The Collapse Of The Greatest World Civilizations: The Maya, The Aztec, And The Inca Civilizations Research Paper College Essay Help Online

Introduction The collapses of such great civilizations as the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca civilizations are discussed by many researchers as rather unexpected and influenced by a lot of different factors, including environmental and social changes along with the war conflicts. The stages of the development of the Mesoamerican civilization and of the Incas were rather similar.

However, different factors led to the societies’ collapses. If the territories of the Aztec and the Inca civilizations were invaded by the Spaniards and that situation resulted in the civilizations’ decline, the causes for the Mayan civilization’s collapse are not determined clearly.

Thus, changes in the climate, environments, social, trade, and political development can be discussed as significant factors to influence the great civilizations’ development and further decline. The Role of Environmental Changes and Ecological Stress in the Civilizations’ Collapse.

The Case of the Mayan Civilization The Maya civilization developed during the period of 2000 B.C. – 250 A.D. The Maya population achieved significant results in developing mathematics, astronomy, and solar calendars. The accomplishments in science contributed to developing the effective seasonal planting (Demarest, 2004). However, such environmental and ecological changes as continuous droughts and hurricanes could lead to exhausting the farming lands and lack of nutrition for the Maya population.

The Impact on the Aztec and Inca Civilizations The Aztec, living during the period of 1325 – 1523 A.D., were military tribes of hunters who could achieve the great development at the small territories. They were successful engineers, and the Aztec population developed the important irrigation system, but definite changes in climate could lead to weakening of the irrigation system’s work and the Aztec could become more vulnerable when the Spaniards came to invade these lands (Leon-Portilla, 2012).

The ecological stress at the mountainous territories with great deserts could also influence the power of the Inca civilization at the face of the Spaniards’ threat (Thompson, 1999). The Impact of the Endemic Warfare on the Civilizations’ Decline.

The Impact on the Mayan Civilization The Mayan civilization is the combination of many small kingdoms united by the same territory, culture, and religious beliefs (Hunt, 2005). Any military conflict between the kingdoms could lead to the decline of the whole civilization because of possible peasants’ revolts and struggles for the power.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Effects on the Aztec and Inca Civilizations If there was a risk of the endemic warfare for the Maya civilization, the Aztec and Inca civilizations became the victims of the wars with the Spaniards. The territories the Aztec civilization and their weapons were too small in comparison with the potential of the Spaniards.. Furthermore, the Spaniards used the neighborhood conflicts of the Aztec with the other tribes. The Incas were more successful in the war with the Spaniards, but the scholars pay attention to the risk of the civil wars in the Inca civilization as a result of the quick progress (Thompson, 1999). The Competition for Trade as the Significant Factor for Collapse.

Trade and the Mayan Civilization The competition of the Mayan kingdoms for the trade benefits is discussed by researchers as one of the reasons for decline (Webster, 2002). Nevertheless, this factor can be considered as influential only with references to significant climatic and social changes.

The Impact on the Aztec and Inca Civilizations The Aztec and Inca populations were successful in trading because of developing effective counting systems and roads. However, in the process of the civilizations’ development, the exchange routes could change under the impact of the other civilizations and tribes. Moreover, developing during the same period, the Aztec and Inca civilizations could influence each other and their trade connections (Wakild, 2011). The Environmental Social and Physical Fluctuations.

The Effects on the Mayan Civilization The researchers are inclined to agree that environmental social and physical fluctuations influenced the Mayan Civilization’s decline significantly. Thus, the collapse of the civilization could become the result of overpopulation and the lack of nutrition because of the lands’ exhaustion and decline in farming techniques along with the development of civil wars and corruption of the social networks (Golitko, 2012).

The Inca and Aztec Civilizations The Inca and Aztec civilizations could decline because of the Spaniards’ invasion and their superiority in warfare (Fagan, 2004). Furthermore, the Inca and Aztec populations suffered from the European diseases and could not preserve effective farming methods because of catastrophic climate changes.

Conclusion The focus on the possible reasons for the great civilizations’ decline can contribute to determining the basic causes which can lead to the civilizations’ collapses after the decades of prosperity. The situation with the Inca and Aztec civilizations’ decline is explained with references to the Spaniards’ invasion.

Nevertheless, there is a range of factors which contributed to the success of the invasion. The secret of the Mayan civilization’s decline is not resolved, but the comparison of the basic causes for civilizations’ collapses can lead to finding the answers to important questions about the main stages of the civilizations’ development.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Collapse of the Greatest World Civilizations: the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca Civilizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Demarest, A. (2004). Ancient Maya: The rise and fall of a rainforest civilization. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Fagan, B. (2004). People of the earth: an introduction to world prehistory. USA: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Golitko, M. (2012). Complexities of collapse: the evidence of Maya obsidian as revealed by social network graphical analysis. Antiquity, 86(332), 507-523.

Hunt, B. (2005). A simulation of the climatic conditions associated with the collapse of the Maya civilization. Climatic Change, 69(3), 393-407.

Leon-Portilla, M. (2012). Aztec thought and culture: A study of the ancient Nahuatl mind. USA: University of Oklahoma Press.

Thompson, W. (1999). The military superiority thesis and the ascendancy of Western Eurasia in the world system. Journal of World History, 10(1), 143-178.

Wakild, E. (2011). Questioning collapse: Human resilience, ecological vulnerability, and the aftermath of empire. Journal of World History, 22(2), 355-359.

Webster, D. (2002). The fall of the ancient Maya: Solving the mystery of the Maya collapse. USA: Thames


Comic Elements in The Lieutenant of Inishmore Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

A lot of blood and illogical shootings can make people laugh. The play The Lieutenant of Inishmore written by Martin McDonagh is one of the most controversial modern works which is discussed as a provocative black comedy the main character of which is inclined to kill anyone who goes against him.

Demonstrating numerous deaths and much violence, the play combines the elements of the black comedy with the deep satire while involving the political problems associated with the situation in the Northern ­Ireland during the late 20th century. In spite of the fact the play is full of violence and blood, this work makes the audience laugh because of exaggerated absurdity of the demonstrated actions where brutality and impulsivity are presented at their fringe with madness.

Padraic, the main character of the play, is the Irish man who can kill his own father because of discussing him as guilty in the death of his cat Wee Thomas. The feeling of love in relation to the cat is discussed as more significant than the character’s love for his father. The author accentuates on disregarding the human life.

This approach is effective to make people laugh because of black comedies’ absurdity, and this fact enhances the comic aspect of the play. It is rather interesting to observe how far the instable Irish man can go in order to show his love. Padraic is even ready to organize the radical group named after the cat Wee Thomas’s Army. These details make people agree that Padraic is too instable, but these aspects also create the comic effects.

The next approach to emphasize the absurdity is to oppose reality and comedy as well as to accentuate the similar details. The playwright uses the realities of life with which the audience is familiar in order to create a connection between the audience and the story. The character of Padraic can be identified by many people in relation to his obsessive and irrational behaviors, and ability to be distressed by any frustrations.

These features are typical for many violent and unstable persons, but these features can be also characteristic for the participants of the Irish National Liberation Army as a result of stress and participation in conflicts. This play displays the perpetual violence while putting the events in a comic scenario to make the audience laugh instead of making them discuss the political issues.

The tragedies presented in the play are extremely exaggerated, and this approach contributes to creating the comic effect. This play can be described as a comedy full of tragedies due to the nature of its content. The playwright uses specific twisted humor to present a lot of heartrending scenes which cannot be perceived as real because of the exaggerated brutality as it is in the scenes of tortures and killings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the audience laughs at the most shocking realities because of understanding their absurdity. The play is focused on the idea that in this world hatred, hostility, bloodshed, and tortures are inevitable. Padraic is inclined to use tortures in spite of the trigger or causes, and he is ready to kill many people to state his truth. However, this fact is presented in such a way that the audience starts laughing.

The author carefully uses ridicules to approach the catastrophic events in the play. The Irish cat owner is not the only character displaying any kind of absurdity in the play. Donny and Davey are ready to spend hours while painting the cat black. Furthermore, they can seriously discuss the advantages of shoe polish which are not available for the other people.

Mairead is ready to marry a man who kills anybody who does not agree with him because murder is also her favourite way to resolve problematic situations. In his turn, Padraic is demonstrated as the person whose actions are based on the aspects of false morality. Thus, he can torture James for selling drugs to children and provide him freedom for loving cats.

Furthermore, Padraic follows false values while distinguishing between the religions according to their importance. The absurd of these considerations and actions make people laugh. Nevertheless, the exact meaning of the play is much deeper, and the techniques of a black comedy help the author realize his intentions and focus on the main idea of the play.

Thus, the playwright makes the audience laugh using absurdity of situations and actions and exaggeration. Familiar events and situations are discussed with references to much violence and brutality. Absurd actions of the characters are perceived as normal by the other characters, and there are no chances that the characters can realize the tragedy of their actions.

The form in which the author presents these facts makes the audience laugh in spite of the hidden meanings and associations with political issues. The tragedies and violence are converted in the play into a comic tale which makes people laugh because of understanding absurdity of the situation.


The Issue of Constructive Discharge Report college essay help near me

The memorandum is written to present the requested information on the issue of constructive discharge. The purpose of this memo is to analyze the information presented in the article “Do I Have a Case for Constructive Discharge?” by John Gallagher and discuss the importance of the article’s content in relation to the problem of constructive discharge and staff turnover at the workplace.

Constructive discharge claims can become real challenges for employers because of accusing them in supporting the hostile work environment and performing illegal actions. From this point, it is important to determine the conditions according to which discharge claims can be discussed as constructive in order to prevent performing illegal actions and the staff turnover.

After analyzing the current researches, studies, and legal norms on the issue, it is necessary to pay attention to the article “Do I Have a Case for Constructive Discharge?” by John Gallagher in which the author discusses the associated employment law issues. The article was found while examining the Internet resources on the issue related to the problem of constructive discharge claims and hostile workplace environment.

Many helpful resources were found in the library LexisNexis, the section of Labor and Employment Law. The article by Gallagher was chosen for the discussion because of providing the definition of the hostile work environment and aspects according to which employees have the right to demand the constructive discharge.

In his article, the author provides the legal definition of a hostile work environment with references to the actions and situations which can be discussed as hostile in relation to employees. To define a work environment as hostile, it is necessary to state the episodes of sexual harassment against employees and occasions of discrimination based on race, age, gender, nationality, and religious views.

This definition emphasizes the importance for employers to review the workplace policies to ensure that they are reasonable and legally acceptable in order to avoid the issues of discrimination which can lead to constructive discharge (Gallagher par. 3). Thus, various kinds of discrimination at the workplace are prohibited under the employment laws.

Experiencing any type of discrimination, an employee can focus on realizing the constructive discharge. The situations when employees can be treated unfairly are also connected with the open violation of such laws as the Family and Medical Leave Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act as well as the whistleblower statute (Gallagher par. 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees’ rights are protected according to these laws. However, different states provide additional statutes to cover other legal issues connected with the problem of employment. Gallagher concentrates on the fact which is important to be learned by employers and employees that unfair treatment and immoral treatment leading to constructive discharge includes only above-mentioned points.

Thus, many problems in interactions between employees and their bosses and co-workers which can be discussed as immoral cannot lead to constructive discharge because these issues are based on the aspects of communication or cooperation without references to discrimination, racism, or violating the laws. The author states that there should be a substantial claim associated with the hostile work environment or work conditions which prevent employees from working effectively (Gallagher par. 5).

It is necessary to accentuate the difference between the intolerable and hostile work environment and interactions between the colleagues (Gallagher par. 8). The problem is in the fact that the laws do not provide the necessary protection for people who can suffer from the intolerable work environment. Employees and managers should know the difference between the definitions of these kinds of behaviors.

The information provided in the article is important for employers because the author presents the detailed list of scenarios which can lead to employees quitting jobs discussed as constructive discharge. Thus, much attention is paid to the problem of sexual harassment as an example of a hostile work environment. It is important to note that the roles of aggressors and managers are discussed equally while analyzing the case of sexual harassment.

From this point, the task of the employer is to inform employees and managers about the issue of sexual harassment and possible consequences. The next scenario is associated with the case of discrimination. Employees have the right to claim for constructive discharge, if they experience discrimination according to definite aspects, characteristics, and disabilities.

Employees should know the list of aspects which are discussed as violent and discriminating. Gallagher also pays attention to the fact that employees’ claims in relation to discrimination can lead to the managers’ negative reaction. Thus, the problem of an unlawful retaliation claim is also mentioned in the article (Gallagher par. 9).

The most problematic category of the laws violations associated with constructive discharge is the violation of the employment laws and acts. Thus, the employer and manager’s mistreatment of an employee based on ignorance of the FMLA or other laws and statutes can lead to the reasonable, constructive discharge because creating the working conditions which are inappropriate according to the laws (Gallagher par. 9).

We will write a custom Report on The Issue of Constructive Discharge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees should pay attention to the consequences of their claims. If they notice the changes in the employer’s attitude which are closely associated with discrimination or changes in duties, employees have the right for constructive discharge because of employers’ illegal actions and attempts to prevent employees from receiving the benefits guaranteed according to the law.

One of the controversial aspects is a whistleblower complaint which is not met peacefully in many organizations, but which is discussed according to the legal norms (Gallagher par. 9). The provided list of scenarios should be carefully examined by employers, managers, and employees in order to predict and prevent the problematic situations and avoid the cases of constructive discharge.

The article by John Gallagher is helpful to examine the problem of constructive discharge in detail and develop the effective policy because the author puts emphasis on the fact that the standards for acceptance of constructive discharge claims are high, and they are closely associated with the legal standards required to prove the existence of a hostile work environment.

The information provided in the article can be successfully used to inform managers and employees about the necessary requirements for stating the fact of developing the hostile work environment. Moreover, it is important to inform employees that the information about any aspects discussed above as leading to constructive discharge should be shared with management in order to prevent the development of illegal issues.

Employers should take into account the information provided in the article because it is based on the current employment laws. Claiming for constructive discharge, employees should realize the conditions according to which their claims can be considered as reasonable because of the complex character of the issue.

Works Cited Gallagher, John. Do I Have a Case for Constructive Discharge? 10 Oct. 2011. Web.


Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller Argumentative Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Personal failure

Cultural failure


Introduction Although he appears visionary and hardworking, Willy Loman fails to teach his sons the lessons of becoming successful in life because of his beliefs. Willy survives with a misconstrued ambition of becoming wealthy and inculcates this idea into his sons, Happy and Biff, even though he did not know how to achieve it. He trained his sons on his approach to life and hoped they would follow and achieve his dream of success.

He has no plan for his life and concentrates on his past failures, and his children seem perched to being successful, primed on his world hypotheses. Salesmanship has given Willy a feeling of greatness and merit. He believes that the present world has dishonored them by taking away the personality of salesmen.

Willy has taught this notion to his sons, who are very receptive and obedient to their father. However, these believes have caused him disappointment as they end up turning down his principles and goals. Willy Loman fails to guide his sons to greatness in their lives because of his personal and cultural beliefs.

Personal failure Willy has an insensitive personality. He does not realize that his capabilities and aspirations are different from those of his sons. While Biff wanted an outdoors job, his father wanted a white collar job for him. Willy does not admit failure nor consider the opinion of his sons. This has led to rebellion from his sons, when they discover what is right for them.

For example, Biff disliked the business life recommended by his father and opted a life on the farms after realizing that success means an enjoyable life and not money. Willy believed that Biff would be successful in business because of his attractiveness, and his past splendor in high school soccer. However, this notion was wrong as Biff failed to graduate from high school and join college because of his arrogance.

He later recognizes his true personality and decides to work on a farm, where he would enjoy and feel comfortable. Willy is very upset in him and is discontented in all that he does. Contrary to his believe that popularity and fame lead to success; Willy never earned handsome wealth despite his claim for fame, and many years of experience.

This is made unsound when his boss demotes him, and he merely earns a commission before he finally gets fired, despite his friendship with Wagner’s father. His claim for connections fails him again. Willy’s idea of connecting Biff with important people at Penn State would be futile as football does not seem to be the best career for him. To Biff, having the right connections does not always help.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The expectations of Willy that his requiem would be fully packed due to his well connection and popularity failed to turn out as he thought since only the family members were present. Willy had inculcated a sense of superiority in Biff Loman that made him arrogant. This made him unsuccessful in graduating from high school and advance to college.

Cultural failure Willy’s melancholy originates from the misconceptions he had about the American dream and his incapability to connect how the world works with how he thinks it should work. The American dream stated that: through the established qualities of determination, creativity, hard work, and resilience, one may get contentment through riches and that a good-looking and loved man will no doubt attain the comforts of modern life.

This dream can be divided into two significances; the traditional dream and the business achievement dream. When one owns a house, has a good paying job, and lives a secure life, then h/she has accomplished the traditional dream. Willy Loman has accomplished this vision as he has an occupation, a vehicle, a residence, and a family, but he did not appreciate it.

He was so preoccupied with the business dream that he dismantles his family in the end. This dream made him sacrifice going to Alaska in search of his father where he came across the successful salesman, Dave. He decides to follow the same career path as Dave and hopes to get the same success as Dave. It is not until thirty five years of his career when he realizes he had not achieved the prosperity he had hoped to achieve.

What Willy fails to know is that even Dave Singleman, who is his epitome of prosperity, has not fulfilled the American dream. This is because at the age of eighty-four, Dave has not retired, lives in a hotel room, and has no family. His illusion about life and his mental disarray about the real American dream make him fail his sons as he does not know what is really needed of them to succeed.

Conclusion Willy’s life was a disappointment as he had the wrong ambitions and failed to teach his sons the lessons for victory in life. He deluded himself that he could be a wealthy salesman, when he knew that he would be excellent at operating with hands. If Willy had faced his capabilities in a rational and sincere way, his life would not have ended this way.

It is evident that the top secret to success is a fortune in possessing ordinary talents and aptitude, and readiness to take chances in the corporate world, in addition to being industrious, devoid of taking shortcuts with friends. Cultural believes, such as the American dream, should help to instill values in individuals to put efforts in everything that they do.

We will write a custom Essay on Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


2008 and 2013 Sichuan Earthquakes in China Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

The Sichuan Earthquake in 2008

Geological accounts of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

Damages of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

The Sichuan Earthquake 2013

Damages of the 2013 Sichuan Earthquake

Geological explanations



Introduction This paper explores both 2008 and 2013 Sichuan earthquakes in China. It provides detailed descriptions of how each earthquake occurred, similarities and differences between the two incidences. In addition, it shows social and economic effects of the two earthquakes on people.

The Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 On May 12, 2008, a devastating earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9 or 8 on the Ritcher scale rocked Sichuan Province of China. The aftermaths were catastrophic and immediate. It killed around “90,000 people and injured nearly 363,000, destroyed more than 15 million homes, left 10 million homeless and 1.5 million displaced, and it caused more than $20 billion in damage” (Hays, 2011, p. 1).

This was the worst and the most devastating earthquake since “the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 in China” (Hays, 2011, p. 1). The 2008 Sichuan earthquake was stronger than the earthquake that hit Kobe, Japan in 1995. Sichuan took approximately 80 seconds. It caused a movement in the ground of about seven meters close to the epicenter.

The quake broke huge mountains and made rivers to alter their course. In addition, it destroyed bridges, buildings, and pavements. The quake erased the entire town and ripped off highways. It cut off all means of communication in the affected areas. Landslides from the quake buried homes as the wave caused thousands of buildings to collapse and topple.

Geological accounts of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Geologists have long established that there is the Longmenshan fault in Sichuan. It ranges between 250 and 300 kilometers with a width of 30 kilometers. They estimated that the quake could have caused a large movement (13 meters) from the fault line. This is a significant movement. The shaking was massive for more than two minutes. Evidence from the bedrock indicated that damages started from the epicenter and progressed in the northeastern direction.

Scientists noted that the catastrophic strength and magnitude could have emanated from the impacts of the two colliding tectonic plates (Hough, 2002, p. 34). The Longmenshan swerved in two places, which had a length of 100 kilometers and a width of 30 kilometer. In addition, other parts sheered for about 150 kilometers in length and 30 kilometers in width.

Sichuan has three major fault lines in which Longmenshan is the next one to Chengdu (Scholz, 1991, p. 12). Chengdu is a city near to the epicenter of the quake. However, Chengdu did not suffer severe damages because it lies “on a stable area basin of Sichuan and massif of Yangtze” (Hays, 2011, p. 1). There were no reported cases of fatalities from Chengdu.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some scientists noted that a huge dam constructed along the fault line could have played a major role in initiating the earthquake. They noted that the water reservoir could have built the pressure, which caused the quake. Zipingpu Dam’s height is 156 meters. The dam is 550 meters away from the areas of weaknesses and merely 5.5 kilometers far from the epicenter.

Scientists estimated that the weight of the water at the reservoir could have been 315 million tons. This weight was enough to trigger an earthquake or increase its magnitude. Others claimed that Zipingpu dam could have played a role in altering the time or magnitude of the earthquake. Hence, the result was more violent than expected because the dam was close to the fault line.

Most scientists have agreed that such huge dams, which are close to fault lines, can result in tremors. However, other scientists have dismissed the claims that the quake could have originated from the dam. They note that the area of Sichuan lies on an active fault lines. Moreover, the shock was too intensive to result from the dam. Hence, Zipingpu dam was not a major cause of the quake.

Damages of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake The earthquake cut off all means of communication. It caused underground infrastructure to rupture and collapse. It claimed thousands of human lives and animals. Moreover, several people sustained serious injuries. Socially, the Sichuan earthquake of 2008 destroyed families and relations.

The direct economic cost from “the earthquake was over $146 billion” (Hays, 2011, p. 1). Sichuan Province incurred more than 91 percent in losses. The estimated value of the lost property during the earthquake was $122.7 billion. After the earthquake, many people became poor because of the lost property.

Although authorities knew that Sichuan was on active fault lines and susceptible to earthquakes, there was no mitigating approaches to subsequent damages or evacuation and rescue strategies in place to respond to the potential earthquake.

Some claimed that there were clear indications from strange behaviors of animals before the quake. For instance, frogs and toads started to migrate in large numbers before the earthquake took place. These were predictors of the impending quake in the region.

We will write a custom Research Paper on 2008 and 2013 Sichuan Earthquakes in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Sichuan Earthquake 2013 The Sichuan earthquake of April 20, 2013 had a magnitude of 6.6 (EQECAT Inc., 2013, p. 1). The quake generated strong waves of up to 50 kilometers away from the epicenter. However, the impact of the quake was strong in the affected area. Shaking continued for about 60 seconds.

Initial reports had indicated that the quake had claimed about “200 fatalities with thousands of injured persons while others were missing” (EQECAT Inc., 2013, p. 1). The number of fatalities could have risen because of the dense population within the region and impacts of the shaking ground.

Immediate areas near the epicenter of the earthquake suffered severe damages. In most cases, damages are severe in Sichuan province because of a high population density. This earthquake mainly affected rural locations of the province. Many farmers lost their crops and livestock mainly around the Tibetan Plateau.

Damages of the 2013 Sichuan Earthquake Like in the previous earthquake, the region near the epicenter suffered the most damages. Generally, any structures or lives in these areas become extremely vulnerable when shaking takes place. This was also the experience in the 2008 earthquake. While there are some reinforced buildings, many people reside in buildings or structures, which lack reinforcement against earthquakes.

The earthquake left more than 100,000 people without homes and any means of communication. Sichuan is an agricultural zone in China while Chengdu has thrived on manufacturing. As a result, Sichuan has been important to both local and foreign investors. Most commercial centers are near large rivers. These areas have weak grounds, which are prone to movement during shaking.

Thus, the damage to industrial plants and agricultural land were severe. However, the 2013 earthquake did not affect most commercial buildings and industrial plants. Damages from the 2013 earthquake were not widespread relative to the 2008 earthquake.

After the experience of the 2008 earthquake, the Chinese government took some initiatives to “protect its citizens by investing in schools and hospitals” (EQECAT Inc., 2013). It confirmed that no school collapsed in the 2013 Sichuan earthquake. However, there were widespread landslides, which hampered aid efforts and emergency rescue.

Geological explanations Scientists noted that the quake could have occurred along the fault line on the Longmenshan, which was 12 kilometers in depth. The M7.9 earthquake of 2008 originated from the same fault line of Longmenshan. The tectonics of the Himalaya region and Eurasia plates are responsible for seismically active tectonic plates in the region. These plates converge to create seismically active places (Grotzinger and Jordan, 2010, p. 184).

Not sure if you can write a paper on 2008 and 2013 Sichuan Earthquakes in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In both earthquakes of 2008 and 2013, areas near the epicenter experienced the most devastating damages to both lives and properties. Generally, the Longmenshan fault line has been the main source of both the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and the 2013 Sichuan earthquake. The magnitudes of these quakes were different. In addition, impacts differ based on the number of fatalities and damages to property.

Thus, economic and social impacts of both earthquakes are similar, but differ based on the intensity of each quake. On this note, the 2008 Sichuan quake caused the greatest damage than the subsequent one of 2013. In the 2008 earthquake, there were speculations that that the quake could have originated from the large dam next to the epicenter.

However, some scientists warned that the impact was so severe and devastating than what could have originated from the dam. Overall, they concurred that dams do have a role in influencing the time or magnitude of earthquakes. The two colliding tectonic plates have been responsible for the two earthquakes in Sichuan. They release the built up seismic strain that causes damages on the surface of the earth.

References EQECAT Inc. (2013). M6.6 Quake in China Responsible for 200 Fatalities. Web.

Grotzinger, J., and Jordan, T. (2010). Understanding Earth (6th ed.). Cranbury, NJ : WH Freeman.

Hays, J. (2011). SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE IN 2008. Web.

Hough, S. (2002). Earthshaking Science: What We Know (and Don’t Know) about Earthquakes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Scholz, C. (1991). The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Online Shopping: Benefits and Drawbacks Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Benefits of Shopping Online

Disadvantages of Shopping Online



Introduction Online shopping has emerged as a new and important way of making purchases. Due to the increased use of computers and the internet, more people have started to engage in this activity. Businesses see online shopping as an opportunity that can be exploited to increase profitability. For this reason, many businesses in the UK are offering online shopping services to their customers. By doing this, the businesses are able to increase their sales and attract more customers.

Consumers also benefit from the convenience offered by electronic commerce. To begin with, online shopping is easy to take part in. The WebWise Team (2012) explains that a person only needs a credit or debit card and a secure password in order to engage in online shopping. However, online shopping has some potential drawbacks due to its electronic nature. This paper will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of shopping online with examples from my own experiences in online shopping.

Benefits of Shopping Online Online shopping is convenient for the customer since he can make purchases from the comfort of his house. To take part in online shopping, a person simply needs to visit the website of the business and browse through the list of available goods or services. He then clicks on the item he wants to purchase and once the payment is made, the transaction is complete (WebWise Team 2012).

The goods are then delivered to the customers’ address within a given duration of time. This is a very easy way of shopping compared to traditional shopping where a person has to physically visit the business in order to make a purchase. Personally, I have used online shopping to buy books from online stores. I have been able to obtain these products without visiting the bookstores in person.

This has saved me the time and expense it would have taken to travel to the physical location of the shops. Another major advantage of online shopping is that it allows the consumer to search for the preferred good from many stores in a convenient manner. Before making a purchase, most people prefer to visit a number of stores and discover the best style of the product they want to buy.

Online shopping makes it easy for the person to search for products from numerous stores. Using search engines such as Google and Bing, a person is able to identify numerous stores offering the same product (WebWise Team 2012). It is more likely that you will find the product that suits your exact requirements due to the great variety presented by online shopping.

When shopping for gifts for my friends, I find the large variety offered by online shopping very helpful. I am able to obtain a large catalogue of goods to choose from and find the most fascinating gift for my friends. Online shopping is therefore very beneficial to me since it gives me access to more shops and products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The last major advantage of online shopping is that it assists the customer to find the best deal on a product. When making a purchase, a person mostly searches for the store that offers the best quality product at the lowest price. It is therefore important to make a comparison of the pricing and quality of products offered by the various stores. In most cases, different stores offer different pricing on particular products so that they can attract customers.

When engaging in traditional shopping, a person has to be involved in window-shopping in order to discover the best deal. This is a tedious process as you may have to visit numerous stores before you find the best deal. Most people end up settling for a deal that is not necessarily the best. This is not the case with online shopping where one can compare prices at the click of a mouse.

It is easier to find discounts on the product you want to purchase through online shopping by looking for the product through search engines. WebWise Team (2012) explains that online shopping is beneficial when you want to compare prices for products that are identical regardless of the store you purchase them from. I have found bargain deals in electronic products by searching through various online stores. As a result, I have benefited from the best price because of online shopping.

Disadvantages of Shopping Online In spite of the many benefits of online shopping, this mode of purchase has some significant drawbacks. Undoubtedly, the most significant drawback is the security concerns associated with the use of credit cards online. In order to complete the online shopping process, one has to offer payment for the product selected. To complete this payment section, one is required to enter his credit or debit card details into the website (Bradbury 2008).

The credit and debit card details are sensitive since they can be stolen by an intruder. If this happens, the intruder can misuse the customer’s credit card by making purchases that will be charged to the credit card owner. This will result in financial loss for the customer. The security risk associated with online shopping has led to many people avoiding this exposure to hackers and fraudsters.

Bradbury (2008) confirms that the fear of giving out credit card details online prevents many people from engaging in online shopping. The risk of having my credit card numbers stolen as I engage in online shopping has greatly limited my participation in online shopping. So far, I only engage in online shopping from stores that I can trust. I have faith in the security system provided by these stores and therefore feel safe when making payments there.

Another significant drawback of online shopping is that it requires the customers to reveal personal information. If this information is accessed by a third party, it might violate the privacy of the customer. In order for the transaction to be complete, the customer has to provide information including his name, address, and telephone number. The customer also has to provide information on the product that he is buying from the website.

We will write a custom Essay on Online Shopping: Benefits and Drawbacks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most online stores store this information on a permanent basis in their databases. There are major concerns over the safety of the customer information stored by the online store. Bradbury (2008) states that most online stores in the UK do not implement strong security measures when handling customer details. It is therefore possible for a hacker to obtain private customer information from the online store.

Hackers can steal customer account details and use them to commit crimes such as identity theft. I suspect that some of the information I have provided at an online store was accessed by a third party illegally since I have been receiving unsolicited mail using the email address that I provided at the website.

Finally, online shopping can compromise the integrity of the customer’s personal computer. Surfing the internet is a hazardous experience since one is likely to encounter viruses that will harm the computer. Online shopping requires the user to visit new websites that offer the desired online goods. Bradbury (2008) warns that online shopping can expose the consumer to malicious scripts and viruses.

Most online store owners are not concerned with security. They are online interested in selling their products to the customers. Some therefore end up infecting customers’ machines without knowing. When a computer is infected, its performance may become degraded. In addition to this, it is easy to steal information from infected machines. Bradbury (2008) reveals that some hackers insert malicious scripts that steal customer passwords.

Conclusion This paper set out to discuss the merits and drawbacks of online shopping. It began by noting that online shopping is gaining popularity as more people make use of computers and the internet. The merits associated with online shopping were then discussed. The paper revealed that online shopping is convenient, offers greater variety, and enables the customer to get the best price for the products.

However, the paper also acknowledged that there are some significant disadvantages of online shopping. They include the risk of credit card theft, theft of personal information, and infection of the customers’ computer. From the discussions offered in this paper, it is evident that most of the drawbacks associated with online shopping arise from security concerns. It can therefore be claimed that if the security concerns are effectively addressed, online shopping will a safe and convenient method of buying items for the consumer.

References Bradbury, D 2008, Is online shopping ever secure? Web.

WebWise Team 2012, What is online shopping? Web.

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The Venus Women’s Garage Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

The Product


Sales Strategy

Executive Summary A number of changes have been witnessed in various parts of the world. For instance, most societies across the globe aim at bringing up women who are self-reliant economically and socially. Consequently, the founders of Venus garage have the pleasure to usher in a new fundamental facility that will address most women’s needs.

The Venus (women’s garage) facility aims at providing Kuwait women with a chance to have their cars repaired while at the same time paying attention to their beauty needs. The Kuwait society has been delimited over the years by Middle Eastern rituals, beliefs, and customs. As a result, a number of women in the Kuwait society have often lacked the opportunity to be independent.

For example, the Kuwait women who are motorists cannot access motor vehicle services at a garage. As a result, they always have to seek assistance from their male relatives or friends in order to have their cars repaired. Therefore, the Venus garage aims at addressing the women’s needs that the Kuwait society has overlooked over the years. The Venus garage will offer its clients an array of services for the female motorists in Kuwait.

Some of the services will include, a beauty parlor that will offer several beauty care services, a cafeteria, as well as, a motor vehicle garage. The Venus garage will also have highly skilled professionals who will deliver first class and relevant services in accordance to the needs of the clients.

Currently, the market that Venus will be part of has two major rivals. As a result, the Venus garage aims at initiating new trends and offering quality services and products. The Venus garage aims at attaining its goals through vigorous promotional campaigns, which will take place in every part of Kuwait. The promotional campaigns will help to promote the slogan of Venus garage, which is entitled “motors made beautiful”.

The Venus garage clearly understands that the customers form the core of their assets. Therefore, Venus aims at satisfying the needs and the expectations of its customers by exploiting the CRM strategy that encompasses establishment of a loyalty program and supplementary benefits.

The CRM strategy will enable Venus to manage its interactions with customers effectively by employing the use of technology in marketing and offering customer services. In order for Venus to scale greater heights in the market in terms of growth and expansion, the company will have to develop strategies that will enable it to adapt effectively to change. The company will also have to provide first class services through a team of zealous and skilled staff.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Product The Venus women’s garage is a facility that aims at providing motor vehicle repair and beauty services to Kuwait female motorists. The Venus garage will be strategically located at the heart of Kuwait city along Alsoor Street near Dasman square roundabout. The customers are assured of a relaxing experience due to its exclusiveness founded upon aromatherapy concept.

At Venus, we believe that every female motorist requires an additional subtle care for herself, as well as, her car. Customers can access services offered at Venus via two major channels. First, a customer can book for an appointment via the Venus website. Second, customers can reserve their visits by dialing the Venus hotline numbers.

Some of the services that will be offered at Venus include motor vehicle repair services, maintenance/periodical checkups, carwash services, as well as, self-care services such as trendy manicure and pedicure, hair care services, and aromatherapy services. Additionally, customers will also have access to a cafeteria that will be serving different hot and cold beverages, fresh snacks, and salads.

Vision The vision of Venus garage is to bring together Kuwait female motorists while providing them with professional motor vehicle and beauty care services at a competitive price within the shortest time possible that provides for optimal revenue and returns.

Sales Strategy In order to generate its sales, the Venus garage will employ the penetration strategy. The penetration strategy will enable it to provide target customers with subsidized prices in comparison to its competitors in the market. The strategy will entail provision of an increased number of services offered, as well as, supplementary promotional services such as free car wash and health checkups on oil and tires for new and regular customers.

The major goal of Venus garage is to provide its clients with first class services at minimum cost. The penetration strategy is justifiable because of the existing fierce competition in the market. The major rivals in the market already have established brands and a strong base of customers.

Therefore, it might be detrimental for the Venus garage to pursue a similar pricing strategy as its competitors. Venus should offer lower prices and properly package its services in order to draw customers. As a result, it will have an opportunity of generating more sales within a short period. Additionally, intensive research and development will enable Venus to stay relevant in the market.

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Archaeology of Ancient People Essay cheap essay help

History of evolution began 6 million years ago. Specifically, the study of hominids was extensive because it focused on genus Homo. Hominids had anatomy, which enabled them to walk as well as stand on two feet. The earliest reconstruction of genus Homo was Lucy’s skeleton. It was fully bipedal with a small cranial capacity. Additionally, it was just over three feet tall.

According to estimations, Lucy’s fossils dated 3.2 million years. Lucy’s fossils were discovered in Ethiopia. This paper will explore the development of early hominids between 6 and 1.9 million years ago. To achieve this, the paper will describe major human fossils and archaeological findings in this period (Matt, Smith


Starbucks’ Structure Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Starbucks is an American company that started in 1971 in Seattle, America. The company started with roasting and retailing both whole bean and ground coffee. As well, the company sold tea and spices starting with one outlet at Pike Place Market. As of now, Starbucks sells to several million customers daily over an expanded geographical region. Starbucks also sells other goods and services far from what it started with.

Statistically, Starbucks has over 18,000 retail outlets spread in over sixteen countries. The company operates in Europe, the United States, South America, Asia, some parts of Africa and North America. With its mission “to inspire and nurture the human spirit-one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time”, the company continues to provide high quality products to its customers.

It buys coffee from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and roasts it at its own facilities (Morris 2006). The company offers a number of products to its customer base throughout the world, which includes different blends of coffee, handcrafted beverages, merchandises such as mugs, brewing equipment, gift items, and music. As well, the company offers fresh food, consumer products such as coffee and tea, Ready-to-Drink drinks, and ice cream.

The company continues to sustain a responsibility policy through its three pillars of responsibility, which are ethical sourcing, environmental stewardship, and community involvement. Concerning ethical sourcing, the company supports its farmers through loans and supporting forestry programs. The company also commits to conserving the environment with the use of recyclable materials for making cups.

Starbucks has invested in research with the view to making all its cups reusable by 2015. The company also supports community service projects (Morris 2006). A job description is an outline of the expected functions, roles, and responsibilities of a candidate during a recruitment process. Both the job description and the job requirements are specific to the open position.

One of the most important job positions at Starbucks is that of a barperson. The barperson is the “face” of Starbucks since she is the person who deals with customers first hand. The barperson receives and helps customers to their seats and proceeds to take orders. Another important function of a barperson at Starbucks is recording the transactions and maintaining such records in a proper form for purposes of bookkeeping.

A job description is a summary of the roles and functions that an employee serves in an organization. As well, a job description lists out the requirements of the job (Morris 2006). The barperson reports to the café manager and is responsible for providing superior and customer friendly service to customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the duties and responsibilities of a barperson, include taking customers’ orders and fulfilling them, recording all cash and credit transactions while maintaining the balances, reporting to duty for the allocated shifts, and displaying new information concerning Starbucks’ services for the customers’ attention.

As well, the barperson coordinates with the other employees of the company whereas attending all trainings and seminars offered by the company. Importantly, the barperson should diligently follow all instructions and orders from the café manger. In order to qualify for this position, a candidate should have cleared high school and should hold over one year experience in a similar environment.

In addition to these requirements, the person should have the following person specifications: be passionate about coffee and customer service, and as well be energetic, detail oriented, and enjoy working with people (Reilly, Minnick


Teachings of Jesus and Kant Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The process of making moral judgment is guided by rational principles, which are based on teachings of Jesus and Kant. According to Jesus, people should not judge others lest they be judged too. The principle is usually misinterpreted to mean that it is wrong to make any moral judgment. Jesus urged people to do to others the things they would want done for them too.

Individuals who follow the principles of Jesus regard the rule as universal and golden in making moral judgments (Barry


Response to Aviation Accidents Explicatory Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Interaction during investigations

FAA investigation of an accident

Investigation by the NTBS

Tests to determine aircraft defects

Report preparation

Safety recommendations



Introduction Accidents are common occurrences in the aviation industry. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are responsible for investigating aviation accidents and giving safety recommendations. In addition, they develop rules, policies, and laws to alleviate reduce accidents (Federal Aviation Administration, 2011).

The two bodies work together through exchange of information and research findings. The NTSB was founded in 1967 and is responsible for investigating and resolving cases linked to accidents involving various modes of transport (Elliot, 2013). To maintain the board’s autonomy, any information, data, or statistics collected cannot be used as evidence in a court of law.

On the other hand, the FAA was founded after enactment of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. It oversees operations and activities related to civil aviation. Some of its core roles include issuing and revoking pilot licenses, developing civil aeronautics, regulating aviation standards, and regulating the aviation industry in order to maintain and promote safety (Elliot, 2013). In case of an accident, the two bodies work together to find the cause and offer recommendations.

Interaction during investigations The main division of the NTSB involved in accidents investigations is the “Go Team.” The team’s main role is to commence investigations shortly after an accident has taken place. Team members offer their expertise at the scene of accident in efforts to ascertain the cause. The team comprises several professionals from the Board’s headquarters in Washington who are usually specialists in different fields.

Within the FAA, the Office of Accident Investigation and Prevention is involved in accident investigation (Federal Aviation Administration 2011). The office identifies transportation hazards and risks, and consequently develops safety measures aimed at improving safety.

The two agencies interact during an accident investigation by carrying out their respective roles. The NTBS main role is to enhance transport safety. It is responsible for investigating aviation, marine, pipelines, and railways accidents (Federal Aviation Administration, 2011). On the other hand, the FAA enacts policies and regulations that govern the transport industry.

Therefore, the NTBS cannot make any rules or establish new policies to govern the transport sector. However, it can give recommendations o the FAA regarding necessary policies and procedures that can be enacted to improve safety. During an investigation, the NTBS plays a major role. It investigates the matter thoroughly and determines cause of the accident.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The FAA is also involved. It sends a representative to the scene of accident to aid in determination of the cause. The role of the representative is to establish whether any rules and regulations were violated, which could have led to the accident. The FAA does not give a final ruling on the matter. The NTSB collects necessary data and information from the scene while the FAA determines whether rules and regulations were violated (Federal Aviation Administration 2011).

Together, the two bodies work to determine how and why the accident occurred. Their interaction and cooperation are augmented by their common goal of improving transport safety. During an accident, the FAA helps the NTBS conduct investigation. In addition, it conducts its own investigation to ensure that safety is given priority.

FAA investigation of an accident The FAA investigation of an aviation accident involves many aspects. For example, it includes a review of whether the air carrier involved in the accident complied with FAA’s rules and regulations, reviews whether the aircraft had necessary maintenance guidelines and manuals, and reviews all the company’s safety guidelines and procedures (Federal Aviation Administration 2013).

Other things involved in an investigation include review of pilot’s expertise and medical history, maintenance logbooks, adherence to flight times, and a review of the status of airport structures and amenities. The FAA collects any information that could aid in identifying cause of the accident (Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association 2013). Any information relevant to the investigation is shared with the NTBS investigation committee.

After an accident has been reported, the local Flights Standards District Office commences gathering information and data on the possible cause of the accident. The Operations Office within the FAA notifies the NTBS’ headquarters and the responsible local office (Federal Aviation Administration 2013).

During an investigation, the Operations Center provides teleconferencing and other communication services to help both the FAA and the NTBS teams. Interaction starts before commencement of investigations. The FAA arranges for transportation of NTBS members to the scene of accident. During investigation, the FAA provides additional services to members.

These services include medical aid and financial funding. In addition, it provides miscellaneous services such as component testing and research (Federal Aviation Administration, 2013). The NTBS organizes and manages investigation teams and ensures that all necessary tests are carried out.

We will write a custom Essay on Response to Aviation Accidents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Before termination of an investigation, every investigation member must agree to the validity and viability of information collected. During an investigation, the FAA reviews the recommendations and analyses of the NTBS in relation to aviation guidelines and policies.

Investigation by the NTBS Immediately after an aviation accident occurs, the NTBS sends a “go-team” to the scene of accident within two to three hours (National Transport Safety Board 2009). Prior to the release of the team, the Board sends a representative from the regional or local office to the accident scene. The IIC, an investigation division of the NTBS organizes and manages the investigation team at the scene (National Transport Safety Board 2009).

It coordinates and oversees all investigation activities. The representative from the regional office commences investigation before arrival of the go-team. The IIC has several roles in an investigation. First, it ensures that evidence that could lead to identification of the accident cause is secure (Federal Aviation Administration 2013). Second, it identifies any hazardous materials that could be harmful to investigators.

Third, it manages the crash site. Upon arrival at the scene, NTBS investigation members make a tour of the scene and get a briefing from the officer in charge (National Transport Safety Board 2009). Go-team members form teams to commence investigations.

Specialists in areas such as air traffic control, operations, aviation systems, and aircraft performance lead the teams. An aircraft performance specialist carries out most of the investigation by assessing the aircraft’s systems and components for faults (National Transport Safety Board 2009). Another specialist conducts interviews and reviews the aircraft’s records.

Tests to determine aircraft defects After an accident, the FAA and NTSB utilize several tests to determine if factors such as structural failure and fire were possible causes of the accident. Some of the methods used to detect defects in aircraft include liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, infrared thermography, sonic, Eddy current, and magnetic particle methods (Khan 2009). Aircraft structures are easily destroyed by fires and lightning.

Therefore, non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are used to establish possible causes of damage on aircraft components. Degree of damage depends on type of structure and material used to make the aircraft. The team also gathers additional information and data that assist in determination of the cause of the accident. It collects ATC radar data, weather data from the National Weather Service, transcripts of radio transmissions, and pilot’s medical history (Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association 2013).

Eddy current and ultrasonic inspection methods are used to detect tiny cracks in the structure of an aircraft (Khan 2009). In addition, the method is used to measure degree of metal thinning that is caused by corrosion. In extreme cases, X-ray techniques are used to detect defects inside the structure of the aircraft’s components that cannot be detected using other methods (Khan 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Response to Aviation Accidents by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liquid penetrant method is used to detect surface defects in the structure of the aircraft. Magnetic particle method is used to detect defects on any ferromagnetic material used in construction of components such as gearboxes, pumps, and shafts. Resonance methods are used to detect weaknesses in bonds between composite structures (Khan, 2009).

Report preparation After on-scene investigation, the investigation teams commence a period of report writing that includes combining all their findings (National Transport Safety Board 2004). In addition, the period involves further research that includes gathering of facts and collection of data. Information is collected from public hearings, after which it is analyzed and included in the final report.

After presentation of the report, the NTBS establishes follow-up events that go on for a period of over six months to ensure proper implementation of safety recommendations. The report-writing process begins with a meeting that involves members of the NTBS safety board. They deliberate of activities such as tests and interviews with survivors (National Transport Safety Board 2004).

In addition, the team agrees on a date for presentation of the final report. Members that do not belong to NTBS such as FAA members contribute by reviewing, commenting, and offering suggestions on the report draft. If deemed necessary, a public hearing is included in the report-writing process. Public hearing is necessary for accidents that involve massive loss of lives.

Participants during a public hearing include survivors, FAA regulators, air traffic controllers, aircraft manufacturers, and fire and rescue professionals (National Transport Safety Board 2004). The FAA serves a critical role during the report-writing process. It reviews the analytical process and ensures that all regulations relating to aviation safety standards are adhered to (National Transport Safety Board 2004).

Its role in the process is minimal. The IIC integrates factual reports from various parties into a final report. In addition, it makes conclusions and recommendations. The report is then given to several agencies that deal with aviation safety such as Office of Research and Engineering (ORE), the Office of Safety Recommendations, and the general counsel.

Safety recommendations Recommendations are the most important aspect of an aviation accident investigation. The safety Board is given the responsibility to give recommendations that could improve safety of the aviation industry. The board addresses safety deficiencies and issues recommendations based on findings of the investigation (National Transport Safety Board 2010).

The report helps improve safety through implementation of recommendations from the investigation team. The FAA and NTBS give recommendations on how aviation safety could be improved. The NTBS establishes follow-up activities to ensure that recommendations are implemented (National Transport Safety Board, 2010).

Conclusion The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are responsible for investigating aviation accidents. In addition, they develop rules, policies, and laws to alleviate the problem of aviation accidents that have been on the increase in recent past. In an aviation accident investigation, the FAA and NTSB work together in efforts to find the cause.

Each of the agencies plays a different role. For example, the NTSB collects data and information related to the accident and analyzes it. On the other hand, the FAA reviews findings of the NTSB and finds out whether any aviation rules and regulations were violated, which could have been a cause of the accident. During an investigation, the NTSB and FAA conduct several tests to detect defects in the structure of the aircraft.

Tests are meant to determine whether factors such as fires and lightning were causes of the accident. These tests include destructive and non-destructive tests. Methods used for non-destructive tests include liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, infrared thermography, sonic, Eddy current, and magnetic particle methods.

References Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association: Accident Analysis. (2013). Web.

Elliot, P. (2013). NTBS an FAA investigate Air Show Crash. Web.

Federal Aviation Administration: Lessons Learned from Transport Airplane Accidents. (2011). Web.

Federal Aviation Administration: Accidents and Incidents Data. (2013). Web.

Khan, A. Non-Destructive Testing Applications in Commercial Aircraft Maintenance. (2009). Web.

National Transport Safety Board: The investigative Process at NTSB. (2009). Web.

National Transport Safety Board: Aircraft Accident Report. (2004). Web.

National Transport Safety Board: Safety Recommendation History. (2010). Web.


The Multics Operating System Project Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Features


Impacts and influences on Modern day trends

Other operating systems with Multics influences


Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was a time-sharing operating system developed by MIT, Bell Telephone Laboratories, and General Electric Company since 1965 (Saltzer, 1974, pp. 8-24). Multics last known installation was shut in 2000 in Canada.

Features Multics had some unique features. Multics had a program that controlled all hardware elements by relying on “symmetric multiprocessing, paging, and multiprogramming” features (Multics, 2013, para. 1; Daley and Neumann, 1965, pp. 84-100). The system had virtual memory. The hardware had to change virtual addresses from the CPU into real addresses (Multics, 2013, para. 1).

Users could gain access to virtual memory through hierarchical levels by depending on disks, storage and page components. The OS had a segmented memory, which the user could interact with directly. In some cases, different processes shared a segment. Every segment had addresses “consisting of up to 1MB or 0 to 256K words” (Multics, 2013, para. 1).

The architect linked “the file system with the memory access system” (Multics, 2013, para. 1). This allowed others programs to access files by referring to the memory. Multics also had high standards of language usages. It used PL/I language based on the IBM proposal. The use of high-level language for OS in 1960s was an ambitious approach at the time of Multics development.

In addition, the system could support several languages. The system also used relational database. This was the first commercial relational database in the market. Developers designed a secure system from the start of the project. Its security features earned B2 rating awarded by NCSC of the US government.

The OS had online reconfiguration (Schell, 1971, p. 86). The system could run without stopping throughout its lifespan. Users could add or remove some components of the system while it was still running. Such components included CPUs, disk drives, and memory among others.

Paul Karger and Roger Schell studied Multics vulnerability and noted that the OS could not meet security requirements in its original form (Karger and Schell, n.d, pp. 1-24; Downey, 1977, p. 45). Thus, it was not suitable for an open multi-level system. On the other hand, these researchers noted that Multics had superior security features than other current systems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They observed that Multics could still work today as a basic Secret or Top Secret system. Multics could also provide a platform in which new systems could rely on to develop advanced secure multi-level systems. During software engineering processes, the team spent resources in order to create an effective OS (Gedda, 2009, pp. 1-4).

They developed and wrote the manual prior to the project implementation. The manual contained details about the system. Multics operated on a high-level language together with different codes, designs, programming, and layering technologies. These aimed at controlling the system complexity.

Goals Developers of Multics aimed at creating a convenient system that could offer remote terminal abilities. They wanted to create a system that could operate in analogue manner like electricity and telephone services. The system had different approaches to configuration. These were alterable without the system or user involvement in the process. In addition, developers of Multics wanted to build a system with highly reliable internal files (Multics, 2013, para. 1).

The system could support selective processes of sharing information (Saltzer, 1974, pp. 388-402). Developers of Multics aimed to create “a hierarchical structure system, which could support information sharing, administrative roles, and decentralized user activities” (Multics, 2013, para. 2; Organick, 1972, p. 74).

At the same time, developers strived at building a system that would run on different types of applications. This would allow Multics to support several programming approaches and other external interfaces. Finally, the team wanted to create a system that could change based on unique needs of users and changes in technologies.

Impacts and influences on Modern day trends Programmers of Unix operating system had extensive knowledge in the Multics operating system. Influences of Multics are evident in naming of features such as files and segments. However, these two systems had different internal design approaches. Unix aimed at improving some weaknesses in Multics. For instance, Unix wanted to develop a small and simple system in order to reduce the need for many resources.

In other words, Unix would operate on limited hardware compared to Multics. Some scholars claim that the name Unix, which was initially Unics, originated from Multics. They also argued that the ‘U’ stood for uniplexed rather than the complex Multiplexed of Multics. On this note, critics asserted that Unix developers rejected the complex approach to programming.

We will write a custom Essay on The Multics Operating System Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, its developers concentrated on a single workable method for small computers. The name reflected a low or a ‘castrated’ form of Multics i.e., the pun was UNICS (Garfinkel and Abelson, 1999, pp. 21-41). Peter Seibel noted that Ken Thompson referred to Multics as an overdesigned and overbuilt system (Seibel, 2007, p. 449). These qualities almost made the system unusable.

MIT and Fernando J. Corbato claimed that the system was a success. However, Ken Thompson believed that Multics failed to achieve its goals (Gedda, 2009, pp. 1-4; Seibel, 2007, p. 449). Today, the hierarchical file system and the use of the shell in Multics still have strong influences on programmers because these methods provided simple approaches of replacing other processes while programming.

Fernando Corbato believed that the name Multics was serious and suggested the value and goal of the system. In this context, developers did not associate the name with any of the involved organizations. Corbato agreed that Multics and Unix shared a pun of the name Multics (Gedda, 2009, pp. 1-4).

Other operating systems with Multics influences Apart from Unix, Multics has also influenced other operating systems. For instance, the Prime Computer operating system (PRIMOS) relied on Multics designs. In addition, the Domain/OS have also used Multics ideologies. The Stratus VOS operating system had relied on “Multics to design its internal and external features” (Seibel, 2007, p. 449).

For instance, Stratus VOS OS borrowed reliability, security, and availability features from Multics. These two projects had some resembling features in reliability, support, and security (Schroeder and Saltzer, 1972, pp. 157-170). Stratus VOS has a direct connection with the Multics, and it remains one of the surviving OS developed from Multics ideologies.

The ICL’s VME operating system relied on Multics security features. Such features had the ability to control access to resources at one side of the system. There are also other operating systems, which have borrowed other features from Multics. Overall, Corbato observes that modern computing relies on Multics approaches like “hierarchical file systems, file access controls, and dynamic linking on demand” (Gedda, 2009, p. 2) in order to develop their operating systems.

Corbato notes that the approach of high-level language was rather ambitious at the time of developing Multics. However, he asserts that it was necessary to improve the effectiveness of every input in the system. Today, he believes that developers would have picked a simple programming language than the PL/I.

References Daley, R and Neumann, P. (1965). A General Purpose File System for Secondary Storage. Montvale, N.J: AFIPS Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Multics Operating System Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Downey, P. (1977). Multics Security Evaluation: Password and File Encryption Techniques. Hanscom AFB, MA: HQ Electronic Systems Division.

Garfinkel, S., and Abelson, H. (1999). Architects of the Information Society: Thirty-Five Years of the Laboratory for Computer Science at MIT. Massachusett : MIT Press.

Gedda, R. (2009). CIO Blast from the Past: 40 years of Multics, 1969-2009. Web.

Karger, P., and Schell, R. (n.d). Multics Security Evaluation: Vulnerability Analysis. Web.

Multics. (2013). Web.

Organick, I. (1972). The Multics System: An Examination of Its Structure. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Saltzer, H. (1974). Protection and the Control of Information Sharing in Multics. Comm. ACM, 17(7), 388-402.

Saltzer, J. (1974). Introduction to Multics. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Schell, R. (1971). Dynamic Reconfiguration in a Modular Computer System. Cambridge: MIT Project MAC.

Schroeder, D. and Saltzer, J. (1972). A Hardware Architecture for Implementing Protection Rings. Comm. ACM, 15(3), 157-170.

Seibel, P. (2007). Coders at Work: Reflections on the Craft of Programming. New York: APress Publications.


Posh Pastries Entering the South America Proposal argumentative essay help

Introduction Posh Pastries is a US-based organization that specializes in the production of pastries. Following resounding success in Northern Mexico, the company now intends on entering the South American market through Colombia. A country analysis revealed that Colombia’s political and economic situation is quite promising. Posh’s products have a two-month shelf life, which allows for overseas shipping.

Nonetheless, many consumers value the taste of freshly-baked pastries. As a result, this organization will ship some of its products from the USA and also prepare others at the chosen location in Colombia. The project will lead to cultural exchanges between the US and Colombia because most desserts in the target market do not consist of pastries. Since Posh Pasties will be offering something new, chances are that the organization will do relatively well.

Expansion into the South American country will require a sum of $526,150. Currently, the organization already has a series of equipment and supplies to create its products. Nonetheless, the freshly-made ones will require investment in new personnel, equipment supplies, marketing efforts and facilities. These costs have all been included in the budget.

The business expansion will diversify the business and boost its revenue streams. It will also foster cultural and political ties between the US and Colombia. The evaluation plan will measure the extent to which Posh Pastries achieves those results by looking at the revenue streams that some into the company after the project. It should record an increase of approximately 5% by the first year and this should increase by another 5% in the subsequent year.

The business will also analyze how effective Posh Pastries was at fostering cultural connections through an annual survey. Individuals in the chosen location will respond to a questionnaire in which they will state whether they are familiar with pastries sold at Posh. They will also state whether these foods have fostered an appreciation of American foods.

Statement of the Problem Many people around the world are familiar with the American way of life. They have watched Hollywood films, which reflect only some aspects of American living. None-English speaking countries like Colombia may not be as cultural sensitive to the US as other English-speaking nations since they cannot follow these films. It is necessary to consider another platform that would speak universally to people, and food is one avenue.

Expanding a food business overseas would facilitate cultural sensitivity in a way that conventional methods would not. Traditionally, business lunches have brought people together in the most unrelated cultures. The food that Americans eat is symptomatic of their culture. It is a collection of the geography, the history and traditions that the country has enjoyed over the centuries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, when a food business expands into a foreign market, it engages in cultural diplomacy. The US is in need of a medium that will celebrate the richness and uniqueness of American cuisine. A small or intermediate enterprise can achieve this goal effortlessly (Wilk, 2006).

Posh Pastries is a medium-sized business that has been doing relatively well in its home country. Further, it has done well in the few foreign countries it has chosen so far. It requires new opportunities that will grow the business and take it to the next level. Companies that keep growing have a higher chance of succeeding than those that stagnate.

The company needs exposure to a different way of conducting business, and Colombia could be that answer. It is a given fact that the US is a mature market. Some countries around the world are at different levels of economic growth.

Therefore, they may not have accessed some of the products that are so common to US consumers. Posh Pastries is facing stiff competition from a diverse array of pastry makers in it base markets. It needs to diversify its business by going across the border and finding markets that are not as saturated as the US.

Project details Goals and objectives

The purpose of this project is to increase revenue for Posh Pastries. As stated earlier, the company operates in a mature market where growth prospects are minimal. It is necessary to have an alternative that will reverse this stagnant growth. Net increases in revenue should be an indicator that the strategy is working. Another key goal for entering Colombia is to boost cultural ties between the US and Colombia.

The dietary customs of the Colombian people are significantly different from the ones in the American market. Therefore, this business intends on acting as a site for cultural and political exchanges. It intends on fostering an appreciation of American foods by influencing the eating habits of the Colombian people.


The organization targets the average Colombian consumer. Posh Pastries will select convenience stores that have a high rate of visibility in the capital. Pastries tend to be consumed on the go; therefore, persons need to see the items easily. These goods will be within the price range of other baked goods in the location. Therefore, buyers are likely to represent middle-income consumers.

We will write a custom Proposal on Posh Pastries Entering the South America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sweet things are usually not planned expenditures; this means that persons with some extra money to spare will buy the items. Since Colombia’s economy is doing relatively well, it is likely that a substantial portion of the population will have some discretionary cash. Clients in urban areas are ideal for this business because their population density will sustain Posh Pastries.

Persons living in metropolitan areas are also more open to new culinary ideas than people in the rural areas. University students will also provide a good consumer base. One of the convenience stores selling the commodity will be near a prominent university (Barrow et. al., 2008).


The organization will partner with local grocery stores to stock their products within their facilities. Since the pastries are exceptionally flavored and use superior ingredients, it will not be advisable to place them in supermarkets. Posh pastries will also have its own stores where it will sell its products exclusively.

At this location, customers can find freshly-baked goods, which may not be available in the other locations. Therefore, the entry strategy into Colombia will entail direct importing and joint ventures. These local stores speak the same language as the target consumers.

They also have thorough knowledge of the Colombian food market, so they will enrich Posh Pastries’ skill levels. Besides the joint venture, it will be necessary to have a local branch in the country. This approach will ascertain that customers know how the freshly-made versions taste.

It will lure buyers into the location simply because of the smell. All the partners working together with the organization will receive training on how to display the pastries attractively. Since visual stimulation is a key marketing tool, then all the grocery stores must learn how to do store displays.

Administration and staff

All the conveniences stores, as well as the branches working with Posh Pastries in Colombia, will be under a country manager. The person will have a branch manager in each store to oversee operations. These managers will be responsible for the creation of marketing and promotional strategies, expansion and other aspects of business operation in Colombia.

A cashier will be imperative in the business as he or she will receive cash and issue receipts for orders made. The business will have pastry chefs in the local bakery. Here, a head chef will plan the day’s baking schedule. He or she will also oversee the preparation, decoration and completion of orders. In some circumstances when client traffic is overwhelming, the head chef will also participate in cooking.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Posh Pastries Entering the South America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other pastry chefs will carry out routine baking. They will also decorate and present the items. Each shop will have a busboy who will clean the shop as well as the baking utensils. There will be sales assistants who will sell the product and ensure that others meet customer needs.

Available resources Posh Pastries has already been in business in four countries. Therefore, it has capital for running a Pastry business successfully. First, the organization has equipment like the industrial mixer. It also has a double stack oven, work tables, display cases, stovetop ranges, cash registers and cooking utensils. Some of these utensils include stencils, baking sheets, pans, and plastic spatulas.

These equipments are in the US where workers make products and then ship them to intended locations. However, since t the company will combine local production with shipping in this project, then these equipments will need to be replicated in the said market.

Other than equipment, Posh Pastries already has locations in the US, where it makes the pastries. The baking facilities are already in good condition, so they do not require any renovation. These locations will account for a substantial portion of the shipped goods. Additionally, the company has a series of pastry chefs, and managers within the business.

These individuals have vast knowledge of what it takes to succeed in the highly competitive US pastry market. Since the organization has been doing relatively well, it has some financial resources needed to expand into Colombia. However, this money is not enough. An external source of funding will boost the company’s project by preventing it from using its internal revenue.

Some intangible assets available in the company include knowledge about pastry making, media advertising and campaign strategies. The organization also knows selection of prime locations, employee training, selection of business partners, and consumer targeting. Posh Pastries has acquired some knowledge about the Colombian food market.

The organization has already researched about the flexible nature of food tastes in the country. It has also identified the best locations for the business. These are areas that have high foot traffic, a relatively young population as well as middle income earners. This company also has knowledge of the competitive situation in the country. It will also replicate the success it has reported in Mexico by maintaining the display systems and operations used in this country.

Needed resources Personnel

Most of the pastry chefs and managers available are in the US. It will be necessary to hire persons from Colombia. Branch managers need to come from the country as they will already have their own convenience stores. However, country managers will come from the US as they will bring expertise from Posh pastries’ thriving business.

Additionally, the head pastry chef will also come from the US branch, but other chefs should be Colombian locals. They ought to receive training on how to prepare the goods before they can start work. A total of six branch managers is necessary.

All other casual employees such as the busboy, cashier, sales persons will come from Colombia. It is essential to get these people from the local community because they understand local payment systems, they know about the business culture and the working hours in those areas. They will speak to consumers and other partners in a language that they understand.


Some of the partnering convenience stores will already possess premises for the sale of those goods. However, the company will also have its own bakery located in the target country. It is advisable to rent the premises other than purchase it; at least for the first few months.

A place of 1,600 square feet will be necessary. Rent payment for the first 12 months is essential. Inside the convenience stores, Posh Pastries will require display cases. There will also be an office for the country manager as the person will conduct media strategies and make other decisions in this location.

Equipment, supplies and communication

The available equipment cannot be transported to the new target country. Therefore, Posh Pastries will have to purchase new equipment for the successful creation of a bakery in Colombia. The company will need a double stack oven, and industrial mixer, work tables, display cases, fridges, cash register, stovetop range, and a coffee machine.

It is advisable for the organization to have enough supplies to cover operating costs for the first twelve months. Therefore, the organization needs to purchase baking flour, baking powder, milk, sugar, oil, butter, vanilla, vinegar, eggs, preservatives, dried coconut, chocolate, cocoa and salt. Workers will purchase these items in bulk at the beginning of the project. However those that do not keep well, like butter and milk should be purchased daily or at least weekly.

Advertisements on key media outlets like radio, magazines and the internet will be the main communication channels. The organization will investment in placement of advertisements on well-known magazines in the country. These publications will have high circulation rates around the selected locations. Posh Pastries will also open a website for the Colombian population.

It will contain colorful depictions of the product offerings as well as where to find them. This company will also advertise on the internet by targeting likely sites for Colombian cuisine. Radio advertisements will talk about where the products are and how they can be derived (Barrow et. al., 2008).


The following is a budget for the first year of operation in Colombia.

Amount Price per item Total cost Capital expenditure Fridges 3 $1,300 $3,900 Display cases 7 $2,000 $14,000 Industrial mixer 1 $3,000 $3,000 Cash registers 7 $100 $700 Work tables 4 $100 $400 Double stack ovens 3 $2,500 $7,500 Stovetop range 2 $700 $1,400 Rubbish bins 2 $100 $200 Coffee machine 1 $350 $350 Utensils 30 $ 90 $2,700 Operating costs Annual material costs(baking flour etc) $300,000 $300,000 Advertising $150,000 Rent for one year 1 $28,000 $28,000 Manager’s office 1 $14,000 $14,000 Licensing costs $1,000 Transportation of supplies $130,000 Import costs $200,000 Salaries 25 $150,000 Total annual cost $526,150 Evaluation plan As stated earlier, the purpose of expanding into Colombia is to increase net sales. The organization’s net sales are dependent on a number of factors; each factor requires evaluation in equal measure. First, the company will start with the annual increase in net sales. This percentage should be no less than 5% in the first year, and the same will apply in the subsequent year.

However, if the firm does not achieve these targets, the project will still not be a failure if other parameters indicate a change of dynamics. First, the business will assess the length of time it takes to make a new product. It will then compare this to the amount of time that it takes to receive the full payment. This procedure will not be necessary when considering the local products.

However, it will be quite useful when analyzing the goods that Posh will ship into the country. If this process takes longer than a month, then the company may need to consider making all the goods locally. The company will also assess the effort or time it takes to make a sale in the convenience store. Foot traffic is the main source of customer awareness. Therefore, if it takes too much effort to make a sale, then the organization is not doing well.

Other indicators of success will be the staff turnover rate. High employee turnovers indicate that the company culture is not conducive. This could compromise on the quality of products made as different employees would interpret the recipes differently. This figure should not be lower than Posh Pastries’ turnover in the US. Additionally the country manager must analyze the safety and health records of the business.

The business will also carry out an analysis of the customer complaints. If these seem to be reducing instead of increasing, then the business is doing well. Certain external factors may affect the success of the project. These include foreign exchange rates as well as economic growth in the US and the target market. Changes in supply chains such as the ban of key ingredients or excessive increases in price may affect outcomes.

Even entry of new competitors or alterations in customer demographics may come in the way. If net sales reduce due to these factors, then the business will need to mitigate those changes through different alternatives. The second objective of expanding Posh Pastries into Colombia is to foster cultural exchange. It is a difficult thing to measure the rate of culture change in any setting.

However, some quantitative approaches would still give the company an idea of how well it is faring. One way of assessing this change would be to understand current cultures first. The organization could select a focus group in which it asks participants what their favorite desserts or treats are. These groups could be separated into ten to twelve members.

One year after operating in the business, the company could randomly select individuals who live within the six targeted locations. It could ask them about their favorite baked treats. If they mention Posh Pastries’ products, interviewers could determine whether they have developed an appreciation of American things. An increase in affirmative responses will show that some cultural exchange occurred.

References Barrow, C., Barrow, P., Brown, R.,


The Concept of Loyalty Research Paper essay help online

Introduction Customer satisfaction, though an important quotient for service or hospitality industry, does not ensure that the customers will return for repurchase . Therefore, the important question that businesses face is what would ensure the customers to return to them. This brings the marketers to the concept of loyalty. One must note that both the concepts are attitudinal and therefore, largely theoretical.

However, such attitudinal commitment on part of the customers ensures that the profits of the organization would return. For the success of a company in the service sector, organizations must ensure customer satisfaction and nurture brand loyalty among its consumers. Brand loyalty will ensure repeat purchase, which in turn establishes the profit of the company.

In case of a company like Starbuck, operating in the service hospitality retail business, this is of great importance, since it faces high competition as well as has to satisfy customers in order to ensure repeat purchase. Further, as this sector does not have a switchover cost therefore, developing brand loyalty is the only way to ensure sustainability of profit.

Starbuck Starbuck is a coffee company established in 1971. The main products that the Starbuck stores offer are various types of hot and cold beverages such as coffee and tea and food. The company operates globally, though it originated in the United States. The products are competitively priced and Starbuck maintains a standardized store ambience for all its chains. This paper tries to understand the link between satisfaction and loyalty of Starbuck’s customers.

Significance of the Study A well-established axiom in marketing literature is, satisfied customers lead to brand loyalty. In other words, customer satisfaction has a direct influence on brand loyalty. This prevalent axiom makes creation of customer satisfaction a very important aspect for producers of every product (goods or services).

The probability of a customer buying a product more if he/she is satisfied with the product is higher. In this connection, one can intuitively deduce that higher the degree of customer satisfaction, higher is the degree of loyalty towards the product, as higher satisfaction would prompt higher repeat purchase. Therefore, greater is the amount of customer satisfaction, greater is loyalty.

Consequently, this conjecture makes brand loyalty one of the most important aspects of a firm’s continuity and/or future profit. From a different angle, it can be observed that customer satisfaction is not only beneficial to the firm but also to the customer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Satisfaction to the customer actually indicates that he or she has found the product that he/she requires and that through consumption of the acquired product the need is satisfied without any negative outcome that would have precipitated harsher step like complaining. Therefore, customer satisfaction actually indicates to the customers that their need for the product is satisfied on consuming the specific brand.

Though many researchers have tried to establish a relationship between consumer satisfaction and loyalty, the relationship is not always perfect and not always positive . However, a strong relationship between the two is yet to be established. This paper undertakes a case study of Starbucks. The aim of the paper is to understand the effect of customer satisfaction and brand loyalty specifically in case of Starbucks.

In order to do this, this paper will study the two different kinds of brand loyalty – spurious and true brand loyalty, find a relationship between the two different kinds of customer satisfaction – latent, and manifest customer satisfaction.

Further, the paper will also establish a hypothesis to establish a relationship between the two different kinds of customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. Finally, the paper will make recommendations to the marketers regarding the suitable marketing practices for Starbuck and areas for future study.

Hypotheses From the above literature review, we come across two hypotheses:

H1: A higher degree of customer satisfaction will lead to a higher degree of brand loyalty.

H2: The relation between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty is moderated by personal character of the customer.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Concept of Loyalty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Purpose of the Study The purpose of the paper is to understand the relationship between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The paper will gauge the influence of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction on repeat purchase and loyalty. The study will be directed towards Starbucks and the satisfaction that consumers of Starbucks products and services feel and how that influences their brand loyalty.

Literature Review Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is defined as a comparative evaluation of a consumer’s post-purchase appraisal of the product purchased to her pre-purchase expectations . Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard defined customer satisfaction as “the outcome of the subjective evaluation that the chosen alternative (brand) meets or exceeds the expectation.”

Literature on customer satisfaction provides various definitions of customer satisfaction. However, what is more important is that there must be a perfect understanding of why satisfaction is important. Hill and Alexander point out that 10 to 30 percent of the loss in customer is due to dissatisfaction which is a high cost for service business, as this not only includes the cost of lost customers but also the cost of attracting new customers.

Literature has shown two different measures of customer satisfaction – first, is the difference between product expectation and performance and second is based only on performance. However, one must keep in mind that satisfaction is relative in nature and varies with the situation and circumstances.

Therefore, satisfaction research must be aimed at understanding the variations in perception of satisfaction with the changes in situations . It is also believed that the customers must cross the “psychological barriers” in order to undertake an explicit understanding of the brand . The different types of satisfaction that literature has delineated are manifest and latent satisfaction.

Manifest satisfaction is the “outcome of the explicit subjective evaluation that the chosen alternative (brand) meets or exceeds the expectations.” In other words, when a consumer explicitly evaluates a product based on which she chooses the brand with full understanding and awareness is referred to as manifest satisfaction. When the consumer undertakes an implicit evaluation of the alternatives available to him, and it exceeds to meets his expectations out of the product, it is called latent satisfaction.

Latent satisfaction is the outcome of implicit evaluation while manifest satisfaction is that of explicit evaluation of the brand. In case of latent satisfaction, the consumer is not completely aware of his expectations and merely accepts the brand. The study of satisfaction is based on four criteria as has been observed through previous literature are expectation, performance, satisfaction and disconfirmation.

Expectation related to customer satisfaction relates to the estimated performance of the product. According to Miller , expectation is of four types namely desirable, minimum, expected, and ideal. Day distinguished expectation based on product or service, the cost of the product, and the benefits obtained after using it.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Loyalty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Performance has been used as a standard for evaluation of satisfaction by many researchers. Olshavsky and Miller and Olson and Dover manipulated the actual performance of a product to gauge performance, however, their study concentrated more on the change in expectation due to change in performance rather than estimating the change in satisfaction due to change in performance.

Churchill and Surprenant that though, one may argue that an increase in performance would only lead to an increased satisfaction, but the argument is plausible only when one considers expectations and disconfirmation effects on satisfaction. According to them, if performance of a product is constrained by expectation, then one would expect little increase in satisfaction even though performance increases considerably, if the expectation of the consumer remains constant.

Disconfirmation, meaning discrepancies, arises from the difference between earlier expectation and actual performance of the product or service . The magnitude of the disconfirmation that is derived determines the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of a consumer on consumption of a particular product or service.

Measuring disconfirmation has been stresses by many scholars like Oliver and Churchill and Surprenant who believe that it is important to measure disconfirmation as the measure has a specific additive effect on satisfaction. If one followed traditional literature it would be difficult to distinguish between expectation, performance, and disconfirmation as the third is the difference between the first two .

Satisfaction is the outcome that a consumer faces once he/she consumes the product/service. Satisfaction is the difference between the rewards he/she receives with the price paid. Pfaff believes that both cognitive and affective models may be used in describing satisfaction while LaTour and Peat posits that the attitude one has towards a product is a pre-consumption state of the consumer while satisfaction is the post-consumption state.

Recent research on customer satisfaction has determined customer satisfaction using the performance model and has shown that satisfaction of the customer is the end-state of consumer and an antecedent of the consumption process . These new studies also consider the four parameters discussed earlier such as expectation, performance, disconfirmation, and satisfaction.

Brand Loyalty

Brand loyalty is defined as the “positively biased emotive, evaluative, and/ or behavioral response tendency toward a branded, labeled, or graded alternative or choice by an individual in his capacity as the user, the choice maker, and/or the Purchasing agent.” Aaker presents another, more recent definition of brand loyalty, which states that, the possibility of a customer’s intentions to switch a brand when certain changes are incorporated to the product/services provided by it.

Brand loyalty is important for firms as it brings forth new customers, repeat purchase, and good publicity to the brand . Aaker (2009) distinguishes brand loyalty into three levels –

Non-loyal buyers who are indifferent to the brand,

Customers who are satisfied or rather are not dissatisfied with the product/service, and

Are completely satisfied with the product and face a switching cost to change over to some other product.

Aaker points out that for brand loyalty to exist it must have “prior purchase and use experience” of the customer. Some other characters of brand loyalty as has been delineated by Sheth


Business Ethics Concepts Expository Essay essay help: essay help

Business ethics is a concept taking its base primarily in general human ethics and applying those rules and guidelines in a business environment. Ethics is a set of moral principles and laws that govern a just and civilized society (Bradburn, 2001). Business ethic refers to how people’s morals and fairness are used in agreements and decisions between companies and organizations worldwide.

The main idea of business ethics is that it closely correlates with the laws of a society and the kindness of people who make it up and in order for the companies and organizations to flourish, ethics should be a guideline never dismissed from business. Ethics but more importantly the laws that are based on ethical behaviors are needed to regulate the actions of a business to prevent illegal issues and chaos of anarchy.

If a company is not limited in the way it earns its profits, the selfishness of the financial greed will cause to focus on making the most money the fastest without considering a sensitive balance between nature and ways that humans exploit it for personal gain. It is a known fact that very often people excuse their harmful actions hoping that their detrimental carelessness will not have any effect on the future of the planet and generations of people to follow.

Considering the production or manufacturing of products, companies almost always keep secrets or “know-how”. This goes in line with defects that must be disclosed but this is not the usual case. Companies base their profits on the amounts of customers and sales, so it would be unwise for them to attribute any negativity to own products or services.

The key goal of business ethics is to regulate the actions of corporations in relation to the surrounding natural environment, people and society’s laws and rules. Another reason why ethics is the right direction for any business is that honesty will be rewarded and the benefits gained from kindness will be much greater than those of lies and deceit.

But very often, rules and laws are helpless in controlling the ever reaching negative actions of a business. The laws are meant to better the society and conduction of businesses, representing the interest of the population in order to keep it from harm both physical and mental. But commonly, there are loopholes that could be found and thus, the law is avoided allowing for the continuance of the deception, pollution and damage to the environment.

The goal of law makers and society is to develop laws as comprehensive as possible, touching upon every outcome by constant revision and investigation of the factors involved in such a delicate matter. The lying and deception have become commonplace, as businesses are trying to make even greater profit. The laws exist but often, prove to be helpless in an intricate business world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of possibilities that would conceal the businesses’ infringements without leaving any proof (Jennings, 2010). Business ethics are as important as any other kind of ethics. It creates a line between honesty, humanity, kindness and evil based on lies and personal gain.

Businesses spread their influence to the farthest corners of the planet and that is why the governing bodies of the corporations and society should make sure that there are always laws and regulations that preserve and protect nature and people.

References Bradburn, R. (2001). Understanding Business Ethics, London: Thomson Learning.

Jennings, M. (2010). Environment Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment, Connecticut: South-Western Cengage Learning.


Effects of Massage Therapy Report essay help site:edu

Introduction Massage has been in practice for many centuries and refers to manipulation of external and deep-seated levels of muscle and adjoining tissue through different methods in order to improve their function, quicken a healing process, reduce reflex activity in tendons, prevent motor-neuron vehemence, and enhance relaxation and general well-being as well as a pastime.

In the survey carried out in 2007, at least 25% of all adults in America had a massage in 2006 (Web MD 2013). There are various massage therapy styles in use and it is up to an individual which style to choose depending on their need.

Massage Styles Swedish Massage

Swedish massage is the most common and popular massage style, which involves delicate long blending strokes, as well as agile cadenced tapping strokes on most outer layers of tendons. Swedish massage involves the movement of body joints too (Web MD 2013). Swedish massage has four types of stroke.

The first stroke, effleurage, is a frictionless sliding stroke suitable for calming soft tissues. The second stroke, petrissage, involves pressuring and kneading (Web MD 2013). It follows immediately after the first stroke. The third stroke, friction, involves down reaching circular motions that make the layers of tissue move against each other, and, as a result, increases blood flow in the body and subdivides scar tissue. The last stroke, tapotement, is a brief alternating tap carried out with clenched hands (Web MD 2013).

Neuromuscular Therapy Massage

This type of therapy involves manipulation of delicate tissue (Web MD 2013). Neuromuscular therapy massage has a medical foundation and usually targets tender tendon points, circulation, nerve constriction, and postural problems arising from constantly recurring motion injuries. Neuromuscular therapy massage aims at treating biomechanical problems (Web MD 2013).

Deep Tissue Massage

Deep tissue massage is suitable for calming painful and tough areas in the body. Deep tissue massage employ less rhythmic motions but can be very suitable especially in cases involving continued pains like those arising from back strain.

Significance of Massage Therapy

Massage therapy leads to several benefits; in particular, it works on back pain better than acupuncture. In addition, it relieves headaches and osteoarthritis by reducing stiffness and pain. Further, it reduces cancer symptoms and minimizes stress and anxiety (Web MD 2013).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Principle of Spinal Pain Management A number of adults in America seek medical attention for back pain several times in a lifetime. Back pain is the most occurring medical issue affecting 80% of all adults in the US. Massage is usually the best option for back pain especially when conventional medication fails to relieve it. According to the study carried out in 2003, massage therapy treats recurring pain in the back (University of Rochester Medical Center 2013).

As a massage expert utilises his/her hands or special equipment in massaging muscles, blood circulation increases which in turn transports required oxygen and nutrients to muscles. This occurrence leads to elimination of waste like lactic acid, which causes pain in various muscles (Web MD 2013). Pain that has persisted for several weeks can disappear through application of acupressure massage.

In addition, acupressure massage leads to improved mobility when mixed with exercising and stretching. Lower back pain or lumbago is more common than upper back pain and can heal on its own. However, back pain can also be stressful both physiologically and psychologically (University of Rochester Medical Center 2013). Such pain results from issues to do with bones, muscles or nerves in the spinal cord.

Poor posture or a damaged spinal disc usually leads to back pain. Massage therapy endeavours to minimise pain, relax tendons, and bring about a sense of wellness (Hospital for Special Surgery 2012). A tear comes up in the muscle fibres when muscles get strained or pulled.

When muscles heal, scar tissue entrenches in hard lines opposed to an existing muscle and such a scar prevents a muscle from operating smoothly. Massage therapy is directed at reducing scars leading to proper healing of muscles (Hospital for Special Surgery 2012). As such, muscle efficiency goes up.

Safety Concerns of Massage Therapy Massage therapy is not safe and can result in undesirable and unforeseen side effects though serious side effects are rare. According to the survey carried out in 2007, one out of ten massage therapy patients experiences minor discomforts a day after a massage session. Such discomfort is usually a form of soreness known as post-massage soreness (Ingraham 2012).

In addition, massage can lead to fresh injuries, increase existing issues, prevent patients from seeking better care and lead to mild stress in a patient. For instance, facial release therapy is usually very deep and focuses on healing adjoining tissues. Massage therapy can lead to poisoning because of waste products released during massage, which may settle in the body (Ingraham 2012).

We will write a custom Report on Effects of Massage Therapy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Development and Application of Newly Designed Massage Instrument

This study explains how a newly manufactured massage apparatus, the Hand Grip T-bar is suitable for reducing consistent non-specific low back inflammation by way of cross-friction massage (Yoon et al. 2012). Twenty-two respondents with an average age of 51 years participated and the results showed that patients on Hand Grip T-bar manifested improvement while those on Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation showed no improvement (Yoon et al. 2012).

Effect of Massage on Pain Management

This study aimed at establishing the effects of massage on pain management for thoracic surgery patients. A sample size of 160 patients participated in the study. The researcher reveals that massage therapy is a solution to various problematic challenges the individuals are facing.

Such challenges include inflammation and anxiety. As such, more research is required to confirm this hypothesis that postoperative massage therapy has clinically important role in assisting patients get better after surgery (Dion et al. 2011).

Mobilization versus Massage Therapy in the Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache

The study aimed at comparing effects of cervical accumulation with massage regimen in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. It involved thirty-six respondents divided into two groups where one group dealt with spinal movement methods while the other group received treatment through massage techniques on the neck area. This study found out that spinal movement for upper cervical vertebrae within their usual range manifested greater improvement in headache inflammation compared to manual massage on the neck in individuals with cervicogenic headache.

Conclusion Massage is a very old practice in the history of humankind. It serves several needs chief among them relaxation and medical therapy. The most popular type of massage, Swedish massage has four stages. In the medical field, massage is suitable for consistent lower back pains, cervicogenic headaches and healing in postoperative cases. Researchers need to study the concept of massage deeper especially in medicine.

List of References Dion, L, Rodgers, N, Cutshall, SM, Cordes, ME,


Psychopathy and Externalized Disorders Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The prevalence of psychopathy is at 1% in society today while in other populations such as prisoners and those in mental institutions the prevalence is higher. Psychopathy is a mental condition characterized by an inability to be emotional or to develop emotional relationships.

It is usually characterized by acting on impulse, not feeling guilty, tendency to manipulate others, lack of emotions and frequent disregard of social norms. Knowledge on the prevalence and the characteristics of psychopathy is important in identifying cases of psychopathy and explaining relationships between psychopathy and social disorders such as crime.

The amygdala part of the brain is responsible for various functions such as recognition of fear and other facial expressions that portray sadness. It is also associated with some types of learning and conditioning that relate to punishment. Studies have shown that individuals with reduced volumes of the amygdala also have higher levels of the disorder (Blair, 2003).

One of the deficits associated with this condition is recognition of fear and other emotions. People who have been diagnosed with psychopathy do not easily recognize fear on other people’s faces. This has been attributed to lack of attention, especially since they do not pay attention to the eyes (Dadds, 2006).

Another deficit associated with this condition is a learning deficit, especially learning through punishment. Thus, when one does something that is against social norms and they are punished for the mistake, it is expected that they avoid the behavior. People with psychopathy have a deficit with instrumental learning and often commit the same mistake (Borries, 2010).

The third deficit associated with psychopathy is cognitive control. The patients are not able to vary their behavior depending on the situation as most of the time, their behaviors and their choices are rigid. Other studies also relate the biology of psychopathy to the frontal cortex impairment, but the target population for the study is thought to have influenced the study as those involved were people with violent behaviors and not just psychopathy.

Studying of the deficits and the biology of the condition is important in coming up with more distinctive features of diagnosing the condition and being able to differentiate this disorder from other disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The condition is associated with externalizing behaviors which result from mental conditions and are portrayed on the outside. Some of the externalizing problems that have been associated with the disorder are recidivism of crime, difficulty establishing emotional relationships, impulsive and antisocial behavior while children may be temperamental.

Psychopathic individuals display this on the outside and they may be constantly involved in crimes and also lead a lonely lifestyle as they cannot be involved in emotional relationships. The study of externalizing behavior is important in explaining factors that occur in society. It is also necessary as it will aid in coming up with the best way of handling criminals with psychopathy as punishments such as imprisonment may not be the best way to handle them as the behavior may just recur.

The current study aims at establishing the role of punishment in correcting behavior among psychopathic children and also aims to see if punishment is the ideal way to correct their behavior. It is also expected that psychopathy will be related to both the male and female gender and also among all the races even though there are differences in the extent to which a particular race is affected in relation to the other.

The IV and DV are methods of simple regression used in statistical analysis. The IV value is used to determine the value of the DV. The two correlate and thus through one, we can find the information contained in the other. This study is to contribute to the understanding of the effects of psychopathy and thus provide a way in which individuals can refer to this disorder through the documented material, hence its relevance to literature.

References Blair, R. J. (2003). Neurobiological Basis of Psychopathy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 182 (1), 5-7.

Borries, A. (2010). Neural correlates of error-related learning deficits in Individuals with psychopathy. Psychological Medicine 40 (1), 1559-1568.

Dadds, R. D. (2006). Attention to the eyes and fear recognition deficits in child Psychopathy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 189(2) 290-281. Web.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Psychopathy and Externalized Disorders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Causes and Effects Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The focus on nuclear weapons was the typical feature of two powerful states’ development during the period of the Cold War. The Soviet Union and the United States were ready to use the possibilities of the nuclear weapons in order to state their superiority at the global political arena. As a result, any conflict could become the reason for developing the global nuclear war.

The Cuban missile crisis of 1962 in which the Soviet Union, Cuba, and the United States were involved was the turning point of the states’ confrontation in the Cold War because of risks to develop the nuclear conflict (Carter, 2008). Although there are many opinions on the causes and effects of the Cuban missile crisis, it is possible to determine the main factors which can be discussed as influential for developing the most threatening situation in the world during the period of the Cold War.

Thus, the causes for the crisis are closely associated with the Soviet Union’s intentions to protect the state from the US blockades and Cuba from the US invasion, and the effects depend on the peaceful resolution of the conflict with improving the connections between the two powerful states.

The Causes for the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Role of Cuba The revolution in Cuba in 1959 made the United States discuss different methods to prevent the expansion of the Communist ideas at the territories near the US boundaries. The development of different plans to establish the anti-Communist regime in Cuba resulted in the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961, which was supported and realized by the US government (Pressman, 2001).

The US President John F. Kennedy controlled the realization of the operation, but it was ineffective. The attempts of the invasion were considered by the Soviet Union as threatening to the Communist regime and to the world’s peace. The reaction of the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev to the actions of the US government was to place the Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba according to the agreement with Fidel Castro.

After the revolution, Fidel Castro relied on the support of the most powerful Communist state that is why the Soviet Union’s intentions were shared by the Cuban leader, and the construction of the missile sites was justified from the point of defense (Schier, 2010). The actions of Khrushchev could be explained with references to the risk of anti-Communist movements in Cuba.

During the year of 1962, the intensified Cuban missile crisis increased the tension between the two powerful states ready to use the nuclear weapons in order to regulate the international conflict. The fact of the Bay of Pigs Invasion along with the results of the Berlin Crisis made the situation more complicated. In spite of the fact that the USA was against the idea of placing the missile constructions in Cuba, the Soviet Union continued to realize the idea to protect the state interests and perform the necessary security procedures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kennedy stated that the USA would focus on any measures to prevent the threat for the US nation’s security. However, during September of 1962, the Soviet Union realized all the necessary preparation procedures in order to construct the missile sites in Cuba (Pressman, 2001). The ignorance of Kennedy’s statement and position was also a result of the US policy in relation to constructing the missiles in Turkey which were discussed as potential risks for the Soviet Union.

The United States paid much attention to the possibilities for the Soviet Union to construct the missile sites in Cuba, but only a few indicators were noticed during September of 1962. All the controversial activities of the Soviet Union in Cuba were explained with references to the necessity to protect Cuba from the further invasions from the United States or other non-Communist countries.

The tensions between the powerful states were intensified, and there were no opportunities to assess adequately the Soviet Union’s intentions in relation to defending Cuba and attacking the United States with the help of the missiles constructed at the territories of Cuba (Schier, 2010). From this point, the Soviet Union and the United States had no intentions to develop the nuclear war, but such a risk was obvious because of Kennedy and Khrushchev’s goals to protect the states’ interest by all means.

The Development of the Crisis and John F. Kennedy’s Reaction to the Soviet Union’s Activities in Cuba

The United States suspected that the Soviet Union constructed the missile sites in Cuba, but this information was not supported with evidence and facts. On October 14, during the operations to gather the necessary evidence, the U-2 aircraft took clear photographs on which the construction of the missile sites was fixed. It was noticed that the construction was realized for medium-range ballistic missiles as well as for intermediate-range ballistic missiles.

Thus, the 13-day crisis started on October 15 when the information about the photographs was released. In a few days, the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EXCOMM) was organized in order to develop the plan of actions directed toward resolving the conflict situation (Stein, 2008).

To react to the construction of the missile sites, the threat of the nuclear war, and the Soviet Union’s attacks, several different strategic approaches were proposed by the members of the EXCOMM. The problem was in the fact that there was no any prepared plan of actions because of the focus on the Soviet Union’s acceptance of conditions and agreements not to construct nuclear missiles at the territories near the USA.

It is possible to refer to different visions of the problem by the United States and by the Soviet Union. Thus, the Soviet Union placed the nuclear missiles in Cuba in response to placing the US missiles in Turkey and as the support for Cuba to prevent the further invading activities from the United States.

We will write a custom Essay on The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this perspective, the first measure discussed by the EXCOMM as the absence of reaction could be discussed as rather relevant in relation to the situation, but it was risky because of impossibility to predict the Soviet Union’s future actions and analyze their real intentions (Schier, 2010).

The approach is known as ‘do nothing’ was rejected by the majority of the EXCOMM representatives. Different variants of diplomatic measures were discussed as effective means to guarantee the Soviet Union’s removal of the missiles from the territories of Cuba. Nevertheless, the necessity to develop negations could lead to the unwanted concessions for the United States.

Kennedy paid much attention to the military actions as the best approaches to make the Soviet Union realize the removal of the missiles. Thus, the accents were made on the active blockade of the missiles and invasion of Cuba. The possibility of the airstrike was discussed as the reserved variant of actions during the discussion of the problem.

However, the method of blockade was chosen as the most effective in order to prevent the Soviet Union from the further transportation of the missiles to the territories of Cuba. The blockade of the missiles’ transportation was also supported by the US government’s demand to remove the constructed missiles in Cuba. This approach was chosen because of a range of advantages.

The open blockade demonstrated the power of the United States and the readiness of the President to use the military forces. Furthermore, the method of blockade helped accentuate the US naval superiority in the region, and the realization of the measure provided Khrushchev with the necessary time to remove the constructed missile sites in Cuba (Carter, 2008). As a result, Khrushchev became responsible for the next step in the conflict.

The effective blockade or ‘quarantine’ provided the United States with the opportunity to avoid the uncontrolled confrontation between the states which could end with the nuclear war. Thus, President Kennedy informed the nation about the Soviet Union’s missile sites in Cuba and the intention to realize the blockade with the help of the national television on October 22.

The response of the Soviet Union to the actions of the United States was provided on October 23. The leaders of the state proclaimed that the actions of the USA were rather aggressive and threatening for the world peace (Gibson, 2012). The tension between the two powerful states increased significantly because the Soviet Union did not follow the US demands and the missiles were not removed.

The negotiations and discussions of the conflict could not result in the solution satisfactory for both the sides of the conflict. The speech of the US President provoked significant international reaction to the conflict where the Western countries were inclined to support the position of the United States, and they discussed Kennedy’s approach to resolving the crisis as rather reasonable.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Causes and Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The countries from the left camp considered the activities of the United States as too aggressive and provocative in relation to the risk of the nuclear war. On October 27, the message by Khrushchev was broadcasted to demonstrate the response of the Soviet Union to the proposed concessions.

It was stated in the message that the Soviet Union would remove the missiles from the territory of Cuba only after the removal of the US missiles from Turkey (Stein, 2008). The United States continued to support their vision of the conflict and rejected the conditions proposed in the message by Khrushchev. Furthermore, the Soviet Union’s missiles shot down the US plane, and the crisis was deepened.

The risk of the war became obvious. The United States focused on the peaceful resolution of the conflict and accepted Khrushchev’s demands to remove the missiles from the territories of Turkey. The leaders of the state expected the removal of the Soviet Union’s missiles from Cuba in response to the US actions as it was stated earlier in Khrushchev’s message (Gibson, 2012).

As a result, the rejection of the proposed conditions by Khrushchev could lead to his complete responsibility for the further development of military actions. On October 28, the crisis was resolved when Khrushchev agreed with the prepositions and actions of the United States. Thus, the resolution of the conflict was the result of the effective diplomatic strategies used by Kennedy and the United States’ administration in order to regulate the problem.

The Cuban-based missiles were dismantled as well as the US missiles were dismantled and removed from the territories of Turkey (Carter, 2008). The thirteen days of the crisis ended with starting a new page in the international relations between the two powerful states of the United States and the Soviet Union.

The Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis Focusing on the effects of the Cuban missile crisis, it is possible to state that the blockade realized by the United States and the associated demands were the only relevant method to resolve the conflict successfully for both the sides and avoid the development of the nuclear war. However, the nuclear war cannot be discussed as the goal of the Soviet Union determined before placing the missiles in Cuba or as the end goal of the United States to resolve the conflict in the region.

The prestige and role of Kennedy at the global political arena increased because of the obvious success of his diplomatic strategies used to resolve the Cuban crisis. Khrushchev also benefited from the peaceful resolution of the conflict when the United States confirmed the decision not to invade Cuba in the future.

The negative consequences of the crisis were connected with the status of Khrushchev in the Kremlin because of his impossibility to resolve the conflict to his advantage. Thus, Khrushchev’s intentions and motivation in relation to placing the missiles in Cuba remain to be the topic for many discussions (Stein, 2008). It is possible to state that the location of the missiles at the territories of Cuba was the part of the developed strategy used by the Soviet Union in order to succeed in the Cold War.

The effective resolution of the crisis led to the improvement of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union with references to improving the channels for the direct communication between the presidents. Thus, the Moscow-Washington hotline was worked out in order to prevent the similar conflicts in the future. Later, in 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the agreement forbidding the exploration of the nuclear weapons.

Thus, the Cuban crisis can be discussed as the first influential step toward discussing the development of nuclear weapons as the illegal activities, which can result in the millions of victims and enormous devastation. The strategic model to regulate the crisis which was realized by Kennedy and the US administration during the process of the conflict resolution is discussed by researchers as the classical model utilized today as the example of the successful diplomatic approach to resolving crises (Gibson, 2011).

It was important for Kennedy to develop such a plan and conditions which could satisfy the opposite side and which could be successfully accepted by the both sides. It is possible to state that the effects of the Cuban crisis are in definite changes in the United States and Soviet Union’s policies. Thus, both the states realized the significant dependence on each other, which was emphasized with references to the threat of the nuclear war.

The relations between these two world powerful states achieved the new stage, and attempts of collaboration were realized in order to avoid the development of such conflict situations in the future (George, 2003). If the causes of the crisis cannot be stated clearly because of impossibility to conclude about Khrushchev’s intentions, the positive effects of the crisis are obvious.

Conclusion The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 is the result of the prolonged confrontation between the two world powerful states such as the United States and the Soviet Union. The situation of the intensified tensions between the states’ leaders and developed Cold War provoked the placement of the Soviet Union’s missiles at the territories of Cuba as the reaction to the US invasion of Cuba and aggression.

Non-resolved conflicts between the two states stimulated the development of new problems and conflicts, and Cuban crisis became such an influential conflict which made the public speak about the threat of not only the third world war but also about the possibilities of the nuclear war. On the one hand, the Soviet Union focused on protecting the interests of the Cuban revolution and preventing the further attempts of the US forces to invade Cuba.

On the other hand, the United States responded to the risk of being attacked by the Soviet Union’s missiles because of the intensified conflicts. From this point, the causes for the development of the crisis were closely associated with the years of the Cold War and confrontation between the two states.

The blockade of the Soviet Union’s transport with the materials for constructing the missiles sites in Cuba along with the demand to remove the built missiles sites was discussed by the United States as the most effective measure to resolve the conflict following the interests of the both sides. That is why the realized diplomatic measures can be considered as the first step to resolving the prolonged Cold War and to avoiding the further crises.

References Carter, E. (2008). The Cuban missile crisis. USA: Paw Prints.

George, A. (2003). Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans faced the Cuban missile crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Gibson, D. (2011). Speaking of the future: Contentious narration during the Cuban missile crisis. Qualitative Sociology, 34(2), 503–522.

Gibson, D. (2012). Talk at the brink: Deliberation and decision during the Cuban missile crisis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Pressman, J. (2001). September statements, October missiles, November elections: Domestic politics, foreign-policy making, and the Cuban missile crisis. Security Studies, 10(3), 80–114.

Schier, H. (2010). Cuban missile crisis. USA: ABDO.

Stein, C. (2008). Cuban missile crisis: In the shadow of nuclear war. USA: Enslow Publishers, Inc.


The Impact of the Arabian Spring on the Citizens’ Decision Research Paper a level english language essay help

The political decision of citizens in any country is usually influenced by the situation within the country and by the events at the international political arena. From this point, it is important to examine the dependence between the success and failure of the definite political events and people’s further decisions to participate in the similar events or support political projects.

The research question on which the project is based depends on the necessity to examine the possible connection and dependence between the people’s vision of the Arabian Spring’s successfulness and their willingness to participate in protests. To study the research question, it is important to focus on the associated hypotheses.

According to the first hypothesis, if citizens perceive the Arabian Spring as unsuccessful, they are disappointed with its results and they are not ready to participate in protests because of the focus on the failure and disappointment. Furthermore, those citizens who discuss the Arabian Spring as successful are inclined to participate in protests and support them because of the focus on the strengths.

To examine the research question and support the hypotheses, it is necessary to work out effective survey questions for questionnaires which are developed to study the citizens’ vision of the problem and their perceptions as well as the particular features of demographics which are important to present the description of the sample.

That is why, survey questions are developed to state the gender and age characteristics of participants along with their education, occupational and socioeconomic status which can influence the citizens’ perception of the political events and their activity in relation to participation in the political life of the country.

From this perspective, it is important to learn persons’ age, gender, religion, education, occupational and socioeconomic status along with political preferences and sharing the ideas of the definite parties which can affect the discussion of the political situation and perception of the Arabian Spring with the further participation in protests.

The successfulness of the sampling procedures depends on the quality of the questions and on activity of participants while answering the questions and choosing the concrete answers instead of preferring not to answer a question. The frequency of choosing the concrete answers to questions is higher than of preferring not to answer a question, and this fact allows speaking about the credibility and usefulness of the answers received.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this point, the sampling procedures can be discussed as successful. Paying attention to the specific features of the questions proposed for the survey, it is necessary to note that samples can be discussed as rather similar in relation to demographics. Thus, there are a lot of similarities regarding the age, gender, religion, and education.

Similarities in political preferences can be influenced by the demographics criteria because the majority of the participants belong to the same social sector and share similar social and political interests. The descriptive statistics can be successfully used to summarize a sample and provide the definite results in the form of numbers without presenting conclusions.

To understand the role of the descriptive statistics in the project, it is necessary to concentrate on the variables discussed and on the results of the survey. The descriptive statistics used in the research is helpful to discuss the willingness of people to participate in protests as the dependent variable with references to the mode as the measure of the central tendency.

Thus, it is possible to focus on the general willingness of citizens to support the protests associated with the general perception of the Arabian Spring. In this case, the medium is more appropriate to discuss the independent variable studied in the project. The average people’s perceptions of the Arabian Spring influenced by their demographic characteristics affect their further decisions in relation to participating in protests.

According to the descriptive statistics results, the participants interested in the project are predominantly male, the average age is 18-28 years, these persons are mainly students studying in colleges who are characterized by a rather low socioeconomic status and share the democratic ideas, and this tendency is observed even with references to the first fifteen respondents answering the survey questions.

Table 1. Demographics Results

Respon dent ID Party ID Geogra phic region Reli gion Age Edu cation Gen der Govern ment: Bigger, smaller, or stay the same? Federal govern ment: limit or expand? Occupatio nal status Socio economic status Voted for in last election? 1 4 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 3 6 2 3 2 1 3 5 2 2 2 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 4 1 2 2 6 1 2 4 3 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 6 1 6 5 3 2 1 1 3 2 3 2 6 1 1 6 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 6 4 2 7 1 3 5 1 4 2 1 2 6 0 2 8 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 6 1 2 9 2 2 1 3 3 2 3 2 5 4 6 10 3 2 5 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 11 3 1 5 1 3 1 1 1 6 1 1 12 1 2 1 3 4 2 2 2 1 6 2 13 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 14 1 2 1 3 3 1 2 2 5 6 2 15 2 3 3 1 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 16 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 5 5 2 17 1 3 1 1 3 1 2 2 6 2 2 18 4 1 1 3 5 1 3 1 1 4 1 19 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 5 1 2 20 3 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 21 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 6 22 2 2 1 1 4 1 2 2 6 6 6 23 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 6 4 1 24 2 2 5 1 2 1 2 2 6 3 5 25 3 2 3 4 5 2 3 1 3 2 1 26 3 2 3 1 3 1 3 1 6 5 1 27 1 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 6 6 2 28 3 2 5 1 3 2 3 2 6 3 1 29 3 2 3 1 4 2 3 2 6 1 1 30 3 3 1 1 4 1 2 2 6 4 6 31 3 3 1 1 3 1 2 2 5 1 5 32 3 3 3 4 4 1 3 2 1 5 1 33 3 3 3 4 4 1 3 2 1 5 1 34 3 3 2 1 3 2 3 2 6 3 1 35 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 6 2 2 36 2 3 5 2 5 1 3 2 3 3 1 37 2 1 5 1 3 2 3 2 6 4 4 38 3 3 4 2 4 2 3 1 4 3 1 39 4 3 1 1 3 1 1 2 5 1 1 40 1 2 1 3 4 1 3 2 1 3 2 41 2 3 5 1 5 2 3 2 6 1 6 42 3 2 2 2 5 1 1 1 5 4 1 43 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 6 44 4 3 4 4 3 1 3 2 5 1 6 45 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 5 2 5 46 3 3 4 1 4 1 1 1 6 1 6 47 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 1 2 48 3 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 49 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 2 6 2 2 50 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 5 2 1 51 3 2 2 2 5 1 3 2 5 3 1 52 4 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 7 1 2 Graph 1. Demographics Results (15)

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of the Arabian Spring on the Citizens’ Decision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Summarizing the sample, it is important to pay attention to the fact that the identified demographic characteristics influence the participants’ choice of the decision in relation to protesting significantly. Thus, the variability of citizens’ perceptions in relation to the Arabian Spring should be discussed in the context of the sample demographics.

It is appropriate to test the hypothesis about the dependence of citizens’ participation in protests on the perception of the Arabian Spring with references to the Chi-Square test. It is necessary to compare the expected willingness of citizens to participate in protests and observed one as well as the role of discussing the Arabian Spring as successful or unsuccessful.

The Chi-Square test results support the hypothesis that the vision of the Arabian Spring’s successfulness can influence the citizens’ further participation in protests. Using the test statistic (Χ²=∑(O-E)²/E), it is possible to calculate the researched dependence and focus on the difference between the observed and expected willingness of people to support protests. The low measures in relation to the differences allow speaking about the relevance of the discussed hypothesis.

Nevertheless, the used Chi-Square test has both the strengths and weaknesses. Being an effective hypothesis test based on the statistical data, the Chi-Square test usually refers to the normal distribution. Thus, the Chi-Square test is helpful to observe the studied dependence and examine the possible difference which can exist between various groups of participants presented in the sample.

However, the Chi-Square test is more oriented to the practical and numerical results without providing the theoretical information. Moreover, to guarantee the accurate results, it is necessary to concentrate on the possible observed and expected frequencies which are stated in the studied table. In spite of the possible weaknesses and errors while calculating the results according to the Chi-Square test, this measure of association is effective to analyze the findings in order to conclude about the effectiveness and appropriateness of the proposed hypothesis.

The Chi-Square test is useful for measuring the dependence between the people’s willingness to participate in protests and their perception of the Arabian Spring’s successfulness as well as for connecting the demographic statistics with the observed findings. The research question of the project is developed to examine the dependence between citizens’ perceptions of the successfulness of definite political events such as the Arabian Spring and people’s willingness to participate in further protests with references to their perceptions and visions of the results.

It is possible to state that the dependence and correlation was found with the help of the project preformed, and the main hypothesis about the existing dependence and connection was supported. However, political events are complex in their nature, and a lot of aspects can influence the citizens’ political and social behaviour. Thus, the focus only on the visions of successfulness of the political situation and its results for the public can be discussed as limiting the examination of the other aspects of the problem.

To avoid limitations and present the complex picture of the issue from the larger perspective, it is important to refer to the demographics results and citizens’ political preferences as also influencing the further participation in protests. The development of the project allowed to observe the connection between the citizens’ perceptions of the political events and situations and their further actions associated with the social or political life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of the Arabian Spring on the Citizens’ Decision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, it was found that the vision of certain political events as successful can stimulate citizens’ further participation in the similar events because of orienting to the success. The failure in the development of the political situation can lead to citizens’ lack of interest in relation to the definite way of resolving this or that problem. From this point, those persons who discuss the Arabian Spring as successful are inclined to support the method of protests to resolve the further political issues because of concentrating on the positive results.

However, the question still needs to explain the fact that the results of the Arabian Spring can be considered as both negative and positive ones by different people with references to their socioeconomic status.


Performance and Employees’ Management Tools Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Forced rankings define controversial employees’ management tools that evaluate workers’ performance by using employee-to-employee comparisons. These systems of ranking have gained popularity among large corporations of the size of fortune 500 companies.

This has been attributed to a number of advantages which presumably outweigh the disadvantages associated with adopting and implementing the use of these employee evaluation systems.

Starting with the advantages, Alsever (2007) came across findings that revealed that these systems of evaluation jolt underperforming managers from their complacency.

This reputable scholar also acknowledge that they assisted in combating the unwanted incidences such as inflating performance ratings as is the case with most common conventional rating systems.

This was supported by Grote (2005) when he argued that they enabled independent verification of employees’ performance data. In addition, these systems have the advantage of reducing nepotism, unfair promotions and favoritism. Furthermore, they act as justifiable and legal means of narrowing down and retrenching underperforming employees.

Despite having the above advantages, the following were identified as their disadvantages: These systems call on the retrenching and rehiring of best performers which has proved a costly measure to some financially-stretched companies (Alsever, 2007).

Furthermore, established firms such as Microsoft, Capital One and Ford are incurring huge legal expenses as a result of suits filed by sacked former employees. These employees considered the systems unfair and discriminating them based on their age and gender.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To add, most critics associate the systems with creating competitive environments that limit teamwork, creativity, result in unethical and cutthroat behaviors amongst others.

On the other hand, Grote (2005) opined that the culture of forced ranking kept off some high-potential applicants from expressing interest in working with companies implementing these approaches.

Deliveries of organizational-training programs (also renamed training delivery methods) are group of materials and techniques used by trainers in structuring their training tools or programs.

They are important to employees’ overall success because they assist in determining their appropriate learning objectives and hence appropriate training methods. Examples of such methods include cognitive methods such as discussions, lectures and case studies.

They influence target groups by demonstrating the relationships among themes of study. This leads to acquisition of knowledge and change in participants’ attitudes.

Other than cognitive methods, other examples of training delivery methods are business games, behavior modeling and in-basket techniques. They influence audiences by allowing trainees or participants to practice ethics in simulated or real fashions.

According to Axson (2010, p.25), the key components within a performance management plan are the systems (on organizational and personnel structures, project limitations and risks), information, and processes (on planned collaborations).

We will write a custom Assessment on Performance and Employees’ Management Tools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these are used by managers in strategizing, monitoring execution, forecasting employee performance and making decisions.

It is recommended by various authors that project evaluators should posses the ability to measure or judge key performance indicators. This is drawn from the significance that they form benchmarks for ascertaining the project progress and status (Mosse


Retention in Schools Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help

Retention is the process of holding back students in their previous grade especially those who have failed to meet the set requirement of the institution they are learning in.

The students are normally forced to do the same grade again: that which they had covered the year before (Shepard


Spatial Ability Studies on Men and Women Term Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research Methodology

Literature Review


Reference List

Introduction Gathering hypothesis is an evolutionary term that gives details on how people have changed gradually over generations. Tools in earlier times were primarily used for digging and harvesting crops and not for hunting. Later, people acquired complex tools, which they used to hunt, remove skin, and cut things.

According to Mcburney et al. (1997), one of sources of proof in support of the gathering hypothesis is the good spatial memory of women. The scholars argue that women do better in jobs that are associated with recalling unlike their male counterparts who do better in rotation jobs.

The theory of gathering and hunting on sex differences states that women’s knowledge and capability to understand things has gradually changed to suit gathering while men’s capability has evolved to suit hunting (Ecuyer-Dab


Ha Jin’s ‘The Bridegroom’ and Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘A Family Supper’ Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly clear to more and more people throughout the world that the ongoing process of Globalization doesn’t only have strictly economic, but also psychological connotations. That is, the earlier mentioned process affects the manner in which individuals perceive the surrounding reality and their place in it.

This, of course, causes many conservatively minded people to criticize Globalization, on account of its assumed capacity to destroy cultural traditions, because the process in question implies the inevitability of unification and standardization.

However, while referring to Globalization in negative terms, it is often being the case that these people unintentionally expose the conceptual fallaciousness of their own line of argumentation, regarding the Globalization’s counter beneficiary effects. In my paper, I will explore the validity of the above statement at length, in regards to the short stories The Bridegroom by Ha Jin and A Family Supper by Kazuo Ishiguro.

Formally speaking, there is nothing new about the issue of a psychological incompatibility between the representatives of older and younger generations, tackled in Jin’s story. After all, it represents a well-known fact that, as compared to what it happened to be the case with young people, their parents tend to be much more conservative.

Nevertheless, there can be only a few doubts that there are clearly defined discursive overtones (concerned with Globalization) to The Bridegroom, which in turn imply that there was so much more to the earlier mentioned incompatibility between the character of Old Cheng, on the one hand, and the characters of Beina and Baowen, on the other.

The validity of this suggestion will become self-evident, once we analyze what were the innate motivations for Old Cheng to pursue with trying to ensure his adopted daughter’s happiness in the way he did. After all, it is specifically setting Beina up with a husband, so that she could get pregnant and to give birth to children, which Old Cheng considered his foremost duty, as a father: “When she (Beina) turned twenty-three and still had no boyfriend, I began to worry.

Where could I find her a husband? Timid and quiet, she didn’t know how to get close to a man. I was afraid she’d become an old maid” (Jin 472). Given the fact that the story’s plot unravels in China and the fact that Old Cheng appears to have been a rather traditionally minded individual, we can well assume that initially, he used to be a rural-dweller.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He came to the city in search of a better-paid employment and eventually ended up becoming an industrial worker – just as it happened to be the case with millions and millions of people like the character in question, throughout the course of the eighties and nineties. This simply could not be otherwise, because it is namely the abundance of peasants in pre-industrial China, which made it possible for this country to be set on the path of industrialization, in the first place.

As sociologists are being well aware of, it this specific category of citizens that traditionally served as the industrialization’s actual ‘fuel’, not only in China but in the rest of currently industrialized nations, such as Britain, the U.S. or Russia, for example. This provides us with a clue, as to why Old Cheng was strongly driven to marry off Beina at any cost.

This is because, despite having relocated to the big city, Old Cheng never ceased being a peasant, in the psychological sense of this word – his persistence in trying to make sure that Beina gets married serves as the best proof to the earlier suggestion’s legitimacy. The reason for this is apparent – people who reside in rural areas, have no other option but to affiliate themselves with agricultural pursuits, as the mean of ensuring their physical survival.

Hence, these people’s tendency to indulge in ‘baby-making’, whenever the opportunity presents itself – the more there are children in a particular rural-based family, the better are the chances for this family to enjoy a comparative well-being, as even young children can be successfully turned into agricultural helpers.

In big cities, however, there is no dialectically predetermined necessity for people to remain strongly committed to ‘baby-making’, as the realities of an urban living effectively eliminate preconditions for individuals to apply a particularly strong effort into trying to survive physically. Because the term ‘Globalization’ is essentially synonymous with the notion of ‘urbanization’, we can well suggest that Old Cheng’s failure in trying to help Beina was thoroughly objective.

Even though, as the story’s context implies, this character resided in the big city for a long time, he nevertheless could never adjust to the realities of an urban living. In its turn, this suggests that there is indeed a good reason to think of this person’s existential stance, exposed throughout the story’s entirety, as having been potentially counterproductive. Apparently, Old Cheng was simply incapable of expanding his intellectual horizons – hence, his consistently exhibited perceptual arrogance.

The discursive legitimacy of this suggestion can also be illustrated in relation to the theme of homosexuality, prominently featured in The Bridegroom. For example, there is a memorable scene in the story, where Old Cheng refuses to drink milk, poured into the mug for him by Baowen: “He (Baowen) poured a large mug of mailed milk for both of us, since there was only one mug in the room.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Ha Jin’s ‘The Bridegroom’ and Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘A Family Supper’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I didn’t touch the milk, unsure whether homosexuality was communicable” (486). This, of course, exposes Old Cheng as having been not an overly bright individual. However, it is not something that could be held against him, but rather the fact that Old Cheng’s attitude towards homosexuality did not change, even after he had a plenty of chances to learn that this ‘disease’ cannot be considered a disease per se, but rather a genetically defined mental condition, that poses no threat to the society, whatsoever.

After all, doctor Mai did explain to Old Cheng what homosexuality is all about: “Let me say this again: There’s no cure for your son-in-law, Old Cheng, It’s (homosexuality) not a disease. It’s just a sexual preference; it may be congenital, like being left-handed. Got it?” (487).

However, even after having learned this, Old Cheng could not help thinking of homosexuality as something morally wicked, because this practice did not make much of a sense in his mind of a primitively thinking peasant: “If homosexuality is a natural thing, then why are there men and women? Why can’t two men gel married and make a baby?” (488).

At the same time, however, Old Cheng remained thoroughly comfortable, while bribing governmental officials with two cigarettes-cartons. Apparently, it never occurred to him to think of bribery as an utterly immoral act. Partially, this explains why, despite corrupted Chinese governmental officials continuing to be sentenced to death, on the account of their bribe-taking practices, the majority of ordinary Chinese citizens (especially those who have been brought in the country) believes that there is nothing wrong about these practices.

In fact, in the Chinese language, the very notion of bribe (guanxi) implies its full appropriateness: “(Guanxi) is the establishment of a connection between two independent individuals to enable a bilateral flow of personal or social transactions” (Yeung and Tung 55). The reason for this is simple – China only recently became an industrialized nation, which is why the majority of people in this country continue to think ‘rurally’ – hence their tendency to give/accept bribes.

After all, in order to be able to survive in the rural areas, peasants need to rely on each other, which in turn naturally predispose them towards trying to win each other’s favor. Therefore, there is indeed a good rationale in believing that the intergenerational conflict, described in The Bridegroom, has been brought about by the process of Globalization (urbanization), which exposes people’s continual endowment with ‘traditional values’, as such that reflects their intellectual inflexibility and consequently – their reduced ability to act as the society’s productive members.

What has been said in the paper’s previous sub-chapter, also applies within the context of discussing the themes and motifs, contained in the story Family Supper by Kazuo Ishiguro. This is because, just as it happened to be the case with the earlier discussed story, the roots of the intergenerational conflict in Ishiguro’s story have to do with the fact that, as time goes on, the Globalization-related socio-cultural discourse changes the way in which people perceive the surrounding social reality.

In this respect, the narrator’s mentioning of the fact that his mother died, due to having been poisoned by a Fugu fish, has a strongly defined symbolic significance. This is because, by participating in the ceremony of eating this fish, individuals are expected to prove their courageousness. Apparently, they want to be considered as such that does not fear death too much.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ha Jin’s ‘The Bridegroom’ and Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘A Family Supper’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Simultaneously, however, it reflects these individuals’ lessened ability to appreciate their lives, due to having been ‘trained’ to think of their own and other people’s physical existence; as such that does not necessarily represent the highest value of all. The earlier mentioned ‘training’ usually takes place in rural families with many children. If any of these children dies, his or her parents and siblings do not perceive it in terms of an unbearable loss, as there is still a plenty more left.

Given the fact that prior to WW2, Japan was an essentially agrarian country, the existential attitude, on the part of the narrator’s parents (reflected by their braveness in the face of death), makes a perfectly good sense. After all, the story context implies that they belonged to the ‘war generation’, which means that have been naturally prompted not to put their lives in a particularly high regard.

Therefore, there is nothing too odd about the narrator father’s tendency to glorify death, reflected by his favorable remarks, in regards to its former business-partner Watanabe, who after having sustained a bankruptcy, killed himself and its family: “After the firm’s collapse, Watanabe killed himself. He didn’t wish to live with the disgrace… A fine man. A man of principle” (Ishiguro 1).

Apparently, due to the specifics of its early upbringing and its wartime memories, the narrator’s father did in fact share the illusion that there could be a ‘higher’ purpose to one’s violent death. This also explains his subtly expressed belief that war is the only effective key to solving seeming unsolvable problems and that one’s willingness to sacrifice its life ‘glorifies’ the concerned individual: “During the war I spent some time on a ship… But my ambition was always the air force… If your ship was struck by the enemy, all you could do was struggle in the water hoping for a lifeline.

But in an airplane – well – there was always the final weapon” (3). The narrator and his sister Kikuko, on the hand, could not have possibly shared their father’s sentiment, in this respect. After all, as the story’s context suggests, both of them had traveled outside of Japan, without having experienced any emotional discomfort, whatsoever.

In fact, the story’s narrator appears to have resided in the U.S. for a considerable amount of time, which in turn enlightened him that, due to the realities of the late 20th century’s living, the notion of ethno-patriotism can no longer be considered discursively legitimate. This simply could not be otherwise, because while growing up in economically booming post-war Japan, the narrator and his sister were dialectically predetermined to affiliate themselves with the values of Globalization, as the ‘Earth-flattening’ process.

As Ohmae noted: “The global economy ignores barriers… The traditional centralized nation-state is another cause of friction. It is ill-equipped to play a meaningful role on the global stage” (5). Therefore, even though there can be only a few doubts, as to the fact that both: the narrator and his sister never ceased to respect their father, they nevertheless could never relate to him, in the emotional sense of this word.

Apparently, despite the particulars of their ethnic affiliation, they were essentially cosmopolites – thoroughly alienated from what the notion of ‘traditional values’ stands for. This is the reason why Kikuko would never skip a chance lightning up a cigarette, once her father was not around.

Nevertheless, unlike what it happened to be the case with the character of Old Cheng in Jin’s story, Ishiguro’s father proved himself intellectually honest enough to consider the possibility that the ‘old ways’, he cherished so much, might have been deprived of a rationale all along. This is exactly the reason why, contrary to the readers’ subliminal expectation, the fish that the narrator’s father prepared for supper, did not turn out to be a poisonous Fugu.

There is a memorable conversation that takes place between the narrator and his father at the end of the story, in which the latter does admit that Watanabe’s suicide could never be justified: “You think what he (Watanabe) did – it was a mistake?’. ‘Why, of course. Do you see it otherwise?’” (4). By saying this, the narrator’s father subtly recognized the sheer wrongness of those virtues, and he used to pursue while young.

What has been argued earlier in this paper, suggests that Globalization does not only affect the interrelationships between the representatives of different generations. Instead, it changes the very essence of how young and older people indulge in the socialization with each other. The reason for this is quite apparent – due to the Globalization’s discursive implications, older people can no longer be considered as such that have a plenty of wisdom about them.

Yet, this is not because, while addressing different challenges, throughout the course of their lives, the representatives of the older generations had failed at accumulating wisdom, but because what these people know about how the world turns around, does not contain the realization of the fact that humanity is standing on the threshold of a rather dramatic transformation.

After all, it is namely during the course of the last few decades (associated with the rise of the Internet) that the pace of the humanity’s socio-cultural and technological progress had attained a clearly defined exponential momentum. What is means is that there are indeed good reasons to believe that, when it comes to identifying the extent of the ethical appropriateness/inappropriateness of currently predominant socio-philosophical discourses, young people will be much more likely to succeed in it, as compared to what would have been the case with their parents or grandparents.

Apparently, the very fact that they were born in a time when Globalization started to undermine the soundness of a number of different classical notions/assumptions, in regards to what accounts for the humanity’s actual destiny, in general, and the purpose of one’s life, in particular, makes them cognitively attuned with what would be the ways of the ‘borderless brave world’.

I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, as to the discursive significance of the intergenerational conflict, described in the stories by Jin and Ishiguro, fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.

Works Cited Ishiguro, Kazuo 1982, A Family Supper. RTF file.

Jin, Ha 2000, The Bridegroom. Web.

Ohmae, Kenichi. Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless World. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing, 2005. Print.

Yeung, Irene and Rosalie Tung. “Achieving Business Success in Confucian Societies: The Importance of Guanxi (Connections).” Organizational Dynamics 25.2 (1996): 54-65. Print.


Personality Traits Overview Explicatory Essay writing essay help

Human beings show great variations in terms of their personality traits mainly because of the differences in genes. Traits could be defined as the consistent prototypes of behavior, idea, and feeling, which differ from one individual to the other. Based on this definition, personality traits are often stable and vary from one individual to the other.

For instance, psychologists have proved through research that some individuals are outgoing while others might be shy. Traits are very powerful in the sense that they influence human behavior. A number of psychologists have engaged in research to establish the way traits influence human behavior.

Gordon Allport was one of the first theorists to engage in these types of studies (Saul, 2003). In his theory, Allport noted that traits could as well be referred to as dispositions since they are basic to any individual meaning that an individual cannot do without them. At least two types of traits exist, one of them being central traits while the other is secondary traits, which are more peripheral.

Modern evolutionary psychologists apply the theory of natural selection and sexual selection to understand how human traits vary among individuals. Such psychologists are of the view that the human mind has a modular structure that is comparable to the functioning of the body, which affects the behavior of an individual.

Based on this, the actions of an individual are greatly influenced by psychological adaptations, which evolve to deal with the current issues affecting individuals in the environment. Human beings show variations in their actions because of the frequency-dependent selection or facultative adaptations. Therefore, traits in people may vary since the genetic make-up is different.

The variations among human beings are too many. People would vary in terms of their openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, self-esteem, novelty, perfection, and even rigidity. However, this paper discusses one variation among individuals, which is impulsivity. Impulsivity refers to taking risks.

Those considered impulsive are often poor planners and they would tend to rush into conclusions without a careful evaluation of an event. Impulsivity is directly related to genetics since the lesions in the right inferior frontal gyrus in the brain cause it. This situation is passed from one generation to the other through genetics meaning that parents would automatically transfer to it to their children.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People with this condition have serious problems when it comes to making decisions in life. It would be difficult for an individual with this problem to postpone his or her plans since they would always wish to accomplish their objectives as soon as possible. Impulsivity is a kind of trait that drives an individual to act based on whim, leading to undesirable behavior that might be characterized by little or no aforethought, evidence, or thoughtfulness.

An individual with this type of trait would most probably behavior in a premature manner, with many risks involved. Psychologists have proved through research that impulsive actions impeded both short and long-term goals of an individual (Buss, 2012).

In this regard, such individuals are never successful in life because they lack time to plan their programs in a desirable manner. It is concluded that impulsivity results to actions that are undesirable since an individual acts without following an established structure. Moreover, an individual tends to choose short-term goals over long-term goals. This behavior cannot be corrected since it is genetically related.

References Buss, D. (2012). Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. New York: Pearson Education.

Saul K. (2003). Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.


Drawbacks and Benefits of Online Shopping Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Benefits of Online Shopping

Drawbacks of Online Shopping



Introduction Online shopping is a form of e-commerce that involves the use of internet-connected computer hardware and credit cards. The user also needs to have a secure password that will enable him or her to access the services. Online shoppers are required to have different passwords for different shopping websites.

The process of online shopping involves opening the site where one prefers shopping, selecting the good or service needed by clicking on the specific item that the shopper wants, and then clicking on the ‘add to basket’ portal. After the item is moved, the buyer then clicks the stop button. Before entering money details, the customer ensures that the website uses ‘https’ and not ‘http’.

Such a browser assures the user that the site is secure in terms of handling money. The user then enters his or her credit or debit card particulars on the site. The site will display some verification characters for the user to enter. These ‘Captcha” details verify that the machine is being operated by a person and not a fraudulent software or robot.

After the buyer has completed entering the required details on the website as prompted, he or she then waits for the goods or services to be delivered to his or her authorised points of delivery. With this hint in mind concerning online shopping, the information given so far is enough to declare the shopping strategy as both risky and advantageous. The study dwells on proving this claim.

Benefits of Online Shopping One of the benefits of online shopping is that it makes the customer have quick access to items that are identical regardless of where he or she does the shopping for them. For example, one is able to access items such as certain types of clothes, Compact Discs (CDs), books, cookeries, and even electronics. The only major requirements that the buyer should ensure that he or she has are the particulars of the item, which he or she verifies when it is delivered.

Bonsu and Darmody (2008, p. 356) argue that online shopping enables people to save energy that could have been used to travel to the shopping malls or to the markets for certain items. Online shopping is particularly advantageous, when the item that the buyer wants is similar in various shopping points. Such an item does not require the buyer to select a particular item from a variety of closely related or similar items.

For example, if it is a particular book by Shakespeare for instance, the book is not likely to be different in terms of price from one shop to another in a certain market region. With such items, the buyer can comfortably do online shopping. Constaninides (2004, p. 115) reveals that online shopping is also beneficial because it saves time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the online shopping service providers offer free delivery of services to their customers for goods of a specific value. The buyer is able to save a lot of time, which he or she can spend doing other beneficial activities. The time that shoppers spend in travelling, selecting, packing, and carrying the items is reduced. Therefore, online services such as shopping enhance efficiency.

According to Bonsu and Darmody (2008, p. 356), online shopping is also beneficial to customers in that they can obtain commodities that are not easily accessible due to distance and complexity of specificity. Some items that customers may need are very specific in nature.

Hence, identifying and selecting them physically in the shelves of the supermarket may be tedious. For example, electronic gadgets have specific codes that may easily confuse customers who have no previous experience in them. Choosing the specific item from a variety of others may attract confusion and hence a probable wrong choice of what the client requires.

In some instances, goods or services are not available in the proximity of the customer. In such cases, online customer can search through the websites and identify the item from far since delivery is guaranteed. For example, a customer may want to buy a certain model of a car that is not available in his or her country. Sometimes the buyer may not know where to get a certain item.

However, the buyer can access such goods and services through online advertising that the sellers offer. Online shopping has also enabled sellers to publicise their goods and services. A good example of shopping sites is the OLX where sellers post a picture of the items they want to sell, their description, and price. In addition, online shopping has little or no interference from competitors.

According to Bonsu and Darmody (2008, p. 355), unlike in supermarkets, shopping malls, shops, and hotels where customers line up to be served, online shopping is personal. Customers will use their computers, mobile phones or iPads to access the items that they want to buy. There are no cues and scramble for scarce items as it happens sometimes in shops and supermarkets.

Clients can order for items that they may not be confident to pick in the company of others in the supermarket. Such items include medicine for diseases that are stereotyped such as HIV/AIDs and other STDs. Thus, online shopping guarantees privacy and convenience.

We will write a custom Essay on Drawbacks and Benefits of Online Shopping specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, online shopping has been very beneficial for the physically challenged. Since these people find it difficult to travel, open fridges and shelves in supermarkets, and/or even to carry their shopping, they prefer using this service. Online shopping service saves them the strenuous activity hence enabling them to shop comfortably just like their normal counterparts.

Drawbacks of Online Shopping Although e-commerce has been embraced in many economies of the world, there are several challenges that face its advancement. One of the drawbacks of online shopping is that it is not a very safe and secure transaction. The Secure Test consultancy firm that is based in the United Kingdom conducted a research on the safety of e-commerce.

Out of 100 websites that the consultancy investigated, the company concluded that there were many flaws in terms of handling of customers’ details by various websites. The methods of handling security details of customers were very insecure. Such flaws included mishandling of customer passwords and email addresses.

Mismanagement of the customer’s data is a great loop that online attackers use to hack registered e-commerce sites. Another drawback is lack of compliance with the required standards for the use of credit card by the issuing companies. Credit cards are required to be compliant with the PCI-DSS standards, which are the international standards that should guide the security of credit card services.

However, in a recent survey of credit compliance in the UK, only 14 percent of the 65 companies that were involved had complied with the PCI-DSS standards. Surprisingly, even large website companies such as Littlewoods were found to lag in terms of compliance. Companies such as the New Look are also not compliant. However, they do not keep details of customers’ credit cards and passwords.

In fact, customers should revert to PayPal, which is more secure. Constaninides (2004, p. 111) argue that websites are hacked using SQL injection where fraudsters use the registered websites to perform fraud on online customers. The other drawback is that online shopping websites cannot be trusted. Websites that host most of the shopping sites portals are never screened for authenticity.

Without scrutiny, such companies can be operated by people with ill motives hence injuring innocent customers. For example, Fasthosts Company has fallen to this trap. Last year, this company, which is based in the UK, was ordered to have its customers alter their FTP and all their passwords to their emails due to data breach. If this step were not taken as a quick remedy, many online shoppers would have lost their money.

Conclusion With the advancement of computer technology, e-commerce has been adopted by many economies in the world today. Online commerce involves the use of internet-enabled computers to carry out shopping on company websites. The buyer pays for the services using credit cards or debit cards with special passwords. There are various advantages and disadvantages of using online shopping.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drawbacks and Benefits of Online Shopping by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The benefits include saving time and energy used in shopping, easy access of goods and services that are not available in certain regions, access to goods and services by physically challenged persons, and enhancing efficiency. However, several drawbacks are evident such as insecurity, poor credit card compliance by the providers, and website hosts that cannot be trusted due to poor authenticity.

Finally, from the above discussion, e-commerce has more advantages in relation to disadvantages. Hence, it should be adopted in the world with the necessary input in security.

References Bonsu, A


The High Line Park Transformation into a Public Park Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Social concerns of the High Lane Park

Overcrowding of Park Enthusiasts

Cultural Clash

Unsustainable Expansion Plan

Environmental Externalities

Addressing the social concerns



Introduction The High Line Park was conceived in 1999 within the New York City and currently run by the Friends of the High Lane. Currently, the park is a conservancy and a public space for the residents and visitors within New York City. The park has experienced transformation between the West 34th Street and West 30th Street.

However, several social concerns have been raised on this project. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to review the social concerns of transformation of the High Lane into a public park.

Social concerns of the High Lane Park Decision environment often experience dynamics and swings which create short and long term effect on chances of survival for two alternatives to solve a problem. When faced with a decision dilemma that requires critical assessments, analysis resorts to analytical tools that ensure competitive positioning advantage. However, there must be a clear justification for the decision through review of benefits and projected results of suggested decision.

In making the decision to either rebuild the High Lane Park in the city of New York, it is critical to review the benefits of the interested constituencies such as the city residents, the residents of those surrounding the city, the federal government, and the Mayor of the city. Stakeholders are individuals, groups or organisations with a stake/claim in a project’s outcome1.

Generally, not all stakeholders will have the same objectives and motivations for a project. The first process of managing stakeholders is to identify them.

Overcrowding of Park Enthusiasts (Picture of the crowded High Lane Park; self generated)

Quality planning involves in identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. It is one of the key facilitating processes during project planning and should be performed regularly and in parallel with the other project planning process. Due to its small size, the park is always full beyond its capacity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has been a concern especially to residents of the High Line settlement who were used to peaceful neighbourhood. The process of decision making is dependent on heuristic since it provides assumptions, integration of project organization framework, and ethical control2.

Being a member of the High Lane residents’ constituency, the past experience of peaceful neighborhood inspired this concern. Besides, the cognitive biases have influenced the decision to establish the park.

Cultural Clash Ethics determine the level of participation by the members of a constituency who after interaction with each other, identify hale and hearty social interventions passed through a feasibility test for implementation to initiate cultural shift among the primary stakeholder.

Besides, communication ethics define content policy based on the need to address rational and irrational habits in order to strike a balance on environmental friendly decision process. Besides, the target of this decision implementation is the entire hierarchy of constituency members from the top to the least at bottom of the ladder.

As a result of properly structured communication ethics, the decision environment becomes holistic, soft and socially friendly to the constituency members. Besides, healthy ethical communication culture creates structural goals which develop norms, expectations of specific behavior display, and appropriate guideline controlling interaction with one another3.

The residents of High Line neighborhood have raised the social concern of interaction to unwelcomed culture such as cases of burglary within the park have increased. Besides, social perverts are often spotted in the park preying on their victims since there is very little presence of the authority.

Among the aspired ideals of the heuristic model in park rehabilitation includes the need for a constituency to strive to develop good culture by fostering a strong alignment on the monitored path of achieving its goals, missions and vision4. This includes written rules of engagement, expected behavior, and repercussions for deviation. Each member of the constituency becomes part of the philosophy upon confirming allegiance.

We will write a custom Essay on The High Line Park Transformation into a Public Park specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Periodically, the constituency will subconsciously restructure these goals in consistency with the changing life demands. Consequently, when people are absorbed and made to feel part of these goals, they would strive to give their best towards the decision process.

Moreover, cooperation with the media has proven instrumental in creating awareness on magnitude and effects of hurricane on economic, social, and health sectors in order to prepare the residents of High line neighborhood psychologically for unprecedented losses in the form of future expansion. Many of the local residents live in a fear of permanent displacement since the current expansion strategy of the park is silent on possible need for further expansion of the park.

Unsustainable Expansion Plan As human nature dictates, the park philosophy carries with it enticements. When these are timely discovered, they may lead to a deep attachment with the object over which such a decision motivation is given. When successfully carried out, emotional strains are kept at bay as constant interaction is a means of boosting confidence and personality a recipe for good organizational culture in the constituency.

In addition, this regulator manages unrealistic personal pressure among other excessive demanding thought system and personal cognitive factors inclusive of health issues, relationship and inability to adjust to sudden changes5. Eventual resilience will vary depending on the period taken to implement the plan which may totally be different from another.

However, this must be accompanied by definite values as determined by the immediate neighborhood. Ironically, the park has led to relocation of the relatively poor members of the neighborhood since the land rates and house rates have skyrocketed. Instead, the relatively rich have taken over the neighborhood. As a result, the family of the High Line neighborhood has been disintegrated permanently.

Environmental Externalities Basically, an externality in the field of environmental conservation and sustainability refers to any benefit or cost which happens due to an action or activity and it directly affects a third party who was not in any way involved and had not made the choice to bring upon yourself that benefit or cost. Reflectively, an externality is a secondary result of a primary action and may bring with it a benefits or a cost.

There are two types of externalities, that is, positive and negative externality. Negative externalities are accompanied by costs incurred while positive externalities are characterized by strings of benefits6. An ideal example of a negative externality in the park project is the continuous uncontrolled pollution activities that directly causes air from the vehicles down the High Line.

As a result of the pollution, the whole community has to incur the cost of poor health and possible clean up to restore the clean environment, despite High Line being a park. Air pollution is a negative externality. Air pollution in the above scenario can be classified as a negative externality since it is accompanied by hidden costs such as health concerns that the entire High Line community has to incur despite being non parties in the pollution activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The High Line Park Transformation into a Public Park by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The community has to incur the cost of treating those affected by the pollution and has to live with the consequences that the pollution may put on them. In order to deal with this externality, the community should seek for compensation from the city of New York mayor.

Sustainable progress is an issue stirred by drift from an ideal thought to a supreme endeavor to tackle emerging problems of financial challenges and ecological problems. This category of revolution has endeavored to solve existing social problems. At present, people prefer eco-friendly programs when deciding recreational facilities to visit.

(Picture of the environmental externalities; self generated)

Inflated cost of living to the original residents

Reflectively, the principle of comparative advantage is a concept that connotes the desirable ability of an individual or nation to give a service at a relatively lower opportunity cost and marginal cost as compared to another who has the intention of giving the same service, in this case, the High Line Park.

Despite the fact the New York City may possess efficient factors for nearly all the park services as a result of its absolute advantage, the residents don’t seem to benefit since the park services are not affordable to the relatively poor persons in the neighborhood. Sustainability and sustainable development is a term mostly applied by urban planners’ inconsideration environmental and demographic factors which influences urban set up7.

As compared to early population, the modern population has increased in population as well as change in their social economic activities. For this reason, urban planners must develop a mechanism to cater for space in the urban centers as well as the increase in trend over environmental pollution. In addition, the planners should address issues tied to social resources, pollution in the urban centers, climate changes and urban heat.

The High Line Park does not have a regulation policy that will ensure its sustainability amidst competing interests. Sustainable development should be created in a way that the short and long-term healthy growth of an urban center should be maintained.

This takes the aspect of effective and efficient control of pollution, proper housing to reduce congestion, good social ecology, better mechanisms of restoring natural resources and positive community interactions. For sustainable development to be carried out in the High Line Park a wide view of policies and plans must be put in place. Collaborative Strategic Goal Oriented Programming could be applied.

This program looks into analyzing decision making based on well assessed problem on the ground using any possible means. It has majorly been applied to large urban systems with problems. It has successfully been applied to the European urban development system and on the project of LUDA.

(Picture of the third phase of the High Line Park; self generated)

The planning system applies the social approach of uniting groups to unearth information and ideas on the problems affecting that particular urban area. Currently the issues for discussion in the High Line Park project include urban aesthetics and safety.

The visual impression in urban centers has become another important aspect of urban transformation. Safety on weather condition and other natural calamities like earthquakes are also emerging issues in the sustainable development plans of the High Line Park since it location and position is prone to weather disaster.

(Picture of the High Line Park side walk; self generated)

Addressing the social concerns Actually, sustainability is a state of acquiring social, environmental, and economical expectations without compromising important aspects of life for future generation. Indeed, sustainable living therefore, is expressed as a situation of living in an innate sustainable and appealing facility distinct of ecological, financial, and conscious features.

Moreover, sustainable devise and sustainable progress are significant features in achieving sustainable living situation. Adaptation of sociological approach in environmental impact assessment recommendations should be inclusive of an environmental committee that would clear the weighty issues surrounding technical and institutional assumptions in establishing the third phase of the High Line Park.

Through this, the stakeholders will reach a compromising but satisfactory decision that will be influenced by participatory decision process, rather than adopting either a protagonist or antagonist stance in this multimillion dollar project. Thus, a wider scrutiny will encompass scientific and democratic purposes and concerns of the locals8.

As a result, the common ground that is likely to be fostered by the above committee would be the stimulus of free activities and proactive engagements for all the interest institutions, persons, and extra-institutional groups. After reviewing several decisions and judgment on different cases on park management, sociological treatment would provide the most neutral ground for implementation of the third phase of the High Line Park.

The micro level analysis requires personalized approach which will indicate an imminent and forthcoming need for personnel who can function as safety engineers within the High Line Park.

Bibliography Alan, Porter. Tech Mining to Drive Open Innovation. Georgia Tech: Technology Policy


Aircraft Inspections for Safety and Reliability Evaluation Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Information pertaining to Pre/Post Flight Inspections

Critical thinking

Legality of the tasks

Human factors related to maintenance inspections



Information pertaining to Pre/Post Flight Inspections Inspections are made to enhance aircraft reliability. Reliability refers to quality service and quality means safety for people. Inspections for aircraft safety and reliability are significant for survival of people and equipment. Since this is an integral part of aircraft operations, we have to conduct aircraft inspections systematically and apply meticulous and down-to-earth processes.

Inspections involve steps and processes and require analyses of reports from the different tasks required for aircraft operation. As inspector, I am tasked to determine the airworthiness of an aircraft. An aircraft inspection is an important activity that ranges from merely “walking around” to a meticulous inspection by way of disassembling the parts through complicated inspection tools and technique.

An inspection system requires reports and investigations conducted by mechanics, information from the pilot or co-pilot in charge of the aircraft, and reports from other personnel involved. My ultimate aim is to make an aircraft free of any accident. Irresponsible and disorganized inspection will result into a bad aircraft condition that might cause accident (Federal Aviation Administration, 2009, p. 64).

Aircraft is scheduled for inspection if it has accumulated certain flight hours, or a situation based on calendar inspection. Calendar inspection is an efficient type of management program since components have to be replaced based on the number of hours the aircraft has performed. (Aviation maintenance technician handbook, 2008, p. 8-1)

Preparation for inspection involves a lot of paperwork and availability of information as reference point. Other publications have to be accessed and read as reference guide. Information from the makers of the aircraft is also important.

We consult the aircraft logbook when looking for available data about the aircraft. The historical information of the aircraft is presented here so that when there is any incident about the aircraft, it should be present in the logbook. If there were incidents involving the aircraft, I can get firsthand information from its maintenance history.

My findings and observation will also be a part of the logbook (Aviation maintenance technician handbook – powerplant, volume 2, 2012, p. 10-1). A significant part of inspections at the Honolulu Airport is the use of checklists which list the parts that will be inspected and the steps to be undertaken. The use of the checklist will enhance efficiency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The inspection is provided a systematic approach which covers every step of the way. Every component and section of the aircraft is given due attention. In other words, there is no stone unturned in the inspection or investigation. Any negative report from the pilot and crew is given attention and investigated. So, an inspection is also an investigation. (Krause, 2003, p. 163)

Safety and inspection practices for the Honolulu International Airport are in line with the provisions and suggestions of FAA Handbook 8083-30 Chapter 8 and AC 43.13-1B. I have already discussed above some provisions of the FAA handbook while the Advisory Circular is a must in the next paragraph.

The advisory circular emphasizes inspection of wooden aircraft which are mostly old-designed aircraft. When inspecting wooden aircraft, activities should be in conformity with Section 3 of AC 43.13-1B. Wood decay occurs when fungi develops in wood. Decayed wood has particular characteristics like softness and swelling and its color has changed.

The ultimate solution for this problem is replacement. When inspecting wooden aircraft, it must be in a well-ventilated place. Preliminary inspection has to be done before removing the covers. The presence of wood deterioration should be a primary concern in the inspection. (Advisory Circular 43.13-1B, 1998, Section 3)

Pre- and post-flight inspections are recorded in the aircraft’s logbook. The results of inspections and reports become a part of the logbook for reference by other inspectors and maintenance crews. Focusing on the history of the aircraft through the “eyes” of the logbook helps the job of an effective inspector.

Airlines have their own maintenance teams and inspectors to improve aircraft airworthiness. Each aircraft has its own maintenance program developed according to manufacturer’s specifications and instructions. This maintenance program is approved by airport authorities and by the government agency responsible for aircraft inspection and maintenance.

Each program directs the maintenance schedules for a particular aircraft inspection; the schedules include the parts and engines to be inspected. The inspections done for each aircraft from the different airlines are subject for scrutiny and approval by the government agency.

We will write a custom Essay on Aircraft Inspections for Safety and Reliability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to airport authorities, each hour spent in flight will have an equivalent of several hours’ maintenance. Each maintenance session includes a series of inspections and procedures which would depend on the time the aircraft spent on air and the various activities functions and activities the aircraft was involved.

Critical thinking Personal judgment and critical thinking have to be included in my report and will become an integral part of the logbook and history of maintenance of the aircraft. Basically, my report is based on personal judgment and critical thinking. This is the area that I have to be good at. I hate the horrors of accidents that I hear from other international airports.

Nothing so horrific has occurred at the Honolulu International Airport under my watch. One aircraft I inspected required a thorough inspection of the parts. The logbook stated that there were some parts replaced with what the aviation industry calls PMA (Parts Manufacturer Approval). These were replacement parts and not Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM).

It was a judgment call on my part whether to replace the PMA part with OEM as part of my recommendation. But having experienced myself with PMA parts, it was my belief that the component in question could perform like the original and was still working well and needed no replacement. The logbook for the aircraft stated that it was a first replacement and I also recorded as part of my recommendation that the PMA part in question was as good as the original and was working perfectly.

Lives of passengers depend on the aircraft’s airworthiness and the inspector’s skill and expertise. If the inspector recorded wrong judgment, it could be a cause of accident. Critical thinking and honest judgment have to be molded with experience and continuous research and education. This is a serious job requiring analytical skills allowing no mistakes.

Legality of the tasks The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is a mandate to provide order in flight operations. The FAA has the sole authority to correct mistakes in aircraft parts and engines. Unsafe situations may exist due to poor design, insufficient maintenance, and many other causes. 14CFR specifically pushes for the regular scheduling of aircraft inspection depending on the specific functions the aircraft was made. (Office of the Federal Register, 2011, p. 33)

Inspections are performed before and after flying. But more meticulous inspections are scheduled at least once every 12 months. For big commercial airplanes it has to be after every 100 hours of flying. (Aviation maintenance technician handbook, 2008, p. 8-5)

Two types of aircraft maintenance can be conducted: one that is required for the purpose of issuing a type certification (TC) and another issued by the Maintenance Review Board (MRB). These requirements are needed to provide proof of the airworthiness of the aircraft. (Ahamadi, Söderholm,


Do Men and Women Speak Differently? Argumentative Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

An overview of the differences in speech and communication

Differences in speech between men and women

The impact of external environment on the attributes of speech



Introduction One question that has remained rhetorical in various subfields of linguistics concerns the reason why women are considered to be fluent and efficient when it comes to public speaking as opposed to men. Whether women are more efficient when it comes to speech remains to be a question that is subject to debate. The rationale behind the observation is that historical data has documented a number of men who have emerged as great orators.

If at all there are variations in the manner in which men and women speak, then what are the attributes that make men to speak differently from men? A substantial number of researchers in the field of language have tried to establish the differences in the factors that motivate speech and language in both men and women.

In which aspects of language can the differences in speech be detected between the spoken language in men and women? A lot of attempts are being made to bring out and justify the differences in speech between men and women. The researchers try to go beyond the vocal and tone attributes in unearthing things that affect the verbal codes in men and women.

In this paper, it is argued that there is a wide range of factors that can be used to justify the differences in speech between men and women. According to Aries (1996), speech is one of the main areas in which men and women vary. This implies that the interaction between males and females results in lots of differences in speech and other attributes of interaction between the two genders.

It is argued by a substantial number of researchers in the field of language that the variation in speech between men and women is attributed to three critical factors. These include: the psychological attributes of men and women, the physical make up of men and women and the interactive forces like gender stereotypes. These attributes can be further sub-divided into mini-attributes, each of which depicts its influence on speech and communication in male and female genders in a given society.

This paper explores the variations in speech between men and women. Of greater essence in the paper is the unearthing of different features that cause the variations in the way men and women speak. The paper is divided into three main sections that are bound to explicitly exhaust the critical points. This paper begins with an overview of the differences in speech between people of the male gender and those of the female gender.

This is meant to open into the critical factors that justify the variations in speech between men and women, which form the second part of the paper. The third part of the discussion dwells on the external factors and how they shape the aspects of communication in men and women. The nature of speech and the attachment of meaning on the speech that is made by the male and female genders are discussed under this section.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An overview of the differences in speech and communication According to Mulac and Lundell (1982), the differences between the attributes of language in men and women have been widely researched by a substantial number of scholars. The differences in men and women syntax and semantics are found in several studies of communication that cover both verbal and written aspects of language and communication.

The varied aspects of communication cover both group communication and dyadic communication. The issue of perception about the nature of speech is determined by the source and the receiver of the information. This means that the variations in the ways of speaking between men and women are affected or determined by the gender with which an individual is communicating to or communicating with.

While similar characteristics of speech feature in conversations, researchers have ascertained that the ways in which these features are used differ when they are applied to men and women. Women qualify their language in a different way from the way men qualify their language. The environment in which communication is taking place is also another plausible factor that results in profound differences in speech between men and women.

This is what makes some people to liken some features of speech to women, while others are attributed to the male gender. It is easy to qualify a speech from a man as a feminine speech because of the choice of words and the tone of language that is used by the speaker.

As observed in the introductory note, several questions are being asked concerning the variations that prevail in speech and communication between men and women. This denotes that variations in speech and other attributes of communication between people of the male gender and the female gender exist and ought to be explained by researchers.

Linguists have continuously made attempts to bring out the variations in speech between men and women. In his book titled “Duels and Duets: why men and women talk so differently”, Locke, who is a renowned researcher in the field of linguistics at Lehman College argued that men and women possess different attributes of speech that are founded in the evolutionary needs.

The variation in the evolutionary needs between men and women is one of the critical factors that shape language and speech in men and women groups in the society. Society has moulded most of the forces that enhance the differences in the attributes and patterns of speech and communication between men and women (Hunter, Gambell


The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge Critical Essay scholarship essay help

François Lyotard is one of the most influential postmodern theorists who explored the concept of knowledge in the twentieth century. Lyotard (1979) analysed different types of information and knowledge and the role knowledge played in the society. His discoveries revealed the major trends which existed at that time.

Thus, the theorist exploits the concepts of metanarratives to stress that the era of information has little to do with ethics. He also emphasises that the major resource of the twenty-first century is information which will be the object of conflict. The author’s famous work The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge has inspired numerous theorists and, to certain extent, has shaped some major theories of society.

Lyotard’s ideas had impact on conflict, functionalist, critical and feminist theories. In the first place, it is essential to consider major ideas articulated in Lyotard’s book. Thus, the subject matter of the book is “the condition of knowledge in the most highly developed societies” (Lyotard 1979, p. xxiii). The theorist stresses that the very nature of knowledge (as well as information) has been changed due to the changes which are taking place in the society.

Technology and science have transformed information. According to Lyotard (1979), information is no longer a final product, but only a sub-product. Managing (i.e. searching, distributing, storing) information is becoming pivotal within the contemporary society. It is not enough to generate some information, it is crucial to be able to manage it properly.

It is essential to understand which channels should be used to distribute data available. Lyotard (1979, p. 5) also notes that information has become a “productive power”, which is the central “stake in the worldwide competition for power”. The theorist states that information will be the most important resource and countries will long to possess knowledge rather than other resources.

Remarkably, knowledge helps provide or manage other vital resources more efficiently. Therefore, highly developed countries will try to control knowledge to retain their leading positions with the help of proper information management. Apart from defining knowledge, Lyotard (1979) puts a very important question. He tries to understand who has the right to decide what knowledge is.

At this point, it is necessary to note that the author claims that there are different kinds of knowledge. The author introduces the concept of narratives. In other words, different people obtain and accumulate knowledge. Lyotard (1979) tries to consider legitimacy of knowledge. The author concludes that this can be the government’s priority to legitimate knowledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importantly, Lyotard (1979) does not simply identify those responsible to legitimate knowledge, but he also provides a specific method to do it effectively. Thus, language games can be the necessary tools to legitimate knowledge. Importantly, language is perceived as a part of the system. However, the system is not characterised by rigid rules as it is not a modern by postmodern society.

The language game is not regulated by a variety of rules in the postmodern society as each move leads to new forms and various innovations. In this respect, Lyotard (1979) provides two types of knowledge, i.e. narrative and scientific knowledge. As far as narrative knowledge is concerned, it encompasses numerous concepts including truth or beauty.

Narrative is characterised by flexibility. Thus, narrative knowledge can be legitimated by the narrator. More so, the narrator does not need to have some authority. Any narrator is legitimate as he/she has and furthers some knowledge. Nonetheless, scientific knowledge is characterised by certain precision and availability of evidence supporting or refuting certain statements (Lyotard 1979).

Both types of knowledge are equal and have their right to exist. Remarkably, Lyotard (1979) dwells upon social bonds and notes that narrative knowledge is formed within social bonds. People’s interaction creates numerous narratives. At the same time, social bonds are irrelevant for scientific knowledge as this type of knowledge is not “a shared component” (Lyotard 1979, p. 25).

The existence of the two types of knowledge leads to a valuable conclusion. Lyotard (1979) states that knowledge can be legitimate as soon as it is a part of a debate. Moreover, people decide what is legitimate during their discussion. When it comes to scientific knowledge, it becomes legitimate when certain evidence is provided.

Noteworthy, Lyotard (1979) points out that the two type of knowledge lead to two different types of legitimacy. On the one hand, the human is seen as a hero who legitimates knowledge. On the other hand, scientific type of knowledge is associated with moral and ethical component.

The theorist notes that these two types of knowledge created the so-called grand narrative in the modern society. One of the examples of the grand narrative is Marxism. Lyotard (1979) claims that the Marxist theory is based on global principles of morality and ethics.

We will write a custom Book Review on The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the grand narrative does not exist in the postmodernist world due to the changes in the nature of knowledge. At present, people fail to create some grand narratives due to “the blossoming of techniques and technologies… which has shifted emphasis from the ends of action to its means” (Lyotard 1979, p. 37). The absence of a metalanguage is also seen as a cause of decline of grand narratives.

People form quite specific narratives applicable in particular terrains. Therefore, people are more concerned with performing certain tasks rather than focusing on ethics and morality. The theorist argues that this focus on performativity has a specific impact on the development of the society (Lyotard 1979). At present, conducting research is associated with the use of advanced technology which is costly.

Thus, wealthy groups of people can afford obtaining more information. According to Lyotard (1979), this financial component along with the focus on performativity enables the developed society focus on the maintenance of the system. It is also necessary to add that the theorist mentions the shift within educational system. Thus, education of the twentieth century is transformed as knowledge is not central to it.

Lyotard (1979) points out that the role of professors becomes less important as students will be able to obtain knowledge with the help of technology in the computerised world. It is becomes more important to make students able to search for information using technology. Again, methods of obtaining knowledge are seen as more vital than knowledge itself.

Finally, there is another important finding revealed in the book. Even though those who have the necessary resources strive for information control, they will never be able to get it as the system is unstable. Lyotard (1979) admits that there have been numerous examples when certain groups or individuals tried to control knowledge. Those attempts resulted in creation of totalitarian countries.

Importantly, Lyotard (1979) stresses that totalitarian regimes are doomed to fail due to the unstable nature of the system. The theorist agrees that the major role of scientists is not to give answers but to have ideas (Lyotard 1979). Admittedly, abundance of ideas is unlikely to lead to stability.

Therefore, the theorist comes to some valuable conclusions. Lyotard (1979) claims that the computerised world has already shaped the world and the very concept of knowledge, and hence, there is no point in trying to diminish the influence of technology on the development of the society. The theorist also points out that there are two possible ways for the society to develop.

First, if some groups or individuals obtain the control over information and its distribution, totalitarian societies will be created (and will soon fail). However, there is another way to follow. Lyotard (1979, p. 67) believes that it is essential to “give the public free access to the memory and data banks” and this will result in creation of language games of “perfect information”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People will be able to gain and accumulate more information which will also lead to the development of the human society where people’s desire to have a just society can be satisfied. Interestingly, the contemporary society seems to choose the second path as people in many countries have almost unlimited access to information with the help of the Internet.

Besides, the development of online technologies is shaping educational systems of many developed societies. Hence, students obtain higher education via the Internet and the role of professors is changing. Therefore, the societies are choosing the world of plurality and development.

Thus, the points mentioned above are central to the book in question. Lyotard (1979) explores one of the most burning issues of the twentieth century, the structure and role of knowledge and information. It is important to note that the author appeals to several major theories of society in his work. In other words, he starts a kind of debate as he questions consistency of certain theories.

It is also possible to trace certain the author’s adherence to the conflict theory. The major concepts of this theory are used to consider the types of knowledge and the role of knowledge in the society. Lyotard (1979) states that the two types of knowledge, i.e. narrative and scientific knowledge, are in certain conflict with each other. Admittedly, the author notes that each of the narratives cannot be regarded as right or wrong, but the two types of knowledge are often opposed as they need different types of evidence (Lyotard 1979).

Apart from the types of narratives, the author employs the conflict theory when considering the role of knowledge in the society of the twentieth century. Lyotard (1979) stresses that knowledge and information will become the major productive sources. The countries will try to gain more power through obtaining more knowledge, which will be central to the major conflict within the human society.

There is certain reference to feminist theory as the author notes that the society should be and will be characterised by plurality where minority groups will have to struggle for information and knowledge (Lyotard 1979). More so, the book includes certain methods which can be used by minority groups to become more empowered. Thus, gaining and properly managing knowledge will help minority groups to become more empowered (Lyotard 1979).

Language games are also regarded as tools to gain empowerment. Another theory exploited by the author is critical theory. Clearly, Lyotard (1979) does not simply depict the society as it is. The author tries to unveil major trends and concepts which are shaping the development of the society. The author is trying to help people understand the wrongs of the society and choose the right path.

Nonetheless, Lyotard (1979) does not only employ certain theories, he provides certain critique to some theories. Thus, Lyotard (1979) reveals inconsistency of the functionalist theory. The author agrees that societies are structures, but Lyotard (1979) also stresses that the system does not long for perfection. On the contrary, the systems are unstable and can hardly be controlled.

Therefore, there can be no striving for specific ways of development. Admittedly, the author resorts to major theories of society to explain his standpoint and provide a new postmodernist vision. As has been mentioned above, Lyotard is one of the most influential theorists of the postmodernist ear. More so, he defined the new era and revealed major concepts.

Clearly, his ideas have had a profound effect on the development of the major theories of societies. One of such theories is feminist. Lyotard (1979) unveils major principles governing the contemporary society. He also revealed plurality of the developed society. Feminist theory has obtained a significant grounding. Feminist theorists refer to Lyotard’s works to reveal the plurality and inequality within the developed societies.

It is possible to state that this theory supports Lyotard’s ideas and concepts. At present, feminist theory is based on the assumption that there is inequality which is maintained by the existing system. This is what Lyotard mentions in his famous book The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. At that, supporters of feminist theory now exploit the notion of the knowledge in the contemporary society.

Knowledge is now seen as one of the ways to redistribute power and make women more empowered. The conflict theory has also been shaped to some extent. One of the major effects Lyotard (1979) has had on this theory can be traced in the terrain of the matter of the conflict. Thus, conflict theorists of the nineteenth century or early twentieth century claimed that societies struggled for resources.

However, the contemporary (or postmodern) conflict theorists claim that information is one of the major resources in the twenty-first century. They stress that knowledge is one of the most valuable resources in the era of information. It is also important to note that Lyotard’s ideas prove that the conflict theory is still influential. Thus, theorists still focus on the concept of the conflict which is one of the forces shaping the development of the society.

On the contrary, Lyotard (1979) proves that functionalist theory is declining. According to this theory the society is a system which strives for perfection, i.e. proper development of all its constituent parts. Nonetheless, major concepts of postmodernism refute this assumption. Lyotard (1979) proves that there can be no stability in the system.

Therefore, there can be no way to make each part of the system develop proportionally. Abundance of data and chaotic nature of knowledge makes it impossible for the system to develop in a stable way. Plurality is associated with conflict of ideas and interests, which, in its turn, leads to disproportionate distribution of resources, i.e. disproportionate development of the society.

In conclusion, it is possible to note that Lyotard’s book The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge is one of the most influential works of postmodern era. The theorist outlined major trends which were apparent in the society of the twentieth century. He identified the structure and the role of knowledge in the society of the information era. According to Lyotard (1979), information is one of the major resources and the societies of the information era strive for control over this resource.

The theorist also unveils plurality of the contemporary society. Importantly Lyotard (1979) also stresses that abundance of information can have to implications. It can lead societies to totalitarian rule (which is always short-lived though) or it can lead to inexhaustible development. However, the author stresses that this development is possible if the information is available to everyone.

Importantly, the concepts provided by the author have had profound impact on the development of other theories of society. Lyotard (1979) justifies consistency of the conflict theory as he stresses that the conflict is an indispensible part of the development of the society. Feminist theory is also empowered as Lyotard (1979) reveals plurality of the world and the inequality within the contemporary societies.

Finally, the theorist undermines the functionalist theory. Lyotard (1979) proves that the theory is inconsistent as there is no stability in the society. It is also important to note that Lyotard’s ideas have already been justified by time. Thus, the society follows the pattern outlined by the theorist. Masses have almost unlimited access to information through the Internet. This helps the societies to cooperate and develop, i.e. find new ways to address existing issues.

Reference List Lyotard, JF 1979, The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK.


Principles of economics Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Key points

Economic concepts in application



Introduction This essay seeks to present an insight into an emerging economic event in china. China is among the top performing economies in the Asia. Its economic growth has been remarkable over the last years. Local economists predict an increase in the domestic growth. However, this might not be the case because there are some signs of economic stagnation.

This is a period when the levels of domestic production are either declining or constant. The major causes of weak domestic production are insufficient skills, insufficient raw materials and/ or low demand for consumer products. This essay therefore, humbly, concisely and clearly reflects the key points contained in the economic article by Bradsher (2013).

The essay also contains an application of major economic concepts of supply and demand, market structures, elasticity and cost of production into the real perspective of China’s economic trend as depicted in the article. Below are weightier issues.

Key points According to Bradsher (2013), top Chinese economists have noticed an indicator of a decrease in the Chinese exports. Exports are the goods and services that china ships out of the country to meet the demand of an external market, say Australia. Another key point in the article is the fact that china’s economic growth is sluggish. Economic growth of a country (including China) is measured by various criteria.

Total domestic production forms a foundation for an economic growth. Domestic production derives its stimulation from the level of local and international demand for goods and services. Concisely, the only reason for china’s economic growth is the availability of lending services from policy-regulated financial institution and overnight package.

Increase in lending has boosted the levels of production whereas low demand for the goods and services both in the local and international market, suppresses the growth. Another key factor on its own is the increased lending in China. The Chinese government has increased lending opportunities to businesses. The rationale for the move is to stimulate production and thus economic growth.

The last key point is about consumer spending. Noticeably, the levels of consumer spending have been rising in the country. Consumer spending levels can be measured by household-purchase quantity levels and/or quality. The more the quantity of goods and services purchased by consumers, the higher the spending levels. The argument is true when quality is considered. The higher the quality of goods and products purchased by consumers, the higher the spending levels (Buchanan, 1999).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic concepts in application Supply and demand- demand is the ability and willingness of a consumer to spend a specific amount of money on a commodity at a particular time. Demand of a certain good or product is influenced by taste and preference, levels of customers’ income, availability of alternatives and price of the goods and services. Decreased levels of demand for Chinese products in the international market are the chief cause of weak levels of export experienced by the country.

In simple terms, the ability and willingness by international consumers to buy goods and services from China has decreased. The reasons for the decrease are the same factors that influence demand. For instance, the international market could have identified a cheaper source of goods that the Chinese producers provide. In that case, they would channel more of their resources to purchase from a cheaper supplier as opposed to China (Buchanan, 1999).

The willingness of Chinese nationals to consume local goods is the reason for increased consumer spending in China. That is, consumers only spend on what they want and need. Demand, on the other hand is induced by consumers’ needs and want. The more the needs and want (demand), the higher the levels of spending and aggregately, this leads to increase in consumer spending (Adil, 2006).

Supply on the other hand is the ability and willingness of a seller to sell his products at a specific price at a particular time holding things constant. The levels of supply are influenced by prevailing commodity prices, prices of alternative commodities and prices of factors of production. The Chinese state controlled bank has increased the levels of lending.

In other words, the supply of funds has increased. Therefore, borrowers obtain funds at a lower cost since the supply levels are higher than the demand (Buchanan, 1999). Cost of production- it is the price of the resources used to provide consumer goods and services. The factors of production (labor, land, capital and enterprise) have different prices due to their nature.

Cost of production can be offset by high profit levels due to high sales levels. During the period of low demand, sales levels are low and businesses make losses. Losses discourage production levels and thus less economic growth. China’s sluggish economic growth is partly because of unequaled cost of production (Adil, 2006).

Conclusion To conclude, Bradsher (2013) is to the point going by the content of its article. Exports stimulate domestic production. It is also a source of foreign income to a country. If the levels of a country’s export decrease because of less demand for foreign goods by international markets, a chief production stimulus would be lost. Less domestic production would therefore impede economic growth rate, thus sluggish china’s economic growth.

We will write a custom Essay on Principles of economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Adil, J. R. (2006). Supply and demand. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press.

Bradsher K. ( 2013, August 8). China’s Economy unexpectedly stumbles again on weak export results. The New York Times. Web.

Buchanan, J. M. (1999). The demand and supply of public goods. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.


Nowhere in Africa. Movie Analysis Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The movie begins in Germany during the Nazi period when Jews were being persecuted by Hitler regime. Walter, a very successful and established lawyer is forced to flee with his family to a remote area in Kenya a country in East Africa. All Jews were perceived as enemies of Germany thus they were rounded up and placed in concentration camps, tortured and brutally murdered.

Walter and his wife Jettel have one daughter who is called Regina. Being the only child coupled with the prosperous career of her father, Regina was brought up in a very affluent environment with lots of love and pampering. Jettel on the other hand is used to being a very influential lady in the society. Nevertheless, in order to save their lives the three have to leave Germany with absolutely nothing.

A friend advises Walter to migrate to Kenya and he concedes given that the entry permit fee is also low. Coming from a country where they were very influential and could easily get whatever they wanted, this family gets it rough in Africa. Bildungsroman is depicted when though a professional lawyer, Walter is unable to get a well paying job and ends up as a farm manager earning a very low income.

Consequently, Jettel finds it very difficult to adjust to life in Africa where she is not the high profile lady she used to be. It takes a lot of explanations from Walter for Jettel to accept the fact that she has to stay in this place for as long as it takes. The culturally insensitive Jettel has to learn to live with the African people though the movie depicts her discriminating against them.

Regina is only six years old when they leave Germany for Africa. Consequently, though she used to live a comfortable life in Germany, change of events did not have any significant impact on her. The young naive Regina almost immediately falls in love with Africa and adapting to the new life proofs an easy task. She loves the serenity of the environment, the local language, culture and the people.

On the same note, their houseboy Owuor becomes very instrumental in helping her learn the local language. Having settled well in Kenya and all the love from the parents and the houseboy, Regina feels at home and has no other problems. However, the government gives an order requiring all Europeans to take their children to school. Regina is at this point exposed to realities of life.

The young girl is forced to leave the comfort of her parents’ house and travel miles away to a boarding school. Being the only child in the family Regina must have had a very good relationship with her parents and life was as smooth as anyone could imagine. Nonetheless, she soon discovers that in a boarding school life is not the same and she has to take care of herself.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Life is complicated by the fact that she does not understand English a language that everybody uses there. In a nutshell, Bildungsroman is also depicted when Regina has to restart the process of adapting to a new environment. When World War II breaks out, Walter and his family are rounded up and separated. This causes problems to the family given that the family cannot meet and solve their issues.

Moreover, life becomes unbearable for the family especially the wife who has to go out of her way in order to get the basic needs. Young Regina, who hitherto knows that her parents work in order to earn money for their day to day expenses, learns that there is more to life than what she knows. She becomes aware of the fact that her mother has to sleep with another man in order to get a job and a home for them.

It is ironical that while the family escaped imprisonment from Germany, they end up being imprisoned in their refugee country. Bildungsroman is again depicted when the family drifts apart more after Walter decides to join the British army. Though he is a Germany national, Walter has to find a way of getting out of his predicaments and British army provides him with a safe haven.

Unfortunately, the distance increases the rifts already existing in the family. Jettel declines to follow her husband to Nairobi choosing instead to remain and manage their farm. In a bid to adapt to her lonely life, she ends up starting a relationship with another man. At school, Regina becomes absorbed into the English culture and forgets about the Germany culture where she was born.

She only learns about the events in Germany from the talks that her parents have sometimes. Ironically, despite Walter coming up with idea of migrating to Kenya and taking a lot of efforts to convince his wife why they have to stay in this country that is in a middle of nowhere, he has not lost his touch with Germany.

After coming back from the war he takes time to explain to his wife and child why they should go back to their country. On the contrary, Jettel has adapted to her life and finds it rather difficult to give up her life in Africa and go back to post war Germany. Regina on the other hand has grown up in Africa and has been socialized in a different environment than that of Germany.


Lenders and loan Report best essay help

Table of Contents Purpose



Lenders’ considerations

The purpose of obtaining finance


Works Cited

Purpose In light of the company’s financial plan and strategies, this report seeks to present information on areas of interest for lenders when considering loan applications from various institutions. The significance of this is to polish the organization to stand a chance of qualifying for loan consideration. The second purpose of this report is to act as a reminder on some of the reasons for obtaining financing.

Summary The covered reasons for obtaining finance in this article are to finance working capital of an organization, to support an organization growth or business expansion and to facilitate capital expenditures. Other areas covered are areas of consideration by lenders. They are credit assessment, business assessment and capacity to pay back the loaned amount.

Discussion In light of the current plan and long-term strategies of the organization, it is clear that more funds are needed. The organization’s internal source provides inadequate funds to completely facilitate the rolled out plans. Borrowing from external sources is the only sure way of funding the company’s projects.

Due to this reason, the company management needs to understand the perspective of the lender in order to successfully apply for funding. In addition, the management should re-examine their options by setting straight needs for funding.

The two articles, upon which the two concepts heavily rely, provide great insights into the matter at hand. They directly talk about how the company should go about borrowing a loan. Therefore, their context exactly fit into the company’s context and thus the reason for their selection.

Lenders’ considerations Lending institutions can be commercial banks, hedge funds, Federal Reserve institutions, the World Bank and International Monetary fund. The lending process begins with an application made by a borrower to a lender. The lending institution, upon receiving the application, conducts an approval process to ascertain qualification of the borrower for loan consideration.

The main areas of concern are credit assessment, business assessment and capacity to pay. In credit assessment, the lending institution is interested in determining whether the borrowing entity has guarantors and if yes, whether the guarantors meet credit eligibility requirements, the current debt level of both the borrower and the guarantor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A guarantor is the party to loan contract who is responsible for the full payment of the loan the amount in the event of failure on the part of the borrower. This information is important to provide an assurance to the lender that the lent amount will be recovered according to the terms of the contract.

The business assessment process involves ascertaining the feasibility of a project, whether the borrower is the manager of the project and whether the terms of the loan suit the purpose for which it is sought. This process helps the lender to avoid making investments in impractical projects. It also has connection with the assurance of recovering the lent amount.

During ability to pay the assessment, the lending institutions are interested in ascertaining whether the borrower will be able to pay back the loan by analyzing business financial information (“FHA Loan requirements: important FHA guidelines” par. 1-46).

The lending institution would be looking for the financial status and credit history of the lender. The lender is very much interested in the historical payment trend of a borrower because that signifies expected future payment behavior. A borrower with credit history characterized with continuous default in loan payment has a very slim chance of qualifying for a loan consideration.

In other words, a borrower with a good credit history has a good chance of loan approval whereas; a borrower with bad credit history stands a slim chance of loan approval. The lending organization would also be looking at the capacity of the borrower to repay the loan. The projected cash flow statement of a project will reflect the same. Another important area that should be given more weight is collateral.

An asset (fixed asset) serves as a secondary security for the loan. In case of default in loan repayment, the lender would recover the amount by liquidating the assets. The lender will also conduct an evaluation of whether the project to be funded meets all the applicable Federal, state and local planning, environmental and programming requirements. Following loan evaluation is the approval or rejection.

If the loan is approved, the parties sign the agreement document and the contract becomes legally binding. The last process is the disbursement of the amount requested to the borrower according to the arrangements (“FHA Loan requirements: important FHA guidelines” par. 1-46).

We will write a custom Report on Lenders and loan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The purpose of obtaining finance Companies obtain financing for the following reasons: to finance working capital, growth, expansion of businesses, obtaining of assets, seeking for an alternative source of finance and t acquisition of equity. Businesses borrow to finance working capital by investing in inventories and other working capital before revenues dues are collected from customers.

Companies can also borrow funds to manage the levels of growth. Return on equity analysis can be done on a company to ascertain the levels of the company growth without obtaining more external funding. When a company‘s growth rate is higher than it can manage, it needs to borrow from an external source to finance the growth. This is true because when a business is increasing its market coverage or opening up new subsidiaries in different locations, it will need substantial amount of funds.

These funds may not be available from the internal sources like retained earnings, and thus should be sought from the external sources and used to finance the growth activities of a Company. If a company cannot easily obtain funds from either internal or external source, it should control its growth activities to manageable levels (Peavler par. 3).

However, if a company’s growth levels are not managed, the result could be major business fallout. Expansion of a business is another issue that requires an external source of finance. Apart from seeking for external funds to finance a Company’s growth activity, it can be to finance a sudden Company expansion. The process needs a substantial amount of money that would not be available internally. This kind of investment decision is considered to increase the value of the acquiring firm.

A company could also borrow to finance acquisition of an asset or an equipment to facilitate its activities. Although there is another way of possessing an equipment- through leasing- though some companies do not prefer the process because it lowers a company’s credit rating. Companies have an indefinite life span. Shareholders, on the other hand, can change their shareholding positions in various companies. If a major shareholder in a Company (Peavler par. 4$5).

Conclusion Borrowing from external sources is the fastest way to obtain large funds. It should be noted that it takes good reputation for borrowers to be funded. That is defaulters get no funds. There are various reasons for external borrowing. Businesses should align their borrowing objectives with key reasons for borrowing in order to survive strong competition.

Works Cited FHA Loan requirements: important FHA guidelines. n.d. Web.

Peavler, Rosemary, Long-term and Intermediate-term Business Loans: debt financing for your business for capital needs. n.d. Web.

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Maggie: A Girl of the Streets Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents The Basic Information about the Client

The Background Information

The Psychological Profile

Recommendations and Therapies


The Basic Information about the Client Maggie is a young Caucasian woman in her twenties who came from the Bowery neighborhood. Maggie decided to ask for the help of a professional without the impact of the other persons. The purpose for the referral is the feelings of despair and guilt from which the woman suffers. Maggie states that she also suffers from negative thoughts and the idea of suicide became rather obsessive. The woman seems to be nervous and exhausted, her speech and movements are fitful.

The Background Information Maggie says she comes from the poor family living in the Bowery neighborhood of New York. Maggie and her two brothers were brought up by the cruel father and mother who suffered from alcohol abuse. The girl grew timid and shy, but she hoped to receive the good education, overcome poverty, and develop her knowledge and views. In reality, Maggie’s education is poor, and her working experience is based on the work at the shirt factory.

In spite of the problems within the family with the mother and brother, Maggie hoped she could improve the situation. The woman began relations with her brother’s friend Pete, believing the man could help her escape from the poverty. Nevertheless, the family did not accept the fact of Maggie’s relations, and the woman had to leave home feeling guilt for her immoral behavior.

The relations with Pete were ceased because of his intention, but the woman could not return back to her family. As a result, today, Maggie has to work as a prostitute in order to earn some money, but she does not see any positive perspectives in her life.

The Psychological Profile Having paid attention to the information provided by Maggie in the interview, it is possible to state that today Maggie suffers from the problems associated with such social issues as poverty and necessity to work as a prostitute. The woman cannot accept the fact, but she also does not see possible variants to overcome the situations.

Having assessed Maggie’s psychological state with the help of psychological rating scales, it is possible to note that the woman suffers from melancholic depression which can result in developing suicide ideas. Furthermore, Maggie’s speech is full of words with the negative connotation, and she is fixed on her negative feelings and emotions.

The typical signs of clinical depression are feelings of despair, loss, frustration, and hopelessness which are experienced by Maggie. The woman also states that she feels being betrayed by her relatives and lover because they abandoned her, and this feeling makes Maggie discuss herself as worthless and empty. Furthermore, she discusses her current position as a prostitute as the result of her immoral behaviour and relations with Pete.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this point, Maggie suffers from rather opposite feelings of guilt and helplessness which are the results of her positive intentions to improve the life conditions beginning relations with Pete and her negative experience of being ‘ruined’ and betrayed by Pete. This emotional controversy is influential for Maggie, and its combination with the problematic life conditions makes Maggie choose the work of prostitute because she does not discuss herself as worthy of the better life because of the negative experience.

The result of these inner conflicts is clinical melancholic depression which is observed with references to Maggie’s statement of her sadness, anxiety, hopelessness, loss of interest to the life, and despair. The signs of depression are observed while focusing on the woman’s appearance. Maggie does not pay attention to her clothes and appearance, she avoids looking at the interviewer, and she is rather passive while telling about her problems.

Recommendations and Therapies The symptoms of Maggie’s depression can be relived and treated, if a psychologist focuses on increasing Maggie’s self-esteem. The problem is in the woman’s resistance to accept her right to live the better life because she is fixed on her negative experience. However, the complex therapy also includes the work oriented to improving the social conditions which make Maggie feel frustrated.

Thus, Maggie should receive the help according to the cognitive-behavioral therapy. It is useful to participate in the group of support. It is helpful for Maggie to give up her work as a prostitute and return to the work at the factory in order to change the social status.

Nevertheless, Maggie can experience some difficulties with changing the work because the woman feels that she cannot accept the better position because of her immoral behavior. It is necessary to focus on the therapy with a psychologist in order to help Maggie understand the fact that she is not guilty in the problems of her family, but she is strong enough to overcome the issues.

Prognosis There are high chances for Maggie to overcome her depression. At the first stage of recovery, Maggie should work on her self-esteem and avoid negative thinking styles. As a result, Maggie can feel powers to change the work. The long-term outcomes of the therapy are the development of Maggie’s self-esteem and will along with changing the living environments.

Maggie can become independent from her family’s background with changing the district of the city or even the city itself. Maggie can also focus on communication with people because it is important to her to find the balance between naivety and distrust in relation to people.

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Communication Skills in Management Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The benefits of good communication

How leaders should use communication

My development for communication skills this semester

Evidence of skills

How I will use these skills in the future


Reference List

Introduction Organisations bring together people from different backgrounds. To ensure that diverse groups of people working in an organisation are organised such that they work towards common aims and goals, communication is an essential skill for any leader. Organisational leaders select various communications strategies depending on the situations that they encountered in their work environments.

Communication strategies are crucial in organisations, particularly in the information age. Organisations are growing into immense complexities and are constantly looking for mechanisms of becoming competitive.

One of the ways of gaining competitive advantage is by “discovering and implementing a communications strategy that supports company business objectives for its customers, workforce and partners” (Perry


Under the sole dome: the time for magic has come Critical Essay online essay help

Analyzing a design in order to check its efficiency and comment on its strengths and weaknesses is not an easy task, mostly because personal taste issues will most likely stand in the way of an objective evaluation.

However, when taking a wholesome construction of a design of a particular object or site apart, one can possibly provide an adequate evaluation of the expressivity of the chosen artistic means and the message that the design in question conveys.

Although the way in which the SOL dome looks might strike one with the lack of meaning and expressivity, after a thorough analysis of its elements, one will be able to see the efficacy of the chosen medium and the uniqueness of the construction.

A single glance cast at the SOL installation is enough to be impressed by its grandeur and magnificence; truly a work of art, it incorporates the modern idea of what technology is and what it is going to be. First, it is important to stress that the material

When it comes to the color cast of the installation, one must mention that the artwork, as well as its creator, has stuck in the eighties, with the rainbow-like choice of colors and the combination of the color cast with the texture.

Although the latter can be considered a technological breakthrough, as it has been mentioned above, the palette chosen by the artist washes the message that the given texture conveys away and sets the stage for the fashion of the era whose time in the sun was at least two decades ago.

It could be argued, though, that the choice of colors was restricted by the material that was chosen for the installation. Indeed, when it comes to picking the palette for solar powered LEDs, an artist is most likely be restricted by the limitations of the material; in fact, the audience was lucky enough to see the sculpture the way it was made, luminescent yet at the same time not shedding an acid bright light all over the place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, taking the honeycomb structure into account, one can assume that the choice of a warm color instead of a cold palette would have been a much more reasonable choice; in fact, the color of steel would have hit the chord with the general idea of the installation in a much better way.

However, the message has still been conveyed efficiently. The author of the installation has out a proper emphasis on the role of technology in the present-day world by stressing the fact that the construction is powered by the sun. Thus, a cautious remark about the nature vs. nurture conflict has been made.

That being said, the SOL dome definitely makes an impression. It can be argued that the shape of the construction lacks clarity and that the color cast could be improved for the installation to be brighter, therefore, pushing its exotics to the breaking point and, thus, transporting the audience to the postmodern era.

However, the fact that the author of the installation decided to take such a bold step by crossing the line between retro and technological breakthrough eras that the installation definitely deserves being looked at a bit closer. A love letter to the era of the 80s from the glamorous and sophisticated 2010s, the SOL is definitely worth a prize for its originality.


Forms of propaganda Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

‘Confessions of an Economic hit man’ and ‘The American War Machine’ are forms of propaganda that use several similar techniques to advance their agenda. One of the most obvious techniques of propaganda that they both have used throughout is emotional appeal.

As noted by Shabo, emotional appeal is a very compelling method as the audience drops the rational thought and focuses on the suffering of the victims. In this case, the victims are the innocent people who die as a result of the wars brought about by the corporateocracy, whose main aim is profit. Both media use emotional appeal to help the audience see the gravity of the issues at hand.

This is especially useful when Perkins talk about the sleepless nights that he spent thinking about the innocent people who died when the United States of America invaded Panama, the children suffering from malnutrition that he met in the cities he visited, and the former financial assassin who had been brutally tortured.

Joe Rogan’s video uses pictures of dead people taken during the Vietnam War and sad music to evoke very powerful emotions from the targeted group.

John Perkins and Joe Rogan also have a similar target audience. They both target the anti-government group that is most likely to criticize and question the actions of the government. The propaganda in both media endorses action that is consistent with their progressive self-interest and interest of the targeted group. They can therefore be classified as rational propaganda.

They are both ‘activism’ types of films because their aim is to provide their audience with information that will inspire them to fight for a change in the operation of government affairs. Perkins and Rogan want people to hold the government accountable.

On Howard Zinn’s chapters on patriotism and nationalism, the author explains that people have lost their understanding of patriotism. He defines patriotism as total compliance with the government and an uncritical acceptance of the will and actions of the government.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most people are devoted to promotion of the policies of the government which are subject to change and manipulation, instead of promoting the core principles of the country. The policies of the government have been hijacked and are now in favor of the ruling elite.

Joe Rogan talks about the same point, bringing out the fact that the government has been taken over by a group of powerful corporations that compel the government to enforce laws and policies, which benefit their profit interests.

And all these are made at the expense of other poorer nations and at times the American people too. Both Howard and Rogan point out that people in this generation have been deceived into joining the army for the wrong reasons. Young people sacrifice their lives for the selfish interests of the owners of the giant corporations that control the government.

Deluca’s argument in “Thinking amidst the Corporate-ocracy” is that the USA and most of the Western World have moved from democratic states to Corporateocracy where corporations create and define the world we live in. He uses examples such as, the invasion of Iraq despite the global outcry to withhold and the 2008 financial collapse caused by illegal practices in the banking industry and how nobody was held accountable.

The media should also be held accountable for the rise of the Corporateocracy since they have not done their work in calling out these very evident violations of the constitution. Instead, they have chosen to go to bed with those people who are bringing down not only this society, but the rest of the world.


Research Report on Ecotourism in Mauritius Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction to Tourism in Mauritius

Profile of Mauritian Tourists

Major Attractions

Major Activities


Introduction to Tourism in Mauritius Tourism is regarded as one of the most important foreign exchange earners in Mauritius. The IMF (2012) reports that tourism is slightly over 8 percent of the country’s GDP, making it an important aspect of the island’s economy. The growth in the tourism sector over the past 3 decades has contributed to the overall growth of the Mauritian economy.

The IMF (2012) reveals that tourism has served as a large engine of job creation in the country. The performance of Mauritius’s tourism sector has been impressive with the country experiencing a remarkable increase from having some 18,000 visitors a year in 1970 to some 400,000 visitors in 1994 and an impressive 960,000 visitors to the island in 2012.

The tourism sector in Mauritius is largely homegrown. There are a number of major luxury hotel chains owned and operated by Mauritian entrepreneurs. In addition to this, the Mauritius business community has reinvested part of the proceeds from the sector into the Mauritius economy thereby fostering the country’s economy.

Profile of Mauritian Tourists Mauritius is marketed as a high-class destination and targeted at up-market tourists. As an expensive tourist destination, the island is out of reach for the standard tourist. Bulcke and Verbeke (2009) reveal that the inflated airfares are an important factor in making the destination inaccessible. Graham and Forsyth (2012) observe that more than 90% of the total number of visitors to Mauritius go to the country for leisure purposes.

The national carrier, Air Mauritius, enjoys almost a monopoly as the main passenger carrier to the island. A key attribute of the airline is that it charges high prices, which help to uphold the high-class destination image that the island has and continues to project. The limited competition faced by Air Mauritius allows the airline to implement price discrimination based on nationality and the origin of the travel.

This discrimination ensures that foreigners are charged significantly more than the Mauritius residents are. Since chartered flights are not allowed into the country, reaching Mauritius at a favourable rate proves to be impossible for many.

European high-spenders make up the vast majority of Mauritius’ foreign tourists. The largest number of tourists to Mauritius is from France and the French island of Reunion located in the Indian Ocean. These two countries combined account for about 41% of the total number of foreign tourists visiting the country annually.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The popularity of Mauritius among the French travellers can be attributed to the island’s long history with France. The island was held as a French colony from 1905 to 1810 when it was lost to the British after the Napoleonic wars.

There is therefore deep history between France and the island with many cultural and language similarities between the two countries (Graham


Love and the girl child in “The King of Masks” Critical Essay scholarship essay help

“The King of Masks” directed by Wu Tianming is a kindhearted Chinese melodrama that renders a clear understanding of the theme of love. The film begins with Wang Bian Lian (Zhu Xu), an old street performer frantically searching for a male heir to teach him the face changing techniques according to the Chinese culture. In this regard, Wang meets a tender child who was eager to learn acrobatics.

The film demonstrates an excellent scenic cinematography that accompanies an elaborate theme of love. Wang was very sorry when the young Doggie fell sick and he had no money to take her for medication. Doggie’s sickness resulted in Wang realizing that she was a girl and not a boy. However, Wang continued to stay with Doggie, but declined to teach her the face changing technique because only boys were allowed to earn the trick.

The relationship between Wang and Doggie became shaky after Doggie accidentally burned Wang’s boat and went to hide in the city where she returned again with a child (Wengui 103).

The new child restored Wang’s joy although he was later arrested and jailed, but Doggie is determined to rescue him. As such, the relationship between Wang and Doggie highlights how true love is important during harsh times and how women were discriminated in China.

The ageing street performer was a lonely man in the film who kept on searching for a grandson to teach him his artistic prowess. The old man was determined that one day he would find a grandson through his regular visits from one town to another. When he met a female character in the film, he became certain that finally he had found a grandson.

The female character told Wang: “….Do not die without an heir or your magic will die, too.” (Wengui 93). The sentiments from the female character gave Wang a deep thought and finally bought the child to teach him the tactics. At the same time, the old man was headed to a nearby town to buy a grandson (Wengui 93). However, the Chinese cultural practice requires that only girls are sold because the girls were less important.

The Chinese traditions during the ancient times did not value the importance of a girl child. Tianming demonstrates the evils of the Chinese culture of the 1930 using this film to show how Doggie found herself in the old street performer’s hands (Jade 234). Although the old man was feeling bad after discovering that Doggie was not a boy, he still cared for her.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The girl categorically stated to the old man that she had been sold seven times and that is the reason she had to pretend to be a boy. Additionally, the man who claimed to be his father was not her actual parent, but somebody who used to torment her.

The old man was touched with the girl’s assertion and realized how the girl had undergone severe hurdles. The viewer is able to understand how the ancient culture was unfair to girls in the Chinese set up.

The film is an excellent love story with important moral lessons about how the girl child suffered on the Chinese traditional set up. The elaborate account of events that happened to Doggie demonstrates how a girl child was treated unfairly. In her case, she was sold seven times in eight years, regularly tormented and had never enjoyed being free in a society where the opposite gender was free.

The cultural belief impact was so strong for the Chinese people at that time to an extent that even the old man who saw sense in Doggie’s misfortunes could not teach the girl the face changing techniques. Tianming used the film to illustrate the suffering the female character had to undergo to liberate a girl child from the unfair Chinese myth.

Later on, the old man is convinced after watching an opera called Attaining Nirvana to teach Doggie acrobatics. The young girl does not understand why the real world should treat the girl child in such a manner yet they were all from the same society.

It is clear that Wang still believed in the traditions about the girl child. When Doggie worked hard to please and worship him he just complained and said “…..if only you were a boy” (Wengui 93).

“The King of Masks” is an interesting film revolving around love, but further illustrates how culture can be used as an injustice in the society. Tianming used Doggie as a female character to demonstrate the suffering, but also introduces another character Bodhisattva who brings hope to the discriminated gender. The great mother of Bodhisattva has dedicated her sacrifice to fight against the cultural belief about girls to change the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Love and the girl child in “The King of Masks” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society did not understand that the girl child could provide some help to the society at one time. Tianming demonstrates that the important thing is real love and determination and not a specific gender. The old man was jailed after being found with a kidnapped child, but Doggie is determined to rescue him.

They collectively with Bodhisattva pleaded with the police to release the old man after demonstrating the bruises on Doggie’s body (Jade 234). After being released from jail, the old man learned that although he had less concern about the young girl, she had proved to be more helpful than a boy he would have wished to have. As such, Tianming carefully demonstrates the importance of love and the girl child in the Chinese society.

The film has an important moral lesson because the secrets that were used in the film would demonstrate the need for a reformed society. The film took a dramatic turn when the old man discovered that Doggie was not a boy as earlier cheated by the seller. The viewer would expect that the old man who believed so strongly on the Chinese cultural beliefs would send away the young girl.

However, the girl explained to Wang her lifelong misfortunes that persuaded the old man to change his mind partially. At the end of the film, Doggie’s heroics help rescue the old man from jail. The viewer is able to learn from this act that the young girl would have learned enough tactics from the old man and she knew what was expected of her to rescue the old man.

Therefore, Tianming points on the importance of the Chinese cultural belief of ignoring the girl child yet she had the potential like the boy child that was preferred (Jade 234). As such, the Chinese cultural belief was an unfair judgment of the potential of the girl child.

Works Cited Jade, Ladder: Contemporary Chinese Poetry edited by WN Herbert and Yang Lian with Brian Holton and Qin Xiaoyu. London: Picador publisher, 2008. Print.

Wengui, Chen. The king of the Masks (1997). New York: Shearsman Books, 2008. Print.


Usury and Ethics Critical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Historically, usury has been thought of as being unethical. The people who practiced usury were shunned by society as they were seen as greedy. Historical hatred towards usury is also well documented by Shakespeare in his book “The Merchant of Venice” where Shylock, a Jew who practices usury, is loathed by the members of the community.

Charles Eisenstein notes that even though the society abhors usury, they are the same people who promote its practice. He further illustrates the fact that the very money we use today is a result of usury in a disguised form. Eisenstein argues that today lending with interest in mind is an accepted practice unlike in the past.

The only difference today is that the lender and the borrower agree on the expected interest rate and the amount of time within which the loan is payable. He uses examples such as banks that offer loans to their customers, hire purchase enterprises, security bonds that are sold by the government and the mortgages (Eisenstein, 2011, p. 47).

He further argues that this new form of usury is being used as a form of money creation. This is illustrated by the stock exchange market where one is able to purchase securities without actually using their own money but interest bearing security.

This analogy defines his main argument that today’s form of usury is so diverse such that money created by an individual is most often accompanied by a corresponding debt. It is this money that he refers to as the monetary base, which means that money has been created, but actually does not exist (Eisenstein, 2011, p. 47).

Abdul Gafoor, the author of “Interest, Usury, Riba and the Operational Costs of a Bank” uses a bank as an example of an organization that practices usury. He refers to the fact that most bank customers are borrowers who are charged interest on the loans they take while the other majorities who deposit also get interest on their deposit amounts.

According to him, they are all the same although greed is exhibited when banks charge higher interests on loans than deposits (Gafoor, 2011, p. 46).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also through him that we get a religious point of view that clearly expounds why the Islamic religion prohibits lending with interest and thus the emergence of Sharia banks that do not charge interest on loans or deposits in line with Islamic laws.

The author does not find fault in charging interest as is the case with banks since most of the lenders usually use the money for business and thus making profit. Hence, the lender has a right to ask for something in return, but faults for charging interest when the borrower is not business oriented (Gafoor, 2011, p. 56).

Michael Hoffman, in his book “Usury in Christendom: The Mortal Sin that Was and Now is Not” gives a clear account of how usury was greatly abhorred and discouraged among Christians earlier. The practice was highly loathed by the leaders of the early Christian churches as it was condemned and even compared to robbery and in extreme cases murder (Hoffman, 2012, p. 103).

Hoffman wonders how the same churches today have become a haven that promote usury since they have learnt to arm twist the scriptures and this has allowed them to be able to invest their offering through bank accounts while at the same time encouraging their members to take loans from banks.

Some have even gone a step further by opening Sacco’s where they lend their congregation money on interest. This is a clear indication that society today has accepted the practice of lending with interest (Hoffman, 2012, p. 123).

Adam Smith, a moral philosopher, in his book “The Wealth of Nations”, discusses various principles and ideas on what actually builds a nation’s wealth. He suggests and elaborates a number of issues in regard to the division of labor and specialization, productivity and free markets as pillars of national wealth (Smith, 2009, p. 402).

In response to these philosophical explanations, some economic authors agree with Adam’s philosophy, although they also disagree and give their opinion on the same principle discussed by Adam (McCreadie, 2009, p. 32).

We will write a custom Essay on Usury and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regarding the real and nominal price of commodities, Adam offers two approaches. He first asserts that the actual price of commodities that a buyer should be sold at is predominantly determined by the labor involved in the actual production of the commodity. David Ricardo, a political economist, in his book “Principles of Economy and Taxation”, agrees to this principle.

He supports the fact that the actual worthiness of a product reflects the relative difficulty in producing it. In the second part of the definition of commodity nominal price, Smith observes that labor is the real measure of the exchange value of all commodities.

Ricardo disagrees and is of the opinion that both the cost of production and the utility of the commodity should be jointly used in determining commodity worthiness rather than labor alone (Ricardo


History of the Peloponnesian War Essay (Book Review) cheap essay help

This article focuses on the role played by inequality and morality in international politics based on Thucydides’ depictions of the Athenians

Book Review Because of globalization, international politics has lost its potential for moral relationships and virtuous action. Many argue that the growth of self-consciousness with freedom has disintegrated into pure self-centeredness, objectification, and instrumentality (Art


Coach Inc. Is its Advantage in Luxury Handbags Sustainable Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Executive Summary This paper presents a case analysis report on Coach Inc. The case analysis is comprehensive and focuses on the nature of operations in the company. The first part focuses on the operations of the company and the issues that face the sustainable operation and positioning of Coach Inc. in the competitive industry.

The second part of the paper presents an analysis of the issues of competitiveness of the company based on the SWOT analysis framework. The third part of the paper explores the strategic choices as far as the future competitiveness of the company is concerned. This is followed by the development of a number of recommendations and how they can be implemented by the company to ensure sustained performance.

Coach Inc.: Is its Advantage in Luxury Handbags Sustainable? Background


Project for the Design and Construction of a Bridge across the Murray River Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Project Aim

The aim of this project is to provide an alternate route from South Wales to Victoria for pedestrians, motor vehicle users, and cyclists through the Murray River.

Project Objective

The principle objective of this project is to enhance travel to and from South Wales across the Murray River using the easiest and cheapest option.

Project Background and Rationale

XYZ Infrastructure Engineering Group Inc. has been awarded with a Design and Construct Contract from Federal Government of Australia to construct a multi-purpose bridge across the Murray River from and to South Wales. The bridge is to be named the “The Murray River Bypass”.

The proposed new only multipurpose bridge across the Murray River will greatly reduce traffic from the existing Victoria Bridge. The bridge will greatly enhance efficiency of delivery of goods and services between the two cities. This proposed bridge will provide safe crossing for local commuters, encourage walking and cycling as an alternative option of transport.

The project has been commissioned following extreme pressure from local residents, businesspeople, and politicians regarding too much time taken to make trade across the two towns. The distance between the two towns using the Victoria Bridge is twice as much as the “The Murray River Bypass” which will cut through the river almost at the mid level.

Pundits reckon that business between the two towns will increase two folds and there is likely to be increased tourism. The latter is because of the scenic nature the new way will create interest from commuters. Hence, landowners along the new route will most likely come up with ways to shore up tourism attracting residents of the two towns.

Bridge Specification and Design Bridge Dimensions

Central Span: 100 metres

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deck Spans: 50 metres

Deck Widths: 8 metres

Entrance/ Abutment Lengths: 15 metres either side

Construction Materials/ Specification

Component Description Drilled Bored Piers – 5 off 50 MPA cast in situ concrete, steel reinforcement Piers above 8 off 50 MPA cast in situ concrete, steel reinforcement Masts/ Towers 10 off 50 MPA pre-cast concrete towers, steel reinforcement Headstock 10 off 50 MPA cast in situ concrete, steel reinforcement Cables 200 mm Steel Conduits with internal steel cables, which comprise of steel rods/ wires within. Concrete panels/ decking 8 off pre-cast concrete panels 25 metres in length 300 mm thick with 60 MPA concrete, with steel reinforcement The bridge must have permanent metal decking with interlocking joints. Line-marking Yellow painted marking on concrete to distinguish between oncoming and outgoing motorists. The bridge must have white markings on either to mark bridge edges. Bridge Design

How cable stayed bridges work

A cable-stayed bridge consists of one or more pre-cast towers. The outgoing cables support the deck of the bridge.

Just above the deck are inclined cables that provide intermediate support for the bridge. The cables are anchored into these pre-cast concrete towers located above the piers. All of the weight of the bridge goes to the top of the towers through the cables, which kills off tension. The weight is then transferred and supported by the ground through a combination of forces.

Other bridge specifications deal with type of materials used in construction. The bridge functionality section defines the usage of certain materials that are part of the main elements selected and their purpose in the general design.

We will write a custom Assessment on Project for the Design and Construction of a Bridge across the Murray River specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT Analysis Project Strengths

The extensive experience of XYZ Infrastructure Engineering Group Inc in construction

XYZ excellent relationship with potential partners in materials and expertise

XYZ Previous engagements with the Australian Government (commissioner of the project)

The project is independent and virgin in nature, hence no disruptions to anyone

No interference with waterways

Potential tourist attractions

Project Weaknesses

Possibility of negative environmental impact since some trees may be uprooted

Noise, vibration and dust during construction

Complaints from animal conservationists that will claim that the road in wild animals habitat

Project Opportunities

Boost economy through increased business operations and tourism attractions

XYZ can improve on its already good reputation with Australian Government hence possibility for further business

Provide alternative routes for motorists, pedestrians, and cyclists across Murray River

Increase in value to the area due to increased amenities and appreciation because of accessibility

Likely Improvement of the landscape of Murray River

Project Threats

Continued opposition from conservationists

High inflation may increase cost of materials, labour, etc over the period of the project

Economic Analysis Outline of costs/Budget

The following are the main cost/budget areas and their respective amounts in Australian Dollars. The total cost of the project will be Australian Dollars $6,600,000 (Ahrens


Constructing a Bridge to Link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve Report writing essay help

Introduction The Murray River is one of the most important waterways in the entire Australian continent. The river is the lifeline of hundreds of thousands of people who live along its banks. This proposal presents the requirements for constructing a bridge to link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve. The Bridge will open up the Island for tourist activity, and in the process, it will improve the economy of New South Wales (NSW).

The aim of the bridge construction project is to provide tourists with a means of accessing the Hodge Island Reserve for camping and for leisure activities. The project objective is to build a 100-meter bridge to serve as the access route to the Hodge Island reserve.

The rationale for the construction of this bridge is as follows. First, the Hodge Island reserve is currently uninhabited and it serves as a breeding ground for various animals. The island has the potential of employing more than 5000 people directly and indirectly if the NSW government opens it up for tourism.

The Island is an ideal camping ground and can serve a mooring bay for boats. The government will not construct permanent structures on the reserve. It will identify ideal camping spots and make sites for pitching tents. This will ensure that there is minimum disturbance of the environment of the island.

Figure 1: Map Showing the Proposed Location of the Hodge Island Bridge

Bridge Design The Hodge Island Bridge should meet the following design constraints. First, the construction process and the final structure should not lead to major disturbance of the natural environment of the Hodge Island Reserve. The reserve serves as a breeding ground for several species of animals. Extensive damage to their habitat because of bridge construction may lead to permanent loss of breeding grounds for these animals.

Secondly, the bridge should avoid the riverbanks to ensure that the water way is not disturbed. Thirdly, the final design of the bridge and its access road should not disturb traffic on the Riverina Highway.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The bridge should be large enough to accommodate camping trucks, and should be able to support light traffic. The bridge should also have a pedestrian walk way. Since the bridge will lead to a reserve, it will require a barrier to ensure that only authorised traffic enter the Island.

The best bridge design for this project is a cable stayed suspension bridge. This will require only two supports in the waterway, and minimal works on the riverbanks. The proposed design for the is shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Sketch of a Cable Stayed Suspension Bridge.

The dimensions of the Proposed Bridge are as follows. The central span will be 100 meters, the deck spans will be 20 meters each. The width of the decks will be 5 meters to accommodate two-way traffic and a pedestrian walk way. The abutment will be 10 meters.

SWOT Analysis Table 1 below presents the SWOT analysis for the bridge construction project.

Strengths Weaknesses The chosen bridge design is popular in Australia. This will make it easy to conduct accurate feasibility studies and impact assessments.

The construction company has experience in making such bridges in many part of Australia

There will be little or no disturbance to the traffic on the Riverina highway because of the proposed location of the bridge

The inclusion of a barrier will promote controlled access. This will eliminate overuse and will increase the confidence of the environmental regulators in the sustainability of the reserve

There will be some disturbance to the environment during construction from debris and noise. This may lead to pollution of the river water, and the death of some organisms

The project will also lead to the loss of some trees and plants to make way for the embankments and the anchorage blocks.

Micro ecosystems in the immediate area of the bridge will be lost.

Opportunities Threats The bridge will help create 5000 jobs in the post construction phase, and another 300 jobs in the preconstruction and construction phases. This will help reduce unemployment in NSW

The bridge will position NSW as a tourist destination because it will make the Hodge Island Reserve accessible to tourists

The Bridge will also increase the sense of ownership of the reserve among the locals because it will enable them to enjoy its benefits

There may be resistance from environmental activists who would not like to see the Island opened up for human activity. This may influence the state government

The riverbanks may prove unstable because of the silt deposited during the formation of the island. This may complicate the construction of the embankments, and may increase the cost of the project

Unstable prices of construction material and the high cost of labour will also complicate the project

Table 1: SWOT Analysis.

We will write a custom Report on Constructing a Bridge to Link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technical Challenges This project has three main technical issues. These are the design of the bridge, the construction process, and the maintenance requirements in the post construction phase.

The design of the bridge is a technical challenge because of the possibility that the riverbanks may not support the weight of the bridge. This means that extensive civil works may be necessary to ensure that the final structure is stable. The choice of a cable-stayed bridge came from the need to for minimal disturbance of the waterway.

The construction process will also be technically challenging. Any construction process inevitably leads to the accumulation of debris. It is crucial for the contractors to come up with construction processes that will lead to the least accumulation of debris in the construction site. One of the options of achieving this goal is to commission a secondary site for the construction of all steel parts for later assembly.

The third technical challenge associate with the project is the maintenance requirements of a cable-stayed bridge. Cable stayed bridges require regular inspection to ensure that all parts are functioning well. The bridge will have exposure to local humid conditions, as well as fluctuations in the weather patterns. The NSW government will need to appoint a maintenance contractor after the commissioning of the bridge.

Economic Analysis The main costs associated with this project are as follows.

The Net Present Value

The following calculation gives Net present Value (NPV) of the project.

F = P(1 i)n


Not sure if you can write a paper on Constructing a Bridge to Link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More F = Future Value

P = Principal

i = Interest rate (10% pa)

n = number of years (5 years)

The NPV for this project is $ 7649922.5

Payback Period

The projected income from this project is estimated at $2,000,000 per year. The Simple Payback Period (SPP) in this case is given by F/I


F = Future Value

I = Income



= 7,649,922.5/2,000,000

= 3.8 years

Environmental Impacts This project will have a varied number of environmental impacts. Table 1 below provides an analysis of these impacts and the mitigation measures applicable for each case.

Category Impact Mitigation Measures Direct Indirect Cumulative Cultural Impacts The arrival of tourists at the Hodge Island reserve will lead to cultural interaction between the local population and the tourists

Tourists will become potential immigrants to the region if they like the environment

A population surge will occur as more people join the nearby communities, leading to alterations in the local culture.

A greater population will lead to more pressure on resources

Stricter immigration policies to guard against a population surge

Economic Impacts NSW will make money from tourist activities at the Hodge Island Reserve, and from other supporting industries such as transport, and entertainment.

There will be more jobs for locals directly at the reserve and indirectly in industries supporting activities at the reserve.

Jobs will be created during the construction phase of the project

The increased earnings from the reserve will increase the capacity of the NSW government to take care of the reserves in its jurisdiction

The GDP of NSW will increase based on earning from activities at the Hodge Island Reserve

Ensure that all businesses operating in the reserve are licensed and are tax compliant

Water Quality Debris from the constructions site will pollute river water.

Siltation will result from the drying of concrete lumps on the river bed

Debris (concrete remains, silt from excavation works, )will affect water flow characteristics and

Debris will also have an adverse short term impact on current downstream uses of the river water for the period of construction

Alteration of the water quality

Divert the river course during construction work on the river bed

Use construction nets to catch falling debris

Flora and Fauna Permanent loss of Flora and Fauna displaced by bridge

Loss of breeding and nesting grounds due to changes in water flow characteristics along the river

Debris may lead to death of certain species that are not tolerant to constructions waste.

Loss of breeding and nesting grounds due to changes in water flow characteristics may lead to an upset of the ecological balance of the river basin, leading to further unpredictable ecological changes

Permanent changes in the ecology of the river basin with greater effects being felt downstream

Assess flora and fauna that will be affected and develop a response strategy based in extent of effect

Table 2: Environmental Impact Assessment

Risk Analysis A construction project always has a number of inherent risks. The risk management Matrix below in Table 3 presents the profiles of the risks, their assessment and management options.

Risk Profile Risk Assessment and Management Category Specific Risks Sources of Risk Impact Probability Priority Actions Technical Risks Design failures Design failure can result from wrong assumptions about the conditions of the construction site. Design failures can also result from poor design skills. 5 1 5 Carry out a site assessment before the commencement of the construction Use of low quality materials This risk can occur if the suppliers of the raw materials do not provide the right kind of materials for the project 5 2 10 Procure materials from reputed firms. Test each batch delivered before committing them to the project Financial Risks Cash flow constrains Cash flow constraints can result from failure by the NSW government to remit payments in tandem with the construction schedule. This can in turn affect the overall project duration leading to an increase in overheads 1 4 4 Negotiate for large payouts Budget overshoot The project can go above budget if there is need to repeat the construction process because of poor construction material or poor applications of the materials. This risk can also occur of there is an increase in the work needed to deliver the project objectives such as the need to carry out more excavation to ensure the stability of the final structure. 2 4 8 Cost underestimation The cost of materials can change very rapidly. If this happens, then the finances of the project will be insufficient. It may also occur if the company conducts a poor project appraisal 1 5 5 Ask the NSW government to allow for fluctuations in the cost of materials for the project. Appoint a project economist to appraise the proposal to eliminate underestimation of costs. Environmental Risks Noise Pollution Construction equipment will cause noise during the construction of the project. 5 3 15 Warn the neighbor of the noise levels that will emanate from the site, and schedule all noisy activities to reduce the number of people affected by the noise Water pollution Falling debris and excavation works will lead to the pollution of the water in the river 3 5 15 Use construction nets to catch falling debris Destruction of Flora and Fauna It is necessary to cut down some trees and to clear bushes around anchorage of the bridge 3 4 12 Cut as few trees as possible Project Risks Labor unrest Labor unrest may result from poor working conditions, poor pay, or because of dangerous working conditions 2 5 10 Ensure that all workers have adequate protective apparatus while at work Negotiate with the workers for competitive rates that are within the budget estimates Ensure that workers have comfortable and predictable working schedules Project scope creep There will be need to construct a driveway to the bridge and one after it to access the part. These driveways are not part of the bridge construction process. 2 5 10 Ensure that the scope statement is agreed upon before the construction process starts Time (Approvals and getting supplies) This risk can occur of there are delays in approvals or the release of funds. Such delays can occur in case on an instability in the government 2 4 8 Negotiate for large payments reduce the need for approvals during the life of the project. Table 3: Risk Management Matrix

Reference List FHWA 2011, Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements. Web.

Karim, S. B. A., Berawi, M. A., Yahya, I. A., Abdul-Rahman, H.


An Analysis of Productivity of Major ApplichemCompany Plants. Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help

ApplichemCompany was one of the leading manufacturers of specialty chemicals in the early 1982s. As a result of the increased demand for its products in the global market, the company’s top management was forced to establish additional branches in different places across the world.

Four of its major plants were built in Gary, Mexico, Frankfurt, and Sunchem. Release-ease is a product that earned the company a global recognition for many years. The company’s performance in terms of production and distribution of release-ease varied from one plant to the other.

Looking at the general performance of all plants from a profitability perspective, one can easily note that Frankfurt plant was the best performer overall followed by the Gary and Mexico plants. The Sunchem plant was the least performing branch. Despite its expansive market, the Frankfurt plant incurred low manufacturing costs compared to other plants.

The raw materials were relatively cheap in Germany compared to the US and Mexico. The manufacturing costs in Japan were so high that the Sunchem plant’s expenditure on inputs was huge. This reduced the revenues to a great extent and eventually affected the productivity of the plant.

Since profitability is positively correlated to productivity, the different profit levels attained by different plants also impacted the productivity levels. This implies that the productivity of each plant depended on the prevailing conditions of the location.

Labor productivity The productivity of labor was the highest in the Frankfurt plant. This can be attributed to the introduction of computerized processes. The technical team was equipped with computer skills making it to be effective with regards to performance. This not only ensured that time was put in its optimal use, but also minimized raw material wastage.

Additionally, the Frankfurt plant was headed by an experienced manager who understood every detail of release-ease production. He understood the needs of customers very well. By doing that, he incorporated certain specifications in the production of release-ease. This attracted a large market for his plant in comparison to others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Gary plant had the highest number of employees. However, the productivity of each employee was low, because the hiring processes were based on loyalty to the plant and the plant manager and not on merit. However, the Mexican plant had operators with the lowest education levels. This hampered innovation and problem solving as no decision would have been made without consulting the plant’s general manager.

On the other hand, the Japanese plant had most of the processes automated forcing the employees to do product development work rather than production. Although the workers of the Sunchem plant acquired the necessary skills through training, their productivity was low. This was due to the few hours of work rule that was enforced by the Japanese labor laws.

Capital productivity The Gary plant had more capacity and facilities required in the production and storage of release-ease. This explains why the products manufactured in the Frankfurt plant were shipped in bulk to Gary for packaging.

Moreover, the computerization of processes in the Frankfurt plant increased the effectiveness and efficiency of production in relation to other plants. The same applied to the Sunchem plant. Nearly all production systems were automated and also managed to stand alone as the only plant that effected the recycling of waste.

In summary, the success of the Frankfurt plant was not only due to the extensive investment in capital, but also as a result of its optimal utilization. This was the prerequisite for profit maximization that was sustainable in the long run. The least performers like the Sunchem plant needed to boost their productivity to allow for profitability in the long run.


Brazil Economic Development and Conserve the Environment Evaluation Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Component One

Component Two

Component Three

Component Four

Vicious Cycle



Introduction Brazil is the second, fifth-largest country in the world geographically and in terms of population. In this view, Brazil epitomizes on the ongoing global tension pitying biodiversity preservation against sustainable agricultural practices and economic growth.

According to current statistics, Brazil is a critical emerging economic power, which has a GDP of US$6040 billion and a GDP per capita of US$326.21 billion in 2004 (European Commission, 2007). The country’s environment is one of the richest in the world because of not only flora and fauna, but also because of its ecosystems, which contain an excess of 15 % of the plant and animal species known to botanists (Saxena, 2005).

The country is the source of water, and also a water table of up to 12% of the available freshwater worldwide Brazil is also undoubtedly one of the leading producers of food and biofuels in Latin America and globally (Ferreira, Pardini, Metzger, Fonseca, Pompeu, Sparovek,


Global Citizenship in Langston Hughes’s poem “Let America be America Again” Explicatory Essay college application essay help

The world we live today is like a global village. Mankind should work towards improving the living conditions. Development has come with its universal challenges; it’s obvious that development is not distributed evenly across the universe.

We are beginning to realize that our separate actions have consequences for the world is interconnected. People grow up hoping for a better future, only for mankind to turn up against each other. Unless we treat mankind and the planet better as envisioned by our forefathers, by appreciating our complex and diverse nature, we may end up compromising the progress that everyone hopes for.

Any action and activity mankind undertakes is always aimed towards betterment of life. On the contrary mankind has demonstrated to be its own worst enemy. This can clearly be illustrated in Langston Hughes’s poem “Let America be America Again”.

The poem speaks of the famous American dream that never existed. Throughout the poem the tone is angry and disillusioned, though there is some bit of hope. Langston Hughes speaks for the thousands of immigrants who hoped for the better that was never to be achieved. It is more tightly controlled with tone, rhyme, imagery and unified with repetition.

He emphasizes on the fact that there is the poor man who keeps getting poorer whereas the rich is getting richer. It is also evident that he doesn’t only speak for the poor black man but also for the minority group in the society. By mentioning the poor white, the red man and the immigrant in one stanza signifies that this is a universal problem that affects people from all walks of life.

The fact that he emphasizes that he would like America to be America again, clearly shows that not everything is lost and that America is not what was supposed to be. By the mention of “kings connive” the author illustrates that there are those that are deprived of their rights by the elite who are in power.

The tone of the poem brings some sense of reality; in that the writer sounds as if he is speaking from a personal experience. Through the use of rhetorical questions the writer is able to capture the attention of the reader. This enables the reader to pause and think. Not as an American but as individual.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By answering the questions for the reader shows that he expects mankind to have common and coherent thoughts. The poem speaks to different people of different races from different parts of the world.

The use of imagery such as “slavery’s scars” throughout the poem, does speak to the reader. The poem is an indictment of the idea of equal opportunities for all regardless of race, color, religion or origin. The last stanza depicts a strong message of hope. The fact that he talks about “we’’ rather than “I” in the last stanza shows that we all have a role to play so as to achieve the American dream.

The topic “Let America be America Again” shows that it was once a nice place. Unless we treat mankind and the planet better as envisioned by our forefathers, by appreciating our complex and diverse nature, we may end up compromising the progress that everyone hopes for. From the poem it is clear that everyone hopes for a better life and this can only be achieved through collective effort.


An Ethical Dilemma in the “Government, Regulation and Business Ethics” Case Study best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Ethics is a term that is used to refer to moral behaviours in the society, a business organisation, or any other setup. Ethics are at times referred to as moral philosophies. Ethics determine what behaviour is good or bad within a given society. In business, ethics have become important in the bid to gain a competitive advantage (Painter-Morland


Significance of Chinese revolution led by Mao Zedong in term of the search for modern China Exploratory Essay college essay help

According to Zhou (1996), Cultural Revolution was introduced in China by Communist Party in the 1960s. The cultural aspect was incorporated into policies of the New Democracy, which was responsible for claims of a new state for legitimacy. However, there were various anomalies identified within the New Democracy.

A good example is undertaking land reforms for purposes of ending feudalism, where land was to be redistributed to landless citizens for equity purposes. Land reform issue was applied differently in towns and countryside, whereby labour and bureaucratic regulations were enhanced in cities as opposed to the countryside.

There was need for reinforcing individual entrepreneurship which was measured against public requirements and control. All these were as a result of penetration of the ruling Party within society and based on class alliance and democracy (Scott, 1985). The Party’s ideological commitment to socialism granted them the concentration of political and economic power, which was applied through forceful interventions.

Inclination to socialism was as a result of country’s cooperation with Soviet Union. This collaboration assisted in the building and development of an industrial base through mobilization of internal resources (Blecher, 1989). It resulted into building of heavy industries within the agricultural sector through collectivization.

The Chinese countryside was collectivized in the mid-1950s, which resulted into communes. At the same time, reorganization of the countryside was followed by abolition of private ownership within industrial estates (Zhou, 1996).

However, despite achievement in moving from New Democracy to Socialism, there was accumulative impatience amongst people based on their disastrous welfare. Crisis amongst people led to intra-Party conflicts and struggles, which eventually led to Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

The revolution was used as means of socialism, which assisted in creating new power structure best referred to as bureaucratic capitalism (Blecher, 1989). Such power structure was associated with inequality and exploitation, whereby Cultural Revolution created fresh wounds against the new power structure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mass Cultural Revolution practiced by Maoists was viewed as means of creating cultural habits in support of socialists and their power game rules. Such revolution as experienced by Chinese community introduced new dimension within the socialist political theory which focused on culture as a central ingredient for change as opposed to material change, which formed the core ingredient in the creation of socialism (Garnaut, 2009).

The demise of Mao in 1978, led to a period of ‘reform and opening’ which resulted into China being amongst the emergent global capitalists. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, there were pronounced hesitations as well as contradictions of policies that were characteristic of New Democracy between the 1940s and 1950s.

However, such desired change was introduced in the late 1980s and led into dispute between Party and urban constituencies (Blecher, 1989). The disputes and policy contradictions experienced was resolved by deep concentration on capitalism resulting into eminent progress despite betraying promises of socialism (Bernal, 1976).

This led to current spread of inequalities within Chinese society built upon ‘socialism with Chinese characteristics’ as expressed by political vocabulary and grammar. Despite being included in a global capitalism, Cultural Revolution experienced within socialist society, still have elements of its presence to-date.

Increasing unrest and inequality within rural society led to the formation of political movements aimed at establishing a stable society. Also, various development activities within the community acted as potential paths through which cultural, ecological and social contradictions emerged.

The current situation considers the world of a global capitalism as accommodating to socialism provided it considers adhering to rules of capitalism. According to Garnaut (2009), the communist grasp in China has strengthened for the last sixty years.

The current celebrations marking rule of Mao has seen beefing-up of security within major avenues within cities. Strict political rules safeguarding Communist Party governance were set against any political troublemaker. The policies championed for the denial of access to Beijing upon any migrant worker. There is also flooding the film industry with patriotic movies, documentaries and use of symbolism.

We will write a custom Book Review on Significance of Chinese revolution led by Mao Zedong in term of the search for modern China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Policies applied by Mao led to sidelining of millions of democrats and entrepreneurs who championed for freedom and equality within China. Garnaut (2009), recorded that Communist party have every reason to pride based on various achievements, which made China a wealthy and powerful nation.

According to Pye (1986), formation of the Great Proletarian Revolution caused disastrous results where millions of people lost their lives as well as property. The ten years revolution left several victims traumatized and so much during that era could not be defined through conventional theories of politics. Individuals could describe the experience only through personal tragedies.

The Cultural Revolution affected Chinese citizens in a multi-dimensional way through various institutions within the country, including families and learning institutions. Mao’s policies resulted in an ideologically purer group of individuals best referred to as revolutionaries.

However, there was always a great wave of violence and sufferings of the people from the countryside which was entirely ignored by the Chinese government and considered merely part of the inevitable cost of revolutionary (Blecher, 1989).

Mao’s regime was characterized by a reckless and ruthless attack on ‘capital roaders within the Party’ who were considered as spear headers of ‘revisionism’. Some of the victims happened to be writers who endured humiliations and violent torture involving imprisonment in labour camps situated within the countryside. Mao refused to acknowledge the extent to which human rights were violated.

Even western scholarship was unable to establish the adverse effects of Cultural Revolution, including suicide claims, mistreatment at labour camps as well as within prisons (Pye, 1986, p. 604). Memories resulting from Cultural Revolution consequences can be traced to the government’s lack of control on the price structure.

There are also numerous negative effects on economic grounds, which includes; worthiness of Yuan within currency markets, preventing use of subsidies within the market and contributing to the decline of foreign exchange reserves.

Other consequences of Cultural Revolution included extensive disloyalty towards authorities. This was as a result of allowing citizens to indulge intensely into politics with cultural freedom. Such political liberalization produced anarchy and uncontrolled change (Pye, 1986, p. 610).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Significance of Chinese revolution led by Mao Zedong in term of the search for modern China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The new Chinese government led to ceasefire amongst civilians leading to peace after a century of political feuds and wars within the nation. The leadership which emerged after defeat of Guomindag regime and Japanese invaders became dictators of their system. They used farmers as representation base for power as well as a channel for Communist access to power.

However, Chinese earned greater percentage of foreign exchange from agrarian products which supported bureaucratic elite leading to affordable urban life. Cultural Revolution made it possible for farmers to rebel against any oppressing authority, hence using force for purposes of improving their lot.

Consequently, communist rule under Mao and associates sought support for themselves and farmers. Communists had to disseminate surplus from the farms in favor of livelihood within cities.

In education sector, China has attracted hosts of Australians willing to invest and study within the country. Mao’s policies led to creation and development of the middle class with the same styles as that of Sydney. Such developments have enabled a lucrative partnership between China and non-communist countries such as Australia.

There has been an exchange of labour between the countries; for example, a Sydney architecture firm won the contract of constructing significant buildings within China (Dirlik and Chan, 1991).

Also, there have been innovative architectural constructions within the capital, such as sports halls used for international events such as Olympics. Education is known as potentially delivering significant private benefits to employees within China and partner countries such as Australia. This is since training has provided personal investments within earning capacities.

In Australia, the government has expense deduction reprieve on those studying at universities but not yet secured formal employment. Suggested deductions ensure that many professionals and employees are trained further to ensure that they are updated within their various field of work.

The existing income tax law provides that deductions be made only on costs incurred in the process of producing income. The Act provides the arrangement of work-related expenses liable to deductions. According to tax assessment act, there is a clear guideline concerning various deductions associated with assessable incomes.

Under the same provision with respect to education expenses, the deduction is claimed in such a case where educational programs can be directly traced to taxpayer’s current employment and are utilized for acquiring specific knowledge (Dirlik and Chan, 1991).

However, deductions are not made in cases where education activity is perceived to be for the purposes of enabling the taxpayer to become employed or for the purposes of opening new opportunities for earning.

The current policies within modern China provide the fact that there is no change in the development of compulsory Marxist studies within learning institutions. The learning process embraces issues on rapid economic growth as opposed to original Marxism.

Deductions within education sector are allowable to the taxpayer with respect to expenses of self-education with the net amount of expenses being valued at affordable rate.

However, there are some categories of expenses included in the amount considered as inevitable, such as bus fares. Such cases present anomalies to the amendment since the non-claimable expenses are ultimately claimed by taxpayers as deductible expenses (Needham, 2006).

Mao’s strategy on economic world proved to be suitable in cases where the country experiences intense pressures in line with cost reduction and less pressure in the process of introducing new ventures within countryside and urban centres. In such cases, all strategies applied by the government and all decision-making processes are centralized.

This strategy emphasizes on nature of monitoring, integration and coordination of activities within governance. This has ensured that the right policies access targeted cities as well as the countryside. Besides, there is also emphasis on creation of efficient development channels (Selden, 1995).

Various disadvantages of Mao’s strategy included government institutions’ limitations to satisfy citizen needs both within cities and countryside. There was also increased costs and expenditure on the movement of goods and services from a centralized location to across borders.

The challenge was based on high tariff costs on exports, which largely depended on country’s legislation rules. Mao’s Rectification Movement resulted in the destruction of various influences within Party brought by two groups of intellectuals; Russia-trained and Western democratic liberals (Liang, 2003).

Mao’s revolution led to rising of ‘fifth generation’ of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leadership who majorly operates on princeling background. Such a crop of young leadership is expected to take the leading role in the Chinese political arena in the next two decades. The young leadership is being trained for top government positions with more authority as they vie for posts within CCP Party Congresses (Dotson, 2012).

Western democratic liberalism allows for decentralized decision making for the purposes of easier modification of policies depending on local demand. In this case, policies were modified for specific target groups hence leading to affordable costs of living within major cities.

At the same time, such a strategy forced the government to utilize local knowledge and capabilities, for the purposes of satisfying needs and taste of local consumers (Liang, 2003). This strategy easily led to loss on distinctiveness since local adaptation kept changing over a long period of time.

Additionally, there was increased spending owing to complexity experienced in coordinating a range of strategies across boundaries within Chinese territory. Such a strategy was used in cases where political parties required more power to overcome pressures emanating from cost-effectiveness as well as adaptation with Maoist rules.

However, the government allocated assets and capabilities depending on benefits obtained from each specific activity. Most activities within ‘upstream’ value chains experienced centralization with such strategy for satisfying citizen’s needs. Conversely, activities within the countryside were decentralized.

Mao consolidated his authority before Yan’an was fully established through the military as well as political forces. There was extensive reassignment concerning those in opposition to Mao’s governmental policies. These were performed through educational institutions as well as universities.

Consequently, life revolved around sports within basketball court, military duties, entertainment, class-work and other productive work within the society. The original central participants within this work were artists and writers from Lu Xun learning institution (Apter, 1995).

Various conflicts were experienced within China as a result of Cultural Revolution. These included complete fallout between political parties based on ideologies.

However, the nature of the approach adopted by modern China ensured existence of strong national security bodies capable of considering civilian affairs on an equal basis. Policies used within these institutions regarded as a possible dichotomy between competition and complementarities.

According to Chongyi (2012), there is a resultant claim for Chinese uniqueness through political and economic guidance amongst the ‘fifth generation’ within CCP. The concerned leaders were made to draw much power from intensive authority created by communist regime. Various shifts experienced within the political arena, including growing assertiveness, were as a result of opposition from other political parties.

This led to disruption on several strategic representations which signified settled democracy. There were increased experiences on a clear-cut division of labour within institutions which led to political-diplomatic interactions between political parties. The effectiveness of oppression prevention programs as introduced by Mao through learning and economic institutions largely depended on governmental policies.

For instance, any intervention program applied in either middle or high school will show little outcomes if combined intervention of policymakers, administrators, parents, teachers, students, and educationists is not available. Therefore, some factors favour the effectiveness of an intervention program in either middle schools or high schools.

References Apter, D1995, Discourse as Power: Yan’an and the Chinese Revolution, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Bernal, M1976, Chinese Socialism to 1907, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.

Blecher, M 1989, Socialist Transition, Durham, NC, Oberlin College.

Dirlik, A


Action plan for better listening Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Theory and usefulness The skill area under consideration is listening. Theory on the subject reveals that listening may occur at various levels, starting from the least effective to the most effective. At the bottom of the pyramid is passive listening, which is a synonym for not listening. Usually, this level of listening occurs when the person feels that what the speaker has to say is unimportant.

It takes no effort at all and may be detrimental to organisations with high levels of it. The next level is responsive listening, which is also called pretend listening. In such scenarios, persons will not care about what the speaker has to say but will pretend to listen in order to appease them.

Usually, this process will involve nodding and the use of typical listening cues like ‘aha’ or ‘yes’. Eventually, such persons will not recall what was said. This type of listening is deceitful because it attempts to disguise a listener’s lack of interest in the conversation.

Projective listening is the third worst form of listening; some experts like to call it biased listening. It is an approach in which a person already has a strong opinion about the topic under discussion and will project this opinion onto the speaker. The listener may hear what is being said but his biases may cause him to disregard the speaker’s words.

This person is usually defensive and will not allow the speaker’s assertions to change his opinion about something. In close association with this type of listening is misunderstood listening. Sometimes a person may listen and even be open to suggestion. However, the listener’s interpretations could cause him or her to alter those words in order to fit into their version of the issue.

Such individuals would not know that they are actually engaging in selective hearing as their mistake is not intentional. Nonetheless, it is still as dangerous as the other forms because a person would not truly understand a speaker’s feelings. Organisations with such kinds of managers will be confronted with unexpected departures or conflict since employees will feel misunderstood (Bentley, 2000).

The next level is attentive listening for data alone. In this form of listening, a person concentrates only on the words that someone says and does not bother about the other aspects of communication like non verbal cues or intonation. Therefore, the person will hear what another person has to say but will fail to contextualise it. Such an approach to listening places greater emphasis on facts rather than the motives behind the message.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective communication depends on a listener’s ability to understand the feelings and emotions that surround what a speaker is saying. This implies that the communication is still superficial. Managers often require their sales persons to be aggressive or persuasive when pursuing new clients.

Usually, these sales people will exhibit some form of attentive data listening. They might manipulate clients into committing to something, but will not care about the non verbal cues of the customers. As a result, their approach hampers those clients from bringing business back to the firm.

Active listening is an improvement on attentive data listening as it involves understanding the verbal and non verbal forms of communication. At this level, listeners take in the emotions and feelings associated with what is being said. On the other hand, this is still not a superior form of communication because it does not involve empathising with the speaker.

Such managers would understand facts and place matters into context but few of them would use those feelings to react to the speaker. Several individuals adopt this form of communication because they feel constrained by company policy.

Alternatively, others may choose to listen actively because their level of emotional maturity prevents them from engaging deeply. Some people may be too insecure to engage further or others might simply have their own agenda. They may intend on manipulating others thus lacking the ability to identify with the speaker.

A more mature way of listening is empathetic listening. Here, a person pays attention to the voice, the actual words, the cultural background, feelings as well as the non verbal cues of communication.

Sometimes this may involve the pace at which ones speak as well as their facial expression, their volume as well as their style and general feelings. This component also involves reacting and offering feedback to the speaker. Sometimes one may take actual notes of the conversation or mental ones.

We will write a custom Report on Action plan for better listening specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, it may also entail showing understanding in a manner that will minimise the build up of emotions. Managers who engage in such types of listening are quite sincere and successful in their duties (Cohn, 2007).

The top-most level of communication is known as facilitative listening. In this form of communication, the listener will go beyond merely understanding or analysing the emotions and non verbal cues of the speaker. Instead, the person looks out for genuine signs and outputs. It is sometimes possible for speakers to say one thing and do another.

Therefore, facilitative listeners are the most effective because they get to the root of a communication. Studies indicate that some people may be hiding their emotions subconsciously. Therefore, the facilitative listener assists the speaker to reach out into himself and understand the potential he has to solve those problems. He expounds the choices and lets the speaker know that he has his support.

Facilitative listening may not be appropriate for all situations since emergency situations could impede it. Legal issues as well as organisational policy may come in the way of such a method. Managers who exhibit this form of listening are highly valuable. Nonetheless, some of them may be constrained by company policy.

It is a selfless form of listening as it is not motivated by personal gain. Instead, such a listener only wants to assist the speaker to achieve his interests.

Implications of listening in management practice

Management practice is incomplete without proper listening skills. This spans throughout the entire job description. For instance, managers often have to hire new employees when gaps arise or new functions come up. An organisation needs to decipher the truth behind a person’s CV or job application letter.

It is not always possible to write everything about oneself in these documents, so effective listening skills enable administrators to understand a little more detail about the candidate’s competencies. Furthermore, a manager who listens well can also deduce the kind of attitude that the applicant will bring into the organisation. This skill area will thus ensure that managers hire persons who are a right fit for their organisations.

The success or failure of projects depends on managers’ ability to listen. If a person’s department is in charge of a new project, some anomalies may develop along the way. Managers have the capacity to tackle small problems as soon as they arise and thus prevent them from turning into crises. However, this mitigation can only come about when the manager listens to his team members effectively.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Action plan for better listening by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sometimes it may come in the form of a concern. Alternatively, some workers may feel that their strengths are incompatible with the work to which they have been assigned. They may try to convey these insecurities indirectly, and it is only the effective listener who will understand those cues.

Managers who do not focus on these statements may assign workers to project areas that are incompatible with their strengths and this could harm project outcomes.

Effective listening is crucial in management because it gives one ideas on how to enhance performance (Janusik, 2005). For instance, an employee might talk about the need to alter seat arrangements such that they might concentrate on their work. Alternatively, a worker may request for masks from his supervisor to protect him from mould. The effective listener will note these concerns and thus do something about them.

Eventually, the workplace will have fewer workplace injuries and thus greater productivity. In companies where managers listen to employees, people are more likely to give alternative solutions to problems. Therefore, managers are not left with all the work. Additionally, these individuals tend to me more creative as they know that their input will be heard. This adds value to the company and makes it more conducive for growth.

Interactions between management and external stakeholders make the difference between leading firms and insignificant ones. Maintaining strong customer relationships is dependent on how well one listens to one’s clients. Most times, customers with something to complain about will usually request for the manager.

If the manager listens to the client effectively, then the problem will be dissolved and the company will have maintained its reputation. The same applies to customer care efforts. If management does not emphasize the importance of effective listening, then customer-care employees will not listen to consumers and this could lead to dissatisfaction or abandonment of business with the company.

Similar principles apply to interactions between an organisation and its suppliers or other business partners. Managers must maintain satisfactory relationships with their partners or this could cause them to look elsewhere. The only way a business will develop a relationship with its external partners is through listening to them.

Maintaining a positive and conflict-free culture is crucial in heightening production. Managers can build such cultures by listening to others and teaching their subordinates to do the same. This approach prevents misunderstandings and frustrations that stem from being misconstrued. Companies where superiors dominate meetings or rarely allow members to give their input are likely to build resentment in their workers.

Many of them will start discussing these issues amongst each other and may even back bite their superiors. Such individuals tend to focus more on gossip and rumours rather than work.

Likewise, a manager may boost morale by listening to the things that motivate their workers. Not all employees can respond to the same incentives or rewards. Therefore, managers ought to pay attention to these aspects in order to customise reward plans to each employee. This would definitely increase outcomes and make for a better work environment.

Action plan The action plan involved a six – step process. First, I identified the listening approach that I use and why I need to improve it. I realised that I used to engage in attentive data only listening. This came from the fact that I never knew how to read people’s non verbal cues.

Whenever someone spoke about body language, I always failed to understand what they were saying. Additionally, I have always been a practical, hands-on person. Social interactions are not my forte, so reading people’s unsaid messages was definitely a challenge.

The next step in the action plan was understanding nonverbal communication by observing someone who was really good at it. During that week, I found that the person was rarely distracted when talking to others. In other words, she rarely focused on her phone, email or other distractions when conversing. I also found that she was available to her colleagues every time they called on her.

It seemed that she had a positive attitude towards these persons all the time. My colleague was keen on making eye contact but she also observed what was around her. When I asked her how she read non verbal cues, she maintained that posture was the first thing she considered. If a person slouched and rested his head on his arm, then she would deduce that the person was disinterested.

Additionally, facial expressions were an immediate give away. She said that sometimes people smiled yet their eyes sent a totally different message. Therefore, she preferred to rely on the latter than the former.

My communication role model also seemed to react to the dynamics of voice as she would increase or decrease it in response to the speaker. She usually gave feedback to others and even repeated some of the things the person was saying.

After knowing what active listening entailed, I started working on identifying the barriers that keep me from listening accurately and thoroughly. First I noticed that I always have a lot on my mind when speaking to people (Moulic, 2012). Sometimes this causes me to get distracted as I will plan my day or think about where I will buy supper.

This tendency to clatter my mind with several things is what keeps me from reading non verbal cues. I have also realised that I did not understand some of the cultural cues for non verbal communication. I was simply not aware of these components, so it was difficult for me to identify and respond to them in kind. I have always been a matter-of-fact person who focuses on the bottom line in any of life’s endeavours.

Therefore, it is easy for me to look for the main point in everything and dismiss the rest. Another obstacle that prevents me from listening actively to others is the frequency of communication. I hate the silence that comes between certain phrases and will say anything to fill that gap.

I needed to get comfortable with momentary periods of silence during conversations. Sometimes when people speak, I may start thinking about what to say in return, and this prevents me from engaging with the speaker. Anxiety causes me to dwell on the things that will come next rather than what they are actually saying.

Another reason that causes me to be an ineffective listener is that I have never encouraged other people to keep speaking. Most times, lack of eye contact or poor response to people’s expressions can cause me to misunderstand them. Perhaps the biggest obstacle is the lack of intent to listen. Once I change this attitude, then everything else will fall in place.

I also used memory aids in order to identify the instances that led me to ineffective listening. First, I bought a diary in which I would write about my communication experiences for the day. I would recall instances in which I had not understand non verbal cues and would describe them at length.

Sometimes these scenarios would be concentrated in one session but in other instances they would be distributed in different scenes throughout the day. I used my mobile phone as a recording device. It was quite insightful to listen to my own voice from an objective point of view. I found that it was easy to detect tension-filled moments or situations when I was contemplating what to say.

The next phase of my action plan was going through listening exercises. One of the exercises I found useful was listening to all the information I could absorb before making a contribution. I practiced delaying my responses until all the information in the conversation had been collected (Emanuel et. al., 2008).

I also found that if I focused on what was new rather than what I already knew, then I was more likely to listen to the person. The tendency to respond to what I had heard before often caused me to be too engaged with my own issues rather than to listen to the speaker. Therefore, I practised focusing on the things that I did not know rather than what I knew.

The last component of the action plan involved practising habits of active listening. For this part, I approached my role model and had an imaginary conversation. In one instance, we talked about the food at a common restaurant.

She stated the following: “Am so frustrated by the soup at Ramitas; it always seems bland or too spicy. They just can’t seem to get it right.” I replied by saying “Oh, is that so? I had no idea.” My role model congratulated me on that reply because it came at the right time. She also noticed that I was maintaining good eye contact and did not confront her.

I am still working on the last part of the action plan as I will forward my findings to the tutor in order to get acknowledgement. I am also working on my personal approach to listening as I would like to move from active listening to the most advanced method of listening, which is facilitative listening.


The outcomes of improved listening will be better results in school as well as in other gatherings. If I listen better in class, I will recall more and thus increase my chances of passing exams. Additionally, it is likely that I will strengthen the relationships I have with my friends.

When I remember what my friends say, many of them will be impressed by this and will feel connected. Active listening can also cause me to make new friends easily as I will recall important details about their lives.

Currently, learning to listen to non verbal cues will allow me to detect instances in which gestures do not match behaviour. This will allow me to seek clarification on what the speaker really means. In essence, I will deal with hidden issues that make people unhappy.

In the future, when I become a manager, it is likely that I will be an effective supervisor. My subordinates would trust me with their ideas because they would know that I will listen to them. The employees may become more comfortable with the workplace as they will have a senior who listens to them.

Measures of achievement

In order to determine whether I have succeeded in being an active listener, I will use a pen and paper to analyse conversations. I will write down the things that the person was saying. If I cannot remember any of these words, then it proves that I was not listening actively.

I will also get back to speakers on a weekly basis and try to interpret what they meant to say during conversations we had with them using their non verbal cues. If the speaker agrees that my interpretation of their feelings was accurate, then I will have succeeded. In other words, I will match their mood with their non verbal forms of communication (King et. al., 2006).

I will also engage in practice sessions with friends. In this regard I will ask them certain questions like how they spent their weekend. I will then expect them to ask me questions about what they said and whether they actually meant it. If I give them correct answers, then I will have become a good active listener.

References Bentley, S. (2000). Listening in the 21st century. International Journal of Listening, 14 (3), 129–142.

Cohn, K. (2007). Developing effective communication skills. Journal of Oncology practice, 3(6), 314-317.

Emanuel, R., Adams, J., Baker, K., Daufin, E. K., Ellington, C. and Fitts, E. (2008). How college students spend their time communicating. International Journal of Listening, 22(2), 13–28.

Janusik, L. (2005). Conversational listening span: A proposed measure of conversational listening. International Journal of Listening, 19(4), 12–28.

King, G., Servais, M., Bolack, L., Shepherd, T.


Outgoing and Incoming Tour Operators Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help

Two Main Categories of Tour Operators Tour operators are people or companies that offer various travel packages that are used by tourists. Tour operators are very different from tour agents. Tour operators combine everything that the tourist would possibly need into one package. There are two main categories of tour operators in the United Kingdom. These are the incoming tour operators and the outbound tour operators (Aramberri


Texas v. Johnson Case Study college essay help online

Table of Contents Procedural




Works Cited

Facts: The defendant in this case, Gregory L. Johnson, participated in demonstrations that some Americans had organized to protest the policies of some Dallas-based corporations, and the Reagan administration in general.

The demonstrations were held at the same time as the 1984 Republican Convention that was also held in Dallas. The demonstrators marched the city of Dallas with the event culminating in the respondent’s public flag desecration. As he desecrated the flag, no threatening was done on anyone and no physical injuries occurred. However, the desecration of the flag offended a number of witnesses.

Procedural History: The trial court found the defendant guilty of violating a Texas statute by desecrating a venerated object. The decision was affirmed by the State Court of Appeals. The defendant appealed in the Court of Criminal Appeals in Texas.

Issue: Did the desecration of the flag by the defendant amount to expressive conduct, permitting the respondent to enjoy First Amendment protection? Did flag preservation as a nationhood symbol justify the respondent’s conviction?

Rule The Court of Criminal Appeals in Texas reversed the earlier ruling that Johnson was guilty of desecrating a venerated object. The State of Texas agreed that the conduct of the respondent was expressive in nature. The flag was burned during a political demonstration, which proved its expressive nature. The First Amendment protects such rights.

The court also held that the restriction of the defendant’s expression by the state was content-based. Therefore, the preservation of the flag as a symbolic object by the state must be exactly scrutinized.

The State is interested in taking proper care of the flag, but this does not require the state to criminally punish protesting people who desecrate the flag. Therefore, the interest of the state in the preservation of the flag as a nationhood symbol does not warrant the conviction of the respondent because it is inconsistent with the Constitution’s First Amendment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis The fact that the respondent burned the flag as a political event was taking place in Texas led to the confirmation that his action was expressive in nature. The defendant burned the flag solely to express a political message and thus his action was protected by the First Amendment.

Additionally, the court decided that, because the burning of the flag did not in any way breach the peace of the state, the state’s interest in preserving the flag’s image as a nationhood symbol could not warrant criminal punishment of the respondent.

Conclusion Yes, flag desecration done as part of a demonstration that is held on the same day as a political event amounts to expressive conduct. The First Amendment allows such conduct.

No, the state is interested in ensuring the flag is preserved as a nationhood symbol but this does not mean that it should punish demonstrators who desecrate the flag without jeopardizing the state’s peace. Additionally, there was another statute on breaches of peace, which could have been utilized in preserving the state’s peace without criminally punishing the respondent.

This case drew battle lines between Congressmen who advocated for Constitutional amendment to allow restraints on desecration of flags and Congressmen who thought that the issue needed to be solved with new legislation, and without amending the Constitution.

Works Cited Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397, 109 S. Ct. 2533, 105 L. Ed. 2d 342 (1989)


Bio Diversity and Future of Our World Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Living things are known to have varying characteristics, even when they belong to the same species. Climatic conditions are not the same in every part of the world. Therefore, animals and plants are known to exhibit different characteristics in different regions. On the same note, adaptations to different requirements for survival have been known to bring about different physical characteristics in organisms.

In this regard, it is not unique to see animals or plants of the same species having completely different physical characteristics, yet they are in the same locality. Biodiversity refers to the degree of variation among living things and it includes genetic diversity, ecosystem difference and cultural diversity.

It should be noted that biodiversity is very crucial for the continuity of life in the world. Nevertheless, there have been threats to the natural biodiversity thus posing a lot of questions on the future of the world.

The importance of biodiversity cannot be overlooked. Firstly, biodiversity provides the ecological balance that is crucial for sustenance of live in the world. Each and every species that is present in the world has a role to play as regards the continuity and balance of its ecological niche. For the resources of the world to be maintained, biodiversity has to be present.

It is important to understand that all living things coexist and they depend on one another in one way or the other (Mbolo, 2010). No living thing can leave in isolation and elimination of one organism or even changing the ecosystem of one organism has ripple effects on the world as a whole. It therefore goes without saying that biodiversity is essential for optimum production in the world.

Biodiversity is also very crucial for business activities. Sustainable development of any nation is highly dependent on biodiversity. Raw materials that are used in production are derived from diverse sources. In this regard, absence of even one species poses a risk to a certain production process in a given industry. Natural resources would become extinct if biodiversity is destroyed.

This is because while one organism uses a given resource, there is another one that adds it to the ecosystem. The nutrients available in the world, the variety of food stuffs that human beings eat and production of biomass all depend on biodiversity (Spanou, Tiniakou


Child aged 5-12 Case Study argumentative essay help

Introduction Learning forms part of a child’s growth and development. A child aged between five and twelve years old learns only from his or her surroundings unlike teens and adults who learn from their experiences too. The child’s surrounding is made up of parents, siblings, friends and caretakers, furniture, television, computers, radio, toys, reading materials, and other components.

Those components play a major role in both physical and intellectual growth of a child. However, parents, siblings, friends, and other caretakers should watch over the child while interacting with objects that are in the surroundings in a bid to keep the child away from anything that could be harmful. Looking into the case study, the child’s learning skills and development rate regarding physical characteristics were normal.

The child was exposed to the learning environment at a good age of age six months, at which he interacted with toys that helped his mental growth through imagination and creativity. In addition, his interest to engage in a variety of sports at age seven is a clear evidence of a healthy growth of a child. However, there are different ways that could enhance quick growth and development of a child of the same age.

Five ways that enhance the child’s learning skills Spending more time with the child

Good parenting is the most essential element for growth and development of a child and it is mostly exhibited by the closeness of a parent or caregiver to the child. A child needs the attention of a caregiver at all time, whether the caregiver present physically or emotionally. However, caregivers should spend some time with the child because the child needs to be guided in almost every activity during the childhood stage.

A caregiver who spends more time with the child is capable of ensuring that the child’s aspects of social growth and development are up to the required standards in accordance to the culture and style of parenting that the child is exposed to in the process (Lerner


Collecting the phone data logs of all citizens Critical Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Details of the Program

The Program Rationale

The Program Criticism

Argument against the Program

Works Cited

Details of the Program The National Security Agency (NSA) has gathered phone data from several cell phone users. Such data could reveal critical details about their owners. Big data are important in identifying individuals and their habits.

However, the program does not require the service provider to reveal subscribers’ personal details like names, contact information, or addresses. In addition, the NSA does not monitor subscribers’ calls and text messages (Luckerson 1).

The US government has the right to collect metadata legally under the Judicial Order issued to the cell phone service provider. Hence, the NSA does not require any authorization from cell phone owners to collect their data. Metadata include call time and phone details of users (Luckerson 1). However, the NSA order prohibited the service provider from revealing the big data collection program to customers or any other party.

There was also a revelation that the NSA had gained direct access to other modes of communication and data storage facilities. These included Internet servers and databases of service providers. The exercise focused on e-mails, chat sessions, and videos of customers.

The government concentrated on big data storage facilities of Yahoo!, Apple, Google, and Microsoft. Technically, big data are useful for tracking and identifying any suspect, either foreign or citizens and their intentions. However, the issue is that the government has been conducting surveillance on its citizens secretly.

It is not clear whether other service providers are also a part of the metadata collection program, but it is clear that communication logs from most customers are in the database of the NSA. The secrecy of the entire program has created a sense of uneasiness within the public.

The Program Rationale The government launched the metadata collection program as a part of a wider push for improving internal security and tight surveillance because of constant terrorism threats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The federal government has a critical role of providing security and privacy to all its citizens. Hence, the government must maintain the right to privacy always. Many critics believe that this action amounts to invasion of right to privacy and civil liberties provided under the Fourth Amendment.

Security scholars have claimed that one major lapse that contributed to the 9/11 attacks was the inability of the government to use available data and link them to terrorists.

Hence, the decision to collect metadata from cell phone service providers is an effective way of gathering useful information about networks of suspected individuals. However, the use of data analytics is not enough to fight terrorism. Instead, security forces should rely on reliable methods of fighting terrorisms.

Today, majorities have cell phones. Wireless communication gadgets have immense data, which are useful not only for security agencies, but also for commercial enterprises (Minelli and Chambers 19).

The NSA can analyze such data in order to detect unique patterns of behaviors among suspects, their spending habits, socialization patterns, and factors that shape their thoughts. The cell phone is unique because it belongs to only one person and can stay with the owner throughout the day (Miller 1). However, the law prohibits the government from unlawful use of such data.

The federal government believes that the NSA requires such big data in order to track and discover any links between their targets abroad and individuals in the US (Associated Press 1). A big data project is least invasive and respectful method of hunting for criminals among the innocent public. This goes beyond race, culture, or political affiliation, and the NSA does not have to listen to anybody’s conversations.

The use of the big data is to create a pattern that can lead to specific individuals of interest to the government. However, the NSA must observe the law throughout these processes and listen to anybody’s conversation after approval from the court.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Collecting the phone data logs of all citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phone firms have used their customers’ handsets to gather market intelligence. The system collects all calling data, messaging, chats, and other online trends (Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 123). In addition, consumers have smartphones, which already have tracking devices, identify other people nearby with phones, and capture images and videos.

For instance, in an experiment Robert Lee Hotz notes that every student’s phone scanned the area after every six minutes for any nearby phone in order to facilitate face-to-face communication. In addition, after every 20 minutes, the phones scanned the area and kept call logs, behaviors, relationships, and buttressed by detailed surveys (Hotz 1).

This experiment shows possible ways through which the NSA and the FBI could use to collect data from people and invade their right to privacy. It is a smart way of collecting data about behaviors of people and analyzing them secretly in order to understand intelligence details, which can help in spying and intrusion into personal lives of others.

The Program Criticism The federal government must guarantee the right to security and right to privacy of American citizens. However, many critics believe that gathering of metadata from the public infringes on civil rights because it is an intrusion into individuals’ privacy. Based on the Fourth Amendment, any form of invasion and intrusion on the right to privacy is illegal (Roots 20).

They claim that the surveillance is outrageous and lacks position in a democratic and free society. Hence, it is imperative to review the big data collection program and, the NSA should find other suitable methods of gathering data.

Past studies have revealed useful insights in complex nature of humanity, but they also indicate that the metadata collection program brings a new challenge to basic rules of interactions among individuals and challenges the idea of privacy. Many critics believe that the NSA’s action to collect private information and communications of millions of people is quite disturbing, particularly the secrecy of the program.

Although the proponents of this program claim that it is necessary and vital in the fight against terrorism, it remains illegal under the law.

They also claim that the NSA does not listen to anybody’s private calls and communication and there are adequate oversight and safeguard measures to ensure that the NSA does not abuse metadata in its possession. However, one cannot be so certain about what the NSA does with personal data it collects from people privately.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Collecting the phone data logs of all citizens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Civil libertarians have refuted the NSA big data program because they believed that the NSA has gathered enormous data from individuals who were not necessarily criminals or suspects. Under the law, cell phone companies should not distribute their customers’ information to any third party, unless such customers’ provide their consents or directed by the court.

While one may claim that Americans are concerned with their privacy rather than their security, it is unreasonable to institute surveillance on every citizen as a way of combating terrorism. Privacy issues are not simple to understand since many entities have often misused and abused personal data. Thus, the NSA should conduct such surveillance on specific individuals with criminal intent.

The right to privacy aims to protect people and the kind of information they share with others and usages of such information. Cell phone firms have all data about their clients. These may include names, social security number, bank details, financial data, e-mail address, demographic and physical address among others.

It is difficult for customers to know how these firms handle such data, but they are useful for marketing activities and security issues. Personal data are susceptible to identity theft and fraud.

The flow of personal information may increase such cases. However, such organizations must have effective internal policies to protect data from abuse and theft. The challenge has been that not many organizations adhere to right to privacy of their customers.

The Privacy Act of 1974 protects all personal data in possession of the government against any form of abuse and unauthorized sharing, transfer, or disclosure. In addition, people have the right to seek for clarification, correct mistakes, and get information in case of any disclosure.

These processes rely on the Freedom of Information Act. Yet, the NSA and cell phone companies have engaged in illegal acts of sharing and transferring citizens’ data without their knowledge or consent.

Critics must understand that privacy and security are critical and intersect at some points. One must recognize that many issues of importance touch on both security and privacy. These may include communication, detection of secret agendas, intrusions, training, and responses among others.

From a theoretical perspective, security measures should protect individual privacy. However, these are two critical factors, which overlap. Security must focus on both physical and virtual aspects of protection. In other words, security must offer protection to sensitive data in both electronic and physical forms.

The government should use information security policies in order to protect information privacy and individuals’ private information. However, in situations on national security, the NSA must violate such privacy of individuals and use tools they have to fight terrorism and protect potential victims.

This interrelationship between security and privacy shows that matters of national security and safety are paramount and will remain superior to individual privacy.

Argument against the Program This memo does not support the government’s decision to gather big data secretly because the Fourth Amendment regards electronic surveillance as a form of abuse against right to privacy. The era of big data has arrived. The NSA must use tools at its disposal to fight terrorism, but it must not violate citizens’ right to privacy.

The Fourth Amendment recognizes that cell phone data collection, which is under electronic surveillance, could be illegal means of obtaining evidence. Although analysts believe that the 9/11 happened because the government lacked data to rely on for decision-making in fighting terrorism, the government can use right procedures to collect evidence from suspects rather than resorting to violation of citizens’ rights.

Relying on such metadata from phone records is an important method of understanding networks of terrorists and other suspects.

However, it is imperative for the NSA to bring the process to the public domain. Ethically and legally, it would be right for the NSA to collect these data on a large-scale and use them appropriately, but it does not seem right when the spying agency does it in secret.

Works Cited Associated Press. Report: NSA maps out a person’s social connections. 29 Sept. 2013. Web.

Hotz, Robert Lee. The Really Smart Phone. 22 April 2011. Web.

Luckerson, Victor. 7 Things to Know About the Government’s Secret Database of Telephone Data. 5 June. 2013. Web.

Mayer-Schonberger, Viktor and Kenneth Cukier. Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think. New York: Eamon Dolan, 2013. Print.

Miller, Wayne. R.I. critics see U.S. government’s phone data collection as intrusion. 7 June 2013. Web.

Minelli, Michael and Michele Chambers. Big Data, Big Analytics: Emerging Business Intelligence and Analytic Trends for Today’s Businesses. New York: Wiley, 2013. Print.

Roots, Roger. “The Originalist Case for the Fourth Amendment Exclusionary Rule.” Gonzaga Law Review118 (2010): 20. Print.


India’s Caste System: The Laws of Manu. Primary Source Analysis Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help

Perhaps, one of the weirdest and by far the most mysterious society structures in the East for an average European or American citizen to encounter, the Indian cast system has a pretty long history and allows take a closer look at the specifics of the relationships among the members of the Indian society.

Despite the fact that the concept of caste seems incredibly dated when compared to the other principles of social structures and systems of society employed all over the world, it still bars a unique air of the Indian culture and is rooted way too deep into cultural and, more importantly, religious aspects of the Indian people’s lives to refuse from following the principles of caste, even though often these principles come at a price of people’s lives.

When evaluating the texts dealing with such complex social and religious issues as the history of castes, one must take into account the numerous limitations of such papers so that these limitations should not later on be considered as drawbacks.

First of all, it is essential to realize that a one-page-long text cannot engulf an entire culture of Indian people and, therefore, cannot allow the cultural background of the phenomenon of caste to come out in full blue.

As a matter of fact, the author of the text in question is doing very well by creating a historical background and commenting on the premises for castes to emerge: “The Lord assigned only one activity to a servant; serving these [other] classes without resentment” (Indian caste system: The laws of Manu, 2000, p. 43).

Therefore, the given text offers a peculiar example of how religious prejudices can lead to social discrimination. However, in a way, the given document offers a unique example of religion spawning prejudice, seeing how the latter is aimed not at the people of different race, ethnicity or nationality, but at the people of the same origin and faith.

There is little to no difference between the ones who were lucky enough to be born into the families of the “upper class” and the ones whose origin could be defined in one simple yet sad word, “outcast.” Thus, the text under analysis also offers extensive information on the difference between the religious principles of the Indian people and the rest of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, analyzing the castes, which the Indian society is split into in accordance with the existing law, one might find something very familiar in the types of castes that the given excerpt features. As the author of the text says, there are priests, rulers and servants. Once split into the given three castes, the society is guaranteed to remain in harmony until the end of times – or until the breach of balance, for that matter.

The existing castes, in fact, have a lot in common with another concept of what a perfect state looks like; moreover, the latter concept is just as ancient as the Indian idea of castes.

Described by Plato, the Utopian republic is suppose to have a philosopher king, who has a lot in common with the caste of rulers, citizens, and warriors (Magstadt, 2011, p. 46). However, in contrast to Plato’s Republic, where social justice is considered the top priority, in the given excerpt, the Indian concept of caste exists outside the realm of social justice.

Nevertheless, it would be wrong to judge the given excerpt based on the ideas that it suggests. Since the text basically retells the social traditions of India, judging these ideas would be basically the same as judging the traditions of the Indian people, which does not seem legitimate seeing how the Indian principles of social hierarchy are rooted deeply into history, down to the birth of the mysterious Arian nation.

With that being said, it is more reasonable to consider the way in which the facts concerning the Indian society are arranged. While the author does a very good job by describing every single caste, it would still be a good idea to mention the ways in which the members of different castes interact.

The Indian caste system cannot be denied its doubtless weirdness; for a person of non-Indian descent, the given system can hardly be considered as a social structure worth implementing, or, at the very least, as a reasonable concept of society. However, despite the numerous flaws of the caste system adopted in India, it is admittedly deeply rooted into the Indian traditions and has a clear historical justification for its existence.

More to the point, it cannot be doubted that at present, the caste system is the only possible system in accordance with which the Indian population can live with, as the article in question shows in a very graphic way.

We will write a custom Assessment on India’s Caste System: The Laws of Manu. Primary Source Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A snapshot of the Indian culture and its development throughout centuries, the current caste system might seem unacceptable and lacking in humanism for a stranger, yet it is the only system in accordance with which India can align its social standards at present.

Reference List Indian caste system: The laws of Manu (2000). In Expressing world history, P. N. Steams


The HR labor relations: Unionization Research Paper college essay help online

In today’s world, labor unions have become popular in all sectors of the economy. The unionization process begins when a selected group of representatives obtains the authorization permits for a particular group of employees. This allows it to play the role of an intermediary between management and the workforce (Budd


Ethical Implications of Data Mining By Government Institutions Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review




Introduction Data mining can be defined as the process of extracting useful information from the large amount of data stored in databases. With the rapid development in computer and information technologies, large databases are used to gather, store and retrieve data (Vaidya


Benefits of a Valuable Strategic Fit Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Approaches for competing internationally The three main approaches for competing internationally are global strategy, transnational strategy and multidomestic strategy. Multidomestic strategy requires business managers to think and act locally. The strategy focuses on offering different products in the market. Further, the competitive approaches used by firms vary from one country to another. The strategy has a number of advantages.

First, it can enable firms to precisely meet the specific needs of each market. Secondly, it enables companies to quickly meet the changes in local demand of a given region. Thirdly, the strategy enables companies to respond amicably to the moves of local rival companies.

Finally, the strategy allows companies to respond swiftly to local threats and opportunities. On the other hand, the approach deters the ability to transfer resources and capabilities across various markets. Secondly, the strategy is not conducive in the worldwide competitive market. Finally, the strategy may result in an increase in the production and distribution costs.

The second approach, global strategy, encourages business to think and act globally. The strategy employs same basic competitive approach in all regions where a firm operates. The strategy has a number of advantages. First, it enables companies to lower their cost due to large economies of scale. Secondly, the strategy results in improved efficiency and innovation due to the ability to move resources and capabilities across regions.

Finally, the strategy enables companies to enjoy the benefits of global brand and reputation. On the other hand, the approach has a number of disadvantages. First, it may not be able to address the local needs accurately. Secondly, the strategy may not enable a company to respond swiftly to changes in the local market conditions. Finally, the approach is likely to result in higher costs of tariffs, integration, transportation, and coordination.

The third approach, transnational strategy, incorporates the elements of global and multidomestic strategies. The strategy has a number of advantages. First, it enables companies to benefit from the ability to respond to changes in local and global markets.

Secondly, the strategy results in improved efficiency due to the ability to move resources and capabilities across regions. On the other hand, the approach is complex, time consuming and expensive to implement. Also, companies may find it hard to merge conflicting goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How to build a competitive advantage A number of approaches can be used to build a competitive advantage. The first approach is to use international location to minimize cost of operation and to produce differentiated products. Secondly, firms can build competitive advantage by distributing resources, proficiencies and abilities across various markets. This improves efficiency.

Finally, a company can build competitive advantage from the benefits of cross border synchronization. Thus, an organization should ensure that the cross border activities are well coordinated to enable the company reap benefits.

Example of a company Aramex Inc. is a company within logistics and the service industry. It deals with provision of consumer related solutions such as supply chain management and express logistics. From the perspective of Multi-domestic strategy, Aramex Inc. entered into partnership with Zubair Corporation (Z-Corp) in Oman for purposes of offering integrated services within the region.

Aramex Inc. also uses Berco Express (Pty) Ltd. to offer logistics and transportation services within Africa region. The company uses global strategy in cases where it experiences strong pressure in cost reduction and less pressure in the process of venturing into local markets. In this case, the company centralized major functions.

The strategy emphasizes on monitoring, integration and coordination of activities within local markets. The company utilizes the transnational strategy in cases where it requires expertise for the purposes of overcoming the pressures from cost effectiveness as well as local market adaptation.


Comparison between six sigma and Total Quality Management Compare and Contrast Essay best college essay help

Even though six sigma and TQM are efficient apparatus for quality management, they have a number of differences. Six Sigma is a management plan initially designed by Motorola Company to develop the quality of production by recognizing and eliminating causes of failures. It was also designed to reduce inconsistencies in the production process.

The process was established by Bill Smith in the early 1920’s. on the other hand, Total Quality Management is a long-term effort made by workers to ensure customer satisfaction. It was developed by Deming, Juran, and Feigenbaum in the early 1920’s. Six sigma is not only designed for quality control, but also to improve customer satisfaction by reducing shortages.

It also defines and improves production processes. This management plan can be used to assess the root cause of a setback and establish appropriate solutions. Conversely, TQM applies plan, data, and efficient communications to incorporate quality control into the culture and processes of a company.

Six sigma has many methodologies including DMAIC, DMADV, and the 5Whys. A DMAIC plan method has five segments. The first step is the definition of the problem, customers’ demands, and project objectives. The second phase is to measure the main characteristics of the present process and gather relevant information.

The third phase of DMAIC is the study of data followed by improving the present process depending on data analysis. The last phase is to control future processes as this will solve any problem which deviates from a company’s target. DMADV project methodology also has five stages. The first phase is to define goals that are in line with the requirements of consumer project strategy.

The second phase is to measure and recognize CTQ’s, product potentiality and dangers. Third step involves the analysis to create options. This is followed by designing details which involves the optimization and preparation for design authentication. The last step is to verify the design, execute production procedures, and present it to the proprietors of the process.

In TQM, the customer establishes the level of quality. All the workers are also required to take part in the processes aimed at achieving objectives. It majorly focuses on the production thinking. This process involves a planned and systematic approach to attain an organization’s objectives. The main driving force of Total Quality Management is continual process enhancement.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It provides viable solutions for improvement and effective competition. The process of Six Sigma depends on the “5 Whys.” This exercise starts with a statement of the setback followed by the identification of the root cause. Arguably, the 5 iterations of “Why” establishes the main cause of the setback.

Six Sigma has a number of functions. For instance, senior managers are accountable for establishing the implementation of Six Sigma objectives. Campaigners jointly implement Six Sigma and provide guidance to black belts. Senior black belts recognized by campaigners provide in-house training on Six Sigma. Therefore, the process provides superior and efficient outcome compared to TQM.

The process is also more precise and result oriented than TQM. The other difference is that Six Sigma is more complex than TQM as it requires highly trained personnel.

This clearly explains why their trained workers are licensed as “green belts” or “black belts” according to their level of competency. In TQM further developments cannot be realized after reaching the saturation point while Six Sigma attains the saturation level by instigating a next point quality process.


Media Violence Study Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Depiction of Violence

Influence of Depicted Violence



Introduction Modern popular culture has embraced violent movies as a key component of entertainment. This is evident in the article, which was written by Grisham, where he explains that Sarah and Ben went to Memphis to watch the Grateful Dead Movie (Grisham, 1996). It is, further, noticeable that they had watched Natural Born Killers. This movie was dominated by immense murder, human brutality and cruelty.

Ben admits that he loves this movie implying that the modern popular culture accepts violent movies in this community. This paper will, therefore, focus on how violence is depicted on the movies that are described in this article. It will, further, discuss on how the movies influence the character of the audience when they are exposed to them.

Depiction of Violence Grisham describes the content of Natural Born Killers in a clear and detailed manner. In this movie, violence is depicted through brutal acts of murder. The main actors Mickey and Mallory randomly kill people as they move to southwest. They are described as mindless lovers implying that their killings were entirely unreasonable and senseless.

The brutality is well illustrated by killing fifty two people on their way before they are arrested by administrators (Grisham, 1996). When the two lovers were caught, the police imprisoned them to restrict them from killing more people. However, they successfully planned to escape from the prison where they killed additional fifty people in the process.

Murder is the main depiction of violence in this movie since the two actors senselessly commit murder in the entire film (Stone, 1996). In terms of degree, the violence that is depicted in this movie is severe. This is due to the use of dangerous weapons and the presence of murder alongside adverse brutality.

Influence of Depicted Violence In this article, Grisham has described critical behavioral change experienced by Ben and Sarah. In the first instance, the author states that Sarah armed herself to reserve security in case Ben attacks her. Although the reason for this speculated attack was not specified, I contend that Sarah could have possibly noted a change of character in Ben.

This intensifies when Ben start talking about open murder where he introduces topics that are related to openly killing people. In this case, it is evident that he has the quest to kill people just like Mallory and Mickey. From this statement, it is indisputable that Ben had been affected by the violence depicted in Natural Born Killers. Further, he intensified this by expressing his passionate hatred for farmers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ben ordered Sarah to stop the car nearby a farmhouse where Ben tested his gun and then proceeded to Mr. Savage’s farm. After a short struggle, Ben short Mr. Savage on the head leading to instant death and forcing Sarah to escape. However, Sarah quickly decided to help her man to rob Mr. Savage at the farmhouse. In addition, Ben admitted that the feeling of killing people was powerful.

This is the feeling that was expressed by Mickey when he was killing people on his way to Southwest (Stone, 1996). It is, therefore, evident that he had been influenced by the violence that was depicted in the movie (Grisham, 1996).

This implies that violence which is depicted in movies can influence the audience by developing violence in real life situation. From this article, it is additionally clear that severe depiction of violence lead to severe brutality in real life. This implies that mild violence would result to weak levels of violence since the audience copies the actions directly.

Conclusion The above analysis validates the argument of Grisham which contends that depicted violence result to real violence. This is supported by real testimony that is given by Sarah in relation to her previous murders. People should consequently control their exposure to depicted violence to prevent unconscious embracement of brutality.

References Grisham, J. (1996). Unnatural kilers. Oxford American, 4, 11.

Stone, O. (Director). (1996). Natural born killers [Motion picture]. USA: Warner Home Video.


E-Business Planning Report. Kids Designed Craft Cards Report essay help free

Introduction E-business has gained a lot of popularity in the recent past due to advancement in technology. The world has been turned into a global village as the emerging technologies change the world into various fronts. Business units also find themselves in position where they can no longer ignore changes being brought about by these technologies.

The geographical boundaries that existed before have been eliminated by advancement of technology in the areas of transport and communication. Movements from one country to another have been made easier through the invention of various means of transport.

Communication has also been enhanced and it is now possible for one to communicate with others in other regions of the world in real time using phones. The social media has also improved communication in the world.

Business units cannot ignore the technological advancements in the market if it intends to remain competitive. The management of Kids Designed Craft Cards must realize that the only way of remaining competitive in the market is to adopt the emerging technologies as soon as they come into existence in order to remain one-step ahead of market competition.

This firm must find a way of employing e-business in its operations in order to increase its efficiency and market coverage. E-business has become very popular in the current market in Australia and other developed countries. People have limited time to go shopping around.

They prefer making their purchase while in office or at home. This means that only those firms that conduct e-business stand better chances of tapping into a wider market in the current market. This research proposal seek to develop a prototype and give an explanation why e-business is very appropriate for this firm.

E-commerce business model According to Bhusry (2005), it is important for a firm to come up with an appropriate model that will be able to respond to the market dynamics in order to enable a firm succeed in the market. The following model can help Kids Designed Craft Cards when developing a prototype for e-commerce business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source (Manzoor, 2010)

The diagram shows all the stages that should be observed when developing a prototype for e-commerce business.

Driving revenue through e-commerce business The main intention of this project proposal is to increase the profitability of this firm in the market. Increasing revenues in the market may not be a simple process. It requires a model of how the firm will increase its profitability in the market. The management must realize that this process involves conversion of innovation process into economic value. The model below demonstrates this.

The model above identifies some of the factors that Kids Designed Craft Cards must understand in order to generate the needed revenue. It must first identify customers’ needs through this new technology. Then it should segment the market based on the demographical factors.

The firm should then determine the best value proposition for each market segment. This will result into increased sales, which will then increase the firm’s revenues.

Network and communication infrastructure required In order to have a successful operation in e-commerce, it is necessary for the management of Kids Designed Craft Cards to understand some of the infrastructural requirements needed in this project.

This will help ensure that before the project starts, the management have rough estimates of what this project will cost in order to be completed successfully. The following list identifies the infrastructural requirements to be observed by this firm.

We will write a custom Report on E-Business Planning Report. Kids Designed Craft Cards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Search and advertising software

Contracting and order software

The billing and settlement software

Production and distribution of receipt software

Customer service software

Knowledge and information processing software

The hardware

The management must understand all the associated costs for all the software and hardware needed for this project. These infrastructural needs are further discussed in other sections of this proposal.

Applications required in meeting specific e-commerce business goals According to Manzoor (2010), when starting a new system in a firm that has been in existence for some time, it is important to ensure that the intended goals are achieved within a specified timeline. To achieve this, the application must observe the following requirements.

Effective and efficient online shopping functionalities

Easy process of maintaining online stores using minimum effort

The site should be fast loading

The interface should be user-friendly and easy to navigate

Attractive and professional product displays

Purchase function should be easy to operate

Data of clients should be easily captured

The credit card facility must be secure

The system must have online validation of credit cards

The system must be able to deliver on the above applications in order to be considered effective enough to achieve the goals of the firm.

Addressing security issues According to Schneider (2011), just like brick-and-moter stores need some form of security to eliminate cases of robbery or burglary, e-business must be secured. This scholar says that cyber-crime has become so rampant in the current society as crime take a new shape with the changes in the technological environment.

In order to operate an e-business successfully, KDCC must develop some form of security that will protect its operations. The customer needs to be protected from fraudsters who may be intending to steal from them by purporting to be this firm. This firm must also protect itself from any form of threat from these fraudsters in order to eliminate any form of losses that may be incurred because of fraud.

This means that the technical team must develop software that will be able to fight any malware that cyber-criminals may use to corrupt the system of this firm. All users must also be given password that they have to use any time they want to make any form of e-transaction through the website of this firm. The customers should be given an account with a password that they will use when making any transaction with the firm.

The password will remain a secrete for the customer. To enhance security, the customer can always change the password whenever he or she feels that the current password has been compromised. Every department involved in the online transactions will always have its own password when dealing with e-customers.

For instance, the marketing department will be able to deal with the customer from the time he is given an account, and respond to any issue whenever this is necessary.

Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Business Planning Report. Kids Designed Craft Cards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The finance unit will be directly involved with the customer during the process of making payment, while the logistics unit will coordinate with the customer during the process of delivering the purchase to the designated place. Each member of this organization will be responsible for all the transactions taking place through his or her account.

Addressing e-marketing requirements It is important to understand e-marketing requirements in order to deliver quality service to the customers. The management of KDCC should understand all the requirements of e marketing in order to run without many huddles that may affect the normal operations.

According to Awad (2002), starting an e-commerce business may appear a simple process that can easily be realized as long as there is access to the internet. However, this is not as simple as it may appear. This complex process not only requires the right instruments, but also the skilled workforce that will help in addressing various issues within the firm.

The management must first address the issue of hardware needed to develop an e-commerce. This will involve a number of computers and accessories that come with it. It will also need all the hardware used in internet connectivity. The firm will also need to identify a room where these machines will be operated from, within its premises.

The firm will then need to purchase the software that will be used to develop and run e-commerce within the firm. This will also include the software that will be used to protect the system from cyber criminals. Finally, this firm will need the skilled workforce that will help in running the system.

The marketing unit will need to have its customer-care unit at the station 24-hours a day to address any question that may come from the customers. Other departments of this firm should also be active in this new system.

Choice of payment systems to be used Choice of payment to be used with this new system should be selected with a lot of keenness in order to enhance customer experience. According to Bhasker (2006), it is important to realize that some fraudsters are always keen to rob firms that do not have foolproof payment system.

The management must therefore, develop a payment system that will always protect itself and its customers from fraudsters. Choosing the best payment method should take a number of factors into consideration.

The first factor, as mentioned above, should be security of the firm and its customers. The second factor should be convenience. The payment system should be convenient to the client and the firm. The third factor is the ability of the firm to realize that payment has been made the moment the customer makes this payment.

Factoring all these issues together, the best approach that would be very appropriate for this firm would be the use of credit cards. This would allow a strict interaction between the customer and the finance department of this firm during the process of making payment.

However, the firm should consider another alternative of making direct bank deposits to the bank accounts of the firm in case the payment is huge and cannot be transacted easily using credit or debit cards. However, it is important to find a way through which the system will detect any direct payments to the bank account and all the necessary details of the customer who has made the payment.

Addressing privacy and other relevant ethical concerns Some of the main concerns that have been raised by stakeholders in relevance to e-business are the need to maintain ethical issues related when conducting this business. This involves privacy issues and other issues related to customer care and protection. According to Corchuelo (2003), some customers may always want their private life to remain as such, especially when it comes to making purchase of some specific products.

It is the ethical responsibility of the firm to ensure that customers’ identity is not revealed to the public when they make purchases from the firm. Failure to observe this may seriously affect business operations of the firm as customers may lose trust with it. Another privacy concern is the need to protect the finances of the customers who is paying through credit cards.

The officers responsible for effecting the payments should not withdraw more than the right amount from the account of the customer. This is an ethical responsibility of this firm if it intends to keep its customers. It is also important to ensure that customer is not double-charged for the products they purchase from the firm. Yokoo (2008) says that it is ethical to deliver on the promise made to the customer.

When a customer sees a product online and pays for it, the firm should make an effort and deliver that particular product to the customer. The product must meet all the specifications made by the customer during the purchase. The time of delivery should also be as prompt as promised on the company’s website.

Addressing legal issues connected with the e-commerce business As Gasós (2003) observes, it is not possible to run a business in an environment that lacks proper legal structure to protect the customers and the firm. The law is meant to protect all the stakeholders involved in the transactions. In e-commerce business, laws exist that helps in guiding the relationship between the customer and the firm, and that between the firm and other firms or the government.

The laws are already in existence, and the only issue that the firm should address is to implement them. In order to address the legal issues properly within the firm, it is important to ensure that all employees understand this law and its relevance in an e-business environment. This will help in ensuring that these employees appreciate the need to observe these legal issues in all their activities.

The next step would be to let customers know the laws and regulations governing their online transactions. The company can let them know their rights and responsibilities, and how the law protects them and the firm. This will help in creating a legal environment where stakeholders get the respect they need.

Addressing customer service issues According to Kidd (2000), the only way in which a firm can succeed in e-commerce business is to find a way of treating its customers with a lot of decorum, and addressing their concerns as soon as possible. This means that KDCC must have a very active customer care unit that will be able to address needs of the customers as may be appropriate.

To do this, the firm must develop a state-of-the-art call centre, which will be the customer care centre. The call centre should be equipped with all the necessary communication systems and qualified workforce that will be able to respond to the questions of the customers and direct them as may be necessary. It is important to ensure that the customer care service is offered round the clock.

At no moment should the customer call and fail to get response as needed. To enhance communication, the firm may engage the social media in addressing customers’ needs. This may involve responding to customers through Facebook and Tweeter. The firm can also develop a live chart in its website where customers can reach the firm directly.

Measuring the success of your proposal It is important to measure the success of a project in order to determine if it is economically viable. Coming up with metrics that can be used to measure, the level of success of the project may be very important in helping the management determine the next approach to take. Three departments of KDCC can do this. The first department can be the marketing unit.

The can determine the level of success by determining the increase or decrease of customer engagement within the firm. The finance unit can determine the level of success by determining the increase of income directly related to the new system. The logistics unit can measure this by determining the increase in delivery of products to online customers.

Conclusion The discussion above demonstrates that e-commerce is the best approach through which Kids Designed Craft Cards can increase its market share locally and internationally. The new system may cost a lot to this firm during the initial installation. However, the firm stands to benefit a lot upon its completion. This research has demonstrated that if the firm comes up with the appropriate prototype, then it will be successful in this market.

References Awad, E. M. (2002). Electronic commerce: From vision to fulfillment. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.

Bhasker, B. (2006). Electronic commerce: Framework, technologies and applications. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Bhusry, M. (2005). E-commerce. New Delhi: Firewall Media.

Corchuelo, R. (2003). Technology supporting business solutions. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gasós, J. (2003). E-business applications: Technologies for tomorrow’s solutions. Berlin: Springer.

Kidd, P. (2000). E-business: Key issues, applications and technologies. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Manzoor, A. (2010). E-commerce: An introduction. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Acad. Publishers.

Schneider, G. P. (2011). Electronic commerce. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Yokoo, M. (2008). Electronic commerce: Theory and practice. Berlin: Springer.


Enlightenment and revolution Cause and Effect Essay best essay help

Introduction The modern political system of the European nations is a by-product of the enlightenment and political revolution that took place in the late eighteenth century in Europe. The mastermind philosophers of this enlightenment resided in France. The world before the enlightened political system seemed full of superstitions, irrationality, and naivety.

The church and kingship kingdoms had denied the right to contribute in the political decision-making systems, thus leaving the citizens under the authority of a few individuals. The French enlightenment was more radical in religious thoughts than its politics due to various reasons, but the major one was the fear of retaliation from the rulers for the rebellious subjects.

Hence, the enlightenment in France brought about a political revolution from the old regime to the modern political system.1 Interestingly, the French enlightenment and revolution were more radical religious thoughts than politics because religion was the most suitable avenue to promote the agenda.

Who Was Responsible For Causing The Revolution? There seems to be a great controversy amongst many historians as to who was responsible for the French revolution. Many argue that philosophers were responsible, others believe that political publishers aggravated the public anger that led to the overthrowing of the monarchy, and others believe that it was an appreciation of philosophers’ ideologies by the wider social mentality.

However, the philosophers were the main sources of ideas some of which motivated political news writers to take great risks of revealing the monarchy’s bad images to the French public. According to Marisa in her article ‘The Intellectual Origins of the French Revolution’, there exists no centralised concept as to the origin of revolution greater than the public opinion.2

In addition, she argues that that concept was the creation of Habermas, a German Philosopher. Habermas argues that the eighteenth century gave rise to a new public revolution through enlightenment, and resulted to the development of the public sphere through the formation of today’s form of journalism and media freedom.

Public sphere indicates the intellectual vacuum that existed between state and the civil society, which had been denied the opportunity to participate in the political and government affairs by the monarchical regimes.3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, Habermas referred to that kind of public sphere as ‘bourgeois’. The bourgeois class contributed significantly to the enlargement of the gap in the social class and gave room for the rising prominence of intellectuality in the public sphere. The public did not have initial political motivation at the beginning, but rather the feeling of being an emancipated social class in their own country.

Interestingly, people did not use media to communicate their common ideas; on the contrary, they did it orally for fear of aggravating anger in the monarchy, which could have suppressed their ideas in brutality.4

Hence, people took advantage of the growing social institutions such as salons, clubs, hotels, academies and societies, and other social places where they discussed ideas from the stories in the published journals and authorised gazettes. As time went by, the public voices continued to grow confident and articulate in raising opinions on political and government affairs.

Their voices grew louder in matters concerning engagement in wars, prominent court proceedings, and power disputes among the monarchy and other authoritative organs. However, the more their voices continued to be ignored, the more they become solid and took shape, which later developed into a universal public phenomenon until the collapse of the monarchy regime in 1787.

In addition, the political regime tried all it could to limit the public access to the political issues through enactment of laws of censorship of the publications, which included newspapers, journals, and others. Nevertheless, censorship failed to impede the ever-growing and solid public opinion as it was intended, but gradually it undermined the wishes of the authority.

Intellectuals used public forums to campaign for their political ideas and tribunes as it was the only communications channel that political regime could not have banned. Hence, it is believed that philosophers took advantage of the social forums as the most effective channels to influence the public opinion.

Unfortunately, Marisa argues that though public opinion is seemed to have been solidified, there were elements of divisions in the social classes, which could have contributed to some people taking advantage of others.5 She believes a few people had set their goals on leadership for they were social elites and hence opted to take advantage of the majority who were economically disadvantaged.

We will write a custom Essay on Enlightenment and revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She points out on philosophers as intellectuals who most probably took advantage of the ignorance of the majority to have their wishes granted. Hence, the revolution cannot be said with certainty to be a result of popular opinion, but rather a result of ignorance, and abuse of the common people in the state.6

In supporting her arguments, Marisa argues that she had evidence, which indicated that the poor were of little significance to the intellectuals and hence were used to pose challenges to the existing political regime.7

In addition, the elites were better placed than the poor and illiterate were in understanding and judging the behaviours of a political regime. Hence, it is the elites whose quench was nourished by the revolution since both as writers and readers played a major role in the enlightenment.

The Political Revolution The Natural Law Theory

The intellectual elites were of the view that political revolution would bring about a platform of shared ideology or common political beliefs, but that goal was never achieved. The initial motivation was to eliminate the old regime and introduce an unknown political system that to some, would have adopted either the English or the American political system.

According to the public opinion, the absolute monarchy needed to be abolished, as it seemed dictatorial, and adopt a new political system, which would allow public to contribute in the government and political affairs. The natural law theory is believed to have been developed by the French philosopher, Burlamaqui, and is one of the theories that influenced public opinions and rendered to the political revolution.8

It was an alternative theory to the theories of morality and political authority but legally based as opposed to the previous theories on the same subjects. That theory set out the government’s contractual theory, which implicitly and to some extent explicitly challenged the base on which legitimacy of absolute monarchy governance system was founded.

In addition, in 1751, Diderot wrote an article “Autoritepolitique” in which he gave a demonstration of the radical potential of the natural law theory. He wrote, “No man has received from nature the right to command other men…

Freedom is a present from heaven, and every individual of the same species has the right to enjoy it as soon as he enjoys reason.”9 This article was found offending and led to the suspension of the Encyclopedie, in which it had been published. However, it was an influential article to the public opinion and hence, it aggravated public demands for the demolition of absolute monarchy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Enlightenment and revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Republicanism

According to Marisa, Republicanism is also one of the concepts believed to have had a major influence in the political revolution of France.10 It had many themes and ideas, but one of the most influential was the idea of centrality of the civic virtues in the politics. This idea implied that a republican state ought to give its citizens the right to exercise public goodness.

However, the republican concept did not advocate for the demolition of the monarchical system of governance, but it stressed on the concept of every citizen being a subordinate to the public good, including the rulers. Hence, for the case of the old regime, the king ought to exercise the public goodness in his governance.

Unfortunately, the monarchical elites who were drunk with power and used to despotic leadership could not accept anything close to republicanism where the King would be subject to the public good.

Republicanism is one of the most ancient concepts of governance and to the French citizens, it was an old regime given that it was applied by a few city-states, though they did not exercise it to the extent at which it could have had influence across the entire nation. However, the American adoption and redefinition of the republicanism had a great impact on the French revolution and especially between the years 1776 and 1789.

American founders managed to prove to the world that republicanism was no more an old regime as it was assumed to be confined to, but a flexible and adoptable form of governance in the modern politics. The American republicanism influence on the French politics brought about a gap amongst the intellectual elites who had a great influence to the French revolution.

Some intellectuals like Mirabeau were of the idea of adopting the English republicanism, while others supported the French republicanism form of political governance.11

English republicanism was of the form of a constitutional monarchy that separated the powers of the executive and legislation to exclude absolute ruling. The influence of the two forms of republicanisms was exhibited by the adoption of the direct democracy that was embodied on the right to insurrection.

Application of Theories

Having theories and desire to adopt a new political system was not enough to bring about a political revolution to the French citizens without the taking of actions. Marisa looks into the Baker’s influential concept of the discourse theory. Baker illustrates the discourse theory to be a form of language that is powerful to give people access to power.12

The first discourse that had a significance influence is believed to the discourse of justice that demanded that the king should act according to the law, in the sense that he should not abuse his constitutional power.

On the other hand, it stipulates that the citizens should have limited powers within the constitution of the monarch. According to Marisa, Baker associated the discourse theory with parliamentarians and their supporters in the modern political systems.

The second influential concept of the discourse theory is that of willingness. Baker argued that popular sovereignty or in other words, the people’s will, was superior to the will of the monarch, and hence the French citizens had the rightful power to oppose it. The third concept of discourse was based on reasoning. Reasoning was a powerful discourse that demanded the enlightenment, as it is associated with wisdom.

Some French philosophers explained the need to have a governing system that would allow for enlightenment governance. Baker argued that discourse theory and especially the above three concepts had a great significance in the French political revolution for they moved people into action.13

On the other hand, hardly is there a theory that has no critics in the intellectual world. Some critics argue that Baker’s arguments that the political revolution was due to the words ‘power’ and ‘politics’ in the discourse theory were too shallow to define the revolution.

They argue other oppositional elements must have spurred people into action. They somehow continued to divide the elements of discourse into the classical republicanism, the religious critiques of absolutist policies, and the public opinion. Interestingly, the above elements are sub elements of will, justice, and reason, and hence the Baker’s discourse theory is seen to have had the greatest influence.

The Virtue Politics in France

Virtue is the most significant element of human behaviour. Hence, it was central to the political culture of the eighteenth century and was featured as a discourse in the French monarchy political regime. The political virtue implies an abnegation of individual’s self-interests in the exercising powers in order to achieve a comprehensive devotion of oneself to the goodness of the public.

The political culture of France in the eighteenth century was lacking the exercise of political virtue and hence the reason for the citizen outcry through public opinion for the adoption of new political regime and system.

According to Marisa, it is evident from the modern French politics that the political system of the eighteenth century had three competing and significant political discourses of virtue, whereby each discourse was used to satisfy a different source of political authority.

Looking into the political virtue discourses, the first one is the discourse of a virtuous king. By looking into the king as an individual, he lacked a good personal character capable of ruling diligently, which to some philosophers was a great risk to France and her citizens.14

Secondly, there was a discourse of noble virtue as it was attached only to the elite groups. There were individuals whose skills and prowess were used for state services but lacked the virtue to exercise their mandates for the goodness of the public due to high self-interests.

Thirdly, there was a discourse of civic virtue, which originated from the classical republics of Italy and Greece. In those republics, the civic virtue had been dispersed across all societies, where citizens laid claims on, and through it, they could freely make their case for political rights and justice. French citizens had a great thirst for the right to exercise civic virtue in their state.

However, philosophers added another virtue into the civic virtue in the mid-century. That virtue was defined as a natural virtue, which depicts the desire to care for one another in a brotherly love in an effort to ensure happiness to their colleagues.

The above four virtue discourses created an unwanted political environment to the citizens of France as they felt like they had been denied natural freedom according to Baker’s view of natural law theory, whereby nobody ought to deny another the natural freedom.

According to philosophers and other French thinkers, the French revolution aimed at bringing forth a political system and regime that would uphold virtues, and hence make French citizens virtuous citizens.

The French Enlightenment and Religion

French enlightenment is the root of the political evolution. According to Keiser and Kley, enlightenment is defined as the work of a few intellectuals and their followers.15

By looking into French political revolution, the entire process was initiated by a few philosophers who had a great influence on the French citizens to the extent of solidifying a common public opinion. In addition, through enlightenment, philosophers managed to take advantage of discourses, as described by Baker, that through them the public opinion was motivated into taking political actions.

According to the history of the French revolution, enlightenment was exhibited by the making of the common public opinion. The process was started by a few enlightened in society who passed on their views to the reading society and then moved to the social communication strategy of meeting at social places to share their ideas with people.

That process exhibited a great deal of enlightenment and especially through convincing the public through social forums to the extent of reaching a consensus.

Through the enlightenment, the political culture of the eighteenth century even though it had ancient political regimes, is seen to be having sources of the modern political evolutions and cultures. Enlightenment has a close tie to the religious view more than political view. The main goal of French enlightenment was to achieve a political goal and in so doing, there had to be a motivation of the public.

The intellectual elites had to take religious concepts and use them to convince the citizens in order to get them into action. Critics argue that philosophers, who were the intellectual elites of the eighteenth century, were schemers and thus they chose to take advantage of the ignorance of the majority in their effort to get their desired political regime and system.

They could only have taken advantage of the citizens by using religious perspectives in trying to convince them on the need to have a new governance system in France. In addition, the monarchy system did not deny people their religious rights and hence it was easier for the intellectual elites, who opposed the monarchy, to use religious platform to get the public into a uniform move.

The enlightened people of France in the eighteenth century were moved by the desire to have a change of the governance system from monarchy that did not allow for social freedom and freedom of citizens in the political and government affairs.

The majority of the enlightened people were philosophers, university students, and professors. Their great desire to change the governance system was challenged by the unavailability of communication channels that would get to the majority of French citizens. Secondly, the government did not allow for the freedom of speech as it the case in the modern world.16

The only option for the change pioneers was to use the books and other publications though they were thoroughly monitored by the government in an effort to protect its image and universal public reactions and demands. The intellectuals published their messages in the satirical passages that aimed at denouncing highhandedness and corruption of the few who were in power.17

In most cases, some publications were confiscated and to some extent, their licences revoked. Successful publication and distribution of the information were later boosted by sharing ideas and discussing such messages at social places, in an effort to win the hearts of the public in building a public opinion.

Conclusion Evidently, the French political revolution relied heavily on the French enlightenment. Political revolution could not have been achieved without the intellectual elites who were capable of realising the weaknesses of the monarchical governance system. Unfortunately, the intellectual elites felt the adverse effects of the ills of the existing regimes, whereas the majority who were illiterate and ignorant did not feel such an impact.

Hence, the intellectual elites ought to work hard in trying to convince the public of the necessity of having political system and regime that would empower the public. The intellectual elites faced communication challenges for the monarchical political system could not allow them to advocate for the empowerment of citizens freely.

Hence, they had to use publications and social forums as the most effective ways of communication beside the great risks posed by the ruling monarchy. In order to convince the public and motivate them to take action, the intellectual elites had to take advantage of the religious views and use them to make the public feel the pain of their rights being held hostage by the few powerful people.

Religion was the most suitable vehicle to advance the elites’ revolution because the majority of people ascribed to a certain religion and the monarchical governance allowed people to associate freely with any religious affiliation. Therefore, the revolution and enlightenment inclined more to religious thought than its politics.

Reference List Dijn, Annelien. “The Politics Of Enlightenment: From Peter Gay to Jonathan Israel.” The Historical Journal 55 no. 3 (2012): 785-805

Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Israel, Jonathan. A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy. Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon. New York: Penguin, 2002.

Kaiser, Thomas, and Dale Kley. From Deficit to Deluge: the Origins of the French Revolution. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Linton, Marisa. “The intellectual origins of the French Revolution.” In The origins of the French Revolution, edited by Peter Campbell, 139-159. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Outram, Dorinda. The Enlightenment. London: Cambridge, 2013.

Footnotes 1Annelien Dijn, “The Politics Of Enlightenment: From Peter Gay to Jonathan Israel,” The Historical Journal 55, no. 3 (2012): 787.

2Marisa Linton, “The intellectual origins of the French Revolution,” in The origins of the French Revolution, ed. by Peter Campbell (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 141.

3William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 148.

4Ibid, 122.

5Linton, 146.

6Jonathan Israel, A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy (New York: Princeton, 2010) 67.

7Linton, 146.

8Colin Jones, The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon (New York: Penguin, 2002), 89.

9Ibid, 93.

10Linton, 144.

11Israel, 122.

12Linton, 145.

13Ibid, 145.

14Thomas Kaiser and Dale Kley, From Deficit to Deluge: the Origins of the French Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011) 98.

15Ibid, 83.

16Dorinda Outram, The Enlightenment (London: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 65.

17 Ibid, 86.


A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Dear Sir, I am writing to you about the short story that might be published in the upcoming issue. In particular, I would like to speak about William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily since it can appeal to many well-educated readers who buy our magazine. It has been selected among others for several reasons. First of all, the author enables the readers to feel the atmosphere of the American South after the end of the Civil War.

By describing a fictional Yoknapatawpha County, William Faulkner recreates various aspects of American life. The time of the action is not specified by the author, but one can deduce that people live at the end of the nineteenth century. This is one of the details that can be singled out.

William Faulkner examines the.tensions between Southerners and Northerners by showing the people’s prejudices against Homer Barron. In my view, the readers may be willing to learn more about this issue. So, this short story can be important for understanding the culture of the United States as well as possible tensions within the society.

Moreover, it is important to mention that the writer creates a very interesting plot. For instance, the author creates a non-linear narrative which portrays the life of the main character Emily Grierson during different periods. In this way, the writer shows how the personality of Emily Grierson evolves. The writer subtly describes the events and factors which could have shaped her behavior.

This approach to writing can appeal to many readers. Moreover, William Faulkner adds a shocking ending to his short story, and it will produce a profound impression on the readers. To some degree, this short story has the elements of a thriller, and the plot is very engaging. This is another reason why this literary work can be published in the upcoming issue of our magazine.

This short story is also interesting because it portrays the struggles of a person who does not to accept the changes in external environment. For instance, he does not want to admit that she no longer lives in the antebellum South. William Faulkner gives a powerful psychological portrayal of this individual and seamlessly incorporates it into the plot. In my view, this goal cannot be easily achieved by many writers.

This is one of the main details that can be identified. I was astounded with the way in which the writer characterizes the main characters by using only several phrases. In my opinion, other readers may also find this writing style very enjoyable since it prompts a person to use his/her imagination while thinking about the protagonist or secondary characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the author’s work can be viewed as a great example of Southern Gothic. William Faulkner relies on grotesque images that enhance the sense of mystery. For instance, the readers do not know what is hidden in the house of Emily Grierson. Moreover, the personality of the protagonist remains unknown to the reader until the very end of the narrative.

Nevertheless, this short story can be seen as a great example of realist literature since William Faulkner meticulously describes the life of a Southern American town. One can understand the challenges that this people encountered or the way in which they could perceive the world.

This is one of the things that may attract the attention of readers since the ability to combine realistic and Gothic literature is not very widespread nowadays. This quality can distinguish William Faulkner among other writers. This is one the main aspects that can be identified.

Apart from that, I was impressed with the author’s approach to narration. William Faulkner’s novella is told by the collective voice of the town. The author uses the personal pronoun we and the readers do not know to what extent he/she is familiar with the main characters. One cannot determine whether the collective voice is omniscient or not.

This narrator makes the story much more arresting because readers do not know how the narrative will evolve or what kind of decisions the characters can take. This is another reason why I selected this novella among short stories that were submitted for publication.

In my view, this short story can be of great interest to people who read our magazine. It has two elements that you value. In particular, I can speak interesting plot and the presence of many thought-provoking details that the readers will like. I do hope that this text can be included into the upcoming issue of our magazine. Certainly, there may be other short stories that are also worth attention.

Their literary merits cannot be disregarded. Nevertheless, I believe that this novella combines the best qualities that are valued by the audience of our magazine. This is why it can be incorporated in the following issue of the magazine. So, hopefully, you will consider this short story. In my opinion, the readers will not be disappointed.

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Discrimination in the Workplace Essay writing essay help

In Ricci v. DeStefano, the U.S. Supreme Court made a contentious ruling on workplace racial discriminate practices. In the case, eighteen firefighters from New Haven’s fire department had sued their employer for engaging in discriminatory practices. Seventeen of the firefighters were Caucasian while one firefighter was Hispanic. The officials of the fire department refused to promote the fire fighters.

This is despite the fact that they had passed promotion tests. The officials refused to promote the employees since none of the black firefighters had passed the promotion tests with marks that warranted promotion (Fitter


Hegemony Theories Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Leaders apply different forms of ruling all over the world. Some of the methods are still in use in the modern form of governance. Cultural structure affects the framing of leadership. Some leaders use their power to dominate every action needed to be taken in line with leadership responsibilities.

The article ‘torture’ has related the old and the modern forms of governance by highlighting the relationship between leaders and their subjects. Some leaders humiliate law offenders and anyone resisting their governance.

Different theories put forward by scholars describe the cultural and leadership aspects in an organization. An example is the hegemony theory referring to modes of governance where leaders dominate every action. The article also highlights power and knowledge, and the way they are perceived by the society.

Hegemony is a good example of theories touching on power and dominance in an independent society. This refers to imperial dominance- where leaders assume total power and ignore the peoples’ opinions. This form of ruling has its roots in the old days where leaders ruled on a geopolitical form through dominating other states.

The method of ruling was magnified in the 19th century where nations started dominating others affecting their internal independence. Scholars have argued that hegemony was the cause of colonialism that was widespread in the world in the 18th century. Powerful kingdoms and nations could take full control of the affairs of less powerful nations and African continent was the major victim of the ruling (King 203).

This causes cultural imperialism which is one of the most common forms of political ruling in the modern world. This is where a leader dictates political action by using his powers as the dominant factor. The article discusses this form of governance by stating that leaders assume total powers and think that they are invincible. Knowledge has a stake at this form of leadership. The educated dominate coming up with policies.

They enact laws that favor their agendas, therefore, dominating those with little knowledge on the issues affecting the nation (Piaget 38). Leaders are able to suppress any rebellion from the subjects by using armed forces. They do their best to remain in power and elevate themselves to top positions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Structuralism is another theory scholars use to explain the cultural aspects and the way people relate. This requires people to understand their relationship with things around them, and how they think about the nature. This theory is traced back in the early 18th century before civilization took place.

People loved their cultural lives, and this means close relationships and interactions. They had enough time to reflect on the tangible things around them. People thought that they were in touch with nature, so their feelings grew as they interacted with the natural environment. Scientists and scholars have developed this theory and applied it in psychology and anthropology.

Structuralism was applied in linguistics where scholars studied language development. In linguistics, structuralism is used to trace the detailed relationship words and things designated by such words. Changes in words and their meanings have also been explored; enabling scientists to trace the origin of words and their meanings.

The theory has also been used at the study of culture where social anthropology is given much attention in the study. This is the widest part where religion and people’s way of life are explored. This research reliably analyses the ancient and modern way of human life.

Structuralism is applied at the article where it touches on the way of life of the people (Foucault 16). It talks of knowledge and power and how these aspects determine the way of life of the people. From the article, knowledge and power are related. Leaders are assumed to be people with adequate knowledge. They acquire an obligation to run political affairs of the people.

Another theory used to reflect people’s way of life and relationships between different races is orientalism. The term refers to the way Arab nations are stereotyped to have exaggerated views. Western nations imagine and perceive Arab nations as common threats to world peace.

The theory also explores the relationship between power and knowledge in the society. It states that “knowledge dictates power”; this is witnessed in situations where knowledgeable people become powerful leaders. There is a great relationship between the educated and those in power (Chomsky 38).

We will write a custom Essay on Hegemony Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scholars have come up with theories to explain the general structure of society. These theories show the internal organization and people’s way of life. Relationships between cultures are also explained because one culture may affect the affairs of another.

Leadership is also explored where knowledge is seen as the basis of getting into leadership. Some leaders use their powers to dominate and humiliate their subjects. Knowledgeable people in the society are given a chance to take leadership positions. They are able to achieve this because of their ability to outwit the rest of the society. Their knowledge is an advantage in their quest for power.

Works Cited Chomsky, Noam. Hegemony or survival: America’s quest for global dominance. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2003. Print.

Foucault, Michael. Discipline and punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books, 2006. Print

King, Richard. Orientalism and religion postcolonial theory, India and ‘the mystic East’. London: Routledge, 1999. Print.

Piaget, Jean. Structuralism. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.


Difference Between Silent Films and the Contemporary Movies Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Body

The Golden Age


Introduction Louis Lumiere receives recognition for inventing the moving image camera in 1895. Lumiere’s tool kit was significantly small considering the civilization at the time. It functioned as a camera, a motion processor and a display all folded in one.

Lumiere would film in the morning, develop it after lunch and display it for his audience during supper. His first motion picture was the entrance of the locomotive at Ciotat (Cook, 2004). Cinematography developed into complete maturity during the silent era (1895-1930).

In the late 1920s, synchronized sound was developed with the invention of Vitaphone system (Cook, 2004). Since that time, films have been produced with perfect sounds and dialogue. The striking difference between films produced during the silent era and the modern movies is the absence of sound in the former.

The introduction of sound in movies had far-reaching implications on movies. For example, the overacting evident in silent movies disappeared with the introduction of sound. This study examines the difference between silent films and the contemporary movies in terms of the synchronization of sound with motion pictures.

Main Body Human desire to document himself in activity dates back to early cave images. Clear examples are in existence in France and Spain. The Indonesian leathered puppet silhouette performance is a later illustration worth mentioning. Filigree performance silhouette are projected on a display as entertainment.

Movies that were produced later did not contain synchronized sound although they were accompanied by sound such as directives from directors or live performances as the movie was being projected (Christie, Felperin


Microsoft Case Study essay help online

Introduction The rapidly growing world of industrialization and globalization has witnessed a sharp growth of industries, which are substantial in economic and social growth. Technological advancement is probably one of the major characteristics of the industrial revolution in the postmodern world with virtually every important aspect of a technical profession, largely relying on technological support to operate efficiently.

Notwithstanding their aptitude to integrate business ideas that support them through the rapid diffusion globalized economy, corporate organizations are facing unrelenting challenges in their operations. Since its advent into the corporate world, Microsoft Corporation has been arguably one of the prevalent corporate names in the technology industry, with its performance positioning it among the fortune 500 organizations.

Analogous to other organizations, Microsoft has also been facing challenges that have marred its corporate growth. Fundamental to this notion, the purpose of this study is to analyze problems that Microsoft faces and provide possible alternatives and recommendation.

Symptoms of the problems Notwithstanding its long outstanding performance within the technological business paradigm with unbroken performance track record, Microsoft is experiencing something different in the contemporary days. Several critical symptoms to its downfall in the technological consumer market are becoming more eminent in the current days.

Dropping in Microsoft’s market value is one of the first symptoms that significantly demonstrate possible problems confronting Microsoft Corporation; hence, its fall in market prominence and dominance in the last two years before the advent of Apple, which has proved to be one of the world’s most honored technological companies.

Another significant symptom to the problems marring corporate growth is the gradual loss of human capital that has been forming potential strengths to the initial success of Microsoft Corporation.

As postulated from the case study, Microsoft is gradually losing a majority of its innovative human resources to the prevailing competition with many of its top executives withdrawing from the organization either through formal work retirement process or attracted by competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Microsoft third most possible symptoms to its current problems is technological eschew or stagnancy with the case study report indicating that Microsoft is steadily losing value and lagging behind its competitors as the company has failed to continue producing modern technologies including gaming devices, tablets, mobile phones, and other media.

From its initial growth in productivity that made almost all its employees virtually millionaires, one of Microsoft’s significant symptoms of downfall is its low revenue generation as compared to its operating income. This performance trend started stagnating and fluctuating from the beginning of 2008 towards 2010.

From the case report, employee rapport with Microsoft Corporation started dwindling following the company’s inability to handle integral employees concerns including low pays of wages and reduction of benefits despite the company’s ability to record high profits. Indicative of these symptoms, Microsoft is now struggling to deal with numerous problems within its operations.

Problem statements Microsoft Corporation is facing a continuum of challenges in the recent days. One of the major problems that form a great challenge in the progress of Microsoft within the technology realm is low productivity, underproduction, or simply poor organizational performance. Microsoft is gradually falling short of market performance, which is characterized by low performance as opposed to its initial phenomenal success.

Also, as a software giant, flagship products are becoming rare. From the case report produced by the Wall Street, Microsoft was lagging behind its competitors in almost all aspects of business including technological advancement, marketing techniques, and relatively low financial capacity following the invasion of other technical companies.

Management is one of the critical success factors that determine the initiation and resilience of the organizations in its operations. Organizational management is normally responsible for administering leadership techniques that determine organizational performance as it controls both human and financial capital.

According to the case, as provided by Wall Street, poor management is one of the potential problems affecting Microsoft in the contemporary days within evidence of bureaucratic management that has significantly affected creativity and stock performance.

We will write a custom Case Study on Microsoft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The case study indicated that innovative workforce is withdrawing with members claiming that Microsoft was responding too slowly to technological changes and other employees cited that Microsoft failed to address their concerns.

Any modern company aims at organizational success that is currently achievable by addressing significant production factors including actively focusing on quality of products that meet customers’ demands and preference. Research on this case study unveiled that Microsoft is currently facing stiff market competition from potential competitors in the technology industry, including the rapidly growing Apple, Mac, and Linux.

With demand for advanced technologies cutting across different devices and services, Microsoft is facing technological competition from the PC market to its services, including the Windows division that provides computer-enabled operating systems. This competition is stiffening from software production to hardware systems, which were Microsoft’s main tools for competitive advantage.

Problem Analysis Low and deprived productivity

Organizational productivity is determined by numerous factors that entail financial comportment and market performance. From the case study provided about Microsoft, market performance and financial status clearly indicate that Microsoft is currently surviving under deprived productivity.

Discussing on financial performance that signifies performance or productivity in organization, Exhibit 3 provided in the study can significantly demonstrate this concern. A closer analysis of annual financial statements of revenue and operating income of Microsoft from 2008-2010, the company’s financial stability is dwindling.

The financial statement indicates that Microsoft has been recording profits, but in quite unstable performance characterized by hikes and drops between the years. In 2008, the company recorded $ 60, 420 million values of revenue and $22,217 operating income (loss).

In 2009, the company recorded annual revenues worth $58,437 and reported annual operating income worth $20, 363. This financial performance trend proves that the company is recording unsteady performances.


Management forms an integral part in organizational performance as policies and objectives articulated by management and their competence normally influence organizational success. One of the useful indicators that point to management failure in Microsoft is the continued employee-management wrangles that have posed serious issues in the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Microsoft by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As indicated by the report, despite its uninterrupted track record in attracting and retaining significant human capital, the company has in the recent past witnessed a substantial loss in its key creative human resource. Top executives attached to business long term endeavors have resigned and others sought employment from other potential employers.

The current management has failed considerably in handling essential employees’ concerns including complaints regarding wages and benefits reductions, characterized by a widening compensation gap between executives and employees.

The management’s laxity in adopting new technologies that are integral for intensifying competition in the technology industry is keeping the company at stake, thus forcing it to struggle in the market performance.

Technological market competition

The response to the market demands and customers’ preference for certain products is currently one of the paramount business factors that entrepreneurs have recognized to have a potential impact on a firm’s stability. A key problem facing management in Microsoft is the constantly rising technological market competition that in most occasions has found the company unwary.

The fast pace at which other technologies are rising and their capability to respond to the rapid technological changes has created enormous problems to Microsoft. The company has lagged behind in realizing innovations involved in new technologies, including supporting the development of gaming services, tablets, mobile technologies, and other sources of media.

Microsoft has failed to recognize the rising demand for Smartphone technologies and continued to perform in dwarf of PCs. The company is performing dismally in server and tools and in providing online services while at the same time, the entertainment and devices section are dwindling in its performance in the technology market.

Alternatives for the problems and their Evaluation Problems normally occur in businesses, but they only become detrimental when alternatives and approaches to handle them never emerge. The main problem in the case of Microsoft that has a significant influence in the existence and continuation of others is the issue of management itself. The management is arguably part of barrier to implementation of important strategies in Microsoft.

In a bid to reclaim its aptitude and performance in the rapidly changing technological industry, reshuffling and changing the management style is paramount for positive results in Microsoft Corp. Bureaucratic management stifles performance and each significant change will begin by streamlining the management.

As stated from the case, the current management is autocratic and tyrannical, with little expertise as top executives, including the current C.E.O Steve Ballmer have not received any credible welcome from directors and employees.

Attracting and retaining innovative workforce to help in innovating new technologies would help in reshaping Microsoft Corp. as talented human resource is imperative in analyzing problems, making critical decisions, and supporting management with progressive ideas.

One of the essential factors to consider in the technology industry is the trendiness in the products as integrating services and products with significantly advanced technologies would greatly aid in improving the market demand for its products.

After identifying innovative workforce that would produce competitive products and brands, it would be significant for Microsoft Corp. to consider expanding its market through strategic marketing techniques and enhancing the prevailing partner relationships. The restructured managed is capable of building more powerful partners.

Course of action (Recommendations) Step 1: The entire action plan would require one year for effective implementation. Each step would require three months. The first would be a three-month strategic action plan development, which denotes the beginning of changes. The first step would involve revamping the management to allow integration of significant changes in Microsoft Corp. Designing implementation committee is integral in this phase.

Step 2: The second phase of change that would create significant change to Microsoft is attracting new and innovative workforce that would help in generating ideas on developing new technologies. The new management can practice this aspect throughout the company’s operations, though for the start, three months are adequate to identify the desired workforce competent enough for improving Microsoft.

Step 3: In three months, the new talented workforce will work with the management team in critical decision making to improve the company’s operations including changing and designing new and advanced products that follow the market trend. This move would help restore the company’s reputation on the quality of products and subsequently improve its market rapport with clients.

Step 4: The last step that would significantly place Microsoft Corp. in the best market position would involve developing a global marketing team and designing strategic marketing plans that will aid in expanding the market share for products of Microsoft. For instance, a huge marketing team to market the new windows 7 and Windows 8 is paramount.


Horror Movies: We Are What We Are Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

When marketing a horror movie, it is essential to take into account a number of peculiarities of this genre. Horror movies have specific audience and tend to explore certain topics. As far as Jim Mickle’s “We are what we are” is concerned, it requires special attention. First of all, this horror movie is a remake of the Mexican movie called “Somos lo que hay”.

However, Mickle did not intend to simply translate the movie into the English-speaking reality, but he retold the story from a totally different angle (Olsen 2013). Thus, Mickle’s family consists of parents and three children (two daughters and a son). Notably, the protagonist’s wife dies which is one of the first major surprises for those who have seen the Mexican movie (McDonagh 2013).

There are lots of other surprises which make the viewer understand that the American version is a totally different story. Therefore, while marketing Mickle’s movie, it is possible to focus on such aspects as peculiarities of remakes, sequels and prequels, the movie’s audience, religion and traditions, and feminism in horror films. These aspects will draw the potential viewers’ attention and they will bring people to the cinema.

In the first place, it is important to focus on such aspects as remakes, sequels and prequels. Mickle stresses that his film is a brand new story with some remains of the original story (Turek 2013). It is crucial to make the potential viewers aware of the fact that the movie is based on Jorge Michel Grau’s “Somos lo que hay”. Firstly, it will attract attention of those who watched the Mexican movie.

They are likely to wish to see the American version of the film they appreciated. Admittedly, it is always interesting to view the story from different perspectives. Of course, it is necessary to stress the fact that the story is shown from a different angle to foster those viewers’ interest.

Secondly, the reference to the Mexican movie can also attract those who have not seen the original. The marketers should make this group of potential viewers aware of the fact that the Mexican film is a success and has attracted a lot of attention worldwide.

Furthermore, it can also be fruitful to mention that the filmmakers are considering the possibility to work on the prequel and sequel. Kohn (2013) notes that Grau is already working on the sequel. The very existence of a sequel and/or prequel is often seen as a proof of high quality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the filmmakers are interested in exploring the past and the future of the main characters of the story, it means the story is rich and a variety of angles to look at. Admittedly, people eagerly watch movies which are regarded as successful and high-quality products. Therefore, the marketers should pay special attention to this aspect.

Apart from this, the marketers should not forget about the movie’s genre. It is a horror story set in an ordinary American town. There are no monsters or aliens but it is a horror story that creates the necessary tension. The marketers should also point out that the remake is based on an Indie horror film. Erbland (2012) claims that Mickle translates the Indie story into a movie with a wider audience.

People are often attracted by Indie films which become a topic of a heated debate. Indie films are often seen as a product for a group of the chosen who can understand the message and appreciate the movie. “We are what we are” is a good chance to become a part of the group of chosen and the marketers can also use this aspect in their strategies.

Nevertheless, though the genre of the movie has already been identified as a horror movie, it is possible to state that “We are what we are” refers to another subgenre. The story is not a pack of horrific situations and monsters killing people. The story explores a variety of psychological and spiritual issues. The family has certain traditions and they are trying to preserve them as well as fit in the society.

There is a constant struggle within the main characters who try to come to terms with themselves and people around them. Apart from pure psychology, the movie is grounded on spiritual aspect of human life. Catholicism as well as devotion to the family is central to the film in question.

Hence, it is possible to note that the work in question is a psychological and spiritual horror movie. The marketers should pay certain attention to this as people are always interested in new genres and new aspects of something they know well.

These three aspects do not only help to market the movie, but also provide a valuable insight on potential audience of the movie. As has been mentioned above, fans of (or just people who have seen) the Mexican original can be a part of the audience. People interested in Indie movies and their remakes can also be a part of the audience.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Horror Movies: We Are What We Are specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the major part of the movie’s audience will include people who like horror films and suspense. At present, horror films are popular and they have already become a part of the contemporary culture (Teusner 2005). Therefore, while marketing the movie, it is necessary to focus on this group of viewers.

Admittedly, to attract people’s attention to any film, marketers have to mention certain issues explored in the film, if any. When it comes to the movie in question, it addresses a number of serious issues which are now in the spotlight. For instance, one of the major themes in the movie is religion and adherence to traditions. It is important to highlight this aspect of the film.

Thus, Teusner (2005) claims that horror movies have always referred to religious beliefs and tried to explore a variety of religious issues. The family in the film is a group of devout Catholics. At the same time, they cannot be regarded as righteous people.

Thus, Mickle explores the gap between religion and the contemporary world, i.e. religious values and individuals’ actions. Clearly, this topic appeals to lots of people and discussion of these issues is likely to attract potential viewers’ attention to the film.

Furthermore, the topic of traditions is also transparent in the film. The members of the family do not simply want to commit certain crimes due to their sinful nature, but they follow certain tradition which has existed in the family for generations. The filmmakers try to explore the extent to which it is acceptable to keep family traditions.

Mickle shows that some families can have peculiar traditions which make them totally different from the rest of the world. The founding father of the family started the tradition and the contemporary members of the family do not think they have the right to stop it. They believe they are doing the right thing and are not going to change their ways as it is impossible to change own nature.

Notably, people living in the modern globalized world are often preoccupied with preservation of their identity (ethnical, religious, etc.). Thus, the movie is also a reflection of the modern society and different groups within it. This aspect can also be used to market the movie.

Admittedly, one of the major themes in the movie is cannibalism. Mickle tells a story about a family of cannibals. Of course, this is a horror story, but the filmmakers do not create monsters eating human flesh. The Parkers are seemingly an ordinary American family.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Horror Movies: We Are What We Are by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Again, the film refers to the ongoing discussion of the issue. Notably, some people are trying to justify cannibalism or at least find the justification. For instance, Wisnewski (2007) provides a philosophical analysis of the problem.

The author also mentions the Kuru disorder and tries to reveal positive aspects of cannibalism. Importantly, Mickle makes the horror story as real as possible and the Kuru disorder is also mentioned in the film. The film can be regarded as another illustration of the discourse. This realistic presentation of the horror story can also attract people’s attention.

Finally, the marketers of the movie can also resort to the feminist approach. As has been mentioned above, Mickle’s story is totally different from the Mexican original and in the American version females (the mother and the daughters) are central characters.

Brewer (2009) notes that the contemporary culture (movies are a part of the culture) is characterized by feminist approach to different aspects of human life. It is also important to mention that Mickle brings to the fore female’s attempts to remain on good terms with themselves and the world.

Apart from the discussion of the themes revealed in the movie, it is also essential to mention the filmmakers and their expertise. Of course, the marketers should refer to Mickle’s previous works (“Stake Lane” and “Mulberry Street”) which are very successful. Thus, Mickle is now regarded as one of the most successful horror film directors (Tallerico 2013).

He manages to create the necessary tension and the stories he tells are full of suspense. Duhamel (2013) stresses that Mickle creates a number of symbols to explore the issues related to cannibalism.

The story told by Mickle is a combination of a children’s tale about Ogres, children’s nightmares, and discussion of family values (Duhamel 2013). The director brings a horror movie to a new level which is more complete and sophisticated. Clearly, people are now seeking for new experiences and they strive to see new techniques in their favorite genres.

The cast is also worth mentioning as critics praise the performance and state it is really exceptional. For instance, Duhamel (2013) praises performance of the two leading actresses, Julia Garner and Ambyr Chiders. The young actresses manage to reveal the doom of the family. The girls’ appearance and their ‘reluctant’ moves create a really tensed atmosphere of doom and devotion to the family (Duhamel 2013).

Bill Sage, Wyatt Russell and Michael Parks reveal the strong male world where each of them is trying to pursue their goals in their search for self-identity, justice and happiness.

The marketers should stress the exceptional performance of the cast as some viewers (who are not horror movie fans) have certain prejudice and they do not want to watch some horror films as they believe these works are characterized by poor performance. One of the advantages of the movie in question is the great performance, so the marketers should stress this.

It is noteworthy that there is a lot of information on the film available in media. In the first place, the film was premiered at Sundance Festival and it was praised by critics. It was also shown at Cannes Festival where it was also warmly accepted. Admittedly, these two movie festivals are influential and positive reviews from critics can be seen as certain evidence of the movie’s high-quality.

The marketers should stress the movie’s success at the two festivals. Favorable attitude of critics is one of the reasons to watch a movie. It is widely known that people tend to rely on critics’ reviews. Therefore, the marketers should refer to numerous favorable reviews available online.

More so, the very abundance of the information is a sign of the movie’s value. If people keep talking about a film, it means the film is worth seeing and viewers should understand that Mickle’s movie has been discussed for months. It can be useful to refer to some peculiarities of the movie’s production. Thus, Mickle’s struggle with the ‘bad’ weather can foster people’s interest to the film.

The director tends to stress that the major symbol and even the ‘character’ of the film is rain (Tallerico 2013). Mickle claims that the story is set in the middle of a natural disaster, i.e. heavy rains, storms and flood. The place was chosen with specific deliberation, but they did not have rain.

The way the director created the ‘natural disaster’ and the atmosphere of certain rainy doom is worth specific attention. This curious detail can draw a lot of attention to the film as well.

In conclusion, it is possible to note that “We are what we are” is a horror movie which is rather easy to market. The film has already attracted a lot of attention and there is a lot of information in a variety of film magazines. While marketing the movie, it is possible to focus on numerous aspects of the film. First, it is essential to mention the original Mexican version.

The marketers should also pay special attention to the movie’s genre which is different from a mere horror movie as it is full of psychology and spirituality. It is crucial to make the potential viewers aware of the upcoming sequels and prequels. Besides, the marketers can refer to the major themes in the film. Such themes as religion, traditions, cannibalism and feminism have been topics of quite heated debate recently.

Finally, it is also important to mention the cast’s performance which has been praised by many critics. Al these aspects are likely to attract potential viewers’ attention. Notably, the audience of the movie is really wide as it can include horror movie fans, psychological thrillers fans and those who are interested in exploring the issues revealed in the film.

Reference List Brewer, C. 2009, The stereotypic portrayal of women in slasher films: then versus now, Thesis, Louisiana State University. Web.

Duhamel, M. P. 2013, Cannes 2013. “Did you eat my daughter?”: Jim Mickle’s ”We are what we are”. Web.

Erbland, K. 2012, ‘”We are what we are” getting an American remake from Jim Mickle and Nick Damici’, Film School Rejects. Web.

Kohn, E. 2013, ‘”We are what we are” director Jim Mickle and Jorge Michel Grau discuss remakes, sequels and why their movies aren’t really about cannibals’, Indiewire. Web.

McDonagh, M. 2013, ‘American gothic: Jim Mickle’s “We are what we are” reimagines 2010 Mexican horror hit’, Film Journal. Web.

Olsen, M. 2013, ‘Director Jim Mickle sinks teeth into “We are what we are” remake‘, Los Angeles Times. Web.

Tallerico, B. 2013, Exclusive interview- Jim Mickle explains why ”We are what we are”. Web.

Teusner, P. 2005, ‘Resident evil: horror film and the construction of religious identity in contemporary media culture’, Colloquium, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 169-80. Web.

Turek, R. 2013, ‘Comic-con 2013 interview: Jim Mickle on “We are what we are,” the prequel


Krishna Das (Jeffrey Kagel) Research Paper essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction


Style of music




Works Cited

Introduction Krishna Das is a vocalist from the United States of America. He was born Jeffrey Kagel in 1947. He is famous for compositions and performances in a music genre known as kirtan. He has released eleven albums since he started his music career in 1996. Das is the most famous American singer of the kirtan genre of Hindu music. Even though the music style is not very famous, he has sold more than 300,000 albums worldwide.

His versatility and creativity are the main reasons why his music is famous in the western countries and certain regions of eastern countries (Dwyer and Cole 39). His prowess is evident form the number of records sold and albums produced in a genre that is not common among artists in the world.

Bibliography Das was born in the year 1947 in New Hyde Park, Long Island. In his childhood days, he learned to play several musical instruments such as piano, cornet, and baritone euphonium. He was an active music participant in high school, and played the euphonium as a member of the Marching Band (Titon 46).

The first genre of music that he was interested in was rock ‘n’ roll. In his teenage days, he became involved in basketball, which he played during the day. However, during the night, he attended music concerts by artists such as Skip James and Bukka White.

His interest in music intensified when he joined Stony Brook University (Titon 48). He joined a group of young people and formed a band but later separated from them. Afterwards, he joined the State University at New Paltz to study Eastern philosophy. However, he dropped from the university after a short period.

However, his stint at the university was fruitful because he met Ram Dass, a spiritual teacher who influenced him significantly (Propp, 51). At one time in his life, Das found himself at crossroads. His childhood friends invited him to join their band. On the other hand, his spiritual teacher invited him for spiritual lessons.

He chose to follow Dass, and they both travelled to India in 1970. He participated in several pilgrimages together with his spiritual teacher. He learnt Bhakti yoga and as a result started to chant hymns (Propp 53). After two years in India, he returned to America on a short visit with intentions to return.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, after the news of the death of his yoga teacher, he decided to stay in America. To fight grief, he practiced yoga and joined other artists to form a band called Amazing Grace (Propp 53). The band performed and recorded several Indian songs. Das also formed a recording studio known as Triloka Records.

Style of music Das specializes in Hindu devotional music popularly known as kirtan. Kirtan involves singing while chanting the name of God (Titon 62). He is known for his expertise in combining traditional Hindu chants with modern instrumentation and melodies. As a result, he has been labeled as a rock star.

His style of music has made him the best-selling chant artist in the world. In other instances, he mixes chanting with rock ‘n’ roll. For example, his album titled Heart As Wide As the World was produced by incorporating aspects of both kirtan and rock ‘n’ roll (Titon 63). His music style incorporates several aspects of western music such as chord progressions and instrumentation.

His performances start at a slow pace and gradually grow into fast chants. Chanting is an important aspect of Devotional Yoga that characterizes kirtan. In some cases, his performances start with devotional chants that are accompanied with instrumentation, and later followed by chants without accompaniment. Some performances include yoga teachers who guide participants in sessions of devotional meditation.

Discography Das had produced 11 albums since he started his musical career in 1996. His first album was titled One Track Heart. It included chants from traditional Bhakti yoga. The second album was titled Pilgrim Heart and was produced in 1998 (Dwyer and Cole 44). It featured an artist known as Sting. His third album was titled Line on Breath while the firth album was titled Breath of the Heart.

The fifth album, Door of Faith, was released in 2003. Three years later, the album All One was released. The album is a remake of the mantra of Hare Krishna that combines contemporary styles and South African traditional styles. Other albums include Gathering In the Light, Flow Of Grace: Chanting the Hanuman Chalisa, Heart Full of Soul, Heart As Wide As the World, and Live Ananda (Dwyer and Cole 45).

Flow of Grace was released in 2006 as both a book and a CD. It contained chants from Hanuman Chalisa, and an Indian hymn. Among his albums, Heart Full of Soul is the most unique because it includes songs that were recorded in live performances. Das has sold more than 300,000 albums around the world (Dwyer and Cole 46).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Krishna Das (Jeffrey Kagel) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His music is more famous and widely accepted in the west than in other parts of the world. Hearts as Wide as World was released in 2010 and it was reminiscent of his youthful days. It explores the development of his music style through fusion of rock ‘n’ roll and certain concepts of Indian spirituality (Dwyer and Cole 47). The album also contains several songs that incorporate both eastern and western instrumentation styles.

Influences Das has influenced many artists significantly. His influence in kirtan motivated fellow musicians including Sting and Hans Christian to produce music together with him. Other artists that he influenced include Prana, Mike D, Stanley Jordan, and Baird Hersey.

He has produced music with many artists whom he influenced with his unique style of chanting. Das is one of the most significant artists in the kirtan genre of music (Dwyer and Cole 69). He is considered to be the greatest artist who has contributed to the growth of the genre. His inclusion of instruments and melodies has contributed towards evolving the genre, which has increased its acceptance in the west.

Conclusion The musical contributions and achievements of Das are numerous. He has contributed significantly in the evolution of the kirtan genre of music. Since launching a career in music in 1996, Das has produced eleven albums. He has collaborated with different artists including Prana and Baird Hersey. His style of music incorporates kirtan chants with modern instrumentation and melodies.

Das has been labeled as a rock star because of his revolutionary and versatile style of music. His achievements include emerging the best selling kirtan artist and nomination for Grammy Awards. He has influenced many artists and has great influence in the kirtan genre. He is a versatile artist because he possesses the ability to incorporate several music styles into his own style without altering it.

Works Cited Dwyer, Graham, and Cole Richard. (2013). Hare Krishna in the Modern World. New York: Arktos, 2013. Print.

Propp, Steven. After the New Age: A Novel about Alternative Spiritualities. New York: iUniverse, 2008. Print.

Titon, Jeff. Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World’ People. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Krishna Das (Jeffrey Kagel) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More