The Concept Of Essence Essay Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction Fundamentalism in everyday life is important, which makes everything that exists equally important. The state of being is crucially determined by the principle of fundamentalism, which in turn leads to the essence of an object (Allaf 2003).

“The attributes, singly or collectively that make an object of a substance what it is and what it possesses and lack of which, it loses its identity is basically what essence is” (Weinberg 1964). So as to help in knowing the complexity in essence, Dilthey (1969) states that, “it is normally contrasted with accident, which is a contingent property that objects, or substances have and lack which does not deprive it its identity”(p, 66).

Aristotle was the proponent of essence whose English translation meant the “what it as to be”. The difficulty the phases presented to translators led to the coinage of the word Essential in Latin to summarize the whole concept of essence (Dilthey 1969). Existentialism and metaphysics comprise some of the contexts within which essence can explored and which formed the interest base of scholars such as Ibn Rushd.

Issues to do with existence characterize existentialism in an effort to define essence. Scholars such as Jean-Paul Sartre reckon “Existence precedes essence” for human beings. According to him, existence and actuality came first and afterwards, essence can be derived ( al 2000).

Existentialists argue the soul makes the most important part metaphysics. They continue arguing that human beings only acquire a soul only after their existence. Further, metaphysics holds its only during individuals lifetimes that people develop spirits and souls. Analysis of different scholar’s views on ontology and essence will for the basis of this paper. Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sina, and Aristotle works will feature in the sections ahead.

Ibn Rushd The development of the concept of essence could not be where it is without the contributions of Ibn Rushd (Allaf 2003). He was the Muslim scholar who produced works that went against most scholars of his kind. His contributions are acknowledged by both friend and foes alike.

Islamic philosophy and theology, Malik law, logic, psychology, politics and most importantly Aristotelian philosophy were some of the areas of interest of Rushd.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His commonly referred to as Averroes in the West and his contribution to the shaping of Islāmic, Christian, and Jewish philosophy is widely acknowledged. Rushd produced works in reaction to Ibn Sina’s concept of essence precedes existence which is an important concept of existentialism.

According to Hyman et al. (2010), Ibn Rush marked the climax of Muslim Aristoteliansim as well as its virtual end. Rush took keen interest in the works of Aristotle a stance which earned him the title “the commentator” for the role he played in commenting and translating the works of Aristotle (Dilthey 1969).

He considered his role as that of a cleanser of Aristotle works of the misinterpretations that had occurred through earlier commentators. He tasked himself to explaining the obscurities that characterize the Aristotle philosophies as well as removing the accretions that had gathered in the centuries that followed especially of the Arab Neo-Platonist like Ibn Sina (Averroes and Aristotle 2009).

According to Hyman et al. (2010), Ibn Rushd’s position is best captured by his critique of Avicennian theory, which at a certain point was analyzing existence of substances within the world. Ibn Sina had fronted the Avicennian concept where he sought to distinguish objects essence and existence by asserting that essence is ontologically prior and at the same time, existence is added to essence.

Averroes and Aristotle (1986) further argue that it is, as far as Ibn Sina followed Aristotle that Ibn Rushd expounded his ideas in the need to answer accusations and objections that went out of scope of Aristoteliansim.

Rushd rejected the Avicennian distinction by holding that individual objects and substances exists primarily (Janin 2006). He added that even though the mind can differentiate between essence and existence, in them, the two are one if looked at from an ontological point of view.

The main difference in their arguments therefore was the belonging of essence. For Ibn Sina, the essences were primary while for Ibn Rushd, the primacy belonged to individual substances (Hyman et al. 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Essence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that Rushd’s polemic was especially directed and Ibn Sina who according to him (Rushd) had capitulated to theological interests on certain crucial points of Aristotle works. It is also important to note that Rushd’s explicit aim was to follow Aristotle philosophy which he regarded unsurpassable (Averroes and Aristotle 1986).

Any support or criticism that may portray accommodation or rejection of Aristotle way of thinking will largely depend on the analysis that Rushd had on Ina Sina’s distinction works. A thorough understanding of Ibn Sina’s works and that of Aristotle is therefore necessary if meaningful comparison is to take place.

Aristotle’s concept of essence human and the ontology perspective In an effort to unravel the deeper meaning of the concept of being, Aristotle engages in metaphysics. The description of the criterion for the substantiality and the identification of essence with the substance are what Aristotle used in his writing to discuss essence (Leaman 2009).

The primary message in all of Aristotle’s analysis is the subject of being. Greek philosophy regards the explanation of being as a fundamental question. According to Aristotle, analysis of “being” is determined from two angles: First as that is which and as the item with “thisness”. Secondly as the quantity, quality and/or any category, whose prediction is possible (Fakhry 2001).

According to Aristotle, being is anything that posses “thisness” which in essence is what enables people determine it a thing. For instance, it is possible to determine a single human being as “this” and, it is possible to determine the entire human race as “this” (Miljenovic 2002).

A scholar, Suhrawardi seconds Aristotle on the view of looking at “being” from two angles; as a universal concept that is shared by all existent beings or as a particular being. he adds that being as the universal concept is just a mental concept while being as a particular being depends on the its essence to exists because a particular being can only be equal to its essence which effectively makes it the way it is.

According to Kamal (2010), it is possible to look at being from the point of being a mental concept and on its essence to exist because a particular being is equal to its essence. Greek

According to Aristotle, all categories safe for substance posses existence but only as being predicted. Substance therefore is the only thing that is independent of prediction. All categories that rely on prediction including qualities and quantities are dependent on substance for their existence. Being therefore is substance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Essence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Aristotle, definition of “substance” in categories is necessary for effective comprehension of essence. “Substance in categories is the primary category on which other categories relied on for their prediction” (Aristotle and Tancred 1998). Substances have qualities and qualities in turn belong to substances (Aristotle and Tancred 1998).

For instance if one can say that President Obama is oratory it means Obama is the substance that happens to posses the oratory quality. Substance in this case is superior because its devoid of any dependence on quality while the vice versa applies in the case of quality. Quality therefore relies on substance but substance does not rely on quality.

Referring to the example, Obama does not need to have the oratory skill but the being o the oratory skills have to belong to Obama (the entity or substance). Aristotle continued the investigation about what substance is by applying subject, essence, and genius as criteria of substantiality (Miljenovic 2002). In Greek terms Aristotle describes essence as “what it was to be that thing”.

Essence for each thing therefore is what people take it to be, completely. Therefore only things with an account of definition posses essence. spirit owes its predominance to substances while it applies secondarily to other substances.

Perhaps in a simple way, essence is normally the describable in a thing. Borrowing from biological classification of living things to genuses and species, he describes essence as absolutely the genus of species (Naseem 2001). According to Janin (2006), “anything intelligible about a thing is what its essence is, since it is the essence that is described in the definition of that particular thing” (Janin 2006).

The absolute features of a thing are its essence, those that can be described. Therefore, the essence of a thing according to Aristotle is its substance. According to Miljenovic (2002), Aristotle therefore means that if essence is substance, then what is ontologically fundamental is also prior conceptually.

Ontological priority means that the being of everything depends on the essence while conceptual priority means that everything has to be understood in terms of essence (Peters 2003). However, the definition of essence within the biological context of species raises questions about specificity of things having essence.

Ontology and Essence The rise of ontology was largely seen a challenge to Aristotle’s views on the essence. Numerous scholars many of them Muslims came forward to challenge the view by Aristotle that being precedes existence. The distinction between existence and essence was always a focal point for philosophers (Kamal 2010). The scholars were turning from the metaphysical position of essentialism to existentialism.

It also marked the movement from the doctrine of he principality of essence to the doctrine of the principality of being (Naseem 2001). The scholars most of the time unanimously agreed that “being was not apprehended rationally adding that the Aristotelian logic failed to in its attempt to reveal its truth, whereas essence was conceived rationally” (Kamal 2010).

Rather than an external reality with its independent ontological status, essence is as a mental phenomenon defined by thinking. Three ontological dimensions that help explain the principality of being and/or the principality of essence.

Being which is prior to essence, posterior to it and being that coexists simultaneously. Aristotle had adopted the thinking that being can stand on its own without depending on essence (Maclntyre 2009). From an ontological point of view, al-Kindah argues that there is no pure form of being. There is simply a being without essence (Kamal 2010).

Aristotle somehow supports this view through his description of being in metaphysic. According to Aristotle, the first unmoved mover is immune from change and matter chance it gives a pure form or actuality (Fakhry 2001). This view, is always presented by scholars especially Muslim philosophers opposing Ibn Rushd’ criticism of Ibn Sina.

They say the description fits that of God hence giving impetus to Ibn Sina’s argument that God is the Ultimate being. The distinction between existence and essence can also be portrayed through al-Farabi’s discourse in light of Aristotle and Neoplatonic theology. The pseudo theology of Aristotle helped influence al Farabi’s thinking (Maclntyre 2009).

According to him the “One” is the source of existence and it is the one from which the first intellect emanates. In the Aristotelian thinking, it is referred to as First Cause or pure being.

This “One” does not exhibit multiplicity because of the properties of the “One” and it presupposes the preexisting elements or its parts. Failure of multiplicity however does not lead to a deficiency in the existence of the being. The simplistic idea behind the “One” diminishes the dichotomy factor of existence and essence in this being (Kamal 2010).

The simplicity displayed by this being means that it is either identical to its essence or its pure and without essence. Al-Farabi at this point is in harmony with Aristotle that because he also presents the “One as” having no difference and as a quantitative character as well.

In this ontology presented by Al-Farabi the distinction between existence and essence appears as part of descending substance or as an emanated contingent of beings (Nasr 1993). Distinction between the “One” as the necessary being and the contingent arises from the above description. Essence therefore is the contingent being that requires existence.

Ibn Sina’s philosophy whose reliance on the ontology described in this section forms the basis of the Ibn Rushd; the spheres that he identifies are a clear indication of the dichotomous relationship between existence and essence.

Ontology does present views on the existence of accidental beings onto which essence is added. These beings existence and essences are not their own hence they cannot be the cause of their own beings (Kamal 2010).

Ibn Sina is the most forceful of all these scholars of the being and essence in philosophy. According to Sina, God is the purity being without essence and his existence can be described as simple and indivisible (Booth 1983). Contingent beings on the other hand are composite and their existence is added to them. Actuality of these incidental beings is incidental and it is something that has to happen o them.

Ibn Sina He is one of the Islāmic philosophy forces who established themselves in the eastern portion of the Islāmic territory. His works were done in the Eleventh century when Christians popularly referred to as the Avicenna. Subtlety and sophistication characterized his work (Khan 2006). Though he based his analyses on Neo-Platonism emanations, Sina did devote some of his time for the Aristotelian works and the works of al-Farabi.

Often, Sina tried to combine elements of both sources in and came up with a comprehensive account of reality that was critically acclaimed (Taylor and Adamson 1999). Ibn Rushd was one of the most consistent and notable commentators of the work of Sina and most of his criticism were regarded as a defense of the Aristotelian works.

The subject of the existence of being and essence by Aristotle elicited different reviews from different waiters including Sina. He believed that all human awareness began with the realization and the knowledge of the self. The self according to Sina could be acquired wholly without the help of the senses (Booth 1983). The human mind is the only available agent intellect and the only one that can do the above.

According to him, the realization of the essential quality of human thinking depended on some prior existing cause. Human beings realization of own reality as thinking things ensured a natural awareness of the existence of something else (Taylor and Adamson 1999). On top of the contingent beings is a supreme being that existed before everything else, according to Sina.

Derivation of everything else must be from the God who is the centre of reality (Grant 2007). God therefore encompasses everything and acts as the link to the core and which is necessary for any anything to survive. According to Sina, “the cosmos is a single and unified whole where everything that happens does so because it must symbolize the essence” (Khan 2006). The ultimate origin who too is the ultimate being is God.

Ibn Sina prioritized essence over existence. According to Leaman (2009), Sina expresses existence as an attribute of being. He advances the idea that what really exists is being, the notion, or definition of a thing (Leaman 2009). He continues to say that its eventual instantiation is a question of whether some things move being from potentiality to actuality.

Supporters of the Sina School of though contend that his idea is valid since there are many things that can be thought of meaning they are possible and which do actually come to existence meaning they are not actually existent. The above therefore justifies the reason why it is important to put being first before existence (Leaman 2009).

Inb Rushd on Aristotle Ibn Rushd began his writings almost a century after Sina. The commentator tag that he acquired was because of the emphasis he placed n translating the work of Aristotle (Urvoy 1991). His explicit disagreement with his Islāmic philosophy predecessors describe in his work Tahafut al-Tahafut that especially spoke against Ghazail.

He argued for prevalence of reason in solving philosophical problems so as people can gain genuine knowledge and truth (Sonneborn 2006). “He differed with Sina by asserting that efficient causation is a genuine feature displayed by all created things but, the first mover was had the privilege of remaining the ultimate source of all the motion there is” (Urvoy 1991).

Aristotle did view human beings holomorphic composites subject to the soul and matter. He captured essence through the immortality brought about by the absorption into the greater whole of universal intellect.

Interpretation of Metaphysics according to Rushd Rushd holds that the analogical being idea that underlies metaphysics is the most important and is what is effectively used to explain the concept of being. For Rushd, metaphysics, which Aristotle used to explain the being, is concerned with analogical idea of being. He further describes metaphysics as a science that is used to differentiate between inferior classes of being from the main or the real being.

The classification that Rushd carried out on Aristotle’s metaphysics largely agreed with him (Aristotle) but sought to look at things from a different perspective as far as the being and the essence is concerned.

He acknowledges the existence of accidental substances, which he refers to as physical beings (Aristotle and Averroes 1986). He tackles the being of the souls and mind and discusses if the substance that exists outside the soul for instance the sphere of the fixed stars could be materials or immaterial.

Compared to Aristotle’s hierarchy of material beings, Rushd’s classification differs a little. Accidental substances and the material/immaterial classifications do have quite a lot of similarities since their differentiation of the material-immaterial rift is less. In the second classification of soul and mind does include both universals and mathematical beings (Sonneborn 2006).

This therefore creates lack of abridge between physics and metaphysics which in Aristotle’s case exists. All beings therefore, material or not belong to one category, according to Rushd. Though they largely agree on the whole metaphysics theory, here Rushd disagrees with Aristotle.

Aristotle’s interpretation was more materialistic compared to that of Rushd. For Rushd, there is not little difference between physics and metaphysic nor did he see them as opposite sides of the same coin (Aristotle and Averroes 1986).

The difference between the physic and metaphysics according to Rushd was substance. The link brings together physics and metaphysics that Aristotle used to explain the essence.

His ontological views is brought out here and it is clear he believes that substance is what has temporary priority over the other parts of the being (Aristotle and Averroes 1986). He holds that there is an overlap in the subject matters of physics and metaphysics because they seek to explain things in sensible and eternal substances, respectively.

The eternal and numerically eternal perspectives characterize the cosmos, according to Rushd. A clear separation is evident through this classification (Loux 2002).

The celestial realm and the physical universe form the two classes. External cycle of generation and corruption and immortality characterize all things in the physical and celestial worlds respectively. He further says that what occurs on earth and the celestial sphere in terms of emanation is more or less the same.

According to the Aristotelian emanation doctrine therefore, “matter unites substance and that no one can create matter”. Physics seeks to explain the movement of things in the cosmological sphere (Boer 1983). “In the cosmological sphere, things are involved in movement, things move and other things are moved”.

Therefore, only physics according to him can explain the concept of movement in the cosmological sphere according to Rushd. The origin of motion that must be there in the cosmological sphere therefore must be God (Aristotle and Averroes 1986). The difference between physics and metaphysics comes out in this explanation. Physics and metaphysics differ in such a way that they concern the mover and the prime mover respectively.

According to him actuality is prior to potentiality makes little sense but to suggest the opposite gives rise to the idea of a possible spontaneous movement in the universe.

‘The prime mover according to Ibn Rushd moves the cosmos and especially the celestial bodies because it is the object of attraction of desire” (Kenny 2003). Celestial bodies have been conferred upon high power of intellect and desire because they have souls and they are always in a quest to be like God.

Rushd on Ibn Sina Ibn Rushd argued against the thesis presented by Sina in the ontological context. He especially rejected the thesis because some thinkers like al-Ghazail found it useful. In rejecting the notion that being came first while existence came second, he endorsed Aristotle’s thinking that existence comes first giving importance to essence. They bring the role of religion to the exploration of essence.

The space created by the distinction between essence and existence creates an important role for God’s action (Leaman 2009). Ibn Sina asserted that a prior cause brought things to existence which in can be traced back to the very first cause or the epicenter or as he put it the Necessary Thing.

According to Sina, God is the only thing that does not require pre determination for causal. According to Ibn Sina, metaphysics investigated God and everything that does with God. It also demonstrated that God actually did exist (Hyman et al. 2010). He as a result formulated the proof from necessity and contingency in an attempt to proof the existence of God.

Ibn Rushd’s criticism and rejection of Sina’s argument took place because existence of a thing is assumed part of its essence. This kind of argument he added would advocated gave priority of existence over being, which watered the basic tenet of Aristotle’s thinking. More candidly put, Sina’s arguments meant that existence of a thing was incidental, was essential to it, its character, and role (Leaman 2009).

Ibn Rushd maintained an opposite view to that of Sina by saying that metaphysics represented the existence of the subject matter. He developed an argument than invalidates the proof by Sina that God exists. According to him, the proof presented by Ibn Sina required the existence of beings through themselves and necessary through another. He added that it is possible to proof that such beings do not exist.

In his teachings, Ibn Rushd supports Aristotle’s views on the picture of the universe with its distinction between a sub lunar and trans-lunar world (Hyman et al. 2010).

The sub-lunar world according to Aristotle is subject to generation and possible corruption and substances within this sub lunar world are subject to for elements. First matter, a substantial, and the elemental form comprise the components of the sub-lunar world. Rushd also accepted the Aristotle explanation of the trans-lunary world which he characterized as eternal and contains celestial bodies and immaterial mover.

Rushd did not however adopt Aristotle’s thinking wholly. He did inject his own modification, a subtle show of disagreement of Aristotle’s concept. In the bid to explore essence, Ibn Rushd produced his own doctrine on corporal form.

Aristotle has presented prime matter which was an enigmatic notion and which created a gap between itself and that of the elemental form (Hyman et al. 2010). Aristotle alluded that corporal form was common to all bodies and related to an extent to the body’s property dimensionally.

Sina on his part had defined the corporal form as one that possessed predisposition as result of receiving the three dimensions. He insisted that this form differed dimensionality since form belonged to the category of substance and dimensionality belonged to the category of quality.

On his part, Ibn Rushd agreed with the alternative that Sina had differed rejected. He defined the corporal form as being identical with indeterminate triple dimensionality (Hyman Et al. 2010).

Again in an apparent endorsement of Aristotle’s thinking, Rushd rejected Sina’s interpretation of celestial movers. They however both agreed that celestial movers did have a soul and an intellect. Sina again differs with Rushd where he (Sina) asserts that celestial souls are inhered in the celestial body. Rushd on his part says that the souls and intelligence of celestial bodies were two aspects made from a similar immaterial celestial mover.

Ibn Rushd had his own interpretations on metaphysics that Aristotle largely used to describe his concept of essence.

Conclusion The concept of the essence is as presented by Ibn Rushd agrees of what Aristotle taught (Fürth and Aristotle 1985). Perhaps a demonstration of how much Rushd believed in the works of Aristotle is the way in which he went against Muslim scholars especially Ibn Sina in rejecting their assertions on the being and how the how the being precedes the essence.

However that is not to say he was in agreement with Aristotle as far as the writings on essence were concerned. He did have his differences and unlike his mentor, he be explicitly acknowledged the existence of the Supreme Being which is God. Aristotle did say the same but he left the field wide open for anyone who can across the writings to fill for himself who the Supreme Being was.

References Allaf, M. (2003) The Essence of Islamic Philosophy. New York: M. Al-Allaf.

Aristotle and Tancred, L., H. (1998) Metaphysics. London: Penguin Books.

Averroes and Aristotle. (1986) Ibn Rushd’s metaphysics: a translation with introduction of Ibn Rushd’s Works. Amsterdam: BRILL.

Boer, J., T. (1983) The history of philosophy in Islam. New York: Forgotten Books.

Booth, E. (1983) Aristotelian aporetic ontology in Islamic and Christian thinkers, Volume 20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Collinson, D., Plant, K., and Wilkinson, R (2000) Fifty Eastern thinkers. New York: Routledge Taylor


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Table of Contents Introduction





Strategies Proposed to Increase Market Share



Introduction SWOT analysis involves the development of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that are encountered by a company during normal operations.

These factors are generated from the daily activities of a company and they are important to the management of the company. There are many other parties, such as competitors, customers, shareholders and others interested in the SWOT analysis of a company (Coman


Globalization: A Blessing or a Curse to US Middle Class Workers? Research Paper best essay help

Key Concepts and the basic logic of postmodernism Postmodernism is a movement that is historically and philosophically against modernism. According to a certain cadre of leading intellectuals, the world has moved from modernism and is now in a new era – an era of revolution.

We are sandwiched between the presence and the future in such a manner that whereas we are in an era that is emancipated from the tyrannical limitations of the past, we are concurrently uncertain about the anticipations of the future. Even anti postmodernists, scrutinizing the intellectual atmosphere and not liking what they notice, attest to the fact that there is a new cutting edge.

There have been transitions in the intellectual arena regarding who is on the lead. Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida, just to name but a few are the spear headers of the postmodern movement (Hicks, 2004. p.1). They not only draw the direction, but also avail necessary tools. According to its leaders, postmodernism does not embrace the components of the past such as reason, truth, and knowledge.

They further postulate that postmodernism is neither true nor does it provide knowledge. Since such suggestions would be conflicting, postmodernists must then be ironical in their use of language. They assert that either the globe or the self has a built-in nature. Since there is nothing to control or limit our thoughts or the way we feel, we are at liberty to either do or say whatever we wish.

It focuses on deconstruction of reason which sets one free from the duty of being right but requires him to be thrilling. Postmodernism then becomes a technique that can be used by an activist to oppose reason and power. It enables one to detect, confront, and oppose the political horrors in a particular time. Those horrors originate from the west where reason and power have been so established.

However, the pain that the horrors cause is unequally distributed (Hicks, 2004. p. 3). The power is in the hands of males, rich and whites who use it to oppress women, racial minorities and the needy. Postmodernism also advocates for censorship on pornography because it is viewed as oppressive to women, violent and politically repressive.

The violence is not only encountered by the needy at the hands of the affluent, but also by the developing nations at the hand of the capitalist countries. The violence of capital civilization is masked under aspects like democracy and progress, forgetting past evils, and freedom and equality as regards the law. However, the underlying essence is not fully manifested.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although at a glance, postmodernism denies link to philosophy, it however embraces an embedded conception of reality and ethics. It is founded on premises that can allow for situation of thoughts and actions. Metaphysically, postmodernism refutes the possibility of talking about a reality that exists on its own.

It rather looks at reality from a socio-linguistic sense or constructs (Hicks, 2004. p.6). Having replaced reality with social linguistic constructs, postmodernism maintains that these constructs are supposed to be subjective, conventional, and not commensurable.

Postmodernism holds a collective account of the human nature asserting that people’s identities are greatly determined by the social-linguistic groups that they belong to. Such groups differ on the basis of race, sex, materialism, and ethnicity.

It further accounts for conflicts among those groups, which are mainly resolved through the use of force since reason is not used. Using force results to dominance, subjugation and giving in. Finally, when it comes to political and ethical themes, postmodernism seeks to identify and feel sorry for the oppressed.

Key Concepts and the basic logic of Liberalism Liberalism comprises a greater stream within the culture of the United States. It is founded on two basic pillars: democracy and personal freedom (Garry, 1992 p.41). With its flexibility and ability to respond to the needs of the layperson, democracy causes a difficulty in social control. In a similar way personal liberty plays a vital role in promoting the power and wave of revolution in the society.

Unimpeded democracy and personal liberty pose a threat to some key conservative interests that need a regulated, inflexible social and political atmosphere. Although it is founded in enlightenment, liberalism extends into both the private and public lives of people.

It forms part of what drives the constitutional law, forms the guidelines of what should hold reason in both the government and economics and determines the political correctness within the nation. It lays a major emphasis on an individual person whose ability to either volunteer or be rational forms the basis of innate value and provides a justification to defensive rights of independence, privacy, and freedom.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalization: A Blessing or a Curse to US Middle Class Workers? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Every individual is considered important, and this is based neither on his or her religion nor on his or her roles in contributing to the common good of the country. An individual’s significance is rather based on their abilities to both think and make radical decisions. The major historic achievement of liberalism has been the emancipation of Jews, blacks and women (Cochran, 1999, p.4).

This, apart from its role, is continuing to lobby for everybody’s equal rights as well as justice in public policy. Liberal rights are regarded as self-evident regardless of the position that one might choose to take, having a preference of either property rights or civil rights.

Individual and innate rights are esteemed so highly and are always suspected to be under the threat of the government of the day, sporadically by science but hardly by business. Similar to other living creeds, liberalism does not only focus on the political spectrum, but it also takes varying forms and manifests in several kinds of intricacy (Almeder, 1998. p.181).

The aspect of human cloning is seen to undermine the principles of liberalism. This is because this anxious scientific practice clearly defies the intensely acknowledged American belief that every individual is unique in his or her own capacity. It begs a related question of as to whether it is possible to replicate something that is special. For something to be regarded as precious and unique, it should not be possible to copy it.

Even when it comes to artistic objects, the value of an object is not transferable to its replicas. In addition, if it is not possible to make a distinction between a copy and its original, then the value of the latter is compromised. Therefore, cloned individuals seem to have lost the unique worth that liberalism acknowledges in everyone.

Liberalism was formulated as a political plan that was meant to be a social guide begin from England and the United States and then to Europe and other parts of the world. However, in the entire world, the proponents of liberalism never succeeded in bringing their agenda to maturity (Mises, 2002, p.24).

Liberalism is a doctrine that is directly aimed at the conduct of men in the world. It is concerned with the advancement of their external material benefits and does not aim at fulfilling their internal spiritual needs. It does guarantee men satisfaction and happiness but only the most possible satisfaction that the things of the outer world can make them meet.

Liberalism has been criticized for its emphasis on what is material and worldly. Liberalism is concerned with the fact that that which is both highest and profound in a man cannot be touched by any external regulation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization: A Blessing or a Curse to US Middle Class Workers? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It seeks to enhance external welfare because it acknowledges that inner spiritual fulfillment cannot be accessed by man from outside but rather from his own heart. It aims at creating the external environment for the cultivation of the inward life (Mises, 2002, p.28).

Globalization is a curse to the US middle class workers Based on liberalism

Globalization is a continuous interdependence between nations and their citizens. It not only complex, but is also multifaceted. It is driven by technological, cultural, and political changes (Fischer, 2003 p.3). It is really resulting to a very close interdependence between the United States and other countries. It is perceived to have affected the current decline in home wages (Polaski, 2007, p. 1).

The middle class are people who are neither rich nor poor but contribute towards the development of market economy and democracy. The middle class workers can be looked at from perspectives. One is based on the fixed time and space element that bases them on a combination of education and the job they do.

Another approach refers to the middle class workers as those households that can be found at the middle of the income distribution within a given state (Birdsall, Graham and Pettinato, 2000, p.3). In Latin America, there are huge differences between the income of those at the top and the middle class. This in turn has really contributed towards the poverty level of the middle class workers.

Since liberalism, lays emphasis on materialism, the middle class workers can hardly gather enough based on their meager pay. This is as a product of policies whose roots are deeply found in political and economic interdependence between the United States and other nations since in most developed nations the middle class do get income that is way below average (Birdsall, Graham and Pettinato, 2000. p.5).

It is further argued that national policy choices, technology, and other effects of stagnation have contributed to the static effect in most of the United States incomes.

It is also argued that the United States trade and globalization has not contributed to the material welfare of the middle class workers in several ways. It has lowered their standards of living by undercutting their social, environmental, customer safety and other protections concerned with public health.

It has also increased their debts with foreign nations, undermined the security of the nation, and at the same time put them in a situation where it is difficult to be innovative in such a manner as to enhance one’s future progress (Sq Researcher, 2009. p.17).

It is there fore plausible to conclude that if the negative impacts of globalization are to be reduced in the United States to allow it access less skilled and less secured labour, income will have to be minimized especially for those employees who do not have a university degree.

Therefore, the worth of most Americans should be based on their level of education, which negates the tenets of liberalism that recognizes an individual as useful and unique without necessarily being made to be so by education or any other factor.

And so, America’s real economy cannot therefore be reconstructed effectively or be used to elevate the living standards of the middle class if at all the relevant authorities cannot be able to find out how to use revenue, currency, commerce and investment policies to recompense efficient domestic production rather than the foreign one. This is not in any way to assert that trade and globalization are harmful.

The United States globalization policies in the recent past years focused so much on the development of those mobile large-scale industries that are based in many nations. This was done at the expense of home manufacturers. At almost the same period, the projections for equitable, retainable, and democratic growth were downplayed. This was a great violation of one of the key pillars of liberalism; democracy.

In order to make progress, it is therefore imperative to realize that the current policy framework on globalization and trade has not been able to fulfill its promises especially to the middle class workers (Sq Researcher, 2009. p.17).

Based on postmodernism Although a majority of black men and women form the most of middle class workers in the United States, they are still accorded less value on the basis of race. To fully understand the state of a group that is oppressed on the basis of race requires a conceptualization that can clearly reveal how both class and race interface to change the way people live.

Most Afro-Americans that entail both the working and middle class are narrowed to occupations that are of low pay and least impressive as compared to whites within the same working category (Dill and Zinn, 1994, p.115). Most workers based on race were not allowed to secure positions in the industrial, clerical, and marketing sectors. These dockets were set aside for the whites. Black ladies and gentlemen were to secure occupations that had been left out by the whites.

The first half of the century saw most black women secure domestic jobs before they were eventually able to secure jobs as service workers, factory employees, sales persons, and clerics. In the past, men and women of a black race that were serve in professional dockets attended to their fellow black people.

These responsibilities are often avoided by whites and even lately, most middle class black workers provide teaching, medical, professional and management based services to other blacks. Gender also contributes to the access of professional job opportunities in the United States.

Job ceilings have been playing a significant role in hindering the economic mobility of some target groups (Bose, 2001, p.6). This is a type of economic repression that perpetuated either formally or informally. The outcomes are non-changing such that most black people are not permitted to undertake some occupations even if they are competent enough to deliver.

This is because employers believe that such specific duties are not open to the black people. Throughout the years, blacks have been anticipating positive changes regarding this situation. For instance, the period between the second world war and depression saw a bigger percentage of the negro population become embroiled in the least paid, manual, risky and unattractive jobs.

Policies related to employment from individual organizations, trade-union limitations, and racial segregation in both training and promotions made it very hard for them to access jobs in management, clerics, sales and other related positions. Some industries had policies that favored only whites. Examples of such firms include the city financial institutions, offices, and electric production industries (Drake and Cayton, 1993, p.112).

Chicago did not have a different case of the job ceiling. It was part of the labor market in the rural and city areas. Its existence banned the black people from experiencing job mobility trends that were accessible by both native and immigrant white people who could with time change from less paying jobs to prestigious factory jobs.

With this developed system inaccessible to them, black men and women were to find a way of getting out of their meager paying jobs. They therefore started changing to household duties, housekeeping and caretaker services, laundry work, among other occupations where they could be employed. They strived to attain education, mainly in conventional black colleges.

For most blacks, an education was the key to competency that could make one secure middle class occupation (Dill and Zinn, 1994, p. 117). Through this way, some middle class black employees could find their way beyond the job ceiling to a better place. For women who were black, a college education could only enable them secure either domestic or alternative low remunerative jobs.

Despite advancement in college education, most black women encountered another host of impediments on their way. Both race and sex hindrances barred them from securing well paying and satisfying professional employment.

Before World War II, both gender and race were determinants of the kind of jobs that women could do. Black women undertaking college-based education were made to secure jobs as primary or secondary school teachers, nurses, social workers and librarians. This is evidenced especially in the Newark metropolitan region.

Black women with a college education were given a different professional treat. They were not allowed to pursue male oriented professionals but were led to undertake female professions (Hine 1989). For example, women could not secure automobile related jobs that strictly believed as belonging to men.

Despite the positive economic viability of such companies like Ford Motors, they were no provision of jobs to black women from such firms (Hine, 1989, p. 135). Women faced a major hurdle in securing jobs for both themselves and their children.

The devastations of underemployment, compulsory job layoffs, and sexual exploitation in the labour force during the economic crises of the 1930’s compelled most middle class black women employees to resort other sources of livelihood to survive.

Studies reveal that most black women have resorted to domestic roles in the United States were enslaved Africans. They worked in field where they grew food and cotton. They also cared for the families and children of the plantation owners who were mainly middle class whites (Ammot and Matthaei, 1996, p.16).

During the entire industrialization, women’s responsibility was neither visible nor acknowledged, reflecting how politically oppressive the Congress legislation was towards them.

In a bid to resolve this, we have had the emergence of women liberation movements whose aim has been to champion for the entry of middle class white women in most occupations. The work performed by women, whether based at home or in public is continuously seen as either less skilled or of little worth (Mercado and Poo, 2007, p.1).

Globalization is a blessing to the US middle class workers Based on liberalism

The criticism leveled against globalization is comprehensible but mislaid. Despite rising concerns about deteriorating income allocation, wage stagnation and lack of secured occupations, most in depth studies in economy reveal that globalization has really led to an improvement in the United States economy and particularly that of the middle class.

Serious study shows that the United States economy registers an annual increment of about $1 trillion as a result of economic globalization for the last fifty years. These profits emanate from low – priced imports, additional well paying export jobs and a rapid pace in productivity.

The American economy is highly likely to grow by fifty percent annually if the remaining impediments are taken off the transnational exchange of commodities. In addition, this will go to an extent of improving the standards of living of the middle class employees.

The United States cannot prevent globalization in any way but it can only avail social safety valves for those affected while ensuring that its employees and companies can compete according to global economic standards.

The congress under the leadership of president Obama have already began laying down these safety valves as seen through the financial stimulus allocation. Insurance that may benefit the unemployed has already been unveiled. Restructuring of the health care has commenced.

All trade affected employees and communities have already been covered through the expansion of Trade Adjustment Assistance. Additionally, globalization has pulled numerous people out of poverty. Most nations that have attained sustainable modernization have incorporated globalization. Latest examples are both China and India (Sq Researcher, 2009. p.17).

Based on Postmodernism

On the other hand, the professional destiny of black men was also determined by gender. Based on this, most of them could end up as teachers, medics, business people and dentists. Blacks were permitted to exercise their professional duties within a community that is racially discriminative. Generally, education prepared black men to undertake occupations within black oriented institutions.

For example, dentists could only attend to black patients, and in big communities, they were able to succeed economically. As clergies, black men were allowed to attend to the needs of a black gathering. For larger gatherings, the minister’s economic security was guaranteed.

Other black men took the initiative to avail insurance services to their fellow blacks, which went a long way to benefit them in many ways. Additionally, black women who undertook domestic based roles have been reported to contribute Marjory towards the development of financial and social life in the United States.

The utilizability, strengths and weaknesses of liberalism and postmodernism

Liberalism has been criticized mainly for its focus on the social policy that concentrates on the material aspect of human kind while it downplays the importance of the inner spiritual aspects that form the source of ones satisfaction and happiness (Mises, 2002, p.27). In the discussion about the effects of globalization to the middle class, it brings out the aspect of how the affluent are denying the needy their liberty and democracy.

This has been entrenched in the economic policies and their implementation continues to render the middle class workers poor. However, it helps us to see the way out of this morass in a practical sense as seen in the latest initiatives laid down by the Congress government as already discussed.

On the other hand, the shortcomings of postmodernism are that, it exaggerates the problems we undergo while living together, it presents manipulates us with an antithesis that suggests the subjectivity of all knowing, when applied to moral settings, it concentrates more on the need to live with integrity and be selfless than on any other aspect (Carson, 2003, p.6).

Its strength is that it provides us with a vivid picture of oppression based on gender, race, and ethnicity. In the discussion above, the postmodernism perspective focuses at the impacts of globalization to the US middle class workers from a broader dimension as compared to liberalism which only highlights the how their outward aspects have been affected. The former should therefore be preferred over the latter in tackling this issue.

References Almeder, R. (1998). Human cloning. Totowa: Humana Press. Web.

Ammot, T. L. and Matthaei, J. A. (1996). Race Gender and Work: A multi-cultural economic history of women in the United States. NY: South End Press. Web.

Birdsall, N., Graham, C. and Pettinato, S. (2000). Stuck in the Tunnel: Is globalization muddling the middle class? Web.

Bose, C. E. (2001). Women in 1900: gateway to the political economy of the 20th century. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Web.

Carson, D. A. (2003). Reaching out in our time. The dangers and delights of postmodernism. Web.

Cayton, H. R. and Drake, C. (1993). Black Metropolis: A study of Negro life in a Northern City. New York: University of Chicago Press. Web.

Cochran, D. C. (1999). The color of freedom: race and contemporary American liberalism. Albany: State University of New York Press. Web.

Fischer, S. (2003). Globalization and its challenges. Citigroup. Web.

Garry, P. (1991). Liberalism and American Identity. New York: Kant State University press. Web.

Hicks, S. (2004). Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault. Arizona: Scholarly Publishing. Web.

Hine, D. C. (1989). Hine Sight: Black Women and the reconstruction of the American History. United States: Indiana University Press. Web.

Mercado, A. C. and Poo, A. (2007). Domestic Workers Organizing in the United States Web. Web.

Mises, L. V. (2002). Liberalism in the Classic Tradition. Web.

Polaski, S. (2007). Carnegie. Endowment for International Peace. US living standards in an era of globalization. Web.

Sq Researcher. (2009). Issues for Debate in Social Policy: Selections from CQ Researcher. California: Sage Publications. Web.


Neptune Gourmet Seafood Business Planning Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Neptune Gourmet Seafood Neptune Gourmet Seafood is ranked as the third-largest seafood manufacturer in North of America. The corporation has earned itself a first-class status among its customers. It has positioned itself as the best sea food producer in the region.

Neptune Gourmet Seafood gets in touch with many of its diverse customers through an assortment of channels. With about 30% of its revenues, which happen to stand at $820 million per annum, being generated through selling frozen and processed fish products to the US grocery chains, the company is stable.

Role of business audit in strategy

Strategies are major initiatives assumed by corporate executives to help a corporation positions itself in a way that makes it fair well against the antagonism from its rivals as noted by Camillus(1986, p. 210). Devoid of a strategy, expensive resources will be watered down, the labour of workers will be unfocused, and distinctiveness will not be achieved.

The external surroundings appraisal provides any big business with a significant connections and understanding. Appraisal of the external environment helps an organization to make connections or understand relations between its competitors, customers, and the commodities/services it presents (Kazmi, 2008, p. 255).

Kazmi (2008), in addition, notes that policy audit entails evaluating the definite course of a business and comparing that route to the direction necessary to be successful in a changing atmosphere. In the case of Neptune Gourmet Seafood, there are a number of actions the company can undertake, in order to place itself in a strategic position.

A better understanding of strategies the company can employee can only be arrived at based on a business audit. Neptune is audited in this paper based on porter’s five forces model, PESTEL model and a Swot analysis.

Porters Five Forces Model Analysis

Competitor Rivalry

Neptune operates in a very competitive market or industry. In order to remain aggressive in a changing competitive environment, a company is required to make modification in its prices from time to time, or the quality of product it manufactures (Della et al, 2005, p.124).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same approach, the authors notes that there is need for a company to change its market distribution channels as well as keep pace with changing fashions and trends of products it specialise in. Neptune Gourmet Seafood can make use of this force to enhance its strategic position, and as a result keep it competitors at bay.

By cutting down the price of it product, Neptune will benefit by winning a large share of customers and in the end improve its revenue. Similarly, Neptune is supposed to come up with a more effective distribution channels to facilitate a smooth distribution of it product to its customers.

Threat of New Entrants

In case the market is doing well, more companies will be tempted enter. Although, there are no clear threats of new entrants in the case, the industry in which Neptune operates is very attractive. Fortunately, establishment costs are high meaning a huge entry barrier that continues to bar entry by other players.

In case there are any new entrants, this will eventually increase competition and as a result reduce the returns. To overcome such threat, a company can lower it price to discourage more entrant. Neptune Gourmet Seafood can make use of this strategy to benefit from maximised profit as a result of few competitors.

Threat of Substitutes

Companies often do not just have to contend with competition from companies offering same kind of products but also companies offering substitute products. In this globalizing world, with the internet, people are able to access information thus identify substitutes easily.

Often, cost leadership and competitive pricing is helpful in dealing with challenges or problems of substitute offerings. In cutting its prices by a half, Neptune Gourmet Seafood will discourage chances of being substituted, and as a consequence benefit from improved sales of its products. Away from pricing is adopting quality production processes thus anchoring on quality and value to win customers.

Buyer power

Neptune’s buyers are very sophisticated i.e. they have great interest in quality and improved services. The availability of other options gives them relative power over Neptune.

We will write a custom Report on Neptune Gourmet Seafood Business Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Being able to maintain current customers and attract potential buyers will enhance the competitive position of any company. By offering competitive prices, Neptune, will be able to consolidate its current potential customers and at the same time attract more, hence benefiting from improved revenue due to extra sales.

Supplier power

The last force of porter’s model entails the power of suppliers in influencing the competitive position of a company. To benefit from a competitive position a company is supposed to deal with those suppliers that supply it with products at a reduced rate.

Such rates can be achieved through buying products in bulk. Similarly, Neptune can as well enhance its strategic position by dealing with those suppliers that can provide most of commodities, such as fishing devices at a reduced cost. This will eventually lower down it production cost, and consequently improve its profit.

PESTEL analysis

For one to comprehend efforts made by Neptune to achieve its current position, it is necessary to analyse the company position using the PESTEL model. The PESTEL analysis is a helpful instrument for comprehending the market developments or decline. PESTEL is a short form for Political, Economic, Social, and Technological, environmental and legal factors, which are used to gauge the market for a company or organizational unit.

Technological Factors

To facilitate making decisions and plans for the future events, Neptune Gourmet Seafood has technologically improvised strategies that have made it possible for the company to be competitively placed compared to its rivals.

Some of these technological strategies include coming up with state-of-art fishing vessels installed with high scientific super freezers which make it possible for the vessels to harvest fishes and freeze them to extremely icing temperature, as low as -70 F compared to the usual -10 F or -23 F, within hours of capturing them.

The most remarkable part of technological strategies incorporated by Neptune is reflected on the manner in which these vessels have been designed, such that the boats can navigate themselves by using systematic devices that direct them to the most excellent fishing zones, where they manoeuvre the fishing apparatus in addition to confiscating the catches and eventually transmitting the required fishing information back to the receiving devices on the shore.

Environmental factors

In order to operate within the stipulated environmental set of laws that dictate the manner in which fishing should be carried on, Neptune’s fishing vessels have been mounted with other systems, along with more sophisticated fishing devices, which ensures that only the fully grown mature fish are caught, and that the nets are not overflowing to avoid damaging the heave.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Neptune Gourmet Seafood Business Planning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a consequence, Neptune has not experienced any problem with the authority, and has as a consequence increasingly landed only the top quality catches.

Legal factors

To attain their current position, Neptune Gourmet Seafood had to deal with legal modification, such as laws restricting fishing on the shore and rather recommending fishing to be carried on in deep seas. To triumph over such encumbrance, the company begun to rely on technology, and as a result launched fishing vessel installed with state-of-art technology that enabled Neptune Gourmet Seafood’s fortunes to grow in fold.

Economical Factors

Economically, the company has invested in diversifying their products, in order to incorporate customers of all financial backgrounds. One economic player that influences Neptune’s operation is the U.S. Association of Seafood Processors and Distributors. Its capacity to control industry activities and prices directly impacts on the strategic choices for Neptune.

Social factors

So as to overcome social hindrances, Neptune has expanded their market to cover almost the entire US. To attain this success, the company has used various to distribute its products to different regions in the country, where people with different social backgrounds reside.

This means that in case one brand or product is not fetching good price in one region due to cultural norms and expectations, such products can be transferred to other regions with different social views.

SWOT Analysis

In a competitive marketing environment like the one faced by Neptune Gourmet Seafood, a strategic plan will help the company to have a cutting edge on its competitors.

To thoroughly analyze the market and the different situations surrounding Neptune, it is necessary to perform SWOT analysis. SWOT is an abbreviation of strengths, weaknesses, Threats and Opportunities. A swot analysis on Neptune’s operations is as shown in the table below.

Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats The competitive advantage of Neptune Gourmet Seafood, in commanding a larger share of the market compared to it competitors

The resources and assets the company possess

The experience and knowledge the company has acquired in the course of it’s operation.

Technological advancement

Company’s lack of competitive strength

Workers morale as well as commitment of leaders

Managerial disunity

Lack of inventory control measures, which have resulted in unnecessary excess production.

Advancement of technology and innovation

New marketing opportunities

National influence

Economies of scale in production, where profit per unit produced is expected.

High Market requirements

Sustaining internal capabilities

Environmental effect that may face the company

Political situations and influence, likely to have effect on Neptune Gourmet Seafood operations.

Identification and Critical Analysis of Past Strategies Used By Neptune Gourmet Seafood Have Used To Reach Their Current Position A strategy is generally an approach, founded on comprehension of the broader situation in which a firm functions, its own strengths and weaknesses, and the problem the corporation is endeavouring to address (McDavid


The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model-Palm Inc Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Strategy

Generic strategy – Differentiation strategy




Reference List

Strategy In their operation, firms in different economic sectors have to deal with two main levels of strategic issues. These include the corporate and business strategy of the firm. According to Grant (2005, p.22), a firm’s corporate strategy gives a clear definition of its scope of operation within a specific industry or market.

On the other hand, business strategy gives a clear indication of how the firm intends to compete in the market. Grant (2005, p.22) asserts that a firm’s strategy is aimed at ensuring that a firm survives in the long term. Therefore, it has to develop a high competitive advantage.

In its operation, Palm Inc has formulated an effective corporate strategy which is aimed at ensuring that the firm becomes a global leader in mobile device industry (Rubinstein


Enterprise Management System Case Study cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case study

Discussion questions



True/false questions


Works Cited

Introduction Despite the view that companies established in a particular industry might specialize in the production of identical products, their operations differ significantly. Uzekici affirms that the operational differences arise from the adoption of inimitable business strategies, policies, and principles (519).

The reason for such variations is to attain a high competitive edge. One of the aspects that organizations are focusing on involves the integration of efficient business logistics systems in their supply chain. Thus, companies should foster optimal supply chain collaboration. However, this goal can only be achieved through the incorporation of modern supply chain management strategies (Branska 676).

The maintenance management systems adopted by a particular organization might not apply to another entity. Branska argues that maintenance system should be concerned with preventing undesirable outcomes (677). The concept of maintenance is comprised of a combination of the managerial, administrative, and technical actions undertaken during the lifecycle of a system or item to restore its capacity to perform the requisite function.

Traditionally, maintenance was considered a significant cost element. However, organizations acknowledge it as a vital contributor in an organization’s pursuit of profitability and optimal performance. The maintenance management system aids in undertaking capital improvements coupled with facilitating efficient equipment repair and replacement (Ong 12).

The MMS is indispensable in optimizing the utilization of an organization’s resources such as equipment, facilities, and personnel. Additionally, the MMS provides accurate data that firms can use in making maintenance decisions. The MMS improves the effectiveness with which management teams identify maintenance deficiencies systematically. Thus, the need for innovation in improving the efficiency of maintenance management systems in organizations is crucial.

Case study The oil and gas industry is one of the core contributors to the global economic growth. Its relevance emanates from the increased overdependence on oil and gas as a source of energy across different economies. The ever-increasing demand for oil and gas has increased the intensity of competition within the industry. Thus, the need for industry players to develop a high competitive edge has increased remarkably.

As one of the industry players, Petronas is focused on operational excellence as an approach to attaining competitive advantage and maximizing profitability. The firm intends to achieve this goal by delivering sustainable performance in all its operational activities. One of the areas that the organization has focused on in its pursuit of operational excellence entails industrial maintenance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm’s motivation towards industrial maintenance is to lower the cost of maintenance and ensure consistent availability of production materials. Nevertheless, achieving these objectives might be hindered by equipment failures. Rusell accentuates that such failures might culminate in costly stoppages in an organization’s operational processes (30).

Petronas recognizes the effect of such stoppages on its operational efficiency. Thus, the firm seeks to entrench a high-level of reliability at its production, distribution, and marketing systems. Since its inception, Petronas has established a comprehensive network of plants located in different regions around the world.

The firm owns over 16 oil and gas production fields and several offloading and floating storage facilities. Its facilities are fitted with over 21,000 installations. Efficient maintenance of the different installations is critical in promoting the firm’s ability to attain competitiveness. Petronas seeks to transform its approach towards maintenance into a value-adding and strategic aspect.

The company intends to achieve this goal by implementing a plant maintenance management system. The PMMS involves a maintenance strategy through which the company undertakes continuous revitalization of its facilities and equipment to ensure that they are in excellent condition. In its management maintenance system, Petronas seeks to ensure that any age-related defects are eliminated.

The company is in the process of carrying out system innovation by implementing the Maximo system, which is developed by the International Business Machine [IBM]. Most of the Petronas’ offshore and onshore equipment are located in remote areas. The implementation of the Maximo system will enable Petronas to entrench and share best practices regarding its different systems.

Therefore, the company’s capacity to manage and maintain its assets such as infrastructures, production, plant, communication, transportation, and other facilities will improve remarkably. The implementation of the Maximo system will improve the efficiency with which the firm undertakes maintenance management on its system. Besides, the system will enable Petronas to be efficient in undertaking system maintenance and innovation.

The system will aid in the automatic generation of preventative maintenance orders. However, the company’s ability to undertake its maintenance practices will arise from the effectiveness with which it configures the Maximo system. The company’s management team should set the Maximo system according to its maintenance needs. This aspect will ensure that its plant maintenance processes are conducted at the set intervals.

We will write a custom Case Study on Enterprise Management System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the firm will eliminate reactive approach in its maintenance management. Based on the orders generated, the firm will be in a position to plan for preventative maintenance schedule. The generation of the preventative maintenance plan will play a fundamental role in ensuring that efficient and innovative maintenance management strategies are adopted.

Therefore, the company will avoid the occurrence of defects in its systems by implementing the necessary innovative measures (Kuo and Wang 69). Despite the Petronas’ commitment to implementing the Maximo system, the efficiency of the system in improving the firm’s performance will be subject to the workforce’s knowledge on how the technology is utilized.

Discussion questions In the course of improving its maintenance management system, Petronas will consider several issues as outlined below.

What is the purpose of the Maximo system?

On what basis should the firm make decisions regarding the new technology addition?

What is the scope that Petronas should focus on to ensure successful implementation of the maintenance management system?

What roles and responsibilities should Petronas develop in implementing the system?

What nature of condition assessments should the firm consider in utilizing the Maximo system in improving its operational reliability and efficiency?

What are the necessary data elements that the company should consider in implementing the maintenance management system?

What frequency should the firm consider in using the data generated by the maintenance management system?

What types of cost estimation should the company consider in implementing the Maximo software?

How should Petronas estimate the maintenance or replacement costs?

What is the most fundamental aspect that Petronas should consider in configuring Maximo system?

In what ways should the firm ensure that the new maintenance management software is secure to improve its contribution towards value creation in the maintenance processes?

What aspects should the company consider in improving the utilization of the new technology in undertaking maintenance management on the implemented systems?

What type of ongoing system maintenance should the company consider in implementing the new technology?

How should Petronas undertake system administration?

How should Petronas assess the effectiveness of the new maintenance management software?

The Maximo system refers to maintenance management software used by companies in the asset-intensive industries such as the oil and gas industry in undertaking plant maintenance management. Thus, the company will manage different upstream and downstream business activities.

Prior to making a decision regarding implementation of the Maximo system, Petronas should assess whether the new technology will address its maintenance management needs optimally. This goal should be achieved by undertaking a cost-benefit analysis. Based on the assessment, the firm will make a decision on whether to make or buy the required maintenance management technology.

The integration of the new software should aid in improving the efficiency with which the company assesses equipment replacement and improvement needs. All the regional managers should focus on ensuring that the new technology is implemented and utilized optimally in the various facilities. Moreover, the firm should undertake periodic condition assessment to determine the need for equipment repair and maintenance.

The implementation of the new maintenance management software should be focused on ensuring that the firm undertakes three main forms of ongoing system maintenance. The types include corrective, preventative, enhanced, and customized maintenance (Johnson 47). Petronas should ensure that the software is set optimally to implement the Maximo system.

This aspect will play a fundamental role in minimizing the occurrence of security breaches, which might compromise the generation of the maintenance orders. A collaborative approach between the software vendors and the company should be adopted in configuring the system. This aspect will ensure that the system is configured optimally, hence improving its efficiency.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Enterprise Management System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Integrating a collaborative approach will ensure that the software is set up per the company’s maintenance requirements. Moreover, the collaboration will foster system administration. However, outsourcing the services of an external system administrator should only be undertaken during the initial stages of system implementation. Thereafter, system administration should be an in-house undertaking.

Petronas should ensure that all employees tasked with operating the firm’s offshore and onshore facilities are knowledgeable about how to use the technology. This aspect will play a critical role in ensuring that the company carries out maintenance on the different facilities.

Dilemmas In its attempt to implement the new maintenance management system, the organization will face some dilemmas as outlined below.

The high volatility in the technology sector might affect the long-term usability of the software in undertaking maintenance management.

Outsourcing the software from external developers might lead to reduced usability of the software to the company.

The existence of interoperability challenges might limit the ease with which the new technology is utilized.

The lack of technical skills amongst the company’s workforce regarding the new technology might affect the approach towards system administration.

Failure to act in time to the maintenance orders generated by the software might limit the value of the technology in improving its efficiency to undertake maintenance management system.

The lack of the necessary operating system and hardware requirements for the different facilities might affect the ability of the software to generate information regarding maintenance needs.

The firm might be required to implement different versions of the Maximo software to cater for the different asset maintenance management needs.

Complexities arising from the company’s upstream and downstream activities might hinder its efficiency in customizing the maintenance management software.

The growing cases of security breaches regarding information communication technology might affect the reliability of the data generated by the system. Therefore, overreliance on the system might hinder the efficiency with which the company undertakes maintenance management.

Due to the technological changes, the company might be required to update or replace the maintenance management system periodically. The firm might opt for an in-house maintenance and management software development due to the high costs associated with such software replacements. However, this aspect might be highly costly for the company. Alternatively, outsourcing the system will increase the overreliance on external software developers.

Exercises The firm should undertake some activities to integrate the new software in its maintenance management system. The first activity should focus on promoting the application of the state-of-the-art maintenance management strategies and techniques such as the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM).

The TPM strategy should concentrate on ensuring that all the organizational employees are involved in the implementation of the new maintenance management system. Ensuring a high level of engagement will improve the efficiency with which the company utilizes the new technology in its maintenance management processes.

Another fundamental exercise that the organization should consider entails ensuring optimal selection of the software supplier. The firm should develop a comprehensive criterion to be used in selecting the supplier of the intended maintenance management software. Some of the issues that the company should consider in choosing the supplier entail the cost of the software, ease of use, and the software’s interoperability.

True/false questions Prior to the implementation of the new technology in its maintenance management, it is imperative for the firm to assess the extent to which the following questions are true of false.

Organizations are increasingly adopting standardized system development approaches.

Most software systems are designed to meet the customers’ expectations are within their budgets.

The company should depend exclusively on external software developers in sourcing the desired maintenance and management system software.

Software developers must comply with specific quality management requirements.

Maintenance and management software systems are designed to have a long life cycle.

The implemented maintenance and management system must be ISO certified.

System developers must involve customers in the development process.

Developing a customized system is more efficient as compared to depending on external developers.

Organizations should use the challenges encountered in their maintenance processes to customize their maintenance management systems.

The utilization of maintenance management software is subject to the level of competence amongst the users.

A cost-benefit analysis should form the basis for determining whether to develop the maintenance management system in-house or to outsource.

The maintenance and management systems should be designed in a way that it creates room for growth and change.

The complexity of a maintenance management system determines its effectiveness in generating maintenance orders.

Application of the system should be centralized to the top management team.

The system should only be designed and configured to meet the current maintenance needs.

A technical feasibility should be undertaken prior to integrating the new system.

Schedule feasibility should be used in assessing the performance of the intended system to determine the extent to which it fits into the users’ maintenance schedules.

Scheduling system maintenance activities might increase the cost of operation due to the constant need to undertake replacements.

Conclusion Consideration the outlined issues will enable the company to implement the new MMS successfully. Furthermore, the company will derive substantial value from the system by ensuring that it undertakes the different maintenance activities effectively and efficiently.

Works Cited Branska, Lenka. Maintenance management in quick response systems, New Delhi: Cengage, 2011. Print.

Johnson, Dale. Principles of controlled maintenance management, New York: Fairmont, Press Incorporation, 2009. Print.

Kuo, Tsai, and Ling Wang. The optimization of maintenance service levels to support the product service system, New York: Taylor


Female Characters in Children Media, 1980–1990 Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Media shapes people. No matter what one might say about the means to resist the effect of the TV propaganda and the way to retain one’s own opinion, TV shows that people watch regularly, and especially the ones that they used to watch regularly as kids, affect or have affected their vision considerably.

Despite the fact that the effect of the late 80s and early 90s young girls oriented animated series were neutral at best and harmful at worst, some elements of feminism started shining through, which manifested the era of animated movies emancipation.

A comparison of such shows for young girls as Jem and PowerPuff Girls will display in a very graphic manner how giant a leap animated movies industry has made in a relatively short amount of time.

While in Jem, the key female leaders were replaced with stock Barbie-style characters and personalities of hair spray cans, The PowerPuff Girls, a show that came out only a decade later, featured a team of colorful and active characters that were not afraid of being funny and even ridiculous, with a unique comedic edge to the traditional superheroes formula and an original representation of interactions between these characters.

Picture 1. Jem (Left) vs. PowerPuff Girls (Right): A Ten Year Journey

Jem and the Holograms. n. d. Web.

90s Trends: February 2012. n. d. Web.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The examples in question have been chosen as the key subject of the study, sine they are truly fascinating specimens in the evolution of an image of a woman in media. Each of them is clearly a product of its time, there can be no doubt about it.

However, it is not the ability of a movie to send a topical message that is being considered. What strikes most about both movies is how each of them takes female stereotypes and transforms them with a unique result, Jem reinforcing them, and PowerPuff Girls destroying them completely.

Both movies use practically the same stock tools for creating their characters – in fact, even the pink-and-pastel color cast seems practically the same in each series.

The series mentioned above will be used to study the way in which tools that were used to enhance the stereotypes of gender roles in Jem were utilized in the PowerPuff Girls to destroy these stereotypes of the colonial/gender system.

YouTube and the site called RetroJunk ( will be used as the key sources for retrieving the related media.

To analyze the approaches chosen by each animated series for displaying their female characters, the theory of social contract will be used. One of the relatively neutral ones, it will help understand where the animated movies succeeded in promoting feminist ideas, and what they have desperately failed at.

To be more exact, Rousseau’s concept of equality will be used as the basis for addressing the major problems of the shows. Based on the idea that all men are equal, no matter what their race, ethnicity, gender or religious beliefs are, Rousseau’s theory presupposes that equality is natural and, therefore, intrinsic.

We will write a custom Essay on Female Characters in Children Media, 1980–1990 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, Rousseau’s theory is based on the key postulates of the Theory of Social Contract. Heralding free will as the universal truth, Rousseau also outlines the welfare of the whole, thus, creating a major dent in his theory.

Indeed, seeing how the welfare of an individual does not necessarily coincide with what is required to attain the welfare of the society, the idea of pursuing the benefit of an individual through the collective effort seems rather odd.

Nevertheless, Rousseau’s influence on the evolution of the concept of people’s indefeasible rights and freedoms is undeniable. In addition, Rousseau provided his own concept of a perfect state, in which every individual could be provided with their irrefutable rights and freedoms.

More to the point, Rousseau’s ideas regarding people’s liberties were not limited to social issues; he was also concerned with the major political problems, including the issue of state sovereignty and the place of an individual within a sovereign state.

The sovereignty definition, in fact, was the factor triggering the above-mentioned conflict between the concepts of Rousseau’s theory. Rousseau argues that between communitarianism and liberalism, the golden mean and the perfect environment for the development of an individual exists.

The fact that each of the series of the PowerPuff Girls stands the Bechtel test, whereas some of the Jem episodes do not, like the Midsummer Night’s Madness, will be also evaluated based on the key concepts of Rousseau’s theory.

One could argue that comparing the two animated series is not quite adequate, since they clearly belong to a different genre.

While technically, this is a valid point, considering the two shows closer, one will inevitably understand that the comedy, had much more rights to exploit the stereotypes, did a much better job than the genre, which should have handled the idea of female rebels better by default.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Female Characters in Children Media, 1980–1990 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More to the point, Jem did not even try to eliminate some of the common stereotypes, like excessive use of fan service in most of the show.

Therefore, the failure of Jem and the following success of the sketchy, comedic PowerPuff Girls series as a truly unique phenomenon deserves to be considered through the lens of Rousseau’s theory.

Works Cited 90s Trends: February 2012. n. d. Web.

Jem and the Holograms. n. d. Web.


Different Types of Business Communication Report essay help

Introduction To operate effectively within the industry and markets, businesses should focus on developing the effective communication channels in order to control the organisational performance and support relations with the partners and suppliers.

From this point, different types of business communication should address the variety of the businesses’ needs associated with the business contacts and business-customer relations.

The purpose of this report is to discuss the positive and negative features of such business communication types as external and internal business communication and to focus on the advantages and disadvantages of using the social media and computer mediated communication as well as to provide the recommendations for managers on how to improve business communication in organisations.

The report also includes the reflection section.

Discussion of Different Types of Business Communication External business communication

In the business world, external communication is the specific type of the organisation’s communication with the competitors, suppliers, partners, and customers. The main effective forms of external business communication are advertising and business-customer relations.

The advantages of advertising are in possibility to emphasize the competitive advantage, to communicate the message to the public, to differentiate and promote the product and services and to improve the brand recognition.

Advertising also serves to improve business-customer relations which are based on the customers’ awareness of the organisation’s services and their quality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Positive relations with customers contribute to the company’s development and to increasing its competitive advantage because of influencing the customers’ loyalty (Ahmed et al., 2010: 108).

For instance, the developed customer loyalty can guarantee the customer’s choice of the concrete product while having the right to select (Kovacs


Meliá Hotels International: The Leadership Model Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction to the Company Meliá Hotels International, S.A. (headquarters in Mallorca, Spain) was founded in 1956 by Gabriel Escarrer Juliá, who is still holding the post of the President. At the time, the company was called “Sol Meliá, S.A.”, but the name was changed in 2011 (Meliá Hotels International [MHI], 2012, pp. 90-91).

The Senior Executive Team of the company consists of the Chief Executive Officer and six Executive Vice Presidents, one of them, Gabriel Cánaves, being concerned with Human Resources (MHI, 2012, p. 14). The main governing body of the company is the twelve-member Board of Directors (MHI, 2012, p. 15). Nowadays, the company owns seven brand names (Gran Meliá, ME, Paradisus, Meliá, Innside, Tryp by Wyndham, and Sol) which means operating “approximately 350 hotels in 35 countries on 4 continents” (Bloomberg Business, 2005 par. 1).

The employee turnover rate of MHI was 3.75% in 2011, but amounted to 6.22% in 2012, which, according to the company, can be attributed to high turnover rates of European and Latin American countries at the time (MHI 2012, p. 55). All the aspects of MHI operations, including its leadership model, are claimed to be affected by the company’s culture and values that are going to be described in the following section.

The Core Values of the Company The company has adopted the idea of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In effect, CSR presupposes “companies going beyond legal obligations and their own interests to address and manage the impact their activities have on society and the environment” (Vallaster, Lindgreen


Counseling Theories Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Sketch of Theorist Carl Ransom Rogers (1902 – 1987) grew up in a very religious and ascetic family and was expected to become a minister, but chose to study psychotherapy instead (Prochaska and Norcross 114). He started his career as a child psychologist in New York and then moved on to training the students in psychopathology in Ohio (Prochaska and Norcross 114). Working in the field of humanistic psychology, Rogers wrote several books and became widely famous for his contribution.

Theories Personality

Rogers’s theory of personality is based on the concept of self-actualization, one’s desire to develop and perform at full capacity (Prochaska and Norcross 115). In other words, apart from the fundamental physiological needs all human beings have the tendency and wish to improve themselves. Our awareness of the self is founded in the self-regard, self-concept, and the conditions of worth that determine our attitude and idea about who we are (Prochaska and Norcross 116).


According to Rogers, the conditions of the parental love are the basis for the future pathologies in a child. The conditions for love and approval set by the parents become the sources of incongruence in an adult’s self-perception developing fears or blockages of emotions or actions deemed unacceptable (failure, laziness, messiness) (Prochaska and Norcross 117).

Therapeutic Process

Within Rogers’s humanistic theory, the therapeutic treatment of a patient begins with the analysis of the problems they face such as their internalized conditions of worth. Further, they are addressed by means of introducing the patient to the external appreciation intended to show them that the conditions no longer matter, and a person would be loved equally if they do and do not match them. This approach is based on support, optimism, and acceptance.

Initially, the point of the therapy was for the therapist to help the client to connect with their deeper feelings by means of praising them unconditionally. After a while, this approach changed slightly. Its main objective (the establishment of the client’s connection with their feelings) has not changed, but the therapist’s role was adjusted to the gradual redirection of the client’s focus from the outcomes towards the roots – their feelings.

Therapeutic Content

The content of the therapies based on the humanistic theories of personality deals with conflicts of interpersonal and individuo-social characters (Prochaska and Norcross 124-126). Since this approach is person-centered, it views an individual as the central aspect of the problems and solutions.

For example, treating anxiety, a therapist would approach it as a result of an issue related to the distorted self-concept or the conditions of worth. This way, the primary objective of therapy would be to help the client to become in charge of their own life and emotions as opposed to being under control of the people around.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therapeutic Relationship

As any therapy is extremely intimate and has to do with the deepest fears and worries of the clients, a high level of trust is required in the relationship between the therapist and their patients (Prochaska and Norcross 126). This degree of intimacy is reached over time with the help of the professional’s active listening, attention, positive regard, and genuine honesty.

Such intimacy between two individuals is often distorted by their own internalized conditions of worth that they further impose outwards at the individuals around categorizing their qualities and features as worthy and unworthy of love (Prochaska and Norcross 126). A therapist is trained to provide sincere and objective insights without stereotyping the clients or marking their personality traits as “good” or “bad”.

Practicalities Due to the person-centered approach of the humanistic personality theory, the therapists who follow it do not tend to include any routine testing or standardized primary assessment into the treatment (Prochaska and Norcross 128).

Instead, the field welcomes the practitioners of various spheres such as counseling, social work, pastoral counseling, and psychology. That is done because the individuality of the professional and their individual experiences and insights (self-authority) are viewed much more important than the standardized testing in psychotherapy.

Brief Forms of Therapy

During the lifetime of Carl Rogers, the therapy he practiced mainly went on for tens and hundreds of sessions. Today, such multitude of meetings is unnecessary. The contemporary therapists work based on brief approaches scheduling one meeting a week for half a year or a full year (Prochaska and Norcross 128).

Such schedule has many benefits – it economizes the time and costs of the clients, it provides them with valuable insights and tools for self-assessment and gives them the required guidance summing up their issues.


Person-centered therapy has a moderate effect that is rather far from 100%. This therapy is evaluated as more efficient than many other insight-based therapies, but less efficient than behavioral treatments (Prochaska and Norcross 134).

We will write a custom Assessment on Counseling Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A study conducted in one of the primary care centers in the United Kingdom demonstrated that the patients suffering from anxieties and depression treated within person-centered theory end up having equal results with those receiving cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic treatments (Prochaska and Norcross 135).

Criticisms The theory is criticized for its comparatively low efficiency that is only significant when compared to the results of the wait-list or no treatment patients. It is not recognized to have a much stronger effect than the placebo-effect treatment. Besides, the theory relies on an assumption that any person would be good and virtuous of they were not subdued by the others, which is just a theory (Prochaska and Norcross 136).

Moreover, the recovery by means of providing warmth to the client can be very lengthy since the establishment of trust needed for the patient to accept the therapist’s insights would require an enormous amount of time, especially for the patients who have low self-esteem. In addition, the reconditioning is often complicated by the environments of the clients that lack recognition from the people around.

Future Directions The main modern application for the person-centered approach is motivational interviewing, a practice that combines the warm and insightful participation of the therapist and their reflective listening and guiding questions (Prochaska and Norcross 139).

In Education The optimism and non-critical approach of this theory are applicable in education to create learning without pressure filled with approval, insightful feedback, and recognition to facilitate positive learning experiences. It would be especially useful for the diverse classrooms where equitable and culture-sensitive treatment is crucial. Person-centered learning will create inclusive classroom environments and integrate the day-to-day experiences of the learners into the teaching process and the curriculum.

Clients Who Can Be Helped

Person-centered therapy is relevant for the clients with self-esteem and anxiety problems derived from the childhood experiences.

Little or No Help

The approach has proved to be useless if applied to children and adolescents. Possibly, this occurs due to their lower level of self-awareness and self-regard.

Questions Having learned about person-centered therapy, do you feel like it is something you would turn to as a solution for some of your personal issues?

Do you believe it would be helpful?

Do you think it would take a long time for you to trust a therapist with your private issues and accept their insights?

Carl Rogers has developed a person-centered therapy while he personally has never learned to be open about his issues, how do you think was it possible for him to know a cure but never to become cured?

Works Cited Prochaska, James O. and John C. Norcross. Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis. 8th ed. 2013. New York, New York: Cengage. Print.

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Industry Forecasting in Ford Motor Company Evaluation Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Factors that Impact the Industry





Factors that Impact the Industry This is an analysis evaluating the Ford Motor Company (FMC) for a period of over five years. The company is established on the automotive industry providing services in designing, developing, manufacturing, marketing, and selling motor vehicles.

It brings a lot of revenues, which make it one of the world’s most important economic sectors. According to Finch (2012), the PESTEL analysis is a model used in industry forecasting to scan the external industry environment.

It is an acronym for a set of six comprehensive factors, which include the legal, environmental, social, technological, political, and economic factors often seen as the sources of opportunities or threats in SWOT analysis (Finch, 2012, p. 78).

Political factors are extrinsic environmental variables that demonstrate how the involvement of the government influences the overall competitive market or an individual company through trade restrictions, employment regulations, tax-related policies, and statutory laws on consumer protection which can favor the company, delay its growth over the first few years, or make it collapse at once.

The political stability and government efficiency in providing safe and fair markets vary extensively between countries.

Economic factors entail such characteristics as the condition and health of the prevailing economy in which the market of interest exists.

Some variables with a significant impact at the market-product level in decision making include inflation, interest rates, the unemployment level, consumer confidence, gross domestic product, discretionary income, and the rate of currency exchange.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interest rates have a particular importance to the companies pursuing growth opportunities since the expense of direct money borrowing affects a company’s ability to expand.

Other economic factors affect the ability of a consumer to afford the product on sale making the economic stability a major determinant of the company’s growth.

Social factors classify customer’s features into two essential classes namely culture and demographics, which present a major concern (Finch, 2012, p. 80).

Culture contains the societal beliefs, attitude, and values whereas the study of population (demographics) gives a statistical description of the community’s characteristics expressed by location, age and employment. The interaction between marketing and culture is reciprocal.

Therefore, the marketing communications utilize cultural meanings by transferring them to their products in order to attract customers who hold these values. As a result, the icons and symbols establish values which are the foundation to the automotive industry.

The marketers would take the opportunity to market their motor vehicles during cultural holidays that revolve around artistic rituals affirming such practices as exchange of gifts.

Demographic characteristics of the market allow marketers to understand how the different segments of the community respond to product marketing as a result of such personal characteristics as age, sex and income.

We will write a custom Essay on Industry Forecasting in Ford Motor Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assessing consumer attitude enables a person to distinguish how the different demographic segments perceive certain products. This is a guideline showing the motor vehicles to design or sell to specific groups based on their preference, which can lead to acceleration of the company’s growth within five years.

All marketing managers must be conscious of the trends in the technology sector since technological factors affect marketing processes through creation of innovative systems. These systems enable interactions with customers, processing of orders, and distribution of products.

Environmental factors comprise of lifelong ecological concerns that can impact the motor industry at some point.

These concerns can be addressed by designing electrical automobiles that are environmentally conscious, which can be more acceptable than fuel guzzlers, or those contributing to air pollution through release of exhaust fume.

Finch (2012) describes legal factors as those affecting a company’s growth through rules and regulations that seek to control business organizational performance.

These regulations are imposed to govern the pricing of products and natural monopolies, which arms them with a significant influence on the company’s growth (Finch, 2012, p. 81).

Weaknesses Weaknesses are factors relating to a fortuity in which consumers regard the company unfavorably, or make the company susceptible to competitors leaving the company at a disadvantage compared to competitors.

These are market-related and occur as an effect of liberalization which has globalized national markets increasing the threat of new entrants or competition in traditional.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industry Forecasting in Ford Motor Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, the increase in the behavior patterns of the consumer demands single products which may not be rewarding.

Low company exposure can mean that few consumers are aware of it which can derail a company’s growth greatly especially within the initial five years. Therefore, this is a significant negative effect in the technological factors.

Strengths The company’s strengths are either resources or skills which the company possesses in relation to the business opportunity under evaluation, or which may give the company an advantage over the others in the industry (Future Automotive Industry Structure 2015. 2003, p.26).

These include the company’s stability and predictability in a case where it has been known to produce quality automobiles enhancing brand recognition which promotes consumer loyalty.

Establishing a global presence will greatly increase the company’s chances of success as well as ensure the growth of sales within five years due to the establishment of a wide market in the different countries.

Opportunities Some opportunities can be capitalized to enhance the company’s growth through such strategies as creating a history of product innovation and ensuring that the trend proceeds.

With the invention of electric automobile market, this can be capitalized upon to provide the world with an eco-friendly alternative that operates similarly to the original gas-guzzling vehicles (Growth markets, 2004, p. 24).

Possessing shares in the emerging markets ensures immense growth as the economies of these markets grow, and enable the consumers to afford automobiles.

References Finch, J. (2012). Managerial Marketing. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Inc.

Future Automotive Industry Structure 2015. (2003). Web.

Growth markets: future challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. (2004). Web.


Muslim Civilisation: The Mechanical Water Clock of Ibn Al-Haytham Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The Mechanical Water Clock of Ibn Al-Haytham (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 5)

The first simplest water clock was invented in Egypt about 1500BC. This simplest form of clock was known as the outflow clepsydra; it is shown above from different viewpoints.

The water clock had the shape of a cone that narrowed towards its base. The base had a hole that discharged water that was used to measure time lapse.

The later design of the water clock was the inflow clepsydra. The upper vessel of this water clock had a hole and a constant supply of water with an overflow cylinder.

The cylindrical container received overflow water from the hole in a steady manner that ensured its use in the measuring the time passage. Ctesibius developed the first water clock, an Egyptian Engineer, whose water clock had a cylindrical vessel with a float.

A vertical toothed rod was soldered on the lower vessel, such that, with any rise in water level, the teeth of the vertical rod sent audible signals as it meshes with other gears (Hassan 170). Ibn al-Haytham used a tank with a small opening at its bottom; it helped in showing the time.

Markedly, an inflow clepsydra occurs when the tank sinks into another container with adequate volume of water. The invention of the clepsydra might have occurred in the early parts of the 5th century CE in India; however, the Han dynasty in China adopted the sinking-bowl water clepsydra after Ctesibios era.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This idea of cylindrical vessel with a float was adopted by a number of Muslim Engineers, who replaced the rod with cord attached to the float at the top.

This cord passed through a system of pulleys that activated the visible mechanisms. The design for the control of vessel relied on a famous principle developed by the great scientist, Archimedes.

On the lower outlet of a reservoir, stood a vertical float chamber, with a conical valve on the outlet pipe with a vertically bent down tap. The bottom of the float chamber had a narrow outlet pipe, with the valve plugged on a small float.

In this water clock, whenever, the tap opened, the float chamber received water, thus shortly closing the valve. On the other hand, when water left the float chamber, opening of the valve initiates, and the cycle continues (Hassan 176).

This ensured a steady level of water in the float chamber, resulting into constant speed of the large float as it entered the reservoir (Hassan 177). The float chamber’s outlet discharged into the flow regulator, thus enhancing reading of temporal hours.

This Archimedes clock was however, found to be inaccurate, leading to its modification in Syria, during the Umayyad Times where Ibn al-Haytham, the great scientist constructed a modified mechanical water clock.

Ibn Alhaytham developed the mechanical water clock based on Al-Jazari’s installation design of water clock that used the automata to indicate time lapse. The automata were activated hourly using mechanical birds that released pellets onto the Cymbals using their beaks.

We will write a custom Essay on Muslim Civilisation: The Mechanical Water Clock of Ibn Al-Haytham specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The water clock also used doors that rotated to reveal humanoid robots an as well as varied colours, zodiac circles that contained symbols of moon and the sun in relation to the time of the day as it rotated in a steady manner.

The mechanical water clock also had semi-circular glass discs that were illuminated hourly (Hassan 180).

Ibn Khaldun and the rise and fall of empires (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 5)

The first picture shows the entry to the traditional empires. Ibn Khaldun was a renowned Muslim thinker in economics and social theories. His most substantial activity was the Kitab al- ‘Ibar’s section of Muqaddimah that analysed the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire.

The works of Ibn Khaldun were done at a time when the political elite were very wary and strict with people who expressed independent thoughts.

His works was, therefore, noteworthy because it was original in both its organisation and content. His works led to the development of theories of social cooperation and collective solidarity under his infamous Arabic term ‘asabiyyah’ (Alhaytham par. 5).

Ibn Khaldun was privy to the fact that it is difficult to establish a progressive social order if the members of the society are simply egoistic sensible representatives.

He therefore, decided to devote his literary work to come up with a theory that focused on the enhancement of ‘asabiya’ or social cooperation, and factors that are responsible for the fall of social cooperation in our society (Alhaytham par. 8).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Muslim Civilisation: The Mechanical Water Clock of Ibn Al-Haytham by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ibn Khaldun philosophy on the rise and fall of empires and states is applicable to the real world situation, especially on the business front. The rise and fall of business organisations or firms, for example the fall and rise of Microsoft Corporation as postulated y Paul Krugman.

It is imperative to note that corporations, just like states, are cooperative enterprises. You realise that business owners like the corporate managers, just as selfish interests normally drive the political elites (Alhaytham par. 3).

Ibn Khaldun’s book thus focused on the sedentary mode of culture as opposed to the primitive culture where one only desired to satisfy his or her own immediate needs at the expense of the rest of the society.

He postulates that the decline of regimes is because the surplus produces in most societies ends up in the luxuries of the few elites. He puts it clear that the luxuries informed the degeneration and decline of major regimes in the world.

Ibn Khaldun’s works on the rise and fall of states focuses on the establishment phase, which relies on the solidarity of the supporters (family or religion). This solidarity enhances the state’s preservation where the ruler tends to serve the interests of his or her people (Alhaytham par. 9).

The second phase of the cycle is the monopolisation of power stage, where the ruler views him or herself as an immovable master. At this point, the ruler breaks ties with people who helped him or her ascend to power. He or she makes new friends who are bureaucrats like him/her.

The third phase is the leisure and luxury stage, where the ruler now seeks to satisfy his private needs at the expense of the wider society.

The fourth stage is the characterised by feeling of long lasting rule. This forth stage is the one that determines the survival of the state, as the society is already discontented with the rule, hence disintegration of the state.

The ruler has purchased support of the military and the bureaucrats disintegrate, thus resulting into the collapse of the state (Alhaytham par. 8).

Introduction to the Islamic Traditional Chemistry (Gardenour par. 1)

The picture above shows the cover of early chemists – Geber. The old Islamic chemistry also known as ‘alchemy’ was influenced by traditional philosophy that relied on the chemical inquiry of natural surroundings by the medieval Islamic intellectuals based on Muhammad’s personal capabilities.

This traditional chemistry developed after the fall of the Roman Empire, thus the traditional Islamic chemistry was based on the works of past alchemical scholars from Greek and Egypt during the Abbasid period (Gardenour par. 1).

The Islamic chemistry caused various scientific findings and cultural advancements in the world. The traditional Islamic chemistry led to the advancement in the fields of philosophy, arts, literature, and science. The alchemy relied heavily on mystical powers.

It is therefore, imperative to note that the Islamic alchemists constructed their theories based on magical nature as opposed to relating them to matter and elements, however, these works served both matter and elements (Rahim par. 9).

The alchemist work involved a lot of laboratory work involving use of dangerous chemical at times. “Master Elixir” or the Philosophers Stone was an early Islamic traditional chemistry (alchemy) that was believed to purify one’s soul and body.

It was believed to possess mystical powers to decompose all matter, just the same manner, universal acid does. The metal was later believed to harbour mystical power to convert basic metals into gold or other precious metals. This Philosopher’s stone took the form of liquid, powder, or gel (Thompson 25).

The Islamist alchemists’ studied alchemy from the inquiries of Greek alchemists during the rule of Abbasid Empire; the study was aimed at developing philosophy, mathematics, as well as medicine.

This is reason as to why the Egyptians accorded gold superiority in terms of soul with respect to other metals’ souls, which could improve the soul of other base metals if mixed in slight quantities (Rahim par. 20).

A renowned Islamist alchemist, Jabir b. Hayyan, who is also known as ‘Geber the Wise,’ was the first to carry out a controlled alchemical experiment in a laboratory. He later on wrote a number of books about alchemy.

His works got the attention of the Western world; they got the idea of the Elixir of Life through his works. His works were based in his belief on transformation of metals from one state to another, as well as transmutation (Gardenour par. 4).

The Islamic traditional chemistry made substantial inputs to improvement of techniques in chemistry, as well as unplanned innovations. It is imperative to note that Jabir, discovered nitric acid, sulphuric acid and aqua regia.

Based on his works, the German scientist, Henning Brandt, believed that his urine was the Philosopher’s stone. He went on to discover the metal after steaming the urine. It is important to note that the phosphorus today makes the ingredients of rocket fuel and toothpaste (Thompson 26).

Scientists moved swiftly to prevent experimental and scientific chemistry from becoming a Muslim science; laboratory practical helps in changing one matter from a given state to another state and another product as well.

Experimentation remained the task of Muslims only; the Greeks, on the other hand, stood up for metaphysical analysis and theories on chemical procedures. Al-Razi became to be known as the father of modern chemistry through his numerous experimentation to support the Greek’s theoretical information.

Four Medieval Hospitals in Syria (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 7)

The picture above shows the entry to Arghun Al-Kamili hospital in Damascus. Notably, Damascus and Aleppo are the homes of the four hospitals. The early Islamic era saw the creation of health institutions to serve the ill people. In Aleppo, there is the Nuri hospital that was named after Nur al-Din Zangi (1117-1173).

This city comes after Damascus in terms of size; it lies in northern part of Syria. Aleppo remains the capital of Islamic culture; it marked this in 2006. The vast number of archaeological sites in Aleppo attracted several tourists who had great interest in archaeology and history.

The city also acted as a major trade route, which connected the Roman Empire and Egypt. After witnessing how Aleppo was a major business hub at the time, Nur al-Din Zangi applied his philanthropist nature to support the poor by building the magnificent hospital.

He used to spend much of his finances in supporting the poor in the society. He went ahead to construct the hospital between 1148 and 1155; the hospital was located next to another magnificent project that Nur al-Din Zangi has sponsored – intramural water project.

Nur al-Din Zangi was so determined to ensure the hospital meets its objective of serving the poor; the building was reconstructed numerous times after damages by earthquakes. A structure of complex stone curving is visible above the door of Nuri hospital, as well as Arabic calligraphies on different stones.

Such Arabic calligraphies are common in all the health facilities. These features are visible and intact to the present day. The hospital of Arghun Al-Kamili is the second medieval health facility in the city of Aleppo. Mamluk governor, Arghun Al-Kamili, supported the construction of the institution in 1354.

The facility was mainly made of stones; the entrance to the hospital an up-to-date wrought iron fence – Qinnesreen. Decorations of intricate stones filled the institution, together with Arabic and English writings indicating its name and date.

Arghun Al-Kamili hospital had a wooden door with copper metals, which displayed geometrical Arabic designs. At the top of the door, there are four lines of writings in Arabic. After leaving the metallic door, there is the hospital dispensary and a small room; the additional rooms were for consultation services.

Damascus, on the other hand, hosts the Nuri and Qaymari hospitals. Numerous scholars have frequently not mentioned the latter institution due to its non-strategic location.

The health facility is situated in the interior of vegetable market full of hogwash and garbage emanating from the indigenous merchants; this might be the reason for its negligence.

Qaymari hospital was constructed in 1248; it has a modern marble on the right part to indicate that it was constructed in the 12th century.

The interior part of the Qaymari hospital has a quadrangular water reservoir bounded by iwans. Iwans are four arched halls. So special was the health facility that it set aside one of its sections for the sick females. River Nahr Yazid was the main water supplier to the Qaymari hospital.

Nuri al-Din Zangi went further to establish another hospital in his name in Damascus, the largest city in Syria (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 7).

The construction of Nuri hospital in Damascus began in 1154 and stopped in 1242. Seljuk style is evident at the entrance of the health facility. Copper and geometrical designs are evident on different points of the structure.

Figures of painted flower motifs, peacocks, and calligraphy are visible from the inside of the facility. A central fountain is located at the courtyard; the courtyard is bounded by numerous rooms. One of the rooms was a library.

The Instrument of Istanbul Observatory Taqî al-Dîn al-Râsid, with the funding of Sultan Murad III, founded an Istanbul Observatory 400 ages back. Istanbul Observatory is located on the European side of Bosporous, and is one of the largest observatories established before 16th century.

The Istanbul Observatory is comparable to other observatory like Nâsir al-Dîn Tûsî’s Maragha observatory, Ulug Bey’s Samarqand observatory and Tycho Brahe’s Uroniborg observatory (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 12).

The three key significance of an observatory is influenced by the value of the astronomers associated with the observatory, the gracefulness of the observatory and the type of work done in the observatory. Most observatories have devices that are categorised into movable and static instruments.

Nevertheless, according to Taqî al-Dîn, the observable instruments found in Istanbul Observatory are fixed instruments. Tycho Brahe surpassed both Ptolemy and Taqî al-Dîn in the instrumentation field.

From the field of construction and observation with the aid of different instruments or devices, it is imperative to note that Tycho Brahe was one of the great Muslims who developed astronomical instruments hospitals (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 14).

Fixed instruments found in Istanbul Observatory

An armillary sphere

The Armillary Sphere is an astronomical instrument used to measure the position of celestial objects. It has three sets of rings. The extreme ring is referred to as the Liuheyi that has the Fixed Equatorial, Horizon, and Meridian Circle fused together firmly on a subsidiary structure.

The intermediate one is the Sanchenyi and has four components (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 17). The Siyouyi is the interior set that revolves inside the Sanchenyi about the glacial alignment.

Armillary sphere of Tycho Brahe

A mural quadrant (Libna)

Astronomers used a fresco quadrant, which astronauts use to observe the ascension of the stars and the sun; it measured angles of between 0-90 degrees.

Mural quadrant of Tycho Brahe (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 14)

An azimuthal semicircle

The azimuthal is a device used to measure the stars’ azimuths and elevations. They had a copper ring that signified the horizon and a semi-circle that was at right angles to the horizon (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 10).

Azimuthal semicircle

Parallactic Rule

This instrument was used to measure the moon’s parallax. It has three pieces of wood where the first piece is at right angles to the horizon, the second piece is connected at one end of the first piece while the third one is nailed near the base using a chord (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 8).

Parallactic instrument of Tycho Brahe

(Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par 15)

The wooden quadrant

Astronomers do not only measure distance of the sun to zenith, but also ascertain the stars’ elevations using this gadget. It is made up of wooden rulers and forms a quarter of a full circle.

The wooden quadrant


Dioptra is an apparatus used to measure deceptive breadths of eclipses and heavenly bodies, such as comets and meteorites.


The instrument with cords

This instrument measures equinoxes of fall and spring.

The instrument with cords


This device or gadget helps in measuring the gap between stars.

Sextant of Tycho Brahe (Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation par. 18)

Works Cited Alhaytham, Ibn. Scientists and Discovery Series. N.p., n.d. Web.

Discover the golden Age of Muslim Civilisation. N.p., 5 Oct. 2005. Web.

Gardenour, Brenda S. The Development And Diffusion Of Alchemy From Antiquity To The Renaissance. N.p., 18 Nov. 2003. Web.

Hassan, Aref. Technology and Applied Sciences. Paris: Unesco Publ, 2001. Print.

Rahim, Habibeh. Alchemy: Islamic Alchemy. N.p., 4 Dec. 2005. Web.

Thompson, Charles John Samuel. Alchemy and alchemists. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2002. Print.


English for Global Communication Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Interviews

The Concept of Global Citizenship

Intercultural Communication and Its Peculiarities





Interviews Every year more and more students made a decision to study abroad. That is why they are to understand a new language and interact with new culture. The concepts of global citizenship and intercultural communication occur to be the ones that help to understand this situation and processes connected with it. So I have paid attention to these two topics to deepen into the subject and provide some evaluation and recommendations that may help to enhance and streamline the adaptation.

Two interviews were conducted to gain authoritative information. The first one was held in La Trobe University. Five students were chosen randomly and asked at lunchtime to answer six questions. The second interview took place beyond the campus. Five people of approximately the same age were selected.

They were interviewed individually, and it took about five minutes to have a talk with one of them. The majority of interviewees answered the questions with no problems and provided me with the amount of information that was enough for me to make reflections. That is why I believe these interviews to be successful.

The Concept of Global Citizenship I had always thought that the students can provide only some abstract information about global citizenship, so I was pleasantly surprised when they started to give a decent answer. Thus, the majority of the interviewed students claimed that the concept of global citizenship is applicable to a person who treats the humankind as a whole and believes that people should emphasize that they belong more to the global community than to the particular nation.

The students of La Trobe University think that the most important is to understand that there are lots of people in the world, and all of them are connected with us. As for me, global citizenship is to be promoted in the course of education; I even see this perspective as the most significant one. I hoped that my idea would be shared and, fortunately, this happened.

Even though not all students treated themselves as global citizens, they claimed to be equal with students of various nations and underlined that at school they were already taught some aspects of global citizenship education. The teachers explained them the peculiarities of widely-known cultures and made them tolerant. They also got to know about the opportunities of international education.

On this basis, students believed that it is important to continue developing global consciousness and global competence so that it would be even easier to interact with various people (Hail, 2015). Those who do not study at La Trobe University say that they are tolerant of people from all over the world, but they believe that national citizenship is greater than the global one. Thus, they were divided in opinion with the students, who understand that global citizenship and national citizenship are significant for the process of shaping one’s identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Intercultural Communication and Its Peculiarities Preparing the question about the representatives of a culture they would like to get in touch, I was almost sure that the majority will name Chinese. Due to the rapid technological development in the country, people started take an interest to them. However, our culture and language is in marked contrast to theirs.

That is why I considered that a range of difficulties will occur during the communication. Of course, some interviewees have chosen representatives from other countries but six of them preferred Chinese, which proved my assumption to be correct. Even though I am not a native speaker of English, I thought that cultural differences will be the ones that the interviewees will mention as the main problem they face (would face).

However, it turned out that the youth does not find this aspect as a real issue. They claim that in the very beginning they need some time to get adjusted to the way their partner speaks. Thus, native speakers are not always able to understand the accent and non-native speakers feel confused when the speech is too smooth and quick. Still, this problem solves itself within a short period.

Cultural stereotypes are the things we all know. To my mind, it is impossible to avoid their influence. As soon as one gets to know that he/she is speaking to a person from a different culture, the person recollects everything one heard about it. Of course, stereotypes are not always true to life, but in the majority of cases they can help to understand how to behave while interacting with a partner or what to expect from one.

The interviewees from both groups claimed that they have sometimes referred to the stereotypes while communicating, and mostly this information was of advantage. It was interesting that even if the stereotype was not true to life, the partners did not consider the reference to it to be rude and treated it as a joke. That is why I believe cultural stereotypes to be one more source of the themes for a conversation that helps to understand the person and his/her culture better.

Off-campus interviewees consider religion to be more important than students do. The last ones said that they do not usually ask about the person’s religion and just do not pay attention to it, unless the partner asked them. Others claim that religion changes the manner of conversation and underlines topics unlikely to be spoken about, as Berensmeyer and Hadfield claim (2015).

However, students pay more attention to the style of communication. I think it happens as they are to change it more often than others. It is impossible to talk to a professor as if one is your best friend. So knowing the difference between the styles, one can choose the style that will make him/she sound correct (Chen, Lawless,


Citizen Participation in Global Environmental Governance Essay (Book Review) college essay help near me

Numerous scientists provide the global community with the latest data on the current environmental situation. However, the involvement of common people in the process aimed at reducing the risks of environmental crisis is still very low. Such situation is considered an obstacle on the way to promoting environmental issues.

Citizen Participation in Global Environmental Governance (2012) is a unique book edited by Mikko Rask, Richard Worthington, and Minna Lammi. By analyzing the experiences and lessons from World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews) project meeting and presenting numerous studies on the specifics of this project and its role in creation of effective global environmental policy, the book encourages the readers to take part in further investigation and promotion of the discussed issues.

The main topic of the book is the possible impact of lessons of WWViews on the process of promoting the participation of ordinary people in global environmental governance. The book is divided into several parts, which include research articles presenting information about certain issues related to WWViews project.

The first part draws attention to the story of the project and its main objectives. The following two parts explore the trend of international deliberation on the example of Denmark and evaluate the WWViews process and results by specifying particular processes in Germany and Austria.

Other chapters discuss cultural variation and local engagement of expertise based on the evidence from Canada, India, Uruguay, and Saint Lucia and study policy and media impacts based on the evidence from Finland, Australia, and The United States. The conclusions present the vision of future steps towards creating effective global governance of environmental issues.

The ground-breaking event that encouraged the creation of this book dates back to 2009 when ordinary citizens held meetings in 38 countries to discuss the issues related to climate change. The authors of the contributions to the book include numerous researchers and practitioners from the whole world (Rask, Worthington,


Global Trends and Driving Forces in the Hotel Industry Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Marketing management trends Global marketing defines the market share of a hotel in the hotel industry. According to Galicic (2014), global marketing is the most important for a hotel because it expands the geographical presence, improves global branding, and increases market share.

The forecast shows that global marketing grows in the hotel industry because of globalization, which increases movement of people for leisure and business purposes. Fundamentally, global marketing enables hotels to enhance their target market by reaching out to customers in diverse geographical regions and to improve awareness of the services that exist in the hotel industry.

Provision of standardized services and amenities with customization to meet the unique needs of customers in a certain locality is a global trend and a driving force in the hotel industry. Whitla, Walters, and Davies (2007) assert that the hotel industry must provide standardized services that meet unique needs of customers emanating from diverse geographical regions globally.

The forecast of the evolution indicates that standardization of services is inevitable because customers are frequent travelers, who require services that meet certain standards based on their travel experiences and expectations. In essence, the services that the hotel industry offers must meet specific minimum standards.

The incorporation of information technology promotes the competitive advantage of a hotel in the hotel industry. Koutroumanis (2011) recommends hotels to use information technology in receiving orders, accepting payments, scheduling labor, forecasting production, engineering menu, formulating prices, and keeping inventories.

The information technology automates systems and processes in the hotel industry, and thus, it reduces errors and improves the quality of services. The forecast indicates that information technology is rapidly evolving and transforming the hotel industry because the global economy is gradually embracing e-commerce.

Social networking is an integral trend and driving force of marketing in the hotel industry because it enables customers to interact with hotels, provide feedback, and refer to their friends. Zeng and Gerritsen (2014) hold that social media is a powerful network marketing tool that is effective in the promotion and marketing of the hotel industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Koutroumanis (2011) states that hotel industry should embrace social networking sites, for example, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, and YouTube, because they promote marketing and customer loyalty. Given the increasing number of people in the social media, the forecast shows marketers in the hotel industry increasingly rely on it in marketing and educating customers. Hence, hotels should take advantage of the social media in advertising because most customers use social sites in searching for hotels with positive reviews and appealing services.

The adoption of new business models and marketing strategies is essential to reduce operation costs and improve sales. Gustavo (2013) holds that new business models, such as joint ventures, mergers, acquisitions, and strategic partnerships, promote expansion of hotel chains, development of brands, and improvement of sales in the competitive hotel industry.

In the period of global economic challenges, these business models coupled with effective marketing strategies boost the competitiveness of hotels. As hotels are unable to satisfy unique needs of customers in various geographical regions, the forecast indicates that the aforementioned business models enable hotels to use their concerted efforts for improving competitive advantage and satisfying diverse customer needs.

Safety and security comprise a global trend and driving force in the hotel industry because customers consider them while choosing their travel destinations. Singh (2015) recommends that hotels should offer physical security, personal security, and the information system security for customers to feel safe in their amenities.

The physical security entails security infrastructure such as a secure fence, proper lighting, the presence of fire equipment, and installation of closed circuit TV cameras amongst other pertinent equipment. The personal security comprises security measures provided in guest rooms and precautions of hotel employees to protect guests from possible dangers and loss of property.

The information system security includes security of information technology systems that customers and hotels use for making payments and keeping personal details. In the wake of terrorism and advancement of technology, the forecast of trend indicates that safety and security will be the major factor that customers consider in choosing hotels.

The provision of health and wellness services is a new trend in the hotel industry. Rao (2014) argues that hotels should provide health and wellness services such as gymnasiums, swimming pools, sports, and healthcare centers so that customer can improve their wellness during their stay in a hotel.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Global Trends and Driving Forces in the Hotel Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, food and beverages should reflect health and wellness needs of customers. The forecast of the trend of services shows that customers have become conscious about their health and wellness, and thus, they choose hotels based on the nature of health and wellness programs they offer. From this point of view, hotels need to keep in tandem with the increasing demand for health and wellness services among customers.

The political environment is a major factor that influences hotel industry because it determines the movement of travelers. Ingram, Tabari, and Wattanakhomprathip (2013) state that terrorism and upheavals make governments limit movement of travelers and impose a curfew on certain regions.

Furthermore, governments offer travel advisories to their citizens, which influence the movement people across the globe. Thus, the political environment has a marked influence on the market trends in the hotel industry. The growth of hotel industry indicates that travelers prefer visiting destinations with a stable political environment and favorable legislations.

The Most Competitive and Successful Trends in Scotland The use of information technology is the most competitive and successful trend in Scotland because it allows customers and hotels to interact on the Internet, as in the case of Gleneagles. Law and Jogaratnam (2005) assert that the hotel industry faces a technology-based revolution, which will determine the competitiveness of a hotel.

Online booking and payment systems are some of the trendy uses of information technology in Scotland. Hotels in Scotland such as Gleneagles should employ social networking in its marketing strategy. Hamid, Akhir, and Cheng (2013) hold that social media offers viral marketing among the young customers, who constitute a significant proportion of customers in the hotel industry.

Given that customers in the hotel industry emanate from diverse countries, global marketing is integral to the promotion of hotels in Scotland. Naidoo and Munhurrum (2011) assert that global marketing significantly determine market share of a hotel.

The hotel industry in Scotland should focus on providing health and wellness services. The promotion of health by World Health Organization has increased awareness among customers to change their lives by choosing healthy lifestyles (Koncul, 2012). Global trends indicate that health and wellness service is the current trend in the hotel industry, and thus, hotels in Scotland need to incorporate in their services.

Owing to the threat of terrorism, hotels in Scotland should improve safety and security of their amenities and customers. Henderson, Shufen, Huifen, and Xiang (2010) state that safety and security of customers is a major factor that determines their choices of travel destinations and hotels.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Trends and Driving Forces in the Hotel Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To expand their services globally, hotels in Scotland need to adopt new business models, such as strategic partnerships, mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures. Gustavo (2013) states that these business models enable hotels to thrive in the competitive hotel industry and overcome effects of global economic recessions.

References Galicic, V. (2014). Internal marketing in the hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Industry, 1(1), 297-312.

Gustavo, N. (2013). Marketing management trends in tourism and hospitality industry: Facing the 21st century environment. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 5(3), 13-25.

Hamid, N., Akhir, R.,


Animal Abuse as a Public Health Issue Analytical Essay essay help online

The condition of public health in a society depends on many factors. To achieve good standards in this sphere, it is crucial to identify harmful factors, introduce effective laws that would deal with these factors, and to realize these laws in practice.

In this paper, we will attempt to identify one of such factors, the level of cruelty towards animals, show its relation to public health, and offer some legal tools that might prove useful in addressing the problem. The problem of animal abuse is significant for the public health of a society.

Despite the fact that public health legislation does not include this issue (for instance, in Baltimore County Code the article concerned with animals (#12) is separate from the article concerned with public health (#13) (American Legal Publishing, 2015)), the problem of cruelty towards animals has an important correlation with the area of public health, or, more precisely, with one of its parts – behavioral health.

Indeed, it is evident that violence towards animals is, in most cases, related to violence against humans. For instance, Flynn (2011) argues that “animal abuse is linked to a variety of interpersonal violence, including bullying, juvenile delinquency, adult violent crimes and other nonviolent offenses”; it has been shown that cruelty towards animals often “co-occurs with woman-battering” (p. 454).

Therefore, the link between animal abuse and public health exists, and it demands both public and legal attention. The prevention of cruelty towards animals is a major factor that might contribute to preventing interpersonal violence; for example, Flynn (2011) argues that ending violence against animals “is an important step in ending all violence” (p. 454).

It is stated that in 2013 many police officers did not consider animal abuse a vital problem, treating it “as a minor property crime” (Smith, 2015); many of them consider it a “Fluffy-Muffy issue”, not worth worrying about (Siebert, 2010). Even though there exists legislature protecting animals in Baltimore County (American Legal Publishing, 2015; Baltimore County Government, 2014), it is apparent that it needs to be adjusted in order to enable law enforcers to elicit the facts of animal violence and prevent them more effectively.

The law should also make the change in the officers’ attitude towards the problem possible on the institutional level; for instance, it might establish specific training programs elaborating the importance of the issue. It is also possible to legally introduce anti-violence programs into the school curriculum (e.g., into primary schools). Clearly, such programs need to be carefully designed and well-implemented to be effective.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As we have seen, the problem of animal abuse, being linked to interpersonal violence, is directly related to the sphere of public health. Battling animal abuse is vital to address the problem of behavioral health of the society. To do this, it is possible to introduce legislation which would allow the law enforcers to protect animals more effectively, as well as to create laws that would introduce the explanation of the issue to schoolchildren.

References American Legal Publishing. (2015). Baltimore County Code. Web.

Baltimore County Government. (2014). Animal laws and policies. Web.

Flynn, C. P. (2011). Examining the links between animal abuse and human violence. Crime, Law and Social Change, 55(5), 453-468. Web.

Siebert, C. (2010). The animal-cruelty syndrome. Web.

Smith, V. (2015). A dog in the fight: Baltimore’s enforcement of animal-cruelty laws is getting some bite. Web.


First Flight Associates v. Professional Golf Co Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

Identify the client Based on the facts of the contract between Pro Golf and First Flight Associates (FFA), which was rescinded prematurely, this paper seeks to advise FFA on the legal framework behind the termination. This paper analyzes the case and explores the problem that prompted the parties to seek court’s intervention whereas there were other avenues at disposal to solve the dispute.

Additionally, the paper will explore possible actions that the FFA could undertake to preempt the recurrence of a similar problem in its future dealings. My recommendations will be based on my knowledge of the business law, which has been gained throughout the course.

Provide background to problem The case presented in this paper centers on a controversial agreement between Pro Golf and FFA. FFA was accused of the failure to honor its contractual duties. Pro Golf is a multinational company with its headquarters in the United States (US), and it operates under the trademark FIRST FLIGHT.

Following the company’s desire to penetrate the global market, it appointed Robert G. Wynn as the sales representative in the Far East countries. Consequently, Wynn formed a company to execute the roles of a sales representative in Japan. The company, which was registered by the name First Flight Associates (FFA), marketed Pro Golf’s products under the trademark, FIRST FLIGHT.

This aspect indicates that it was licensed to act as a sales representative of the licensor. The relationship between the two parties was informal since no formal contract was entered between the companies when the license was issued. On the contrary, the two parties formed an implied form of contract substantiated through the letters sent by each party.

From the letters, FFA was to pay $2500 annually to Pro Golf as a consideration for the use of the trademark. However, to boost its marketing power, FFA sub-licensed other firms to use the licensor’s trademark among them being Teito Company. Under the new sub-license agreement, Teito was to pay an annual fee of $25,000 to FFA in exchange for the right to use the trademark to market the goods.

The agreement between FFA and Teito Company caused disputes as the licensor sought full disclosure of the material facts on which the mentioned contract was founded. Following the failure by FFA to disclose the terms of the contract as required, Pro Golf notified the former of the intention to terminate the contract unconditionally due to failure to observe the contractual duties by the plaintiff.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem The termination of the contract without an agreement being reached between the two parties as to how to execute the termination process formed the basis of the controversy. FFA allowed Teito Company to use Pro Golf’s trademark. Additionally, it did not disclose the terms of the engagement to the licensor even when required to do so.

The reluctance by FFA to disclose the terms of engagement between it and Teito prompted Pro Golf to revoke the contract that it had made previously with FFA. The agreement was silent as to the reasons that could lead to termination. Therefore, the involved parties could not agree on the legality of such termination.

In addition to the termination of the decree, Pro Golf declined to pay the commissions earned by the plaintiff arguing that the company’s customs allowed payment of such fees upon delivery of goods to customers. FFA approached the courts requiring the defendant to be compelled to pay all the money earned prior to the termination of the contract. Pro Golf opposed the FFA’s claims for commission saying that the licensee failed to observe its contractual duties, thus giving the right to rescind the contract.

Expressly indicate termination causes According to Schaffer, Agusti, Dhooge, and Earle (2011), under the common law, a legally binding contract can only be terminated under the following circumstances

Agreement by the parties

Failure by one party to observe a material contractual duty

The occurrence of the specified event

Lapse of time

Full execution of each parties contractual duties

However, for a contract to be terminated due to the occurrence of a certain event, the anticipated issue must be specified clearly in the contract. Express indication of the events that may cause termination of a contract is important since it averts conflicts that may emerge from wrongful rescission of a contract by either party before maturity.

Additionally, such indication eliminates uncertainties that may present regarding premature termination of a contract by one party. The occurrence of the stated event leads to automatic termination of a contract without having to approach the courts to question the legality of a decision by one party to terminate a contract.

FFA should ensure that its future agreements highlight the conditions in which a contract may be terminated prematurely to avoid the recurrence of a problem similar to the one described in this case. The contract between Pro Golf and FFA did not highlight expressly the events that could prompt impulsive termination of the licensing contract, and thus the parties had to approach the courts for legal assistance.

We will write a custom Case Study on First Flight Associates v. Professional Golf Co specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Advantages

Indicating the instances in which a contract may be terminated prevents wrongful termination of a contract by either party. This aspect eliminates confusion and delay in the execution of the contract. Additionally, the occurrence of the stated event leads to the involuntary termination of the contract, thus relieving each party of liability in the contract. This aspect leads to savings in terms of time and resources since the parties do not have to approach the courts to dispute the legality of such termination.


The occurrence of the stated event leads to automatic termination of a contract, thus relieving each party of the attached contractual liabilities. In case one party has executed its duties fully, the other party may fail to honor its part of the bargain, thus leading to fresh disputes. Additionally, a contract may be terminated by other causes apart from those stipulated in the agreement, hence creating controversy.

Establish formal contracts A formal contract refers to an agreement in which all the involved parties outline the material facts in a written text upon deliberation (Schaffer et al., 2011). Such contracts require extensive consultation between the contracting parties to come up with the representations to be included in the agreement.

Where necessary, a legal expert is hired to oversee the drafting of the contractual document and ensure compliance with the law. FFA should consider engaging in formal contracts in which all facts are stipulated in the contractual document to avoid the controversy that may present in the course of execution of the contract.

In its contract with Pro Golf, the parties did not meet physically to deliberate on the terms of the contract. On the contrary, the parties communicated through letters. The contract was thereby informal, and the conditions of the contract were only traceable from the correspondences.

If FFA had engaged in a formal discussion with the defendant, perhaps the two parties would explore and agree on allowing other companies to use the trademark. Therefore, I would advise FFA to negotiate its rights with other parties and document the terms in written texts to avoid the recurrence of the problem in its future endeavors.

Pros A formal contract has the terms of engagement written and understood by both parties. Therefore, it acts as a proof of the existence of such contract. In case of disputes arising in the course of executing the contract, both parties may refer to the document to resolve the conflict without involving a court of law. Moreover, a formal agreement minimizes the chances of disputes emerging from misunderstandings since the terms of the contract are made clear right from the outset.

Cons The terms of a contract may be of legal nature, which may require the services of a legal expert to guide the parties through the process. Such services may be expensive, which increases the operating costs. Additionally, the illegality of such terms may invalidate a contract even when a written document exists.

Not sure if you can write a paper on First Flight Associates v. Professional Golf Co by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Establish a dispute resolution method prior to entering the contract and Indicate the terms of engagement, whether agency or employment. Most contracts often result in conflicts during execution, which must be resolved in time to avoid procrastinations in the performance of the contract. Therefore, parties to a contract ought to agree on the appropriate methods of resolving disputes without involving a court of law.

A clear statement outlining the method to be employed in resolving disputes should be included in the contractual document. In such a case, if a dispute arises prior to the actual period of termination of the contract, it can be resolved promptly.

FFA should consider creating a dispute resolution team with its future contracting parties made up of a representative from both sides. The contract should state the fact that the decision by the team is final and that it cannot be contested in a court of law. This move will minimize the chances of misunderstandings coupled with preempting the chances of the parties to seek justice from the courts.

In the light of these facts, I would advise FFA to deliberate dispute resolution methods prior to committing to a contact. In the contract between FAA and Pro Golf, no provision was made regarding dispute resolution hence the party resorted to seeking a legal interpretation from the courts.


Providing a dispute resolution method provides a ceiling that limits the parties’ ability to go to the courts in case of disputes. Besides, it ensures that disputes are resolved promptly, thus minimizing the chances of court’s involvement in the resolution processes.


Providing for a dispute resolution mechanism may limit the ability of a party to approach a court of law in the case of dissatisfaction by the verdict delivered through the stipulated dispute resolution method. Additionally, the resolution mechanism established by the contract may not always fit the different situations arising during the execution of the contract. Moreover, creating a dispute resolution team may require the establishment of a team of experts, which may increase the operating costs of the two parties.

The terms of a contract A contract may be terminated on grounds of failure to perform the contractual duties from either party. Each party to a contract is under a legal obligation to act under the provisions of the contract. In case one party fails to act under such provisions, the aggrieved side is entitled to rescind the contract and seek damages for losses coming from the breach (Schaffer et al., 2011).

In the case of FAA v. Pro Golf, the defendant accused the plaintiff of failure to observe the contractual duties, hence rescinding the contract. In the light of the mentioned facts, I would advise FAA to engage actively in the formulation of the contractual terms and stick by them during the execution of its mandated duties. This way, the firm will be freed from any liability arising from the failure to execute its duties as specified in the contract.


Adherence to the contractual duties ensures that the contract remains valid, thus eliminating the chances of the other party rescinding the contract. Additionally, it ensures that the desired outcomes are achieved, thus averting disputes that may lead to legal interventions.


Adherence to contractual duties may be limited by certain factors such as the impracticability of the obligation or illegality of such tasks. In such cases, the execution of the contractual duties is derailed, and it may prompt the involved parties to seek intervention from the courts of law.

Reference Schaffer, R., Agusti, F., Dhooge, L.,


Drug Abuse Among the Youth Case Study essay help online: essay help online

Theoretical analysis Case Selection

Drug addiction is a critical topic of discussion in the prevailing society where young people under peer pressure are being subjected to their abuse. Most people who experience health problems that restrict them to enjoy life not only harbor depression, but also fail to attain the freedom of choosing the path to follow.

These drugs cause the problems at home, work, and school where personal relationships are affected severely. In this regard, the drug abuse and addiction offer a short-term solution to the health issues that an individual possesses.

Essentially, this case study will allow the evaluation of the prevailing cases of drug abuse among the youth. It will review the repercussions of drug abuse and enlighten people about their negative effects. The selected case was on Jessica’s marijuana addiction and Roberto’s drug abuse.k

Compulsive and Addictive Behavior

Drug abuse can result to depression and suicide as depicted in Jessica’s case where she loses self-control. The use of marijuana can affect the intellectual capacity and working capabilities of an individual. This is evident when the addicted person loses the vigor to work and becomes careless.

The victims of drug abuse lose the effective ability to remember where most show such behavioral features as restlessness, craving to smoke, insomnia, and loss of appetite (Gutkin, 2012). Moreover, this contributes to a feeling of depression, anxiety, and reduced self-esteem termed as personality disorders.

The people who consume marijuana heavily are usually absent minded, prone to accidents, depict tardiness, and seem lazy.

According to research, those who test positive for Marijuana usage checkups have 55% chances of being involved in industrial accidents, 85% in injuries, and 75% increase in absenteeism as compared to the non-smokers (Lyman, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The compulsive behaviors involving the use of painkillers as seen in Roberto’s case are attributes that need counseling and treatment interventions. In this regard, the pain and peer pleasure cannot be persevered to allow an explicit cure of the injuries.


The suicide case demands counseling intervention from qualified personnel such as doctors, psychologists, or religious leaders. The patients’ problems should be understood to elevate the pressure of the healthcare practitioner in order to take the additional actions.

In cases where the person persists on committing suicide, he or she should be referred to psychiatric services and/or stored in a protective custody. Primarily, Roberto does not indicate the drug he uses to relieve pain, which implies that the first step must be to identify it before commencing treatment.

The best treatment option for his case is to perform a medical operation in order to remove the cause of pain completely.

Acceptance of the situation of life conditions subject to counseling

When an individual agrees to stop the drug abuse, the establishment of a normal life can be regained. This process commences with treatment and support from the relatives and concerned friends who understand the adverse effects of drug usage to a victim.

The most appropriate way to attain this acceptance is through subjecting patients to counseling and medication, which makes it easier to withdraw from addiction.

After withdrawal, the individuals and group counselors teach ways to accept the situation and promote strategies of preventing relapse and boosting health. (Montvilo, 2013)

We will write a custom Case Study on Drug Abuse Among the Youth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion It is vital to implement the regular screening of health in government agencies among other organizations. Furthermore, the workers should be involved in campaigns against the drug abuse, which helps in stress management and assertiveness.

Also, it is crucial to initiate vocational training programs to guide the public and reduce the abuse of drugs where rehabilitation centers can be established to cater for the addicted persons (Stevens


The Emotional and Social Intelligences of Effective Leadership Reflective Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Critical Learning Points

Applying the Insights to the Future Career

Thought-Provoking Questions


Critical Learning Points The article by Ronald E. Riggio and Rebecca J. Reichard (2008) offers an analysis of the social and emotional skills that should be developed by a leader. A number of their ideas appeared to be especially appealing to me. Since leadership presupposes working with people, the importance of social skills cannot be denied. The classification suggested in the article presupposes singling out social and emotional expressiveness, sensitivity and control.

While the importance of the separate skills has been outlined in the article, it is also implied that all of them are interconnected and interrelated. The complex of these skills should be developed, and the authors of the article suggest that assessment and reflection can help a leader in this process.

It appears to me that controlling one’s emotions is especially important both for the leaders’ images and the success of their managerial activities. At the same time, being emotionally expressive, as the article emphasizes, is necessary for a charismatic leader. It helps one to motivate and inspire employees and facilitates the relationship building process.

The effective means of expressing disapproval are of great interest to me. I realize that criticism is necessary both for the business and the employees since a leader should encourage their development. At the same time, I understand that irritability or anger would in most cases be counterproductive and may damage the relationship between myself and an employee as suggested by the authors of the article.

Therefore, in the process of reprimanding both the emotional expressiveness and control are needed along with emotional sensitivity as the reaction of the employee needs to be assessed and taken into account. Apart from that, the article emphasizes the significance of effective listening, which also corresponds to my personal views.

The research in the article proves that being emotionally and socially sensitive facilitates the creation of a healthy trust- and respect-based relationship with the employees. Finally, it is noteworthy that social expressiveness and control are important for a leader’s image and, subsequently, career advancement. All of this proves that the development of the mentioned social skills is crucial for me as a leader.

Applying the Insights to the Future Career Being most interested in human-oriented leadership, I have been paying particular attention to the part of the text devoted to the development of the leader’s relationships with the followers. I have come to the conclusion that by developing my social skills I will be able to build better relationships with my employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my opinion, the development of social skills in many ways depends on self-improvement, self-reporting, and reflexion. Self-reporting has been suggested by the authors of the article as a way of social skills assessment and their subsequent improvement.

I realize that this method may be partially ineffective and should not become the only way of assessment of one’s actions. Still, in my opinion, it facilitates the process of developing a control over one’s emotions and especially their expression, and I intend to utilize it in future.

Thought-Provoking Questions 1) I would like to discuss the effective means of expressing disapproval to the employees.

2) The article points out the importance effective listening and the difficulties of operationally defining it (Riggio


Failure of Internationalization Strategy in BestBuy in China Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Macro and micro environment

Business Entry mode

Segmentation, targeting and positioning




Introduction Best Buy was founded by Richard Schulze in 1969. The company was first established as a car audio and a single room store and later developed into an international retailer of electronics, entertainment products and home office products.

In 2001, Best Buy Company was considered as the best company that supplied electronics in the Western countries. In the same year, the company was considered as the largest and most successful retail store of electronics worldwide.

Best Buy is one of the companies in the United States which has managed to enter into the markets of Canada, United Kingdom, Mexico, Turkey and China (Cheng, 2009, p.52).

Best Buy employs direct investment strategy for global market development. The company entered the international market of China by forming a joint venture with the China’s Five Star Appliance Limited.

By acquiring Five Star Appliance, the company gained popularity in China and expanded its business by opening nine stores. The nine stores of the company were located in Hangzhou, Beijing and Suzhou. This paper seeks to explain the mode of entry that Best Buy used to enter into the Chinese market and why it failed.

To explain this issue, the paper examines the macro and micro environment of the Chinese market as well as the segmentation, positioning and brand name of Best Buy Company (Ehrmann, 2009, p.10).

Macro and micro environment Micro environment consists of the following factors; marketing intermediaries, suppliers, the company and the competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the fiscal year 2009, twenty five suppliers of electronics accounted for over sixty six percent of the merchandise purchased whereby Sony, Samsung, Hewlett-Packard, Toshiba and Apple accounted for one-third.

Best Buy enters in short-term agreements with its suppliers since it usually gets its products from the Asian manufacturers (Hollensen, 2012, p.50).

The strategy of obtaining products directly from the manufacturers has enabled Best Buy to offer private-label products, which harmonizes the existing product line. The suppliers of Best Buy products have a high bargaining power since there are only a few suppliers in the electronic industry.

Many retail shops in the industry like Best Buy have no power to bargain on the prices given, but only buy from the manufacturers like LG, Samsung and Sony in order to satisfy the needs of their clients (Lee


Promotional and Advertising Strategies – Automotive Industry Evaluation Essay online essay help

Introduction This paper compares and contrasts the marketing and advertising strategies of Audi and BMW. Both companies are German-based and sell their products in the luxury car market. The two companies have a history of marketing and advertising rivalries that have manifested through public advertising wars (Kumar 9).

The same rivalry has manifested through the development and application of new technologies. This paper explores different aspects of their marketing strategies and promotional campaigns.

Comparison and Contrast of the two Marketing Strategies According to Kotler (5), a company’s marketing strategy consists of four distinctive areas – product, place, promotion, and price. This section of the paper evaluates the marketing strategies of Audi and BMW based on this marketing framework.


For a long time, BMW has marketed itself as a luxury automobile brand (Klein 7). In line with this strategy, the company has continually targeted affluent people with a high disposable income because they can afford their cars (Johnson 9). BMW’s place strategy focuses on constructing different manufacturing plants in different markets (Johnson 9).

Through this strategy, the company does not import its cars from Germany because it manufactures them in their host’s location. Comparatively, the company’s pricing strategy centers on charging their customers a premium for improved value. This value has emerged from improved technology, luxury and the infusion of advanced car features (value-based pricing) (Klein 7).

Its promotion strategy has focused on positioning the BMW brand as a household name. To do so, the company has developed innovative advertisements (Johnson 6). In line with this strategy, the company has also sponsored high-profile events like the Olympics. Lastly, BMW’s product strategy has focused on developing cars (usually sedans) with sleek designs and high quality. Its products also have advanced technology, low gas mileage and a high performance (Klein 10).


Similar to the BMW, Audi’s product strategy centers on providing its customers with high-tech, modern and quality vehicles (Kumar 5). In line with this strategy, the company strives to produce products with advanced technology. Its cars also have the latest features in automobile production. Audi’s slogan “truth of engineering” sums this product strategy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s price strategy aims to make the company’s cars affordable to many people. In this regard, Audi cars retail at average prices compared to its rivals, such as Mercedes Benz and BMW (Bhasin 3). However, the company has made sure that this pricing strategy strikes a careful balance with quality. Stated differently, although Audi cars are affordable, they have a high quality.

This is why Kumar (7) argues that although Audis may be relatively cheaper than its rivals, both brands observe the same level of quality in their car production processes. Audi’s promotion strategy has focused on presenting their cars as racing machines (Kumar 7).

The company believes that this strategy would show that the company’s cars are faster and better than others are (Bhasin 3). Lastly, Audi’s placement strategy highlights the company’s quest to avail its cars in major showrooms. This way, its customers could inspect the cars in their respective countries.

The table below compares the marketing strategies of both BMW and Audi

Marketing Component BMW Audi Place Manufacturing cars in hosts’ locations Importing cars from Germany (its headquarters) Price High Prices (value-based pricing) Average price Promotion Sponsoring high-profile events, such as the Olympics Sponsoring racing events Product Provides its customers with high-tech, modern and quality vehicles Provides its customers with high-tech, modern and quality vehicles Marketing Information In today’s fast-paced and competitive automotive market, carmakers need to gather useful marketing information that would set them apart from their competitors (Bhasin 3). In particular, Audi could use this advantage because its overall sales (globally) are lower than BMW’s (Kumar 7).

Particularly, the company should use marketing information to get a broader understanding of the global automobile market and identify untapped opportunities it could exploit. Furthermore, with a proper marketing information system in place, Audi could easily track and improve independent operation processes in its production processes (Bhasin 3).

This way, the company could easily establish a broader perspective not only of the global automobile market, but also of its independent processes, thereby facilitating improvements, which would give it a competitive advantage over its rivals.

We will write a custom Essay on Promotional and Advertising Strategies – Automotive Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Two uses for Consumer-Oriented promotions that could help one company in the short term and long term

Consumer-oriented promotions are useful to carmakers, both in the short term and long-term because competition in the global market is higher than ever before (Johnson 9). Such promotions may include price reductions, tax rebates, coupons and other inducements. Audi could benefit from such promotions to improve its competitive position in the market.

In the short-term, the company could retain more of its customers this way (Ray 4). For example, if it offers free after-sales service to its customers, the company could retain more customers in the cutthroat automobile market because its customers would be more appreciative of the extent that the company is going to earn their business.

In the long-term, consumer-oriented promotions could improve customer loyalty to the Audi brand (Ray 4). For example, when customers know that they could always get a good price for a high quality car (through rebates or sales); they are likely to develop a strong brand loyalty to the brand.

Analyze the Strategic Manner in which the leading company in this product group has made its pricing decisions by using one or more of the four pricing objectives

Some of the most common pricing objectives are increasing monetary sales, increasing returns on investment (ROI), maximizing long-run profit, maximizing short-term profit (Kotler 17). The key components of BMW’s pricing mix strive to meet two of the above-mentioned pricing objectives – increasing ROI and increasing monetary sales.

The company achieves these goals by adopting a premium-pricing model. Indeed, as Klein (13) observes, targeting high-end customers allows the company to charge a higher price for its units, thereby allowing the company to enjoy higher margins than its competitors. This way, it increases its monetary sales and ROI.

Suggest Two Actions that other Companies within the Same Product Group may take to differentiate themselves and gain a competitive Advantage

In a competitive market, companies have to differentiate themselves by adopting unique marketing strategies that would earn them a competitive advantage (Kotler 3). Many automakers, such as BMW, Audi, and Mercedes Benz, saturate the global luxury automobile market. Mercedes Benz competes directly and indirectly with the two companies discussed in this paper.

The company could differentiate itself by adopting a unique service model. According to Kobran (2), this strategy could help to show how Mercedes Benz is different from other luxury brand companies. The difference could emerge through a depiction of unique car manufacturing processes and its differences with other companies that operate in the same market segment.

To demonstrate how this advantage will differentiate Mercedes Benz from its competitors, Kobran says, “Companies that can demonstrate a more effective way to service their customers often gain a competitive advantage and a compelling way to differentiate” (3). Alternatively, Mercedes Benz could differentiate itself through technical expertise. This differentiating factor does not mean that the company should differentiate itself through technology only.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Promotional and Advertising Strategies – Automotive Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead, it could project itself as having a solution to a perennial problem among car buyers (Kobran 5). For example, it could present itself as the company that builds stable cars. Collectively, adopting unique car manufacturing processes and advancing its technical position in the automobile industry could help the company to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals such as BMW and Audi.

Define the most Effective Advertising Medium for a Company in the Selected Product Category

There are different types of advertising media used by different companies to promote their brands. The most common types of advertising media include television, radio, print publications, internet, direct mail, and sponsorships. Although these advertising strategies have different advantages and disadvantages, some of them are more effective in the automotive industry than others are (Ray 6).

The most effective advertising medium for promoting luxury car brands, such as BMW and Audi, is sponsorship. The justification for the advancement of this strategy is its focused nature (Kotler 15). For example, sponsoring motor events is likely to market a car brand among people who like cars. This way, car companies would be targeting specific and not general audiences.

Ray calls this type of marketing strategy “marketing with the end in mind” (5). Furthermore, sponsoring a car event taps into the emotional appeal of such events among potential customers who are passionate about cars (Kotler 16). Similarly, it is more relevant than other types of advertising, which marketers could use in the luxury automobile market, because it is relevant by reaching potential customers where they choose to be in.

Sponsorship is also more effective than other types of advertising in the automobile market because it is interactive (Kotler 16). Stated differently, while other types of advertising, such as television and radio, are monologue, sponsorship is a dialogue between sellers and potential buyers. Therefore, luxury carmakers, such as BMW and Audi are bound to benefit from the continuation of sponsorship as their main promotional strategy.

Conclusion This paper has shown that BMW and Audi are rivals in the luxury automobile sector. They have different marketing strategies that have propelled them to leadership positions in the global automobile market. Their marketing strategies converge based on their promotional and product strategies. However, they differ in terms of their place and pricing strategies.

Since BMW has more sales numbers than Audi does, this paper proposes that the latter should exploit marketing data to gain a competitive advantage by gaining a broader perspective of its internal processes and identifying possible opportunities for improvement. This paper has also shown that other companies in the luxury brand segment could differentiate themselves in the market by adopting a unique service model and through improved technical expertise.

To wade through the cutthroat automobile industry, this paper also proposes that leading automobile brands should pursue sponsorship as the main advertising strategy because it is more interactive and focused, compared to other available strategies. This advertising strategy is likely to increase their sales numbers and earn them a competitive advantage over their rivals.

Works Cited Bhasin, H. 8 Advantages of Marketing Information Systems. October. 2012. Web.

Johnson, R. BMW AG: Marketing Plan. 2015. Web.

Klein, A. Marketing Plan: BMW 1-series in Germany, London, UK: GRIN Verlag, 2007. Print.

Kobran, S. How To Differentiate Yourself When You’re Not that Different. 2013. Web.

Kotler, P. Kotler On Marketing, New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 2012. Print.

Kumar, A. Marketing Plan: Audi Company Overview. 2014. Web.

Ray, L. The Long-Term Effects of Customer-Oriented Sales Promotions. 2014. Web.


Social Background of Renewable Energy Development Essay college essay help near me

Renewable energy has been seen as the best alternative source of energy given the rising cost and scarcity of non- renewable sources.

According to Craddock (2008, p. 23), although some people believe that the development of renewable sources of energy is driven by the economic needs, the social force also plays an important role in increasing popularity of this form of energy.

The research by Kemp (2006, p. 37) shows that the social force behind the development of renewable sources of energy is even stronger than the economic one. In this paper, the social background of renewable energy development will be analyzed (Korkin, Krstić


Economic Factors of Renewable Energy Development Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Energy sector plays a pivotal role in a country’s economy because it runs all other sectors of the economy. According to Sørensen (2004, p. 23), oil provides more than one third of the total energy consumed in the world every day. This clearly indicates that oil is the major driver of the world’s economy.

Of course, there are other renewable sources of energy such as the hydropower, geothermal power, wind energy, and bio-fuel. However, they play a minimal role in the running of a country’s economy.

There has been a consistent increase in the price of a barrel of oil in the world market over the last fifty years (Langwith 2009, p. 34). It is a common phenomenon to see an increase in inflation within an economy whenever there is a rise in the cost of oil.

This is so because every industry is affected directly by such increase. The dealers are forced to pass the burden to the consumers which result in a systematic inflation in an economy. There has been an attempt by players in the energy sector to find solutions in the renewable energy sector.

This paper seeks to investigate the economic factors of renewable energy development (Bridgewater


The Three to One Crowd-funding Report online essay help

In the current public administration, new trends of managing the public development and affairs have been introduced. One of these improved ideas involves the concept of managing out the public sector. This is an area where the public gets involved directly in the management of the public sector.

This is contrary to what happened in the old days where the government took full control of the administration and management of the public sector with few opinions from the public being put into consideration.

Managing out has enabled the members of the public to be participators and contributors in the management of the sector rather than just being receivers. For instance, in Australia there have been a lot of advancements and technical changes in the public administration.

Many processes have been introduced by the governments of Australia to support the managing out processes in the public sector (Equity Crowd-funding 2013).

‘3 to 1’ crowd-funding is one of the processes used in managing out the public sector in Australia. This is a process that is establishing properly into the improved technology experienced in the world today. Its idea is based on the fact that many activities such as conferences, agreements, and payments can be made online.

Crowd-funding is an activity that entails getting financial support from various parties and different levels of the community through such an online setup as platforms set for specific projects. Some of the available crowd-funding sources include Pozible and Kickstarter, which are use in Australia significantly.

Kickstarter is attributed to the successful residential development and environmental project called the CitiNiche located in Australia (Australian Public Service Commission 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Pozible is behind the 3 to 1 crowd-funding idea that has seen government agencies in Australia such as the ScreenWest being awarded.

When analyzing how this initiative has been used in Australia to manage out the public sector, it is important to illustrate how the idea works first of all. It is also of use to highlight the benefits that come along with the process and finally discuss the challenges faced in its implementation.

Steps Taken in the Initiative An Australian government agency that deals with filmmakers called the ScreenWest used 3 to 1 crowd-funding successfully in managing out. Through this, the government could support the film industry.

Pozible is a crowd-funding platform started in Australian that was used in this case. The initiative ensured the film makers get an opportunity to create a page online where they can find donors to offer them financial aid in their projects.

This idea is not restricted to film makers as even business persons with innovations or start-ups can use this platform to get financiers for their projects (Burke 2014, pp. 1-2).

First, filmmakers with projects come out and declare their interest to participate in 3 to 1 crowd-funding. They form teams in which they will be recognized with when taking part in the entire activity. Therefore, a specific movie will have its own team comprised of the cast and crew in the film.

The teams apply for ‘3 to 1’ and go to the website of Pozible to declare their interest of being supported financially by the public after forming the groups.

We will write a custom Report on The Three to One Crowd-funding specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They do this by making a distinct budget of the project they have and displaying it on the website of Pozible so that potential donors can view when the site is online.

By this time, the teams are expected to display part of their film or project so that donors may be able to have a slight idea of what they are going to sponsor (Eltham 2013).

With only the projects that meet the application requirements, the website of Pozible goes live. From this point pledges are made and well stated budgets and outstanding ideas are bound to get a lot of supports from the public.

Since it is like a competition to get more funds from ScreenWest and also win the grand support from this government agency, film makers get to ask their fans in the public to vote for them through making pledges to facilitate financing.

The teams that are successful in reaching the goals they set for the crowd-funding are considered winners in the competition and the government though ScreenWest gives them adequate support.

Such films are offered extra digital producers fully paid for by the agency. The winners are also offered more coaching to ensure that they give quality material.

Furthermore, the people make pledges to the film posted in terms of dollars they are going to donate to support the play through the website of Pozible. ScreenWest manages and directs this activity through a firm called Reliance Consulting that acts as a broker.

To show support to this initiative, ScreenWest offers 3 dollars for every one dollar that was pledged up to 250,000 dollars. This is how the name “3 to 1 crowd-funding” came to be.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Three to One Crowd-funding by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has been one process well used in Australia in managing out the public sector. This type of crowd-funding gives the community an opportunity to support the projects they prefer.

It is those projects that are supported by most of the members of the public that are given the privileges offered by ScreenWest. This process relieves some roles from the public administration managers such as that of picking projects to be offered with financial aid from the government (Malcom


Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online

Presenting Problems in Psychological Perspectives Psychodynamic Approach

People have different personalities, and it is impossible to force them all to behave in similar ways. However, it is important to ensure that their behaviors promote positive personality development and enable them to achieve physical, mental, and emotional health.

They may face similar challenges, and even though there are various approaches of managing those problems, it is important to ensure that a therapist understands the origins of these problems and how personalities influence them.

The most common ways of managing personality problems include the psychodynamic and cognitive behavior approaches that ensure that patients change their perceptions, behaviors and lifestyles to live happy and comfortable lives.

Sigmund Freud explained that the best way of managing mental and emotional problems is through getting into victims’ minds and understanding how they view their experiences and relationships as well as what perceptions of events and people around them they develop.

This approach views human functioning as a result of the interactions between drives and forces that exist in the minds of an individual (Summers and Barber 2010).

Freud believed that there was a close relationship between the unconscious part of an individual and the structures of his/her personality.

The principles of this method are derived from a clinical approach that involves a discussion between a therapist and a patient. This allows the therapist to understand the patient through interviewing him/her and assessing his/her response.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Amanda is suffering from anxiety and depression because of her emotional and mental insecurity. She believes that her boyfriend will leave her because of her inappropriate behavior. She admits that she has been behaving poorly, and as a result, things seem to have moved from bad to worse.

Therefore, she feels very insecure that her boyfriend may break up with her because of her conduct (Summers and Barber 2010). Her motive is to ensure that she has a lasting relationship with Lorec, and this makes her behave inappropriately when she sees him communicating with his former girlfriends.

She unconsciously finds herself hurling insults at him and later breaking down because she cannot bear the pain of losing him.

Amanda’s childhood experiences may also have contributed to her present predicament. She is the only girl in a family, and she has been unable to compete with achievements of her siblings.

She is not an academic giant like her brothers, and thus she thinks that her parents placed a lot of pressure to ensure so that she performed well in school.

In addition, she was taught that couples should have similar levels of education, and this makes her insecure because her boyfriend is completing a PhD study yet she has no plans of getting there.

In addition, one of his former girlfriends is a doctor, and this promotes her insecurity because she thinks that they may have been a perfect match.

We will write a custom Case Study on Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavior Therapy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thirdly, her behavior is determined because of the effect of unconscious causes. She is used to mention some facts that should not be exposed to the public. In addition, she loses her temper whenever she thinks about his boyfriend and his former girlfriends.

This example explains that people are motivated by their unconscious parts to act in ways that reflect their thoughts.

Amanda is very aggressive, and this behavior continues worsening because she thinks that her boyfriend should not communicate with his former girlfriends because this shows that he is still interested in them.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

This is a therapeutic approach that enables patients to understand how to manage negative personality and behavior that affect their interaction with the others. It is very common in treating people suffering from anxiety and obsession. In this case, Amanda is a perfect victim for this approach.

In addition, this approach enables patients to know how to manage situations they cannot change (Beck 1995). Therefore, this is a problem based approach to mental and emotional challenges and is usually used for short term purposes.

Amanda has three brothers; therefore, relationships developed through communication with them show that she cannot change the way she acts with the other males. This method should prepare her to manage to live with people of a different sex.

She seems to be stressed by the fact that all her siblings are very far from her except the young one. This makes her think that she is not a part of the family and that they do not like her.

In addition, her mother has always been a tough parent since her childhood, and she should not be afraid of visiting her for fears of getting into a quarrel.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavior Therapy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She should understand that her mother was not properly educated, and thus she does not need to expect her to make the decisions common in families where both the parents are enlightened.

She should learn to accept her behavior and move on with her life because the more she thinks she must act properly, the deeper she sinks into her mental stress.

Secondly, she is very distressed by her boyfriend’s communication with his former girlfriends. This is the only instance that makes her think that her boyfriend may be planning to leave her. Therefore, she becomes insecure, and this feeling makes her aggressive and disrespectful to her boyfriend.

She knows and agrees that she behaves badly, and that it may be the reason why her boyfriend keeps his distance from her. However, her source of insecurity is that she thinks that her poor behavior may make her boyfriend despise her.

She has used to drink alcohol in order to lessen her stress and may soon be addicted to alcohol unless she changes her behavior (Beck 1995).

She thinks that her body shape is not attractive to her boyfriend. In addition, she considers that her level of education is way far below that of her boyfriend, and this makes her react badly and exaggerate small fights.

It is important to explain that the way she sees the other girls as well as her views how perfectly they would match her boyfriend contributes to her aggressive behavior and development of negative personality.

Therefore, she becomes insecure because she despises herself and even though she works hard to make her a better person, she seems to be undecided whether she does right or wrong.

For instance, she decided to enroll in a fitness class and attends five sessions per week. However, she eats junk food and spends most of her time indoors whenever she is stressed. This means that she may never achieve that perfect figure she dreams of because she will continue adding weight instead of losing it.

Lastly, she knows her mother is a strict parent, and her mother’s attitude towards her will not change.

Therefore, she focuses a lot of her attention on how her mother should behave and avoids meeting her because she fears that this may worsen their already bad relationships. She thinks about perfection and expects other people to be perfect yet she has flaws.

Treatment, Planning and Goals: Short-Term Remedies The Psychodynamic Approach

The psychodynamic approach can be used as a short time remedy to help Amanda manage her situation. First, she is very interested in ensuring that her relationship with Lorec lasts and leads to marriage.

However, she is afraid that he may go away to one of his former girlfriends, and this fear has resulted in insomnia and troubles with sleeping. This is a common feeling that most people in love experience during their early stages of dating.

However, she takes things too far and does not seem to think twice before making any decision. I will advise her to stop fearing of breaking up with Lorec and confront him objectively.

This means that she should let him know her fears and explain that she is not comfortable when he talks with his former girlfriends (Summers and Barber 2010). However, it is not just easy to wish this perception away since it is the cause of her bitter confrontations with him.

Therefore, I will advise her to stop thinking that all communication between her boyfriend and other women is aimed at building or reconstructing some relationships. I would let her know that the fact that he left his former girlfriends and decided to be with her means that he loves and adores her.

In addition, her super-ego and identity are in constant conflicts with her conscious part (ego), and this creates anxiety that makes her uneasy so that she thinks that her boyfriend should not socialize with any woman apart from her.

Therefore, she develops a defense mechanism that involves drinking too much, provoking and insulting her boyfriend and spending a lot on buying new things.

She thinks that going for shopping makes her relax and ease her anxiety, and that is why she is guided by impulse when buying new shoes that she hides then in the car. Her ego seems to drive her to do things she thinks will make her relationship work.

Her behavior is motivated by Eros (sex drive and life instinct) that makes her think that she can use her virginity to dictate the life of her boyfriend. She thinks that her ability to abstain from sexual affairs makes her better than Lorec but she is unable to leave him even if she feels that he is not her type.

In addition, she is driven by Thanatos (aggressive drives and death instincts) and thinks that she will make her life better by confronting her boyfriend and insulting him (Summers and Barber 2010). The therapist realized that she has so much to share that she is unable to know where to start and where to end.

Cognitive Behavioral Approach

Amanda is suffering from inferiority complex that has lowered her self-esteem, and this has made her aggressive and addicted to alcohol. She has become an escapist and does not want to face her problems; instead, she blames other people for her problems.

In addition, she suffers from an inferiority complex and thinks that her level of education is too low to attract Lorec. However, she forgets that Lorec fall in love and decided to be with her irrespective of her level of education. Therefore, this is not an issue that should give her sleepless nights.

There is the need for her to understand that even though her mother was never properly educated, she has brought up her children in an admirable way. The fact that her brothers have already pursued higher education means that her mother was intelligent, caring, and responsible.

Therefore, I would advise her to focus on her abilities and ensure she does her best to make attract Lorec to her. In addition, I would advise her to stop drinking alcohol and ensure she avoids solving her relationship issues when she is drunk.

It seems that she uses her alcoholism to express her anger because she cannot confront Lorec when she is sober and ask him to discuss their relationship. This means that alcohol makes her braver enough to be aggressive and face him (Beck 1995).

I would tell her that this is a very dangerous approach to deal with relationship issues because she cannot make rational decisions when drunk. Alcohol affects the mental stability of an individual, and there is no way she will make her relationship better if she keeps drinking.

She has increased her alcohol consumption level, and this is definitely going to affect her relationship. Therefore, I would advise her to check drinking because this may be a major relationship turn off.

Alcoholism does not help people solve their problems because it deceives them giving a perception that they can easily manage their challenges. I would assure Amanda to reduce her drinking.

This will be a short term remedy that will ensure she is sober most of her time. In addition, it will give more opportunities for her and Lorec to discuss their relationship.

Therefore, she thinks she is the judge and controller of every situation and this makes her frustrated when things do not go the way she wants. I would offer her to mind her own business and stop focusing on issues that she cannot change.

For instance, her mother had developed the same behavior when Amanda was young as she wanted to see her children responsible and successful in life.

Long-Term Psychodynamic Approaches

She has unsettled issues with her mother, and she should learn to understand that she cannot change her parents. She seems to accept that her father abuses alcohol, but when her mother develops the same behavior, she opposes her.

In addition, I would try to explain to her that people can have different opinions regarding education, marriage and careers but this does not mean that this should be the end of their relationships. I would make sure she understood that her mother is an important person in her life.

Thus, she needs to ensure that she develops a healthy relationship with her. In addition, she controls everything in her relationship and seems to have Lorec in her hands.

Therefore, she can manipulate him and force to do everything in her way though he resists. I would advise her not to perceive her mother as a harsh parent because all the parents want their children to be successful in the future.

In addition, I would ask her to seek forgiveness from her mother and focus on developing healthy relationship with her.

This will help her avoid things that will annoy her mother. In addition, she will understand that all the parents wish their children well, and whenever they are strict, they want to prove that good morals are indispensable in personality development.

Amanda has to make tough decisions if she wants to ensure that her problems are solved. First, she should understand that she cannot compete with all the women on Earth because there are things she cannot change about herself.

I would advise her to be satisfied with what she has achieved in academic performance and focus on developing her career to ensure she has a bright future. This will enable her to stop concentrating on irrelevant issues that make her stressed.

References Beck, J. S. (1995). Introduction to Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: The Guilford Press.

Summers, R. and Barber, J. P. (2010). Psychodynamic Therapy: A Guide to Evidence Based Practice. New York: The Guilford Press.


Organisational Change Situation Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Organisations that wish to gain a competitive advantage in the future focus on mechanisms of changing the manner in which they conduct their businesses. The most desired change is the one that enables an organisation become more profitable.

Geopolitical, demographic, and technological changes together with intense pressure on the physical environments pose the need for organisational change.

Such changes also need to be combined with various security concerns and governance issues that help to generate pressures that drive organisational change (Bruch and Gerber 57).

Development of awareness for technological needs, political, sociological, and economic characteristics of the external operational environment of organisations is crucial in the effort to drive strategic initiatives for their success.

Organisations can deploy proactive and reactive approaches to change. Such approaches can also be adopted following the occurrence of a crisis. Changes in the operation of an organisation underline the primary cause of the need to embrace change.

Organisations that have the capacity to identify the need for change before acknowledging the factors that prompt its necessity interfere negatively with their operations and ability to gain competitive advantage compared to those that adopt reactive approaches during change implementation.

A change that is implemented following the occurrence of a crisis translates into high organisational costs with a high probability of recovering the competitive advantage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To execute employee HR-related functions effectively, HSBC Bank Middle East Limited implemented organisational change that led to moving all HR-related employee queries into online web-based systems. Previously, all employees addressed their queries directly to the HR department.

This paper analyses this changing situation and its implementation in the context of the literature in organisational change management and leadership.

Background of the Organisation and Change Organisational Context for Change

Headquartered in New Jersey, HSBC Bank Middle East Limited is the biggest bank that operates in the Middle East region and in more than 70 other places across the globe. This penetration makes HSBC both global and regional product that is managed through several networks across the Middle East.

In particular, the bank has operations in Lebanon, Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan, among other nations (HSBC par.5). The larger the organisation, the more it is likely to employ a large number of people from diverse backgrounds.

This implies a higher number of employees that the HR arm has to handle. In an effort to create a culture that encourages work-life balance for employees, the speed and efficiency in expedition of strategies for addressing employee human-resource-related issues became an important issue that HSBC Bank Middle East Limited had to consider.

Organisations in all industries are interested in maintaining their levels of competitiveness for continued delivery of value to their owners, namely the shareholders.

In fact, Van de and Poole assert, “Any organisation in today’s fast-moving environment that is looking for the pace of change to slow is likely to be sorely disappointed” (395). This means that organisations need to welcome and embrace change that will increase their performance.

We will write a custom Report on Organisational Change Situation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Zhou and Tse support this assertion by maintaining that organisations that are reluctant to embrace change risk losing their competitive edge, and hence suffer the capacity to realise the needs of their clients in terms of delivering value to the shareholders and other interest groups (249).

The capacity of organisations to achieve the needs of its owners and other interest groups depends on their ability to maintain a competitive advantage.

Human resource comprises one of the essential resources at the disposal of an organisation, which, while utilised appropriately helps in maintaining and increasing an organisation’s competitive advantage.

HSBC Bank Middle East Limited understands that while operating in an environment of technological change, increasing its speed of expedition of employee human-related issue was vital in resolving challenges, which may result in conflict with the employees.

Instead of waiting for a crisis to occur, the management resolved to implement online web-based system to resolve employee HR-related queries.

Explanation of the Change that is implemented by HSBC Bank Middle East Reason for initiating the Change

Change was important to increase the competitive advantage of HSBC Bank Middle East by focusing on increasing its ability to resolve employee issues through two-way online-based mechanisms of responding to employee queries.

This change was to enable the organisations increase its interactive capability with large numbers of employees to minimise the probability of occurrence of organisational conflicts. It is important to note that HSBC Bank Middle East implemented the system before any conflicts were registered.

From the above claim, change was adopted as a proactive measure, as opposed to a reactive technique, or as a mechanism of resolving organisational crisis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organisational Change Situation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, change management theory suggests, “organisations benefit from the change that results in new ways of looking at customer needs, new ways of delivering customer service, new ways of strengthening customer interactions, and new products that might attract new markets” (Oxtoby, McGuiness, and Morgan 312).

By simply asking how and why an organisation is not able to attain certain specified goals in its vision and mission statements, an opportunity is created for adoption of creative and innovative strategies for enhancing success.

Strategic Renewal

HSBC Bank Middle East considered adopting change in an effort to support its strategic renewal initiatives as a mechanism of increasing its performance in a rapidly changing financial and insurance industry.

Strategic renewal implies alteration of organisational strategies via processes that involve the creation of new knowledge bases, services, capabilities, or products (Van de and Poole 398).

For HSBC Bank Middle East, the main concern for strategic renewal was increasing the organisation’s capabilities, and hence the capacity to respond to employee queries rapidly.

Parties affected by the Change and its Implications on them

Successful change requires the participation of different organisational stakeholders in the change process. Oxtoby, McGuiness, and Morgan confirm how this consideration is essential since such shareholders are also affected by the change (312).

Hence, change affects all parties that are involved in the day-to-day running of organisational affairs. The affected class includes the employees.

For the case of HSBC Bank Middle East, implementing change led to the elimination of the hierarchical organisational structures that were followed when presenting and responding to employee queries.

This case amounted to the alteration of hierarchical and bureaucratic organisational culture that had persisted in the in HRM practices. This suggests that the change influenced employees and all other people in the traditional channels of handling employee HR-related issues.

The change interfered with the effectiveness of all people who are charged with the collection of employee complaints in an effort of filing them and their subsequent perusal.

From the context of the employees, the change permitted them to forward directly their complaints to the head of HR department while expecting a response within minimal time.

The owners of the HSBC Bank Middle East comprise another important party that is affected by the change. They benefited from increased returns owing to good employee management practices.

Leigh supports this impact of change by claiming, “change is important in organisations to allow employees to learn new skills, explore new opportunities, and exercise their creativity in ways that ultimately benefit the organisation through new ideas and increased commitment” (par.3).

This implies that a change is all about enhancing the performance of employees by putting in place mechanisms of enabling them achieve better outputs. One of such approaches is the diversification of the jobs done by employees in organisations.

This noble paradigm of organisational change underlines the significance of the HSBC Bank Middle East’s changes in terms of using web technology to restructure and alter the processes that are followed while processing employee complaints.

Organisational Culture HSBC Bank Middle East Limited appreciates and values all people who drive its success. This strategy is a major aspect of the organisational culture.

Organisational culture refers to the “shared basic assumptions that an organisation learns while coping with the environment and solving problems of external adaptation amid its internal integration” (Oxtoby, McGuiness, and Morgan 315).

Such assumptions teach all the workforce of an organisation the amplest procedures of seeking solutions to the experienced challenges. The beliefs also bind different elements in an organisation into one harmonious major component as proposed by the systems theory.

Organisational culture defines the primary operational strategy for an organisation. At HSBC Bank Middle East Limited, this strategy involves the utilisation of people as the source of competitive advantage by ensuring that all stakeholders are happy with the organisation.

The aim encompasses ensuring that all stakeholders for HSBC Bank Middle East Limited remain focused on common goals and objectives. Van de and Poole reckon that this aim is attained when all people in an organisation subscribe to a common way of thinking, interaction, values, and norms (396).

Organisational norms, values, and way of thinking define an organisational culture, which needs to be aligned with the business strategies for any organisation that seeks to achieve its global competitive advantage through people such as the HSBC Bank Middle East Limited.

Before the adoption of change, employees at HSBC Bank Middle East Limited followed bureaucratic and hierarchical structures to have their complaints and various queries reach the head of the HRM.

Thus, although the organisations valued the role of employees in driving its success, as stated in its social corporate responsibility statements, a culture that encourages bureaucracy and hierarchy hindered effective deployment of people in achieving competitive advantage.

HSBC states that HSBC Bank Middle East limited recruits best talents irrespective of ethnicity, gender, disability, and other demographic characteristics (par.7). This implies that the organisation shares the norms and values for the needs of respecting people’s diversity.

It also offers competitive rewards together with salary packages for its employees whose relationships at the workplace are guided by sound social values. Most importantly, the organisation continues seeking new strategies for reducing work-life related conflicts, which may impede the morale of its people.

This concern underlines the principal reason why HSBC Bank Middle East Limited sought to look for effective ways of addressing employee queries in real-time.

People are generally resistant to change (Mullins, 752). This implies that a successful implementation of change required an organisational culture that could compel people to follow guidelines.

At HSBC Bank Middle East Limited, bureaucratic culture was instrumental in ensuring that employees followed precisely the given guidelines so that all people adopted the online web-based approaches, as opposed to following the traditional routes after the change was adopted with reference to the mechanisms of forwarding their HR-related complains.

However, bureaucracy was also a major challenges and impediment to quick-change implementations. Much formal authentication was required when designing change solutions.

This process involved multi-level organisational assessment of online-based HR management system. However, amid these challenges, adequate technological resources such as computers and the existence of computer literate employees made the change easily adaptive at the organisation.

Nevertheless, some employees were concerned with the likelihood of their information losses due to cyber insecurity, although they were assured of adequate protection of the HR system against cyber attacks.

The Change Effort HSBC Bank Middle East Limited implemented HRIS (Human Resource Information System) to facilitate the execution of HR activities electronically.

The system had several applications, including payroll management application, recruitment management application, and leave attendance and performance management application, among others.

Employees can also access any information on their employment status, such as changes in rewards system, among other information of individual interest. Web 2.0 technologies were utilised to provide employee accessibility to the system through the internet at any time.

The system has the capability of producing customised information. This flexibility enables employees to acquire individualised responses from the HR so that it (the flexibility) serves their needs at an individual level.

Change Evaluation Several theories may be applied in the evaluation of the change efforts of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited. Change involves the undertaking of different tasks, which while completed amount to the realisation of the desired change.

However, people have different motivations towards the execution of these tasks within an organisation. In the search for mechanisms of making people-oriented to their work demands in an effort to realise organisational objectives, McGregor developed theory X and Y.

Theory X proposes that people are normally lazy and often avoid doing work (Lorsch and Morse 93). Consequently, managers must supervise their employees closely to ensure that they are able to control every activity that they execute.

Theory X advocates for a hierarchical structure of management of staff. This structure is meant to ensure direct control while leaving very little room for delegation of responsibilities in a change execution process.

Indeed, according to Lorsch and Morse, realising organisational goals from the basis of this theory calls for managers to deploy coercive and threatening management techniques (94).

This strategy encourages compliance. However, it is possible that applying this theory in change implementation process leads to mistrust between stakeholders who are influenced by the change, especially those who are scheduled to facilitate the implementation process such as the employees of the HSBC Middle East Limited and managers.

The organisation took care to balance compliance and the need to curb the probable turnover arising from organisational conflicts that may emerge during change implementation.

Consequently, the new HR management system was implemented slowly as people tended to maintain status quo. Employees were promised that the old system would only be shut down when everyone was aware and able to use the new one.

Opposed to theory X, theory Y presumes that employees are essentially self-motivated, exercise personal control, and are highly ambitious to get things done within the organisation they work for (Lorsch and Morse 99).

The theory holds that employees enjoy their work particularly if it is physically and mentally satisfying. Such employees are great problem solvers. Managers who are inclined to this school of thought believe that people are always ready to accept responsibilities.

They deploy self-control and self-direction to ensure the ability to achieve their organisational duties. Given the opportunities, from the context of theory Y, people have the eagerness to do well (Lorsch and Morse 101).

At HSBC Middle East Limited, people were expected to be eager in terms of utilisation of the new system in increasing the pace of processing their HR-related queries.

Satisfaction that is accompanied by doing well in a given job acts as an enormous source of motivation, which also helps foster employee retention within an organisation.

Considering the roles of theory Y in enhancing motivation of employees, managers have embraced it while theory X has been incredibly challenged since it continues to support management theoretical paradigms, which have been proved to have little impacts on enhancing competitive advantage of an organisation in the modern globalised and sophisticated organisations (Lorsch and Morse 104).

Considering the manner in which HSBC Middle East Limited implemented its change (cutting out the traditional HR management approaches in phases), theory Y can perhaps best reveal and provide reliable evaluation of the organisation’s change efforts.

Four other important theories of organisational change are organisational development, systems theory, social worlds, and complexity theories. Social world theory claims that a change arises in an organisation through negotiation followed by renegotiations among various stakeholders (Amagoh 5).

It insists that an organisation that is implementing change needs to consider parties that are deploying the change indicators and the functions for which the indicators seek to accomplish.

Tensions always emerge in the evaluation of issues that are necessary to realise the change efforts with necessities for achieving the desired satisfactory quality improvements in the change process.

For instance, in implementing the change at HSBC Middle East Limited, obstructions emerged between the need to balance the increasing demand to have employee queries expedited at a high pace and the need to ensure accurate responses to the queries posed by the employees in real-time.

Organisational development theory emphasises that changes within an organisation must be planned. The leadership in an organisation that is seeking to implement change to drive its competitive advantage must have foreseen the need for change (Spector 52).

This suggests that human processes are essential in the change process. The theory highlights the significance of an agreement between various individual goals with organisational goals. In this context, an organisational culture forms an important medium to facilitate change implementation.

From the paradigms of organisational development, Piderit reckons that a change requires ardent organisational communication, flexibility, and empowerment of the change agents (787).

The organisation’s leader needs to plan the change process by defining the current organisational state and the intended outcomes upon implementation of the change. The theory maintains that people resist change because of some reasons.

Such reasons include the discontent with the change due to the status quo’s capacity to meet their needs, mishandling of the change process by the management, doubts on the possibilities of success of the change, and/or when the change threatens employee jobs so that its costs are higher than the anticipated benefits.

Systems theory reveals that various components of an organisation are interrelated. Change arises due to the need to improve the second component upon improvement of the first one (Piderit 789).

In the determination of the overall implications of change, the theory suggests that it is essential to measure organisational aspects such as infrastructure, resources like human capital and financial capital, technologies, and organisational tasks to determine their relationships.

When these variables are altered, whether singly or in some combinations, organisational change is experienced. HSBC Middle East Limited has been on the forefront in the implementation of computerised financial and customer management systems.

Therefore, to align all other elements to create an organisation that is capable of deploying technology to increase its competitive advantage, it had to implement online web-based HR management systems. This strategy would create coherence in all parts comprising the organisation.

Complexity theory insists on the necessity of measuring the degree of heterogeneity and/or diverseness in an organisation’s environmental factors such as suppliers, employees, technology, and departments, among others (Mason 10).

McKenzie and Kims assert that its aim is to measure the manner in which elements in micro-levels of any complex system influence the resulting behaviours of an organisation together with its effect on macro-levels’ overall outcomes (35).

Increasing complexity of an organisation creates complexities in terms of understanding it and/or deploying the existing information to plan its functional parts.

The complexity translates into a change within the entire system. Mason asserts that according to the theory, increasing organisational complexity renders the adaptation of an organisation to the rapidly changing environment impossible (11).

The theory nullifies ontological theoretical explanation for changes by rejecting the existence of a direct relationship between causality and the effects (Manson 22).

It also claims that instability between components of an organisation causes its evolution so that new relationships are established between internal and external factors of an organisation at a given threshold.

Furthermore, the theory maintains that an organisation that operates within limits that almost reach the instability point generates innovative and creative behaviours at every level of the entire system.

Evaluation of the Change effort using the Systems Model Employees comprise one of the components of HSBC Middle East Limited. They also constitute one of the aspects around which it builds its competitive advantage. Therefore, from systems model, planned altering of the dynamics of this element can also influence other components that are related to it.

In this context, it is assumed that when a rejection of change at HSBC Middle East Limited is mitigated so that employees do not feel threatened by it, speedy expedition of HR issues that are related to employees will lead to happier, more motivated, and committed workforce.

In turn, this situation will result in satisfaction and attraction of new customers so that the owners of the organisation also gain from increased returns on their investments.

Increased profit levels led to higher availability of financial resources that were needed in HSBC Middle East Limited’s projects to benefit the societies. The employees also got better rewards and salaries.

Since employees are happier when their queries, especially on issues that are likely result in higher turnover or low productivity, it implies that they will be satisfied with their jobs. This move ensures better work-life fit. Therefore, their jobs will also be fulfilling even to their family members.

Consequently, all parts of the system will function under perfect linear relationship between employee satisfaction and the planned change. In this extent, employees become an internal factor within HSBC Middle East Limited’s operational environment, which influences all other variables.

Hence, the organisation can rely on it as a steadfast source of competitive advantage due to its capability of manipulating all other components in the desired direction.

The above expositions are based on a hypothetical systems model for evaluating organisational change. However, in practice, as evidenced by the case of HSBC Middle East Limited, while some players in an organisation’s internal environment may embrace change positively, others may oppose it.

For instance, HR personnel whose tasks in an organisation are replaced by online web-based HR management system may be reluctant in making the appropriate decision where human decision loops are required for effectiveness of the system in the expedition of HR-related information.

In this sense, system failure may occur, thus leading to even higher times of responding to employee queries. Fortunately, this instance did not happen due to positive effects of bureaucratic culture in change implementation at HSBC Middle East Limited.

It ensured that compliance was mandatory for all personnel that were involved in the administration and making of various decisions on full-scale implementation of the system.

Positive and Negative Aspects of the Change Effort Change may affect all functional units within an organisation. Mullins states it affects organisational policies, procedures, guidelines, and the rules that are deployed to control the conducts and approaches of stakeholders such as employees, society, and organisational managers among others (751).

These alterations may induce negative or positive impacts on the overall operations of an organisation. While change may increase the performance of some employees, others may have reduced work morale, which leads to low performance.

For instance, at HSBC Middle East Limited, it was anticipated that employees whose roles would be replaced either partially or totally by the online web-based system for collection and subsequent responding to employees HR-related queries would have fear and perceptions of job insecurity upon the implementation of the new system.

However, those whose queries would be addressed in a quicker way, considered the change as an essential aspect.

Change may create parochial self-interest. Different perspectives on change situations may create misconceptions and negative perceptions from various parochial people within an organisation. These perceptions influence the change implementation processes negatively (Mullins, 753).

They create intolerance and misunderstanding between people who embrace the change and those who oppose it. This situation may lead to the emergence of organisational conflicts.

More importantly, people resist change due to the fear of facing the unknown. This implication may result in increased stress, anxiety, fear, and burnout, which may them result in higher turnover.

Although the change may have some negative implications, it is desired since it increases the available knowledge bases, range of products and services, and innovative and creativity levels of organisations. These aspects enable an organisation to operate competitively in a changing business environment (Leigh par.4).

Where change is prompted by technological changes, an organisation acquires the ability to produce its services and products at reduced costs so that it can exploit the low-cost strategy to penetrate deeper in the global markets.

At HSBC Middle East Limited, change was highly desired since employee forms essential components of the organisation in its attempt to achieve global competitive advantage.

The inability to address their HR-related concerns meant that HSBC Middle East Limited risked losing the motivation and dedication of employees, which has been instrumental in its global growth.

Change Implementation After the identification of the necessary changes in organisations that can produce short-term and long- term success, the next step is the implementation of the change. This step is accomplished with the help of a particular theoretical model for change implementation, such as Lewin’s model and Sequential model.

Considering the purpose and the parties that are involved in enhancing change at HSBC Middle East Limited, change will be implemented through Lewin’s model. Spector asserts that the organisational change using Lewin’s model occurs through three main stages, namely unfreezing, moving, and refreezing (29).

In the unfreezing stage, an organisation creates and interrogates whether the current practices (status quo) are appropriate. For HSBC Middle East Limited, the response to this interrogative was a straight no.

Consequently, the organisation progressed to stage two of Lewin’s model, which entails the redesigning and reorganisation of the responsibilities and roles of various stakeholders who are in charge of implementing the changes (Spector 30).

The second stage was achieved successfully through the determination of the mandates of various stakeholders who are charged with enhancing the implementation of the new HR management system. The system led to a reduction of responsibilities of the human resource management personnel under the traditional approach.

To keep them motivated, HSBC Middle East Limited did not consider revising the amounts of rewards offered to them downwards.

Therefore, the third stage in Lewin’s model, namely the alignment of the pay and reward systems with the new responsibilities and roles, is missing for the change adopted by HSBC Middle East Limited.

According to Lewin’s model, in the first stage of change implementation, an organisation also needs to consider “diagnosis of internal barriers to improved performance followed by the promotion of supporters or removal of resistors in the second stage” (Spector 29).

In such an effort, an organisation has to create new structures. This step reveals HSBC Middle East Limited’s success in implementation of the change. It was experienced in structural and hierarchical operational systems in HR management approaches.

Assessing the Effectiveness of the Change Several approaches may help in effective assessment of change. One of such dimensions is the extent to which the adopted change complies with various standard practices together with the existing industry success benchmarks.

Where gaps are identified, possible recommendations for additional changes are incorporated. Evaluation seeks to compare strategies of change with the desired outputs (Piderit 785).

In fact, in any organisational change, apart from people who are influenced by the change in terms of alteration and/or addition of their roles and responsibilities, the parties that gain from the change are also part of the change.

The achieved gains act as indicators of the effectiveness of the change. In the case of HSBC Middle East Limited, this strategy denotes the capacity for employees to have reduced time of forwarding and receiving feedback for any complaint from the HR.

The owners of HSBC Middle East Limited are the chief beneficiaries of the change. The goal of any change is to increase the performance of an organisation from the paradigms of its relevance in adding productivity and delivering value to the organisational stakeholders (Oxtoby, McGuiness, and Morgan 316).

Value here implies adding benefits to shareholders. However, this goal is unrealisable without increasing service demand that is achieved by increasing the value of the service delivered by an organisation to clients.

Hence, the effectiveness of the change at HSBC Middle East Limited can also be accessed from the context of the magnitude of the clientele’s demand following its implementation.

Leadership of the Change Effort Successful implementation of change requires effective leadership. A leader deploys the appropriate actions that can enable employees adapt a given behaviour. In this extent, leaders influence the process of organisational change.

Williams and Seaman claim that a leader should not serve the purpose of imposing new behaviours or directions but energise the change process (445).

Leadership also helps in building commitment to the change strategies together with the translation of the commitments into plans and actual actions that correlate positively with the desired change.

This suggests that, during organisational change, leaders need to have the capacity to articulate and develop clear and concise purpose and set the direction for the organisation, facilitate upward communication, establish emotional bonds between an organisation and the employees, and stretch organisational goals.

The question that emerges is how effectively HSBC Middle East limited adopted these concerns for effective leadership during change.

Evaluation of the Leadership in the Change Effort The respective HR managers in different branches of HSBC Middle East Limited communicated verbally to employees about the change that is being implemented with minimal incorporation of the internet in its communication.

According to Barrett, this approach is useful since leaders need to avoid making an error of equating the volume and speed advantages that are offered by the internet to effective organisational communication (78).

At HSBC Middle East Limited, leaders are the vision careers. Hence, the organisation’s leaders envisioned the change. They were aware that the change might attract emotional responses from various parties who may be affected negatively or those who did not have a clear understanding of its purpose.

Weiberge asserts that leaders are anticipated to have the ability to manage their emotions as the head of organisations so that the emotions do not get out of control irrespective of the challenges that leaders go through while attempting to enhance compliance through influence to their visions (748).

Leaders have total trust of their staff members. They speak kindly and eloquently while at the same time paying attention to the concerns of the people they work with as a team. Besides, they are ease to speak to and have the ability to make well-informed decisions (Weiberge 749).

These aspects were incredibly important in enhancing success in change implementation at HSBC Middle East Limited. In particular, trust was crucial to ensure that employees embraced the new system positively amid the fear of cybersecurity threats.

Change involves organisational transformation. For HSBC Middle East Limited, the transformation was from traditional approaches of addressing employee-related HR queries to a technologically informed approach.

In this context, transformational characteristics of a leader were instrumental in enhancing the success of the adopted change. As a leadership style, transformational leadership has received an incredible attention within the last decade.

Many scholars see it as one of the most essential areas of leadership research (Barbara and Shilpa, 387). This prominence is associated with calls of flexible and adaptive leaders who are able to work in an effective way, especially in a rapidly changing operational environment (Barbara and Shilpa 389).

Considering the importance of transformational leadership in an organisation that operates in a dynamic environment together with the role of communication in leadership during the process of organisational change, the question emerges on the extent to which HSBC Middle East Limited’s leaders portrayed these traits.

Extent to which Leaders displayed the Core Characteristics of Change Leadership Change is accompanied by a misconception about is impacts on various parties (Spector 41). At HSBC Middle East Limited, the head of HR was responsible for ensuring ardent communication of the change process in an effort to clear the misconceptions and misunderstandings.

Communication was deployed as a tool for focusing organisational stakeholders to the change process. In an effort to ensure that the communication made positive impacts, careful planning, management, and taking measures to enhance consistency together with clarity of communication was an important consideration made by the HR.

This move ensured the avoiding of the mistake of concentrating on just delivering messages while neglecting the importance of planning together with the management of communication processes. In this extent, HSBC Middle East limited leaders were effective in communicating, as an essential aspect of change leadership.

As revealed before, HSBC Middle East Limited’s leader sought to clear any misconceptions and misunderstanding about the purposes of change.

This revelation provided avenues for the creation of positive relationships between employees and the organisation so that the change ceased from being a source of threats to the employees. In this extent, the leaders were able to induce high trust in employees for the change to have positive implications.

This strategy was an essential element of organisational transformational characteristics of effective leadership during change. The decision not to review rewards for employees whose roles were replaced by the new system helped to portray emotional leadership qualities.

Summary and Recommendations Organisations that operate in a technologically changing environment need to make repeated changes in their operations.

After implementing various changes in customer management systems and financial systems at the HSBC Middle East Limited, the organisation considered changing its systems for management of its human resource.

The goal was to ensure rapid expedition of employee information, especially in a speedy response to their queries, including payroll, leave attendance, and performance management-related queries.

The culture for HSBC Middle East Limited is informed by the perspective that people account for the most important sources of success in a dynamic operational environment.

Thus, by ensuring rapid service delivery to employees, the change was anticipated to help it acquire better competitive advantage, which was to arise from the increased productivity that is associated with motivated employees.

It is then recommended that in the quest to ensure HSBC Middle East Limited succeeds with implementation of the changes in the long-term, the company also needs to consider keeping the personnel in charge of information management motivated and aligned with the organisational goals and objectives of the change.

This issue needs to be fixed through a revision of reward and remuneration packages for all personnel whose responsibilities and roles in the organisation have increased due to the implementation of the new HR management system.

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McKenzie, Charles, and James Kims. “Aesthetic as an aid to understanding complex systems and decision judgment in operating complex systems”. Emergence: Complexity and Organisations, Special Double Issue 6.2(2004): 32-39. Print.

Mullins, Layman. Management and Organisational behaviour, Pearson Education Limited. New York, NY: Pearson, 2010. Print.

Oxtoby, Bernard, Timothy McGuiness, and Reynold Morgan. “Developing Organisational Change Capability.” European Management Journal 20.3(2002): 310-320. Print.

Piderit, Kingston. “Rethinking Resistance and Recognising Ambivalence: A Multidimensional View of Attitudes toward an Organisational Change.” Academy of Management Review 25.12(2000): 783–794. Print.

Spector, Benson. Implementing Organisational Change: Theory and Practice. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Van de, Ven, and Martins Poole. “Explaining development and change in organisations.” Academy Management Review 40.3(2005): 394-404. Print.

Williams, James, and Erastus Seaman. “Predicting change in management accounting systems: National culture and industry effects.” Accounting, Organisations, and Society 26.5(2001): 443−460. Print.

Zhou, Badad, and Donald Tse. “Organisational changes in emerging economies: drivers and consequences.” Journal of International Business Studies 37.13 (2006): 248-263. Print.


Organ and Blood Donation Problem Solution Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Get more donors through incentives and provide support


Works Cited

Introduction Every day many Americans who require organ transplant strive to get the few available organs such as lungs, hearts, kidneys and other vital lifesaving organs, as well as blood. However, ethical and legal issues, and unwillingness of many potential donors to provide consents have slowed down the rate of organ and blood donation in the county. This essay argues for the need to enhance organ and blood donation to save millions of lives of Americans who require organ transplants.

Get more donors through incentives and provide support It is possible to get more people to donate their organs by addressing legal and ethical concerns of potential donors. More individuals can be encouraged to register as organ donors. It may seem simple to get people to register as organ donors. Improving the rates of deceased donations can increase the number of available lifesaving organs for donation.

These organs are obtained posthumously from individuals who have given their consents for retrieval. In addition, living donors for kidneys, for instance, should also be encouraged to donate their organs to address the shortage. The state or federal government should find ways of providing incentives to potential donors to encourage them to donate their organs to strangers.

That is, potential healthy donors should benefit from their acts of donating their organs to strangers through ethical incentives and not payments. Physicians and patients have noted that the best approach to facilitate organ donation is through encouraging more living organs to take part in the organ and blood donation activities. This approach can help to address the growing shortage.

Incentives from governments to encourage individuals to donate their organs may be in the form of tax credit, support in retirement or other designated forms of assistance people may require. It is imperative to note that potential recipients may wait for nearly five years to get organ transplant from donors. This implies that several people continue to die as they wait for donated organs.

The long wait and the large number of recipients have promoted many experts to support compensation for donors. It is believed that such incentives would encourage many people to donate their organs. One must recognize that trading in human organs is an illegal activity based on the National Organ Transplant Act. While the Act forbids individuals from selling their organs or receiving payments, it does not bar payments associated with the organ donation processes.

Governments can initiate policy changes to increase organ donation, especially from deceased organ donors. Deceased donations should target individuals who die from stroke, accidents and homicide that make people brain dead. While organs and tissues from a single deceased donor can have a significant impact on several recipients, there are no enough deceased donors to meet the growing demands.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, encouraging living donors to participate in organ donation may reduce the long wait. Organ donors get limited support during organ donation processes. However, many experts agree that compensation could be a difficult approach to manage. It is believed that compensations would render the Act useless and slowly turn many potential donors to human organ vendors.

The situation would become complicated because more people would require organs because of chronic diseases that cause organ failure. The altruistic system of organ donation has worked well and, therefore, state and federal governments should encourage it. By addressing ethical and legal concerns, donation processes should address potential adverse effects such as transmission of diseases, costs and complications.

Encouraging open debate on organ donation would ensure that ethical and legal concerns are addressed while the public can scrutinize the process. However, many experts few that offering financial rewards to individuals willing to donate their organs could lead other complications, specifically luring the poor to sell their organs. The objective should be to promote the altruistic system of organ donation.

Effective policies should enhance and facilitate the acts of donating vital human organs as a public good. Hence, the government should invest in processes that facilitate organ acquisition and distribution. In this regard, public health resources should be dedicated to cater for related costs and complications. In addition, public education is necessary to inform the public of the importance and benefits of organ and blood donation.

This strategy would enhance the number of consents obtained and deceased organ donation. It will also facilitate best practices and eliminate ethical concerns of many donors. Organ and blood donations should have core principles and values that define them. Respect, eliminate commodification and wicked incentive and promote equitable systems of organ allocations are vital for donors and recipients.

Conclusion The altruistic system has worked, but it has a major drawback, which is related to the number of few donated organs to meet the needs of potential recipients. Actions and reforms can address the challenge of supply and demand for vital human organs.

Thus, Americans need more voluntary organ donors, focus on possible potential deceased donors and enhance efficiency of organ procurement. In addition, support for donors should be provided to overcome notable limitations while addressing ethical and legal concerns in attempts to increase donated organs through various means.

We will write a custom Essay on Organ and Blood Donation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Cohen, Eric. “Organ Transplantation: Defining the Ethical and Policy Issues”. 2006. Web.

Hippen, Benjamin, Lainie Friedman Ross and Robert M. Sade. “Saving Lives Is More Important Than Abstract Moral Concerns: Financial Incentives Should Be Used to Increase Organ Donation.” Annals of Thoracic Surgery 88.4 (2010): 1053– 1061. Print.

Joralemon, Donald. “Shifting ethics: debating the incentive question in organ transplantation.” Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (2001): 30-35. Print.

Richards, Bernadette and Wendy A Rogers. “Organ donation after cardiac death: legal and ethical justifications for antemortem interventions.” Medical Journal of Australia 187.3 (2007): 168-170. Print.

Sounding Board. “Ethical Incentives – Not Payment – for Organ Donations.” The New England Journal of Medicine 346.25 (2002): 1-4. Print.

Whetstine, Leslie, Kerry Bowman and Laura Hawryluck. “Pro/con ethics debate: is nonheart-beating organ donation ethically acceptable?” Critical Care 6.3 (2002): 192–195. Print


The Concept of the US Two Presidencies Essay best essay help: best essay help

The concept of the US being ruled by two centers of power was introduced by Wildavsky in 1966 (Fleisher, Bond, Krutz, and Hanna 4; Wildavsky 23). The author argued that one presidency was involved in ensuring domestic affairs of the country were maintained as intended.

The other presidency focused on ensuring that the US was maintaining good relations with other nations and the nation reacted in response to external aggression (Wildavsky 23).

I find merit to the idea that the US should adopt a system that is characterized by two executives. One of the executives should focus on domestic policy while the other one should concentrate on foreign policy.

The importance of foreign policy cannot be overstated. The aspect is essential because the US exists within the context of the international community. For example, the country needs to maintain its good relations with the existing trade partners as well as with the aspiring trade partners.

Also, the superpower has to protect its citizens from any form of external aggression that could destabilise the economy of the country. The statements about the need to focus on foreign policy do not underestimate the pivotal impact of domestic policy.

One presidency has to ensure that the internal affairs of the country are running so that it can be on track with regard to economic growth.

The evidence for the need of two presidencies could be traced to the World War II, when it was demonstrated that the presidency had more powers to execute duties with regard to foreign policy than those related to domestic policy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of the presidency during the time of World War II was so essential in protecting the interests of Americans both locally and internationally.

Currently, the president has the power to act in response to terrorist attacks that affect its citizens or other countries across the world. In fact, the presidency can order at any time for the deployment of the US military to the affected areas.

In the recent past, the presidency ordered for the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan, which were regarded as the centers of terrorism across the world. The illustrations reflect the importance of having a presidency with the power to commit resources to foreign missions.

Such powers are vested in the presidency. For example, the power of a Commander –in-Chief gives the president the authority to command the military to invade foreign countries (Wildavsky 28).

The presidency reacted in a swift manner during the attack on South Korea and accumulation of powerful missiles in Cuba. In fact, even the general public expects that the presidency has to act in response to external insecurity issues.

In order to act on domestic matters, the presidency has to win the support of the Congress (Fleisher et al 5; Wildavsky 30).

For example, the presidency could have a bright idea of improving accessibility of healthcare by the US citizens, but such a move cannot be passed without the support of a majority number in the Congress.

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of the US Two Presidencies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the presidency has limited powers to commit resources toward domestic affairs unlike those intended for foreign policy.

In conclusion, there is a need to adopt a governing system that has two presidencies that could have independent powers. One presidency would focus improving domestic policy while the other one would concentrate on ensuring that the US has an excellent platform of foreign policy.

This could be essential in the context of an increasing demand for protection against terrorists and the need to improve domestic policy of the country.

Works Cited: Fleisher, Richard, Jon R. Bond, Glen S. Krutz, and Stephen Hanna. “The demise of the two presidencies.” American Politics Research 28.1 (2000): 3-25. Print.

Wildavsky, Aaron. “The two presidencies.” Society 35.2 (1998): 23-31. Print.


The British and US State-Funded National Projection Essay best college essay help

During the interwar period, the traditional concept of propaganda was changed with the idea of the national projection as an approach representing the state in the international arena in the context of public diplomacy. The lessons of World War I made nations revise their way of looking at cultural propaganda and the role of the national and international image of the state to influence its position in the world.

In this context, it is essential to compare and contrast the approaches of Britain and the United States toward developing their state-funded cultural propaganda or national projection. In spite of the fact that both Britain and the United States revised the approach to propaganda during the interwar period, these countries followed different strategies related to the national projection, and Britain focused more on democratic tools when the United States paid attention to a particular type of isolationism and internal communications.

After World War I, the British authorities concentrated on the idea that the political propaganda had negative consequences, as this practice was rather manipulative in its nature. This opinion was developed during almost two decades. However, in this period, Britain admitted the necessity of creating an international image while allowing foreign nations to know the truth about Britain.

Thus, the national projection as a way to make other countries learn about the nation and its cultural background was rather democratic in its nature because the British authorities rejected the need for using aggressive and manipulative techniques. From this point, the image of Britain should have been based on truth and facts broadcasted with the help of the BBC as the main channel of information.

The use of democratic tools for the state-funded projection meant that the authorities did not use unreasonable or unfair approaches to creating the image of the state during the interwar period. Focuses on the accurate content of the news and on broadcasting, as well as the slight shift in the public policy in contrast to the secret policy, were typical for the early stage of the interwar period.

That was the period of using such democratic tools as the English language teaching and the active cultural propaganda. The goal of the British authorities was to demonstrate advantages of the democratic institutions and principles developing in the state. However, in 1938, the international understanding of Britain was not enough to state the world position and to unite the forces of allies against the developing fascism and its principles.

Thus, politicians and diplomats saw that the used democratic measures typical for Britain in the field of public diplomacy and foreign policy were rather ineffective, and they needed to be strengthened with the focus on promotion of activities of such agencies as the Tourist Association and the British Council. The Tourist Association was one of the essential organizations to promote propaganda as the element of the national projection.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The British Council was used as the useful tool for addressing the problem of fascism in Europe and for developing the cultural propaganda appropriate for the democratic course of the British authorities. The way made by the United States to the development of the pattern of national projection was rather different from the way chosen by the British authorities.

The US leaders had the experience of following a rather aggressive policy of propaganda during World War I, but this pattern was changed during the interwar period. The focus was on more slight measures in order to promote cultural values with the help of such mass-produced goods as broadcasting channels and films.

This strategy was selected as an alternative to the previous aggressive scenario followed by the Committee on Public Information in the country. The United States also began to focus on expanding channels for internal communications while following the strategy of isolationism rather than concentrating on the national projection overseas.

As a result, the scenario of using traditional aggressive ways of propaganda in the international arena was changed with the policy of the cultural propaganda that was oriented to creating particular opinions in Americans, rather than about Americans in other nations. The emphasis was made on strengthening the American’s opinion regarding their power and values.

Still, the patterns of the aggressive and rather hostile propaganda remained influential for the development of the US new approach to the national projection. In order to support the image of the United States, it was necessary to focus more on improving the information policy and on expanding the private agencies for cultural propaganda. As a result, only the most effective instruments of propaganda were selected for the cultural projection.

It is possible to state that the methods used in the United States regarding the propaganda differed significantly from tools used by the British authorities. The reason is states’ orientations. When Britain was discussed as oriented to the national projection and to the creation of the country’s positive image, the United States paid attention to strengthening the internal propaganda while ignoring the oversea propaganda.

On the one hand, both Britain and the United States aimed to respond to the threat of fascism with the help of cultural and political propaganda tools. On the other hand, the followed approaches were different, and they reflected the currents moods of politicians in terms of development of public diplomacy principles.

We will write a custom Essay on The British and US State-Funded National Projection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although the courses of Britain and the United States towards the national projection were different, both states understood the critical role of the media for the effective propaganda. Broadcasting was used as one of the critical tools to inform and persuade the public according to the needs of the concrete nation’s information policy.

During the period of 1935-1938, the media of both Britain and the United States began to present the more aggressive propaganda as the part of the national policies on projection and response to the threats of fascism and totalitarianism. This period was the time when nations began to refer to rearmament ideas and to the extensive black propaganda in spite of patterns and strategies followed previously.

It is important to note that the national projection played the critical role in developing the images of countries in the international arena during the interwar period. However, such states as Britain and the United States followed two different courses while developing their principles of public policy.

If Britain aimed to proclaim the democratic patterns and rules with the focus on the active cultural propaganda, the United States discussed the elements of the political propaganda and internal communications as more effective means. Moreover, the United States realized the principles of the national projection in a less direct way, while ignoring formal propaganda, but proposing mass products as the elements of cultural propaganda widely.


Power Play: Nintendo Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Nintendo’s product enhancement

Pricing and Subcontracting

Atari’s troubles

Rationale behind licensing terms


Introduction Power play is the intense painstaking activities undertaken in order to realize specific laid down objectives. Atari and Nintendo were among the major companies that ventured in home video game system business. Previously, Atari was a major power to reckon with in the industry but was later toppled by Nintendo. This paper is generally about Nintendo’s power play in the video game industry.

Nintendo’s product enhancement Nintendo’s power play of displacing Atari, an earlier entrant in the industry, was by various tactics. The first tactic included by Nintendo in the earlier stages was to advance its product by extracting the performance from the 8-bit processor into an enhanced powerful home machine with superior graphics and fast action.

Secondly, Nintendo’s policy of incorporating security chip among other microchips in the console made sure that only their approved cartridges played on their system. Why? According to my personal view, it was a measure to ensure their cartridges were selling, since Nintendo was also in cartridge manufacturing business.

In addition, insulating its dedicated R


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The DSM-IV-TR defines a PTSD patient as an individual who has either witnessed or experienced a significant event(s) or trauma, serious injury, either to oneself or others, or one who has been faced with threatening near- death experience. The anxiety reaction of an individual with PTSD to trauma is different from the normal anxiety reaction that has the tendency to dissipate (Brodwin et al, 2009), as time goes by.

In the case of PTSD, the patient still continues to experience intrusive, recurrent, and distressing recounts of the actual event in the form of nightmares or flashbacks. The presence of any cues within the immediate environment of such an individual, and which could resemble or symbolize an element of the actual traumatic experience has the potential to arouse in them profound psychological distress.

For clients in need of rehabilitation counseling, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder still remains a leading anxiety disorder that they are more likely to experience. In recent years, PTSD has gained a lot of attention as a result of the high number of the Vietnamese War Veterans who have manifested the symptoms of the condition.

Further attention to the disorder has been called following the recent combats in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The New England Journal of Medicine carried the report of a study that showed the prevalence of PTSD to be 9. 3% (Kolb, 1986, p. 642). For Marines and soldiers deployed to Iraq, and who had encountered between one and two combats.

In addition, for these marines and soldiers who had encountered between there and five combats, the prevalence of PTSD was 12.7 %. Above five combats, the prevalence of PTSD was 19.3% (Lande, Marin


Cultural Bias in Counseling Practices Analytical Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Overview

Potential Sources of Counselor Bias

Successful Treatment Practices

Motivation to Multicultural counseling


Overview Relationship between culture and counseling has attracted attention from many researchers in the recent years. Realization of importance of cultural competence in counseling has led to the concept of multicultural counseling. Though emphasis on cultural competence has improved counseling practices, there is still fundamental cultural bias in various treatment practices used today.

Among other factors, cultural biases result from the fact that most of the counseling practices were created in the context of the dominant Euro-American culture. While the counseling practices may work well with Euro-Americans, they may not be effective with various minority cultural and ethnic groups.

Potential Sources of Counselor Bias Counseling is considered the best intervention to emotional and psychological challenges affecting individuals. Common counseling practices today include person centered counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, group therapy, family therapy and marriage counseling.

Though the approached differs significantly, most of them borrow from early researchers on psychological therapy, such as Carl Rogers (Rogers, 1942). Considering that most early researchers on psychology therapy came from the dominant Euro-American culture, the resultant counseling practices may exhibit cultural bias toward other ethnic and cultural groups.

There are various sources of cultural biases in counseling practices in use today. In one way or the other, the cultural biases are linked to the assumption that counseling would take place in a homogeneous culture. One of the major sources of biases is difference in the definition of normal behavior (Pedersen, 1988). What is considered ‘normal’ behavior differs in one cultural group to the other.

Assuming that normal behavior is the same in all cultural groups can lead to faulty diagnosis and treatment intervention. For instance, what is consider normal behavior to a Mexican American may not be applicable to an Anglo-American of a Black American.

Most of counseling practices emphasis on individualism. Euro-American culture upholds individualism and therefore counseling approaches such as person centered focus on the individual client rather that the social context of the client (Pedersen, 1988).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Counselors tend to focus more on changes on the individual client without considering contribution of other individuals to the healing process. This assumption may lead to negative results in cultural groups such as Hispanic Americans and Asia Americans that value family and social harmony.

Dependence on abstract words and overemphasis on independence of clients lead to cultural biases. According to Pedersen (1988), abstract words used in counseling practice may lose meaning in context of another culture.

Abstraction such as ‘self awareness’, ‘self direction’ and ‘self actualization’ may have different meaning in different cultures. On the other hand, overemphasis on independence of a client is biased against cultural groups have close family links.

Successful Treatment Practices Matching counselors and clients, and multicultural counseling are the major interventions to cultural biases in treatment practices. It is a fact that a client responds better when counseling process is consistent with her cultural values and beliefs. Cultural bias is unlikely to happen when a counselor and a client result from a common culture.

However, scarcity of counselors from minority cultural groups makes it impossible to implement matching successfully. Therefore, multicultural counseling remains the only viable option to overcome cultural bias (Ridley, 2005). Counselors should understand and adjust to cultural value of their clients. They should try to adopt the best counseling approach for their clients.

For instance, when offering counseling intervention to Mexican and Asian Americans, counselors can try to bring in family members to the process. In addition, group therapy rather individual based therapy can be the best approach for handling Hispanic clients.

Motivation to Multicultural counseling A counseling process is considered successful if it helps a client to overcome his or her emotional and psychological problems. To achieve counseling objectives, a counselor must be able to understand the client in her cultural context (Worthington


Ethical Problems in Corruption Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethically-informed decisions

Ethical Breaches

Noble Cause Corruption Responses

Ethically-sound conduct


Reference List

Introduction Allegations of corruption mean different things to different people. Traditionally, has been defined as the use of position or status for personal gain. This could be in the form of an economic or other favors which may include sexual favors, among others (Martinelli


Why did Certain Groups Revolt Against Peter the Great’s Policies? Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Throughout the course of known history, it has always been the case that the implementation of various innovations in particular country’s socio-political, cultural and scientific life, would initially be met with a fierce resistance, on the part of self-proclaimed ‘guardians of tradition’.

Nevertheless, it had always proven to be only the matter of very short time, before such resistance would be subdued. In this paper, we will aim to substantiate the validity of an earlier statement, by reflecting upon the specifics of how Peter the Great went about modernizing Russia through 1689-1725.

Within the matter of few years, after having ascended to Russia’s throne in 1689, Peter had made it clear to Russian boyars (nobles) and to Orthodox Church’s clergymen that struggling with Russia’s social and cultural backwardness represented his life’s foremost priority.

And, Peter’s activities throughout his early tsardom, leave few doubts as to the fact that it was namely the undisputed dominance of Orthodox Church in country’s socio-political life, which he perceived as the actual root of Russia’s backwardness.

For example, in 1692, Peter parodied the functioning of Orthodox Church by establishing a so-called ‘Vseshuteishyi, Vsepyaneishyi I Sumasbrodneishyi Sobor’ (Most Drunken Council of Fools and Jesters) – a carnivalesque mockery of Church’s High Council, which was perceived by Peter’s contemporaries as the clear proof of his sinful-mindedness.

Yet, as many historical studies on the subject matter indicate, there was nothing new about drunken orgies that occurred in times of Peter Sobor’s gatherings – these orgies used to be an essential part of Orthodox clergymen’s lives, just as it was the case with their Catholic counterparts.1

By establishing his Synod of Fools and Jesters, Peter simply exposed Church’s dirty laundry – hence, contributing to the establishment of initial preconditions for Russia’s rapid transformation from essentially a barbaric little principality, to one of the world’s greatest empires.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apparently, Peter was perfectly aware of a simple fact that the concepts of ‘tradition’ and ‘spirituality’ are innately counter-productive, for as long as the process of facilitating cultural progress is being concerned. Being at the time one of Russia’s only few intellectuals, Peter knew well that only science provides people with practically valid answers to life’s dilemmas.

This why, upon having decided to set Russia upon the course of progress, Peter realized that he had no choice but to travel to Europe, in order to study a variety of different sciences, such as shipbuilding, mathematics, philosophy, ethics, etc.

In its turn, this explains why Peter’s ‘Grand Embassy’ to Europe lasted for an year – during the course of this time, Peter and his closest associates never ceased studying and even indulging in physical labor on full-time basis.

It is not by a pure accident that Peter’s contemporaries used to refer to young Russian Tsar as ‘carpenter on the throne’ – so strong was his desire to turn Russia into civilized country that he did not mind working himself to exhaustion at Zaandam and Deptford’s shipbuilding yards as a commoner.2

Nevertheless, whatever the ironically it might sound – it was exactly to due to Peter being endowed with rationale-driven intellect and due to his willingness to work hard, in order to be able to benefit Russia, that the number of Russians began to perceive him as ‘evildoer’.

Given the fact that Orthodox Church have traditionally strived to discourage people from taking an active stance in life, it comes as no surprise that in 17th-18th century’s many Russians seriously believed that material riches should just fall out of sky, for as long as one prays hard enough. This explains why these people considered Peter’s hardworking qualities as the proof of his ‘ungodliness’.

After having returned to Russia in 1698, in order to take care of streltsys’ rebellion, instigated by overly-traditional princess Sophia, Peter had dealt with rebellions rather decisively – eight hundred of them were executed in the center of Moscow, within the a matter of days. The rumors about Peter’s cruelty began to spread throughout the Russia.

We will write a custom Essay on Why did Certain Groups Revolt Against Peter the Great’s Policies? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is not the fact that Peter was a cruel individual with rather short temper, which had won him a strong disfavor with the great number of Russians, while he was on the throne.

The real reason why, throughout Peter’s reign, people continued to revolt against implementation of his progressive innovations, in the fields of national defense, industry, trade, tax system, state administration and education, was their mental primitiveness.

Russian boyars and high-ranking members of Orthodox Church’s clergy were aware of the fact that, if Peter was allowed to proceed with modernizing Russia unopposed, it will only be the matter of short time, before their parasitic mode of existence would end.

It goes without saying, of course, that while articulating their grievances against Peter, these people did not act in intellectually honest matter – instead of admitting that Peter’s reforms simply threatened their bellyful idleness, they wanted to represent these reforms as such that undermined Russia’s ‘spiritual foundations’.

According to Slavophiles, Peter’s reforms caused a great deal of damage to Russia’s natural path of development, as in their eyes, this path was inconsistent with the ways of the West.3

In other words, there was absolutely no rationale behind some traditionally-minded Russians’ unwillingness to accept Peter’s reforms, just as today there is no rationale behind some Muslim immigrants’ refusal to live by Western secular laws, after having relocated to Western countries.

What gives Peter a huge credit is that, even as far back as at the end of 17th century, he had shown the whole world of what represents the best way to deal with intellectually inflexible people’s ‘traditionalist’ prejudices – if they want to proceed with denying the light of civilization, let them be taxed.

There is a famous story of how Peter the Great addressed the issue of Russian boyars refusing to take baths, to wear Western costumes and to shave off their flea-ridden beards. Peter simply issued a decree, according to which, those who wanted to stick to ‘traditional values’ had to pay taxes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why did Certain Groups Revolt Against Peter the Great’s Policies? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bearded Russians were given a few weeks of time to whether find necessary sum of hundred rubles, in order to be able to retain their beards for a lifetime, or to dispose of their beards altogether. Those who could not afford paying that much but still wanted to maintain their barbaric appearance, had a option to pay for keeping their beards on annual and monthly basis.4

As practice showed, Russians’ willingness to pay taxes, in order to be able to retain their beards, did not last for too long, even though initially, ‘traditionalists’ used to threaten Peter with ‘God’s vengeance’ for his ‘unholy’ intention of popularize the notion of personal hygiene among them.

The ‘God’s vengeance’ also did not fall upon Peter, on account of his other ‘unholy’ deeds, such as collecting Church’s bells, and making cannons out of them, adopting Julian calendar, subjecting Church’s authority to the secular authority of the state, creating Russia’s Navy out of nothing, introducing the principle of draft for sustaining Russian Army of 210.000.000 strong at all times, establishing Russia’s first newspaper Vedomosti (News), building the great city of Petersburg as Russia’s new capital, etc.5

Nowadays, some historians suggest that, in order for just about anyone to be able to even partially grasp the extent of Peter’s contribution to the process of building and civilizing Russian Empire, he or she would have to take a stroll along this city’s streets.6

Just as any political figure of a great historical significance, Peter used to be focused on fulfilling long-term objectives, which is why it comes as not a particular surprise that many of his simple-minded contemporaries did not fully appreciate the role he was playing in the history of Russia. Just as Napoleon, Peter the Great believed in secularization and modernization as the only pathways towards building a better society.

Just as Napoleon, he had no choice but simply to crash those who resisted him, due to their intellectual backwardness. And, just as it was the case with Napoleon, who never ceased being perceived as an ideal ruler by famous intellectuals of the era, such as Ludwig van Beethoven and Thomas Jefferson, the legacy of Peter the Great’s never ceased inspiring Russian intellectuals, well after his death.7

For example, Peter’s vision of Russia as a modern European state was shared by such Russia’s renowned scientists as Lomonosov and Tatischev. In their turn, they strived to communicate this vision to Peter’s successors on the throne.8

Thus, just as we have stated earlier, the only reason why certain groups in Russia did revolt against Peter the Great’s policies, is that the representatives of these groups could never appreciate the sheer significance of Peter, as a historical figure. They wanted to continue living in patriarchic society, unaffected by the rapid pace of cultural and scientific progress that was taking place in Europe.

They wanted to continue professing ‘traditional values’ (read – prejudices), as if outside world did not even exist. The closer analysis of these people’s stance, in regards to Peter’s reforms, reveals an undeniable fact that it was namely their religious fanaticism, which added to the strength of their resolution to defy Peter the Great.

For example, after the functioning of Russian Orthodox Church was reformed by Peter’s adoption of Julian calendar, it resulted in creation of so-called Movement of Raskolniks, the affiliates of which would go as far as referring to their Tsar as the ‘Son of Satan’.

Just as today’s Jehovah Witnesses, Raskolnics used to indulge into social withdrawal, in full sense of this word. They refused to pay taxes, to serve in the army, to take part in administering country and to obey even the basic secular laws.9 There used to be whole villages of these fanatics, who would rather burn themselves, then criss-crossing their foreheads with three fingers instead of two, as they were accustomed to.

Thanks to Peter the Great though, these people did not succeed with their agenda of keeping Russia in the state of primeval savagery. Despite the fact that there were very many controversial aspects to Peter’s reforms, the laws of history dialectically predetermined his triumph over the enemies.

References Anemone, Anthony “The Monsters of Peter the Great: The Culture of the St. Petersburg Kunstkamera in the Eighteenth Century.” The Slavic and East European Journal 44.4 (2000): 583-602.

Burbank, Jane


Eye Tracking in Web Usability Studies Essay essay help

Introduction Web usability studies aim to represent how individuals can use websites and determine their effectiveness. In this case, eye tracking is often used as an appropriate research tool to support the usability testing in studies (Lew 2009). The focus on eye tracking is significant to understand the nature of users’ reactions in such forms and dimensions as behaviour, attitude, and attention, as it is noted by Lew (2009):

Behaviour. The researcher’s emphasis is on users’ eye movements and actions.

Attitude. The investigator’s emphasis is on users’ words or opinions regarding the website.

Attention. The researcher’s emphasis is on actual aspects of the site that are interesting for a user because he or she focuses on them.

According to Lew (2009), eye tracking is the most effective tool to study all three mentioned aspects, with the particular focus upon the user’s attention important for investigating by researchers. However, Nielsen and Pernice (2009) state that eye tracking for determining and measuring usability of websites is often an expensive procedure, and researchers try to conduct studies using cheaper means.

Nevertheless, only eye tracking can be most appropriate to analyse all usability problems and errors identified during tests because of focusing on users’ actual attention (Lew 2009).

Eye Tracking Measures Researchers concentrate on two main types of eye tracking measures such as (1) measurements of attraction, and (2) measurements of performance. For the purpose of this research, measurements of attraction need to be discussed in detail.

Measurements of Attraction The data received from using eye tracking is in a form of a heat map that is necessary to understand aspects of users’ fixations on particular features of the web page. Still, to provide effective study results, this heat map should be analysed with the focus on concrete quantitative measures to allow researchers to use study findings actively (Bojko 2012; Bojko 2013; Duchowski 2007).

As a result, Bojko (2012) proposes to refer to such measurements of attraction as Noticeability and Interest and use associated metrics to receive the clear picture.

Noticeability Area Measures

Noticeability means that particular elements of the website can be quickly noticed by the user because of their size, design, and placement (Nielsen


Brecht’s views on Drama Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

In Aristotelian drama, the public left theaters having gone through catharsis. They would relate at personal levels with characters and looked at drama as life. Brecht was so much against this mentality. According to him, drama is a representation of life and not life itself.

The public, therefore, has to only take lessons from plays, but not be involved emotionally. He used drama as a platform to hit at political and social ills in society.

In his play, In the Jungle Cities, he uses characters whose actions are not realistic. Most of their actions cannot be done by people of sound mind.

Shlink, for example, gives up his lumber enterprise as compensation for harassing George Garga. Garga, on his part, is ready to give the same enterprise to a Salvation Army officer on condition that he permits them spit on his face.

Bretcht’s audience, therefore, sees the folly of people through the actions of these idiotic characters and, hence, corrects their own behaviors.

In setting up a stage for Brecht’s play; In the Jungle Cities, It is befitting to set up the stage with sets and props that appropriately emphasize messages of all the characters. At the library, for example, there should be books thrown all over the floor and on shelves. There should also be reading tables and seats for readers.

The books and seats should not necessarily be real but improvised to show the separationist principle supported by Brecht. In scenes 10 and 11, the set to be used should be one that depicts a tent where desperate people live.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the background, the city should be seen from a distance. This setting will help the audience see the consequences of making wrong decisions.

The beginning of every scene should be read out loudly for everyone to hear. This action will help remind the audience that the play is only a representation of life and not life.

In solidarity with Brecht, characters need to be ordinary people. They do not necessarily have to be from noble family backgrounds as in the case of Aristotelian tragedies.

They do not have to act out events with the purpose of eliciting emotions from the public. George Garga, for instance, does not have to seek sympathy from the audience when he volunteers to go to jail for three years, neither does Shlink when he voluntarily chooses to be poor.

George Garga and Shlink will best communicate to the audience if they are dressed in a manner that portrays them as being careless. They should be made to wear ordinary casual costumes.

Throughout the play, they do not care much about themselves. Such dressing will, therefore, best bring out this element. They should then perform their roles in an equally careless manner.

Traditional drama tries to be as true to life as possible. If this play is, therefore, performed in accordance to the dictates of traditional drama, most of the things used and events that happen will have to be coined to match real life as much as possible.

We will write a custom Essay on Brecht’s views on Drama specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The props and sets used will be real ones, characters will faithfully stick to norms of real life and the audience will expect a cathartic effect at the end of the play. According to Brecht, it defeats the essence of drama to watch a play with the purpose of emotional association with characters.


Analysis of the Film “The Iron Lady 2011” Critical Essay cheap essay help

The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical accuracy and academic worthiness of the 2011 film “The Iron Lady”, a British-American movie that attempts to portray the life and political career of Margaret Thatcher, the longest serving and only female prime minister of the United Kingdom.

First, the paper develops a brief but comprehensive summary of the film. Secondly, it provides a detailed critical analysis of the film from a historical perspective. It examines the historical accuracy of the film, including period (era), personality, events and social political aspects.

Finally, a detailed conclusion is made to show that the film is not only historically accurate, but also an important tool for teaching history in modern classes.

Released in 2011, the film “The Iron Lady” revolves around the life and political career of Margaret Thatcher. The title “Iron Lady” is an adaptation of the nickname given to the former prime minister of Britain owing to her strong character, braveness and ability to trounce male political opponents1.

The film was directed by Phyllida Lloyd, produced by Damian Jones and set in the UK and France.

Much of the events are shown in a flashback style because the film is set in 2008 and attempts to show Thatcher’s life before, during and after her rule.

The film begins by depicting the elderly Margaret Thatcher (Meryl Streep) buying milk from a local shop, with a number of other shoppers who seem not to recognize the former prime minister. She is shown walking back to her house alone, much like any other citizen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film then concentrates on the life of Thatcher years after the end of her tenure. It provides evidence of her aging self, the effect of dementia and relationship with other people.

She is depicted the woman who denies the death of her husband Dennis Thatcher. The film makes the audience realize that Thatcher’s memory is fast fading away due to age and dementia.

It is evident that her personality is affected by her former role as a politician and the nation’s leader. For instance, she is unable to differentiate between the present and the past, which indicates that her memory is failing fast2.

Yet, she seems to be neglected by her family, especially her son and daughter. The son, Mark Thatcher, lives away in South Africa, with little contact existing between him and the mother. In addition, her relationship with Carol Thatcher, her daughter, is sometimes strained, making her stay alone most of the times.

The film then uses a flashback style to depict the previous life and career of the former Prime minister. The flashback begins with Lady Thatcher (Alexandra Roach) as a young girl in Grantham, where she is working in the family’s grocery store.

The young woman seems interested in politics, especially her father’s political speeches. It is also evident that the relationship between the young Margaret and her mother is quite poor. The mother is a housewife, a lifestyle that seems less important to the young Thatcher.

In addition, the film shows Margaret’s quest for education as it announces her successful application for Oxford University, one of the most prestigious institutions of higher education at the time.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of the Film “The Iron Lady 2011” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After her education, Margaret has to fight hard to break into the Tory Party and win a seat in the British House of Commons, especially because males dominate the party as well as other political fields3. Among other things, Margaret is surprised by the proposal for marriage that Dennis Thatcher makes.

In addition, she has to fight hard to fit as a “woman” MP and later as a secretary for education following her appointment by Edward Heath, the British Prime Minister between 1970 and 19744. In addition, her close relationship with Airey Neave and campaigns for conservative party leadership is depicted.

Historically, the film ‘The Iron Lady’ revolves around the major events that happened during Thatcher’s time in office. Soon after taking the position, Thatcher has to deal with a number of challenges.

For instance, the rising rate of unemployment in Britain challenges her to take tight measures, including strict monetary policies and a tight budget, which was made in 19815. The film also shows her role in calming rioters in the Brixton protests of 1981 and the miners’ strike of the mid 1980s.

In the subsequent years, her economic policies became effective, with the country enjoying a decade of economic boom. It also shows her attempted assassination in the 1984 bombings at the Grand Hotel.

The film also depicts Thatcher as a strong and determined character during Britain’s conflict with Argentina over the Falklands, which resulted in a war between the two countries. Her leadership led to Britain’s victory and eventual occupation of the disputed Islands.

However, towards the end of the 1980s, the film reveals a number of problems affecting her leadership. Her approach to a number of issues, relationship with her cabinet and response to criticism have changed significantly. She has changed her attitudes towards the public and her officers.

For instance, she rants at the members of her cabinet and refuses to acknowledge that the Community Charge is not good, despite the citizens’ fury reactions. Eventually, Geoffrey Howe, her deputy prime minister, resigns after humiliations in office.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of the Film “The Iron Lady 2011” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Towards the end of the story, she agrees to resign and assumes a low profile. Twenty years later, the film shows the aging Thatcher struggling with her dementia. She seems to have paid a heavy price for her role as a politician and the hard decisions she had made.

It is evident that a big part of the storyline in the film is in line with the actual historical events that took place in Britain, especially during Thatcher’s tenure in the House as well as 10 Downing Street. First, the film shows the young Thatcher developing interest in politics and signs of public life.

The film intended to show that Thatcher, then known as Margaret Roberts, took much from her father. Alfred Roberts, the father, was a grocery owner, preacher and politician.

He was a good public speaker and made several political speeches when Margaret and her sister Muriel were young. Roberts vied for the Granham mayor seat and won in 1945 but lost his alderman position in 19526.

The film also follows the actual story by portraying the young Margaret as an outstanding student. Margaret Roberts achieved excellent grades in history at Huntingtower Road Primary School, eventually wining a scholarship at Kesteven and Grantham High Schools.

Her grades improved in high school, which saw her acquire a scholarship to study chemistry at the Oxford University, where she specialized in X-Ray Crystallography.

Secondly, the film depicts Thatcher’s political and public life. For example, it follows the social events of 1940s and 1950s, when only few women would dare challenge males in almost all political positions.

Margaret was not a dynamic public speaker, yet she gave straight and fearless answers when challenged in the media and political rallies.

In fact, she also attracted the media as the youngest person to vie for the Dartford Member of Parliament in 1951. Although she did not win, she was able to reduce the political might of the labor party by a large margin.

Furthermore, the film highlights the actual economic situation in Britain in 1960s and 1970s, when the ruling Labor Party had been losing its popularity. She was of the opinion that reduced taxation was an important incentive to increase human efforts and commitment to work.

Moreover, she supported the idea of legalizing abortion, criminalization of hare coursing and decriminalization of male homosexuality. However, she supported capital punishment and strict laws on divorce7.

In fact, most of the political meetings, rallies and other debates outside and inside the House of Commons are depicted to be male-dominated, a fact that was supported by the 20th century history of Britain.

When Edward Heath took power in early 1970s, Thatcher’s political career was enhanced because she was successively promoted from one position to another. For instance, she was promoted from a shadow cabinet minister to a full secretary of state for education and science.

After Heath’s term in office ended in 1975, Thatcher became the leader of opposition in parliament. She expressed a fierce critique of the Government’s approach to foreign affairs.

In particular, she was vocal in criticizing the Soviet Union for its policies that were only aimed at challenging Britain, the US and their allies throughout the world. For instance, she gained the title “Iron Lady” when Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star) newspaper criticized her comments on the USSR.

This was reaction to her speech in Kensington Town Hall, where she had accused the Russians for “putting guns ahead of butter” while Britain and her allies were “putting everything before guns”. This scathing attack is also depicted in the film, providing evidence of its reliability as a historical and teaching material.

Perhaps one of the strongest evidence that the film was set on the actual historical events in Britain is the depiction of economic situation of Britain in 1970s, which led to a decreasing popularity of Labor Party and its regime. The economic situation was bad, the country’s economy was lagging and facing possible crisis.

James Callaghan, the Labor Prime Minister, announced that there was no need for a general election, which only increased public fury and popularity of Conservative party. By 1978, the national economy had declined, with inflation rising significantly. The rate of employment was declining and prices were increasing.

These events contributed to the popularity of Thatcher, who was then seen as the most probable candidate for the top seat. In addition, she was seen as the most promising person to provide an alternative leadership, following the long dominance of male prime ministers8.

Britons were looking for a new blood in power. They wanted a government that would provide alternative leadership by addressing social and economic problems. People were willing to see a different person, perhaps even a different gender in power.

Thus, it was not a surprise that Thatcher won the 1979 general elections. The film concentrates on these events, which increases its credit as a material for education and source of historical information.

Nevertheless, the film made some few exaggerations and omissions, which amount to historical inaccuracies. For instance, the film depicts Thatcher saying goodbye to Airey Neave a few minutes before he was assassinated. In fact, it suggests that security officers held her back.

This is not historically correct because Thatcher was not present in Westminster when the event took place. In addition, the film exaggerates the nature of gender imbalance in the House of Commons in 1950s and 1960s. For example, it fails to show that a few other female MPs were present.

Again, this amounts to historical inaccuracy because there were about 19 female MPs during Thatcher’s time as a Conservative MP.

Moreover, it is worth noting that the film erroneously shows Michael Foot, the Labor leader, criticizing Thatcher for authorizing invasion of the Argentinean forces in the Falklands in 1982. In history, Foot was one of the labor MPs who supported the military action against the Argentinean military Junta.

In conclusion, it is evident that most of the storyline in the film “The Iron Lady” attempts to follow the actual life of Margaret Thatcher.

Despite the few exaggerations and omissions developed to increase the entertainment aspect of the story, the film is recommended as a teaching material for history, political science and international relation studies.

Bibliography Campbell, John, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (London: Vintage Books, 2013), 304-369.

Morgan, Kenneth O, Britain since 1945: The People’s Peace (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 423-488.

The Iron Lady, DVD, Directed by Phyllida Lloyd. 2011. London, UK: 20th Century Fox, 2011.

Footnotes 1 The Iron Lady, DVD, directed by Phyllida Lloyd (2011; London, UK: 20th Century Fox, 2011).

2 The Iron Lady, DVD, directed by Phyllida Lloyd (2011; London, UK: 20th Century Fox, 2011).

3 John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (Jonathan Cape, 2013), 324.

4 Campbell, 327

5 Kenneth Morgan, Britain since 1945: The People’s Peace (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 436.

6 Campbell, 336

7 Campbell, 388

8 Campbell, 873


Is Virtue Ethics Dead in Modern Organizations? Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Problem


Virtue Ethics


Outcomes (Benefits)


Problem Taking part in a multi-dimensional dialog, which working in the global economy presupposes, invites the need to reconsider the ethical principles, which the corporate decision-making processes are based on (Belak


Implementation of a Change Programme in a Multinational Company Evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The global business environment is constantly developing and making organisations adapt to these processes while managing change. In this context, the organisational change is a process of changing the company’s direction in the work, strategies, and behaviours in order to address new goals corresponding with the progress of the business environment (Cameron


The EV Products in China Quantitative Research Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Research Rationale

Research Aim

Research Objectives

Research Structure

Reference List

Abstract Purpose. The study is aimed at determining the factors, which Chinese customers are guided by when choosing electric cars, as well as defining an efficient branding strategy for the BMWi product.

Design. The research was carried out as a quantitative study, as the nature of the relations between the key variables required quantification of the research results.

Methodology. The research was conducted as a quantitative analysis of the data acquired in the course of questionnaire answers analysis.

Findings. According to the key outcomes of the study, the main reason for the green policy of BMW in general and the introduction of the BMWi vehicle in particular have been inefficient so far due to the lack of connection built by BMW between the customers and the brand.

Research Limitation. The study was limited in terms of the number of participants, which could be engaged in the survey. Since it was practically impossible to embrace every single social tier, the outcomes of the research turned out to be rather approximate. Herein the key limitation of the study lies.

Practical Implications. The practical significance of the study is defined by the effects, which the information in question will have on the BMW Company. By understanding the motives of the customers, the firm will be able to create a new branding approach for promoting its product successfully.

Keywords. Electric vehicle, environmentalism, BMWi.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction The increased competition rates that can be witnessed in the environment of the global economy in the current age of informational technology define the branding approaches used by companies to a considerable degree. Learning about the brand strategies, which companies resort to in order to cater to the needs of the target denizens of the population allows understanding how customer behaviour can be analyzed and used for promoting the product successfully.

The introduction of BMWi has clearly altered the existing vehicle market. Targeting at a specific tier of the Chinese society, the company had to use a very elaborate branding strategy, which could affect the behaviour of the Chinese customers and alter it, convincing them that electric vehicles (EV) were a better bargain than diesel cars (Steinhilber, Wells,


Yoga for Stress Management Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background to yoga

Stress and its associated health and organizational challenges

Yoga lifestyle and stress management



Introduction Different people have differing levels to which they can effectively withstand stressing environmental conditions. Factors such as personality types, the emotional stability attributes of different people, and personal temperaments may determine this ability (Kumar


Person-centered Approach vs. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature Review

Methods Used in the Studies

The Researchers’ Conclusions



Abstract The person-centered and cognitive-behavioral theories are common models in counseling and psychotherapy. The two approaches have different theoretical underpinnings and thus, have distinct uses in therapy.

Moreover, a number of factors, such as the client’s age and the setting of the therapy, determine their efficacy and application. However, both theories lead an individual through a journey of self-discovery and self-actualization.

This essay compares and contrasts these two models in the context of counseling. It also reviews five articles that evaluate the efficacy and application of these counseling theories in practice.

Introduction Both cognitive-behavioral and person or client-based approaches are useful in counseling and psychotherapy. The cognitive-behavioral theory involves a combination of behavioral and cognitive therapy approaches.

The behavioral theory is founded on Ivan Pavlov’s behavior modification concepts of operant and classical conditioning (Lin, 2001). Behavioral therapists urge their clients to be self-conscious and assertive in order to improve their cognitive abilities, such as critical thinking and decision-making.

The cognitive-behavioral theory, as put forward by Beck (1976), explains how thought processes affect a client’s behavior and emotions.

On the other hand, the person-centered therapy (PCA), as formulated by Carl Rodgers in the 1940s, is an approach that is centered on the needs and values of the client. The approach revolves around the belief that self-actualization is the ultimate goal of a therapeutic relationship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To achieve this, the client has to internalize individual experiences in an honest manner in order to develop a realistic personal image that is devoid of distortions. In this way, the client is able to avoid denial and develop a positive self-concept.

A person-centered counselor knows that a self-actualized individual is better placed to deal with his or her life situation.

The therapist provides a neutral and empathic therapeutic environment that allows the client to share his or her story. The person-centered therapeutic relationship is comparable to a journey of self-discovery for the client.

In contrast, in cognitive-behavioral counseling, the therapist emphasizes on the client’s behavior and mood. This approach revolves around the idea that cognitive processes influence one’s mood and behavior (Lin, 2001).

In this regard, the therapist, unlike in a client-centered setting, challenges some actions of the client, which he or she believes are self-destructive or irrational.

The two theories are effective in different situations. Both models have gained applications in contemporary situations that require individual and group therapy. However, the application and efficacy of either model depends on the age and needs of the client.

This essay will compare and contrast the cognitive-behavioral and the person-centered approaches in the context of counseling. It will analyze the theories underlying the two models through a review of literature.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Person-centered Approach vs. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review The person-centered model provides an empathic and non-judgmental environment to the client to facilitate reflective evaluation of the emotions emerging from his or her life situation.

In a counseling setting, the counselor employs active listening to allow the client to reveal his emotional and personal problems and devise ways of handling them. Its efficacy and application depend on the age and life situation of the client.

A study by Gibbard and Hanley (2008), evaluated the effectiveness of the person-centered model in the counseling of patients with mild mental illnesses. In this study, a therapist offered client-based counseling sessions to participants who were suffering from mood and anxiety disorders.

They were allowed to tell their stories and experiences in a non-judgmental setting free of questioning or criticism. The results indicated that the person-centered approach is quite effective in helping people with mild mental disorders to understand their life experiences and learn to manage their conditions.

It is evident that, by helping a client through a journey of self-discovery and self-actualization, he or she understands his or her current situation and learns to manage personal issues emanating from his or her life experiences.

Thus, the aim in person-centered therapy is to enable the client to ‘unravel’ and internalize personal experiences in order to overcome dysfunctional views or actions.

A comparable study by Tursi and Cochran (2006) evaluated the counseling relationship in a person-centered setting. Essentially, person-centered counseling aims at improving an individual’s self-concept.

A person-centered counselor understands that the client’s feelings and behavior emerge out of the need for self-preservation when under distress.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Person-centered Approach vs. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tursi and Cochran (2006) observe the counseling relationship is enhanced when the counselor provides a “warm and empathic therapeutic setting” that allows the client to control the information related to his or her life. They draw similarities between the person-centered and the cognitive-behavioral counseling.

One of the similarities identified in this study is that both approaches guide clients through a journey of self-actualization. Moreover, both enable clients to improve their thought patterns (cognitions) and self-concept in order to deal with dysfunctional actions or views in their lives.

The authors note that both models recognize the fact that the need to change one’s behaviors or actions emerges from individual insights, not the therapist’s views, or suggestions.

Thus, since the change process involves psychological adjustment to eliminate the perceptual difference between the ‘self’ and ‘life experience’, the person-centered approach draws heavily from the cognitive-behavioral model.

However, the person-centered approach may not be effective in addressing all problems. Some clients, especially children, may find it difficult to talk to a therapist, which can hamper the self-actualization process.

On the other hand, the structured nature of the cognitive-behavioral approach may not be appropriate in some situations, especially where the client’s ‘irrational’ beliefs have no emotional manifestation (feelings).

Unlike the person-centered approach, the cognitive-behavioral model aims at changing the irrational beliefs in a client that cause misbehaviors or disorders to realistic ones. The model challenges some of the client’s actions or views that underlie his or her self-concept issues.

Individual views are largely dependent on cultural and societal factors. In his study, Lin (2001) evaluated the foundations underlying the cognitive-behavioral theory to determine its effectiveness in the counseling of Chinese clients.

The researcher identified the Chinese philosophy (Confucianism), value system (collectivism), self-concept, interpersonal interactions, and socialization as incompatible with the theory’s underpinnings, which are based on Western values (Lin, 2001).

This implies that culture shapes individual behavior, values, and cognitive processes. Since, the cognitive-behavioral approach aims at empowering clients to become more self-assertive and develop a positive self-concept (individualistic), it contradicts the Chinese values of collectivism and Confucianism.

In the Chinese culture, self-assertiveness and public expression of emotions are considered dishonorable (Lin, 20001). Thus, the efficacy and application of the cognitive-behavioral theory in counseling depends on culture.

This means that counselors must identify which elements of the theory may elicit negative emotions from the client and avoid them or use a different model.

The cognitive-behavioral therapy is comparable to the humanistic counseling approach. A study by Shechtman and Pastor (2005) compared the effectiveness of the two models in the counseling of children.

The authors assessed the children’s academic performance and behavior over a specified period using standardized evaluation tools (the client behavior system and the therapist helping skills). They found that the humanistic approach was better than the cognitive-behavioral model in counseling.

They concluded that the structured nature of the cognitive-behavioral model hampers group therapy. Thus, this approach has certain limitations that make it inappropriate in particular settings. Psychotherapy is another common counseling approach that is based on psychoanalysis of the client.

Cognitive-behavioral methods replaced psychoanalytic models that evaluated a client’s emotional and interpersonal attributes as manifestations of their life experiences.

Zamanian and Adams (1997) applied psychotherapy in counseling sexual abuse victims (young children). The results indicated that psychotherapy could help clients develop coping and adaptive skills.

Methods Used in the Studies The five studies reviewed above use different methods to examine specific measures. Three of the studies use an experimental approach to analyze relevant measures (Gibbard


How Biodiversity is Threatened by Human Activity Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Habitat loss: On land

Habitat loss: In the oceans

Habitat loss: Fresh water

Overexploitation on land

Bush meat

Overharvesting in the oceans

Introduced species

Works Cited:

The human species have gone extinct since the beginning of life, but human fingerprint is a useful marker that differentiates current and past extinctions. Environmental factors have been shown to cause human threats with regard to biodiversity (Duffy 440).

Human species are threatened when they come under pressure from different factors in the environment. It has also been shown that some factors act in a synergistic manner to cause combined threats. For example, research was conducted in Ontario to investigate the impact of climate change and acid rain on lakes.

The study found that the two environmental factors acted in a combined way to make water more penetrable by UV. The observation was that the climate change and acid rain removed materials that acted as barriers to UV.

The materials that acted as barriers to UV were identified as organic carbon and other natural products from soils and plants, which protect biological activities of aquatic organisms from the harmful effects of UV (Bradshaw, Sodhi, and Brook 80; Chivian and Bernstein 30).

Habitat loss: On land Human beings have caused varying degrees of changes on the earth’s surface due to their activities. It is expected that the level of habitat destruction will increase by about 70% in the next few decades (Chivian and Bernstein 34). This causes an alarm because habitat for many organisms will be destroyed in the near future.

Human activities have resulted in varying degrees of deforestation, which has resulted in the loss of habitat for many big and small animals. This has also contributed to disturbances of ecosystems.

Some of the human activities that cause deforestation include tree cutting, selective logging, wood harvesting, and forest fires, among others. Most of the deforested areas do not grow back and are left as land with limited capacity to support diversity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the recent past, an increasing number of natural endemics have contributed to significant losses of forest cover on the surface of the earth. It has been asserted that a good understanding of localization of natural endemics will be essential in deciphering recent and future extinctions due to deforestation (Chivian and Bernstein 35).

Habitat loss: In the oceans Although the level of marine biodiversity has not yet been established, it is widely acknowledged that human beings cause significant impacts on the oceans (Duffy 440). It is evident that about 50% of the total world populations live within a distance of about 60 kilometers from the oceans.

Thus, human activities have caused high levels of water pollution and large scale losses of wetland habitat. Most of the marine biodiversity is found in the tropics, especially coral reefs that support the growth of organisms (Bradshaw et al 83).

In fact, coral reefs support the growth of about 100,000 species of organisms in the oceans. Twenty percent of the world’s coral reefs have already been destroyed by humans. Also, 50% of the remaining coral reefs are at risk of collapse due to increasing human activities around the oceans (Chivian and Bernstein 38).

Habitat loss: Fresh water Although rivers and lakes cover about 1% of the earth’s surface, they support a considerable amount of biodiversity. For example, freshwater fishes comprise about a quarter of vertebrates found on the earth. Other organisms found in freshwater are crocodiles, turtles, otters, river dolphins and water shrews, among others.

Most of the freshwater species are found mostly in tropical regions, but this is not a universal observation. The extent to which freshwater biodiversity is being destroyed by humans is greater than that of terrestrial and marine systems.

This could be best explained by the Living Planet Index, which estimated the trends of vertebrates from 1970 to 2000. Among the three categories of indices that were studied, freshwater index fell by 50%.

We will write a custom Essay on How Biodiversity is Threatened by Human Activity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One reason that has contributed to the destruction of freshwater habitat is that the freshwater is an important resource for human activities. For example, it supports human health, production of food, generation of hydropower, economic growth and development.

It is also essential for many cultures and religions across the world. Overfishing, extraction of water for irrigation, construction of massive engineering systems for water storage and alteration of water flows are some of the activities that have caused destruction of freshwater biodiversity (Chivian and Bernstein 39).

Another important threat to freshwater biodiversity is coal mining. After mining, coal is washed in freshwater systems to remove various forms of impurities so that it could fetch better prices in the market. The process of washing leaves a lot of waste in freshwater systems.

Some of the impurities that cause threat to organisms in freshwater systems are mercury, lead and arsenic, which are all heavy metals characterized by high levels of toxicity.

In order to protect freshwater systems from biodiversity destruction, it would be important to control upstream network, the surrounding land and downstream regions (Chivian and Bernstein 40).

Overexploitation on land Overexploitation occurs when organisms are harvested at a rate that they cannot maintain their population numbers. Some of the examples of organisms that have become extinct due to overexploitation are the Great Auk and the Passenger Pigeon.

Some of the plant species that have become extinct as a result of overharvesting are Vinca rosea and Prunus africana. Trade in live animals is another form of overexploitation that resulted in the extinction of some animal species.

In fact, income from the world trade in endangered animal species and plants is over $10 billion on an annual basis (Chivian and Bernstein 43; Duffy 440).

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Biodiversity is Threatened by Human Activity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bush meat The number of nonhuman primates has been on the decrease due to hunting practices that aim at obtaining meat for food from wild animals. Expanding global populations have resulted in high demand for bush meat.

The proliferation of wildlife restaurants across the world will further endanger animal species across the world.

Overharvesting in the oceans Overexploitation in the oceans is caused by overfishing and fishing practices that cause destruction of biodiversity. The threats are caused by activities such as the use of chemicals that poison organisms in the oceans.

The destruction of coral reefs results in the oceans that have limited capacities of supporting life. Thus, biodiversity and ecosystems in oceans are at risk due to human activities. Some of species of fish that have become extinct due to overfishing are Dugongs, Steller’s Sea Cows, Gray Whales and Atlantic Sturgeon (Chivian and Bernstein 44).

Introduced species Some human activities have resulted in the introduction of species into new environments. However, some species could be introduced into new environments by other events that are not related to human activities. The species that are moved into new environments could be a threat to the existing organisms.

Some of the species that have caused destruction of biodiversity in new environments are Soybean Rust, P. pachyrhizi, Aspergillus sydowii, Sturnnus vulgaris, Euglandina rosea, Achitina fulica, and Partula turgid (Chivian and Bernstein 50). In the recent past, invasive alien species have received attention by organizations across the world because they cause more harm to biodiversity than non-invasive species.

Works Cited: Bradshaw, Corey JA, Navjot S. Sodhi, and Barry W. Brook. “Tropical turmoil: a biodiversity tragedy in progress.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7.2 (2008): 79-87. Print.

Chivian, Eric, and Aaron Bernstein, eds. Sustaining life: how human health depends on biodiversity. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 2008. Print.

Duffy, J. Emmett. “Why biodiversity is important to the functioning of real-world ecosystems.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7.8 (2008): 437-444. Print.


Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Male and Female Perspectives Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Sexual harassment is one of the problems that bother populations around the whole world. People cannot control their needs and demands and cannot predict the wishes of other people around, which is why a number of unpredicted and undesirable misunderstandings may take place.

The workplace is the place, where certain rules, obligations, and expectations are considered. People use their degrees to find a good job and start earning money for living. However, the cases of sexual harassment in the workplace can happen, and they have to be analyzed, the majority of them has to be prevented, and some solutions need to be offered.

The current paper aims at discussing, defining, and evaluating the concept of sexual harassment in the workplace from male and female perspectives during different periods of time to comprehend how changeable a human opinion can be.

Definition of sexual harassment in the workplace Sexual harassment in the workplace is usually defined as an unlawful pressure on an employee or “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature” (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d., para. 1).

In fact, the law does not forbid such gestures like teasing or some inappropriate comments, this is why many employers and workers are provided with an opportunity to avoid possible punishment and explain their strange behavior within the frames of law and ethics. Ivancevich (2013) explains sexual harassment in the workplace as a promise of rewards at the expense of some sexual services that have to be offered.

In the USA, there are many cases, when the employers are able to use their power and influence in the way a harassed person is not a victim but a provocative.

Controversy surrounding sexual harassment in the workplace Such inabilities to provide a clear definition of the concept of sexual harassment in the workplace create a number of controversies. People cannot understand when they have to take care of their personality, when a case of sexual harassment can take place, and how they can protect themselves against the powerful employer hard by.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some employees admit that they are eager to use their opportunities to get the desired promotion, some employers say about the weaknesses of their workers, and some workers believe that there is no other way to get a job or not to lose a working place but to follow the demands of their bosses, even if these demands are of sexual nature. All these controversies have reasons, and different centuries introduce different pictures of how men and women understand and treat the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace.

Discussion Sexual harassment in the workplace was identified as a problem of sex discrimination characterized by “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature” in 1964 (McLaughlin, Uggen,


Justification for IT Capital Projects Report (Assessment) college essay help near me

Table of Contents Appropriate Models for Projects

Rationale Why the Models Were Selected

Ranking the Projects According To These Criteria


List of References

Appropriate Models for Projects Projects can be evaluated using a number of models based on the aim of a firm. According to Mian (2011), in many cases, a firm may find itself faced with a situation where it has a number of projects that need to be completed within a short period. In such cases, it becomes necessary to prioritise the available options based on the most pressing needs and resource capacity of the firm.

In this context, the company will need to have a number of models to be sued in prioritising the projects. The first method that this firm can use is the Financial Metrics Model. This model has been very common in the past because it points out the projects that are beyond the financial constraints of a firm.

The IT Portfolio Model is another method that the firm can use to rank the projects. The third method that can be used is the Boston Consulting Group Model. Any of these three models may be appropriate in different contexts based on what a firm is striving to achieve within a specified timeframe.

Rationale Why the Models Were Selected It is important to understand the relevance of choosing the three models to rank the projects provided. Financial Metrics Model has been identified as one of the most appropriate methods that can be used to rank the models. According to Rad and Anantatmula (2005), any project that a firm initiates needs some form of financial resources.

A firm must have its priority right financially when initiating a project. First, an organisation can only fund a project to a given limit within its financial capacity. It means that a project can only be funded if the needed financial resources are available to the firm at that particular moment.

This fact explains why a firm may postpone a good project to a future date when it has the resources to fund it. The second factor that is always considered on any project is the return on investment. Financial Metrics Model emphasises on the need to ensure that the invested funds can be earned back in form of profits within a reasonable time. Sometimes a project’s cost may exceed the expected returns.

Unless the organisation in question is a non-profit making firm, such investments should be avoided at all cost. The firm must be assured that its investment will be recovered within a reasonable timeframe (Laudon


Managerial Economics – A pharmaceutical Company Case Study college application essay help

Every organization faces numerous problems and challenges. Some of them are minor, the others are crucial. Many come as a part of the company’s planning process, and some are brought due to certain new opportunities. Whatever they are, decision-making process lies at the very core.

It is always a delicate balance between a desire to maximize company’s revenue and success and an increased risk to make things worse. Managerial economics ‘largely uses the body of economic concepts and principles’, which can help to make a decision making easier by considering such factors as supply and demand, cost-benefit, market structure, efficiency and others (Atmanand 2009, p. 11).

In this paper, I will describe and analyze according to managerial economics concepts a challenge that an organization I have worked in once faced.

A Challenge Description A pharmaceutical company faces a significant research and development decision (so-called R


Discussion 6 Essay college essay help: college essay help

Answer questions one by one. not in paper form(examples 1. Blank.. 2. Blank )

1. In case #1, what questions do you have about the incident?

2. What went wrong in your opinion.

3. This is a real case that I was involved in. Use your forum to ask questions about the outcomes or issues.

4. What went wrong in case 2?

5. what should have happened?


Overmedication in School-Age Children Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Overmedication

Why School-age Children are Over-medicated

Behaviors that Result in Overmedication in Children

Learning Difficulties that result in Overmedication

Effects of Overmedication in School-age Children

Remedy for Overmedication in School-age Children


Summary of Key Points


Overmedication School-age children are at the risk of being given medication beyond the recommended doses. According to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (2015), the number of school-age children who are given antipsychotics has doubled over the last three years. In fact, it is estimated that more than 25% of teens are taking antipsychotics as prescribed by their health pharmacists.

This could lead to several severe conditions for children, and more specifically the school-age children. The aim of this paper is to identify the reasons for over-medication in school-age children with behavioural and learning issues difficulties.

Why School-age Children are Over-medicated According to Smith (2012), parents, schools, and health practitioners are to blame for the rise of over-medication in school-age children. More often than not, parents do not have the time to look after their children. They are too busy with their jobs, leaving little time for their children. In the event that their children develop signs of ill health, they opt for medications without researching enough or seeking a doctor’s advice (Smith, 2012).

In schools, children are under the pressure to perform better, where failure to perform results in school administrators recommending the student for further education. As a consequence, the children end up consuming more antipsychotics than they can handle. Health professionals have contributed to the increase in the number of medicines that the school-age children use.

Most health practitioners who treat children do not opt for psychological therapy. Rather, they opt for antipsychotics in treating children who are suspected to have mental disorders.

Behaviors that Result in Overmedication in Children Some behaviors result in overmedication in school-age children. One such behavior is the persistent refusal of the child to obey the superiors. When children are growing up, they sometimes develop bad behavior of failing to heed what their parents and other superiors are advising them to do, especially the boys who at some point may disobey their parents due to peer pressure.

The result is that most parents prefer to take such children to a psychiatrist. A psychiatrist is required to conduct reconstructive therapy to the child. However, some fail to do the therapy and end up giving the child antipsychotics (Cortiella


Behavioral Patterns, Trust and Loyalty-Building In China Dissertation essay help: essay help

Findings The data collected using questionnaires stipulated a 99% confidence in the involvement of the participant on online purchasing of clothes and apparels in China. A remarkable outcome indicates that all the interviewees browsed these products online (n=200). In fact, it has been proven that such online browsing on apparels and clothes happen more often during the month.

Responses indicated that more than 50% of the respondents had browsed the internet in search of clothes for at least two times. Only a percentage of lower than 30% had browsed one or less times. In addition, the research found that the frequency of browsing was associated to free-time. Eighty percent of the participant supported the attribute that browsing took place while relaxing at home.

Although lower percentages were recorded when handling other activities such as taking meals and working, the most imperative and outstanding record was during relaxation. It was during such times as while sleeping and after meals which recorded the next count of above 25% each. The correlation between the browsing and purchasing of the Chinese clothes and apparels is somewhat independent.

The purchase of clothes on monthly periods was analyzed as follows.

Figure 1: Proportions of purchasing women’s apparels online in China

The marketing and access of the clothes and apparel is affected by such sites as Weibo, which is a blogging service connecting to Facebook and Twitter. This micro-blogging is followed by companies and sites specializing in fashion delivery by Mogujie. These were the most prevalent sites handling the delivery and marketing of the subject items taking over 30% preference.

The deviation of using apps from mobile devices was low. The respondent maintained mixed interests and equal preference for using computers of mobile apps. In this regard, the record shows that there was about 20% preference and application of mobile devices and their components in browsing or purchasing these products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the issues appearing to cause variations in the purchase of clothing and apparel by online platforms included the price, discount, sales volume, size, styles and designs, user recommendations, product authenticity, changes on the actual order on delivery, delivery tactics, and maintenance of reputation, customer services, policies and requirements of the online stores (Dye 2000).

The respondents (n=200) show that the sales’ volumes are the most relevant aspects attracting attention from Chinese clients (π=10.17, σ= 1.11).

Mean Standard Deviation Price 6.53 1.23 Discount / Offer 7.73 1.33 Sales volume 10.27 1.11 Size 8.37 1.40 Quality 6.05 2.00 Design/Style 4.47 1.14 User recommendation 5.74 1.77 Discrepancy between on line display and actual product 5.93 1.67 Authenticity of product 5.62 2.01 Returns and exchange policies 8.13 1.41 Ambiance of the online store 9.71 1.61 Reputation of the online store 8.72 1.23 Delivery 9.02 1.01 Customer service 8.72 1.21 Table 1: The mean and standard deviation on concerns of purchasing women’s clothing and apparels in China

However, the data shows that there are sufficient grounds showing that all the other aspects affect the way customers make choices and preferences. For instance, it is significantly apparent that the ambiance of online store can raise as much concerns as the sales volume since the value upon deviations sums to 11.32 (π=9.71, σ= 1.61). The significance of the remaining concerns can be argued or determined from the table above.

The purchase of women’s clothing and apparels is triggered by such factors as prices, conveniences of delivery and order, time management and freedom, personalized and accessible products, recommendations and fashion updates, direct purchase from abroad and impacts from advertisements (Indelicato 2013).

The data collected from these fundamental motives assesses whether some factors are more reliable than others on facilitating online purchase of apparels and clothes. The predominant impact is attributes to recommendation from family, friends, and colleagues among others at a personal level. This impact was signified by a mean of 5.97 and a standard deviation of 1.33.

Motives π σ Lower price 4.54 0.97 Easily and conveniently order 3.80 1.56 Ignore opening hours 4.75 1.10 Greater selection 4.66 1.09 Merchandises are delivered to home 4.58 1.12 Recommended by family/friends/colleagues/others 5.97 1.33 Keep up with the newest fashion trend 5.10 1.22 Can order products directly from abroad 5.55 1.21 Attracted by the advertisements on the website 5.37 1.33 Table 2: The mean and standard deviation on motives of purchasing women’s clothing and apparels in China

We will write a custom Dissertation on Behavioral Patterns, Trust and Loyalty-Building In China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The core processes on value have been argued by researchers to include price, quality and timing. They are the most vital factors enhancing customer satisfaction. These attributes are accompanied by efficiency and effectiveness. The online purchase of women’s clothing and apparel realizes products of the highest possible quality at regulated prices and appropriate time in order to satisfy the customers.

Similarly, the distribution and supply of these products need to be ensured in order to elevate customer value. The quality and cost of these products should be regulated to attain high profits due to huge sales. These changes can be implemented by increasing the quantity of apparel and clothing production and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

Furthermore, some core ideologies and needs must be met to reach the main area of innovation lying within the designs of apparel and their quality. The online stores release new clothes with such advantages developed by innovation as flexibility and durability. They appear to be the fashion as online customers have accessible futures to customize their searches in accordance to the prevailing prices.

The data shows coherence in the variation of motives directing purchases of women clothing and apparel. First, it is apparent that 33 respondents were not deviated by the cost of these products rating such motives as 1 in a scale of 9. However, the mixture of this decision has been opened more closely by the deviation of 0.97.

The application online strategies during purchases depicted relevant results prior to the fashion credibility, direct accessibility and impacts from adverts. DeSemir (2010) postulated that the media accords varying attention and coverage to different products depending on their interests, financial benefits, specialization, and knowledge and skills of the marketer, publishers, or media houses.

Kiraithe (2012) further established that since most marketers are owned by business entrepreneurs in different capacities such as companies, partnerships, sole proprietorships and only a small percentage as parastatal organizations, profits drives most of the operations and contents advertised (Lappe 2013).

In order to test whether DeSemir (2010) and Kiraithe (2012) postulations were inherent in the context of China’s online platforms, a score rating ranging between 1 and10 was used on various items. In this regard, a mean score below 5.0 implied that respondents generally disagreed, a score of 5.0 respondents were ambivalent, and a mean score above 5.0 meant that respondents agreed to the proposed statements.

In the table, the results obtained when the respondents were asked to rate extent that they agreed with the statements: when choosing which contents to air, they focused on those that are income generating, educative, and attract audience tastes and preferences.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Behavioral Patterns, Trust and Loyalty-Building In China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More N Minimum Maximum Mean SD Delivery time scales and charges 200 1 10 4.18 3.091 Information on return and exchange policies 200 1 10 4.20 2.528 Multiple images of products 200 1 10 6.54 2.538 Table 3: Media coverage on product pages

Based on the results outputs in the table above, it is clear that the mean score of delivery time scales and charges is 4.18. The data of the return and exchange policies depicted a mean score of 4.20 that does not show any agreement or disagreement. Multiple images of products attracted a mean score of 6.54. Multiple images of products are the major consideration among different media houses in China when determining which content to post.

If many audiences are not affective on space science and technology programs, then media sites will prefer different contents. Conversely, if media can promote information technology programs among different audiences and win their confidence, their tastes and preferences would shift in favor of site-related contents (Jonas 2010). Another consideration amounting to content-airing disparity among different advertisements in China is profits.

Although businesses exist to make profit, online purchases should strike a balance and give back to the society by promoting education programs.

Information π σ Delivery time scales and charges 4.18 3.091 Information on return and exchange policies 4.20 2.528 Multiple images of products 6.54 2.528 Reviews from other shoppers 3.04 2.012 Detailed product information (e.g. material, color, place of origin washing instruction) 2.94 1.982 Product parameter (e.g. time to market, place of origin and brand) 3.57 1.897 Table 4: The mean and standard deviation on the information required on websites

This research dictates that online transaction involving the women’s clothing and apparel is more direct to dresses and tops more than 50% of the participants subscribed to the purchase of these two products. The dresses and tops attained preferences for online purchases from 114 and 111 participants respectively.

Type Coats Dresses Jackets Jeans Jumpsuits Knitwear Pants Shorts Tops Lingerie Activewear Beachwear Sleepwear Other, specify n/200 70 114 22 38 24 39 49 41 111 29 32 24 47 4 Table 5: Frequencies on the types of clothes and apparels required

Furthermore, the purchase of these women’s clothing and apparels is associated to the fashion and its originality. Out of 200 respondents, 119 informed that fashion brand was their core need while making online purchases in China.

However, other factors such as domestic famous, international famous, and luxury brands among others took a descending significance in this order.

Brands Domestic famous brands International famous brands Original fashionable brands Luxury brands Other, specify n/200 81 71 119 22 17 Table 6: The frequencies on brands of clothing and apparels purchased online

In fact, such brands are bought depending on how they have been simplistic to the purchasers. Data indicates that a tally of 132 respondents bid to the idea of purchasing simple clothing and apparels. The highest population of preferences lays on the simple and casual styles of clothing and apparel.

In perspective, a half or even more respondents chose to purchase these products over the internet than others like girly, sexy, elegant, and sweet among other styles. The margin between the two primary styles dominating online purchases and preferences is big while compared to other aspects.

As presented in the literature, trust and loyalty-building over virtual platforms is a technical factor in today’s market. In this regard, clients tend to purchase clothes and apparels from websites that have renowned credibility and reputation. This aspect explains why such websites endorsed and registered by the international trades’ affairs like Taobao rises to be the ultimate preference eventually.

In fact, the data dictates this point without further analysis. The respondent who use Taobao website to purchase women’s clothing and apparel were 136. The other website approaching Taobao was Tmall with 38 preferences out of the same population size of 200. Trust is a fundamental and exceptional attribute when disposing electronic money to sources you may find hard to follow (Earley


The NOL Card Implementation Phase Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free: essay help free

NOL Card Implementation The prevailing technologies and developments have transformed the globe and demanded the establishment of smart payment styles. The United Arabs Emirates is the only country where smart transformation has been implemented.

In a bid to fulfil this, McNabb (2012) argues that the Dubai government has initiated changes in the payment method of the transport industry from the use of cash money to NOL cards through the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA).

In regard to the theories of E and O, the NOL card implementation phase was as discussed below.

Goals The goals of introducing the NOL cards were based on theory O, since they aimed at enlarging the operation and service of the RTA. They were to improve the capabilities of the organisation and transport services.

These goals involved making the transport in Dubai easier to use, enhancing the initiative of establishing a smart city, increasing the usage of public transport, and introducing services with some added value to the commuters (Libo-on 2014).

For instance, a person with the NOL card does not worry about the cash and currency present in the pocket, which makes it easier and convenient for the commuters, especially those picking taxis from the airports.

This transformation was also in line with the vision of Dubai government targeting to change the city in a smart way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership The theories of E and O were applied in the leadership of the initiative to change the transport payment model in Dubai. Therefore, the directions and orders of the transformation came from the government through the relevant agency.

It included the taxi and public transport operators within the lower categories of leadership and engaged them through participation in the transformation. This inclusion of all people indiscriminately showed a collective involvement in the change.

The implementation management of the new NOL cards is under the Roads and Transport Authority, which is the organisation giving an order on the activities to be performed. It provides the meters/devices for installation in the taxis, buses, and transport terminals (‘Roads and Transport Authority’ 2010).

The meters are devices where the NOL cards are swiped to make payments. In the public transport services, the employees and the taxi drivers take part in the implementation by assisting the commuters on using the new technology.

Focus The approach of theory E emphasises on the structures and system as the changes, and it is being administered and used widely by the RTA of Dubai in implementation of the NOL card. This new smart technology facilitated the installation of meters in buses, public transport terminals, and taxis.

There was also a change within the system, since the transformation of the payment method does not force the commuters to attend the bus station and get tickets after paying the fare. Currently, a person pays in the bus or at the terminal when he or she boards the vehicle.

The theory O was also used in the implementation of the smart payment of fare in Dubai. Focus was directed on the culture of the transport sector and the people using the public transport. This change focused on transforming the commuters’ culture of paying fares by cash to the use of NOL cards (Ahmed 2009).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The NOL Card Implementation Phase specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Process The approach of theory E to get a plan for the programme and establish it to enhance the change was used while implementing the transformation in Dubai’s transportation payment method.

It started when the government of UAE planned to transform its cities before 2020, and the Road Transport Authority of Dubai provided the plans to make payments using the new smart technology.

After introducing the plan, this organisation started to establish it through installing wireless meters where the NOL cards were swiped in buses, terminals and taxis.

In this light, the transport agency in conjunction with the RTA chose Network International to be the payment provider where the two organisations were networked.

The systems of RTA had to be connected with banks all over the world so as travellers from any part of the world could use their NOL cards to make payments.

At the beginning of 2014, forty taxi operators were trained to use the new payment system, since 1000 airport taxis were expected to install the system by the summer of 2015 (Libo-on 2014).

Reward System This development came with various ways of rewarding the new technology and its implementers. The two theories were considered in appreciating this transformation, since commitments and financial offers were used as motivational tools in the programme.

The Dubai government declared its commitment in this programme and offered both administrative and financial support to its implementation (McNabb 2012). In this regard, the taxi drivers could be given tips by the other users leading to appreciations of this customised system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The NOL Card Implementation Phase by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consultants The Dubai government had to get consultants to boost effective change of transport payments from the use of cash to NOL cards. Among the consultants were such experts as Network International, which empowered the stakeholders involved in this transformation (‘Roads and Transport Authority’ 2010).

This showed that the theories of E and O were significant in this case.

Challenges The following subtitles assessed some problems that were encountered in the implementation of this change within the transport payment processes.

Prior implementation

One great challenge that faced the transformation was the acquisition of resources needed for the new systems. High-quality wireless meters were needed for installation in the buses and terminals. The equipments were expensive and required a lot of finances to install.

During implementation

Networking data was another major problem when this change was being implemented, since it took a lot of time before the system could be put in use. The data of RTA was to be related to Network International, which was the payment provider of this system.

The transformation faced another challenge when RTA was connecting with banks worldwide. It was noted that some banks were slow, and their numbers caused congestions in the entire process (McNabb 2012).

After Implementation

There were some challenges faced after the transformation when the new payment method was in use. After implementation, some vending machines started to experience technical problems where the NOL cards were used and made them non-operational.

In this regard, commuters were sometimes left stranded at the bus terminals because they could not recharge their NOL cards.

The final challenge was overcharging the commuters. This happened due to the malfunctioning of reading machines used in buses. Sometimes, the NOL cards took a long time to complete the check-out after a person alighted, which made the individual pay an extra fare (Libo-on 2014).

References Ahmed, A 2009, Traffic and Transport. Web.

Libo-on, L 2014, Pay your taxi fare by Nol, debit or credit card. Web.

McNabb, A 2012, Nol Cards and the Future of Money. Web.

‘Roads and Transport Authority’ 2010, Almasar Roads and Transport Authority, vol. 3, p. 4-14.


Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Term Paper essay help

Canada’s growth may be attributed to the service industry that employs two thirds of the country’s population. Its key industries include manufacturing, energy, agriculture, fishing, electricity, forestry, automotive, airspace, social programs, transportation and tourism (Wehinger, 2010 p. 67).

Canada’s economic statistics Its GDP was calculated to be$ 1.839trillion in 2013 Its GDP growth was rated at 2.0% in 2013 Its GDP per capita was calculated to be $ 52,300 in 2012 Its GDP per sectors was as follows: Agriculture 1.7%, industry 28.5% and services 69.8% in 2013 Inflation (CPI) was ranked at 1.2% in 2013 Canada’s population rated to be below poverty line was 9.4% of the total population in 2008 Canada’s Gini coefficient was calculated to be 32.1% in 2005 Its labor force included 18.89 million people in 2012 The country’s labor force by occupation was as follows: Agriculture 2%, manufacturing 13%, construction 6%, services 76%, and other sectors 3% in 2006 Unemployment rates were calculated to be 6.9% in March 2014 Canada’s main industries comprise of transportation, equipments, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood, fish and paper products, petroleum and natural gas. Economic experts ranked the country’s rate of doing business in position 17th globally.

Canada’s major exports and imports According to Landsburg (2010, p.34), “the country’s major exports include industrial machines, motor vehicles and spare parts, aircrafts, telecommunication equipments, chemicals, plastics, fertilizers, wood pulp, timber, crude oil, natural gas, electricity and aluminium”.

The total country export earnings per year are 462.528 billion US dollars (Landsburg, 2010).

According to Landsburg (2010, p.35), “Canada’s major imports comprise of machines and equipments, motor vehicles and spare parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity and durable consumer products”. The importation of these goods costs the country a total of 474.544 billion dollars (Yunker, 2010).

Canada’s major exports and imports have changed over the last decade. The United States featured in first position in importing Canadian commodities at the beginning of the last decade.

Exports of Canadian manufactured commodities to the US declined in 2009. China increased its imports of Canada’s manufactured goods bypassing the US. Countries within the EU also featured as importers of Canada’s manufactured goods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Canada’s major trading partners The country’s main export partners include the United States at 73.2%, the European Union at 4.6%, the United Kingdom at 4.3%, China at 4.3%, Germany at 3.4% and Israel at 3.1% (Thompson, 2012).

Canada’s major trading partners in the importation of products comprise of the United States at 50.6%, China at 11.0%, the United Kingdom at 6.2%, Japan at 6.2%, Mexico at 5.5% and South Korea at 4.5% (Thompson, 2012). China also features as a major trading partner of Canada.

The country features as one of the major importers of Canada’s manufacturing industry. The UK is among the major trading partners of Canada followed by the Netherlands among the EU countries.

Canada’s policy on trade barriers Canada has a number of trade barriers. Canada contains internal trade barriers called interprovincial trade barriers. The barriers contribute to the slow pace of Canada’s economy compared to that of the US. Canada imposes very high tariffs on certain foods like dairy products to encourage the local animal food industry.

Canada imposes tariff rate quotas on other food imports. This aspect leads to high prices of food commodities in the country due to reduced competition. Canada lowers tariffs of imported goods to encourage trade with its neighbors especially the US.

Canada introduced the free trade strategy to encourage trade with the US in the 80s. Canada’s transport policy safeguards the wellbeing of its companies that operate abroad. The Trade Policy Branch enhances Canadian companies’ access to foreign markets.

Canada’s investment regulations Investors in Canada include corporate entities, individual businessmen, countries, organizations and companies. The investors are obliged to follow rules and regulations embedded in Canada’s Investment Act.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The legislation requires the investors to file a notification before they start a new business in the country or when they undertake managerial roles of an already existing one.

Canada imposes strict regulations on the environment because chemicals and diseases can destroy its natural resources. The country’s economy is significantly dependent on natural resources. Canada prohibits goods and services that do not meet its environmental standards.

Trade sanctions Economic barriers may be imposed on a state by another in order to influence policies or compliance. The regulations may also assist in stopping human rights violations especially the use of excessive force on populations by certain countries.

A group of states may impose sanctions on a given country due to violation of human rights and bad governance.

Countries that export commodities to Canada must appropriately label them. This measure helps in the identification of the goods’ country of origin and production companies.

Canada’s other policies include trade barriers, safety regulations and immigration laws.

Canada’s membership in regional trade agreements Canada is a member of several regional trade agreements like the Canada- US Free Trade Agreement that was ratified on 12 October 1987.

The agreement later became the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, and the membership includes Canada, US and Mexico.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other trade ties include Canada – Israel Free Trade Agreement of 1997, Canada- Chile Free trade Agreement of1997 and Canada – Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement of 2000.

Additional economic ties include Canada – European Free Trade Association of 2009 whose other members include Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, Canada – Peru Free Trade Agreement of 2009, and Canada – Colombia Free Trade Agreement of 2008.

Others comprise of Canada – Jordan Free Trade Agreement and Canada – Panama Free Trade Agreement (Philip


Hourani on Middle Eastern History Coursework essay help online free: essay help online free

Albert Hourani’s article addresses the ideas and approaches that historians use to map the history of Middle East. Hourani explained his own points of view about Middle Eastern history during a joint conference by the British and French Societies of Middle Eastern and Arabic history-studies.

The author uses his personal understanding and impressions to articulate his argument. Furthermore, the speaker refers to his vast experience as a Middle-Eastern history scholar. In the talk, Hourani references several 20th century publications on the history of Middle East.

Hourani’s main argument is that several inconsistencies are manifested during the mapping of Middle Eastern history.

This paper explores Hourani’s main ideas on how history scholars should approach Middle Eastern historical studies in order not to make false conclusions or mistakes. The scholar points out the methods of viewing Middle Eastern history he considers inappropriate.

The author begins his talk by noting the influence both British and French colonial administrations have had on the Middle Eastern history. According to Hourani, these two administrations promoted the culture of extensive historical scholarship in Middle East.

Furthermore, Hourani recognizes that the evolution of Middle Eastern history depends on the contributions of various European historians. The speaker states that Middle East is a general term that has several geographical, historical, and religious associations.

For instance, Albert Hourani poses the question whether or not these associations could mean that the Middle East is a single historical and geographical unit. After that Hourani explores this question by referencing publications, which address the origins of Islam and other Arab cultures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The speaker’s main point is that it is erroneous to address the history of a certain geographical region without considering its association and interaction with other regions and cultures.

According to Hourani, it is not possible to consider the history of the geographical area that covers the territory from Nile to Oxus (Middle East) as homogenous. The speaker notes that the history of Middle East is definitely connected to the history of adjacent areas such as northern India and inner Asia.

The most significant, prominent and influential time of Middle Eastern history includes the era of the Ottoman Empire. Historians note that the period between the 15th and 18th centuries stands out as the time of dominance for the Arabic culture and its creativity.

Hourani argues that the influences of both the Ottoman Empire and Islam are pertinent to the Middle Eastern history. The speaker points out that the last congregation of most Middle Eastern countries occurred in the times the Ottoman Empire.

During the Ottoman’s rule, several countries became parts of the Empire. Consequently, the Ottoman Empire unified these regions under Islam. Hourani notes that Islam is the last great force that united the Arabic nations into a monolithic linguistic and cultural unit.

However, the history of Middle East outside of these three elements should not be ignored due to the prominence of Islam. According to Hourani, any historical work that addresses Middle Eastern development must consider the influences of the Ottoman Empire, Islam, and European colonization.

Nevertheless, historians find it difficult to map the history of Middle East in the period between 11th and 15th centuries due to its diversity. Hourani also points out the difficulties of mapping the history of Islam during the last fifty years because most Arabic countries have separated and turned into independent states.

We will write a custom Coursework on Hourani on Middle Eastern History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his talk, Hourani sought to address the different methodologies and strategies that could be used when studying the history of Middle East.

According to the speaker, the influences of Islam and the Ottoman Empire should neither be ignored, nor should they be the limiting factors in the study of Middle Eastern History, as this territory is proved to have undergone multiple various influences and tendencies, causing diverse patterns and processes in its development.


Cross-culture Project Cooperation Proposal essay help online

Focus of the Study Globalisation has opened up borders and brought people from different cultures together. Modern technologies have improved transportation and communication and encouraged expansion of corporations to overseas markets. Economic cooperation between governments has also risen in the globalisation age.

People from different cultures now work together in workplace environments that encourage diversity in relation to “communication styles, values, and cultural norms”1. Moreover, nowadays, firms are increasingly investing in international projects because of the high returns associated with such ventures.

However, a number of constraint factors related to overseas business environments affect international projects. These factors fall into four categories: economic, socio-cultural, political, and technological2.

The proposed research study will focus on how cultural differences affect international project management. The study will examine the place of culture in the management of overseas projects. It will also explore how cultural differences hamper cross-cultural cooperation within organisations.

The teams involved in overseas projects are usually drawn from different cultures. Typically, the team members speak different languages and have dissimilar customs and beliefs. If these differences are not well managed, the employees may fail to work together as a team leading to project failure.

Literature Review Studies in international project management reveal that cultures give rise to different management approaches because people often make decisions based on culturally defined values3. This implies that national cultures shape the behaviours of managers working on international projects.

Schneider and Meyer (2006) describe the effect of cultural differences on organisational performance4. They state that team members find it hard to work in a different cultural environment because of their unfamiliarity with foreign management approaches.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, for a project to be successful, foreign workers must adapt to the host country’s national and organisational cultures5. A failure to recognise and abide by the cultural customs of the host country can impede cooperation and lead to project failure.

Inappropriate management (cultural diversity) practices have also been associated with project failures6. For construction projects, cultural differences affect various stages of the project cycle, including tendering, negotiation, and implementation phases7.

Moreover, cultural differences affect communication and collaboration among team members. Gray and Larson (2003) posit that cultural differences cause language barrier, which impedes effective communication within organisations8.

Additionally, it is difficult to translate a message without it losing its original meaning. Besides language, religious differences can also hamper cooperation.

A study Kirby and Richard (2000) found that employees do not prefer to work on sites perceived to have religious significance to the locals9. Thus, cultural differences have a big influence on site selection for international projects.

On their part, Ling and Hoi (2006) found that international construction firms face a cultural risk when working on overseas projects (in Singapore and India) because of the differences in culture10. They conclude that in order for a project to be successful, the team members must be able to understand the local culture.

However, they note that cooperation may still be a problem even when people speak the same language due to differences in working methods and mindsets among the workers.

We will write a custom Proposal on Cross-culture Project Cooperation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ling and Hoi (2006) recommend that team members should familiarize themselves with the various aspects of the local culture (Indian) before the project commences11.

Kwak (2002) writes that culture, in the context of international project, is a critical success/failure factor12. If project managers are unfamiliar with the cultural diversity within the team, they may assign responsibilities to the wrong groups. As a result, a project may incur additional costs or overrun its schedule.

Moreover, if a project’s objectives do not reflect the culture of the customer(s), it may face stiff opposition leading to its termination. Thus, a project manager should take into account the customs, values, and traditions of the team members from the outset13.

Moreover, he or she must ensure that the project’s objectives reflect the culture of the clients to avoid opposition and possible project rejection.

A survey by Chen, Partington, and Qiang (2009) that involved UK and Chinese project managers establishes that the use of cross-cultural management does not always translate to project success because of the differences that exist between the Chinese and Western management practices14.

In another study, Gunhan and Arditi (2005) explore the factors affecting international project management among US corporations15. The study establishes that cultural differences among the workers increase the risk of project failure.

In contrast, Pheng and Leong (2000) examine the various aspects of cross-cultural collaboration in international projects16.

They establish that factors such as “organisational and national culture and cross-cultural communication, conflict resolution, and negotiation skills” influence international project management17.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross-culture Project Cooperation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on a case study involving Chinese (YRTSB) and American (APC) firms, the authors argue that the Chinese culture (corporate) has a big influence on decision-making. Cultural differences hamper communication, which create misunderstandings between business partners.

Moreover, the absence of cross-culture conflict resolution mechanisms contributes to the failure of joint-venture projects.

In particular, in the case study, the authors find a big difference between the Chinese and American negotiation styles. They conclude that project managers (American) should seek to understand the management style of their partner company (Chinese) in order to work together amicably.

On their part, Chen et al., (2010) explore the project managers’ approaches in cross-cultural team management18. They establish that cross-cultural differences exist between UK and Chinese managers with regard to their management approaches.

While the UK managers focus on safety, their Chinese counterparts are largely driven by commercial interests. Moreover, Ashkanasy, Hartel, and Daus (2002) in their study, establish that, in practice, transferring managerial practices is not possible because of cultural differences19.

In this study, cultural differences were found to hamper cooperation between French and Dutch companies in areas of R


Social Media Analysis for Qatar Airways Evaluation Essay essay help online

Executive Summary Business organizations regardless of the industry are subjected to micro and macro-environmental factors. These factors play key roles in the determination of various operational aspects of any firm.

In this case, Qatar Airways is dedicated to develop a social media, which allows the company to improve its airlines services and general customer communications. The achievement of appropriate social media must involve wide consideration of both internal and external factors of the environment.

Introduction Social media is the most common technological trend of today. Almost everyone have attachment to a social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, and Flickr.

Organizations are not an exemption from the strategy, as they too have adopted the trend to perform some of the basic operations aimed at achieving their goals, which primarily revolve around profit maximization.

The marketing department is in the forefront in utilizing the social media in attracting customers and retaining the ones it has already acquired. Undoubtedly, the use of social media in marketing has been on the rise.

Company/Brand Information Qatar Airways is a competitive company and one of the leading airlines in the world. Qatar Airways first began as a private business for the royal family members in Qatar on 20 January 1994.

According to Akbar Al Baker, the CEO of Qatar Airways, since the inception of the airline company, Qatar Airways have expanded to offer both local and international flights to its passengers in over 120 destinations across the world (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm has deeply set its root in the aviation industry and currently boasts of a large market share. Qatar Airways is dedicated to the highest quality of service delivery to their customer with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and company spirit.

Marketing Mix Marketing mix is an important marketing tool in any industry; it plays an important role in allowing businesses to achieve the much-needed success. These four aspects include product, price, place, and promotion.


Qatar Airways’ main product is air transportation for both passengers and goods; it has a set of product portfolio, which includes a 5-star online travel experience in its website. This has given the company an added advantage in terms of product offering over its close competitors (Qatar Airways, n.d.).


Qatar Airways has been applying market penetration strategy within the markets that it serves through its website; this has enhanced price transparency. The company has been providing its customers with low prices in order to attract and retain more customers and increase its market share.

The company ensures that higher prices maintained through the perceived value that customers get from the service. The company does this through maintenance of high levels of hospitality and customer satisfaction (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Place (Distribution)

Qatar Airways has advanced its services to include online facilities through its own website. The data networking techniques have automated the business processes and have allowed the connection with the customers through the internet.

The travelers are able to book their travel tickets through the company’s website. In addition, customers are able to book their air tickets online for convenience. The airlines have been able to implement comprehensive software, which can support more dynamic pricing (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Social Media Analysis for Qatar Airways specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Promotion

Qatar Airways has been attracting its customers by participating in various activities such as sales promotion, direct marketing, sponsorship, and advertisement.

Qatar Airways has also promoted itself and the products through advertising; it advertises its products and services through media channels such as TV, newspapers, radio, newspapers, magazines and travel magazines.

It advertises its products through some of the leading newspapers such as Gulf News and Khaleej Times (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Industry Information: Category Trends Since the management expects social media to interact with and serve a larger number of consumers both existing and aspiring, it is important that the company develop a strategy, which will help attain this key stratagem.

The airline firm must portray fully the business strategy from the setting to the implementation of the social media. The strategy must work in consideration of the above discussed micro and macro-factors or determinants in order to have vast knowledge of the operational environment (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Competitor information: Emirates airline and Etihad Airways Emirates Airline

Emirates Airlines is ranked among the fastest growing airline companies with quality services in terms of speed and order. This kind of success from the company is built around certain operation policy or cultures.

The company’s operations are guided by superior customer service, well-developed operating strategy and employee loyalty for successful service delivery (Emirates Airline, 2013).

Etihad Airways

Etihad Airways is the second largest airline in the United Arab Emirates airline and ranked fourth in the Middle East, with its headquarters in Abu Dhabi. It operates an extensive domestic and international network providing flights to different destinations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media Analysis for Qatar Airways by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company operates about 1,000 flights weekly; it is one of the largest airlines in terms of market capitalization and the number of employees. For instance, it has market capitalization of $68 billion. In addition, the company has a large market share both in the domestic and international markets.

The company has been using its long-term experience to provide innovative services to its customers. This has enabled the company to have a competitive advantage over its competitors (Etihad Airways Annual Report, 2012).

Target audience Qatar Airways has been recognized as the carrier with excellent customer service products. The target customers are the passengers who travel across the world through its destinations.

Qatar Airways has different sets of customers who include tourist, personal, religious, business, and in-transit passengers who travel to different destinations.

It has mainly focused on both middle and high-class travelers with main target being the people who travel with luxury and high standards of hospitality (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Review and critique of the Current level of Integration When a company improves its brand, it means that its customer base will also increase since good brands attract and retain customers (Davis, 2009).

When marketers understand their customers’ minds and develop their brand around that information, customers will always be supplied with the products they desire; the marketer will need to be ahead of their requirements to continue being relevant to them.

Customers will also be guaranteed privacy since the marketers can access them directly and individually either through emails or confidential messages.

However, the government needs to tighten its privacy acts by ensuring that the social media used by people have complied with its demands and keep monitoring the social media to ensure that the privacy rights of consumers are protected.

SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses -The management of the airline is committed to technology advancement through social media marketing. -The airline is amongst those that make the most profit in the world -The airline boasts of the most attractive crew and cabin. -It targets group audience by either tagging them individually or directing them to the link where the products are available. -The airline is in a region where the deregulation policy is applied and competition is allowed. -Prompt and quality feedback through social media -Advanced upstream technologies staff efficiency -Small number of fleet compared to the like of Emirates and Etihad Airline -Airline services are limited to particular regions of the world – There is limited consumer social-media knowledge. Opportunities Threats -Untapped market in other parts of the world, especially in Africa; -Increased number of travelers in recent days; -Prompt and quality feedback in using new social media applications -Perception of lack of security in using airlines due to attacks by terrorists -New entrants who increase competition and rivalry for the airline -Political situations and regulations must be considered so as to avoid conflicts Recommendations The macro-factors must also be considered since the social media is expected to serve people outside the company. In this case, political situations and regulations must be considered to avoid conflicts.

An appropriate social is must work in accordance with the regulations and stay away from irresponsible political messaging which may dent the image of the company.

When designing this social media the company must bear in mind what other competitors offered to better its presentation and gain an advantage over its competitors.

Finally, it is important to recognize the fact that the social media is being designed with the customer in mind hence customer knowledge of social media is important to determine the structure of the appropriate social media by the company.

Conclusion Qatar Airways has grown a great deal to become one of the leading airlines across the world. It has been ranked as the 2011 and 2012 Airline of the Year through an audit conducted by the Skytrax.

From a humble crop dusting service, the airline has grown to offer both passenger and Cargo services in almost 120 destinations across the world.

References Davis, M. (2009). The Fundamentals of Branding. Lausanne: AVA Academia.

Emirates Airline. (2013). Building a Global Network. Web.

Etihad Airways Annual Report. (2012). Web.

Qatar Airways. Web.


Green Energy Brand Strategy: Chinese E-Car Consumer Behaviour Quantitative Research Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction In data analysis, the study analysed data obtained from 439 participants, who are Chinese E-car consumers. The study employed Microsoft Excel in the analysis of frequencies and the presentation of data in pie charts and bar graphs.

Background Information Do you own an E-car?

Figure 1 is a bar graph showing the distribution of respondents according to the ownership of the E-car. The figure shows that 8.9% of the respondents own E-car and the remaining 91.1% do not own E-car.

Figure 1

Are you interested in purchasing E-car?

Figure 2 is a pie chart displaying the proportion of respondents interested in purchasing E-car as 27.7% and those not interested in purchasing E-car as 73.3%.

Figure 2

When you buy your next car, is E-car one of the options?

Figure 3 below shows that the proportion of respondents who would choose E-car as their next option is 68.6% whereas the proportion of respondents who would not choose E-car as their next car is 31.4%.

Figure 3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The First Hypothesis What time for the E-car charging can you accept?

The respondents provided diverse opinions regarding the charging time of E-car. Out of 439 respondents, 26.2% of respondents indicated that they accept charging period of less than 2 hours and 30.3% of respondents showed that they accept charging period of between 2 and 4 hours.

Moreover, 20.5% of respondents accept charging period of between 4 to 6 hours. The remaining portions of the respondents, 14.1%, 5.5%, and 2.7%, accept charging period of 6-8 hours, 8-10 hours, and more than 10 hours respectively.

Figure 4

What is the shortest mileage for the E-car can you accept?

Figure 5 below indicates the distribution of responses regarding the shortest mileage that E-car can cover. From the figure, it is apparent that most respondents (29.8%) accept E-car that can cover between 201km and 300 km. Respondents who accept short mileages of less than 100 km and between 101 and 200 km constitute 3.4% and 16.9% respectively.

Respondents who require long mileages of 101-200 km, 301-400 km, 401-500 km, and more than 501 km constitute 20.5%, 13.7%, and 15.7% respectively.

Figure 5

What price do you think is suitable for an average mid-range E-car like the BMW i3?

Figure 6 shows that most respondents (35.5%) think that the suitable price range for a mid-range E-car is between £110,000 and £200,000 while 28.9% of the respondents think that the suitable price range for a mid-range E-car is between £210,000 and £300,000.

We will write a custom Essay on Green Energy Brand Strategy: Chinese E-Car Consumer Behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Respondents who think that the suitable price range for a mid-range E-car is less than £100,000 constitute 17.5%. Moreover, 12.5%, 3.4%, and 2.1% of respondents think that the suitable price ranges for a mid-range E-car are £310,000-£400,000, £410,000-£500,000, and more than £500,000 correspondingly.

Figure 6

Brand Personality Which product attribute do you associate with the E-car?

To determine the level of awareness of BMWi3, the study asked the respondents about the attributes they associate with E-car. Figure 7 shows that most respondents (5.59%) selected practical as a tribute associated with E-car followed by 4.12% of respondents who selected stylish as an attribute associated with E-car.

Elegant and environmental friendly attributes received an equal review as both had 2.65% of customers who associated these attributes with E-car. Complicated technology (2.35%), dynamic (2.06%), eco (0.88%), and modern (1.18%) are other product attributes that respondents associated with E-car. However, some respondents (less than 0.3%) associated E-car with negative attributes such as slow, old-fashioned, and not stylish.

Figure 7

Figure 8 below indicates frequencies of positive attributed associated with E-car. Practical is a positive attribute that gained the most frequencies (143). Environmental friendly, dynamic, stylish, and modern attributes ranked second, third, fourth, and fifth with 121, 79, 62, and 61 frequencies respectively. Easy to handle and sportive are attributes that have the lowest frequencies of 37 and 21 respectively.

Figure 8

Figure 9 shows frequencies of negative product attributes associated with E-car. Complicated technology is a negative attribute that has the most frequencies (88) followed by eco attribute (75) and elegant attribute (45). Slow, old-fashioned, and not stylish are three negative attributes with 1, 2, and 5 frequencies respectively.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Green Energy Brand Strategy: Chinese E-Car Consumer Behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 9

Product Associations If you consider the BMWi3 as a status symbol, which attribute do you associate the most with it?

Figure 10 indicates how respondents rated BMWi3 as a status symbol among the Chinese E-car consumers. From the figure, it is apparent that over three-quarters of respondents (76.5%) consider BMWi3 a status symbol for people who have average lifestyles. Moreover, the figure shows that 20.5% and 3% of respondents consider BMWi3 as status symbol for very successful and not successful people respectively.

Figure 10

What personalities can you associate with BMWi3?

The question provided seven options of personalities, namely, creative, funny, extrovert, honest, eccentric, introvert, and dishonest, for the respondents to choose the ones that associate with BMWi3. From Figure 11, it is evident that creative personality has the most frequencies (270) followed by funny personality (125).

Extrovert and honest personalities have frequencies of 100 and 56 respectively. The above personalities are positive personalities that the brand strategy aims to associate with BMWi3. However, respondents associated BMWi3 with negative personalities such as eccentric (56), introvert (36), and dishonest (23).

Figure 11

The Second Hypothesis Which added value of E-car such as BMWi do you perceive?

Table 1

Values of BMWi3 Perceived Importance Not important Important Very important Indispensable Total High degree of safety 155 50 102 116 423 Less environment damage 23 66 83 34 206 No fuels costs 38 53 48 74 213 High degree of comfort 61 94 32 22 209 Good acceleration 50 32 35 43 160 High degree of quality 14 60 41 37 152 Know brand 41 21 23 20 105 Good price/quality ratio 31 48 52 59 190 Great product design 25 14 22 33 94 Total 438 438 438 438 1,752 Figure 12

The figure above (Figure 12) shows that most respondents (35%) perceive the high degree of safety as unimportant added value to BMWi3. The figure also shows that 14%, 11%, 9%, and 9% of respondents rated high degree of comfort, good acceleration, know brand, and no fuels respectively as unimportant added values of BMWi3.

Figure 13

From Figure 14, 21% and 15% of respondents perceive high degree comfort and less environment damage as important added values of BMWi3. Good price/quality ratio and high degree of safety have equal ratings as 11% of respondents perceived them as important.

Figure 14

Most respondents perceive a high degree of safety (23%) and less environment damage (19%) as very important added values of BMWi3 (Figure 15). Moreover, the figure also shows that 12% and 11% of respondents perceive good price/quality ratio and no fuel costs as very important added values.

The figure below (Figure 15) indicates that most respondents (26%) perceive a high degree of safety as indispensable added value of BMWi3. Other added values that respondents perceive as indispensable are no fuel costs (17%), good price/quality ratio (13%), and good acceleration (10%).

Figure 15

The Third Hypothesis Do you have trust in the expertise of BMW, a traditional engineer car manufacturer, in producing E-cars?

From the pie chart (Figure 16), it is apparent that 86% of the respondents trust in the expertise of BMW in producing E-cars while the remaining 14% do not trust in the expertise of BMW in producing E-cars.

Figure 16

Which feelings do you have when you think of the brand BMWi?

From Figure 17, it is apparent that most respondents associate BMWi3 with positive feelings. Fun (14%), curiosity (18%), excitement (9%), liking (14%), trustworthiness (21%), and interest (10%) are all positive feelings that capture the brand strategy of BMW. In contrast, few respondents, namely, lack of interest (1%), unhonesty (3%), confused (2%), and uncertainty (1%), associated BMWi3 with negative feelings.

Figure 17

Do you think the BMWi will be successfully sold in the future?

Figure 18

The pie chart (Figure 18) indicates that 52% of respondents think that BMW would successfully be sold in future whereas 6% think that it would not be sold. Moreover, the figure shows that 42% of respondents are unsure whether BMW would be sold successfully or not.

The Fourth Hypothesis Do you believe that the BMW is honestly interested in reducing CO2 emissions to be environmental friendly?

The pie chart below (Figure 19) indicates that 57% of respondents believe that BMW is really honesty in manufacturing E-car to reduce CO2 emissions while 35% are unsure about the motive of BMWi3. Moreover, 8% of respondents hold that BMW has no intention of reducing CO2.

Figure 19

Which impression do you associate with the BMWi3?

Figure 20 indicates frequencies of impressions associated with the BMWi3. From the table, it is evident that 25.7% of respondents associate BMWi3 with eco-car while 19.4% of respondents associated it with trend. 14.1%, 1.03%, 9.1%, and 6.8% of respondents associated BMWi3 with business, family, sport, and luxury respectively. However, 14.6% of the respondents do not associate BMWi3 with anything.

Figure 20

Discussion Background Information

The background data effectively describe purchasing behaviours of customers because they indicate ownership of E-car, interest in purchasing, and options for their car of choice. According to Creusen (2010), demographic attributes are central to the understanding of consumer behaviours because their ability to purchase certain products.

From the background information, the study infers that 8.9% of the respondents own E-car, 27.7% are interested in purchasing E-car in future, and 68.6% would consider purchasing E-car as their next car. Pavlou and Fygenson (2006) argue that change in consumer behaviour is a gradual process that is dependent on awareness.

Such a trend of increasing percentages indicates that there is an impending shift in the purchasing behaviour from normal cars to E-cars. Increased awareness of environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels has changed consumer attitudes and behaviours of Chinese consumers (Ivan


Environmental Issue – Climate Change Analytical Essay writing essay help

It is unfortunate that mitigation planning is not in progress especially among the industrialized nations. Who will be harmed if the negative impacts of climate change eventually catch up with the human race?

Needless to say, there are those who will be protected against such impacts because their governments are in a position to curtail the effects of climate change. What about the majority of the world population that is living below the poverty line?

It may not be completely impossible to reverse or stop the progress of climate change. If the right measures are put in place, our environment will be regenerated and the continued alterations to the climate will eventually stop (Hardy 62).

Cities such as Cambridge and New York are indeed prepared to reduce greenhouse gas emissions even though such localized measures may not generate the global impact as required.

One of the growing concerns of climate change is the rising sea level. The latter is indeed a serious issue that is yet to be addressed conclusively.

As it stands now, coastlines across the globe are an important part of socio-economic development. Any slight rise in sea level will obviously spell disaster in most land masses bordering major water bodies.

Apparently, social justice especially for the poor segment of the population will never be realized. Why should the rich be given preferential treatment? It is necessary for social justice to prevail at all levels of the society. The poor countries are being negatively impacted by the well developed nations in several ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is unfortunate to learn that the Affordable Care Act is not a universal healthcare plan in the United States. There are some states that are still adamant to allow the poor to access this healthcare plan.

In other words, the Affordable Care Act is not beneficial to the poor people in the United States since they cannot afford to be insured. Whereas healthcare is one of the areas that will be negatively affected by climate change, it is vivid that the poor people will receive the greatest brunt.

Several large nations are inactive when it comes to taking effective mitigation measures. In addition, policy and mitigation planning is not a priority area for the developed world.

As much as these nations have not demonstrated commitment to curb the impacts of climate change, it is prudent to mention that the entire humanity will be affected by the same effects at one time or the other.

It is quite a surprise that the all the international summits on climate change have not generated any positive outcomes as expected. The vulnerable public has been duped with the hope that such summits will eventually address the issue of pollution.

We truly appreciate the incredible role played by industrial revolution towards economic development. We also acknowledge the fact the entire process of industrial production cannot take place without pollution in the immediate environment.

Nonetheless, it is not logical for major emitters of green house gases to completely ignore environmental conservation in the process of production.

We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Issue – Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In any case, instituting mitigation measures does not imply halting the process of production (Pittock 29). Measures such as pollution control at the point of production, lowering the volume of missions and using clean sources of energy can practically curb the negative effects of climate change.

Works Cited Hardy, John. Climate Change: Causes, Effects, and Solutions. West Sussex: John Wiley


Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction This paper will provide a detailed business plan for establishing an agribusiness company. The company will focus on production of organic foodstuffs in the United Arab Emirates. The business plan will shed light on the business idea, the value proposition, and the technology that will be required to operate the business.

A detailed marketing plan that highlights the target customers and the marketing mix will also be discussed. In addition, the business plan will highlight the governance and management structure, as well as, the company’s financial projections.

The Business Idea The business idea is to establish an agribusiness company that focuses on organic agriculture. Organic agriculture refers to “a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people”.1 It focuses on the use of farming techniques that promote sustainability by minimizing negative environmental effects.

The company will focus on producing organic vegetables and fruits in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The vegetables that will be produced include tomatoes, onions, cucumbers, and capsicum. The fruits will include mangoes, oranges, and strawberries.

The choice of Abu Dhabi is based on the fact that it has the largest population in the UAE. Thus, it is likely to have a high demand for organic foodstuffs. In addition, leasing land for farming in Abu Dhabi is cheaper than in other emirates.

Value Proposition Production of organic fruits and vegetables is important due to the following reasons. First, organic fruits and vegetables will improve the health status of the residents of Abu Dhabi and the entire UAE. Lifestyle related diseases such as obesity and cancer are major health problems in the UAE.

In 2013, the rate of obesity in Abu Dhabi was 33%, whereas 13% of the deaths were caused by cancer.2 The high prevalence of obesity and cancer is partly attributed to consumption of processed and inorganic foodstuffs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the residents of the UAE are likely to consume organic fruits and vegetables because they have high nutritional value and insignificant pesticide residue. Moreover, organic vegetables such as tomatoes have high antioxidant capacities, which help in preventing cancer, coronary diseases, and rapid aging.

Second, “organic fruits and vegetables taste better than their inorganic counterparts”.3 Third, producing organic fruits and vegetables in Abu Dhabi will reduce the UAE’s reliance on imported foodstuffs.

Imported fruits and vegetables often have negative health effects since the government has little control over their production. Furthermore, they are often exposed to contamination during transportation. Fourth, establishing an organic farm in Abu Dhabi will reduce the price of fruits and vegetables.

The prices will reduce due to the short distance to the target market, which will minimize operating costs. Finally, production of organic fruits and vegetables will promote sustainable agriculture in the UAE. The company will avoid using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides that often reduce soil quality.

Technical Model Technology

The farm will use greenhouse and drip irrigation technologies to produce various organic fruits and vegetables. A greenhouse is a “structure in which plants are grown under controlled micro-environment”.4

The structure is made of transparent plastic materials, which facilitate controlled penetration of sunlight and reduce evaporation of water. Drip irrigation is a technique of supplying water evenly to all plants in a garden.

The use of greenhouse and drip irrigation technologies will help in conserving water, which is very scarce in Abu Dhabi. They will also lead to high returns on investments by facilitating production throughout the year.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Farming Practices

The vegetables will be produced using organic fertilizers such as compost to prevent accumulation of synthetic chemicals in them. The farm will use pesticides that are manufactured using organic materials to control pests and other disease-causing pathogens.5

This will help in reducing pesticide residues in the fruits and vegetables. Weeds will be controlled using environmentally-generated plant-killing compounds.

In addition, the company will focus on producing different crops on the same piece of land to prevent soil degradation. These techniques will preserve soil quality and minimize accumulation of toxic chemicals in the vegetables.

Feasibility Study

There is adequate farmland in the rural areas of Abu Dhabi since most of the citizens live in the city. In addition, there are adequate roads that connect the farmlands to the markets in urban areas.

Scientific research indicates that the land in Abu Dhabi is very fertile mainly because it has hardly been used for farming. Soil test results show that the soil has the right minerals and nutrients for growing various fruits and vegetables.

Water with the right pH can be obtained from the reservoirs of the Municipality of Abu Dhabi City. However, it is more expensive than water from boreholes due to the pumping and recycling costs.


The costs associated with acquiring the technology and equipment that will be used in the farm are summarized in table 1. The costs are for the first year of operations.

Table 1

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Item Quantity Cost per unit (AED) Total (AED) Land 5 acres 50,000 per year 250,000 Greenhouses 200m x 40m 2 10,758 21,516 250m x 50m 3 13,500 40,500 150m x 60m 2 8,250 16,500 Pesticides 25 liters 230 5,750 Seeds and seedlings Tomatoes 30 kg 150 4,500 Onions 20 kg 124 2,480 Cucumbers 25 kg 85 2,125 Capsicum 25 kg 86 2,150 Oranges 15 kg 156 2,340 Strawberries 10 kg 256 2,560 Mangoes 15 kg 180 2,700 Fertilizer 4,000 kg 5 20,000 Farm equipment 16,000 Consultancy fee 12,000 Labor 50,000 Irrigation 65,000 Distribution 30,650 Marketing 25,000 Total 571,771 Business Model The company will adopt a vertical integration business model.6 The core business activity of the company will be production of various organic fruits and vegetables. The company will be in charge of all farming activities to maintain high product quality standards.

However, it will collaborate with established retailers (supermarkets) to distribute the organic fruits and vegetables. This will involve negotiating for floor space within the supermarkets to sell the products. The company will retain and use its brand name rather than those of the retailers.

The retailers will invest in the business by providing shelf and refrigeration facilities. In addition, they will employ the staff who will be in charge of sales within the stores.

The company, on the other hand, will be responsible for warehousing and transporting the organic fruits and vegetables from the farm to the stores. The retailers will be entitled to 10% of the gross annual sales as their compensation.

The benefit of this business model is that it will enable the company to focus on its core competence, which is production of organic fruits and vegetables. This will enable it to channel its scarce resources towards satisfaction of market needs through process and product innovation.

Furthermore, partnering with established retailers will enable the company to get instant access to a huge customer base at a low cost.

Target Customers The company will use geographic and psychographic segmentation to identify its customers. Geographic segmentation involves identifying customers by dividing the market into various geographical areas.7 The company will focus on serving the UAE market.

Specifically, it will focus on serving the urban populations that live in cities such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi. This segmentation strategy is informed by the fact that most of the retailers who will be distributing the products are based in urban rather than rural areas.

In the urban market, the company will target the working class due to two reasons.

First, the working class is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, which increases the risk of acquiring lifestyle-oriented diseases such as obesity. As a result, they are likely to purchase organic fruits and vegetables to prevent lifestyle-oriented diseases.

Second, the working class has a high disposable income that will facilitate expenditure on organic fruits and vegetables.

Psychographic segmentation involves identifying the target market by taking into account customers’ lifestyles, education, and socio-economic status.8 In this case, the company will target customers who are aware of the health benefits of eating organic fruits and vegetables.

The company will also target customers who are interested in leading a healthy lifestyle. These include people who are already suffering from chronic diseases such as cancer and those who would like to avoid lifestyle-oriented diseases.

Customers who are interested in adopting healthy lifestyles are likely to purchase locally produced vegetables and fruits because they are fresher than imported ones.

In addition, the company will target the affluent who are interested in consuming high quality organic fruits and vegetables to improve their health and to maintain their high social status in the society.

Marketing Plan Market Description

The market for fruits and vegetables in the UAE consists of several products. The market is dominated by inorganic fruits and vegetables. These include imported fruits and vegetables that are produced using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

There are also genetically modified fruits and vegetables in the market. The inorganic and the genetically modified fruits and vegetables are cheaper than their organic counterparts. Most consumers are not able to differentiate between organic and genetically modified fruits and vegetables.9

However, the popularity of organic fruits and vegetables is increasing in urban areas due to health campaigns that promote eating of healthy foodstuffs.

Product Review

The fruits and vegetables that will be sold by the company have two main features. First, their pesticide residue levels will be less than 0.05%.

Second, chemicals will not be used to preserve the fruits and vegetables. They will be made available in the stores within 6 hours after harvesting to maintain the highest level of freshness.

SWOT Analysis of the Products

The main strength of organic fruits and vegetables is that they have a superior quality in terms of taste and nutritional value. Moreover, production of organic fruits and vegetables is a form of corporate social responsibility that promotes conservation of the environment and improvement of public health.

The main weakness of organic fruits and vegetables is that they are very expensive due to the high cost of producing them. Moreover, they have a shorter shelf life than inorganic and genetically modified fruits and vegetables.

The main opportunity that is available to organic fruits and vegetables is that their market is growing rapidly in the UAE due to their health benefits. Moreover, increased regulation of production of genetically modified fruits and vegetables will increase the demand for organic foodstuffs.

The threats facing the products include limited shelf space and high competition. The dominant retailers have their own groceries that stock inorganic foodstuffs rather organic fruits and vegetables. Moreover, the low-income earners opt for inorganic foodstuffs, which have low prices.

Objectives and Issues

In the first year, the first objective will be to gain a market share of 6%. The second objective will be to achieve AED 800,000 in sales. In the second year, the first objective will be to increase market share by 8%. The second objective will be to increase brand awareness by 10%. The last objective will be to increase sales by 16%.

At the launch of the company and its products, the main issue will be to create brand awareness in order to attract customers. The company will utilize its promotional activities to create brand awareness. Another major issue will be to negotiate distribution agreements with retailers who have nationwide branch networks.

Marketing Strategy: Marketing Mix

The fruits and vegetables will be positioned based on the ‘healthy living’ value proposition. This will facilitate differentiation based on nutritional value and health benefits. Marketing initiatives will focus on highlighting the health benefits of organic fruits and vegetables to reinforce the premium positioning strategy.10

The product strategy will focus on using organic inputs to produce the fruits and vegetables. This will ensure that the products have high quality and nutritional value. Additionally, the products will be sold as fresh produce to preserve their natural taste and appeal.

In the first year of market entry, the company will adopt the penetration pricing strategy to gain market share. This will involve selling the products at a low price in order to attract customers. The resulting increase in sales will increase the market share and profits in the long-term.

Distribution will be done by retailers who have nationwide branch networks. The company intends to collaborate with at least two major supermarkets that are interested in operating their groceries in collaboration with an organic foods producer.

Marketing communications initiatives will focus on using print and electronic media to advertise the products. Facebook, Twitter, and Google will be used to create buzz among customers about the brand. The main objective of the advertising campaigns will be to create brand awareness. Public relations will be used to create brand credibility by influencing the public to develop a positive attitude towards organic fruits and vegetables.

Breakeven Analysis

The objective of the business is to breakeven in the fourth quarter of the first year. Assuming a fixed cost of AED 459,205 in the first year, an average variable cost of AED 0.05/ kg, average retail revenue of AED15/ kg, and equal production volume for each product category, breakeven can be calculated as:

This means that the company must sell at least 30,716.05 kilograms of its products in order to breakeven.

Governance and Management Structure The company will operate as a private corporation that will be registered in Abu Dhabi. It will have a hierarchical organizational structure with a few management levels.11 The board will consist of three directors who will be in charge of developing the company’s strategy and supervising the management.

The day-to-day activities of the company will be run by the CEO. The CEO will report to the board of directors. The executive management will consist of the CEO, operations manager, marketing manager, farm manager, and finance manager.

The managers will report to the CEO. The management will be responsible for implementing the company’s strategies and supervising the employees.

Competition and Survival Strategy Main Competitors

There are numerous small-scale producers of organic vegetables and fruits in the UAE. The small-scale producers normally sell directly to customers in their local communities. Al Dahra and Greenheart UAE are the main producers of organic fruits and vegetables in the industry.

Al Dahra has over two decades of experience in the industry and a nationwide distribution network. This makes it the main player in the industry. Apart from local producers, the top 4 largest retailers in the UAE import and distribute a wide range of organic fruits and vegetables.

The retailers include Carrefour, Lulu, Choithram


International Marketing Strategy of Fortescue Metal Group Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Executive Summary The external and internal environment of Fortescue Metal Group has been analyzed in this report. The external environment presents several threats, which include high competition, tariff barriers to foreign market entry, high bargaining power of buyers of iron, and high suppliers’ bargaining power.

The main opportunity that is available to FMG is the expected increase in demand for iron in China and other emerging markets. Moreover, the company has the opportunity to increase its market share because of the low threat of new entrants and substitutes.

FMG’s strengths include access to huge iron ore deposits, extensive railroad networks, and a talented workforce. However, its overdependence on the Chinese market is a threat to its long-term profitability. Overall, the company’s resources and capabilities will improve its long-term success.

Case Study Report: Strategic Management Introduction

Fortescue Metal Group (FMG) is a leading producer of iron in Australia. Since its inception in 2003, the company has achieved rapid growth through cost reduction and expansion of production capacity. The aim of the company is to become the lowest cost producer of iron in Australia (FMG 2014).

This paper will provide a detailed analysis of the internal and the external environment of the company to determine its competitiveness. The aim of the analysis is to identify the internal and external factors that are likely to influence the company’s ability to succeed in the long-term.

External Environment

PESTEL Analysis

International trade policies are the main political factors that influence the performance of firms in the iron industry. Protectionist trade policies such as subsidizing domestic iron producers prevent competition in major markets such as China (Hau, Chatterjee


Structural Family Therapy Case Study college essay help near me

Model Description Among the existing variety of therapies for a family, it is hard to define the most appropriate or the less effective because every family is unique, and its members face different problems and misunderstandings. In the current paper, one of the family therapy models, the structural family therapy by Salvador Minuchin, will be discussed. Its historical background, some facts from the developer’s life, and different aspects of the theory will be analyzed to make the evaluation of the case study within the frames of the chosen model possible.

Historical Background Structural family therapy (SFT) is one of the available models of treatment offered to all members of a family on the basis of the possible structural change and communication within a family. It was developed in the middle of the 1970s by one of the brightest representatives of the Philadelphian Child Guidance Clinic, Salvador Minuchin.

His physician experience in the army in Israel and the work with children in New York helped to understand that personal problems are based on a family and the philosophies inherent to it. The Israel families turned out to be a good example for Minuchin on how a variety of cultures and interests may be gathered in one certain community that has to follow the order and mind the traditions around.

Another historical perspective from Minuchin’s like comes from his childhood. As a son in a Jewish family during the 1920s, who had to live in a unique Argentina, Minuchin faced the necessity to learn different rules and truths and add them to the life of his own (Prochaska


Marketing Management: Hewden Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How Hewden can develop New Marketing Strategies


Reference List


Introduction Hewden is a company that assumed its current trade name in 1999. It serves the building and construction industry through the provision of equipment for hire. It meets the market need for availing equipment that can be too costly to purchase as assets by respective builders and developers.

The clients can appropriate only a small proportion of their revenues and capital expenditure on machinery and equipment to get the service offered by Hewden. On the other hand, Hewden retains the ability to service and lease the equipment to other firms repeatedly. The business has an employee population of almost 900. It is currently serving the construction, infrastructure, industrial, and environmental industries with its range of products.

Its primary service is the convenience service that allows clients to manage their jobs with ease and in a timely way. Consequently, Hewden has achieved its objectives by focusing on employee development, branch network, and being a leader in environmental, health, and safety training.

A case study on Hewden is the basis of this paper’s research and discussion on the findings of competitive positions and marketing approaches by the company. This paper seeks to present a broad analysis of the present situation about the potential for the growth of Hewden in different business perspectives.

The focus includes marketing strategies, marketing segmentation options, and responses to increased competition in the market. Others are issues to do with employee management, brand management, and business growth management. The paper will bring out critical business analysis tools like TOWS matrix and segmentation methods.

It also explores aspects of competitive advantage derived from theoretical concepts of marketing and management, such as the Henry Mintzberg’s five Ps of strategy for dealing with marketing challenges (Mintzberg 2007).

How Hewden can develop New Marketing Strategies The matrix helps a company to formulate a strategy through bringing together and evaluating the strengths and opportunities that are internal and external to the business respectively. It also brings together and evaluates the weaknesses and threats that are external to the company. There are four potential strategies to follow in the matrix; namely, weaknesses and threats (WT), weaknesses and opportunities (WO), strengths and threats (ST) and strengths and opportunities (SO) (Koontz 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the first case of the WT strategy, a company considers its greatest weaknesses and opts to go for a survival strategy. For Hewden, a major weakness is the differentiated culture in its depots. In addressing the weakness, Hewden considers its market environment and the need to focus on customer care. Thus, it can embark on additional training for its workers in all its depots so that they can offer customers consistent levels of quality survive.

As part of the training, the company will also need to consider the aging workforce as a factor (Brunold


Reflective Journal – Week 4 essay help free

Weekly Reflective Journal: Where you will document what you have learned from all the assigned readings, supplementary readings. Do remember the reflective journal is not merely a narrative of work and assignments completed, it should demonstrate that you have thought through individual learning experiences and explain how and what you have learned. Utilize outside sources in your writing. For these weekly reflections, include the following sections: (1) Summarize readings and how relevant they are to your process of writing;


Corporate Governance in Satyam Computer Services LTD Report college essay help

Abstract Satyam Company is a good example of companies that have failed due to fraud and embezzlement of funds by senior officials. Based on the findings from different scholars, the company lacked independent directors, thus giving room for wrongful misappropriation of funds.

Its external auditors also colluded with the directors to defraud the investors. The company had a weak internal control system and in its operations, the promoters held executive position, and thus they had great influence on the company’s decisions.

This essay is prepared based on the requirement of the course as directed by the tutor. This paper seeks to advise the management team of Satyam Ltd. on the best corporate culture to adopt in its administration.

The report is based on the view that the management of Satyam Company has reported at least one incidence involving misappropriation of funds by some irresponsible financial controllers.

Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the company’s corporate governance critically and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of its internal control system before coming up with the necessary recommendations.

The recommendations that will be given at the end of the essay will be based on the provisions of the UK code on corporate governance.

Introduction In the modern world, the scope of corporate governance has changed due to the high number of companies that have failed due to misappropriation of funds. It has been taken to include the accountability concept especially in the accounting department.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The need for sound corporate governance has been perpetuated by the nature of modern businesses, which are run by third parties on the behalf of the shareholders or owners. A number of factors have facilitated the need for improved corporate governance.

Firstly, most businesses today are in the form of companies, which are owned by a great number of shareholders who are scattered, and thus cannot control the affairs of the firms (Varottil, 2010).

Secondly, the shareholders may require professionals to manage their businesses. This aspect creates a principal-agent relationship between the shareholders and the directors of the company.

Therefore, the concept of corporate governance becomes essential since for the shareholders’ interests to be secured there must be a control of the directors’ actions.

This essay therefore seeks to identify the shortfalls in the control system of Satyam Company and advise the company accordingly.

Literature review Corporate governance denotes the way in which firms are managed effectively (Bhasin, 2013). It outlines the rights and obligations of all the interested parties such as the directors, shareholders, and creditors among others.

Corporate governance also outlines the decision-making procedures and explains the role of each stakeholder in the process. It defines the corporate structure of the company clearly by outlining the role that each stakeholder is expected to perform.

We will write a custom Report on Corporate Governance in Satyam Computer Services LTD specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owners of modern businesses employ managers to run the businesses on their behalf (Atesci, Bhagwatwar, Deo, Desouza


Global Decision Making Exploratory Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior

Effective Global Managers


Works Cited

Introduction The modern business environment is characterized by high competition, integration of markets, and changing economic trends. As a result, businesses have embarked on joining international markets to improve their sales and profits.

Companies that have adopted global strategies are increasingly finding it difficult to manage organizational behavior due to the social, cultural, and economic differences in the markets that they serve.

This paper sheds light on the importance of understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior in the process of making global decisions. It will also discuss how managers can be more effective by understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior.

International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior The main international dimensions or aspects of organizational behavior include people, structure, technology, and environment. A clear understanding of these aspects of organizational behavior can help a global manager to make ethical decisions in the following ways.

First, understanding people enables managers to make ethical human resource and stakeholder management decisions. People refer to the individuals or groups of individuals who establish an organization and work to achieve its objectives. Thus, it includes stakeholders such as employees and owners of an organization.

Multinational companies hire employees from different cultural backgrounds. Culture determines the way employees communicate, solve problems, work, and interact with their colleagues.

This means that employees will always interpret the decisions made by their managers according to their cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. A decision that affects employees or any other stakeholder of the organization is considered to be ethical if it respects the culture of the affected parties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, a decision that is considered to be ethical in the US might be perceived to be unethical in Japan. For instance, staff promotions in the US are mainly based on performance. By contrast, seniority is a key determinant of staff promotion decisions in Japan.

Thus, directing an old Japanese employee to report to his younger colleague is likely to be considered as an unethical decision. By contrast, this decision will be considered to be ethical in the US.

In a nutshell, managers must understand and appreciate the norms, beliefs, attitudes, and traditions of the employees and stakeholders that they deal with in each market or country in order to make ethical decisions.

Second, global managers need to understand the organizational structures that are used in various overseas markets in order to make ethical management decisions. Structure provides a formal framework that delineates the relationships among members of the organization.

It also determines the flow of work and communication among employees. Organizational structures vary from region to region. Most western companies such as IBM and Barclays Bank have dynamic organizational structures that facilitate seamless interactions among employees.

Thus, most western companies have few management levels and encourage direct communication between managers and employees. By contrast, Chinese companies use a hierarchical organizational structure in which the company is directed by the top management.

The managers, on the other hand, lead the employees. A clear understanding of the influence of organizational structure on the relationships among employees enables manages to make ethical decisions concerning accountability, communication, and staff involvement.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In western countries where companies use flat organizational structures, managers are considered to be ethical if they consult employees before making important decisions. Managers must recognize that employees have a right to express their views and to hold different opinions.

In countries where companies use hierarchical structures, ethical management decisions ensure that each functional unit is accountable for its performance to promote fairness and high performance.

Third, managers who have a clear understanding of the level of application of technology in various parts of the world are likely to make ethical decisions concerning their operations.

Technology is an important element of organizational behavior since it determines the level of cost-efficiency, product quality, and production capacity. Technology has positive and negative implications for the environment and employees.

Thus, people have different perceptions and attitudes towards technology in various parts of the world. For instance, in African countries where unemployment rate is very high, workers and trade unions resist technologies that replace human labor.

However, companies must still adopt technologies that promote automation in order to reduce costs and to increase their productivity.

Thus, a manager who understands the impact of technology on the society will be able to make decisions that promote the use of production techniques that minimize harm to various stakeholders and maximize benefits to the company.

This perspective is based on the fact that an ethical decision must promote responsibility and fairness. Understanding the effects of technology enables managers to make ethical decisions that encourage the spirit of altruism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, global managers must understand the business environment in which they operate in order to make ethical decisions. The external environment of an organization consists of six major factors. These include political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors.

Undoubtedly, these variables vary from country to country. The effects of the external environmental factors on businesses can only be addressed in an ethical manner if they are clearly understood.

Managers who understand political factors such as industry regulations will be able to make ethical decisions by complying with all reporting and operational requirements.

Similarly, global managers will be able to make ethical decisions concerning their production and marketing strategies if they understand social factors such as citizens’ attitudes and beliefs in various countries.

For instance, an advert that has a picture of a woman is highly accepted in the US and most European countries. However, using a picture of a woman in an advert in Saudi Arabia is considered to be unethical since it contravenes Islamic teachings and the country’s traditions.

In a nutshell, a clear understanding of the business environment enables global managers to make ethical decisions by avoiding to break rules or to engage in activities that undermine established social norms in various countries.

Effective Global Managers An understanding of the international dimensions of organizational behavior can help someone to become a better global manager in the following ways. First, it enables global managers to motivate a multicultural workforce. Motivation is achieved by understanding and fulfilling the needs of employees.

Needs are deficiencies that influence employees to behave in a particular manner to achieve a predetermined outcome. Understanding the organizational and the national culture in a given country, as well as, the external business environment enables global managers to identify employees’ needs.

For example, intrinsic rewards such as staff promotions and recognition are highly regarded in masculine cultures. However, employees from low income countries are likely to be more interested in extrinsic rewards such as bonus pay to improve their purchasing power.

Thus, a global manager will be able to influence employees to behave in a particular way if he is able to understand their needs and to provide appropriate rewards to fulfill them.

Second, understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior improves global managers’ leadership abilities. The contingency theory of leadership postulates that a good leader links his behavior to the situation at hand.

Specifically, the leadership style that a good leader adopts depends on the situation that he is dealing with in terms of business objectives, as well as, employees’ values and skills. For instance, a country where employees value freedom of expression and autonomy, a global manager can be a good leader if he is democratic.

Similarly, a production-oriented leadership style will be appropriate in an organization where employees are high motivated. Thus, a global manager will be effective if he can understand the situation associated with the various elements of organizational behavior and to utilize the appropriate leadership style.

Third, global managers can enhance their communication skills by understanding organizational behavior. Different cultures often use different communication styles. Most western cultures use direct communication styles where people say exactly what they mean.

By contrast, most Asian cultures use indirect communication styles. This means that a global manager who is in charge of a diverse workforce can create confusion and misunderstandings if he uses the wrong communication style.

Global managers can overcome this challenge by taking time to study and understand the interactions among employees, the communication styles used in their organizations, and the role of technology in communication.

Fourth, understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior improves global managers’ ability to manage power and conflict in their organizations. Power refers to “the ability to influence the behavior of others”. The organizational structure is the main source of legitimate power in most companies.

The structure defines the power that is associated with various positions in the company. There are also several forms of power that do not emanate from the organizational structure. Nonetheless, they have immense effects on organizational performance.

These forms of power include expert power, coercive power, and referent power. Misuse of power often results into interpersonal and intergroup conflicts. Conflicts often arise when the organizational structure fails to define the officers who have the right to make decisions in every situation.

For instance, engineers who have expert power often disagree with CEOs who approve projects without their consent. Global managers can prevent conflicts if they understand the sources of power straggles within their organizations. This enables them to distribute power fairly, thereby avoiding conflicts.

Conclusion Given the dynamics of the modern business environment, global managers have to understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior in order to make ethical decisions.

Specifically, understanding organizational behavior enables global managers to make ethical decisions concerning personnel management, stakeholder management, and application of technology.

Moreover, it enables global managers to respond to external factors such as industry regulations in an ethical manner. Global managers can be more effective in leadership, communication, and conflict management if they understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior.

Works Cited Bredeson, Dean. Applied Business Ethics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

Hellriegel, Don and John Slocum. Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Luthans, Fred. Organizational Behavior. London: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.


BlackBerry Ltd Case Study essay help

Synopsis of the Situation The BlackBerry Ltd, formerly known as research in motion, has not been doing well in recent past compared to its competitors. This has been as a result of inappropriate steps taken in the marketing and branding department.

This paper, therefore, analyzes the situation of BlackBerry Ltd in an attempt to identifying the possible problems, which has led to the decline of the company’s share value, as well as recommending possible solutions to the problem.

The recommendations provided do not only help in solving the current problem, but also aim at helping the company do well in future.

Key Issues The mobile phone industry is highly competitive (Grewal and Levy, 2012). BlackBerry Ltd faces stiff competition from other handset manufacturing companies such as apple, which have created a niche in Smartphones.

The competition in this industry requires companies to be on their toes in order to always please their clients, make enough profits and at the same time remain at the top of the competition (Hartley 2014).

BlackBerry Ltd boasts of a large customer base, which has been increasing over the years. According to Moon (2013), the company had approximately 10.5 million by the time the first apple iPhone was released in the market and 21 million customers by the time the first Google Android hit the market.

The author adds that the company had 78 million users worldwide and an active messaging service with about 60 million users by 2012.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, there was a report in 2013, by the media that BlackBerry had lost $1.049 billion (Moon, 2013). The company’s share value was $60 in 2011, but dropped sharply that year and has not risen above $20 since then (Martell and Rocha 2014).

In March 2013, the company recorded a 21% decline in the number of phones that were shipped (Moon 2013). This was the least the company had shipped since 2006. These were attributed to several changes in the company’s strategy to address the competitive hardware environment.

Most of BlackBerry’s loss was as a result of the fast growth of other handset companies like Samsung. In the US alone, BlackBerry’s market share dropped to 3%, down from 9% forcing the company to adopt a $1 billion cost saving program in 2013 (Martell and Rocha 2014).

The company also delayed the release of BlackBerry 10 OS, which was a great disappointment to its consumers (Moon 2013). Since then, the company has made losses in their share value and also lost most of its loyal consumers, leaving behind not too many die-hard followers.

BlackBerry has lost most of its market share to other companies manufacturing similar or better handsets for example the Google supported phones. According to Martell and Rocha 2014, 2013 was a dark year for BlackBerry, faced with a number of challenges.

There was a significant reduction in research and development expenses by 24% and also in the marketing and administration where expenses dropped by 35%. The operating expense reductions are encouraging and the situation could get better in the near future. However, the demand for the product is still very low.

By 2013 December, the company’s market share was less than 1% but rose in early 2014 by 7.1%. There was a drop in hardware revenue from 1.9 million to 1.3 million devices sold during the year. 3.4 Million. Recently, the company was forced to lay-off thousands of its employees to slash costs by 64%.

We will write a custom Case Study on BlackBerry Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has also agreed to sell most of its real estate, especially the ones that do not bring in significant revenue to the company.

The authors also added that the company’s CEO, Mr. Chen, remains optimistic that BlackBerry will have a positive or neutral cash flow by March 2015, but confirms that the company might not record any profits or revenue growth till March 2016.

In March 2014, the company announced that it had decided to target specific customers, the enterprise customers and the prosumers. The company defines prosumers as a group of users that primarily use the device for communication and productivity purposes (Oliveira, 2013).

Applications are not primarily for this consumer. If they use applications, then it is specific ones and for specific purposes. They look for applications that get the job done for them, i.e. they create more content than they consume.

Prosumers are more self-oriented hence they choose more professional or semi-professional device. Enterprise consumers, on the other hand, refers to working business people and as well as the youth.

These are people who access email and need a QWERTY key pad for easy typing and workplace functionality (Dvorak, Vranica and Ante, 2011). These are people who need a phone that works for them.

Marketing Efforts BlackBerry Ltd has made a number of changes in its marketing strategy in an effort to retain its market share.

First, the company has consolidated and centralized the marketing strategies from its outlets across the world to ensure uniformity in marketing strategies hence the clients get the same ideas and services.

Not sure if you can write a paper on BlackBerry Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was also considered a good solution to the client-confusions driven by the different marketing approaches of various BlackBerry outlets.

Second, the company dropped the infamous name Research in Motion in favor of BlackBerry. This name was not known by many people and those who did found the name unappealing. The company believed that its lack of popularity in terms of its name was to blame for the decline in sales.

Third, the company decided not to recycle the names that had been used to brand and market other BlackBerry phones such as bold, curve, touch and tour and instead go for simpler naming such as Z10, Q10 and so on. The company considered the new names easy to remember and associate with.

The company decided it would produce just one BlackBerry brand that would be its stronghold in marketing the entire company. It decided not to take up the marketing and advertising strategies that other companies like apple are engaged in, and concentrate on its name only.

It is only in a few parts of the world that this handset does well, with other handsets dominating the rest of the planet. It would need to clean up the bad name of the company for it to sell its latest products that is the Z10 and Q10 smartphones. (Hartley, 2014)

Fifth, the company decided to focus more on offers to lure more customers. The company has really been putting their efforts into advertising to create awareness of the product to the publics, which is besides those who already know the product.

Lastly, the company has taken advertising to a whole new level of using carriers.

The Problem From the issues presented above, it is clear that BlackBerry Ltd had quite a number of marketing issues. Its handsets have lost most of their worth. They fail to brand their smartphones which is vital in this sector. Hence, marketing its products to strengthen its brand remains key.

Due to lack of proper communication to its clients, the brand has been doing poorly over the years (Cheriton 2013). The company has not put in place proper marketing strategies that will clear the bad name it has presently.

According to Cheriton, the company should not have adopted business-as-usual marketing strategy, but rather damage-control and rebuilding-the-brand kind of marketing. If the handset has to remain in the market, it has to manufacture their product with their clients in mind so that they can deliver exactly what they want.

Though the company has a number of issues, the most crucial one, according to my understanding of the case, is the damaged image of the company and the brands it produces. Many people believe that BlackBerry is for the old, rich businessmen. They think that it has some of the most old fashioned applications and software.

Other people even perceive BlackBerry products to be difficult to use due to its complex nature. All these are misconceptions because many people lack the necessary information regarding the device. They don’t have a reliable source of information to enlighten them on the pros of BlackBerry device.

The company has not put much effort into the campaign to change this negativity and ignorance from people. Many of them rely on word of mouth to know about BlackBerry products and end up getting wrong or insufficient information regarding the device.

I believe this is the most important issue because a product must be positively known by its consumers, whether new or old, for it to do well in the market. The people must have the right information about it including knowledge of the good and possible weaknesses of the product.

The company should always endeavor to counter attack negative news about the device circulating in the market with positive news. A product may not be as great, but it needs to have a positive image for it to sell. This is what the BlackBerry device needs to do.

Alternative Solutions Despite the negative publicity about BlackBerry devices, all is not lost. The company can use the following options to redeem itself.

The first option would be to develop a totally new brand that is not currently available in the market and bring it out to challenge its competitors. The consumers would not have anything against it and would have a better chance of doing well in the market against its competitors (Grewal and Levy, 2012).

This would be an expensive and risky turn to take, but it has a high probability of success. The company only has to make sure that the device is mind-blowing and has all the features and applications that would make it sell.

The second solution would be to rebrand the devices already present in the market. The company would need to give these devices a new look, name and probably add more features and applications that appeal to the consumers.

The company would also need to remove those ­­applications that are not favored by consumers. This would make the old brands better and hence they would do better in the market.

The third option would be to relook its marketing strategies and put more efforts in redeeming its name from the wide spread negative publicity.

Selected Solution to the Problem The third solution seems to be the most appropriate in solving BlackBerry’s problem. The company needs to engage in marketing strategies that are more inclined towards cleaning up its name. This is possible by engaging in activities that only explain to the consumers the positive side of its devices.

This information needs to be true, so that the consumers are not disappointed when they learn otherwise from other sources. If this is done well, the company will gradually redeem its name as consumers forget the negative things they knew about its brands and start appreciating BlackBerry.

This would be the most viable solution to the problem as it is easy and does not require as much capital and expertise as the other two. It does not also require so much strategizing as the company can simply emulate how their best competitors do their marketing.

Adopting some of the competitors marketing strategies, especially those that have proven successful in the past, would help a great deal.

This solution was chosen after careful analysis of the company’s portfolio, which revealed that very little effort is put into marketing. The company is also not doing its marketing the right way.

For example, the company, for a long time, had different marketing and advertising strategies for the different branches in different regions across the world. This would confuse consumers and make the company seem divided and unsure of what exactly they want to achieve.

The company also has very few adverts and commercials regarding its products. The few adverts available seem somewhat irrelevant and are not interesting to the consumers. The adverts give vague and incomplete information that would not entice the client to buy the devices.

Expected Results and Rationale for the Solution Conclusions

A lot needs to be done to restore BlackBerry’s former glory. The company needs to check what it is doing wrong that is making it lag so much behind its competitors. The company needs to do an audit of both its products and management to be able to identify where exactly the problem lies: product or the management.

Cutting on costs is a wise decision to make until such a time when the company has started making enough profits.

Advertising and marketing is the only way through which consumers would get to know about the product and it is obvious that the company needs to do much about this alongside other strategies like rebranding its products.


The company has serious problems that need to be dealt with immediately if it is to realize any profits in the future. The company needs to re-strategize on its marketing to ensure the consumers prefer its devices over its competitors.

It needs to borrow a leaf from its competitors regarding their way of doing things so that it can be in a better position to go back to its former glory. The company needs to advertise its products more on the media in a manner that consumers will be happy with. The adverts need to be relevant for them to be effective.

The management also needs to be reorganized. The company should consider replacing some of its managers, especially in the marketing division, to allow for the introduction of fresh ideas.

The company should hire fresh and young people who know what consumers want and would not do things in the same old ways. Experience in marketing should be given first priority during recruitment to ensure that those absorbed in the company can add value to it.

The company also needs to start making client-friendly devices. They should be easy to use and have the latest applications that are found in other handsets. This way, they will compete fairly in the market just like other phones.

The names used for the products should be easy to remember and should arouse curiosity and desire for the handsets. The company should not recycle a name that has been used before as the clients will feel that they are buying an old product that has nothing new to offer.

Handling the situation

If I were to handle BlackBerry’s situation, I would first of all re-organize the management to get rid of those who are not performing.

I would then cut on the unnecessary expenses that the company cannot handle at the moment, and then put as much capital, time and personnel into marketing, advertising and branding, which would most definitely turn around the business.

Since I may not have the knowledge of the appropriate methods to use, I would seek advice from the experts and try to emulate what my competitors, who are performing better than me, are doing. This would, most probably, take time, but patience is key.

The market would not turn in my favor overnight, but it will be seen to steadily rise. It is important to note that this would be a continuous process that has to be followed from now henceforth. No stopping, but it can be improved.

Positive and Negative Results

Adopting the solution presented above would generate several positive outcomes as listed below. It would enlighten the consumers on the positive side of the company and its devices; hence they would go for the product.

The consumers would get good service from the devices that are of high quality and have the best applications. The company would also benefit as it would increase its income and return to its former glory.

There are many employees that had been laid off when the company shares value went down. However, with the increased shares value, they would get back their jobs which would be good to better their lives.

On the other hand, this solution would have some negative consequences in that it is difficult to change consumer’s minds to think something they knew was bad is now good.

The company would have to use quite a good amount of resources for this solution to work. This would not be good for the company as it does not have such a large amount to spend since it is incurring losses at the moment.

References Cheriton, R. (2013). BlackBerry’s biggest problem is not its phones. Web.

Dvorak. P., Vranica, S.


Emergency Planning and Disaster Management Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Department

Rescue steps

Necessary operational support services

Reference list

Department Fire departments are usually front line workers in a disaster situation. Therefore, during a disaster, the general public depends a lot on fire department for assistance.

However, provision of rescue services complexes under calamities like earth quakes, hurricanes and floods. Therefore, this necessitates increased staffing to meet the threshold of effective response.

Under calamities of such a large scale as tornados, government disaster assistance teams are called in after local resources have been exhausted (National Response Framework, 1998, p. 15).

Rescue steps The first step should involve assessing the extent of the damage. This will help the department to consider the adequacy of its staff requirements.

Staff requirement analysis might involve how personnel will be activated, the management of catastrophic coverage, and the organization of shifts in situations where rescue operations will take more than 12 hours.

Nevertheless, in case of staff shortage, additional support might be requested from the staff on leave (Newman


Leadership and Motivation Theory Coursework online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Servant Leader

Transformational Leader

Courageous Leaders

Introduction Organizational change is one of the most complicated strategies to employ. Its success largely depends on how friendly the employees are to new ideas, and the ability of the leader to persuade and mobilize the employees towards that direction.

The reception that employees give to the new change depends on factors that motivate them. Not all will have same opinion to a new idea, but understanding their unique perceptions is essential for initiating the change itself.

Most of the employees will be motivated to work when they believe that change will influence the community, the customers they relate with, the organizations and its stake, as well as themselves. In this case, they will be able to give their best and produce best possible outcomes.

It is also important to note that employees who believe there is honesty and fairness in delivering services to the partners involved and in initiating change get motivated. It is, therefore, important for the management to consider these views as they initiate change.

In order to be successful in initiating change, information about why change is necessary should be communicated to the employees for them to support its implementation. The managers should be seen acting towards the same idea for employees to copy.

Besides, all incentives in the company should be in line with the new direction. If change requires new skills, employees should undergo training so that they gain needed experience. If these conditions are put into practice, employee possibility of supporting change will be high.

The term leadership does not have a generally accepted definition. However, different notions of leadership have different attributes that favor their specifications. Leadership refers to influence that someone has over others working towards the same goal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One notion is that a leader should be a servant leader. Others include transformational leader, courageous leader and inspirational leader.

Servant Leader Effective leader is one who serves others by providing what they need for growth, challenge, and building their confidence.

A leader should be able to teach others how to lead, provide opportunities for growth, provide diverse opinions and seek options from others, act with humility and be able to persuade and not authorize.

Persons with these traits can easily lead and get acceptance to initiate change in the organization because they give insight on issues that others may not comprehend.

Transformational Leader This leader is able to inspire others through enthusiasm and passion. They are energetic and concerned about the progress of their followers. Their personalities are able to inspire others to change perceptions, expectations and be motivated to work towards common goals.

They encourage creativity by challenging the status quo. They have clear visions that are able to challenge their followers’ actions towards same goals and fulfillment. They serve as role models hence of very much influence to individuals indebted to their perceptions and willingly follow their principles and guidelines.

Courageous Leaders These leaders bravely pursue their objectives despite possible oppositions and risks involved. Their convictions about their visions, missions, and values are so strong and openly speak up for them.

We will write a custom Coursework on Leadership and Motivation Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having strong belief about what is good for them and constantly trying to upraise them is their most important characteristic.

They always argue for nothing less than the truth as they try to achieve their short-term objectives. Their ability to hold up their rights gives them recognition at organizational levels as well as national levels hence are able to succeed in their endeavors.


“A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz Critical Essay essay help

Written by Joshua Zeitz and published by Three Rivers Press in 2006, the book A Madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern is a chef-d’oeuvre piece of literature concerning the rise of ‘flapper’ in the 1920s.

Unfortunately, the contemporary generation of students, who were mainly born in the late 20th century, has no clue of what a flapper means. Conventionally, a flapper underscores a paradigm shift where women started agitating for their rights, thus leading to a sexual revolution.

Women abandoned most of the practices that their mothers and grandmothers applied in their lives. The book majors mainly on the distinguished and perhaps maverick individuals that delineated the ‘flapper’ ideology. Among these people were Zelda Fitzgerald, Lois Long, and Colleen Moore.

This paper is a critique of arguments and theses advanced by Joshua Zeitz coupled with highlighting how the author uses facts to make his point in the book A Madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern.

Analysis To highlight the thesis of sex revolution in the 1920s, Zeitz divides this masterwork piece into three distinct sections where he tackles different issues surrounding the ‘flapper’, which makes it easy to navigate through the book without getting lost.

The central theme in this book is to explore the rise and progression of flappers in the 1920s. In other words, the book highlights the birth of the fleshy party girl in the American context characterized by unorthodox way of living like conceitedness, hedonism, and inebriation.

Zeitz achieves this theme by doing intensive research to come up with real life examples of how the flapper lived. He starts by quoting from the all-time favorite writer, Scott Fitzgerald, of the illustrious The Great Gatsby, which shows how the author carried out in-depth research into the subject.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At one point Fitzgerald protests, “I know nothing about flappers…The idea that I am in any way interested in the number of knees on exhibition at the Biltmore lobby is extremely distasteful to me. You’d think I invented bobbed knees. I deny it” (Zeitz 2006, 48).

However, Zeitz maintains that Fitzgerald’s wife, Zelda, is the epitome of the ‘flapper’ thing due to her husband’s writings, which in effect makes Fitzgerald the inventor of the ‘bobbed knees‘ even though he denies it.

Therefore, Zeitz is not afraid of controversy and he does not want to come out as a populist, but he says it as he sees it, which is one of the strengths of this book.

After introducing the Fitzgeralds and their midwifery role in the birth of the ‘flapper’, Zeitz moves on to explore other women who accepted the idea of a flapper. He tackles Eugenia Kelly, Coco Channle, and Colleen Moore together with the booze-loving Lois Long.

The book carries critical information, which might not be found anywhere else in one volume concerning the rise of the modern American woman in the 1920s.

The compilation ultimately produces a one-stop material highlighting the changing face of feminism in the 1920s and the transition from the conventional Victorian whimsies to the empowered American woman, who could dress the way she wanted, date the person of her choice, spend the night partying and show up at work drunk the following day, and determine her future.

One of the many issues that I learnt from the book is that the winds of the American woman sexual liberation started blowing strongly in the 1920s and it never died as characterized by the rise of Paris Hilton among others.

We will write a custom Book Review on “A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author once again becomes controversial by stating that the ‘flapper’ wave was not just a fashion trend; on the contrary, it was a capitalist move to make profits out of the confusion and agitation.

Zeitz notes, “The pioneer merchants of cool invented the flapper for fun, for profit and for fame…In branding and selling her, they inaugurated that curious, modern cycle by which popular culture imitates life and life imitates popular culture” (2006, 9).

By deciding to give such controversial views, the author invigorates the book and stirs the reader into viewing the entire issue of women rights from another perspective.

However, inasmuch as the book is a masterpiece, it has its weaknesses. The first part of the three sections of the book is written with mastery as ideas are arranged systematically.

It starts by ushering in a key player in the making of the ‘flapper’ mentality, explores her before inviting the audience to other players who emulated the key player and ultimately closing with the pioneer person to make a complete account of events.

Unfortunately, the second and the last segments are poorly structured with mixed ideas. In addition, the pictures used in the book are placed haphazardly and they do not necessarily add any information to the pages where they are placed.

Finally, the author concentrated so much on ‘white-flappers’ without the mention of the contribution of the minority groups in the flapper campaign.

Conclusion Zeitz’s book highlights the birth and the rise of the American flapper in the 1920s.The author uses facts to back his claims by giving real life examples of the people who pioneered the flapper campaign including Zelda Fitzgerald.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author chooses controversy, which enlivens the book. However, the second and the third sections are weaker as compared to the first one in terms of structure.

Overall, the book is interesting and a worth read especially to the contemporary students who know very little or nothing about the rise of ‘flapper’ in the American society.

Reference Zeitz, Joshua. 2006. A Madcap Story of Sex, Style, Celebrity and the Women Who Made America Modern. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.


Negative Health Impacts Exemplification Essay essay help free: essay help free

There are myriads of negative health impacts that millions of people will continue to face as a consequence of climate change. The ill effects of global warming should be addressed with urgency. The earth’s climate is being affected by the disruptive human activities.

It is indeed true that the emission of greenhouse gases has immensely contributed to the devastating effects of global warming. Gaseous emissions such as methane and carbon dioxide usually restrict the dispatch of long wave radiation from the surface of the earth.

When this radiation combines with the short wave rays from the sun, a warming effect is created on the immediate surface of the earth (Smith and Wigley 448). These effects are multiplied several times and eventually result into global warming.

It is unfortunate that the key policy makers are not wiling to address the impact of global warming and offer a lasting solution. It does not require rocket science to understand that greenhouse gas emissions are harmful to the life of both plants and animals.

Most of the negative health outcomes of global warming are straightforward. For instance, enhanced pollen production, interruption of the hydrologic cycle and warmer temperatures may directly lead to poor quality of air, increase in morbidity, and intense exposure to heat stress.

Worse still, there are other potentially harmful indirect effects associated with the changes in climate. When the natural systems of the planet Earth are altered, both animal and plants are exposed to great danger. For example, we have witnessed several instances of erratic weather in different parts of the globe.

These include flooding, drought, desertification, hurricanes and tornados. The aforementioned risks have hampered access to vital natural resources such as food and water. Excess precipitation that leads to floods is not beneficial at all in the survival of plants and animals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, aridity and desertification are growing at a very high rate in some parts of the world. Eventually, the human population will have limited access to necessary food nutrients.

The latter is a direct impact of climate change that the developed world should be in a position to comprehend. Even the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has scantly addressed some of the scaring effects of climate change.

As it stands now, there is uncertainty on whether governments across the world are really interested or committed to control harmful emissions to the environment.

Ever since the Kyoto Protocol was ignored, subsequent global summits on climate change have hardly instituted firm measures that can be put in place in order to curb the derailing impacts of environment pollution.

The quota system of greenhouse gas emission was a viable proposal to cut down emissions. However, the future is greatly uncertain.

Water is one of the most precious natural commodities that sustain human and animal health (Villar and Jon 7). Nonetheless, lack of adequate water resources is currently a key global concern. Poor access to pure water has been aggravated by the effects of climate change and global warming.

Where are we heading to as a planet? Water table is below the sustainable level in some regions. A case example is the northern plain of China. Although the region supports large scale wheat farming, the ground water table has been dwindling at a very fast rate.

We will write a custom Essay on Negative Health Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recent estimates reveal that the level of ground water is diminishing at a rate of three meters per year. This implies that the region might eventually turn into an arid and semi arid zone. Second, India is spending 50% of its electricity expenses to facilitate irrigation.

Water has to be pumped from deep wells and transported some kilometers away in order to irrigate crops planted in the dry zone.

If such trends will continue, we can be assured that the human population may eventually be eliminated from the planet. It is not sustainable to irrigate crops in dry regions due to the high cost of operation.

The human population is also rapidly growing. A high population will translate into an increased demand for resources to sustain life. Consequently, the pace of industrial growth will equally skyrocket. The net effect will be the continued emission of greenhouse gases.

Hence, the pollution cycle will repeat itself. Nonetheless, such a dire situation does not mean that there are no solutions for the challenge. A case in point is the adoption of green energy revolution in the mass production of goods.

It is not mandatory to burn fossil fuels in order to generate energy. Scientific inventions can be adopted to replace rampant use of fossil fuels. The latter have already been suggested to policy makers. Nevertheless, it is taking too long to embrace the green energy solution.

Some of the clean energy sources that can be used instead of fossil fuels include solar energy, wind energy, nuclear power, geothermal energy and power from hydrogen. All of these clean energy sources have been tested and proven to be functional for both small and large scale production processes.

The world leaders should be asking themselves very critical questions regarding climate change and the associated ill effects on human health. From the readings, there is fear that the sea level will continue to rise as ice caps melt due to global warming (Myers and Aaron 35).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Negative Health Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some islands and beaches may finally submerge into oceans. The latter effect will also contribute significantly to the overall volume of liquid water on the planet. Will the increased amount of water volume affect the human population?

As already pointed out in the above section, food availability will be a challenge to grapple with in the future. In any case, food shortage in several parts of the world is a humanitarian issue that is being addressed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The latter is a subsidiary body of the United Nations (UN).

On a final note, it is pertinent to underscore the fact that human beings are solely responsible to conserve the environment. When we emit harmful gaseous compounds into the atmosphere, we risk our health.

As much as we should appreciate the role played by industrial revolution in economic development, it is also worthy to countercheck the negative effects associated with such developments. The economic and health benefits of industrialization should be keenly weighed against the detrimental impacts.

If climate change can lead to water scarcity, poor nutrition (due to inadequate supply of food), displacement of populations and gross deterioration of the natural ecosystems, then it is prudent for world leaders and policy makers to address the menace urgently.

We may end up phasing out the entire human population that we purport to safeguard through industrialization (Houghton 76).

Works Cited Houghton, Theodore. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Myers, Samuel and Bernstein, Aaron. “The Coming Health Crisis”. The Scientist. 2007: 32-37. Print.

Smith, Steven and Tom Wigley. “Global Warming Potentials: 1. Climatic Implications of Emissions Reductions.” Climatic Change 44. 4 (2000): 445-457.Print.

Villar, Ana and Krosnick, Jon. “Global Warming Vs. Climate Change, Taxes Vs. Prices: Does Word Choice Matter?” Climatic Change 105.1 (2011): 1-12. Print.


Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Refinement and distribution of oil throughout the U.S

Security measures in place to ensure safety of the oil sector



Introduction Petroleum products are used in different sectors as energy and raw materials for various industries. According to Leffler and Raymond (2006), oil is one of the most important commodities in the world market. It has a massive impact on other sectors of the economy.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States was the leading producer of oil in the world. It has since been surpassed by Saudi Arabia and Russia in production of oil. However, the government has been committing a lot of investment in this sector.

The federal government has been keen to develop the infrastructure in the energy sector in order to boost production of energy. Although other units in the energy sector ,such as hydro, geothermal and wind energy power, have been given focus, attention has always been on the petroleum sector.

The United States has been willing to ensure that it has increased the volume of petroleum products that it produced. This has seen it improve the infrastructure in this sector to great extents.

Recent studies show that the United States has the capacity of becoming the leading oil producer in the world based on the oil reserves that have been identified in the recent past. The focus of this study will be to bring an understanding of how oil exploration, production, storage, transport, and refinement take place.

Exploration Oil exploration is one of the most complex and very expensive processes in petroleum production. Parkash (2003) defines petroleum exploration as, “The search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbons deposits beneath the Earth’s surface, such as oil and natural gas.”

This process involves different complex processes that would help in determining the presence of oil in a given region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the United States, oil exploration has evolved over the years, from the use of a simple tool to tap petroleum products that were near the surface to complex processes that can help determine the presence of oil in the deep seas. The cost of oil exploration has been the main hindrance to small scale oil exploration in the country.

Oil exploration can take place at onshore or offshore sites. Some of the traditional ways of determining the presence of oil is the detection of oil or natural gas seeps on the surface of the earth. These are the crucial leads to many oil explorers.

According to Parkash (2003), although there are currently many sophisticated tools that are used to detect the presence of petroleum, the seeps still act as crucial leads to the possibility of oil exploration beneath the ground.

Exploration geophysics has been one of the most important tools that are currently used to identify the presence of hydrocarbons deposit.

As a result of the massive cost of drilling oil wells, there has been an increasing need to confirm that there is a substantial amount of oil in a given region before drilling of the wells can begin. Technological advancement has helped develop some tools that can assist in confirming that the amount of oil detected is worth exploring.

This means that when a region is suspected to have oil deposits, it will be subjected to a series of sub-surface geological analyses. The first stage is always to subject the area to gravity survey. Special tools are used at this stage to determine how gravitational force is affected in that particular area.

Significant presence of oil deposits would have an effect on the gravitational force, a fact that could point to the presence of oil. However, presence of ground water may have a similar effect, and this means that a further analysis is needed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stage will be magnetic survey. This is used to determine if the gravitational effect is caused by water or deposits of hydrocarbons. Magnetometer is used at this stage. The next stage would be to conduct a passive seismic survey.

Parkash (2003) says, “Passive seismic is the detection of the natural low frequency earth movements, usually with the purpose of discerning the geological structure and locate the underground oil, gas, or other resources.”

The natural frequency would be measured by close observation of seismic waves with the help of portable seismometers. Below is a picture of seismometer used in monitoring the flow of seismic waves.


When all these processes give a lead to a possible presence of oil in a given location, then it would be considered worth drilling an exploration well that would be the final test that a given region has potential oil deposits.

In the United States, oil explorations have been extensively conducted in Georgia, Virginia, Ohio, New York, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and many other states in this country.

Offshore exploration, especially in the deep sea, has also been conducted to supplement the supplies found onshore. Although very expensive, offshore oil drilling is currently becoming very popular, especially among large American corporations.

Production Petroleum production, also known as oil extraction, is the actual process of extracting usable petroleum from the earth. Upon a successful completion of the exploration process, the next step is always the extraction. This is another very costly process that involves numerous risks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been a preserve for the large specialized companies, such as Bio Tech Inc., that have been very successful in most of the oil fields in Texas. The first stage in oil extraction involves drilling of oil well at the site using oil rings. A steel pipe is then placed into the bore to enable the oil to move easily to the surface.

At the top end of the pipe, there are collection valves, also known as Christmas Tree (Leffler, Pattarozzi and Sterling 2011). It helps in controlling the flow and regulating the pressure. The figure below is Pump jack used in the extraction process.

According to Zou (2013), oil extraction takes place in three main stages. The first, also known as the primary recovery stage, takes place when natural mechanisms are used to extract oil deposits into the surface.

At this stage, such natural occurrences as displacement of oil by water and gravitational forces would help in the extraction of oil from the ground. This always takes place in cases where there are large deposits of oil. This stage is common in newly drilled wells.

The second stage, also known as the secondary recovery stage, takes place when the natural forces become too weak to support the extraction process. This is common in cases where the extraction process has been ongoing for some time.

The process involves supplying external energy into the reservoir in order to force oil deposits into the system. Totten (2003) notes that gas lifts are always used to inject carbon dioxide into the reservoir to help in forcing oil products into the drilling pipe.

The third stage known as tertiary recovery is a complex process that uses different approaches to extract oil from the ground. Also known as thermally enhanced oil recovery process, this stage uses steam injection and fire flooding in order to extract oil from the ground.

Sometimes it even becomes necessary to convert oil into electrical energy to further enhance the extraction process. The ultimate amount of oil that can be extracted from a given location depends on a number of factors.

According to Parkash (2003), the most important factor that determines the amount of oil that can be extracted from a given area is the level of oil deposits. Large oil deposits would yield higher amounts of oil. Another important factor is the permeability of the rocks.

Some rocks do not allow for a smooth flow of oil because they are tight. Such rocks inhibit the rate at which oil can be extracted from them.

Finally, the technology used and the level of skills of the workforce will play some part in determining the amount and rate at which oil is extracted from the ground.

Most of the oil extracting companies in the United States are known to use sophisticated tools in order to improve the speed and amount of oil extracted from the ground. This has helped them increase the efficiency of the entire process.

Storage When petroleum products have been extracted from the ground, they must be temporarily stored before they are transported to the refinery plants. According to Parkash (2003), storage of petroleum products can be analyzed from two perspectives.

The first perspective will analyze the storage process of the crude oil just before it is transported to refinery plants.

The second perspective will be the storage of the processed products that are waiting for transportation to various retailing destinations. Storage of oil always takes place within a short while as it awaits its transportation to the relevant destinations. Storage of crude oil may take place onshore or offshore.

The approach taken to store oil extracted onshore is different from the approach taken to store that which is extracted offshore. Onshore crude oil storage is a simpler process that makes use of large cylindrical tanks constructed above or below the surface.

The size of the tanks will depend on the amount of oil that is extracted per unit time, and the speed of the transportation system. It is important to ensure that the storage tanks are of the standard materials because any leakage of the crude oil may have a devastating effect on the environment.

Several government agencies and environmental organizations have developed requirements that should be followed when designing such tanks. This is meant to enhance environmental protection and security of the employees and infrastructure within the plant or its surrounding.

The petroleum products extracted offshore are always stored with the help of floating production, storage and offloading unit (Zou 2013).

This is a complex unit that does not only help in the production process but also in its storage while it awaits tankers that would be used in the transportation process. The figure below shows the unit on high seas.

When the crude oil has been processed into such products as liquid petroleum gas, petrol, kerosene, or heavy fuels, temporary storage of these products is needed before they can be transported to the market. Storage of these final products is a very complex process that requires a high level of safety measures.

Liquid petroleum gas and petrol are highly flammable products, and their storage at the refinery plants needs specialized equipment. According to Leffler (2008), emerging technologies have helped improvise storage equipment that is efficient in storing refined petroleum products.

Transport Transportation is the nest stage in this process. Transportation of petroleum products always takes place with the help of pipelines, tank trucks, marine vessels, rail tanks, and many other vessels.

Although crude oil is majorly transported using pipelines and tankers, the refined products require unique transport systems that take into consideration their true nature.

For instance, the transport method used for liquid petroleum gas may not be appropriate when transporting heavy fuels, such as diesel. Each product has its own unique transportation vessel to enhance safety of the people handling the products, the society, and the environment.

Transportation of gasoline must be done through specialized pipelines, tanks, and such other containers that will restrict its exposure to the air. This is so because the product is highly flammable and can have devastating effects when exposed to air and flame.

Liquid petroleum gas is stored and transported at temperatures below -162 degrees centigrade. This helps ensure that the product remains in a liquid state. The main advantage of liquefaction of the product is that it consumes a smaller space than when stored in a gaseous form.

This helps in storing and transportation of a large amount of the gaseous energy in a small container. This also reduces the possibility of the product to evaporate from the containers.

The transportation equipment must have the ability to maintain the temperatures of the product at low temperatures to avoid the possibility of transformation into gas. If the product turns into gaseous form, it can cause a massive explosion as it will be trying to force its way out of the container.

Large tankers have been widely used in the transportation of liquefied petroleum gas in the mainland. The figure below shows a large track used to transport LPG from the refinery to various consumer outlets in the United States.

In the United States, pipelines have been popular when transporting petrol and other heavy fuels, such as diesel and kerosene. Pipelines are efficient because of their speed and cost-effectiveness.

This eliminates the need for large tank tracks that are associated with more labor cost, raised negative effect on the environment, destruction of roads, and increased rates of the traffic jam.

However, it needs close monitoring and evaluation to ensure that any leakage is detected and corrected before it can cause negative effects on the environment.

Some of the widely used pipelines include flow lines, gathering and feeder lines, crude trunk lines, and petroleum product trunk lines (Leffler, Pattarozzi and Sterling 2011). Other heavy products, such as bitumen are transported in sizable drums.

Refinement and distribution of oil throughout the U.S Refinery of petroleum products is a complex process that involves a series of activities within the refinery plant.

Zou (2013) defines refinery process as, “A series of chemical engineering processes that are used to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.”

The scholar says that the processes that take place during the refinery are so complex that it may not be easy to describe them in a layman’s language.

However, the process can be summarized into some of the general stages that crude oil is subjected to before it can produce the desired products. The figure below is a simple diagrammatic representation of what takes place in a refinery plant.

As shown in the diagram, crude oil is a combination of several products that are needed in various sectors to provide energy. In the refinery plant, crude oil is poured into a large boiler. The boiler is connected to a distillation chamber as shown in the above diagram.

The boiler is superheated, forcing its content into the distillation column. At this distillation column, different products will be obtained based on their boiling points in a process known as fractional distillation.

Light petroleum products, such as liquid petroleum gas, will be collected first because of their low boiling points. Gasoline and kerosene will follow.

Heavy petroleum products, such as asphalt, would come out of the distillation chamber last. Although the diagram shows a simple process, the actual refinery process is complex and involves the use of a series of machines.

Some of the leading oil refinery plants in the United States include Cherry Point in Washington, Whiting in Indiana, Toledo in Ohio, Cooper River, Texas City in Texas, and Decatur in Alaska.

These products are then sold to some of the major distributors of petroleum products using the above mentioned transport methods. These distributors will make the products available by any appropriate means.

Security measures in place to ensure safety of the oil sector Oil sector is the backbone of all other industries in the American economy. Accidents in this sector or acts of terrorism targeted towards it may have devastating effects.

For this reason, security measures are crucial to ensure that this sector operates without any threat of accidents or terrorist actions. Measures and codes of conduct have been put in place to enhance security and safety of this sector.

These measures were under review, especially after the Texas City Refinery explosion in 2005. The diagram below shows the massive destruction that was caused by this explosion. Fifteen people died while over 170 others sustained serious injuries.

The security measures define the standards and codes of conduct that should be observed in all the stages defined. According to Mora and Cooney (2007), dangers in this sector begin during the exploration process, to the time the product is finally consumed.

Government bodies have set standards that seek to ensure that exploration is done in a way that does not expose dangers to the environment. The policies define tools that should be used in the exploration and drilling processes.

The recent deep sea oil spillage involving BP is a clear indication of dangers that may occur when these policies are ignored. At the refinery plant, there are guidelines that define the infrastructure to be used and code that must be followed during the processing of the products.

The government has also established tough laws to regulate the transportation of these products, such as the Safety Standards for Conveyers and Related Equipment.

Conclusion Petroleum products are very important to many sectors of the economy because they offer the energy needed to drive various machines and instruments.

The process of coming up with these products is very complex. It starts with the exploration, extraction, transport, refinery, storage, and finally distribution to various outlets within the country and in other overseas markets.

References Leffler, W. L. (2008). Petroleum refining in nontechnical language. Tulsa, Okla: PennWell.

Leffler, W. L., Pattarozzi, R.,