclusion Ethics is a very broad issue that one needs to give attention to so that there is harmony in various workplaces. It is a responsibility of everyone to ensure that ethics is maintained, by doing all that pertain to morals. Through this, an organization may be able to develop a comprehensively and integrated work force that is dynamic and ready to help one another. This will make the organization have a peaceful working environment, devoid of direct confrontation.

Works Cited Bonheoffer, Dietrich. Ethics. New York: Macmillan publishers 1995. Web.

Madison, James. Champion of liberty and justice. New York: John Kaminski Parallel Press, 2006. Print.

Robert, John. On Strategic nonviolent conflict: Thinking about the fundamental. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 2002. Print

Tribe, Laurence and Dorf, Michael. On reading the constitution. Utah: University of Utah Press, 1991. Print


Tourism Planning and Development of Margate Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Seaside resorts were created to cater for industrialization in the late 19th century railway era. Back then, they were frequented by wealthy visitors. In the years that followed the depression, they renewed their appeal and attracted a lot of visitors until the Second World War when most were closed.

They began to thrive again in the 1950s and were doing well until the 1970s (English Tourism Council 2001). The decline of the seaside towns began in the mid 1970s (Kennell 2011). In 1974, the world experienced the first international oil crisis. Domestic tourism fell and remained depressed until the late 1980s.

The reported numbers of English seaside tourisists showed a decrease from 32 million to 22 million staying visits and from 193 million to 104 million nights stays (Tourism insights info n. d.). In the 1980s, day visitors to seaside resorts increased tremendously. Most of this tourism market did not spend a lot, it did not contribute to accommodation spending, and it created car congestion eroding the quality of the environment and providing disincentives to better spending customers. (Middleton 2001).

A principal seaside town is one that has a population of more than 10,000 people and one where seaside tourism is a significant factor in the economy (Beatty


Women in Management Opinion Essay essay help

Does gender make a difference in leadership styles? Understanding gender as an essential element of all aspects of each day life has become more and more extensive. Gender makes a difference in leadership style. Every leader has his or her different leadership style and a different strategy of approaching their profession.

Both men and women have their unique and different leadership styles. Gender and leadership style is a subject that has been debated-on over the years. Some people believe that both men and women have similar leadership styles while others believe that their leadership styles vary.

Nonetheless, it is evident that both men and women have different styles of leadership. For instance; Women in leadership use their positions of authority to build a supportive and an accommodating atmosphere.

Men on the other hand use their positions of authority to build a hierarchal atmosphere where they give orders and expect compliance and respect. Men are believed to be autocratic, task and punishment oriented, commanding and controlling. Conversely, women are democratic, reward-oriented, participative or democratic and team players (Sherrill, 2011).

There are various fundamental qualities or features that most people link with leadership. They include; self-reliant, self-sufficient, self-confident, dominant, determined, go-getter and independent. Most people can concur that people who have these qualities are normally seen as leaders (Sherrill, 2011).

An effectual leader is someone who inspires and encourages others to achieve more than they would have otherwise achieved without the involvement of the leader. People believe that leadership is a conventionally masculine activity. Research has shown that just like there are similarities in the leadership styles of both men and women, there are also differences and they are all effective.

There are several leadership theories that help in understanding the concept of leadership. Leadership is not about being on top but it’s about being transformative, goal-oriented, focused and above all being a leader that creates affirmative change. Transformative leadership theory for instance, is about headship that creates confirmatory change in the subordinates whereby they look after each other’s wellbeing and act according to the interests and wellbeing of the entire group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leaders who practice this leadership style, boosts the performance, ethical and motivation of his subordinates (Van, 2000). Women are transformative leaders and they greatly focus on the interest of their subordinates. Men are more demanding, commanding and punishment-oriented.

Transactional leadership theory involves leaders who believe that followers are encouraged through punishment or rewards. Such leaders give orders and instructions to their subordinates regarding their expectations and when those expectations are realized, the followers are rewarded, if not, they are punished.

They assign jobs to the subordinates even when there are no resources; these leaders are self-centered. The majority of male leaders tend to employ this leadership style, they are task-oriented and dictatorial and domineering. Male leaders like to be in control and so they end up putting their interests first (Smith, 2004). Another leadership theory that relates to styles of leadership is Laissez-Faire Leadership; in this case leaders tend to give little or no supervision and direction to the subordinates.

Followers are allowed to be whatever they want: this leadership style works well in situations where subordinated are highly trained, skillful and experienced. Followers are required to solve problems on their own; this can be very risky if they are not skilled or knowledgeable in what they do. This leadership style is employed by both male and female leaders, leaders who are not focused or goal- oriented.

There are other well-established theories concerning leadership styles; such as “Green Man theories.” These theories presume that the ability to lead is intrinsic and that good leaders are not made but are born. They depict good leaders as being heroic, legendary and valiant. The word “Great Man” was utilized because long ago headship was believed to be men’s position. Women were not believed to be good leaders but this mind-set has changed because in the present day, women are been appointed as leaders (Moore, 2004).

The society has always believed that men are brave and authoritative unlike women and so they shouldn’t hold leadership positions. Trait theories also presume that people inherit traits that make them good leaders: there are certain qualities in people that make them good leaders. Just like Great Men theories, trait theories do not support women leadership (Kippenberger, 2002).

All leaders are supposed to be focused with group-members’ interests at heart regardless of their gender. In our society today, some organizations believe that there are female and male positions at work place; this shows that these organizations believe that gender makes difference in leadership style (Broadbridge, 2006).

We will write a custom Essay on Women in Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This may be perceived as some kind of discrimination but being different does not mean women are not good leaders and vice versa. This only means that their approach in leadership is different from that of men. Some believe that men leadership styles are better compared to those of women but the bottom-line is, good leadership styles are those that facilitate the accomplishment of set goals (Dereli, 2010). An effective leader is one who delivers quality work and leads professionally and competently regardless of the gender.

Men and women have their different style of leadership; all through history men have always been given higher positions but in the contemporary society, this is changing because women have proven to be good leaders too, they leadership style is slowly but surely being accepted in the business world.

References Broadbridge, A. (2006).Women in management: perspectives from the European academy of management. USA: Emerald Group Pub.

Dereli, M. (2010). Leadership Styles. New York: VDM Verlag.

Kippenberger, T. (2002). Leadership Styles. Chicago: John Wiley


Corporate Social Responsibility and Apparel Industry Term Paper essay help online free

CSR- History and Introduction Over the years, there has been contention among scholars and industry experts on what exactly CSR means. Unfortunately, the contention and the debate that ensues have not resulted in a standard definition yet. Consequently, different people have different definitions of the term, and some scholars have even accused some researchers of distorting the CSR concept, so much that, it has become “morally vacuous, conceptually meaningless, and utterly unrecognizable” (Orlitzky 48).

Although scholars argue that CSR dates back to the 1920s, its first conceptualization in literature began in 1953, when Howard Bowen, an American Economist stated that organizations had a social obligation “to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable in terms of the objectives and values or our society” (Bowen cited by Maignan and Ferrell 4).

Following the conceptualization of CSR by Bowen in the 1950s, other CSR-related concepts such as corporate citizenship, social audits and corporate stewardship came into focus (Maignan and Ferrell 4). From the 1960s onwards, scholars and researchers have been more concerned about defining the CSR concept.

Defining Sustainability and CSR The 1987 Brundlandt report closely ties sustainability to the sustainable yields concept. Specifically, the report argues that “sustainable yields development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. In other words, the Brundlandt report argues that sustainability is possible if the organizations (and humankind in general) consider the social, economical and ecological aspects similarly.

According to the report, organizations need to be responsible for their actions and inaction in both the short-term and long-term; if at all sustainability is to be attained. The report posits that the present action or inaction by organizations have an impact not only on its stakeholders, but also on the larger humankind with the inclusion of future generations.

Even though there is no standard definition of CSR, a literature review conducted by Dahlsrud reveals that a definition by the Commission of the European Communities is the most prevalent in literature. The Commission defines CSR as “a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (Dahlsrud 7).

Among other terms that are popular in CSR definition include adhering to ethical values, complying with legal requirements, respecting communities, the environment and people, and contributing to the quality of life of the stakeholders and the larger communities. Among the vital indicators that come out of the CSR literature is the fact that organizations should not just pursue profitability without paying attention to the effect that their activities have on the employees, shareholders, communities, and the environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The importance of CSR for Textile and Apparel Industry The textile and apparel industry has an infamous reputation for its use of cheap labor often sourced from overworked employees or underage workers. Most notable is the fact that most such industries are now in developing countries where labor laws are virtually non-existent, while unemployment rates are remarkably high.

Such combination of factors means that organizations can maximize output by overworking employees who are desperate to eke out a living in whatever way, and compensating them with relatively low wages.

The lack of legal and political frameworks in developing countries means that major players in the textile and apparel industry need to take the CSR initiatives a notch higher in order to cover for the management gap created by such legal and political inadequacies. After all, (Maignan and Ferrell 4) indicate that CSR operates outside the legal entitlement of an organization, and is usually voluntary in nature.

Why is CSR needed?

The need for CSR in the textile and apparel industry is underscored by the fact that in view of the lacking political, social and legal guidelines, the organizations operating in the industry have societal obligations that they need to meet. Notably, the need for such organizations to deliver societal values amidst high levels of poverty and insecurity where their business interests are located cannot be overemphasized.

Besides, the CSR hype has alerted employees, government, consumers and larger societies of the social responsibilities that organizations have towards them. Hence, adopting CSR initiatives serves the strategic business interests of organizations operating in the apparel and textile industry since it enables organizations to forge good and beneficial relationships with not only the employees, but also governments, non-government organizations and consumers.

The nature of fashion industry

The nature of the fashion industry is such that there are high lead times that require organizations to produce fashionable clothes at relatively low costs. The CSR in the fashion industry is therefore more focused on the production processes whose end results are the clothes people dress in.

To this end, (Dickson and Eckman 188) argues that CSR in the fashion industry is “an orientation encompassing the environment, its people, the apparel/textile products… and the systematic impact that production, marketing and consumption…has on multiple stakeholders and the environment”. Among the key factors that influence CSR in the fashion industry include the production of raw materials at the farm level, the production processes at the firm level, and the operational factors such as sweatshop and child labor.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Corporate Social Responsibility and Apparel Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the environmental front, the extensive exploitation of natural resources such as water and farm land, and the use of chemical products impact negatively on the environment. Companies that have embraced CSR in the fashion industry therefore seek to address such issues though responsible and sustainable initiatives.

The background: conditions that propel companies to take sustainability into consideration

In literature, there are two basic reasons that propel companies to take sustainability into consideration: (I) the need to look good in the eyes of the employees, the consumers and other stakeholders; and (II) A genuine need to do well, and contribute to the welfare of all stakeholders affected by what the organization does.

In the first instance, organizations find adopting CSR initiatives necessary due to the reputational risk that comes with non-adoption. In the Nike case (explained elsewhere) for example, the firm was criticized for the use of child labor in its value chain, and the effect of such criticism in its sales volume in 2004 was far-reaching.

Internally, companies with a good social responsibility reputation are able to attract and retain employees more, while investors are willing to invest in such firms. In the second instance however, organizations adopt CSR/sustainability simply because “it is the right thing to do”.

The evolution of company’s initiatives- from merely safe guarding image to integrating it as part of their business strategy

CSR is no longer part of public relations practices for organizations. Rather, CSR is now being incorporated as part of the business strategy that organizations take. In the past, firms focused more in corporate communications and corporate philanthropy; nowadays however, CSR is viewed as an important differentiation tool especially in the competitive markets.

As Gildea notes, the consumers is at the middle of the revolution since contemporary purchasers boycott goods or services whose production harms the people, the society or the environmental resources (Gildea 21).

Public pressure

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been on the fore front mobilizing and applying pressure on companies that violate what is considered as socially responsible/sustainable production or manufacturing processes. Among the most effective public pressure means are consumer boycotts. A 1990 article in the Economist, for example stated that “pressure groups are besieging American companies, politicizing business and often presenting executives with impossible choices.

Consumer boycotts are becoming an epidemic for one simple reason: they work” (The Economist 69). The public pressure through boycott is usually marked by negative publicity focusing on what a firm did or failed to do, and such sentiments usually affect its sales volumes and profitability. The public pressure is intended to coerce targeted companies to change their policies regarding an issue; or to communicate displeasure regarding how the target firm is handling an issue.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility and Apparel Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Global Sourcing Shift

The global sourcing shift is a product of globalization, where branded apparel manufacturers, lead firms, marketers and retailers in developed countries have all turned to bulk importation of their products from global suppliers, usually in developing countries (Gereffi 1).

Social and economic impact on countries

It has been argued that the relocation of apparel manufacturing industries to countries with cheap labor tantamount to moving jobs that would otherwise benefit local populations abroad. Incidentally, firms that have relocated their production to cheaper destinations usually have their largest markets in the same destinations they re-located from.

On the counter side however, developing countries where such factories are located benefit from foreign direct investments that creates jobs and earns such countries foreign exchange revenue from exports. However, such countries are now being forced to play catch-up with the developed countries as far as labor and environment-related laws are concerned.

Walmart The catalyst of the Walmart’s Sustainability strategy

A report by the Stanford Graduate School of Business indicates that the Sustainable Value Networks (SVNs) adopted by Walmart acts as catalysts to the chain store’s sustainability strategy. Through the SVNs, Walmart is able to focus on specific areas in its supply chain such as food packaging, transportation or buildings among others.

The chain store identifies and develops any change that may improve sustainability in focus areas. Through the SNVs, Walmart identifies areas where it can enhance efficiency and/or reduce waste either single handedly or through engagement with its suppliers and other stakeholders.

The details of the strategy – specifically to textile and apparel

In the textile and apparel industry, the SNVs strategy in Walmart entails extensive life-cycle analyses done on the apparel production processes with the intention of understanding the exact impact that such processes have on the environment.

According to the report by the Stanford Graduate School of Business (6), it was found that “soap was responsible for an alarming level of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily due to the palm oil used in soap products”. Consequently, Walmart started working with suppliers in view of introducing the sustainable use of palm oil in soap products.

Walmart and Patagonia

In 2010, news broke that Walmart and Patagonia were partnering in order to help the former “move up the sustainable business learning curve fast” (Kimball

Through the partnership, Patagonia would help Walmart in developing a sustainability index for its products like it (Patagonia) had done with other entities such as Nike and North Face. As Walmart sought to introduce a scorecard to rate all its products on social impact and eco-friendliness, Patagonia seemed like the most ideal partner (Kimball). It is worth noting that Patagonia is revered as a leader in sustainable business practices.

Progress- result

In just one year, the Walmart-Pantagonia partnership has opened up to include other players in the apparel industry leading to the formation of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC). SAC has 40 members, who include industry heavy weights such as Patagonia, Walmart, Nike, Gap, and JC Penney among others.

Together, the 40 member in SAC came up with the Sustainable Apparel Index, which is defined as an “Industry-wide tool for measuring the environmental and social performance of apparel products and the supply chains that produces them” (Kirsten Through the index, the SAC members hope to promote efficient use of water and energy; less use of chemicals; less waste production; and enhance the working conditions in the apparel industry (Kirsten).

Nike The initiatives that Nike have undertaken

Ever since the 1990s when Nokia took a hit from consumer boycotts and other forms of public pressure for the alleged use of child labor and sweatshop conditions by some of its suppliers in Asia, the company has taken up CSR initiatives to remedy its dented image. Key among such initiatives was the introduction of a Code of Conduct, which the company demanded that all its suppliers should abide to (Locke, Qin and Brause 8).

The company has further put the minimum age for workers to 18 years, and insists that the indoor air quality in all its supplier factories must meet the ‘Occupational Safety and Health Administration’ (OSHA) standards as used in the US. To boost compliance, (Locke et al. 9) observe that the company trains its suppliers, and has put together a team that monitors compliance in 21 countries.

By 2008, Nike has a further 1,000 production specialists employed to work with its suppliers globally for purposes of enhancing compliance to the Code of Conduct. But perhaps the most significant CSR initiatives by Nike are in the auditing systems, which include: (I) ‘Environment, Safety and Health (SHAPE) audit’; (II) ‘Management and Working Conditions Audit (M-Audit)’; and (III) annual inspections by the ‘Fair Labor Association (FLA)’ (Locke et al. 9).

The minimal impact in monitoring

While monitoring is one way of ensuring compliance of CSR and sustainability initiatives along the supply chain, its impact is often cited as inadequate (May, Cheney and Roper 413). In the apparel industry for example, questions are raised about whether CSR should just stop at ensuring that underage labor is not used, or whether organizations should go a step further and ensure that children go back to school.

Enforcing/ Monitoring CSR initiatives

Enforcing and monitoring of CSR and sustainability initiatives have been the subject of countless debates, both at the organizational level and on other social levels (May et al. 413). The European Union for example founded the ‘Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI)’ for purpose of monitoring how organizations complied with established social standards.

The monitoring is either scheduled or impromptu. While the enforcement of CSR initiatives especially in the Apparel industry is left to individual companies, monitoring is conducted by accredited monitors or independent monitoring agencies.

Lack of effectiveness

The lack of effectiveness in enforcement and monitoring of CSR initiatives is persistent in the apparel industry. Companies which shadow dress their production processes in order to create a positive feedback usually improve the working conditions whenever a scheduled audit is about to happen.

To increase effectiveness in enforcement and monitoring of CSR initiatives it is recommended that auditors should make impromptu visit to companies, establish complaint procedures for employees and other stakeholders, establish contact with local government agencies, and check and audit the company records regularly.

Conclusion Summary

Generally, CSR initiatives lead to better working conditions for employees, cleaner production processes, energy efficiency and enhanced employee and consumer loyalty. Hence, organizations not only reap direct and indirect benefits from the CSR initiatives. Suppliers in the apparel industry are for example able to attract big clients and even financiers who are keen to protect their brand reputations. In the end, CSR becomes a business strategy, which effectively increases the gross returns in firms in the apparel industry.

Challenges still faced

One of the major challenges in CSR is contained in the fact that the concept is more of a fad than the reality in most contemporary firms. Hence, firms attempt to ‘look good’ by claiming to adopt CSR/sustainability initiatives, while the reality may be completely different. Additionally, the imprecise definition of the CSR concept may mean that different firms adopt different CSR initiatives, which as (May et al. 413) observe, may not be sufficient enough to address the contradictions caused by capitalism on societies. In the apparel industry for example, CSR may not be able to compensate indigenous people who have been of the receiving end of poor working environments, poor pay, long working hours and victimization at the work place.

Recommendations Awareness creation regarding CSR practices and issues is needed if at all companies regardless of their sizes or financial positions are to benefit from the concept. Additionally, solutions to the different challenges facing the textile and apparel industry need to be found. For example, the competing codes of conducts need to be rationalized.

Lastly, (May et al. 413) observe that implementation and evaluation of CSR initiatives is always done away from the public eye, and this may create room for organizations to whitewash their activities by initiating programs, which are never followed up, or implemented to the full. In future, the implementation and evaluation of such initiatives should be conducted in a transparent manner.

Works Cited Dahlsrud, Alexander. “How Corporate Social responsibility is defined: an Analysis of 37 Definitions.” Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15 (2008): 1-13. Print.

Dickson, Marsha and Eckman Molly. “Social Responsibility: The Concept as Defined by Apparel and Textile Scholars.” Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 24 (2006): 178-191. Print.

Gereffi, Gary. “Global Sourcing in the U.S. Apparel Industry.” Journal of Textile and Apparel, technology and Management, 2.1 (2001):1-5. Print.

Gildea, Robert L. “Consumer Survey Confirms Corporate Social Action Affects Buying Decisions.” Public Relations Quarterly, 39 (1994-95): 20-22. Print.

Kimball, Jay. “Walmart Partnering with Patagonia on Sustainable Business Practices.” 8020 Vision, 01 Jul. 2010. Web.

Kirsten, Ann. “Promoting Sustainable Apparel.” Katerva, 2 Aug. 2011. Web.

Locke, Richard, Qin Fei and Brause, Alberto. “Does Monitoring Improve Labor Standards? Lessons from Nike.” Industrial and Labor relations Review, 61.1(2007): 3-31. Print.

Maignan, Isabell and Ferrell O.C. (2004). “Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32.1(2004): 3-19. Print.

May, Steve Kent, Cheney George and Roper Juliet. The Debate over Corporate Social Responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Orlitzky, Mark. “Payoffs to Social and Environmental Performance.” Journal of Investing, 14.3 (2005):48-51. Print.

Stanford Graduate School of Business. “Walmart’s Sustainability Strategy (B): 2010 Update.” (2010):1-21. Print.

The Economist. “Boycotting Corporate America.” The Economist, 26 May (1990): 69-70. Print.


Last Night I dreamt of Peace Response Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Lessons Learned from the Book


Work Cited

Introduction The Vietnam War is one of the fiercest wars that the United States of America has ever been involved in as an sole nation in modern history. This war was fought during the 1960s. The stakes of the war were high and as a result, a lot of properties were destroyed, many individuals lost their lives and many more had serious injuries.

The war also had a lot of psychological impacts on all those individuals who were directly or indirectly affected by its impacts. These included Vietnamese soldiers, war volunteers, doctors, politicians and the natives and the US soldiers. Thuy, the author of the book, Last Night I Dreamed of Peace, was among those individuals who were psychologically affected by the war. She was a young girl in her mid 20s who had just started practicing her medical her career.

However, in the course of the war, she had to ensure that her fellow citizens received quality medical care. At the same time, she was torn with her personal life as she was looking for love. The book was based on the entries that she had made on her diary. The main aim of this essay therefore is to critically analyze her thoughts as they were presented in the book and expound on the lessons learned from her encounters.

Lessons Learned from the Book There are several lessons that I have learned after reading the book. However, for the ease of explanation and expression, all these lessons can be simplified into one main lesson: the importance of patriotism. In the world that we are currently living in, almost all the countries are sovereign states.

All these countries have an independent government, a head of the state, a military to defend its boundaries, a constitution to govern the conduct of its subjects and the citizens who make the bulk of the nation or state. It is the citizens who are the main reason why the nation has a constitution, a head of state and a military to protect them from internal or external attacks.

Due to this fact, it is essential for an individual to have love for his/her nation and be ready to protect it at all times regardless of the cost that he/she has to pay. Most importantly, it is essential for an individual to be loyal to his/her state.

Dang Thuy exhibited a good example on the extent to which individuals should to loyal to their states. From the records of her diary, it is evident that she loved her country and would go to any extent to defend it. In 1966, Thuy joined other volunteers of the Vietnam War and to against the Americans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 25 year old took her backpack, filled it with medical supplies and set off to treat individuals who were injured in the process of the war. This included the soldiers who were fighting against the Americans and other civilians who were victims of circumstances. For three years, Thuy continued to offer her services to her people, risking her life each and every day. She was ready to go to any extent to ensure that her people received quality health services.

Despite the love that she has for her nation and the effort that she had put into place to ensure that all her personal goals of freedom and peace have been achieved, Thuy was also fighting hard with her emotions. Like any other human being, she felt that for her life to be complete, she should love someone and receive love from that individual in return. In the book, she says: “Why is a wound in my heart so hard to heal?” (Thuy 97).

She goes ahead to explain that while at school, many boys fell in love with her and even in the course of the war, most of the soldiers whom she had treated had fell in love with her. However, what she felt for them was brotherly love and that is why she cared that much for them hence is risked her life (Thuy 115).

In the process of providing her services to these individuals, Thuy risks her life as she fled from one village to the next while constructing mobile clinics that she used as a hospital to treat her fellow kinsmen. This put her life at risk since it is such clinics that the US army sought for their attacks. She says, “This is war… it spares no one, not a baby or an old woman, and the most hideous thing about it is the bloodthirsty Americans,” (Thuy 149).

Conclusion Thuys clinics were destroyed on numerous occasions. She was forced to evacuate her staff and patients in the process and construct a new shelter on safer grounds. These were the actions of an individual who truly loved her country and was ready to protect it and its citizens at any cost.

The efforts that Thuy put for her nation in during the Vietnam War were remarkable. They showed the amount of patriotism that she had for her nation. I therefore feel that we should all have the same level of patriotism for our countries. This will ensure that we will live in peace and harmony and protect the nations that we seek allegiance to at all costs.

Work Cited Thuy, Dang. Last Night I Dreamed of Peace: The Diary of Dang Thuy Tram. Boston: Harmony Books, 2007. Print

We will write a custom Essay on Last Night I dreamt of Peace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Organizational Challenges in the 21st Century Analytical Essay best essay help

Introduction In light with the developments of the 21st century, the business world has been in the heart of the revolutions. The key concepts of technology, liberalizations of markets and globalization have really transformed the world. As a result of these transformations, increased activity in the commercial and industrial sectors has been witnessed.

The world is presently operating as one village, whereby people are able to communicate efficiently and conveniently with one another. This has been facilitated by the growth of computer and internet technology. The growth of air transport has also been of significant influence to the enhancement of transport. With these developments, communication and transport have been heightened thus enhancing global relations in terms of business and other activities.

Nevertheless, the growth of globalization has not come singly, whereby it has been associated with various limitations. In this case, the issue of global recession is a factor of globalization, whereby nations directly depend on one another for business. This is unlike years, whereby nations operated independently.

With regards to the emergence of global recession, which refers to global economic slowdown, business organizations are obligated to undertake the most competitive leadership strategies so as to counter the situation. This is in response to the lost business and the diminishing market potentiality.

As noted by Northouse (2007: 101), business organizations have been significantly impacted by the issue of global recession. This refers to a period of global economic slowdown or down turn, whereby nations experience limited economic growth rates of 3% of less.

Combination of this situation with the overwhelming competition in the international markets, business organizations find it hard to survive. The situation can only be countered by adoption of the most efficient leadership styles. A good example is Nokia which has in the recent faced it rough in the technology and mobile phone industry.

The challenges facing the company are based on the issue of global recession and growth of competition in the industry it is operating in (Isaksen and Tidd 2006: 102). In reaction to the situation, the company is forced to adopt the most competitive and leadership techniques so as to overcome the challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A study by Kotter (1996: 68) indicated that good leadership is the only solution to the challenges faced by business in the height of global recession among other challenges like increased competition. In this case, transformational leadership has been highlighted as the most appropriate leadership approach for organizations in recent days. Transformational leadership has been defined as a form of leadership style whereby leaders and their followers align themselves to higher moral and motivational levels (Fisher and Ury 1992: 29).

This is attained through impacting visions and personality among all individuals in the organizations. With regards to this leadership style, leaders have the obligation of inspiring their followers to change their perceptions and expectations.

With the challenges of global recession, this leadership style stands to be very efficient in the sense that it will bring every individual in the organization into focus and adjust to the prevailing situation. A point worth of consideration is that this leadership style demands leaders to motivate employees towards attaining a common goal (Weinstein et al 2004: 71). By so doing, the challenges facing the business will be countered.

Cherry (2011: 1) indicated that transformational leadership style is guided by various components which makes it efficient in countering business challenges. Firstly, the concept of intellectual stimulation is highly embraced in this leadership approach. In this case, the leaders do not only challenge the status quo, but also instill creativity among the employees.

Hacker and Roberts (2003: 45) depicted that leaders should encourage followers to be innovative and do things in new ways thus exploiting available opportunities. In the case of Nokia the company has in the recent been in its endeavors to intellectually stimulate its employees. This is an efficient approach in countering the economic slowdown, whereby new strategies of doing business as well as products will be attained.

The concept of individualized consideration is also addressed in this leadership style. In this case, leaders should offer encouragement and support to all individuals within the organizations. A point worth of consideration is that leaders should foster supportive relationships through open communication, where followers are free to share and seek ideas (Bass and Riggio 2006: 78). By undertaking these approaches, organizations will be able to acquire unique ideas and contributions from their followers.

Chase et al (2001: 49) depicted that leaders in the contemporary society should offer inspirational motivation to their employees. This is acquired through the provision of a clear vision which will help in guiding the followers. By inspiring the followers, leaders will help their followers to experience same motivation and passion which will help in realizing the common goal. Another core component of transformational leadership is the issue of idealized influence.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Challenges in the 21st Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yukl (2001: 93) argued that leaders should be a role model to their followers. This concept can not be exempted from leadership in the contemporary society based the numerous challenges faced by businesses. Schein (1992: 62) noted that followers respect and trust their leaders and they will simply emulate them.

With this in mind, business organizations will be able to overcome the challenges they are facing in the height of global recession. Global recession is leading to loss of business hence calling for the adoption of best leadership strategies.

Alongside the adoption of transformational leadership style, the concept of total quality management (TQM) can not be exempted from organizational management in recent days. As noted by Hakes (2001: 22) the issue of quality and product leadership has been identified as key aspects of success.

With this in mind, business organizations are obligated to ensure that their products and services are of the best quality in the market. Every business organization should keep a watch of the products and services of its competitors (Wilson 2005: 102). The concept of TQM basically refers to an approach of management which entails on managing entire organization so as to produce quality goods and services. In the case of mobile phone industry, quality of the products has been of great importance.

In this case, each company is seeking to improve its services and products. In the midst of global recession, Nokia is obligated to ensure optimum quality of its products (Bass and Riggio 2006: 78). Based on this scenario, the adoption of TQM is inevitable for the success of Nokia during this period of economic slow down.

Pekar (2005: 42) outlined that employee involvement in the running of an organizations in recent days is inevitable. Employee involvement is a key element of TQM, whereby they are able to prevent problems before they occur. Organizations are also obligated to focus on their customers so as to determine the actual wants and needs of the customers.

This will help an organization to offer quality products and services which meet the needs of customers. In the case of Nokia, the need for Smartphone has been an overwhelming market trend in recent days. In order for the company to realize its dreams and counter the market challenges it has no obligation of adopting the market demands. This is part of TQM, whereby the company’s operations and product specifications are dictated by the market demands (Pekar 2005: 42).

The concept of benchmarking is also a key leadership and business management approach that can not be down looked. As observed by Hakes (2001: 22) benchmarking is an element of TQM in which an organization seeks out other organizations it is operating with. An organization uses the products and services of other companies as its benchmark or standard, thus being able to judge its performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Challenges in the 21st Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also worth noting that organizations are also required to adapt as well as improve processes adopted by other organizations. This will help an organization to attain the high quality and efficient products, thus being able to win the market. Presently, TQM has proved to be an efficient leadership and management approach which has helped many businesses to endure market excellence (Hakes 2001: 22).

Conclusion In consideration with the discussion and analysis of the business environment in the 21st century, it has been clearly evident that business organizations are faced with numerous challenges. The issues of global recession and increased competition in the corporate world have been overwhelming in recent days. In response to these challenges, business organizations are obligated to adopt the most efficient leadership styles.

In this case, the concepts f transformational leadership and TQM have been highlighted as the most suitable for business organizations in recent days. This will help business organization to be efficient and steadfast in offering the best products and services. For instance, the case of Nokia has been overwhelming, whereby it is facing numerous challenges following the issue of global recession and competition in the mobile industry. In response to this scenarios, the company is obligated to adopting the above highlighted leadership approaches.

Reference List Bass, B. and Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational Leadership. New York: Routldge, 78-102.

Chase, R. et al. (2001). Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. New York: McGraw Hill Press, 49-81.

Cherry, K. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved from:

Fisher, R. and Ury, W. (1992). Getting to Yes: Classic text on negotiation. New York McGraw Hill, 29-51.

Hacker, S. and Roberts, T. (2003). Transformational Leadership: Creating Organizations of Meaning. London: Routldge, 45-63.

Hakes, C. (2001), Total Quality Management: The Key to Business Improvement. London: Routldge, 22-36.

Isaksen, S. and Tidd, J. (2006). Meeting the Innovation Challenge: Leadership for Transformation and Growth. London: Wiley


Sustainability Reporting Benefits Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Executive summary Desire by stakeholders to keep track of organizational performance has led to emergence of sustainability reporting. The report is prepared focusing on social, economic and environmental issues that affect organizations as well as their positive and negative impacts. Implementation of sustainability reporting follows a certain sequence which ensures that final report captures all the relevant information. Management team and stakeholders are involved in identifying issues affecting their organization.

These issues are then evaluated and report compiled before it is communicated. Some of the reasons why organizations report include enhancing financial value and encouraging innovation to improve competitiveness.

The main features of the report include organization’s profile, strategies and analysis as well as parameters used in collecting data and compiling the report. Sustainability reporting helps organizations cut down on operations cost and improves on their profitability. Consequently, organizations ought to adopt it if they wish to continue improving their performance and profitability.

Introduction Stakeholders want to keep track of organizational performance so as to tell when their organization is making progress or failing. Desire to understand organizational performance is triggered by need of the business community to respond to matters affecting sustainable development (KPMG International, 2008, p. 14). Currently, business strategies, public disclosure and operational strategies are developed in line with enhancement of sustainable performance.

Overview of the task

As organizations turn to sustainability reporting, there are numerous reasons that have made them take this direction. This paper aims at looking at reasons why organizations are adopting sustainability reporting, some elements of the report and steps followed in implementing sustainability reporting process.

Reporting purpose and structure

This report aims at bringing out benefits associated with sustainability reporting thus explaining why organizations are adopting the practice. It will focus reasons for sustainability reporting, outline features of sustainability reporting and describe how it is implemented. Recommendation why organizations need to adopt sustainability reporting will also be given.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sustainability reporting reasons Exhibit transparency

Through sustainability reporting, organization is able to demonstrate its dedication to managing its environmental, economic and social impacts. This provides a platform for stakeholders to deliberate on what needs to be done to help the organization realize its goals (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, p. 1).

Enhancing reputation

Organizational reputation depends on how stakeholders view the organization with respect to social, environmental and economic dimensions. As sustainability reporting enlightens stakeholders on how an organization is performing in the market as well as strategies being used to achieve organizational goals, it facilitates in managing their perceptions (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, p. 1). Consequently, sustainability reporting helps in maintaining and enhancing corporate reputation.

Creating financial value

At times, sustainability reporting process entails collecting and analyzing information regarding materials and resource usage as well as assessing organizational processes. Accordingly, organizations using this process are able to identify opportunities for cutting down on operations cost and at the same time boosting their revenues. Moreover, sustainability reporting helps in coming up with measures to ensure that organizational materials and resources are efficiently utilized.

Encouraging innovation

Sustainability reporting leads to stakeholders coming up with strategies to improve organizational performance (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, p. 1). This helps in enhancing competitive advantage. For instance, understanding various stakeholder concerns leads to creation of ground-breaking products and services.

Enhancing regulatory compliance

Sustainability reporting helps management identify emerging areas of compliance such as global warming thus ensuring that they comply with established guidelines. Besides, it may help organizations influence prospect regulatory responses such as mitigating regulations in areas where deliberate disclosure frameworks are found to be effective.

Sustainability reporting features Strategies and analysis

One of the elements of sustainability reporting is strategies and analysis. This contains statement from managers that are given the mandate to make final decisions in an organization (White, 2009, p. 125). The statement outlines relevance of sustainability reporting to the organization and measures put in place to ensure sustainability. Moreover, key impacts are describes as well as potential risks facing the organization and possible opportunities.

Organizational profile

The second feature entails organizational profile. Name of the organization is given as well as brands offered by the specific organization. For a company offering services, the various services offered are described. In addition, operational structure of the organization is described paying attention to different divisions found within the organization if any (White, 2009, p. 125).

We will write a custom Report on Sustainability Reporting Benefits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organization is fully described leading to stakeholders and public understanding it better. Features such as market served by the organization and awards received are brought out.

Report parameters

These include parameters such as reporting period, course for determining report scope and boundaries and any restrictions on report coverage. Tables indicating standard disclosures contained in the report; with respect to global reporting initiative are also included. Insight into the organization’s policies and practices regarding assurance for the report is also included in the parameters (White, 2009, p. 125).

Sustainability reporting implementation Preparation

The first step in implementing sustainability reporting is preparation. Here, an internal dialogue has to be done at the management level to identify social, economic and environmental issues affecting the organization. Positive and negative impacts of these issues are also identified (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).


This is a very important part of implementation process. It entails collecting views from stakeholders on what features to be included in the report. It helps in ensuring that all vital information is included in the final report thus ensuring that a comprehensive report is achieved (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).


Information gathered from stakeholders (in connect section) confirms if positive and negative features highlighted by management team (in preparation section) are the most vital (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145). This helps in defining the report’s focus. In addition, the reasons why various choices were made are made clear.


This involves collecting data that will be included in the final report. Global reporting initiative indicators help organizations in identifying what to monitor or what to look for during data collection (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).


Information collected in the monitor section is included in the final report. Implementation process does not end here. Final report is prepared and compiled. Besides, decisions about how to communicate the report’s findings are made (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).

Recommendation Enhancing financial value

Organizations are continuously looking for ways to improve their profitability by cutting down on operations cost. The fact that sustainability reporting facilitates in enhancing financial value of an organization underlines the reason why organizations need to adopt it. Through this, organizations will be able to assess how resources and materials are utilized. Apart from monitoring material and resource usage, organizations will effectively manage their operational processes thus improving overall efficiency.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainability Reporting Benefits by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sustainability reporting looks into both internal and external factors affecting an organization. Accordingly, the practice will help organizations identify novel opportunities for increasing their revenues.

Reference List Commonwealth of Australia, 2010. Sustainability reporting. Web.

Geraghty, L., 2010. Sustainability reporting – measure to manage, manage to change. Keeping Good Companies, 3, pp. 141-145.

KPMG International, 2008. KPMG International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2008. Web.

White, G. B., 2009. Sustainability reporting: Managing for wealth and corporate health. New York: Business Expert Press.


Macroeconomics Descriptive Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Gross domestic product refers to the valuation of goods and services produced in a country which are done by the nominal gross domestic products which are reckoned to be the measurement of the value of goods and services produced and expressed as per the current prices and real gross domestic products. It all measures the value of all the goods and services produced and expressed in the prices of some of the base year (Moffat 2001).

Taking into account the collected data from the year 200, it is possible to note that the economic situation in the country has greatly increased and succeeded producing the goods and the necessary services of about 100 billion that had actually happened thanks to the prices of the same mentioned year (Blades and leguiller 2004).

Since we have taking the 200 year for the analysis, it can be noted that the nominal and the real GDP stand on the same level (Cliff Notes. com 2011). Looking back at the year 2001, the economy was actively developing constantly producing the services as well as the goods that were actually based on the prices of the 2001 year. The same goods and services are valued instead of 105 billion dollars, if year 2000 prices are used, then:

Year 2000 Nominal GDP=$100B, Real GDP=$100B

Year 2001 Nominal GDP =$ 110B, Real GDP=$105B

Nominal GDP Growth Rate=10%

Real GDP Growth Rate= 5%.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nominal GDP refers to the valuation of all goods and services produced in an economy during a given year, calculated by using the prices current in the year in which the output is produced and, on the other hand, Real GDP is the value of the final produce calculated using the prices of some base year (U.S commerce department 2002).

Real GDP has being of a great importance to the society because it measures what is really being produced; Nominal GDP is calculated at existing prices whereas Real GDP is nominal GDP adjusted to the inflation (U.S commerce department, 2002).

The Real GDP is an indicator of economic growth and also an indicator of recessions which is an indication that Real GDP should be used for economic analysis instead of Nominal GDP. The rate of growth of the economy is given as the annual rate of change of real GDP (Mankiws, 2000).

According to Lequiller (2004), much is expected of Real GDP which is perhaps a misunderstanding indicator. From the world statistics real GDP is a controversial icon. The reasons which explain why the Real GDP is not a good measure of economic welfare is because it measures rather income but not equality; it also measures the growth but not destruction and it ignores values such as social cohesion and the environment.

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Australia’s GDP real growth rate % 4.1 3.6 3 3.5 2.7 2.7 4.3 2.3 1.2 2.7 China’s GDP real growth rate % 8 8 8 9.1 9.1 10.2 11.9 9 9.1 10.3 Source: CIA World fact book 1st Jan 2011

Source: Australian Historical consumer price index (CPI)

When unemployment rate is high, the Real GDP is low and the inflation rate slows down. When the real GDP is constant, the inflation rate follows the same trend and the natural rate of unemployment is not necessarily constant (Mc Graw Hill Companies., 2002). When the Real GDP is high, the unemployment rate is low and the inflation rate accelerates. When the Real GDP is low, many people lose their jobs and the unemployment rate is high. Therefore, higher unemployment rate is necessary to keep inflation from accelerating.

We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Blades, D., and Lequiller F., 2004. Compatibilite nationale manuel pour etudiants. Paris: Economica.

Cliffs, 2011. Nominal GDP, Real GDP and Price level, Cliffs Notes Web.

Mankiw, G. N., 2000. Principles of macroeconomics, 2nd ed. USA: Harvard University.

Mc Graw Hill Companies., 2002. U.S commerce department. The Mc Graw Hill Companies Web.

Moffat, M., 2011. Former guide. Economics Web.


Ethic and Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and IT Essay scholarship essay help

Professional code of conduct as well as ethics is important in an individual’s way of live and work. This is of great importance to the world of technology that includes multimedia and information technology sectors. The Multimedia and IT field in the recent years have shown great improvement due to advancement in internet through the use of optical fibber that have led to social networks sites such as the twitter, Facebook, and the bloggers.

In addition, the development of internet gadgets such as mobile phones, modems, laptops and the networking of computers have posed a great threat to the ethics of multimedia and IT. The increase in use of these sites and other IT related gadgets have brought the maintenance and integrity of ethics in the communication and media field to a threat.

According to the media associations, the work of the media and IT is to inform people about the happenings of the world and a means of communication that would bring growth rather than disasters. However, the main objective of the communication and media field has changed as in the recent cases of the Arab countries.

In Egypt, during the Anti-Mubarak protests, the protesters used the social networks to organize themselves, spread rumours, and keep each other informed of the progress of the protests Sharp (2011, p. 2). They used several forms of communication especially the use of social networks.

Sharp (2011, p. 2) asserts that after the government realized the role of the media to the protests, they blocked all forms of media including the use of internet. In addition, in 2009 the social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and bloggers and Yu tube played a great role in organization of protests to show their feelings after the result Kamalipour (2010, p. 62).

Kamalipour (2010, p. 62) further asserts that this social media sites informed the world on the situation in Iran. Like in Egypt, the Iranian government responded by blocking the use of internet in Iran, especially the social network sites Kamalipour (2011, p. 62). The media was further used to send rumours of the situation on the grounds such as the magnitude of the people killed by the riot police as they tried to seek for sympathizers from the world Sharp (2011, p. 9).

During these instances, the media generally focus only on one of the parties involved. For instance during the Egypt protests the major focus was on the killings of the protestors by the riot police. The media and communication ethic on public matter has been to preach peace and unity but in several instances, the media has caused political instability. Further, media has spread hate speeches and rumours either between political affiliates or between countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several nations have experienced political instabilities in the recent years due to the conflicting information passed through the media or through social networks. For instance in many countries after elections, tribal clashes are highly initiated by the tallying proceedings that are broadcasted in different stations. Communication and media ethics further dictate that media has the right to influence the people’s morals in a positive manner.

However, with the extensive use of internet, TV’s, video films and video games, media has influenced the moral behaviours of many youths. The use of media have exposed people to several programs, movies and sites that are not worth to be viewed by different kinds of people. For instance, young people who have access to internet on their phones and private laptops have been exposed to information that has influenced their behaviours.

Technology advancement has affected the morals of the people as they are exposed to them. Further, the media and IT ethics have been affected by the increase in media and IT crimes. With the improved technology, the knowledge of people has greatly changed causing a great threat in the media fields.

The cases of cyber crimes and cyber burying have tremendously increased with time. This has put the security of the people and government at risk. Cyber crimes such as cyber theft where thieves steal through the internet by getting access to other peoples accounts have increased.

Other cyber crimes include hackling of websites and email addresses, the use of email to send spam messages to other people. People use the media to send messages in request of ransoms for an internet crime committed or to con other people over the internet. Further, IT has been used to impersonate and in copyrights. Copyrighting being a crime has violated many people’s rights.

Those who perpetuate these crimes copy and sell the pirated copies for their own benefit. Further, there are media sources that cause fear to the audience or the people. In May 2006, an American TV (ABC) aired a movie in name “Fatal Contact: bird Flu in America” Perebinossoff (2008, p. 75-76) that had excessive and rumours of the H5N1 virus that causes bird flu. This movie was also made available in DVDs, which caused great fear to the people. The movie further exaggerated the threat of the H5N1virus.

Conclusion With the advancement in technology, the ethics in the communication and media has greatly fluctuated. This is due to the increase in the number of people using the media sources. There have been great efforts by the government and the media associations but to date their efforts have not brought good results.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethic and Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and IT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their efforts have been greatly affected by the fact that media and IT cannot be abolished completely. In day-to-day activities, media and IT has to be involved and in the government. However, more and more efforts need to be inputted to bring a long-term solution that will raise the ethics of media. This will help in maintenance of peace and order as well as to increase the security of the citizens through reduction of cyber crimes.

References Kamalipour, Y 2010, Media, power and politics in the digital age: The 2009 presidential uprising in Iran, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Maryland.

Perebinossoff, P 2008, Real-world media ethics: Inside the broadcast and Entertainment Industries, Elsevier, Oxford.

Sharp, J 2011, Egypt: the January 25 revolution and implication for US foreign policy, Congressional Research service, Washington DC.


Problem of Antisocial Networking in Modern World Argumentative Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The onset of this decade will be remembered for the increased unrest in most world nations especially in the Arab world. While a set of underlying issues such as poor governance and human rights violation account for the main causes of the unrests, the role of social networking sites in exacerbating the unrests cannot be undermined.

Though the social networking sites have innumerable benefits to the subscribers, they can also form powerful tools for destruction. It is thus self evident that employing proper control measures cam help in managing uprisings in these destabilized countries. Employing control measures, however, is likely to jeopardize people’s right to privacy. With such situations, issues of national security should be prioritized over privacy issues.

While social networking sites provides a platform for exchange of ideas that can lead to socioeconomic empowerment of the subscribers, they have an organizational capability that is exceptionally rare and can be put to destructive uses. These social sites provide an instant form of communication at times of unrest and can easily influence likeminded individuals to act towards committing barbaric acts.

These social sites are tools that can benefit man in various ways. However, as tools they can also be used for destructive purposes. Other than their organizational influence, these sites provide avenues for sharing of media files that can further incite people to commit acts of violence. Some of these media files can be simulated and may not reflect the real situation, but they do have an enormous appeal to the masses.

The social networking sites reportedly played crucial roles in almost all the riots witnessed in the recent past. Facebook, twitter, blogs and blackberry messenger services have been highlighted as some of the most popular social sites. The latter has been touted as largely responsible for the recently witnessed London riots.

With their massive influence, the most relevant question is how the damaging effects of these sites and other information communication technologies can be controlled. It is evident that any ill minded individual is capable of using these sites to cause devastating harm. All it takes to influence people in facebook is a status update or a post in a popular page. Greater control and surveillance of these sites and communication technologies will protect issues of national security to a large extent.

In this modern era, virtually all countries can boast of achieving basic rights of expression, speech and right to privacy. Most free speech campaigners have strongly opposed the moves to restrict the use of these digital communication pathways. With the negative effects of these sites undeniably clear, surveillance moves are much warranted (Knapp, 2011 p. 47).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While control measures such as screening of messages that people send or post may seem to be an infringement of people’s right to privacy, they ensure public safety. Issues of public safety and national security are issues that are core to democracies just like the inalienable right to privacy.

Instituting greater control measures will enable governments control the adverse effects of violence and widespread unrest. Control of digital communications is unlikely to surmount to increased conflict and tension. This is because a significant proportion of users put these social sites to positive uses. Such users will, thus, not feel much infringed when the contents of their posts are screened (Downes, 2009).

While it is difficult to strike a balance between the right to privacy and control of these sites for national interest, the importance of national security and public safety cannot be underscored. In any case, the social networking sites cannot wholly guarantee privacy to their subscribers (Floridi, 2010). Many times, hackers have been able to obtain people’s data through the social sites. For public safety, it is imperative that control measures be ensured.

Bibliography Downes, L. 2009. The Laws of Disruption: Harnessing the New Forces that Govern Life and Business in the Digital Age. New York: Basic Books.

Floridi, L. 2010. The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Knapp, E. D. 2011. Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems. New York: Elsevier.


Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology Essay college essay help

Media and the rising ease of information access have facilitated major legal and societal concerns in the past. Digital convergence and globalization in the present societies raise intricate legal, societal and ethical issues, regarding information access, privacy rights, intellectual property rights and freedom of expression (Gupta, 2005, p. 123).

Because information and Communication Technology is an instrumental tool for gathering information, it should be availed as a basic human right. However, this right is abused all over the world for various reasons such as political stability, anti terrorism campaigns, economic advancements, personal greed and for religious causes. Governments have had concerns over the liberty and use of technologies, in regard to national securities.

In addition to this, it is becoming more difficult for governments to control accessibility to the global information systems. Because if this, the fundamental concern over ICT is creating a balance between information access and marinating national security (Schultz, 2006, p. 118). The ethical issue is how a government can decide on controlling access, to what extent, and what kind of information they should control.

The media has made it possible for people to access information as well as communicate globally. An example of this is the happening in Egypt, in January 2011, when people use internet media and social sites to organize protests against the then Egyptian president. Because of these concerns, it has been important for governments to come up with strategies of combating incidences of malicious attacks, computer crimes, fraud, and violations of rights.

Governments need to inform citizens of the security risks involved in internet and media information access. While it is important for governments to control information flow for national security, it is also important for them to make their citizens aware of the need for the control.

Creating a balance between access and security should not be a difficult decision for governments to make because the ICT sector has recognised global ethical issues that affect the industry, and as such, devised ethical guidelines on how to handle such. In addition to these, there are legislations that guide information handling, access and use.

If a country recognises the citizen’s right to obtain information, as well as the importance of obtaining these information, it would not selfishly deny them the right. However, in cases such as the Egypt saga, they are globally recognised as selfish attempts by government leaders to deny citizens their right to access information (Liebowitz


Stop Aid to Africa Research Paper scholarship essay help

Most of foreign aid to Africa is aimed at promoting democracy in governments. Numerous donor agencies spend huge budget annually to fund democracy related programs in Africa. These programs include; elections support, strengthening of parliament, judicial and political parties and fostering growth and power of civil society organization such as labor unions and women human rights groups (Stephen, 2004).

Technical assistance is also targeted in democracy promotion. Small fraction of all aid the United States and other donors often conditionally grants to Africa is intended for general budget support on performance in the area of civil liberties, conduct of elections, and respect of the rule of law (Thad, 2004).

Over the past years donor funding to Africa has been marred by irregularities. There are many shortcomings related to donor funding in Africa and it is necessary for donors to stop funding Africa. Many scholars have argued that foreign country should stop donor funding to Africa because it is not serving the intended purpose (Carol, 1999).

Donor funding has encouraged dependency by African countries. They have relied so much on donor funds and failed to come up with strategies for mobilizing revenues to sustain their budget. African countries have accumulated large debts because they have always depended on foreign country donor funding for many years showing little efforts to look for alternative ways to sustain their economy.

Aid to Africa has distorted African countries economy by encouraging unhealthy competition between key economy sectors in African market. Additionally, there has been unfair competition between those getting donor support (governments) and those who do not get donor support (private sector) affecting African countries economy negatively.

Africa donor funding has been a key factor in fuelling inflation in Africa countries. Inflation in return has led to increased cost of living causing most of African people to languish in poverty. Ironically, most of donor funded African countries experience poor economic growth (Joseph, 2009).

Aid to Africa has created moral hazard for authoritarian local politician who pursue goals at odds with the aims of foreign donors. Aid to Africa simply provides a source of income with which autocratic leaders may repress local population (Bruce


Implementation of Recommendations Report essay help online: essay help online

Objectives and purpose of the report The objective of this reflective report is to establish the relationship between various labor issues as component of decision science in management. The paper reflects on how motivation and participatory decision making processes impact on performance of an organization.

Summary of important recommendation According to Bruce (1999), the best way to motivate employees is by giving them responsibilities for achieving something and the authority to do it in their own way. Through this approach, employees will be empowered and they will feel trusted and valued by the management personnel and the company as a whole. Naturally, human beings would wish for motivation through mutual consent and internalized empowerment and appreciation (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 27).

Empowerment unleashes plenty of energy and motivation (Bruce, 60). Reflectively, the motivational and energy aspects of appreciation functions simultaneously at micro and macro levels to facilitate optimal functionality or productivity. Empowering employees ensures a stable and sustainable a win-win situation as employees will be motivated to work without much supervision from the management or their supervisors.

When properly incorporated within and without different departmental segmentations as an active component of the company goals and vision, the complete manger between the management and other staff will contribute to value addition, good performance and healthy working environment (Bruce, 62).

In the end, the employees will form happy intra and inter personal working relationships and appreciate the need for quality service delivery along the production process channel. From the previous study conducted, the most important recommendations are summarized as stated below:

To empower the employees to participate more in the decision making process

To create more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting.

Illustration of the existing process The process of motivating employees currently being used by the Bank can be represented using a data flow diagram as shown below.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1.2 Data Flow Diagram for the process of employee motivation

The diagram above illustrates the existing process of employee motivation. The motivational activities are predetermined by the management. The activities entail use of suggestion boxes, points rewards programs, get motivated programs, use of employee evaluation forms, sporting activities and get together parties. The end result is a team of motivated employees.

Problems and ways of changing them From the previous study, there were still some problems with the motivational activities used by management. For instance, certain programs were viewed as a source of discouragement to employees while others were most preferred. For example, employee evaluation forms were seen as a doorway to retrenchment incase the employee was found liable.

From the sample picked, 75% rejected use of this method as a way of motivation. Further, the management was unable to motivate and retain employees with medicine qualifications. However, this was based on the assumption that maybe the employees with medicine qualifications were not well motivated to work in the banking environment and it was a wrong career choice for them therefore they had no choice but to quit.

Process of changing the problems From the analysis above, there are two major problems that are inherent with the existing system. First, some motivational activities are not accepted by the staff members and the Bank was unable to motivate some employees especially those with medicine qualifications. In order to change the problems, the Bank has involved the staff members in decision making process. The employees are part of the evaluation program.

The human resource department engages the employees in setting their own targets and they also agree on the interval for evaluation. Further, the design of the evaluation form is changed to reflect what best suit the management and the employees. With this improvement, the employees are aware of what is expected of them during the evaluation period.

We will write a custom Report on Implementation of Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, they are more prepared for the evaluations and therefore there is likely to be minimal resistance as compared to the earlier situation. The Bank may also be in a position to attract and retain the employees with medical qualifications by engaging the decision making. The employees may be given the freedom to choose duties that would keep them motivated.

Diagram illustrating new process after the recommendations

From the above diagram we note that the employees are involved in the decision making process. Therefore, the motivational activities are as agreed by both the management and the employees. The end result is a motivated workforce and delighted managers.

Benefit expected from each recommendation

The table below summarizes the benefits expected from each recommendation

Recommendation Benefit 1 Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Motivated employees who have authority and responsibilities. More positive with decisions made and therefore much acceptance and commitment in the implementation process. 2 Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Physically fit employees. Upon empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process, culture of independence in reasoning and consultative approach when handling work related duties will be internalized. In fact, the employees will appreciate the need for free consultation rather than doing the same as a condition imposed on them by their superiors.

In the process of carrying out consultative functionalism, the mind will be tuned to appreciate the need for flexibility in decision making science which is compatible with the goals and vision of the organization. In addition, the entire workforce operating under this approach is likely to positively embrace change element that may be introduced in the organization.

Irrespective of the consequences of the change element, the dynamic essence of change proponent would not facilitate any state of quagmire or conflict as the unnecessary pressure associated with change would be integrated. Moreover, creation of more involving motivational activities outside the work schedule would facilitate team building and the spirit of self discipline. For instance, recreational activities such as an organizations sports day involve planning direct participation by all stakeholders of an organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Implementation of Recommendations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During such activities, employees are either divided in groups or assigned a part to perform. To make this more interesting, the management could involve themselves in this as equals.

Repeat of such fun days minimizes pressure and inferiority complex that might be hiding in the workforce due to the bureaucratic hierarchy ladder. In the end, the concept of physical, mental, and social heath would be activated and the company is likely to benefit from the same especially on the facets of value addition as a result of good health and fitness.

Action Plan Across the globe, organizations irrespective of their sizes or nature of activity they perform have direct need for top performance and optimal service delivery within sustainable and friendly limits. Supported by strong decision making science, the project of motivational functioning depends upon effective management strategies presented in a quantifiable action plan (Bloom, 30).

In order to actualize the above recommendations, that is, empowering employees to participate in decision making and organizing recreational activities, proper research should be developed to streamline goal setting as a factor of friendly working environment and motivation (Bloom, 32). Thus, an implementation action plan specifically focuses on goals identification which is effective on performance orientation and motivational improvement.

The table below represents the components of an action plan for the implementation of motivational insight recommendations. Components of an action plan includes: feedback channel, goal setting (specific and difficult), exception criterion, and evaluation of success or failure.

Motivational Recommendation Goal setting Feedback Channel Exception Criteria Evaluation Criteria Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Setting relatively hard assignments that are attainable and allowing employees to brainstorm and consult on the same. Workforce training. Establishing a confidential suggestion box for complaints and complements. Improving on communication network system and intranet. Creating interactive sessions for the workforce Defining the privacy parameter and expected code of conduct. Establishing the organization culture and ethics. Limiting the scope of activities to contain only relevant training Analyzing feedbacks from suggestion boxes Review of performance periodically after every stage of implementation. Carrying out random but inclusive sampling using questionnaires Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Fixing motivational programs in annual calendar. Designing awards to be given in every event Encouraging medical tests and physical stamina. Performance comparison between teams. Defining the scope and making these activities part of performance responsibility. Defining limits for responsive training Testing team spirit and insight. In empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process, the organization should source for expertise training on consultative decision making process.

This expert will impart skills directly to the management and entire workforce. In the process of implementing this recommendation, training manager should be assigned the duty of organizing the workforce into groups and following up the success or failure of the training (Bowman, 23).

During the training process, simple activities such as solving puzzles and brainstorming in different topics are encouraged. In addition, every member of the workforce is expected to participate actively by assigning roles which are balloted. The implementation should be done in three phases with the first phase actively involving an outsourced expert in the field of decision making.

After a fortnight, the management should then design in house programs as a continuation of the first stage. In the last stage, the entire workforce is encouraged to internalize the concept initially introduced and deactivate fear and inferiority complex when addressing issues of interest to the organization and at personal level (Landsdale, 22).

Though this process should be continuous, the active part should not run for more than four months from commencement at a budget less than four percent of the company’s net revenue. In implementing the recommendation on motivation through participatory activities, the organization should factor in those activities which involve the entire workforce.

For instance, in the above example, the sporting event should be drawn in the annual timetable and everyone is to be encouraged to participate wholesomely. As the sporting event commences, management and the workforce may operate as small teams competing for prizes as designed by the organizing committee.

The organizing committee has power to decide on the prize to offer in consultation with the training manager. In the process of practicing this, team building and motivation spirit is revived and the entire personnel are likely to feel appreciated (Bowman, 21). Reflectively, a motivated workforce performs optimally within little or no supervision as work related activities are internalized and personalized. When the need to achieve is incorporated in the performance index, the organization is destined for sustainable productivity.

Action Plan Tabular representation

Motivational Recommendation Required Resources Leadership responsibility Steps taken Barriers Performance Indicators Time taken Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Outsourced expert. Training materials. Group leaders –implementing. Training manager-evaluation. Periodic training. Interactive forums Educational levels. Authority and responsibility Analyzing feedbacks from suggestion boxes 3 months Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Sporting facilities. Entire workforce participation. Team leaders Team captains. Overall captain. Initiating sports day in the calendar. Resource allocation for awards Convincing the workforce to embrace the event. Divergent interest on sporting activities Testing team spirit and insight. continuous Summary In summery, these recommendations would directly impact on the feedback channel as employees will have motivational power to proactively participate in decision making process.

As a result, the learning oriented process will facilitate optimal performance which is specific to the goals and desires of the company as the workforce would have the feeling of being appreciated and recognized for every outstanding performance.

In addition, these recommendations facilitate detrimental creativity and positive attitude in organizational environment. In an organization setting, the need to motivate workers is essential to management team who aim at optimizing output within sustainable human resource functioning.

Generally, when these recommendations are actualized in the management system, companies are capable of predicting or forecasting the future and pillars of operation at optimal level. Employee motivation is necessary in managing labor retention.

Works Cited Bloom, Paula. Circle of Influence: Implementing Shared Decision Making and Participative Management. Lake Forest, IL: New Horizons, 2004. Print.

Bowman, Singh. “Corporate restructuring: Reconfiguring the firm.” Strategic Management Journal 1.4 (2003): 5–14. Web.

Bruce, Ann. “Helping employees to accept responsibility for motivation.” Motivating employees 1.2 (1999): 59-72. Web.

Landsdale, Bruce. Cultivating Inspired Leaders: Making Participatory Management Work. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 2000. Print.

Saunders, Mark., Lewis, P, and Thornhill, R. Research Methods for Business Students. New York: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.


Characteristics of Business Leadership: Steve Jobs Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Steve Jobs and Business Leadership



Introduction Modern human resource management has come to recognize the value of leadership in management. Leadership has been adopted in the modern organizational and business management to the level that it is replacing the word management. In the modern business world, there is need for business leadership more than we need business managers; because of the complexity of business environment.

The modern business environment is characterized by stiff competition, tough rules of taxation, changing forms of management that is moving away from personnel management and adopting human resource management as a form of managing employees, increasing logistics and costs of operating businesses among other challenges. All these aspects call for a lot of resilience in successful management of businesses.

Thus, this calls stronger leadership which goes well beyond what management can offer. Leadership can be defined as the progressive creativity; the ability to foresee the future basing on the present while at the same time putting in mind the past. It is the major component of vision. In business, effective leadership is defined in terms of the corporate culture. This leadership propels the business to maximize profits which is the major goal of all businesses (Scheer, 2009).

In the world today, there are a number of businesses that have achieved tremendous growth. These businesses have grown from scratch to become among the top leading businesses in the world. Most of the success in these businesses is associated with the leaders of the business. The leaders of those businesses have been argued to poses creativeness and excellent leadership skills that they have development with time (Cohen


Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization Exploratory Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction The primary objective of most global companies other than the non-profit organizations is profit maximization. As such, nearly all the companies’ operations are geared towards making profits. Nevertheless, it is also important that companies and organizations incorporate ethics in their operations by taking care of the society they operate in through corporate social responsibility (Moon). This is something not considered by most global companies who care less about their society.

Most of them forget that it is the same society, which comprises of the consumers of their goods and services. In fact, it was noted that the companies that fail to incorporate social responsibility in their policies and operations face insuperable problems (Sun). Corporate social responsibility otherwise referred to as CSR, is therefore, the process through which companies get back to the society by behaving in an ethical manner and improving the quality of life in the society via economic development (Carroll 2).

In this case, companies integrate ethical and responsible practices into their organizational operations. This paper will be an exploration of the corporate social responsibility issue by looking at the benefits that come in hand, as well as, how companies can effectively implement CSR in their community.

Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility A company that practices corporate social responsibility not only benefits the society but also gains several advantages from it. It is evident that once a company practices effective CSR, it will definitely gain competitive advantage over others that do not.

This is because it will have created a positive image in the society making people prefer it to others. As a result, the sales of the company will shoot up leading to high profits. For instance, when Starbucks Coffee Company in the United States released its CSR report in 2006, the sales of the company increased tremendously.

Corporate Social Responsibility also looks at the welfare of the employees. As such, companies that uphold CSR in their policies will not collide with its employees as their needs will have been considered. This will in turn ensure smooth running of the organizational operations because there will not be cases of riots, strikes or go-slows.

Corporate social responsibility ensures that employees and the employers have a mutual relationship. Thus, the company will benefit from this by having increased productivity, which in turn results to profit maximization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main themes of corporate social responsibility is environmental conservation (Noer, Ewait, and Weiss1). Therefore, a company that practices effective CSR will ensure that it takes good care of the environment. As such, the company will be following the regulations of National Environmental Boards hence free from cases of malpractices. This will save the company lots of money that could be spent on court cases and fines resulting from environmental degradation and pollution.

The implementation of CSR in a community Given the benefits that come in hand with practicing corporate social responsibility, it is of significant importance that companies try as much as they can to implement it in the society. There different ways through which, companies could effectively implement CSR in a community. Below are some of the possible methods of effective implementation of CSR.

Environmental Conservation

As mentioned earlier in the paper, conservation of the environment is one of the main themes of corporate social responsibility. Therefore, companies can use it as one way of implementing CSR in a community. This can take two dimensions yet achieving the same objective. The companies could advocate for environment conservation by supporting and giving financial aid to organizations that deal with environmental conservation.

They could also recognize and appreciate such organizations by presenting them with awards. This will motivate the environmental conservation organizations, making them carry on with their activities of conserving the environment. In this case, the company will have participated indirectly to conserve the environment. At the same time, companies in the manufacturing industry who produce effluents to the environment should put control measures to ensure that what goes to the environment is safe.

For instance, they could treat their water effluents before releasing it to the water bodies so that it does not affect the life in the water environment. Companies could also incorporate filters in their smoke chimneys to filter the hazardous compounds before the smoke gets into the atmosphere. All this is done to ensure that the environment remains clean and safe for the survival of all living organisms.

Health Perspective

This is another way through which, companies can implement CSR in the community. Again, this is twofold because it can be achieved in two ways. First, the companies should make sure that the products they manufacture have no health effects. For instance, the food companies should minimize the number and quantity of additives they add on food commodities during processing. In doing this, companies will ensure that the society consumes healthy products hence remaining healthy as well.

Companies could also actively participate in health promotion campaigns. This could be through funding, organizing the campaigns or being physically involved. The latter is achieved by having the employees of the company participate in health campaigns organized in the community.

We will write a custom Essay on Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Charity

In each society, there is bound to be needy people who require support from others. Most of this support normally comes from people with stable income and organizations. Therefore, companies could use this as a way of implementing corporate social responsibility in their communities. For example, companies could allocate a given percentage of their sales revenue to donate to the needy people in the society. In this, the whole society will appraise the company for their work hence gain a good reputation.

The aforementioned ways are just but some of the ways through which, companies are able to implement CSR in a community. Other ways include, presentation of awards to their employees, giving the leaves and off duties, organizing leisure trips for them and participating in community fundraisings among other methods (Visser et al).

Conclusion Based on the above discussion, it is clear that corporate social responsibility is one way through which companies can give back to the community. Through CSR, both the company and society will benefit (Matten and Moon 324). This is because companies that give back to the community they serve gain better reputation than those that do not.

As such, the people will prefer products from companies that practice effective CSR to those of companies that do not care about the community. The various ways through which companies can implement CSR in a community have also been mentioned, some of which include charity, health campaigns, and environmental conservation among others. Given, the benefits that come in hand with practicing CSR, it is important that all companies resort to effective implementation of CSR in their communities.

Works Cited Carroll, Archie. “Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of Definitional Construct.” Business Society. 1999. Web.

Matten, Dirk., and Moon, Jeremy.” Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business Ethics 54.4 (2005): 323-337. Print.

Moon, Chris et al. Business Ethics. London: The Economist, 2001. Print.

Noer, Michael., Ewait, David., and Weiss, Tara. “Corporate Social Responsibility.” Forbes. 2008. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sun, William. How to Govern Corporations So They Serve the Public Good: A Theory of Corporate Governance Emergence. New York: Edwin Mellen, 2010. Print.

Visser, Wayne et al. The A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility. New York: Wiley, 2007. Print.


The Adventures of Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

For this essay, the main topic will be the adventures of Walter Mosley’s private detective named Ezekiel “East” Porterhouse Rawlins. The discussion will be based on the three (3) novels by Mosley with regards to the escapades of Easy Rawlins. These novels are Devil in a Blue Dress, A Red Death and White Butterfly. I had personally selected this detective because I find the background of Rawlins intriguing with him being part of the black community and a World War II veteran at that draws me to the aura of his past and background.

Also I find the theme of Walter Mosley’s detective series significant in the study and understanding of history because racial inequalities and discriminations among the African-Americans and other colored peoples in the 1940s to the 1960s are being tackled.

In the tradition of hardboiled detective fiction, the character Easy Rawlins is clearly the same as that of Raymond Chandler and Ross MacDonald’s characters but Rawlins differs from these earlier fictional detectives because at the beginning of the novels he is not a licensed private investigator thus he has no background and training in law or being a detective. Rawlins only acquires his license in the latter part of the series.

I enjoy the writings of the author Walter Mosley because he relates historical events into his fictions which give a more real feel into his novels. I consider Easy Rawlins as a hard-boiled operative and a city gumshoe. He is a hard-boiled operative because he has the characteristics of a typical hardboiled detective, appearing cold and aloof on the outside but still remains ideal in the inside.

He is considered a city gumshoe because of his many connections in the African American community in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles California. Ezekiel “Easy” Porterhouse Rawlins is a black World War II veteran from Texas who becomes a private detective after helping the police solve the solve a mystery in the novel Devil in a Blue Dress.

Rawlins was born in Louisiana on November 3, 1920 but shortly moved and spent his childhood and adolescent days in Houston, Texas where he lived on his own. When he was only seven (7) years old his mother died and his father abandoned the family. After the war, we find Rawlins living in the neighborhood of Watts, Los Angeles.

In the first novel of the detective series, Devil in a Blue Dress, we find Rawlins interacting with his friends, Joppy a bar owner whom he met in Texas but later he kills Joppy because of his involvement with the enemy and betrayal. Another friend of Rawlins from Texas Coretta whom Easy had romantic relationship with but was killed also. Mouse who is Easy’s childhood friend from Texas is the embodiment of the latter’s dark-alter ego.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Easy who as much as possible doesn’t want to do violence, Mouse kills anyone he comes in contact with especially if there is bad blood or conflict. Mouse relationship is decent with Rawlins although they had each other’s back in front of the enemy; Mouse was hungry for cash in Devil in a Blue Dress and violence for the rest of the novels read. In the last part of the novel Devil in the Blue Dress, Mouse took the stolen money from Daphne/ Ruby, split the money, took the half and gave the other half to Rawlins.

At the end of the novel, Devil in a Blue Dress we find Rawlins adopting a mute Mexican boy, Jesus as his son. Similarly in he also adopts a stripper’s baby girl named Feather at the end of the novel, White Butterfly. Easy Rawlins’ character wants to be good in society and live a peaceful life but it seems that situations and certain circumstances are stopping him, whether be the color of his skin or the tangling web of controversies he faces throughout the three novels.

In the novel A Red Death we find Easy being coerced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for his newly acquired real estate which was said to be bought by untaxed income and is connected with communism. We find that Rawlins is in conflict with FBI agent Darryl Craxton, Easy is not intimidated by authorities but he still respects the law and gives in to their requests. Easy Rawlins respects people in authority he possesses a kind heart with compassion.

This was evident in the novel, White Butterfly, when Quentin Naylor, a black detective from the Los Angeles Police Department asks help from Rawlins in investigating a serial killer who killed the former’s first white woman. Easy Rawlins takes on cases mostly related to investigations relating to the black Community of Los Angeles.

In the first novel, Devil in a Blue Dress, he was asked to find Daphne Monet who was hiding in African American bars after she stole a huge amount of money from Todd Carter. In Mosley’s second novel, A Red Death, Easy was investigated by the FBI for a property he has acquired through untaxed income, becoming a pawn in proving Chaim Wenzler a communist. He was considered the victim in this novel because of his color.

Last in the novel, White Butterfly, we find another black detective asking help from Easy in solving a crime not only relating to the former’s white woman murdered but also the killings of several black women. Most cases Rawlins tackles relate to the underground corruptions, racial discriminations among colored peoples of Los Angeles and the social injustice experiences of these peoples.

In the three (3) novels I had read the detective seems to have trusted companions in solving cases, in the first novel Devil in a Blue Dress, we find Easy Rawlins being assisted by his childhood friend Mouse in solving the case of Daphne/ Ruby and the stolen money. In relation to A Red Death, Mouse is again present in assisting Easy in solving the case. In the third novel, White Butterfly we find Easy being assisted by Quentin Naylor, a police detective.

We will write a custom Essay on The Adventures of Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Easy Rawlins works as an independent investigator but often times he is assisted by friends and associates of the police department in solving crimes. Easy is someone who had no background or training in law enforcement thus it is understandable that he would be needing help from other characters to guide him through the cases presented in the three (3) novels.

This idea further closes the gap of the detective’s short comings with his abrupt decision on becoming a private investigator. Easy Rawlins is a compassionate man with good connections. He is very keen in details thus with his know about in the neighborhood in Watts and his keen eye for details not to mention his very observant nature the Los Angeles police department often asks for his services in solving a crime.

He works in doing favors for the people in his community, finding a missing family member, protecting friends and other essential people and even finds illegal documents lost and could not be reported to the police. Easy Rawlins is not directly associated with law enforcement.

In the three (3) novels I had read, Easy seems to distance himself in being involved with crimes and solving mysteries. He would rather live a peaceful life with his family but it seems that the police department always finds its way to Easy’s door steps asking his service in the field of bringing justice to crimes committed. All of Walter Mosley’s novels on the adventures of detective Easy Rawlins are written from a first person’s point of view.

Easy Rawlins narrates his story in the novel with his voice of conscience evident in times of danger or if Rawlins is stressed and confronted with a dilemma. His narrative voice seems to show his good natured side, illustrating the character as someone who is very peaceful and loves his family very much but also he tries to give service to his local communities thus his constant involvement with crime investigations.

His narrative voice also showcases his inner thoughts making the character human in a sense that he is not considered perfect. He constantly battles with his inner thoughts. In the first novel, Devil in a Blue dress, Easy is always confused on what he is doing. He questions his acts as being moral or justifiable.

On the second novel, A Red Death, the shock of him being coerced by the FBI for his properties was brought out and his helplessness in the scene where he was first confronted and was linked to communism brought true human feelings to Easy’s character. The narrative voice informs the novel’s worldview in a sense that it grounds the novel making it realistic.

When I read all three (3) novels it puts me in the shoes of the detective, I could feel the conflicts he faced, the confusions and the horrors of tragedies he had encountered. After reading all there it gave me a deeper understanding of the character, his thoughts, actions, realizations and decisions in the later parts of the series.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Adventures of Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I begun to have a profound perceptive and respect for detective Rawlins. Truly this is the power of Mosley’s writing making his readers not only connect but relate and empathize with his characters. In the course of the three (3) novels, the main character, detective Easy Rawlins gradually changed in terms of his attitude and skills. In the first novel, we see him as merely a laborer financially insecure because he could not pay his mortgage and was laid off.

He was afraid to be involved with people especially white men and was completely doubtful of what he was doing. Come the second and third novels, Easy Rawlins slowly becomes confident and matures along the way. He becomes more skilled in solving crimes and becomes keener in observing details. Reviews on Easy Rawlins show positive reviews on his character with James Hall comparing Easy to Philip Marlow but saying Easy is a much better character with his attitude being at home in the presence of the chilly tough world (

According to the Marilyn Stasio, Easy Rawlins is described as a “charismatic fix-it man who helps his friends and neighbors out of compromising situations, all that destructive fury proves to be a life-altering experience”( According to Digby Diehl, the Easy Rawlins detective series:

“honors the hard-boiled tradition of Hammett/Chandler/Cain in its storyline and attitude, but Mosley takes us down some mean streets that his spiritual predecessors never could have because they were white. The insightful scenes of black life in 1948 provide a sort of social history that doesn’t exist in other detective fiction, and they lend an ambiance that heightens this story of crime and violence.” (

Works Cited Diehl, Digby. “A Stiff Shot of Black and White.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times,. 29 July 1990. Web.

Hall, James. “James W. Hall hones crime-fiction art.” Chron Houston Chronicle Archieves. The Houston Chronicle., 2009. Web.

Stasio, Marilyn. “Crime.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company,. 25 July 2004. Web.


the first assignment is a 300-word discussion (about CAM and pain article) and a 200-word reply to student. ( wait until I upload the student reply). The second assignment is 300 words discussion. a level english language essay help

The first assignment is read the CAM and pain article, the article is a type of Complementary or Alternative Medicine. and answer the questions below ( I uploaded the article) 1. What is it and describe it. 2. What could it be used for 3. What are the benefits 4. What are the risks 5. Attach an article that focuses on this specific type of complementary or alternative medicine and state the key points of the article. The second assignment is( A physician is concerned about the long-term health of an obese patient with high blood pressure. The physician discusses diet changes with the patient. What type of diet should this patient consider?)


Last Night I Dreamed of Peace book Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Dang Thuy Tram’s masterpiece Last Night I Dreamed of Peace is a captivating informative chef-d’oeuvre that demonstrates the author’s love for her country based on the sorrowful situation that the country is undergoing.

As young as 23 years, she associates with the communists’ party in her quest to ensure that the Vietnamese people do not encounter the same situation (National Library Board Para. 3). Love and idealism, as well as the sense of shared humanity, all of which form part of today famous subjects, are crucial lessons with roots in Tram’s work.

Tram makes the decision to go to South Vietnam because of her love and youthful idealism that she has for her kindred. Despite the deadly circumstances and appalling conditions that her patients undergo, she opts to make the dreadful decision. In spite of the fatal situation, she vows to sacrifice her own life to secure the lives of the patients who have faced attacks and injuries from the American soldiers.

Her idealistic nature also plays a vital role in her decision to move to the South of Vietnam. She wishes to see her country in peace despite her age. She aligns herself with the communist party. It proves a tremendously difficult and trying time especially when the war rages on, kills, and destroys people without valid reasons. In fact, referring to the war, Tram says, “it spares no one, not a baby or an old woman, and the most hideous thing about it is the bloodthirsty Americans” (149).

Therefore, Tram makes the choice of moving to South Vietnam to extend her hand in saving the lives of those injured. She also makes her decision to move to South Vietnam because of her spirited heart of humanity, love, longing for the end of the war and the sufferings subjected to the citizens of Vietnam. Her compassion and wish to see the war end also makes her risk her own life to go to the South of Vietnam. She wishes that the war and the fighting in South Vietnam ended to allow people to have their peace and unity.

If Tram were alive to day, she would automatically qualify as one amongst the liberators and the heroes of Vietnam history, who assertively sacrificed, not only their time, money, and relationships, but also their own selves solely to cultivate freedom to the Vietnamese citizens.

Though dead, Tram speaks volumes and volumes through the marks she left to the people of Vietnam. She has contributed significantly towards the making of the country’s history, as it stands today. It seems quite unfortunate that she succumbed to death at that tender age. Tram stands out as a liberator who, from the evidence of her diary and documentation, shows that she had a vision and a passionate concern to her country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, she is worth acknowledging based on her thought and wish for an end of the inhumanity and brutalities that people of Vietnam were facing. It proves rather sad as Tram expresses her sympathy and concerns by noting that the people of Vietnam remain subjected to invalid pains and sufferings despite their innocence.

Therefore, Tram passes for a hero. If she could be alive, she could have gone in the records for understanding and having the courage to liberate the people of Vietnam from the unnecessary pains and killings (Guthrie Para. 3). She refers the Americans people to as merciless and thirsty of other people’s blood, descriptions that she notes bitterly and with sorrow.

Therefore, in no doubt, Tram stands out as a true hero. Vietnamese people who enjoy the freedom of today remember and appreciate Tram’s tireless works by acknowledging the cost attached therein. It cost the lives of protagonists such as Tram.

Works Cited Guthrie, John. Last Night I Dream of Peace by Dang Thuy Tram, 2007. Web.

National Library Board. Last Night I Dream of Peace: The Diary of Dang Thuy Tram, 2008. Web.

Tram, Thuy. Last Night I Dream of Peace. New York: Random House, 2008. Print.


A Business Strategy on Verizon Mobile Service Provider Case Study cheap essay help

Verizon is one of the leading mobile phone service providers in the United States of America with more than 106 million subscribers, the second largest and most competitive telecommunication market in the world.

The main purpose of this report is to study and analyze the internal and external environments of the mobile phone services industry in America. The analysis carried out in this report will enable us to assess the past, present and future economic strategies of the company and come up with a new strategy if any scope of optimization from the strategies presently being implemented.

It has been realized from the study that Verizon Mobile Provider has successfully established and implemented ‘Focused Low Cost’ strategies and through providing supreme value for the subscribers’ money has simultaneously forced the rivals to follow on the same outline hence creating a competitive market mood.

Nevertheless, it was also recognized that over the years Verizon communications has maintained to be the best cost provider in the industry and possess the largest network infrastructure, therefore, is now proficient of focusing and explore new fields and technologies while maintaining its low cost as well as a high-quality image.

Additionally, the report founded that Verizon communication is the core owner of world’s largest infrastructure of next-generation information technology infrastructures, one of the telecom industry pioneer in providing CDMA and GSM wireless services in the United States, it has the largest number of subscribers of more than 106 million customers and the company which has the good sales and marketing strategies as it focus on cost-effective mobile services which are affordable within the common man.

Although the company had done its best to cope with the market it faces several challenges in its quality service delivery, which included relatively new company in telecommunication industry in the USA, creating a severe competition environment and it lost a bid to acquire tender to provide its services outside American jurisdiction.

After appreciating the fact that focused low-cost strategies was faced by a number of challenges and would not be the most appropriate strategy in the current market situation where the consuming habit of consumer have hugely changed, it is recommended for the company to adopt a ‘Focused Differentiation Strategy ‘ and put emphasis on data services packages using new technologies such as 4G, maintaining its corporate image of being pioneer in innovating revolutionary changes in the market, it would not be unpractical to think of a future where subscribers pay for the data services and not the voice services in the American telecommunication industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, emerging of new technologies and aggressive strategies of new competitors has had a rigorous impact on highly competitive mobile service in America.

For any company to endure this uproar in the telecommunication market it has to establish additional competencies, discover new marketing areas by moving across the continent and the world where potential market exists and endeavor for the constant development. Verizon communication is not unique and it has to introduce new styles into the market and make the rivals to follow. Previous records have shown that Verizon has excelled in doing this regularly.

By observing and analyzing the enormous competence in aggressiveness and successful implementations of strategies that Verizon Communication has, we strongly recommend that it should focus ahead with assurance and set new styles in data services.

Verizon Communication being the only service provider to own 3G ready CDMA as well as GSM network infrastructure in the USA, is capable of establishing a new segment of providing high-speed data services using 4G technology if it makes use of the proposed strategies in this research.


Conflict Resolution Essay best essay help

Conflict resolution skills are invaluable source of establishing peace. However, conflict has for a long time been misconstrued to mean only the physical disagreements between two parties. This paper looks at conflict particularly in regards to personal mental conflict on a particular dilemma whereby an individual may be faced with difficult decision making options.

This kind of would require balancing between more important issues and those that are not of high priority. Such decisions include balancing relationships, loss of employment and the quest to settle for another job opportunity, what subjects to study at a college, careers to pursue, places to inhabit, business ventures options, health matters among others.

I chose to read this chapter of the book because it has immense information on what I actually needed to understand on improving my overall motivation towards my vision. Plans are important in the pursuit of our set goals in life. The book also provided me with the information I was looking for especially on the area of conflict resolution as an individual. These are discussed in details in the remaining section of the essay.

Research has shown that mental conflict and dilemma experienced by an individual may lead to stress. Additionally, distress may also manifest itself as an advance level of stress and depression. Finally, frustrations which may lead to an individual to be fixated, brain being rewired and even death in some cases through suicide Deutsch, Coleman


Self Evaluation and Management Essay best essay help: best essay help

Self evaluation and personal management have become some of the important components that assist to develop self esteem, identify performance abilities and establish better relationship with other people. Studies indicate that self evaluation goes beyond the view an individual has himself or herself to a continuous and constant determination of progress and personal growth.

Calás and Smircich (1999, p.650) argue that self evaluation can be lowered or enhanced by the behaviour of an individual who is psychologically close. Their argument advances the view that that happiness and self actualization are found in feeling being loved by others and by experiencing the sense of approval from the people around us.

As this paper analyses, self evaluation and personal management are vital for building personal relationship with others and for coexisting with others in the society. It is on this front that this paper succinctly analyses the concepts of self evaluation and management, and how they impact on relationships and the society.

This paper takes a critical analysis on self examination in order for an individual to best understand her/himself with regard to relating and managing other people around us. The paper thus outlines critical self reflexivity, its importance, and the held assumptions between an individual and those around. It also looks into the organizational values and the presumed values and personality traits that develop between an individual and an organization.

It asserts the importance of an organization and person fit as well as slightly looking at the relationship between and individual and the environment. The managers of organizations should demonstrate more ethical traits and humanity as they go about managing others since the interest of the led is equally very important.

This paper employs the approach of self reflexivity which makes it possible foe an individual to develop sensitivity and pay attention to the views of others. A self reflective person listens to an inner voice from the people who speak through his mind and he / she critically puts self into the shoes of others thus being able to feel for their needs and act appropriately.

Abraham Tesser advances in his self-evaluation maintenance theory that relationship with other people plays a pivotal role of influencing individual to carry out self-evaluation (Caproni


Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Adopting Sustainability Reporting

List of References

Introduction Value creation is one of the many objectives that any firm wants to achieve. Performance measurement should be used as a tool of sustainability assessment by firms. According to Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger and Wagner (2002, 270), sustainability reporting is a process of a company understanding its impact on the people, the planet and the profit.

They further suggest that when a company discloses its economic, environmental, and social performance, it can easily access its impact on the community. This report seeks to identify the importance of sustainability reporting for the firms in Australia. There are rules that require the firms whether they are in public or in private sector to give their reporting according to GRI guidelines.

Adopting Sustainability Reporting Figge et al. (2002, p. 271) point out that in Australia, the federal government through the treasury has given funds to St James Ethic center in order to expand responsible business practice (RBP). Companies in Australia to enhance their brand reputation among the users also do sustainability reporting. Lack of company’s sustainability report is a global problem.

Therefore, all businesses regardless of their sizes should be at the first line to solve these problems. In conjunction to this, Australian government has released GRI reporting framework that has a global applicable standard suitable to meet the needs of different stakeholders.

According to Dwyer and Owen (2005, p. 212), the reporting process for GRI makes organization understand its impact on the economy, environment, and social life of the stakeholders. Any type of the company can apply the processes across the globe. For a good sustainability report, an organization should consider its purpose and experience.

Cch (2009, p. 68) claims that it should also consider the interest and expectations of the stakeholders or the customers. Therefore, the reporting organization should include the measures that they have used to satisfy the needs of its stakeholders. This is known as the stakeholders’ inclusiveness. Figge et al. (2002, p. 274) agree that the report should also meet the completeness aspect that is the provision of sufficient material to help he stakeholders to assess the performance of the reporting organization.

As noted by Dwyer and Owen (2005, p. 215), there are steps that accompany must follow to implement sustainability reporting process. The first step is to prepare, which is aimed to promote internal discussion by the management persons to identify the impacts of the organization on the stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second step is connecting, which is how the stakeholder’s aspect should be included in the report. Definition is the third step; this is to identify what matters most in the report (Dwyer and Owen 2005, p. 215). Then the organization monitors and gathers the information that is to be included in the report. The GRI (Global Reporting Initiative guidelines) also developed reporting principles to enable the firms check their monitoring process and obtain the information that is of high quality.

To communicate is the final process that involves preparation, writing the final report and translating the result of the report. The number of organizations reporting there economic, environmental and social performance is increasing day by day in Australia. This is not because the government requires them to do so, but because they have seen the benefit of doing it like gaining popularity among the stakeholders (Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger and Wagner 2002, p. 270).

Perego (2009, p. 412) claims that for the sustainability report to be effective, the organization should present it first to the assurance providers to verify the report. An examination done on the sustainability report of 130 companies presented between 2002 and 2004 shown that characteristic of assurance providers differs with each type of the assurance providers. There are three major different types of assurors that are, accounting firms, and certification bodies and specialists consultancies (Perego 2009, p. 413).

The accounting firms are classified as the high quality assurance providers as compared to the other providers. This is because they offer internal mechanisms of control to ensure that the reports released by their members are good quality. Choi and Wong (2007, p. 20) posits the likely hood to chose a quality assurance provider in a country with a weaker legal regime is high than in a country with strong legal regime.

Oxfam Australia is one of the non-profit making organizations in Australia. Its vision is to make the world fair for every one to control his or her life without interference. This organization presented its environmental sustainability report for 2008 to 2013. They include the aim to use the resources that are People, finances and materials effectively and efficiently.

The organization also wants to be accountable to the communities, partners and allies that they work with and demonstrate the best practice in operational environmental management and reporting. Companies face pressures for them to disclose non-financial information. This drives are market, societal, stakeholder’s needs, to uphold the reputation of the organization among many others (Vormedal and Ruud, 2006, p. 208).

Oxfam organization aims at reducing the emitting of carbon to 0 % by the year 2015. The long-range plan involves generation of renewable source of energy for it to reduce the environmental pollution. In addition to using the drives mentioned above, the organization has used the internationalization degree to influence the level and quality of the reporting.

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization is aiming at reducing energy consumption by 15% of 2007 levels. This will be achieved by monitoring and evaluating actions from the previous years to indentify the initiatives that contributed to successful reduction of energy consumption. The organization reports on its environmental measures every quarter of the year. This is to assess the progress of the company and assures the best practice by the suppliers.

Salvation Army is another NGO and non-profit making organization in Australia and its aim is to provide care for the poor and disadvantaged people. They also provide the emergency assistance for the people who have the financial pressures. The organizations sustainability reporting is driven by the need for the organization to legitimate its operations and to meet the needs of the stakeholders.

They involve the auditing companies in their financial reporting and have chosen the best audit firm to be there assures. The organization reports their performance generally without grouping. The reports are based on departments that is, general corporate responsibilities, and management systems, codes of conducts, managements systems and supply chains.

Perego (2009, p. 412) argues that for an organization to give a quality reporting they must involve more than one assurance providers to verify the report. This is because for a company to exist for a long period, it should be aware of the impact it has on the stakeholders (Tencati and Perrin 2006, p. 298).

Both the Salvation Army and Oxfam Australia are driven internally and externally to give their reporting. These are national and international policies and pressure from the wider society. This has made them survive in the country for a long period since they are able to meet the policies of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) (Vormedal and Ruud, 2006, p. 213).

According to Tencati and Perrin (2006, p. 299), the organizations must apply appropriate systems to control and measure their behaviors in order to get the assessment of the extent to which they are meeting the needs of the stakeholders and the need of the government.

Finally, for the organization to meet all the rules and the regulations related to the sustainability reporting especially those for the SMEs there should be a system that should be applied to monitor all the qualitative and quantitative performance. This reporting system includes the annual financial reports, social reports and environmental reports (Unerman and Bebbington 2007, p. 112).

The advancement of technology in the 21st centaury has been a booster to the reporting system of the organizations. The technology has lead to the invention of integrated reporting systems which groups the reports together for an easy access.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A significant benefit realized from annual financial reporting is the use of notes, which substantially assists, in explaining diverse monetary data presented in financial reports this becomes helpful to a user who is not familiar with financial reports regarding to a specified company. It also becomes important when making comparison of different firms that employs different policies in their operations.

For instance, if a company collapse while the director had assured employees and shareholders of going concern then director is liable to compensate the latter parties. In areas that require compulsory information regarding the preservation and conservation of the environment, companies find it difficult to hide their mission regarding to maintaining status of the environment (Perrini and Tencat 2006, p. 299).

Perhaps the rules and regulations governing annual financial reporting is more liberal compelling companies to outside some pertinent information, which could help an investor, make useful decision. Again, some firms take advantage of providing unnecessary details. The firm may also tend to go against the principle of releasing true and fair information.

While providing annual report, it is quite difficult to identify whether is presenting true and fair information or not. According to Financial Reporting Council (34), there is high tendency of the annual financial reporting relies so much on the positive matters leaving negative information hidden. Information relating to the operation of any company is fundamental in making useful and informed decision.

In conclusion, Australian organization must adopt sustainability reporting. The sustainability of an organization is determined by the sustainability of its stake holder relationship. The relationship is build by the ability of the organization to involve all of them including the suppliers, public authorities and civil society in general.

The stakeholder’s view of the firm is what should guide the organization to prepare a report this can change dramatically the role of the firm in the society. Therefore the entire firm should be ready to install the systems that will enable them to adopt the sustainability reporting without being pushed by the government. Although the process seems difficult, it is for the benefit of the organizations.

List of References Cch, C 2009, Australian master environment guide, CCH Australia Limited, Melbourne.

Choi, J


Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship Essay college essay help: college essay help

Individuality is the state of being independent, where one individual is separate from the other because they have their own needs, desires, and goals. Although some people try to maintain their individuality in a romantic relationship, others compromise and loose their sense.

They forget to take care of their needs and concentrate on the relationship and tend to think that their partners will take care of their needs. This may create a break up in a relationship. People who are in love often struggle to impress each other and loose their individuality in the process. Some of them may feel good after the compromise while others feel suffocated by it. Carver and Scheier (2004) argue that there is a need to maintain individuality, especially when one feels suffocated after losing individuality.

According to Giles (2000), it is always good to remember that a good relationship is one which you are not supposed to change yourself, but where you will grow together. Therefore, a person who is ready to accept you just as you are is a true partner and so, instead of striving to change your individuality try to accept the relationship. It is even possible to lose the interest of the other person after losing your own individuality.

However, self-care and strong sense of self may make the relationship become strong and enhance sustainability and happiness. It is always good to enter into a relationship as a whole person with your preferences and boundaries because the other partner will always be attracted with your individuality and self of sense.

When one starts to lose the sense of self, it is likely that the partner will loose interest. Brad (2007) says that when you loose a sense of self in a relationship, you are likely to start blaming your partner and the relationship as well. A person should try to maintain individuality in order to avoid self-blame in both personal and other things in life. It is always good to think positively in order to maintain individuality and also avoid getting obsessed with others and care for self.

According to Solomon’s views, love lets lovers to redefine themselves in a relationship. He supports this point by arguing that romantic love is a concentration and an intense focus of shared definition on an individual. Solomon sees love as a plan for individual’s recreation for himself/herself and for the sake of the relationship.

In essence, lovers combine their interests, virtues, role, and share the same identity without forgetting that each individual has a role in recognizing their identity (Halwani, 2010). However, Nozick’s theory does not recognize autonomy and individuality and he argues that both individuals’ identities are destroyed and they are ‘reborn’ to the world with the same senses to their partners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People should always be involved in mature and stable love, instead of the symbiotic type. The difference between mature and symbiotic love is that mature love is stable and involves two people who respect each other. Symbiotic love on the other hand is needy and dependent and stipulates that one person should rule over another. As a result, both partners loose integrity (Fisher, 2004). LaFollete (2000) argues that mature love enhances individualism between partners as opposed to symbiotic love, where there is fear of separation.

Lewis, Amini, and Lennon (2000) conform that symbiotic relationship causes one person to give their major part to retain a successful relationship. However, the person who is driven by fear of being alone ends up sacrificing his or her identity to keep the relationship whole.

These individuals make sure that there are no conflicts in order to maintain the status quo, which leads to loss of independence. If one individual idolizes over the other, then he sacrifices himself for the sake of the other and ends up being under control of the partner.

When there is no balance in power, the relationship becomes unproductive for both and it is likely to end. Despite the fact that many people know the consequence of ending a relationship, they are still willing to give up their individuality in order to avoid being alone. They are ready to give up what they need and who they are just for the sake of love.

Moreover, individuals who lose their individualism when in a romantic love are unable to maintain a mature relationship. One should start with self-love to be able to love others because giving up individuality will bring anger, hatred and resentment at the end. When resentment comes in, the relationship starts deteriorating. Individuals need relationships that will bring in personal growth through achievement of their dreams together with their partners. Individuals should also understand that when one is in a relationship, their life does not stop just because they are with another person (Wood, Ellen, and Boyd, 2005).

In essence, a person has to maintain his/her own individuality and strive to achieve personal goals. This also means that you are is supposed to do the hobbies you used to have before you met as well as maintaining your self interests because if you give up on your interests you are likely to give up your life (Zimmer, 2008).

One should always keep in mind that when he/she met the partner, they were first attracted as individuals and thus there is need to retain your individuality because that the reason why your partner was attracted to you. Maintaining other’s individuality will build up a mature loving and healthy relationship (Halwani, 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Sterba (2001), there are many ways of making a relationship work; one is by speaking your truth. It is not advisable for lovers to keep quite and hence they should communicate their feelings to each other. Each individual should own his/her feeling – your partner needs to know when you are angry, disturbed or even when you are happy. Withholding your feelings to your partner will bring in more problems.

You should not let your partner speak for you or allow him/her to guess what is on your mind. Instead, you are supposed to share them and in case your partner takes liberty with them, you should be able to stop him/her and let him know what you are going through. Lastly, a person is supposed to reconnect with other friends for joy or fun rather than letting your partner dictate on what to do. This may involve going out with a group of friends whom you used to go out with to do some activities or hobbies.

Many relationships end because one person has surrendered to the other. Nevertheless, it is always good to love yourself first before loving another person. Giving up on all things that identify your individuality will make you lose your identity and you will not even be able to give into your relationship. Brad (2007) stresses that it is always good never to confuse flexibility with individuality when in a relationship: individuality is what makes people to be who they are.

Flexibility is all about compromise and is necessary in a relationship through honest communication of each other’s needs and feelings whenever you are together.

However, compromising too much will lead to anger and resentment, which is likely to end the relationship. Individuals should avoid giving up too much in their relationships because it will haunt them later. The get-togethers and friends bashes you decide not to attend just because you do not want to leave your boyfriend or girlfriend will make yourself left out since you have distanced yourself from your own friends.

In conclusion, honest communication is good because partners are able to solve their problems and build a mature loving relationship. Nobody should give up on anything that brings out uniqueness in each individual. Loving partners should find a balance that they both need to build a long lasting relationship. In addition, it is always good to determine what is needed in life and take actions accordingly.

This will help maintain individuality while also striving for personal happiness and contentment rather than trying hard to make a partner happy through sacrifice. Nevertheless, maintaining individuality right from the beginning of a relationship is healthy because it is one of the reasons for love.

However, if an individual takes away these traits through compromise, then they become a different person to their partner rather than the one he/she started dating. Nevertheless, this does not mean that one is not supposed to compromise in some circumstances in their relationship; things keep on changing as the relationship grows just like life itself, but one should never despair.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Brad, H., 2007. Falling in love. Canada: Random Place.

Carver, C. and Scheier, M., 2004. Perspectives on personality. 5th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Fisher, H., 2004. Why we love. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company LLC.

Giles, L., 2000. A theory of love and sexual desire. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 24 (4), 339–357.

Halwani, R., 2010. Philosophy of love, sex, and marriage: An introduction. New York: Routledge.

LaFollete, H., 2000. Moral Psychology. In: The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Lewis, T., Amini, F., and Lannon, R., 2000. A general theory of love. New York: Random House.

Sterba, J.P., 2001. The moral self in the face of injustice. In: Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives, London: Routledge. pp. 45-67.

Wood, S.E., Ellen, W., and Boyd, D., 2005. The world of psychology. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education.

Zimmer, C., 2008. Romance is an illusion. Time Magazine, [online] 17 Jan. Available at: .


The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction In the Wealth of Nations (WN), Smith argues that the societys prosperity can only be achieved if the society guarantees individuals the freedom to pursue their goals within the confines of natural justice. In a book that he had written earlier, ‘The Theory of Moral Sentiments’, smith explains both the origin of rules of justice and the emergence of moral sentiments.

The Adam Smith problem refers to the supposed contradiction between Smith’s argument in favour of self-interest in WN on one hand and his defence of sympathy in TMS on the other. On the face value, it may seem that the two works contradict each other (Adam Smith problem).

However, a detailed analysis indicates that no contradiction exists but rather, the two works support each other. In TMS Smith argues that in the pursuit of individual self-interest, the individual satisfies the interest of society. For example, a baker bakes bread for him to earn some monetary profits (self interest), but in turn he meets the societys demand for bread (societys interest). Under the capitalist system (WN), individuals pursue their goals through trade and production.

As they trade and produce, they must take into account the values of other society members (TMS). Smith argues that an individual or a company will make greater profits if the society (other individuals) place greater value on its activities. It is therefore evident that self-interest contained in the WN and moral sentiments in TMS work towards the same goal.

The market forces of demand and supply cannot function if there is no society, for without society, it is impossible for division of labour and its resulting efficiency to occur. This points to the fact that the market forces of demand and supply to some extent rely on the individuals ability to sympathize (role of justice in free trade). Smiths notion of self interest is therefore in line with his idea of sympathy.

Discussion In 1776, Adam Smith published his popular book, ‘The Wealth of Nations’ (WN). This book marked the beginning of the concept of market and free trade. To date The Wealth of Nations, remains one of the largely significant books in political economy. However, even before the wealth of nations, smith had published another important work in 1759, titled the Theory of Moral Sentiments.

This book is little known outside the philosophical spheres. TMS provides significant ideas into Smiths perception of human knowledge and nature. This work was the foundation of Smiths economic theory. A number of authors have argued that these two books contradict each other (they call them the two Smiths). They assert that in TMS, smith focuses on having a feeling for fellow humans (sympathy), while in WN; he argues that societies and individuals accumulate wealth by pursuing individual selfish interests.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Connecting Sympathy in TMS to WN

Smiths concept of sympathy is central to the Adam Smith Problem. According to Griswold (260), Smith asserts that one of humanitys original obsession is sympathy or having a feeling for fellow humans. Smith argued that no matter how selfish an individual may be, in his nature, there are certain inherent principles in a mans nature that will attract him to the welfare of his fellow humans and therefore their happiness.

He gains nothing from this other than the satisfaction of seeing it (Smith 1751). The idea of sympathy has been widely misinterpreted to mean concern or pity. However, Smiths idea of ‘sympathy meant the tendency to identify with not only others miseries, but also their fortunes.

So fellow feeling is any similar passion or emotion that arises in the mind of an observer who observes another individuals outward expression of inner feelings. It is therefore clear that inner feeling is not only a function of pain and sorrow but also the joy and happiness of the others (Smith 3).

Smith argues that is much easier to identify with your joy than with your sorrow. As a result, a person who has no envy can easily identify with the good luck of another. On the other side, it is usually hard to identify with grief and we enter into it while dragging our feet (Smith 1751, Book 1 Ch 9).

Smith argues that this is the origin of ambition and class structure that serves to maintain order and stability in society. An individual who has the necessities of life is better placed to seek fame and fortune because he attracts positive sympathy from other individuals. As an inherent characteristic among individuals, they always want to better their lifestyles beyond what is considered a reasonably comfortable lifestyle.

This is partly attributed to the fact that they value sympathy in the form of admiring others who have already achieved that status. This point connects TMS to WN in the sense that individuals are never satisfied with their possessions. In deed if we had such a society where individuals are satisfied with bare necessaries of life, it would have been a very stable society but with no economic growth making it unable to fit in the changing world.

Nations create wealth because of the individuals never-ending pursuit to improve themselves materially. This happens under a conducive environment. According to Smith, countries that have allowed their citizens to pursue their self-interest have grown in wealth while those that failed in the same have fell into poverty.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though, the liberty to pursue self-interest cannot be without limit. This is because excess liberty by one individual is only achieved at the expense of others liberty. Therefore, there has to be a framework for regulating individual liberty. This is achieved by the rules of justice. Smith argues that justice is threatened from two sources; corruption in the society arising from the worship of riches and authority and the ambitions of rulers.

Smiths Criticism on the Worship of Wealth and Power

Smith was conscious that the worship of wealth and despise of poverty though important in maintaining social stability and driving industry, equally posed serious threats. He condemned the corruption of the princes and the political elite who ascend to power through intrigue, deception and crime but nowhere does he condemn the wealth creation.

What Smith was against was the careless accumulation of wealth that could corrupt the society, through continuous worship of wealth in total disregard to how wealth is created. He asserts that greatness and wealth in the absence of virtue and merit deserve no respect. In Smiths theory, the attitudes of people shape moral sentiments and passions.

Therefore, the tendency to worship and admire the rich and powerful, while looking down upon and neglecting the poor, though important in maintaining the class structure and order in society, corrupts the moral sentiments (Smith 3). When individuals continuously admire and adore the wealthy and the great, they tend to either ignore or excuse their faults.

This goes against the rules of justice, which is the foundation of social order. Therefore, as much as social class is created and maintained through the creation of wealth, social order is more important and the wealthy should not look down upon the poor.

Humanity in general longs for respect and admiration among his fellows. According to Smith, he can achieve this through two avenues; by studying wisdom and practicing virtue or by acquiring wealth and greatness. To Smith, the latter attract majority of humanity because they admire and worship material prosperity.

This view is similar to the modern celebrity culture in our society that is characterized by the lives of rich and famous. A society that internally undermines justice through blind worship of wealth and greatness is likely to be externally destroyed by the rulers. Absolute power, allows the rulers to manipulate the law for their own economic gains (Smith 9).

Justice as a Moral Basis of Trade in TMS

The central theme WN is that trade is the avenue to national prosperity. Trade is the direct opposite of robbery either by state or by individuals. Trade can only thrive where the security of persons and property is guaranteed. Security as a whole can be secured only through rules of justice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More TMS hypothesizes how these rules are possible and how they are formulated. Our major focus on this part will be on how sympathy transform into rules of justice. Smith puts forward two types of moral judgement; judgement of decency or indecency of an individuals passions in responding to events.

For example, if B steals As wallet containing $ 10, A has a right to be upset and resentful. However, if A responds with excessive grief as if he has lost his entire fortune, those around him may judge his conduct as indecent. Equally, if B boasts of his achievement, his conduct will be judged by others to be improper.

The second category of moral judgements involves the merits and demerits of actions. Judgement based on proper reward or punishment for an act. As noted earlier, sympathy is an instinct that all humans possess. Individual A can have sympathy for individual B only if A can imagine how B is feeling (Griswold 339).

Individual A cannot get into individual Bs mind, the best he can do is to imagine Bs feelings by way he would feel if in his situation. Using the earlier example of a stolen wallet, assume that individual W sees B stealing As wallet. W can have fellow feeling for A, because if he were the victim he would feel the same way.

Similarly, W can sympathise with As anger. Worth noting however, is that W can never fully associate with the feelings of A. His bitterness of BS act is likely to be weaker than As own bitterness of the act. This implies that if A over reacts, then W is not likely to approve it. According to Smith, the aggrieved party (A) should therefore match his passion (the extent of resentment) to that of the impartial spectator (W), if he is to capture his sympathy (Smith 22).

Therefore, the moral judgement about the decency or indecency of an act is that of the neutral spectator who is neutral and has no positive or negative inclination to the parties directly involved. Similarly, the impartial spectator can only issue proper judgement about reward or punishment for the act of stealing. Individual A may feel that the thief (B) deserves a life imprisonment but he will not find much sympathy from (W) the impartial spectator.

The Rules of Justice

From smiths point of view, sympathy forms the basis of justice. The impartial spectator identifies with the grief of the victim of violence and recommends for punishment, though not to that which the victim desires. According to Smith, rules emerge when our sense of justice disappoints us at the time when we need it most.

When this happens, then we have to judge our own actions. Smith argues that it is practically impossible for us to make reasoned judgements before we take every action as humans. This is because we often act so fast that there is no time to make judgements and that our judgements are usually full of our own passions. If we reflect upon our actions afterwards and discover that we made mistakes, we will forgive ourselves.

This necessitates the need for an external instinct in our nature that allows us to identify the proper rule of conduct. By continuously observing the conduct of others, we formulate to ourselves certain general guidelines or rules regarding what are proper and therefore should be done and what are wrong that we should avoid. When these individual perceptions coincide or merge, then the rules of just conduct come into existence.

Generally, were not originally designed with forethought, but rather developed through the accumulation of experience (Smith 23). That notwithstanding, the continuous existence of general rules, involves another element. The primary reason why rules of justice exist is that majority of the people observe them of their free will most of the time.

This element of observance originates from the virtue of self-command that Smith considers the source of all virtues. Understanding and knowing the rules by itself cannot guarantee their observance. This is because self-interest motivates individuals to violate the rules they know and approve of. Through self-command, our urgent temptations are suppressed and it directs us to observe the rules of justice (Smith 4).

According to Smith, when individuals predict disapproval (retaliation strategy in game theory), they are forced to formulate the rules of proper conduct; the rules so formulated have no author (Ferguson 122). Worth noting is that not all the rules formulated turn out to be just. Customary practices and fashion may promote or negate justice (Smith 8).

The Reduced Role of Government in Relation to Moral Sentiments

According to Smith, between the two outward moralities of beneficence and justice, justice is of more importance to the society. He argues that the state has a specific role in the administration of justice. Moral rules of justice receive recognition as lawful obligations in the last resort and the state has the task to enforce.

However, in the determination of rules of justice, Smith does not see any major role for the state because they are formed on impulse through the adaptation of humanity. Smith believed in limited role of government. He was against the idea that a ruler knows best what is good for his people and that a centralised government can better take care of all aspects of social life.

He notes that harmony in society can only be successfully achieved when laws enacted by the peoples representatives are in line with the communitys expectation and that they do not lead to either despair or anarchy. To Smith, the society is so unstructured that is impossible for it to be micro-managed by a central system of government.he further notes that the society should not try to create the best system of laws but instead focus on the best that people can bear (Smith 14).

In his writing, warns against state efforts in promoting beneficence (actions that promote the well-being of others). He notes that even though the lack of beneficence stimulates condemnation, any move to force it can be even more inappropriate (Smith 6). While the well-being of others is desirable, it cannot be achieved without endangering the more elementary morality that is justice. Both justice and beneficence are critical components of societys moral capital.

However, the state is only effective in the enhancement of justice. Beneficence can only be enhanced through urging and recommendation (Smith 16). The secondary importance of beneficence relative to justice is important in understanding the synchrony of the TMS and the WN.

Though Smith was aware and rightly worried about greed and lack of concern towards the poor in his time, he was convinced that the growth of nations is better served by stable adherence to the rules of justice that provide conducive environment for trade and industry, the way to the wealth of nations.

Conclusion Smiths theory of moral sentiments argues that human beings by nature possess the instinct of fellow feeling. In the wealth of nations, he illustrates that self-interest is the engine of the wealth for countries and that through free trade; nations achieve the best path to prosperity. The Adam smith problem is not a real problem because of the following points;

In TMS Smith stays clear about the importance of self-interest over sympathy, secondly, self-interest and sympathy augment each other. During war, what sets each individual against every other individual is the instinct of sympathy. An individual can relate to another individuals joy as well as misery.

This capability actually enhances individual interests. In the absence of social harmony, the gains made will be short lived. As Paganelli points out, self-interest plays a positive role in the enhancement of virtues and the enforcement of moral rules (Paganelli 369). Third, it is impossible to carry out trade in the absence of steady rules that safeguard property, life and liberty. Without the rules of justice, trade cannot go on and the rules of justice cannot be achieved without sympathy (fellow feeling).

Lastly, sympathy drives self-interest as individuals extend and long for sympathy. To Smith, why we aspire for riches and fame over and above what is necessary is because we long for praise from other people. In the course of doing everything in order to earn praise from others, people end up meeting the society’s needs. It is this broader view of Smiths sympathy that nations are driven to greater prosperity.

Works Cited Griswold, Charles. Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print.

Paganelli, Maria. The Adam Smith Problem in Reverse’ 40:2 history of political economy. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.Print.

Smith, Adam. The Theory of moral sentiments. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.Print.

Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1981.Print.


Country Analysis and Foreign Market Entry Choice Report custom essay help

Abstract The purpose of this report is to analyze the foreign market and entry choices in relation marketing of pet care products in India. Various sources of theoretical framework have been used to gather secondary information. In addition, issues such as competition, culture and market have been researched.

This business report has analyzed foreign markets referred to as 5Cs by use of theoretical framework. These 5Cs are based on competition, culture, customers, constitution and company. This framework which is very broad has been used to analyze the real Indian market situation and pet care industry, though it can be used to analyze a variety of foreign markets.

The findings show the evidence of potential pets care firms to enter the Indian market, based on preferences of the consumers and the general market situation. In addition, it has been found that the future success of pets care firms in India will be determined by their strategic commitment.

The categories of pets food in India is increasingly becoming specialized along size, breed, and age of dogs, cats and other pets. Rising disposable income and humanization of pets are believed to be the key causes of rise in demand for these products. Royal Canin premium brand is one of the dog foods, which is highly specialized and cater for varied life stages, sizes and breeds.

In many urban centers, exclusively-packaged dog food is commonly fed on puppies less than six months. Flavors and life stages are the main categories of product specialization, though it is less profound in cats’ foods. This is attributable to the fact that cat owners are less interested in learning about a variety of breeds compared to dog owners.

The study recommends India as a potential international market for pets’ care products since the analysis of the facts shows that this environment has less risk factor and many opportunities as a result of increased benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income.

Introduction In future, pets care in India is expected to continue registering more popularity and growth. Several factors such as benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income are attributable to such growth and popularity. More consumers in India are increasingly finding the need to have pets for companionship and are spending more on their welfare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The realization of the benefits of prepared foods is drawing a sharp shift from non-prepared foods. As the owners of the pets become more interested in improving their pets’ health and giving them comfort, strong popularity and growth within the pets’ products such as dietary and supplements and grooming products is expected take place (Ramesh, 2008).

Provision of pets’ care products in India is dominated by multinational companies. In year 2010, Mars International India Pvt Ltd was the leading player, followed by Royal Canin India Pvt Ltd and Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt. Strengthening of multinationals and Consolidation of pets’ care products resulted from a number of acquisitions that took place in 2009. Specifically, multinational Companies gained from loyalty and brand awareness.

In addition, availability of resources for education and marketing as well as provision of quality products also gave these companies a competitive edge. In 2010 and 2011, international brands like Hill’s Pet Nutrition Inc continued joining the pet food industry. The manufactures have seen a growing demand for pets’ products in urban areas and hence continues offering different wellness and health products for pets in India (Louis, Boone


Union or Not Proposal college essay help: college essay help

The workers’ union plays a great role in the workplace. Lack of union in the plant that SNCC is purchasing will automatically have disparities in the company. This is because of the nature of roles played by unions in companies. They ensure a positive function in addressing and preventing familial abuse via intervention and training.

In most work places, domestic abuse is one of the union agenda since it is majorly a public health issue, family issue, workplace issue, social justice issue and a community issue. This paper seeks to discuss the role of unions in workplace and their relationship with the human resources and management.

Lack of union in the SNCC plant will therefore have disastrous impact in the company as a whole. This is because unions are vital in helping its members stay healthy, employed and safe so that they may remain self sufficient economically and retain their dignity (Phanindra, 2009).

Various business issues are associated with unions. The absence of a union in a workplace may result into adverse effects in the company. Without the union, issues such as fear, embarrassment, and workplace gossip, abuse of rights, exploitation, demonization, workplace conflict and low self esteem among other issues may arise due to lack of protection by the union. In situations where there is a union, positive issues results.

Employers and employees would to thing such as: understand that embarrassment and fear can prevent a member from talking concerning job issues, respect the rights of the members and their decisions, daunt workplace gossip, enlighten the member about the role of the union on their confidentiality, assistance and their non judgmental support, consider reassignment of jobs, refer members to unions, recognize retirees, develop unions resolutions, make public statements against violence and safety, negotiate supportive contract language and sponsor workshops concerning domestic violence (Noe et al., 2010)..

In case the new plant had a union, the union would be subjected to play multiple roles in ensuring success of the company as far as the company employees and operations are concerned.

The union would perform functions such as: negotiating collective agreement, the union would bargain for the terms and conditions that would be considered in employment of the workers in the bargaining unit; consulting and informing, the union would be informed and consulted on the recruitment decisions made by the company concerning collective redundancies, transfers and pension schemes; representing employees at grievance hearing and disciplinary, where there is a situation concerning discipline, the union would accompany workers to the committee for hearings; and partly or non unionized workers, here the union is obliged to inform the company about those workers who have since withdrawn from membership. The company is also obliged to inform the union about those members who cannot be part of the union (Boeri, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship that would exist between management, human resources, and the union if the new plant had a union would be a healthy and friendly one concerning the workers and the workplace. The management and the human resources both have roles and responsibilities towards the union.

The union representatives may be part of your employees and therefore considerable time off for their union duties should be awarded to allow them execute their administrative duties. The relationship between the union and the management should be consultative in that either of them informs and consults each other on matters concerning development of their interests and changes that are to be implemented in the company.

This enables the workers to adopt the stated changes without much opposition. The two could also enjoy a mutual relationship where the management allows the union to use the company facilities in their administrative functions (Noe et al., 2010).

In summary, the role of both the management and the union are directed towards a common goal. Achieving the objectives of the company and satisfying the needs of the workers. This paper has illustrated the role of unions at workplace and the relationship between the union, human resources and the management.

References Boeri, T. (2007). Role of Unions. London: Prentice Hall.

Noe, R. et al. (2010). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. London: McGraw-Hill.

Phanindra, V. (2009). The Role of Union in Workplace. New York: Cengage.

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Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian Analytical Essay best college essay help

Introduction Many theorists suggest that a family forms the first model of political society. This is mainly because parents are relieved of their duties of caring for children once they reach adulthood. Similarly, children are relieved of complete obedience to their parents at adulthood. Moreover, family bonds and obligations are practically broken. In fact, whatever remains is voluntary. It signifies an opportunity for children to be masters of their own destiny.

This is the basic unit of political society, in which people are born free but everywhere they remain in chain. The expression is according to Rousseau who asserts that modern states have the habit of repressing freedom, which is everyone’s birthright. Moreover, he faults them for neglecting civil freedom, which is the main reason for joining civil society. He therefore believes that legitimate political power can only be achieved through social contract. This paper will assess the view that social contract is totalitarian (Rousseau, 1762 p. 1).

Rousseau’s social contract According to Rousseau, people are denied freedom, which is their birthright. He therefore believed that for considerable freedom to be exercised in any given society, it requires a legitimate government or political authority. Moreover, this authority must be attained through social contract. It is also quite important to note that the social contract must be accepted by all residents for mutual protection.

In this regard, he defines sovereign as a collective grouping of all individuals of a political society and maintains that it should be taken like an individual. In this sense, as far as an individual has a particular aim or goal in life for his or her best interest, a political society or sovereign have a general will that aims or fights for a common goal. Therefore, as much as the sovereign is absolute in its authority, it also has authority on issues of public interest or concern. In conclusion, Rousseau’s verdict to those who violate social contract is death.

According to Rousseau, an alien lawgiver is mandated with the responsibility of creating abstract as well as general laws. Moreover, it is in these laws that the general will is clearly expressed. In addition, he alludes to the fact that a government is required to perform executive duties along with sovereign in exercising legislative powers. The government is therefore mandated with the responsibility of running day-to-day activities in society. There are several forms of governments namely, monarchy, democracy and aristocracy, among others.

However, the form of government lies heavily on its size. For instance, monarchy is considered as the strongest of all forms of government. Moreover, according to Rousseau, it serves the largest population and is suited for hot climates. He also argues that aristocracies are the best form of government and usually more stable than the rest.

Rousseau also maintains those sovereigns is always distinct from government and therefore are always in constant friction. In this regard, this friction has the propensity of destroying a state. It is therefore important that the state remains healthy for stability and longer reign, which may last centuries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rousseau continues by pointing out that citizens implement their sovereignty through periodic and regular meetings. It is quite important to note that rarely does everyone attend these meetings; however, this is necessary for a healthy state. He also insists that use of representatives in these meetings endangers well being of a state especially since the general will cannot be heard.

In essence, he thinks that citizens should note vote for their personal needs, rather they should do so in the interest of general will. Furthermore, results attained from these votes ought to approach unanimity. This is where the rule of supermajority links as it ensures that the general will is heard. Rousseau uses an example of Roman republic to sink his view of social contract and the concept of general will.

Social Contract can thus be defines as an agreement that enables an individual to join a civil society. It therefore binds that individual into society or community that exists in the interest of communal protection. In this respect, such individuals loose the right to do whatever they want albeit they get civil freedom, which allows them to act and think morally and rationally. Therefore, Rousseau maintains that we can achieve human status by going into social contract (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).

The general Will Rousseau uses the concept of general will to assert his argument on a legitimate political society. He believes that a general will can only be achieved through inclusion of all members of society. This is contradictory to the current practices where representatives are elected to vote on behalf of citizens. He believes that this form of law making is contradictory to the needs of a people and therefore acts to serve personal needs and not the general will.

In this regard, he defines general will, as that will of sovereign, which aims at achieving a common good even though each member of a society is known to have his/her will. This is not expressed in the general will. In fact, general will express the will of a state, which covers everyone.

No wonder, he insists that everyone should be involved in such decisions since representatives may at times forward their own personal interests as is witnessed all over the world’s democracies. The general will is thus described as will of all, which can refer to the sum total of individual will.

However, this is only possible in a healthy state. In a state experiencing friction between sovereign and government, the general will differs from will of all. This is mainly because what is known to be general will, may sometimes be infiltrated by personal interests at the highest levels. This causes jittery and animosity between sovereign and government and may lead to fall of a state. General will is therefore very important and must concur with will of all, in order to achieve a healthy state (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).

We will write a custom Essay on Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Democracy There are several forms of governments in the contemporary world. These include democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy, among others. According to Rousseau, the form of government depends on its size. For example, monarchy is considered as strongest of all the various forms of government.

Furthermore, he maintains that Monarchy serves the largest population and is suitable for hot climates. In addition, Rousseau argues that aristocracies are the best form of government, which last for centuries. Rousseau faults modern democracies for demeaning their subjects and sovereign. For instance, modern democracies have representatives that are supposed to enact laws on behalf of citizens. However, this is not entirely true.

In fact, while some legislators go for their own interests, other push for ideologies over and above what their constituents want. This has caused jittery and acrimony in most countries with continual replacement of representatives during elections. Nonetheless, it continues to haunt them, as the trend of presenting personal thoughts continues.

Rousseau tries to determine the possibility of achieving freedom, as it should be and not in its present form where self interest takeover power and utilize it, as they want. In fact, it is for this reason that he goes for concurrence between the general will and will of all.

However, current democracies do not offer such provisions. In fact, they claim that Rousseau’s theories are impracticable in modern world and require an ideal world that can heed to most people’s wants. In essence, as much as democracy tries to achieve concurrence in issues and freedom, it fails to reach its minimum threshold in Rousseau’s view (Estlund, Waldron, Grofman