Homelessness in Canada is a real challenge despite the little attention and poor documentation accorded to it. It has been reported that close to 32,000 Canadians in Toronto city lived in emergency tents in 2002. Since then, this figure has been steadily increasing (Gaetz et al., 2006); consequently presenting a challenge to the Canadian government and non-governmental stakeholders.
Historically speaking, homelessness in Canada was restricted to urban areas. This trend appears to be changing with time since the crisis has become evident in virtually all regions. The issue of homelessness seems to elicit one critical question whenever it is brought up: what is the correct and most acceptable definition of a homeless person?
This question has been the source of contention for many years. Although there is general consensus that a homeless individual suffers socially and needs urgent help, the search and implementation of appropriate solutions often leads to disagreement with regard to “who really is homeless”.
Disagreements about the definition of homelessness originate from the fact that the funding and resources meant to be allocated to homeless individual are limited. These complications have meant that caution should be exercised in trying to craft the definition of a homeless person. As a measure to circumvent this challenge, a rather abstract and generalized definition has been suggested:
“A homeless person is an individual who lacks access to adequate housing facilities” (Gabbard et al., 2007, p. 90).
Being bogged in to details of definitions is, however, not important. Emphasis should be placed more on generating ideas which will in turn form the basis for sustainable remedies for the problem.
This essay emphasizes the need for the Canadian government to offer special support for the homeless community. The government’s laxity in implementing recommendations and the implications of homelessness are also discussed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A critical examination in to the causes of homelessness in Canada raises a myriad of questions as to what the Canadian government is doing to contain the situation. Statistical evidence shows that 53% of all cases of homelessness in Canada are caused by inability of individuals to foot rental bills. The government can fix this situation by availing low-cost housing facilities.
Although the government made an attempt to this effect in 1998 by putting up over 30,000 low-income houses, this number has drastically reduced year by year since then. For instance, only 16 new houses were constructed in Calgary city in 1996. About 40% of homeless individuals are mentally ill.
This situation has been attributed to the international policy to deinstitutionalize mental patients. This move saw the release of the mentally ill from asylums. There were no efforts by the government to structure a follow-up strategy for ensuring clinical care for the patients.
While some of the discharged patients integrated quite well with the public, many of them (75%) worsened. This significantly contributed to the ever growing number of homeless Canadians. But what saddens any descent Canadian is that no substantial remedial measures have been adopted by the government to reverse the situation.
According to the United Nations Organization (2009), Canada is the only nation that lacks a national housing strategy. Most of the federal governments draw budgets that give little attention, if any, to the homeless. The United Nations reports show that the government’s laxity in solving this problem is the major contributor to its perpetuation.
During the introduction of the housing legislation in 1973, the then minister in charge of Urban affairs (a ministry which no longer exists), Ron Basford, delivered a speech which clearly demonstrated the importance of adequately housing all people:
When we talk … about the subject of housing, we are talking about an elemental human need – the need for shelter, for physical and emotional comfort in that shelter. When we talk about people’s basic needs – the requirements for survival – society and the government obviously have an obligation to assure that these basic needs of shelter are met.
We will write a custom Essay on The Canadian Government should Offer Additional Support for Homeless People specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I have already acknowledged this obligation in stating that good housing at reasonable cost is a social right of every citizen of this country. … [This] must be our objective, our obligation, and our goal. The legislation which I am proposing to the House today is an expression of the government’s policy, part of a broad plan, to try to make this right and this objective a reality. (Basford, 1973, p. 2257).
Had the government moved on with this kind of enthusiasm, the social dilemma of homelessness would have been adequately resolved. There is also need to for the federal governments to have a provision for a ministry in charge of urban housing.
The government views the issue of homelessness as an urban problem. The resulting consequence is that the responsibility has been shifted to municipalities, which lack a comprehensive policy implementation framework. Homelessness should be an issue of national interest and therefore calls for concerted efforts of all government organs.
During the national IYSH conference in 1987, a document proposed by the conference, named “Canadian Agenda for Action on Housing and Homelessness through the Year 2000” was presented. The agenda stated in clear terms how the federal government had not only failed to take appropriate action but also ignored the plight of the homeless. The following is an extract from the document:
A significant component of the homelessness problem is that housing has not been a high priority for governments at any level…. [O]nly a small proportion of government resources are directed to improving housing conditions….
In all regions of the country, the demand for housing that is adequate and affordable to low-income persons and the willingness of local organizations ready to build greatly exceed the availability of government funds to carry out effective social housing programs. (Canadian Association of Housing and Renewal Officials, 1988, p.92).
This attitude by the government is a key factor that has led to housing problems in Canada. This is evident from the rejection of Social Housing Agenda in 1987. In 1993, all federal governments terminated fund allocation towards building of new social units and in 1996, there was no longer any federal involvement in the provision of low-cost housing.
Homelessness can have tremendous effects on societal values. It tends to strengthen vices such as drug and substance addiction, sexual abuse, violence, incidences of school drop-out and teenage pregnancy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Canadian Government should Offer Additional Support for Homeless People by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the most important consequence of homelessness is the loss of available manpower to drive the economy. This is true because a homeless individual cannot be productive, taking in to account the social burden associated with the condition.
Another consequence with direct economic implications relates to the health risk the homeless are often exposed to. Their out-door lifestyles greatly predispose them to many infections. This again reduces the labor force available to drive industry. In addition, it is costly for the government to foot medical bills for all these individuals.
People empowerment would be a critical but long-term step towards resolving the crisis of homelessness. The government must invest in the youth of today in terms of education and relevant training. This will guarantee self reliance and nurture independent individuals. This move needs to be reinforced further by construction of affordable units.
Similarly, appropriate social support programs should be initiated throughout the country with the idea of reaching out to drug addicts and other social misfits. Such programs need also address the dilemma of the homeless mentally ill individuals. Research-based responses are equally imperative.
Well organized data systems for the homeless community can be instrumental during the study of trends such as the growth rate of the homeless population, predominant age group, and average level of education. These data forms the foundation upon which appropriate remedial measures can be based and should be collected as frequently as possible.
The actual task for the government is not to look for solutions. Solutions already exist. The housing policies are superb. What lacks is the drive and enthusiasm to implement the policies.
If the government can impress upon the relevant departments the gravity of the matter, and if it can be in the interest of every Canadian to support this worthwhile course, homelessness in Canada will only exist in our memories.
References Basford, R. (Minister of State for Urban Affairs). (1973). National Housing Agenda (NHA) Amendments. Canada: House of Commons.
Canadian Association of Housing and Renewal Officials. (1988). New Partnerships – Building for the Future: Proceedings of the Canadian Conference to Observe the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless. Ottawa: Canadian Association of Housing and Renewal Officials.
Gabbard, W.J., Snyder, C.S., Lin, M.B., Chadha, J.H., May, J. D.,
Problems in Thailand Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Thailand is a country in south Asia with a kingdom constitutional monarchy government. Geographically, it is one of the biggest countries and ranked 50th largest in the world. Its capital city is Bangkok and its main foreign exchange earner and flourishing sector is tourism.
The three main problems in Thailand are environmental issues, child prostitution, and HIV/AIDS.
Identification of the problem Problem One – Environmental issues
The rigorous environmental growth in Thailand has led to various environmental problems. Currently, Thailand faces the problems of pollution, diminishing wildlife population, deforestations and the dumping of hazardous wastes (WWF, n.d.).
Deforestation has emerged as an environmental problem due to the increased desire to enlarge land for cultivation and other agricultural activities. This has reduced the land under forest cover from 53% in 1961 to 25% in 1998 (WWF, n.d.).
Overfishing: excessive fishing has led to diminishing fish population; this has been demonstrated by the fact that fishermen have recently had to spend several days in the sea to catch fish (WWF, n.d.).
Pollution: the quick industrial development and the resurging population growth have led to increased quantities of pollution. Also increased industrialization has led to industrial waste water and other hazardous wastes.
The increased demand for water has resulted in the depletion of Thai’s water resources and it has been ranked as the lowest in the Asian region for water per capita (WWF, n.d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Infrastructural development: the emergence of the coastal areas as favorite tourist destination and other urban developments has placed the coastal wetlands, coral reefs and sea grasses under threat and also raising the survival concerns of sea animals like whales and turtles (WWF, n.d.).
Problem Two – Child Prostitution
Child prostitution in Thailand is an illegal activity but people with commercial interest in this illegal act have continued to propagate the activity. It is a serious problem and considered the 21st century form of human enslavement and it involves approximately 1 million young children who fall under the age of 16 years and the profit from the trade is estimated to be more than that of drug and weapon trade.
The problem is so severe because there is minimum health protection for prostitution. The prostitution, enslavement and exploitation of children represent sad story of human degradation.
The intensification of child prostitution is largely associated with the growing industry in Thailand, the relegated position of women in the Thai society due to Thai Buddhism and the culture of recreational sex.
The escalation of this problem is also largely due to racism, women from the indigenous groups who are associated with their economic vulnerabilities hence considered easy prey for recruitment into prostitution. It has also lately escalated due to the financial crisis and the rise in the standard of living (AGW, n.d.).
Problem Three – HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS case was first reported in Thai in the year 1984 and since then, gay, commercial sex workers and drug users have been widely affected by the disease. The factors that are largely associated to the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS is, among others low level of awareness and ignorance, limited use of condoms and the prevalence of prostitution activities.
Policies Environmental issues
The government has contributed a lot in the reduction of pollution. It has aided in the reduction of levels of lead. The private sectors like the PPT and the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) have also demonstrated interest in curbing environmental calamities.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Problems in Thailand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government have also played a critical role in enforcement of environmental laws and well established institutional capacity; the government has also assisted in increasing investment in prevention of pollution. The World Bank has also helped Thai in the implementation of national CFC phase out plan; these have been instrumental in reducing depletion of Ozone layer.
Environmental solutions failed because of the following reasons; first was due to the outdated institutions and policies, an example is the open access policy regarding natural resources which has often resulted in overuse of the environmental resources; another failure emanates from the lack of coordination of public relations on environment, this is because environmental campaigns only target individual citizens but ignores dissemination of information and coordination among government departments and agencies.
Also the failure of environmental issues is due to the lack of enforcement mechanisms. There have been environmental management laws in Thailand but only targeting resource use as opposed to environmental conservation. The environmental legislations that address environmental issues are weak and often lack implementation mechanisms.
To curb child prostitution, the government has passed legislations like measures in protection and suppression of trafficking in women and children act which gives the authorities the liberty to arrest and detain victims that are suspected of abating the illegal acts.
Also, those women who are found to be illegal immigrants and found to be indulging in prostitution activities are deported and their names are blacklisted from entering Thailand.
HIV/AIDS prevention was made to be a priority when the Prime Minister Anand Panyarachun made the prevention and the control of HIV/AIDS a nationally priority and as such he initiated various steps aimed at curbing the spread of the pandemic.
First, the government moved the HIV/AIDS control program from the ministry of public health to the office of the Prime Minister and its budgetary allocation was increased in order to make its fighting sustainable. Secondly, the government initiated numerous information campaigns in order to sensitize the people; Anti-AIDS information was played on all radio and television stations and more so every learning institution was required to teach lessons on HIV/AIDS.
The government also repealed repressive laws like the one that required the reporting of names and addresses of those people who lived with the viruses, when they visited health institutions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems in Thailand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The campaign was unpopular among the influential tourist gurus who benefited from the industry of drug trafficking and child prostitution. Government programs helped a lot in the reduction of the cases of HIV/AIDS in Thailand (Avert, n.d.).
Section three- recommendation Environmental issues
The government should formulate legislations that govern the management of the environment; this is due to the fact that majority of the environmental issues in Thailand are artificial e.g. the government may ban fishing for sometime, the government can also issue a policy that everybody should be planting a tree among others.
The following are my recommendations as the solution to child prostitution:
Government and other stakeholders should develop measures that will help rescue women and children that are caught in the prostitution
The government should revise the laws that deal with the menace
Government and the stakeholders should address the economic calamities that drive women and the children into the vice.
The society should critically examine the culture and the traditions that are largely associated with the vice.
The fight against child prostitution should not be left entirely to the government but also other stakeholders like the non-governmental organizations should supplement government efforts.
Intensification of campaigns against HIV/AIDs by use of media tools like the radio and TV; it can also be achieved through holding of sensitization seminars and workshops.
Making the teaching of HIV/AIDS lessons in schools mandatory to inculcate it into the minds of the younger generations.
Government should formulate laws that prohibit the spread of HIV/AIDS
Government should also work together with the brothels to make sure that they (brothels) do not become the only way of spreading the pandemic (WHO, n.d.).
Conclusion Environmental issues, child prostitutions and HIV/AIDS pandemic being some of the problems that bedevil Thailand; this notwithstanding, they are not only unique to Thailand but are common to all the countries of the globe. Thailand government has failed in its efforts to address the problems.
Both issues are of grave concerns and still remain a threat to human life. The policies that are formulated by government are too weak and if not they lack proper implementation strategies. A policy for example that requires brothels to be offering safe sex or to make condoms available are definitely ambiguous in form and it appears like a public relations exercise.
The policies to curb the spread of HIV/AIDs and to prevent child prostitution appear just in paper and are meant to hoodwink the public. This is because the operatives of the tourism sector are the leaders in government who are keen to maintaining the status quo and to allow sex tourism to flourish, to them, formulating harsh laws to govern the menace will amount to their decrease in revenue from tourism in general and sex tourism in particular which has been linked to rapid spread of HIV/AIDS.
References AGW. A Globe of Witness: child prostitution in Thailand. Web.
Avert. (2011). HIV/AIDS in Thailand. Web.
WHO. Health a key prosperity. Web.
WWF. Environmental problems in Thailand. Web.
The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Introduction and review
Abstract The article of Thomas C. Wilson (2002) will be critically analyzed in this thesis. The study in that article was to establish the role of sports involvement in the creation of social classes within the society. The author opined that high educational level or the income distribution of participants increases people’s tendency of involving in sports.
However, the higher these elements are, the more of a deterrent it is for them to engage in ‘prole’ sports. This, according to the writer is a paradox and which the writer has to a great extent helped us to understand except for a few limitations.
This article will try to analyze the various strong points formulated by the author, the weaknesses as well as the limitations of the study.
Introduction and review The author presents a case study of the relationship where he argues that social classes of individuals plays a big part in shaping the pattern of sports involvement and participation.
This may have been true in the past, where, “sport [was] analyzed as a reflection of the way of life. Social inequalities are reflected in the use of sports and they are also a means of group and class values affirmation,” (Ohl 1999, Pp. 148).
The author, however, did not make any reference to recent study. The current trends shows that: ‘individuals of higher managerial and professional occupations attend cycling in larger numbers as opposed to people of lower supervisory and technical occupations, semi-routine occupations, routine occupations and unemployed individuals” (Sports England 2010 P. 5).
Further, the classification between the so-called ‘prole’ sports and high-class sports is not clear. He does not tell us how he reaches to the conclusion that golf is higher class than football. The Gallup polls conducted between December 11th and 14th 2006, shows that football is Americans favorite sport (43%) while golf is relatively less preferred (3%) but such games as boxing receive the list popularity (2%), (Carroll, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This seems to differ with the writer’s conclusion that middle class people are more likely to attend boxing than golf. It also casts doubt to his conviction that the reason why people do not attend such games as golf is solely because of resources.
The statement of the problem is not very clear, for example the effect of education on sports. There is ambiguity on how exactly education affects sports participation.
For example, in a study conducted in Scandinavia institute of education, “showed no effect to sport spectatorship in Denmark, slightly positive effect in Norway and a negative effect in Sweden” (Thrane 2001, Pp. 158). Further, the writer himself agrees that economic capital itself is not an effective method of supporting this argument.
The author’s argues that the cultural and economic capital settings deter individuals from engaging in other lower class sports. This argument does not explain why participants continue being in such lower class sports long after they have gained enough wealth and worldwide recognition and quite evidently acquired a higher social milieu from their previous one.
The most logical thing for them to do, according to the author’s argument, would be to abandon their current sports they are involved in and join the ones matching with their current social standing in the society, but this does not happen.
Further the author overlooked on the role of other demographic factors, such as age and gender, to sports involvement. For example, there are sports which are more likely to attract young people as opposed to the aged.
Sports such as car racing are most common with the youths while golf playing is more prevalent among the older generation. This is so even for sports like football where players retire from their teams at their early 30’s.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further few women are associated with sports like wrestling and rugby, which involve physical strength, as compared to sports such as swimming and tennis playing. Failure to take into consideration of these factors leads to a denial of their significant contribution to sports involvement, a fact that is very obvious.
Methodology used The writer uses a representative sample of people who attend certain specified sports. While this shows some evidence of positive relationship between economic capital and sports participation, the research has relied on a very small proportion thus compromised on generalization of the outcomes.
Further, the research only considered the duration of one year only. Such a short span does not warrant the writer to jump to the conclusion that “education transmits class-based culture intergenerationally…” (Thomas 2002, P.3).
There should be a range of sports dealt with by the research to facilitate conclusive decision without bias. In his research on participation on ‘prole’ activities, the writer only deals with auto racing, which according to him is a middle class sport. This gives a very narrow basis to make any general conclusion.
Further, there is no big difference in participation in this sport between the middle class people and the upper class participants. The writer only analyses the those elements confined to his argument and simply ignoring the other aspects which are equally important to the outcome of the discussion.
Results It is in fact true that income and education bears on an individual’s tendency to participate in sports, and the writer research has in a way, depicted this principle. But there is no major difference in frequency of sports involvement between people who attend such high class games as golf, skiing, tennis etc and those that attend such prole sports as auto racing etc for both men and women (2.3% for men and 3.0% for women) (Tb. 1). Thus the research is not based on convincing grounds.
The writer does not explain why individuals earning $30000-39999 participate in sports more than those earning $40000-49999 if the economic capital principle applies, (Tb. 2) and generally there is no major difference in sports participation for respondents earning $30000-3999, which is a middle class, to those earning $60000-74999, which can be classified as a high class, (Tb. 3).
Discussion The writer explains the results by arguing that the reason why there are less people with high income attending auto-racing is because tastes and preferences are determined by social class. This is a bit farfetched and there is no evidence on it. The researcher did not ask the respondents why their attendance of sports was that way.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Probably this would have enlightened us on other matters that affect their decisions which the writer has overlooked. With these defects in the writers research, to say that sports participation creates social stratifications would be wrong and inappropriate, but to say that income distribution causes individuals to attend some sports and not others would be indeed, very true.
One can adopt Bourdieu’s concept of habitus; which he explained as ‘‘a set of basic, deeply internalized master-patterns which may govern and regulate mental processes without being consciously apprehended and controlled’’ (Bourdieu 1984)
Conclusion The analyses by the writer of the relationship between education and income on one side and how different groups engage in sports on the other side helps us to understand why various sports involve more people such as football, while others have relatively few spectators.
However, the analogy on how sports involvement contributes to social inequality did not come out clearly. All in all, the author’s ideologies and arguments are fairly practical and relate to real life and portray a brilliant mind.
References Bourdieu, P. D. (1979) A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Carrol, J. (January 2007), Football Reaches Historic Popularity Levels in Gallup Poll: Gallup News Service. Web.
Ohl, F. (1999) Are social classes still relevant to analyse sports groupings in‘‘postmodern’’ Society? An analysis referring to P. Bourdieu’s theory: Lab. APS et Sciences Sociales, Universite´ Marc Bloch, Strasbourg.
France Thomas C. W. (2002) The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement: The Roles of Cultural and Economic Capital: International Review for the Sociology of Sport (2002). Web.
Thrane. C. (1999) Sports Spectatorship in Scandinavia: A Class Phenomenon? Norway Lillehammer College.
Sport England (December, 2010), Active People Survey (APS) Results for Cycling. Web.
Sherly Travel Group Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Executive summary Sherly Travel Group (SGT) is a newly formed company that specializes in offering tour and travel services to both individuals and corporate clients. The company has its headquarters situated in Singapore, but it has diversified its services to other parts of the world to meet the needs and the expectation of the customers.
The SGT prides itself for having employees with vast experience in the tour and travel industry and have the passion of serving their customers to satisfaction. Customers’ satisfaction that SGT practices has seen increase in the number of customers in the recent past and thus a competitive edge to the company (Clemons et al, 2007).
SGT will not only focus on the offering of luxury travel to its customers, but also the company will focus on budget travel. The target customers of the company are couples, affinity groups or individuals who go for holiday at least once per year. The customers will definitely compare their experiences with the tour companies before they make their purchase decisions.
This is the reason as to why the SGT is committed in offering the first-class tour services at the prices of budget travel. To achieve the competitive edge over its competitors, SGT has customized its services to meet the individual needs of the customers.
SGT has identified the channels that it is going to use in order to reach the potential customers. These channels include advertising its services in the media such as magazines, newspapers and television. The company will also use tour agents to reach the target market.
SGT is also committed in offering strong brand name by offering its services at a lower price as compared to the other companies in the same industry. The company has made its services accessible by offering online services to the customers.
The customers can book for their holiday destinations without having to walk to the offices and thus the services offered to the customers are convenient (Clemons et al, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business description Sherly Tour Group is meant to offer tour and travel services to group and individual who want to travel for leisure. Some of the services offered by STG include travel consultation, pre-arranged tours, hotels booking and custom packages among others.
The aim of the STG is to position itself as the leading tour and travel company in the country (Murphy
Participative and Relationship Theories Essay essay help free
There are several leadership theories that various organizations adapt depending on its structure. This paper will be focusing on two leadership theories, namely participative and relationship theories. The participative leadership theory is a style that is adapted by an organization whereby the input of the employees is put into account by the management (Northouse, 2009).
Through the application of this leadership theory, the management team encourages other employees to participate and contribute towards various factors in the organization.
When an organization is making use of this leadership theory, the employees feel more relevant and part of the organizations decision-making process. When the employees are given the chance to express their ideas concerning the improvement of the organization, there is a high probability of the relationship between the employees and the management to be improved (Northouse, 2009).
Through the process of exchanging the ideas, the management and the employees interact freely which a positive move towards the achievement of the organizations objectives. The inputs of others assist greatly to define the areas that have problems and various ideas of overcoming the challenges are introduced.
The other type of leadership theory is management theory, which is also referred to as transactional theory. This theory mainly concentrates on the areas of supervision, organization, and the overall performance (Northouse, 2009).
The policies that require to be implemented in this theory are about the rewards and punishments that are associated with it. In most of the organizations, these policies are applied whereby the successful employees are recognized and rewarded in front of the other employees.
On the other hand, when an employee does something wrong against the rules and regulations of the organization, they are punished.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In case they are not punished, these employees are reprimanded to ensure that such a behavior is never repeated in the organization. The culture of rewarding and punishing is very important as it makes everyone to take full responsibilities of his or her actions (Northouse, 2009).
When employees are responsible and taking their work seriously, there is likelihood of improving their relationship with the management team to ensure the goals of the organizations are realized at the end of the specified period. As a result, good results in the productivity of the employees are managed by the organization hence improving the whole productivity of the organization.
Reference Northouse, P. (2009). Leadership: Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE.
Zara International Supply Chain Management Essay online essay help
Introduction A company’s management has the role of managing operations and Supplies to ensure adequate supply of materials in the company at the right time at an appropriate competitive cost. Supplies takes the form of having the raw material required for production at the right time to make the process effective and in the case of outsourced manufacturing services, the timely supply of the finished products (Cousins, Lamming, Lawson and Squire,2008).
As many Europeans companies are shifting their operation (manufacturing) base to China, African Nations and Asia, to enjoy the cheaper labor markets there; however, some companies like Zara International Fashions have opted to procure their products in Europe. The main question is why has Zara International ignored the perceived benefit from outsourced manufacturing? This paper seeks to answer the above question; it will discuss the answer from a supply-chain management angle.
What is Supply Chain Management? A business process is a well-coordinated sequential task, undertaken to fulfill certain set objectives. Every stage is managed as it contributes to attainment of the set goals and objectives. Generally, three sets of business processes they are, managerial processes, operational processes and supporting processes.
Supply chain management aims at providing goods necessary for production in a business. It starts from identifying the materials required for various processes in the company and ends with the supply of those goods. It has a period; an efficient process must be completed within a set period. A supply chain management is an internal operation whose results the internal and final consumer feels. It has the following objectives:
To ensure that there are quality and quantity supply of goods and services
To ensure that there is a Just in time delivery of goods and services
Control the supply system and attain highest efficiency possible
Reduction of transportation cost, lead time and warehouse costs
Enhance customer service through provision of high quality goods.
When a company has an adequate supply of materials, it is able to produce goods in the right time at an affordable and competitive price.
When sourcing products from another country, the approach of supply chain management moves a notch higher, companies in Europe has to contend with other logistics though in the supply chain network that companies like Zara procuring locally are not entitle to, they include:
International logistic issues
To have adequate supply, the prevailing conditions must be optimal and no external influence; when a company is procuring from abroad, it is affected by economic, political and social changes in the procuring country; this makes the business miss the confidence that they can supply when wanted. This reason makes Zara opt for local produced goods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Complication of international procurements
When getting goods abroad, companies are seen to operate two stage complicated supply chain, they must ensure that either the foreign country gets the materials, those sent from the buying country or it has procured in the local market; to manage such a process is complicated and time consuming. Zara has opted to have a simple local manufacturing that it can manage effectively (Zara International, 2011).
The make-buy decision
When in business, the management must make the decisions whether they will use their own manufactured goods or they will buy already made goods; the decision is rather personal to a business and considers many options. When a company decides to make products, it ensures that it has the right expertise materials are available as well labor. The main factor of consideration is whether making ones products will lead to a reduced cost of production or alternatively it will lead to higher quality that will lead to increased sales.
The reason why other European countries have decided to get their products made from Asian and Chinese countries is the labor costs, this makes the goods cheap in the end; however managing the process for quality is complicated; again it is a shaky deal where a company has to worry about any change in the country of procurements stability. Zara International has opted to buy more form the market because of a variety of factors; they include:
When buying locally, it will not be given the margin to buy to be sold at an appropriate cost; this is different than when manufacturing, the manufacturer has to make some products to break even which may lead to over production.
When buying locally, the company will have the option of comparing the many varieties in the market and procure form those companies that have the products in demand. This makes the company have the best products at an affordable cost (Zara International, 2011).
Sourcing strategies and supply chain configurations
When manufacturing goods from a country different form the country of sales, the European companies depending on other companies have to undertake some suppliers/abroad manufactures. Configuration of supply chain is a procedural way that ensures that goods are delivered their place of need when they are needed to be.
Logistic management involves processes undertaken by a company to ensure that it has goods and services it requires for its day-to-day activities when they are needed. Some governmental procedures or companies processes may shape it. In an international procurement, there are customs logistics that must be adhered to ensure that commodity is delivered at the right time. It involves procuring, handling, warehousing, verifying and control of goods imported. Customs laws must be adhered.
We will write a custom Essay on Zara International Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a lengthy process and thus an importing company must ensure that it has enough time for a just in time delivery. Logistics management team is given the mandate to ensure that delivery is done at the right time, right cost and the right place (Harrison and Hoek, 2008)
When Zara procures locally, then it avoids all the above logistics and it can be sure that it will get what the market is offering; in the case the above logistics are hampered by something may be special to a procuring country or applying across the board, the procuring company will have to suffer the loss of business.
However, the case is different when a company is procuring from the local scenes. Zara always has the option of selling what is available in the market thus at any one point is it on toes with the market, a move that offers it competitive advantage.
Strategic supplier selection
A company should develop a good business relationship with its suppliers, as this will assist in making sure that there is reliability in the supply of materials. When in the international arena, a company should ensure that it has good relations will all the people in the line of business all the way from the sourcing of materials to the last person who will bring the goods into the company; this is not an easy task.
When there is a good relation, it is easier to get goods at a better price and market data from suppliers whom the company has established good business relations. Maintaining the good relation with people of different personalities and companies with varying philosophies is not an easy job, sometimes it fails the manufacturing companies (Mangan, Lalwani and Butcher, 2008).
The decision of Zara International to procure locally can be attributed to avoidance of the above hassle the management is better concentrate on looking for the best commodities in the local market and ensuring that the internal businesses processes are up to date and competitive. As other businesses are looking for relationship building approaches, the company is busy developing business processes and enacting them for a competitive business.
Aligning supply with corporate strategy
Companies are guided by corporate strategies; they should align their processes, including supply management processes to the company’s corporate strategy. A Company’s procurement and supplies department ensures that production materials and equipments required for an effective production are available, in the right quality and at an appropriate price, this will meet the company’s main goal of being profitable.
With globalization, companies can procure goods and services that meet their requirements from different countries; the wide availability of materials and their markets has facilitated industrialization; however the policies and the ideologies in the international business has sometimes contradicted the procuring company corporate structure (Lysons and Gillingham, 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Zara International Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, many European companies have sustainable development agendas as one of their corporate strategies; however, they may procure from countries that have relaxed environmental laws, thus the procurement ends up violating the company’s corporate goal. Another area is in labor and its costs, different countries have different labor cost, Europeans companies have corporate goal of ensuring they have the best cared for human capital, but when they procure abroad, the standards set in those countries may be different thus the company ends up violating its own corporate goal indirectly (Christopher, 2005).
Zara International is keen on maintaining and respecting its corporate goals and objectives; when the company buys from local scenes, it is able to make sure that all areas have been looked into before making a move. For example, it will be able to make sure that it buys from companies that respect their employee’s rights and those that protect the environment. With such moves, it will be satisfying its corporate goals and objectives (Zara International, 2011)
Conclusion Having an effective supply chain management offers a competitive advantage to an organization; supply chain management has the main objective to ensuring that at any one time there are adequate supplies to a business, at an appropriate cost and place.
To buy locally available goods or manufacture goods for sale is a decision that management has to make; Zara has opted to purchase over 80% of its goods locally, instead of having international manufacturing joints that have cheaper labor. The main reason for the decision is to offer management a chance to concentrate on other business processes that will offer a competitive advantage to the company; it is also a risk management approach.
References Christopher, M. ,2005. Logistics and Supply Chain Management; creating value-adding networks. Harlow: Prentice Hall
Cousins, P., Lamming, R., Lawson, B. and Squire, B. ,2008. Strategic Supply Management: principles, theories and practice. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Harrison, A. and Hoek, R. ,2008. Logistics Management and Strategy. Harlow: Prentice Hall
Lysons, K. and Gillingham, M. ,2003. Purchasing and Supply Chain Management. Harlow: Prentice Hall/ Financial Times.
Mangan, J., Lalwani, C. and Butcher, T. ,2008. Global Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Chichester: John Wiley
Security of Your Computer Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction A computer is an electronic machine that is vulnerable to many risks. The computer ought to be protected from risks such as viruses that may affect their normal functioning. In dealing with computer security, many scientists have come up with different ways of protecting a computer from unauthorized parties.
There are many technical areas of computer security but the main ones are initialized CIA. This initials stand for confidentiality, integrity and authentication. Confidentiality means that other unauthorized persons cannot access what is in the computer.
Integrity is used to mean that the information in the computer cannot be hacked or changed by unauthorized persons. Authentication is used to mean that the information in the computer is only available and accessible to the authorized parties (Seong 24). The main reason for enhancing computer security is protecting it from unauthorized persons who cause destructions to the computer system hence interfering with confidential information.
Another issue with computer security is privacy that is related to people who use the internet everyday and they are supposed to ensure that they protect their personal information from the websites they deal with. To ensure that these security systems are in work, some fault-tolerance methods are necessary as discussed below (Seong 83).
Discussion Most of the software fault tolerance methods are advancements of the old hardware fault tolerance methods that were less effective in performance. Three software fault-tolerance methods are in use today as discussed (Bishop 45).
Randell developed the method in which an adjudicator is used to confirm the effects of a similar algorithm. The system using this method is broken down into small recoverable blocks that build up the entire computer security system.
Each of the small blocks is connected alongside primary, secondary and tertiary case codes, which are just next to the adjudicator. According to Seong, “the adjudicator is used to show the effectiveness of the various blocks and incase the primary block fails, then it rolls backs the state of the system and tries to fix the secondary block” (76). In case of failure of a block, then it reveals that the block is not worthy for use.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More N-version software
This method works parallel to the traditional N-version hardware. In this method, there are different models that are made up of N different implementations. Each of the variants/ models returns its results after performing any action.
It is from these results that the effectiveness of the modules is determined and then the correct ones can be known. This method is more effective as it can include hardware using multiple versions of software and the results are correct (Bishop 27).
This method is rarely used compared to the previous methods. It includes extra checks that are set at some checking points. Some rollback recovery methods are also installed in the computer security system. In self-checking, the correct codes are obtained and then used. This method is however not effective because it lacks rigor (Seong 98).
Conclusion The methods used to create fault computer systems have never been 100 percent effective. They are faced with some failures and most of them are 60-90 percent effective.
This means that more research needs to be done to come up with very effective and reliable methods. In addition, the methods are very expensive to execute hence the next generation must come up with cost-effective methods.
Works Cited Bishop, Matt. Computer security: art and science. New York: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003.
Seong. H. Poong. Reliability and risk issues in large-scale safety-critical digital control systems. Washington, DC: Springer, 2009. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Security of Your Computer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Cultural Pollution Essay college application essay help
Introduction Culture is the representation of the totality of all socially conveyed or learned mannerisms, views beliefs ad interactions that result from human work and activity. The cultures traditions and historical concepts of the Middle
East have over the centuries been characterised as by a distinct sense of variety that stems from a whirlwind of customs and traditions. An interrogation of the various cultural values form the comparative stand between the older and younger generation provides an adequate argument for this claim.
Once upon a time, men and women would follow their guided herds through the desserts ferrying goods and transporting commodities such as slave’s garments skins and food. The Middle East was rich with activity as its population majored on middlemen jobs. In the process, the true wealth was built on their animals and slaves that were a symbol of pride.
As it were, the Middle East society was a transportable and flexible entity and therefore had little time to invest in areas such as real estate or land. In effect, the true value of wealth was quantified in terms of animals and jewelry objects of which were movable and easily disposable.
It follows that such a society will also value the human as an asset. Given the background and setup of the slave trade, the older society culturally valued the number of children and slaves that one acquired or held. This theme is well emphasized by the biblical stories of dynasties and kings that put these material possessions as the focus of wealth.
Times have however changed, new methods of transportation have been installed and slave trade abolished. New ideas have been born into the society and the rather materialistic society has begun to ease up to the modern contemporary trends.
The new generation has dismissed the cultural kingship and value of wealth and replaced it with an aggressive sense of competition. The respect that accrued to the value holders has gradually grown out to become an avenue for competition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religiosity
Bluntly put the Middle East is considered as the cradle of civilizations. The world’s three largest religions -Judaism, Christianity and Islam- also have origins in the Middle East. The religious capacity of the region is by all means not restricted to these three.
In fact, the great variety of religions in the region has up to date been a source of conflict for a long period. Understanding the region’s religious affiliations inadvertently amounts to understanding the region as a whole in its particulars and preferences.
The value attached to religion transcends all other social cultural and political factors. The Middle East culture is religion driven and has been so since its early days. This has been passed on from the older generations through to the new and coming generations.
It has been embedded in their daily lives and forms a fundamental requirement for membership in the society. This is unlikely to change in the near future since the influence and value attached to religion forms the foundation of all other cultural and social phenomenon.
Attitudes towards technology and change
The appetite for technology in the Middle East has always fallen behind the modernity and world trends. Historically the conservative culture of the population leaves a slim edge on which the base for technology stands.
The older generation therefore often fell off the graph in as far as technology is concerned in the hope of maintaining a pure and historically correct mannerism and trends. They are rather justified since the changes in technology stand on the feet of culture and more often than not end up toppling these cultures.
This however will not survive long since there has been a great paradigm shift that has seen t eh newer and younger generation invests a lot of time and money in technology. The world has kept an envious eye at the sudden interest if the Middle Eastern people in the technology sector. Of even greater concern and interest ids their sudden crave for advanced warfare technology.
We will write a custom Essay on Cultural Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gender roles
What people think, imagine or conceive of others is contemptible to their religious preferences. The Middle East is inflated with religious driven societies that perceive of social phenomenon from the religious point of view. Seemingly, the role of women in as far as religion is concerned has been belittled and marginalized to reproduction and housewifery.
This perception stems from the religious provisions for this status one that has been cordially followed by generations on end. The new generation however has bowed down to the feminist movement to create room for the women in education economics social life and yet to be, politics. This shift has taken a lot of martyrdom owing to the harsh rules as against defiance of the religious and social provisions of the role of women.
From the workings of a rather barren environment the Middle East culture has preached the concept of risks across the century. Far and wide the idle east population is known to be a trading society that has mastered the art of risks.
The refined interest in business by the younger population is just a contemporary representation of the traditional cultural values that have been embedded into their culture.
Before the industrial revolution, the Middle East was a barren region with endless tracks of sand. There was little to tell of the barren region of herdsmen and nomads. Consequently, there was little if any interest in environmental concerns.
The mid 20th century saw a great transformation of the region with more interest being given to environmental exploitation. Thanks to industrialization, the world developed an appetite for energy that was good news to the Middle Eastern people.
The discovery of oil and other forms of energy created a sudden interest in the region that led to reclamation of the dessert land and the development of industries. The agrarian revolution saw the transformation of the region into a hub of activity.
These developments however were at the expense of the environment. The new generation has however responded to the call for environmental awareness and conservation. The region is conscious of global warming and has made attempts at reducing their contribution to this crisis.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultural Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However this has not been fully embraced since most of the nations still remain at was and continues to develop non environmental friendly weapons.
The Development of Alzheimer’s Disease and it’s Effect on the Brain Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Development of Alzheimer’s Disease
Abstract Alzheimer’s disease is a psychological disorder that does not only affect the functioning of the brain, but also the nervous system leading to poor coordination of the body. The disease is incurable and progresses slowly through consecutive four stages of pre-dementia, early stage, middle stage, and late stage that ultimately leads to death.
A patient depicts major symptoms such as loss of cognitive ability, memory loss, and physical impairment due to inability to coordinate body functions. Advancing age and genes are dominant factors that can predispose individual to the disease.
Introduction Alzheimer is a psychological disorder that affects normal functioning of the brain. It is a form of dementia that interferes with cognitive abilities and behavior of an individual. Dementia is a psychological disorder that is associated with other mental disorders but Alzheimer’s disease is an incurable and degenerative mental disorder that occurs mostly due to aging.
According to statistics, “about 4 million Americans, 90 percent of whom are age 65 and older, have Alzheimer’s disease and the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease doubles every five years beyond age 65” (Hoffman, 2000, p.1). The statistics imply age is the major predisposing factor that leads to the Alzheimer’s disease although at some instances, there is an early onset attributed to genetic factors, but it is quite rare.
Alzheimer’s disease weakens the cognitive ability of the patient by destroying cells of the brain, unlike destruction that occurs in normal aging. Since the Alzheimer’s disease affects the brain, psychological characteristics of the disease include loss of memory, language interference, poor judgment, and change of personality. To understand psychological aspect of the Alzheimer’s disease, this essay explores literature review, development, symptoms, and causes of the disease in population.
Alzheimer’s disease As aforementioned, Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that occurs due to aging; a psychological disorder that affects brain cells leading to diminished cognitive abilities and changed behavior. Over the history, the disease mostly affected the old people with the ages above 65 years.
Hoffman argues that, “Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder related with the changes in nerve cells that result in the death of brain cells. It occurs gradually and is not a normal part of the gaining process” (2000, p. 2). Earlier before its discovery in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer, psychiatrists considered it as an aging disease because it only affected old people. Based on the time of onset, there are two types of Alzheimer’s disease, the early onset and the late onset.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early onset of the disease affects individual who are below 60 years and appears to be more degenerative although very rare. The late onset of the disease affects individuals above 60 years and is the most common disease. The discovery of the early onset type of the disease confirmed that Alzheimer’s disease is not an aging disease.
Research studies have revealed that prevalence of the Alzheimer’s disease is increasing exponentially due to change in lifestyles and the incurable nature of the disease. Statistics show that approximately 4 million of the Americans who are above 65 years old are suffering from the disease, which forms about 90% of the old people.
In addition, since there are more old women than men, the statistics show that about two third of the old people who are suffering from the disease are women. Based on these findings, scientists have predicted that, the incidences of Alzheimer’s disease are going to increase exponential until a cure is available.
Kantor explains that, in recent past “scientists have made great progress in unraveling the mysteries of Alzheimer’s disease; however, much is still unknown. Unless prevention or a cure is found, the number of Americans with Alzheimer’s disease could reach 14.3 million 50 years from now” (2011, p.30).
Given the 14 million patients and the nature of healthcare that the patients need, it means that government is going to spend great deal of resources in building and expanding nursing homes in order to cater for the increasing needs of the patients.
Since the Alzheimer’s disease is incurable and degenerative, the patients need special care for they do not have sufficient cognitive abilities to perform normal duties. The patients need complete attention of the caregivers in terms of feeding, bathing, dressing and washing among other basic assistance.
“Compared to non-dementia caregivers, larger proportions of Alzheimer’s patient caregivers experience employment complications, have less time for their own leisure activities and other family members, and suffer from physical, mental, and emotional stress due to care giving” (Hoffman, 2000, p. 3). The disease does not only affect patients, but also care givers thus necessitating intensive research concerning prevention and cure of the disease.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Development of Alzheimer’s Disease and it’s Effect on the Brain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Development of Alzheimer’s Disease The development of the Alzheimer’s disease is a continuous process but there are three stages for the sake of understanding and classifying the extent of the disease. The four stages are pre-dementia stage, early stage, middle stage, and late stage, which consecutively follow the progression of the disease from its onset.
In pre dementia stage, one can easily confuse the Alzheimer’s disease with stress and aging process because signs and symptoms are not yet definitive for a psychiatrist to diagnose. Williamson argues that, during pre-dementia stage “nerve cell damage typically begins with cells involved in learning and memory and gradually spreads to cells that control other aspects of thinking, judgment and behavior, and eventually affects cells that control and coordinate movement” (2007, p.2).
At this stage, there are latent symptoms such as problem in language, slight change in behavior, and subtle change in movement. It is very hard for a psychiatrist to diagnose the disease at this stage unless with the use of diagnostic tools. In the early stage, patient’s cognitive ability continues to degenerate more as there is increased memory loss that is very evident. Moreover, there is increased language problem, poor reading and writing, impulses of aggression, instances of illusions, and irritability.
“Individuals at this stage have memory lapses, forgetting familiar words or names or the locations of keys, eyeglasses or other everyday objects, and these problems are not evident during a medical examination or apparent to friends, family or co-workers” (Berchtold, 1998, p. 5).
At this stage, the patients can feel the changes for they begin to realize that they have lost some ability to read, write, and even talk. Realizing that they have lost some abilities, the patients become dependent by asking for assistance in terms of reading, writing, and remembrance of important events. Psychiatrists can differentiate aging and the disease at this stage due to prevalence of the symptoms.
In the middle stage, the cognitive ability degenerates to the extent where the patient loses independence. Language problem become more evident at this stage as the patients have difficulties in fluency, reading, and writing.
Memory is also affected and the patients lose the ability to remember events and identity of even close relatives. At this stage, the patients also lose motor activity causing caregivers to move and guide them in their movements.
Williamson argues that, patients have “decreased capacity to perform complex tasks, such as marketing, planning dinner for guests, or paying bills and managing finances, reduced memory of personal history and become withdrawn socially” (2007, p.6). The gradual loss of memory and physical ability make the patient to become dependent on the caregivers in doing most of the activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Development of Alzheimer’s Disease and it’s Effect on the Brain by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the late stage, the patient completely loses independence and begins to depend on caregivers on virtually all activities. The cognitive ability degenerates completely in that the patient cannot recall anything, speech reduces to mere utterances, and eventually reading and writing becomes impossible.
“At this stage, individuals may lose most awareness of recent experiences and events as well as of their surroundings and occasionally forget the name of their spouse or primary caregiver but generally can distinguish familiar from unfamiliar faces” (Williamson, 2007, p.7). The patients at this stage portray significant psychological and physical deficiency, as they become dependent on the caregivers until the day when they die.
Symptoms Alzheimer’s disease has psychological and physical symptoms. Loss of memory, problem with language, poor judgment, change in moods and loss of cognitive abilities are some of the psychological symptoms associated with the disease. According to American Academy of Neurology (AAN), “memory loss that affects job skills is the main symptom of Alzheimer’s disease because frequent forgetfulness or unexplainable confusion at home or in the workplace may signal that something’s wrong” (2009, p.7).
Language impairment is also a psychological symptom since the patient loses ability to coordinate speech, thus complicating effective communication. Poor judgment is another symptom that shows cognitive impairment in a patient. Due to poor judgment, the patient cannot perform simple arithmetic calculations, misplaces valuable things, or even dress awkwardly. Moreover, the patient also experiences intermittent mood swings and deficiency cognitive abilities that are evident in the change of behavior.
Physical symptoms associated with the disease include inability to perform normal tasks, change in personality, failure to recognize people or environment. Normally, the disease affects the brains cells making the patient lose ability to coordinate movement. At the late stage of the disease, the patient completely loses memory and subsequently coordination of the body.
Eventually, the patient becomes entirely dependent on the caregivers in order to fulfill daily activities such as washing, bathing, eating, and walking. “People’s personalities may change somewhat as they age, but a person with Alzheimer’s can change dramatically, either suddenly or over a period of time, for instance someone who is generally easygoing may become angry, suspicious, or fearful” (AAN, 2007, p.8).
Change in behavior is very evident to the people who are close to the patients as they depict unusual behaviors such as dressing wrongly, becoming aggressive, withdrawing from friends and losing ability to perform daily activities. In addition, the patient cannot perceive people or the environment, for example failing to recognize friends, usual places, and losing direction.
Causes Advancing age and genes are two main predisposing factors associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Statistics show that the disease mostly affects older people of about the age 60 years and above. Michelle argues that, “advancing age is the most significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease since most people who develop the disease are over the age of 65, although the disease process is thought to begin years before cognitive and memory impairments are apparent” (2009, p.21). Therefore, old age is the most important predisposing factor of the Alzheimer’s disease because there are no incidences of the disease in young people.
Other research studies have also shown that occurrence of the Alzheimer’s disease in the population can be due to the genetic factors. The early onset of the disease in some instances is due to genetic effects while late onset may be due to aging. “The familial Alzheimer’s disease, which is passed on directly from generation to generation, accounts for only about 7 percent of the total incidence of Alzheimer’s disease” (Michelle, 2009, p.22).
Genes contribute significantly to the cases of early onset since late onset occurs due to sporadic nature of the disease. Despite the fact that Alzheimer’s disease is mostly sporadic in occurrence, studies have revealed other predisposing factors that contribute to the development of the disease in the population. These factors are unhealthy eating habits, stress, depression, smoking, brain injury, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and inadequate exercise. These and other related factors affect production and functioning of neurotransmitters in the brain leading to impaired brain function and ultimately cause Alzheimer’s disease.
Conclusion Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder of the brain characterized by loss of memory and cognitive abilities making the patient unable to perform usual duties of life. The disease commonly affects old people of age 65 years and above due to decreasing cognitive ability. In American, the disease has affected approximately 4 million old people with a high percentage of women, while the scientists are predicting exponential increase in the incidences because it is incurable.
The Alzheimer’s disease is a terminal illness that progresses slowly through four stages of pre-dementia, early stage, middle stage, and late stage, which eventually leads to death. The major symptoms of the disease are loss of memory and physical impairment of the patient. Most research studies have established that the cause of the disease is sporadic old age and genes in young age.
References American Academy of Neurology. (2009). Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s Association, 1-9.
Berchtold, C. (1998).Evolution in the Conceptualization of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease: The Journal of Mental Disorders, 1-33
Hoffman, M. (2000). Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia. National Academy on an Aging Society, 1-17.
Kantor, D. (2011). Alzheimer’s Disease. National Institute of Health, 23-67.
Michelle, P. (2009). What Causes Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer Society of Canada, 1-24
Williamson, J. (2007). Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s Association, 1-43.
Interpretation of Hebrews 12:6-14 Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Following and Preceding Passages
Form Criticism and Structure
In Relation to God
Following and Preceding Passages The preceding passages can be considered as part of the introduction. In these passages the author used an illustration to clarify his point and it is revealing that he used the concept of running a race. Interestingly, the race is a marathon and not about sprinting towards a finish line and therefore the fastest person gets the reward. Readers are made aware that the activity described herein is more likely about distance running rather than a 100-meter dash is based on the statement that endurance is the key factor that can win this race.
The preceding passages that have a bearing on Hebrews 12:6-14 is not only about the illustration of a marathon but it can even be argued that the introduction has three parts. The first one is the idea concerning the charge that the followers of Christ must develop endurance to win the race. It also suggests discipline and single-mindedness.
The second part of the introduction talks about an example of endurance and it is not the endurance commonly seen among athletes but the endurance exhibited by a man nailed to a cross. The author brought down the core of the argument by saying that Jesus did not only demand endurance and perseverance but more importantly made an example of his life. He did not only talk about the importance of “running the race” Jesus demonstrated that endurance means to die for the cause if necessary.
Finally, the last part of the introduction provides segue way to the main text and yet it is not less important. In this portion the author said that God disciplines his followers not because they are athletes competing in his honor. God disciplines his followers not because they are soldiers that are supposed to be trained, to hone their skills and to make them an invaluable part of God’s army.
There is only one reason why the LORD subjects His followers to a painful process and it is based on the fact that God does not treat them as royal subjects but treats them as children.
The passages that follow Hebrews 12:6-14 also provides the reader information that can help understand the said pericope. Immediately following the verses are statements regarding: 1) sin; 2) bitterness that defile many; 3) sexual immorality; 4) godlessness; and 5) disinheritance. This serves as some form of a warning as to what awaits those who refuse be purified and even those who chose to go away.
Form Criticism and Structure The literary form can be generally described as a sermon that contains a warning (Schenck, p.5). This is based on the fact that the author carefully laid down an illustration to illuminate what he was trying to say. There are other passages in the Book of Hebrews that uses the same literary form. For instance the same style can be seen in Hebrews 6:4-6.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The purpose of this style is to warn the believers but at the same time one should see a hint of encouragement. In this case this was achieved by showing the people that there is a precedent. Jesus Christ was the best example and he can be a role model in suffering and going through the process. Secondly, the suffering of the saints produces eternal glory as well as present gains such as a higher level of maturity seen in righteous actions (Andreasen, p.28).
Thus, one can see the rationale for the structure used in this pericope. There is a parallelism used to the suffering endured by Jesus on the cross and the glory that he experienced later on. A parallelism was used in pointing out that the same thing can happen to the believers who will endure and go through the process of purification; they too will receive their reward.
Redaction Criticism It is difficult to detect any revision or redaction made to the pericope. But there are those who contend that there is something strange with the omission of the concept of repentance. Theodore of Mopsuestia argued as to how can the believers strengthen their feeble knees and lift their drooping hands if they not repent (Heen, Krey,
New and Old Wars Comparison Essay essay help
The argument that there are “New wars” dissimilar to older forms of warfare is not only generalist, but also not supported by existing scholarly and objective literature on the subject. According to Mary Kaldor, “New Wars” differ from older forms of warfare in their goals, methods of implementation and financing.
I believe, and will show objective analysis in the subsequent paragraphs, that the only difference between “New Wars” and older types of warfare exists in the manner of financing; however, the goals and methods of implementation of warfare have remained the same throughout the existence of warfare.
In Kaldor’s view, the goals of the “New Wars” are to increase economic gain and impose identity politics “which is inherently exclusive and tends towards fragmentation” (2006). Identity politics involves a “claim to power on the basis of a particular identity” (Kaldor, 2006).
The imposition of identity politics in “New wars” results in the fragmentation of communities and massive resettlement of populations and refugee movement (for example the aftermath of genocide), so much that the movement of these refuges becomes not a by-product of war, but a central goal of it.
Concerning the methods of implementation of these “New wars”, Kaldor is of the view that during the last decades of the twentieth century, a new type of organized violence that incorporated war, organized violence, and human rights violations emerged.
This includes the “privatization of violence” (Kaldor, 2006) creating a scenario where the instruments and means of war are not held by the state but by War loads, criminal gangs and police forces within a particular state.
On the issue of financing these “New wars”, Kaldor argues that the state no longer mobilizes finances for the wars, but – especially in weak Third world governments – the fighting units finance themselves through plunder, hostage taking and the black market, or independently through trafficking in humans, dealing in drugs and arms trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On this matter, as stated in the introduction, I concur with Kaldor’s argument that the only difference between “New wars” and older types is in the modality of financing.
To counter kaldor’s theory concerning the goals and implementation methods of the “New wars”, the first counter-argument concerns the matter of goals of the war. Economic gain has always been the paramount objective of wars, and is not a feature exclusive to “New wars”.
More scrutiny and analysis of wars in contemporary times by “academics, policy analysts, and politicians” (Newman, 2004, p.180) has served to highlight the wars, bringing out deeper dynamics of the wars, but the main objectives like economic gain have always been present.
Even the contemporary factor of multinationals selling weapons to the warring parties serves the same purpose – profiting from war. Furthermore, Identity politics and wars based on fragmenting the society along the lines of race, ethnicity, and religion are as old as war itself.
The Armenian genocide of World War I and the Holocaust of World War II are prime examples. The Rwandan genocide of 1994, a supposed “New War”, has similar features with the two previous genocides, which according to Kaldor, are old types of warfare.
In conclusion, I have presented Kaldor’s “New Wars” theory, identifying its goals, methods and financing. I have argued against its goals and methods, focusing on the argument that both goals and methods can be found throughout history in older forms of warfare.
Various violent conflicts, from the present and past, have been addressed and an analysis of the Rwandan genocide, the holocaust, and the Armenian genocide posed. Moreover, the role of the media and advances in information has been analyzed to show that just because there is much more analysis and discussion about wars nowadays does not necessarily make them ‘new’.
We will write a custom Essay on New and Old Wars Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Kaldor, M. (2006). New and Old Wars, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity.
Newman, E. (2004). The ‘New Wars’ debate: A historical perspective is needed. Security Dialogue vol. 35(2) 173-189.
Different Aspects of Culture in Hemingway, Wilson and O’Connor Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
In the short stories The Three Day Blow by Ernest Hemingway, The Man who Shot Snapping Turtles by Edmund Wilson and A Good Man is Hard to Find, by Flannery O’Connor, certain cultural features described in the fiction persist in the United States of today.
In The Three Day Blow the cultural element described that persists in American society concerns the fear of commitment that many men harbor and how that fear conflicts with their fear of being alone. In The Man who Shot Snapping Turtles, a cultural feature described in the story that still exists in American culture today is the belief that some of the animals created by God are more desirable than others.
In A Good Man is Hard to Find, the cultural feature that the story describes which continues today is the belief that the past represents a better version of American culture than the present, and that the current culture of American society is badly degraded from its former heyday.
The first story to be analyzed is The Three Day Blow by Ernest Hemingway. The Three Day Blow is the oldest of the three stories, first published 1925, yet this story describes a cultural feature very much alive in American society today – the fear of marriage and the conflict that arises in men when they must decide between getting married and staying alone.
Often the fear of being alone is greater than the fear of being married, thus marriage wins out; however the conflict never really dies. Hemingway illustrates the heart of this conflict at the end of the story, after Nick and Bill have had a lot to drink and have become more liberal with their truths.
Bill tells Nick that he was “very wise…to bust off that Marge business…It was the only thing to do. If you hadn’t, by now you’d be back home working trying to get enough money to get married….Once a man’s married he’s absolutely bitched, Bill went on. He hasn’t got anything more…He’s done for. You’ve seen the guys that get married…They get this sort of fat married look” (Hemingway 23).
This is the first mention we have heard of Nick’s former girlfriend, and in the face of Bill’s speech, the character Nick “said nothing” (Hemingway 24). Presumably Nick regrets not marrying the woman in question, not only because he is silent, but because “the liquor had all died out of him and left him alone” (Hemingway 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this story Hemingway describes the cultural fear – from the point of view of males, however the feeling affects both genders – of commitment and the feeling of loneliness that many single people experience persists today.
The second story under analysis is The Man who Shot Snapping Turtles by Edmund Wilson. This short story was first published in the Atlantic Monthly magazine in 1942, over 60 years ago, yet a significant cultural feature found in this story that still exists in American culture today is the understanding that some of God’s creatures are better than others.
In The Man who Shot Snapping Turtles Mr. Stryker makes a distinction between the ducks as desirable and the snapping turtles as undesirable, even though in cultural Christian understanding, God created both. “This time Mr. Stryker decided to do a better job. He came to see me again and startled me by holding forth in a vein that recalled the pulpit.
“If God has created the mallard,” he said, “A thing of beauty and grace, how can He allow these dirty filthy mud-turtles to prey upon His handiwork and destroy it?” (Wilson 257). The narrator responds that “the reptiles came before the birds. And they survive with the strength God gave them” (Wilson 257).
To which Mr. Stryker counters “how do we know that God isn’t getting old? How do we know that some of His lowest creatures aren’t beginning to get out of hand and clean up on the higher ones?” (Wilson 257).
We see this hierarchy applied to animals and perpetuated today in American society in the distinction made between so called undesirable creatures such as rats and roaches and so called beautiful and desirable creatures such as swans, horses or dogs.
The last story under discussion is A Good Man is Hard to Find, by Flannery O’Connor. A Good Man is Hard Find was published in 1955, however to this day some of the cultural aspects of American life that it describes are still in place. The most significant cultural aspect of this that is still relevant today is the belief that the American present is a degraded version of its past.
We will write a custom Essay on Different Aspects of Culture in Hemingway, Wilson and O’Connor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The grandmother of A Good Man is Hard to Find represents the belief that Americans in the past treated each other better, had better manners and were more trustworthy. We see this belief illustrated in the section of the story when the grandmother and the owner of the diner, Red Sammy, have a conversation about how things used to be compared to how they are now.
“You can’t win, he said. You can’t win…and he wiped his sweating red face off with a gray handkerchief. These days you don’t know who to trust…Ain’t that the truth? A good man is hard to find, Red Sammy said. Everything is getting terrible. I remember the day you could go off and leave your screen door unlatched. Not no more. He and the grandmother discussed better times” (O’Connor 235).
Culturally, the understanding that the present has become worse than the past, and that morals have eroded over time, is still very prevalent in American society. Conversations such as the following between Red Sam and the grandmother could have been written today, rather than over 50 years ago.
“Red Sam said it was no use talking about it, she was exactly right. Listen, the grandmother almost screamed, I know you’re a good man. You don’t look a bit like you have common blood. I know you must come from nice people!” (O’Connor 235).
The short stories The Three Day Blow by Ernest Hemingway, The Man who Shot Snapping Turtles by Edmund Wilson and A Good Man is Hard to Find, by Flannery O’Connor all contain certain cultural features that can still be found in the United States of today, even though each story was published in the last century.
In The Three Day Blow the cultural element described that persists in American society centers around fear of commitment; in The Man who Shot Snapping Turtles, the cultural feature we still see in the culture of the United States today is the hierarchal belief that some animals created by God are better than others.
In A Good Man is Hard to Find, the story describes a belief that the American past was infinitely better than its current manifestation, and that the present culture of American society is a shoddy version of a former glorious past.
Works Cited Hemingway, Ernest. “The Three Day Blow.” 50 Great Short Stories. Ed. Milton Crane. New York: Random House, 1988. 16- 27. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Different Aspects of Culture in Hemingway, Wilson and O’Connor by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More O’Connor, Flannery. “A Good Man is Hard to Find.” 50 Great Short Stories. Ed. Milton Crane. New York: Random House, 1988. 229-245. Print.
Wilson, Edmund. “The Man Who Shot Snapping Turtles.” 50 Great Short Stories. Ed. Milton Crane. New York: Random House, 1988. 254-267. Print.
What is meant by “wicked problems of design”? Expository Essay best college essay help
In his article, Richard Buchanan quotes Rittel as having defined wicked problems as “a class of social system problems which are ill-formulated, where the information is confusing, where there are many clients and decision makers with conflicting values, and where the ramifications in the whole system are thoroughly confusing” (“Wicked Problems In Design Thinking” 15).
In this definition we get to understand that a wicked problem is a situation that confronts designers in whatever new situation that presents itself before them in their daily works.
Therefore in any field such as science of the artifact, architecture, engineering or writing this becomes a technical problem where a designer has to be creative in coming up with a design that responds to unique situations.
Therefore owning this problem is being accountable for the responses to artifacts regardless of the fact that there are numerous conflicting views which would come out from the users and which the designer can never have a prior knowledge.
This is as a result of big differences between the liberal arts, especially the old, and the new; because liberal arts no longer treats science as primary and art as secondary but saw science itself as art. This gives us an understanding as to why in design thinking will continue to expand meanings and connections in today’s culture.
But there are emerging problems in the relationship between art and sciences, industry and manufacturing, marketing and distribution and the final consumer who utilizes the final product of this design thought. There is a disagreement of the notion that design is a science but what is clear is that everyone could benefit from appreciation of design principles and thought pattern.
The contemporary culture has been affected by design in a way that can be understood when this effect is classified into four areas of analysis. The first one is the symbolic and visual communication which encompasses the traditional definition of the graphic designer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second one is the design of material objects which concerns itself with form and appearance of everyday product like clothing, tools, Vehicles et cetera. Third, is the design of activities as well as organized services like the traditional management concern for logistics, aimed at enabling human beings attain objectives in life.
This is where the concept of strategic planning and design thinking can be used to improve aspects of intelligence, meaningfulness and human experience. The fourth area is the design in complex systems or environment for living, working among other uses as playing and learning.
In this forth area the designer is confronted with the problem of coming up with a sustainable and ecological designs that are able to integrate man into the environment.
This is why under the knowledge of the wicked problem a designer can not predict the kind of responses the critics or stakeholders such as the consumers will make to an artifact design.
This lack of prior knowledge is very essential to a fuller appreciation of the wickedness of design and has been fully expounded by a design theorist Richard Buchanan.
Buchanan tries to develop the concept of wicked problems by evaluating the responsibility of designing and the function of the art quality in such a design and by doing so Buchanan, closely classifies wicked problem with rhetoric.
In this respect, the most important thing is that, art skill that lies behind practice brings the relationship between determinacy and indeterminacy in design thinking.
We will write a custom Essay on What is meant by “wicked problems of design”? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This design thinking is highly based on determinate problems with conditions which are definite and it is from this point that the biggest task of a designer is to present those conditions in a precise manner and then provide a solution.
Contrary, the wicked problems approach reveals that there is what can be called a fundamental indeterminacy in all wicked problems apart from the most trivial design problem; the design issues.
As designers try to articulate their artifacts, they are confronted with many needs and expectations of the people and they may be confused on what theme to deal with (“Wicked Problems In Design Thinking” 3-20)
Have we seen any in the design literature thus far (Forty or Raizman)?
Raizman and Forty have highlighted many difficult situations which are confusing information in design for instance a situation where an artifact can be critiqued in terms of its relationship with technology. The technology phenomena may not have been in the mind of the designer but he must be ready to own such an omission.
Therefore the consumers, in their analysis play a role of influencing the use of design. Another wicked problem is where consumers attach meaning to displays in shop windows.
Therefore, Raizman also engages time with the definition of a designer where both are seen to be influenced by economical factors and economic situations to appeal to designers for a number of reasons (“Declaration by Design” 91-110).
Discuss (explain) the relationships between gender, ergonomics, management science and design in the evolution of office work and corporate identity.
Today the office work has evolved to suite the different needs of the technologically advanced way of doing things. Management of human resources and other resources requires advanced design of time management, equipment and the specific requirements at different levels in the workplace.
The issue of gender in design comes in when considering the needs of different gender in their daily life and not only limited to the work plane. This factor is dominant in the clothing, furniture and the design in management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What is meant by “wicked problems of design”? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ergonomics for instance is the simple science of articulating how to design user friendly equipment and work places which fits well with the user and at the same time having in mind special needs with regard to other factors such as gender and work type.
This designing must be done with a clear knowledge of interactions among different elements of a system and humans as well as the profession that applies theory and principle.
Gender issue is very important for any company when doing its ergonomics because the furniture and the equipment to be designed should be commensurate with the needs of different gender. This is done with an aim of optimizing human wellbeing and therefore overall system performance.
As a part of office work and corporate identity, ergonomics is engaged in order to achieve health and productivity and thus it realizes the need for the welfare of the worker, as a stakeholder in the workplace, in coming up with safe furniture and user friendly interfaces to office machines.
For example the proper ergonomic design is required so as to prevent strains and injuries which could be caused by poor design of equipment and which have a potential to cause long term disability. When the office workers are comfortable they are able to serve clients well.
Moreover, a best design boosts the morale and confidence of the workers so that they are proud of their work and thus serve clients well. This in turn adds a mark to the investor confidence and thus corporate identity. Many people and workers like identifying with firms which have smart designs ranging from the office furniture to the architectural design.
Ergonomics help to minimize the expenses incurred in form of compensation to workers. Any work place can deploy reactive or proactive approach where reactive ergonomics is applied in case something requires to be fixed while proactive involves a process of fixing the issue before they become a bigger problem.
Therefore in fixing these Ergonomics is deployed in designing the equipment, task and environment. When all these factors are well managed workers will be safe, motivated and proud to work at a reduced cost and increased corporate identity (Forty 6-245).
Of which elements does design ability consist? To which challenges and problems are these elements a response?
Design ability involves the skill of a designer in translating imaginations, ideas and values to materials for contemplation or even appreciation. Therefore it is a skill at imagining or stipulating a combination of materials into an effective coherent whole.
For a designer therefore he or she should embrace the wickedness that a design carries and be ready to face conflicting challenges during the artifact composition. This open mind will also involve articulating dissenting discussions in perspective and trying to retain them as one in presence of numerous responses to an artifact.
This way a design ability to embrace wicked problem is the ability to accept the problem of responsiveness. The element of skill is very important because it is born of the fact that consumers, are very critical in dealing with products and therefore where skill is employed it will portend professionalism and consumers will be appealed. A designer should also consider the element of time.
This is because people like the recent developments and especially the rhetoric. For instance in the time of baroque, as discussed in the next question, what was popular in the time was the influence of the catholic church and therefore to respond to the needs of the people.
Therefore designers of architecture had to produce artifacts which reflected what the church considered ideal for the society. In addition this will be in line with what pleases the top class of the time as well as the needs of the majority consumers of the design.
A designer has the ability, however, to shape the perception of the people and the consumers because they critique artifacts based on presupposed characteristics. The element of influence is therefore common in the design and can be used to influence a thought pattern of the people; for example during the time of romanticism, art could be used to express unrealistic themes and the element of romantics.
This was used to counter the challenge posed by the former artists and designs which emphasized on rational and rendered emotional non existent (Cross 105-120)
Define the following in three columns: One column the approximate dates, another for concrete or physical characteristics of design of the period, and a third column for the ideas being expressed in style in whose interest
Approximate dates Concrete or physical characteristics of design of the period The ideas being expressed in style in whose interest Baroque Late 16th century to the early 18th century in Europe. The Baroque time got much of its influence from the roman catholic church especially when the church ruled that the themes of the art to be used should communicate direct emotional involvement. The aristocratic class of the time took the advantage of the dramatic artistic style to impress visitors and expressing power and dominance in the society. The physical characteristics of their design are seen in their architecture of the period where baroque palaces were used and applied around an entrance of courts, the beautiful stair cases with reception rooms in a way that depicted a sense of affluence and material wealth. The works of the period was characterized by excessive ornamentation or what is called complexity of lines. As seen, baroque had a lot of control from the Roman Catholic and the autocratic class of the time. The complexity of the work, the expression by massive ornamentation was to express triumphant power of autocrats and the church at the time. The religious terms baroque work would express emotional attachments and to Catholics in particular who responded to the then invading Protestant’s reformation movements. This is considered in the architecture adopted by the catholic church exemplified by the cathedral of Morelia Michoacan in Mexico. Rococo 18th-century Rococo developed when baroque artists started giving up symmetry and added on their works ornamentations, became florid and playful especially in furniture, mirrors and tiny sculptures. There were also tapestry, relief and wall paintings. The period was also characterized by love of shell-like curves and a lot of focus on decorative arts. The design was highly merged with Germany baroque traditions. It was well established in churches and palaces in southern Germany. However rococo was a more secular form of design than baroque. The ideas expressed by the design were therefore not purely religious but secular with light hearted themes. Neo-Classicism Mid-18th century In its details, it was a reaction against Rococo style of naturalistic ornaments. It denied its architectural formula’s from that art of classical Greece. The design is characterized by planar qualities rather than sculptural base relief’s and presents individual pictures as isolated. Neo-Classicism was highly characteristic of Greek and roman artistic styles. Empire Style Early-19th-Century This was a design movement which revealed itself through furniture, architecture, visual arts and other decorative arts. The themes of ancient Greek and roman empire were dominant in the art of empire style. Buildings were craftily decorated with simple timber frames and box like constructions, which were mostly vanished using expensive mahogany. It was intended to bring out the idea of Napoleon’s kingship, leadership and the French political and religious state at the time. Romanticism Western Europe during 17th century and went on till the second half of 18th century (1835 to 1925) It emerged as a reaction to neoclassism and was characterized by the ideas and ideologies especially the love of nature, the emotions against rationality. The forms and designs emphasized on the emotions and the positions of and the role of artists. The designs were also characteristic of unreal and supernatural features and portrayal of the world in a new light. The romanticism put the artist at the centre. At the beginning it was meant for high class educated people but later it became an interest for everyone in the period. Gothic Revival Originated in mid eighteenth century This movement sought to revive medieval forms which were to be different from the classical styles. It was characterized by detailed English furniture which employed glazing patterns. They were found on the carpet design and laces. It was also characteristic of candlelight and wall paintings. It had church connotations especially the catholic church which deployed these designs in their buildings. Respect for materials
In design materials are not just another idea but part of the art itself. Without materials there is no design and therefore respect for materials involves engaging them in the design discourse. We can not have a complete design from immaterial things or ideas and thus real things must be involved.
Suppressive design strategy
This is a design strategy that does not emphasize emotions but rationality. It involves a counter attack design theme, situation, occasion or an event put into a design. There are thousands of strategies used across all realms of life today like the fire fighting design for fire suppression and a drug design for suppressing a disease.
Archaic design strategy
In this strategy a design artifact is used which belongs to ancient or historical times in details. Thus appreciating the artistic design becomes both difficult and redolent of ancient art experience thus draws nostalgia. The design strategy however, unlike the theme brought about by the word archaic is very rich in artistic touch.
Utopian design strategy
This design strategy is used to produce artifacts whose themes emphasize perfection in society. When closely analyzed, an artifact design would bring out a flawless society in a way that is far from real experience. The design therefore will take one’s mind into another unreal world full of perfection. (Raizman 1-78)
Relative to discussions in lecture assesses Lidwell et al’s discussion of “form follows function.” How do their examples suggest a broader set of categories than alluded to by “form follows function?”
This phrase originated from an American sculptor Louis Sullivan whose thinking was ahead of the architectural approach. Sullivan actually talked of form ever following function and to him; this was a distilled wisdom in form of an aesthetic credo.
In the area of design, form follows function principle is used and seen as a sensible thing but when closely examined, the principle becomes a Pandora’s Box which is open to numerous interpretations.
Most critics reason that, a complete design solution can not be achieved by merely articulating the relationship that exists in form, purpose and the intended use. Therefore there is always a question of design integrity and this comes to be an important and lively debate in art and design.
The usual meaning of form follows design is very shallow however; and for that case, there have been developed applications of the principles in different fields. In architecture the modernist architects after the 1930s took the ornament decorative elements and incorporated them in the modern buildings.
Many architecturers of the time used decoration in buildings as their signature and the most famous of these is the “writhing green ironwork that covers the entrance canopies of the Carson Scott in a department store in the south state street in Chicago” (Lidwell et al. 5).
The principle can also be used in relation to product design and this can be seen in a remarkable episode of the 1935, when an American auto industry delayed the attempt to introduce what was referred to as optimal aerodynamics forms into mass production.
This principle therefore has been used by many industries in design to advance their client’s requirements. A good example is the streamlined Ferrari F430 meant for car race which is made to conform to its functions.
In software engineering this principle is applied in the structure and the quality internal to a working software artifact that tells a lot about the requirements of its construction and not the process.
Even if this fails to leave out the element of process, the requirements for any design are thought to lead to the similar end. In evolution theory, anatomy has modeled entities according to their requirements. A good example is the giraffe whose taller neck enables it to reach leaves of tall trees.
Most works that discuss the topic of form follows function analyses about how everyday objects communicate, how man uses them and how the design is affected by the form and the function.
The authors explore numerous occasions when for example products develop in line with technology and the amount of function that a design product has increases. As the amount of function increases, the way a product communicates on these functions tends to be forgotten and thus the form follows function.
This would means that it is harder to use a forgotten or misused design and a good example is the telephone. When a team of people invented the telephone they invented what seemed to be plausible ways of controlling the details of the phone.
In most cases these features may not have gained much thought and thus the technology had designed such questions as, how do I answer this? And so forth.
The design for everyday object dictates that when designing for people, two fundamental principles are core: provision of a good conceptual model and making things visible.
This means that, a product may not have a visible function but how the product communicates matters; and this refers to the form of the design. Therefore the law here is that form is very essential because it is a way for any design to communicate with the user and that any product must make a connection and be in a position to be appreciated.
Why would students of design be interested in communication and media studies? Why should students of media and communication studies be interested in the history of design?
Communication studies involve studying on how a system of interaction is realized between the sender and the receiver. Specifically communication involves sharing of meaning for mutual understanding and for the purpose of soliciting a response.
Therefore communication between the sender and the receiver of the message brings out the meaning between the two and this must be viewed as having one’s informative intention.
Design process involves communication and information as an end and is seen as a continuous process of change that has to be perfect because many stakeholders are to be involved. For this case, it should be remembered that consumers of design artifacts are key stakeholders in determining the meaning of the artworks.
The design process should have a high level of concurrency and design. Information should be well structured so as to acquire the right status, version and information. Creators of such designs should also get overview and transparency on the recent design in process and progress.
For this case the designer requires information, updates and feed back from other specialized designers who can give guidance and directions to prevent mistakes that many occur when working with outdated information. We saw one of the wicked problems of design is that consumers can determine the need for a design.
This for commercial purpose can turn out to be a tragedy to a designer if he is not in line with the rhetoric of the day. Communication and media studies will greatly be needed in enriching skills, information, function and form of a design which will appeal, to the needs and the interest of the consumers.
The history of design on the other hand is very essential to the students of communication studies. This is because for one, the history of design gives basis of the way meaning has been conveyed over time and how design as a media was used as a way of communicating information.
On the other hand media and communication studies are not separable from rhetoric. Therefore instead of these students learning rhetoric as a simple verbal discipline, they could also study the changing conceptions of the subject matter. This way interpretation of design forms can apply in the interpretations of communication and media studies (Raizman 6-245).
Which material realizations of ideas and agendas drove “Design Reform” through out the 19th century in Great Britain?
Design reform has occurred especially in the realization that design relates very closely to production technologies, innovation and new materials. The fact that Great Britain tried to use industrial design to showcase its industrial superiority is evident of how design can reform to suite a purpose.
The wave of industrial revolution was sweeping throughout the Great Britain in the 19th century and so this was the rhetoric of the century. The idea of political superiority therefore called for a need to express to the rest of the world, the ability and the breakthrough of the Great Britain. Since design is a media of such expression, much of it was used.
Apart from this political role, there was a real economic agenda in the reformation of design as expressed by William Morris whose ideas were influenced by the pre-Raphaelite Brothers.
He and his friends established a company which made decorative objects for homes including wall paper, textiles, furniture as well as stained glass. This design reform to commercial purposes was to spread during the 19th century and the late twentieth century and influenced the establishment of numerous associations and craft communities (Forty 6-245).
Works Cited Buchanan, Richard. Declaration by Design. Design Discourse. By Margolin Victor. New York: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Print.
Buchanan, Richard. Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. The Idea of Design, A Design Issue Reader. By Margolin Victor. New York: MIT press, 1995. Print.
Cross, Nigel. Exploration in Design Studies. Discovering Design: Explorations in Design Studies. By Richard Buchanan, et al. New York: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Forty, Adrian. Objects of Desire: Design and Society since 1750. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1992. Print.
Lidwell, William, et al. Universal Principles of Design, Revised and Updated: 125 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design. 2nd ed. New York: Rockport Publishers, 2010. Print.
Raizman, David. History of Modern Design, Laurence King. 2nd ed. London: Garamond Press, 2010. Print.
Psychopathologies: Co-occurring Diagnoses Analytical Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Co-occurrence
Disordered personalities versus normal personality
Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)
Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder
Categorical and dimensional models of classification
Potentially more useful model
Failures of categorical models of classification
Co-occurrence Comorbidity is a term used to describe the existence of one or more distinct disorders other than the primary disorder with each having its own pathology, etiology as well as treatment implications. Some authors like Israel, Lilienfeld and Waldman have proposed that the term comorbidity be abandoned and be substituted by the term co-occurrence (Samuel
A Practical Proposal Addressing a Local Problem Essay online essay help: online essay help
The following is a paper on a practical proposal addressing a local problem. This paper is a summary of my research on the employees’ rights violation at the giant Wal-Mart retail stores.
The paper has information on how the rights of the employees have been violated (low salary, poor working conditions, employee discrimination and inadequate health care).
Due to the employees’ violation at Wal-Mart, the information in the paper provides guidance on how workers can go about resolving their issue (by forming or joining trade unions). It goes in depth to explain how these unions work and finally gives a justification on the whole issue.
Wal-Mart is the largest retail store in America and the world. The retail store is still spreading its dominance worldwide, starting in Asia where it has its stores in over ten countries, Europe and South America. The giant retail store is still planning to expand its business dealings on an even wider scope in the near future.
The giant store possesses incentives that are geared towards profit making, due to the recent recession though, the incentives tend to hurt its workers. With Wal-Mart’s effort to make a way into hypermarket cultures all over the world, lots of severe setbacks have come into play.
What is more, low-wages, low benefits, employment discrimination, poor healthcare, anti-union policies, and bad working conditions have made Wal-Mart an evil business in the eyes of their employees. This paper will therefore concentrate on Wal-Mart’s employee violations, propose a solution to this and finally find a justification on the whole issue.
“With about two million employees worldwide, Wal-Mart has faced a torrent of lawsuits and issues with regards to its workforce. These issues involve low wages, poor working conditions, inadequate health care, employee discrimination, as well as issues involving the company’s strong anti-union-policies” (Keil
Concept of Industrial Psychology Essay essay help
Industrial Psychology also Called Organizational Psychology is an emerging branch of psychology and has also attracted keen interest to psychologist due to the role it plays in the current day communities especially in the management of organizations.
Organizational psychology also abbreviated as IO is the branch of psychology that is scientifically studies the behaviors of employees, workplaces, how the employees interact with their workplaces, the workplace environment and its effect on the employee’s behaviors as well as organizational behavior.
From this definition it can be concluded that organizational behavior is divided into two sub branches: human (industrial) as well as organizational psychology. Many psychologists argue that the two sub genres overlap and cannot be easily separated.
Industrial psychology is interested in the way in which employees behaviors and attitudes can be enhanced. The birth of this branch of psychology can be traced back to the early 1990. Initially it was referred to as business psychology with the term industrial psychology coming into use during the First World War.
The terms business and industrial were co-opted in the post war period to give birth to business and industry’s psychology. However, the term business was dropped from the definition and as such it only remained as industrial psychology. This means that this branch of psychology was only interested in the industrial (human) aspect of workplace psychology.
The organizational bit of psychology was later co-opted and thus the discipline became industrial and organizational psychology in the 1970s, but the two terms have increasingly become intertwined such that the discipline is currently known as industrial/organizational psychology. Today it is both an academic and a professional discipline (Freedheim, 2003).
Industrial Psychology differs from other branches of psychology in that it is more application based than theoretical. This discipline unlike many other branches of psychology is diverse as it borrows heavily from other non psychology disciplines such as organizational management and leadership.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore industrial psychology studies scientifically, very specific issues that are associated with the workplaces. Such issues include on the job training, staff development tests among others (Freedheim, 2003).
Business leaders, managers, administrators, business owner as well as human resource practitioners have found the place of industrial psychology indispensable in modern organizational management. This discipline has helped these professional top expand their knowledge as well as skills and as such are able to comprehend the thought processes attitudes as well the minds of workers especially in the workplace environment.
Such knowledge other than improving organizational management efficiency also helps in bridging the understanding gap that exists between workers and their employers. Furthermore, industrial psychology has also helped bosses to understand the different types of personalities who work under them and as such are able to match job roles and responsibilities and the specific personalities that exist in these organizations. Understanding of the personality’s types and what job each type of personality is suited to is crucial during recruitment.
Recruiters are able to determine what job applicant’s posses the necessary personalities to fit in the specific vacancies that exist in those organizations. Industrial psychology also borrows from Maslow theory of human needs and uses this thru to develop motivational mechanism for employees.
As such using the Maslow’s theory, human resource practitioners are able to motivate employees to self actualize using such motivations factors as money (salaries, allowances and bonuses), job security, promotions and socislistaiosn aspects such as social outing as well as team working.
In borrowing from Sigmund Freud human personality theory on id, ego and super ego, Industrial Psychology has been useful in helping managers to understand the parent-child type of relationship. When an employer reacts like a boss an employee is likely to react like a child and as such be lees productive. To avoid such occurrences, industrial psychology helps manger to avoid parent- child interactions and employee a more professional approach to management (Landy
Just War Revisited: Why Pacifism Qualifies as a Viable Alternative in the Modern International Realm Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Pacifism, which implies that no war is or could be just, has in recent years received considerable attention from academics and war theorists as the world seems to reel from one armed conflict to another. The doctrine, however, has received loads of disparagements from critics, who advance lopsided discourses and justifications of going to war under the tenets of the just war theories (Charles 336).
Although there are diverse conceptions of pacifism which seems to ignite diverse reactions from professionals and the general public, ranging from outright impracticability to differences in geopolitical realities, this paper will argue from the standpoint that pacifism is indeed a viable alternative in the modern international realm.
Although some nations have been noted to progress unorthodox activities such as state-sponsored terrorism and actions of sabotage, the kind of violence and killing that armed confrontations instigate in the name of military interventions is insurmountably objectionable (Alexandra 590).
When war is evaluated against the backdrop of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction currently in the hands of state actors as well as non-state operatives, it will dawn on many that searching for peaceful means to resolve the conflicts that continue to affect the modern world is the only way to go as doing otherwise, especially engaging the military to use such weapons on civilian populations, is intrinsically immoral (Charles 336).
One of the strong areas of pacifism is its “…commitment to peace-building and to finding alternatives to war and violence as responses to social and political conflict” (Atack 1). On this account, according to this author, pacifism strives to abolish armed conflicts through the employment of absolutely nonviolent methodologies to decisively deal with social and political conflict, whether arising internally or between nations.
Peace-building is an inherent good, while war is seen in the eyes of many as not only unfair, but also costly in terms financial, emotional, demographic, and practical variables (Alexandra 595). What’s more, peace is more conducive to the welfare of people than the employment of any violence or forceful means under the disguise of promoting world peace. In consequence, major players on the world scene must look for peaceful mechanisms, including arbitration and sanctions, to tame the aggressors of peace, and in no time should human interactions be governed by violent or belligerent relations.
Arguing from a consequentialist or utilitarian perspective of pacifism, it is clear that the world should embrace nonviolent means to deal with conflicts by virtue of the fact that the benefits brought by engaging in violence, force or war are far much less than evils that such engagements may bring to the participants as well as to the civilian population (Mosley para. 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lessons learnt from the U.S. invasion of Iraq under President Bush preemption and prevention strategy are still fresh, and the consequences of using such strategies will go down the annals of history as one of the most inhumane by virtue of the fact that the war has shattered many families, not mentioning the casualties involved.
Exercising peaceful means to solve the Iraq problem, if there was any, could have prevented such odious bloodshed. Today, many political analysts are of the opinion that America is now less safe than it was before the invasion, courtesy of using a conflict resolution approach that occasioned more harm than good. This observation demonstrates why world players must employ pacifism as a moral alternative so as to maintain and safeguard world peace.
Works Cited Alexandra, A. Political Pacifism. Social Theory
Globalization in Australia Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Globalization involves an increased unanimity of the global economic activities through eradication of the common barriers such as tariffs, and import duties. Globalization may also involve an improved way of sharing ideas, languages or culture among nations.
Any aspect or attribute that has managed to move and be shared among nations leads to globalization. The aspect of globalization has both negative and positive impacts to the nation. Globalization has changed various ways of doing things in Australia. For instance, through globalization most of people in Australia have improved their ways of travelling, their eating habits, and generally their living standards.
The major part that has been affected by globalization in Australia is the economic sector. Australia has been able to enjoy a free and open markets, whereby the importers and the exporters are subjected to a less tax.
Through globalization, Australia has realized a rapid growth of industrial competition hence increasing both the quality and the quantity of production, and the consumers are left to enjoy the lower prices for the goods they are consuming. Globalization has come with many changes in Australia and the whole world, changes such as even the impacts of terrorism.
The Australia was found through the globalization of the 19th century. The focus of this globalization was moving from Europe to other corners of the world as people used to describe it. The globalization of that period was very slow as things used to happen through the longest route, as there were no otherwise.
In terms of communication, there were very slow means of conveying the intended messages. It was an era whereby the letters were used in various places to pass the messages. There were no quick means and hence a delayed response. In terms of transport, the means were also ineffective and people could take ages to reach their destinations.
Economically, Australia suffered a great deal due to the presence of many barriers of trade. For them to import some commodities, this would cost the country much money due to the import duties imposed on the cash transactions. When the country would be preparing to export some of their commodities to other countries as a way of boosting their economy, these barriers prohibited. When exporting, the commodities would sell at a very lower price due to the export duties hence realizing a very little profit and sometimes even a loss due to several expenses incurred.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As far as globalization is concerned, Australia has also developed greatly in terms of culture. In the past, the country survived mostly on the cultural practices and beliefs. People could not interact freely as they are doing these days.
People relied on some specialists for important information, unlike these days when globalization is advancing day-by-day. In the past, people from a certain community would just live together without interacting with others. This was because of minimal migration of people from rural areas to urban areas.
There were specific places for particular group of people. Through this separation of various communities, there were no chances of people to learn from each other especially exchanging ideas of different cultural groups. The fear between different communities existed and that is why people could not interact with one another well.
The political aspect of Australia in the past was also of low quality before the globalization. There were traditional ways of campaigning that most politicians used to apply. The citizens could not have a good chance of choosing the right leader as people relied on the cultural ways of doing politics.
The citizens were not enlightened as they are these days of a globalized society. Australian citizens believed on leadership of some specific individuals due to lack of enough information that would aid in their processes of decision-making. In the past days, limitation of information sources made people to make uninformed decisions and hence there were some limitations for the development of the country as a whole.
For the country to develop in all sectors especially economically there is need for the citizens to have access to various sources of information to enlighten them. In terms of business, Australia was ranging behind due to lack of business knowledge and many limitations as one is conducting his or her businesses.
Several doors to business were locked waiting for globalization. For instance, people could not have access to raw materials outside the country as the international businesses were not available, and even citizens were not aware of how to conduct international businesses.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalization in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The few people who were conducting domestic businesses in Australia could not prosper very well as they were contained within the country hence minimal business knowledge. The business sector whether a private or public is relied much to earn some profits for the government through taxation, but in those days the government could not earn much from these investments due to the limitations that existed.
Among all the histories of globalization in Australia, technology was the worst hit. The things that people are doing and accomplishing within a blink of a second took people hours or days to accomplish. Almost in every sector of the country, there is need of applying some technology to make the work easier for the people who were involved
For instance, several industries like transport and communication, health industries, education industries, and many more all work effectively and deliver their services to the public by technology. In the past days in Australia, such industries could use more resources both financially and human labor to accomplish their missions as the technological knowhow of the nation was low and needed some advancement.
The citizens of Australia suffered a great deal in the processes of getting some problems solved especially in the education and health industries. For instance, a major change of technology in Australia came in 1975 through the emergence of Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. This Australian academy majorly focused on the policies of technology. Through this academy, the famous engineers and technologists were recognized due to their efforts..
Through welcoming globalization, Australia is now in a position to live in a borderless world. The main activators of globalization are the sharing of goods and services among nations, interaction and sharing of ideas and cultures among people from different nations.
Recently the level of globalization has developed to the point advancing the technological levels, and removing the trade barriers. Through these latest improvements of globalization citizens of Australia can now trade internationally faster than before. Although globalization comes with both advantages and disadvantages, the benefits are more as its effects are reflected in the economic development of Australia.
Globalization in Australia has resulted to bigger markets, hence increased profits, which improves the wealth status of a nation. Through this Australia has been able to invest in several development projects that would make it to reduce the level of poverty among its citizens. For Australia to benefit fully from the advantage of globalization especially the opening of international markets, the country has put some extra efforts to ensure it gets full benefits.
For instance, Australia has come up with strong domestic policies, reliable institutions and infrastructure to be able to take full advantages of the globalization changes. Australia has so far managed to come up with suitable policies and informed decisions to maximize the benefits of globalization and to minimize fully the challenges.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the time when Australia opened itself to globalization, several benefits have been realized in the country (ABS, 2005). Through engaging with the international economies, the economy of Australia has grown faster compared with some countries that remain closed to the forces of globalization.
According to some researches done, the economy of Australia has proved to grow with 2.5 % more than the closed economies to the effects of globalization. Through the advantage of faster economic growth, Australia has been able to improve the living standards of its citizens as well as reducing the poverty rate.
For instance, Australia has managed to cut its poverty rate in almost a half for the last two decades. Through the availability of cheaper imports, the citizens of Australia are in a position to have access to various types of products and hence they can compete effectively with other traders and increase their productivity.
The economic gains through the forces of globalization have also resulted to the availability of improved health services and availability of clean water in Australia. Citizens have a right to a good health services, as it is in the United Nations declaration of human rights.
By reliable health services the life expectancy in Australia has also improved, which is a good ground for the future developments of the nation. Even in the whole world the increased life expectancy has resulted to 85% of the population in the world to have an increased probability of attaining approximately sixty five years, which is regarded to be double compared to how life expectancy was a hundred years ago (Gough, 2003).
Through the increased global income because of removing, the investment barriers have some benefits like Australia having increased foreign direct investments, which has accelerated much growth in Australia. Globally the total of foreign direct investment was us$23 billion which shoot up to US$575 billion in 2003 which was a dynamic positive change realized due to globalization.
Globalization in Australia has also come with environmental changes whereby, there is improved environmental awareness that is encouraging the use of more reliable and less polluting materials. Australia is also in a position to import renewable matters to be used in place of the locally available natural resources, as they are still scarce.
Pollution is one cause of the air borne diseases that should be avoided. The United Nations declaration of human rights requires the nation to put measures on such sensitive issues to ensure citizens are living in safe environments. The availability of good materials that can be reused is advantageous to the nation as less pollution is realized and the citizens would be able to live in a conducive environment.
Through the increased interaction of Australia with global institutions like WTO and World Bank has benefited this nation a great deal especially in cases of solving the government-to-government conflicts.
In cases where the nation has some conflicts with another, the disputes are solved depending on the rules of the global institutions, rather than the traditional ways of favoring the more powerful among the victims. Through this, most of the countries have managed to maintain peace within and among other nations.
In the past, the trading partners were encountering some challenges that were hard for them to solve, and this led to the most powerful nation among the two winning the case. Nowadays the global institutions have the rules regarding every type of trade conflict to guide the member nations (AEPAC, 2003). Through this provision, members solve their conflicts well hence reducing their poverty level, which is believed to be the breeding area for terrorism.
The international interactions between Australia and other nations, has led to increased recognition of diversity respect for different cultural practices. Through this type of respect among various cultures, the level of democracy of the nation is improved and the application of human rights to the citizens is made possible.
The global companies have some working standards to be followed in production of commodities for international trade. This has the countries to adhere to the labor standards especially the countries that tend to ignore the rules of labor. There are set levels of wages that the workers are supposed to receive, which an advantage to the citizens as it protects them from any form of discrimination from the employer, as it is required by the United Nations declaration of human rights.
Australia serves as a good example of the countries that have derived much benefit from globalization. Australia has benefited in both exports and imports. It is well known in production of wool, wheat and minerals. Its level of living standards has gone high due to its ability of taking the advantage of open economy a status that made it more competitive in both domestic and international trade.
Australia is in a region whereby the neighboring nations are the developing ones, and most of its exports are destined to these developing nations or must pass through them. The country is famous because of its aid program whereby it offers technical support, reliable building initiatives, and various ways of passing the information globally to ensure there is active participation for all in global developments.
Australia is in the front line to offer technical advice to its neighboring developing nations to take part in trade movements that would open their trading standards through provision of more and advanced trade regulations. Australia is assuring these developing nations of the availability of ports that are efficient for their commodities, customs and quarantine schemes.
This country is also assisting the developing nations economically, on the best tactics to apply for them to acquire full benefits of free trade opportunities for instance by revising their domestic policies regarding the trade. As long as these developing nations have a right to work, as it is required by the United Nations declaration of human rights, Australia does not understand why these nations would prefer to be left behind.
References Australia. Economic planning Advisory Commission (AEPAC). (2003). Globalisation: Issues for Australia: papers and proceedings from an economic planning Advisory commission seminar held in Canberra. Canberra: Australia Govt.Pub.Service.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2005). Year book, Australia. Michigan: Cengage Learning.
Bessant, J. (2002). Sociology Australia. London: Allen
Integration of information systems in HCOs Essay college essay help
Healthcare organizations need to have a well integrated and managed information system for proper running. Adequate data and managed information is useful to the healthcare personnel in making appropriate decisions. This is required when caring for patients and when running and managing healthcare organizations.
It is required in filing of documents, in meeting the regulatory requirements, communicating with the organizational plans, as well as in accrediting the organizations.
With proper accessible information systems, clinicians are able to easily assess the status of the patients, give proper treatment, have a proper plan for patient care and educate the family members and the patients on how some medical conditions are managed.
The quality, medical outcomes and healthcare services cost can be well evaluated by medical directors using the patients’ information. The major purpose of integrated information in the healthcare is to enable effective and efficient job performance by the health professional and practitioners through proper management of the information.
However, this has not been the case and information in the healthcare organizations has been inadequate and not integrated.
The paper gives situations in which lack of integration of information systems with clinicians’ workflow can lead to inadequate patient care, reduced physician productivity, or poor patient satisfaction with an HCO’s services. It also identifies and discusses the challenges and limitations of two methods for improving process integration.
When a patient’s medical records are not integrated in the HCOs, this can lead to inadequate patient care. During an emergency the information of a patient’s treatment records and status may not be available to the physicians.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The patient may be unconscious and in need of immediate medical attention. A patient’s treatment records and allergies history may be unavailable to the doctor administering the treatment (Waegemann et al, 2002).
This may cause complications if the patient is given medication or injections that are allergic to them compromising the physician productivity as well as the satisfaction of a patient.
Inpatients usually receive medical attention based on the availed medical report. However, a patient may be taken to a rehabilitation center or a nursing home where the medication that was administered is cut off because of lack of integrated medical information.
This jeopardizes the health of the patient as well as the ethics of the medical practitioners. Some patients require medical follow up if they have medical conditions that are complicated like cardiovascular disease or diabetes.
If the patient’s medical history is not available and the patient transfers to another state, a physician’s efforts may be compromised leading to poor productivity. According to Waegemann et al (2002), the safety of a patient can be affected adversely if there is no proper documentation of patient medical records.
For example, if two patients in the same institution share the same names, there is a high chance of giving the wrong medication to either of the patients. This occurs when there is no proper identification of the patients in question and their individual medical history.
The integration process can be improved through the adoption of information technology in the HCOs. However, there are challenges and limitations associated with the adoption of information technology. According to Bansal (n.d.), clinicians fears the risks associated with the adoption of information technology in the health care sector.
We will write a custom Essay on Integration of information systems in HCOs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, some of the fears include data anomalies, computer crashes, and vulnerability of patients’ data as well as programming errors that may occur. The failure of these systems can cause catastrophic results because of their dependence on machines (Bansal, n. d.).
These are challenges and fears that are associated with the use of healthcare information technology. Another method of improving the process integration in HCOs is by encouraging the small health care organizations to adopt electronic health care systems instead of the traditional handwriting method.
This would ensure that data is stored electronically and hence easily accessible. The challenge is that electronic health care system is expensive to install and manage thus making it unaffordable. Bansal (n.d.) notes that clinicians find the process of data entry as inadequate in terms of recording the office visits of a patient.
There is also the issue of dehumanizing the office visits thus affecting the doctor patient relationship that initially existed. Lastly there is the fear of patient’s information landing into the wrong hands thus breaking the patient’s doctor’s medical ethics of confidentiality.
In conclusion, HCOs need integration to ensure that efficiency and effectiveness is realized by the medical practitioners. The patients’ information should be availed to clinicians and other medical practitioners to ensure healthcare integration process.
Some situations like emergency, inpatients’ transfers, medical follows ups, and sharing of names in same institutions may have implications to clinicians’ workflows if not well integrated. These situations may cause inadequate patient care, reduced physician productivity, or poor patient satisfaction with an HCO’s services.
Adoption of health information technology and use of electronic health care systems are some of methods of improving the integration process. The limitation associated with the two is that they are expensive, are prone to errors and clinicians fear the dehumanization of office visits thus breaking the patient doctor relationship.
Reference List Bansal, A. (n.d). Health Information Technology and Telemedicine in the 21st Century – a Survey. Malvern, USA: Penn State Great Valley.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Integration of information systems in HCOs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Waegemann, C. P. et al. (2002). Healthcare Documentation: A Report on Information Capture and Report Generation. Retrieved
Vodafone: developing a total communications strategy in the UK market Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction In the face of competition, this report presents Vodafone’s strategy aimed at having a competitive advantage over its current and future competitors by adopting several measures aimed at giving consumers greater value for their money.
Michael Porter (2004) put forward two fundamental forms of competitive advantage: cost advantage and product differentiation advantage. In cost differentiation, a company lowers its product costs than the prevailing market costs for similar or related products.
However, in product differentiation, based on a market analysis, the company chooses a strategy that will give it a unique position among competitors and enable it to have an advantage over competitors.
Differentiation frequently entails delivering benefits that surpass those of the competitors, and enables it to create superior value for its customers and establish itself in the market.
In this case study, Vodafone seeks to adopt strategies for enabling a competitive advantage over its competitors but contemplates whether it should build its own network to provide the required services or provide them through partnerships and/or acquisitions.
Summary This case study on Vodafone, the world’s largest mobile telephone operator by revenue, presents the company’s strategy in its attempts to emerge out of competition from companies offering similar products in the UK home market in 2009.
During the said year, Vodafone faced competition from a number of companies in the rapidly expanding market for high-speed internet services in the home market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increasing demand for these products had attracted not only Vodafone’s traditional competitors such as British Telecom (BT), O2, and Orange, but had also drawn attention from other communication firms such as Virgin Mobile and Sky Broadcasting.
New competition also arose from arose from Carphone Warehouse and suppliers such as Nokia and Apple. Other firms were also contemplating moving into the high-speed internet services market.
Besides changes in competition, Vodafone and other providers faced challenges from rapid changes in technology and regulatory changes in the UK communications sector.
Consequently, many operators adopted their own strategies around the consumer’s need for ‘converged services’, meaning that companies could provide two or more services making up the ‘quad play ’ offered by Virgin Media (fixed line telephony, mobile telephony, television, and broadband internet).
While most of the competitors offered a combination of the services, Vodafone focused mainly on mobile services and this caused concern to both shareholders and the management. The challenge was to decide if they should provide any of the other services, and if so, should they build their own networks or through partnerships or acquisitions.
Analysis of the Major Facts PESTEL Analysis
In order to determine the best strategy that should be adopted it is imperative that we determine the roots of the intense competition in the high-speed internet services. A PESTEL analysis shows that the source of competition in the communications sector originated from a number of macro-environmental factors.
Political factors had been due the regulatory changes undertaken by the government, specifically the Office of Communication (Ofcom).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Vodafone: developing a total communications strategy in the UK market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These changes included the privatization of the national telephone company, BT, forcing it to allow access to its services at competitive rates, licensing more mobile-operators and allowing virtual operators (MVNOs), and supporting competition in television and internet sector to improve service delivery.
Economic factors arose from the global financial crisis that had heavily impacted the UK economy, just like all developed nations. The UK was expected to recover more slowly than other countries due to the important role of financial services to its economy.
Economic factors also affected sociocultural factors as it affected income distribution and spending patterns. Technological factors arose from the changes in technology with the development of internet protocol (IP) technology, emergence of new broadcasting technology, and the ongoing upgrading of speeds over fixed and mobile networks.
Environmental and Legal factors did not seem to have a significant role of the competition. In adopting a strategy to emerge out of the competition, Vodafone had to address each of these issues (Johnson et al, 2010).
A number of competitors were already providing at least three of the four services in the high-speed internet market, however, Vodafone mainly focused on mobile telephony. Therefore, to gain an edge over its competitors, Vodafone had to adopt either the ‘triple play’ of the ‘quad play’.
In order to do this, the company has to analyze its competitors and determine the methods they used to roll out their service to come up with the most cost effective method.
The fixed line telephone network had been developed by the government through BT, which had subsequently been privatized, hence BT was the initial sole operator of the fixed line telephone, however, Ofcom introduced a process referred to as local loop unbundling (LLU) which required BT to allow other operators to install their own equipment in the existing BT network to provide voice and broadband internet services to their own surrounding customers.
This meant that operators such as Vodafone could provide these services without building their own network.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vodafone: developing a total communications strategy in the UK market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mobile telephone was Vodafone’s core competency, being the world’s largest mobile telephone operator by revenue, therefore, it did not require any acquisitions or partnerships to create an advantage over its competitors.
However, the failure to create a ‘total communications’ strategy could lead to user migrating to other operators, especially with the introduction of number portability in 2007 and competitive approached adopted by operators.
The television segment is dominated by five ‘public service broadcast’ channels: BBC1, BBC 2, ITV 1, Channel 4 and Five. These channels are supported by annual license fees and advertising.
The rest of the market is taken by ‘multichannel operators’ led by BskyB, UKTV, Viacom and Virgin which are mainly supported by a mix subscription and advertisements. Ofcom reports that there were 495 channels by the end of 2008.
BBC (all channels) had a dominant share of the market with 31.8%, up 0.8% the previous year and up 1.2% in 2006, ITV and Channel 4 followed with 22.6 % and 11.7% respectively, both companies had registered growth in the past two years.
Going by this trend, the three companies, with a total share of 66.1%, will continue to dominate the market for the foreseeable future (Johnson et al, 2010).
The fourth and final section of the ‘quad play’ services is broadband. Fixed broadband was available in 65% of UK homes in 2009, most of which were served by their existing phone lines using DSL technology, the rest are supplied with cable broadband.
Analysts have predicted that this figure is likely to rise with DSL technology occupying a chunk of the market. wireless broadband is also provided by all major operators through 3G cards for laptops, however, most of the users have a DSL connection and see the mobile connection as a supplement.
In addition, there are more than 12,000 Wi-Fi hotspots in early 2008, the largest operator being The Cloud (58.3%), BT Openzone (19.3%) and T-Mobile (10%) (Johnson et al, 2010).
Together, the three Wi-Fi operators have a market share of 88.2%. The growth of the broadband sector has been encouraged by local loop unbundling, consequently, the five largest providers had 91% of all connections in 2009, with BT (26%), TalkTalk (25%) and Virgin Media (23%) leading the pack.
Owing to its dominance of mobile telephone, Vodafone is left with the other three options (fixed line telephone, television, and broadband).
The local loop unbundling process allows companies to install their own equipment in the existing BT network to provide voice and broadband internet services to their own customers, therefore, Vodafone would only have to purchase the necessary hardware and have their fixed line telephone and broadband running, rather than build their own network, which would be very costly (Yip, 1995).
However, it could acquire Wi-Fi operators or build its own network and increase coverage in other parts of the country. The only segment that would require a major partnership or acquisition would be in television as it is dominated by three major companies.
Recommendations After a detailed analysis of the competitors, it is observed that the most effective measure for Vodafone would be to provide a ‘triple play’ strategy in which it would provide mobile telephone services, fixed line telephone, and broadband (Yip, 1995).
The company already has well-established mobile telephone network while the installation of fixed line telephone and broadband would require less capital outlay because, by using the local loop unbundling as provided by the Office of Communication, it will rely on the existing BT network.
Works Cited Johnson, Gerry, Whittington, Richard, and Scholes, Kevan. Exploring Corporate Strategy. NJ: Pearson Education, 2010. Print.
Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: Free Press, 2004. Print.
Yip, George. Total Global Strategy : managing for worldwide competitive advantage. NY: Prentice Hall, 1995. Print.
Analysis of the Solitary Reaper Essay online essay help
As an introduction to the book, Wordsworth catches the readers’ attention by pointing to a beautiful girl working alone in the field reaping and singing by herself. The girl does not want to be interrupted and alludes to the valley being full of songs.
The first stanza of the song heaps a lot of praises on the girl’s beauty and the extent of loneliness she is in. The speaker is not able to comprehend the words of the song that the girl is singing, but only guesses what she could be singing about.
The numbers in the third stanza may be flowing, but for the old and unhappy people this could be far-off things and battles that were fought in earlier years.
The reader is not sure whether the song is a more humble lay characteristic of today’s life, and wonders whether the song would be a manifestation of a natural sorrow, loss, or pain that occurred and has chances of recurring.
The song that the maiden was singing remained in the speaker’s heart as he climbed up the hill despite the fact that he did not understand what she was singing. It is difficult to understand whatever it was that stayed in the heart of the speaker if he could not understand the actual song.
Could be there is something that attracted the speaker other than the song? Probably the maiden’s voice. What else could have made him motionless and still if he could not articulate the words that were used in the song? The song remained in his heart until he went up in the hills, where he could hear of it no more.
The Solitary Reaper has four stanzas that are arranged into eight lines each, bringing the total number of lines to thirty-two. Its rhyme scheme alternates between abcbdde and ababccdd. The opening and the closing stanzas do not rhyme, in contrast, the other two stanzas, that is, the second and third, have a matching rhyme scheme.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of Wordsmith’s works are influenced by the experience that he had gone through. However, Solitary Reaper is unique in the sense that Wordsmith writes about one Thomas Wilkinson’s Tour to the British Mountains as evidenced in the books passage that talks about passing a female who was reaping alone while singing in Erse.
The poem is so intriguing because the speaker barely understands what the woman is singing about, and relies heavily on imagination. He harbors a feeling that the lady may be singing about history.
When the speaker talks about carrying the music of the young lady into his heart, attention is drawn to typical Wordsmith poetry that is underlined by heavy romantic undertones. No wonder the speaker finds it strange that the young lady reaps and sings by herself (James, pp. 68).
The poet warns anybody passing the solitary lady who is reaping to avoid disturbing her, but either to ‘stop here’ or pass gently. Her sound is beautiful and overflows through the valley. Her sound is received more than the nightingale tune to worn out travelers in the desert.
The poet says that her voice is so thrilling and by any standards, cannot be matched with that of the cuckoo-bird. Impatience prompts the poet to ask whatever the young lady could be singing about. Wordsworth testified that most of his work was inclined observation of nature and hearing of music.
However, this specific piece is all about human music encountered in a lovely rustic scenery. He appreciates the tone of the song, its beauty, and the kind of mood the song creates in him. Not so much credence is given to the songs explicit content, which the speaker simply guesses.
Despite the limitation of language exhibited in stanza three, the poet still marvels at the beauty of the music, the fluid expressive beauty. Wordsmith is so tactical in the way he places praise and beauty in a natural setting. The source of this beauty is a simple rustic girl.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of the Solitary Reaper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This puts this artistic piece on a Lyrical Ballad’s pedestal. The language of the piece is unforced and natural and its structure simple. The first stanzas sets the stage for the rest of the lines while the second stanza highlights comparisons between the two birds, the third stanzas tries to interrogate the content of the songs, and finally, the fourth stanza talks about the effects of the song on the speaker.
The final two lines of the Solitary Reaper focus on the theme of memory and the soothing effects of memories on someone’s thoughts and feelings. State of solitude is very important as it makes one’s soul to concentrate on his/ her elementary feelings.
The young lady is said to be single, solitary and all by herself. From the notes, the speaker is in a position to detect the emotional impact of the music the lonely girl sings. The notes of the song are welcome to the speaker (James, pp. 68).
Works Cited James, G. Ingli. Wordsworth’s Solitary Reaper. Essaya in Criticism, Volume 15, Issue 1, 1965. Pp. 65-76.
Wordsworth, William. Solitary Reaper. New York: Amazon, 1805. Print.
Steroids in Baseball Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Mass entertainment sports
Steroid use and the affected victims
Test for steroids by MLB
Economic punishment and benefits of steroids use
The habit of steroid use among professional athletes is not uncommon in sports arena. Over the past decade, athletes have been charged with the use of performance enhancement drug namely the anabolic Steroid. The reputation of these athletes has been tarnished after they openly admitted to the allegations.
However, it is common knowledge that the use of performance enhancement drugs in competitive sports has been perceived with a lot of negativity (Frounfelter
Unilever Strategic Analysis Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Strengths
Weakness of Unilever
External analysis of the company
Recommendation to remain stronger amidst the changing market
Unilever is an international consumer product manufactures like foods, personal care products, cleaning agents, and beverages; the company is listed in Rotterdam stock exchange in Netherlands as Unilever and London stock exchanges in the United Kingdom Unilever PLC, the company was founded by Samuel van den Bergh, Antonius Johannes Jurgens, and William Hulme Lever Viscount Leverhulme on 1st January 1930.
To remain competitive in the changing business arenas, the company has enacted a number of strategic management tools aimed at creating competitiveness in the company.
Current chief executive officer and non executive chairman Paul Polman and Michael Treschow are keen on developing strategies that are responsive to changes in the international business environment; the company’s main competitors are Nestlé, Reckitt Benckiser Henkel, and Procter
“This Compost” Gives Hope and Makes People Think Essay essay help site:edu
Walt Whitman is one of the greatest poets who make people take notice of all wonders of the world. In his poem “This Compost” Whitman reveals the miracle of renovation of nature which is taken for granted by most of people. Moreover, this optimistic work gives hope to all those who fail to believe in the future of humanity on the Earth.
In the first place, it is important to point out that Whitman considers issues which are ignored by many. Even the poet himself admits that he did not pay attention to one of the most startling miracles of nature: “Something startles me where I thought I was safest” (Whitman 512).
Nonetheless, his unique perception of reality draws his attention to a great puzzle – nature regeneration. Many people do not even think of the paradox – many rotten substances (like dead plants or carcasses of animals and human corpses) go into the Earth, but instead of total contamination and decay of the planet there is flourishing of newborn organisms. Only few people admit that it is a great wonder.
Perhaps, humanity is accustomed to such a phenomenon as filter. People simply think of the scientific part of the issue. Whitman who has the sixth sense notices the wonder in it and exclaims: “What chemistry!” (513). His poem which reveals the mystery and beauty of renovation of the Earth makes people cherish their planet.
Apart from this Whitman gives hope to those who think that humanity has no future. He describes terrifying things noting that millions of dead and thick organisms are “swallowed” by the earth. Whitman expresses an idea, shared by many, that the earth should be contaminated by various illnesses.
Surprisingly, it is “clean forever and forever” (Whitman 514). The poet praises mysterious ability of the earth to regenerate and give new life. He is very optimistic stating that the earth absorbs sickness and transforms it into the background for new organisms to come.
In the end of the poem the reader becomes sure that there is nothing to be afraid of – the planet will regenerate. Of course, at this point it is essential to note that Whitman does not promulgate the following idea: people can pollute the planet (with various wastes and emissions) as it will renovate anyway.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The poet only depicts the natural cycle when some organisms fade away and new ones come into existence. The earth can filter this natural “contamination”: sickness of dead organisms. This ability of the earth should be praised.
Unfortunately, people forget about that miracle and do not stop exhausting the planet. Hopefully, Whitman’s poem can make people think and stop their unreasonable actions.
On balance, “This Compost” is one of those poems which can change the world. In the first place, the poet makes people notice the miraculous nature of the process which is usually taken for granted. On the other hand, the poem gives hope to those who are afraid of the future.
Whitman states that the earth regenerates. It can turn illness into a new life. There can be no decay on the Earth, so humanity has the future. Of course, the poem still makes people think of those unreasonable actions which pollute the planet. Praising regeneration of the planet Whitman’s poem makes people understand that natural cycle will not work when it deals with pollution.
Work Cited Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass: First and “Death-Bed” Editions. Ed. Karen Karbiener. New York: Barnes
Human services agencies Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Human services agencies can be defined as institutions formed with an aim of providing services that improve the well being of their clients. They are basically involved in providing or assisting in provision of support to people who are in needs in a particular community.
The support may be in terms of basic requirements such as food, housing, clothing as well as health; physical or mental. Members of a community usually turn to Human Services Agencies for help especially when the situation is beyond their capability.
In this case the agency is responsible for bringing back the situation into its normal state. In other word, Human Services Agencies provide physical and emotional needs to people.
In order to achieve this, the agency uses the best strategies to address the situation. The most common being mediation and advocating which in most cases they are used together (Umbreit, 2000).
Mediation can be defined as a method of resolving disputes between people by introducing a third party to intervene between them. In this case, the two conflicting parties are assisted in finding a common ground. The third party does not take sides and is required to hear from both parties. Advocacy on the other hand involves a third party who speaks for this/her client.
Existing Integration of Mediation and Advocacy within a Human Services Agency U. S. department of Air Force is one agency that integrates mediation and advocacy in conflict resolution. They use their web site to offer information for the human services through Alternative Dispute Resolution Program. Their target population includes researchers, government and members of the Air Force.
Through this program, the agency meets the needs of the people using the Air Force resources. In addition, it provides training and professionals who provide support to other people and the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More National center for state courts is a Human Service Agency that operates on court basis in relation to alternative dispute resolution. It seeks to address issues from a wide area of contexts including schools, government and members of the public.
The core method used in conflict resolution by this agency is mediation. Since it deals with courts, advocacy and mediation are employed especially in civil and criminal cases.
U. S. department of justice office of dispute resolution is another human service agency that uses both mediation and advocacy.
Their target population is the entire community. It seeks to provide justice for people who have been oppressed. Moreover, it emphasizes on using the best methods in solving the conflicts among people as well as those involving government states (United States Department of Justice Office of Dispute Resolution, 2010).
Merits of Mediation as a Method of Conflict Resolution Mediation is the best method of offering human services to the parties discussed in the agencies above. This is because mediation employs dialogue in which a given population is given an opportunity to present his/her argument.
In this case both parties come up with a solution that favors both sides. It is the best because parties involved are given the power to make decisions unlike other methods in which a third party make decision for them. Mediation provides a win-win situation (Haley and Jacqueline, 1998).
Conclusion Methods employed in providing human services should be effective and efficient. Since at the time of employing them the situation is usually worse, they should thrive to better the situation.
We will write a custom Essay on Human services agencies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They should therefore improve the situation without creating a win-lose situation. Mediation and advocacy method of providing human services ensure that the lives of affected people are made better without exploiting the other party.
References Haley, N.
Max Weber – The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Protestant Ethic
Introduction Max Weber in his book the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism sought to explain the emergence of the modern capitalism and the origin of the modern secular and industrial society.
According to Weber, the source of work ethic and material success that is considered the beginning of material success is found in the premises of business strength. To him, even the modern day capitalists are unable to explain its origin.
According to Weber, the spirit of the present capitalism developed out of protestant ethic of the 16th century of the puritan churches and even sects: these are mainly the Calvinists, the Methodists, and the Quakers etcetera.
These Protestants prioritized work over material success and nothing else mattered according to them whether their families, leisure or hobbies, and therefore capitalism was argued to have roots in the protestant denomination (Protestant Ethic 14).
The Protestant Ethic According to Weber, capitalism was the accumulation of wealth and deeply rooted in rationality; to him capitalism emerged victorious over tradition and was as a result of a disciplined labor force. This scenario was only evident in European countries and more particularly in protestant nations.
Weber arrived at the protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism by analyzing the three religions; the Catholicism, Lutheranism and the protestant denominations and related the analysis to the extent they could bring psychological rewards.
The Catholics argued that placing wealth before God could jeopardize the soul and also that was against the kingdom of God as nothing as nothing ought to come before the kingdom. Weber agreed that individuals explained human behavior in reference to religion and not economic power in connection to religion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He furthermore agreed that human beings did not view the supernatural as a causal factor but instead they considered the structural factors as causal factors. These structural factors include economic, political and social forces. Max Weber believed that religious belief has a lot of influence in the daily life of every individual.
What Weber sought to explain is evident in the modern society; among the Americans, for example, dedication to work and success in life is derived from protestant beliefs or the tradition of the protestant people.
This was evident in the year 1999 when the USA replaced Japan as the global leader in the number of hours worked per year. Hard working people in the society are often appreciated and praised. If Weber could have been alive, he could have regarded these features of the American society as true reflection of his thesis.
When Weber discussed capitalism that was characterized by profit maximization and mass production, he analyzed so devoid of the principle of human rationality.
Weber failed to recognize that any human being is bound by the principles that govern every society and it is a matter of duty rather than religion that makes an individual to exploit its labor (Etzrodt 4).
The constant and consistent capacity to work hard is associated with one’s religious indoctrination and one’s desire to work hard is assumed to be a favor from God.
Weber assumed vocational calling as a sign psychological motivation from God and the values of restlessness and systematic work in vocational calling were the best demonstration that God’s power was in that individual.
We will write a custom Essay on Max Weber – The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those in modern business tirelessly strive for wealth and profit since this gives them assurance of salvation because doing so is sanctioned by God and hence a fundamental source of the protestant ethic.
Profit and wealth in business was linked to God’s favor for an earthly kingdom of abundance and a massive production of wealth and generation of profit by an individual was an indication that God favored that individual.
Also the opportunity to compete by those in business was not by chance but was considered an opportunity provided by God to generate wealth.
Weber argued that the acquisition of wealth was an end in itself; similarly, he argued that the urge to acquire riches for the sake of living well and luxuriously was in itself a sin and was to be condemned since it went against Gods intention that only good and pleasant life was found in heaven and not in earth.
Also to him, the hardworking and business oriented individuals could not boost of their status of their accumulated wealth or profit as a sign that they were among the chosen few and instead they were to link it to religious significance and view it as an indication of salvation (Weber 8).
The greatest impact of this spirit of capitalism was that any person who was involved in the acquisition and accumulation of wealth was to perform that with the main desire to place himself/herself at the core of life.
Weber was against the motive of accumulating wealth for greed or the accumulation of wealth for sole purpose of bodily or earthly comfort but was for the idea that it ought to be saved, accumulated and later to be re-invested in worthy enterprise.
Criticism Weber is highly criticized due to his argument that capitalism neither could nor has been possible and without ethic or rather a spirit. Instead the critiques argue that capitalism can in the case of Catholicism just like Protestantism since capitalism could occur not only based on ascetism but also on rationality.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Max Weber – The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A critical analysis of Weber’s work indicates that it was a misinterpretation of other churches and sects, indeed there is an inclusion that Calvinist ideas were not capitalist in form. There is also an utter misrepresentation of the Catholic Church. Contemporary arguments are that Catholicism is manifestly capitalistic and their ideals favor capitalism.
Weber failed to explain the fact that the reformation by John Calvin and Martin Luther king was a reaction towards the capitalistic tendencies of the Catholic Church as opposed to his explanation that it was a way of allowing protestant capitalism to develop.
This is the position of Weber that suffer from the heaviest criticisms since it is well understood that the motive of the reformation was due to the fact that catholic was participating in the accumulation of wealth.
Furthermore, Weber’s work has been criticized due to his failure to factor in two historical features; first was the prosperity the cities of Venice and Genoa which were prosperous and economically wealth in Europe during the time Max Weber was writing his thesis.
Consequently, during the same time, there was rivalry between Austria and Prussia and during their war; Prussia was dominantly supported by the catholic France which was the powerful state in Europe at that time. Weber also failed to factor in this catholic factor and the sources of this catholic wealth and this is considered the missing link in his arguments (Pierotti 1).
In the contemporary world, developments and prosperity of states do not conform to the assertions of Weber. The recent development in the East Asian region is an evident that capitalism does not follow the line of religion since these countries are not Protestants.
Consequently the modern prosperity that is witnessed in countries like Spain and Italy which are predominantly catholic and yet they subscribe to capitalistic ideologies totally contradicts Max’s assertion that capitalism is synonymous to the protestant doctrines.
This example is a clear indication that capitalism is influenced by factors like geography, political and secular orientation and not Protestantism per se (Parsons and Weber 35). The association by Weber of capitalism to the age of reformation has also been highly criticized.
This is because capitalism existed before the age of reformation and Europe practiced capitalism before the protestant revolution and if Weber’s assertion that Protestantism is linked to capitalism then the emergence of the protestant revolution only perpetuated the already existing capitalism.
Conclusion The fact that Weber introduced the theme of the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism to understand why the west was developing faster than other regions and yet other societies had the necessary materials yet they were not developing led to a conclusion that there was a phenomenon that sparked this development which could also make them to abandon their traditional ways.
The big question that Weber failed to answer was whether all countries in the west were subscribing to the protestant ideals? If the answer was yes then he definitely was wrong and his thesis was incorrect since there were countries like Spain, England, Poland and Italy which were dominantly catholic and yet their level of development and prosperity was at par with that of other western countries.
If his answer was no, then he would have totally contradicted his work and his thesis. Therefore the argument by Max Weber does not seem to hold much truth.
Works Cited Etzrodt, Christian. Weber’s Protestant-Ethic Thesis, the Critics, and Adam Smith. MaxWeber Studies, n.d. Web.
Parsons, Talcott and Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.
Pierotti, Sandra. Backup of the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Criticisms of Weber’s Thesis, 2003. Web.
Protestant Ethic. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Soc, n.d. Web.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. RoxBury, 2011. Web.
Visual Communication Essay custom essay help
There are many ways to communicate and Visualization is one of them. It is a powerful tool that aids communication as it acknowledges the power of visual skills. Visual communications, as the name indicates, is the type of communication that uses visuals to relay information.
As such information, data and knowledge can be relayed in a manner that it can be looked upon. Therefore visualization is one of the knowledge management techniques. The use of visuals media make information more meaningful to people. There are several visual communication tools that are used to make communication more meaningful.
Among the visual communication tools are: information graphics, symbols and signs, shapes and colours, charts and graphs, and typography. Each of these visual media tools is useful for presentation of specific type of information. Graphs and tables, topography and use of colours are important visual tools that aid the presentation and comprehension of data.
Graphs and tables are the crudest form of visual communication. This is because the technologies and techniques used in formulation these types of visual mediums are simple and easy to use. Graphs and tables are used to add more meaning to quantitative data.
Graphs help to highlight the relationships between values being described by giving them size. While using graphs and tables it becomes easier to discern how the variables are related in terms of the trends and pattern.
For graphs and tables to be effective they must be minimal obstructions that obscure the information being relayed. Features such as 3D effects and background pictures should be avoided in construction of graphs and tables.
However, colour can be used to enhance meaning. Colour helps to highlight the actual differences in the variables being compared as well as showing the correlations between those variables (Few, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The advantage of graphical representations over tables is that graphs help readers to interpret data in form of shapes and colours, which is not possible while using tables.
Tables are graphical methods of presenting data in form of numerical values. As such, it becomes easier to locate specific values. The figure below shows an example of a simple graph that uses colour to contrast a number of variables
Source: Few 2006
Other than in graphs colour can be used in photos and pictures. Colour is useful as a form of visual communication tool as it is known to affect human behaviour. This is because each of the colours has a specific meaning. Black colour represents mourning, while white colour may be used to reefer to peace and purity.
In most of the cultures across the world, red mean danger. Due to the varied meaning of colours across cultures, they are therefore used to express connotations about reality. Furthermore, colours are sued to express feelings and emotions such as joy, anger, love and fear.
Colour should also be used sparingly as the more the number of colour used in a graphical representation the more chaotic the presentation becomes. However, the use of colour has a number of advantages.
It increases comprehension of the information being relayed as it increases recognition of specific data of colour is that it increases the comprehension of can be used to link related data, improves learning and reduces error of interpreting data. As such colour is effective in aiding the recall of knowledge.
We will write a custom Essay on Visual Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For colour to be effective as a visual tool it must be used with space around it to show separation. Bright colours should be used to indicate priority information (Hostetler, n.d.). When colour is used on photos and pictures it helps to enhance reality as opposed to black and white images.
Colour also adds meaning to identity of the photos as it rouses the sense of perception (Douglis, 2004). The graph below shows how colour indicates trends and relations between the EURO against the US dollars and Japanese yen exchange rates
Source: Bank of Finland 1999
Topography is another of the visual communication aids that is used to aid communications. Topographical forms are used effectively to evoke feelings and emotions from the audience. This is achieved via combining physical form with textual forms.
Topography is used to convey one of the most useful attribute of than existences: motion. Through the use of topographical a sense of direction is achieved. The use of topographical forms is combined with technological innovations resulting to visual communication referred to as topographical animations.
Topographical forms can also be used to relay the essence of time. Using visual topographical forms in motion, objects may be made to appear and disappear into space thus indicating a sequence of time. The figure below is a topographical representation of visual punctuation that evokes human feelings of thrill, hope or apprehension using the exclamation mark (Hostetler, n.d.).
Source: Hostetler, n.d.
The use of visual communication tools has therefore been used facilitate better relay of information. Visual communication tools such as images, colour pictures and topography are used to add more meaning to a message as they aid the comprehension of information.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Visual Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Visual also enhance the meaning of a message as they evoke emotions from the reader. Moreover, visuals can also be used to express other dimensions such as direction, space and time. As such communication is effective through visual communication tools.
Reference List Bank of Finland (1999). Euro exchange rates. Web.
Douglis, P. (2004). When color makes the difference in conveying ideas and meaning. Communication World, 21(4), 52-53. Web.
Few, S. (2006). Stephen Visual communication. Web.
Hostetler, S. (n.d). Integrating Typography and Motion in Visual Communication. Web.
Doing the Truth in Love by Himes, Michael Edition 95” Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Sacramental Vision
Eucharist: Covenant, Thanksgiving, and Destiny
Doing the Truth in Love
The Christian religion has some values that can be seen to follow the line of ethical conduct in the community; Himes Michael in the book “Doing the Truth in Love by Himes, Michael Edition 95” discuses the religion of Christianity from the angle of a catholic. This short paper reviews chapters seven to nine of the book and discusses some of the aspects brought about.
Sacramental Vision When discussing on sacramental vision, the writer elaborated on the attachment that Catholics had with sacrament; they believe that sacrament is the body of Christ thus they perform the ritual as a form of remembrance of the father of the religion.
The sacrament is aimed at renewing relationships with Christ and offering the Christians a chance to repent their sins and connect with the fathers of the religion.
From the ethical perspective, the issues of renewing once visions and keeping the vision that one has is reinforced in the chapter; whether in business or community, it is ethical to be focused on once vision and have policies to keep track in the case the vision seems burred.
The chapter was significance as understood that human beings can fail in their promises however it gives them hope that when they fail, they should not keep on the broken situation but should arise and repent and move on with life.
The most interesting thing about the topic is how understanding and forgiving Christ it; the virtue of accepting once sins and repenting them has also been emphasized.
When reading the chapter the questions that lingers in the mind is how many time can someone seek repentance?
If forgiveness is guaranteed are there chances that people will become reckless with their actions
Is there an ideal situation in the world?
Eucharist: Covenant, Thanksgiving, and Destiny When the writer was reflecting on the topic he was of the opinion that in life its ethical to show your gratitude and offer some thanks to those people who do good to you; the approach as taken by the religion shows the need to value the little things that other people do to someone and being willing to pass a vote of thanks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Christianity, Eucharist is a show of reunion with the Christ whom the Christian has a covenant with, they do this through thank giving, repenting and keeping focused to their destiny.
When reading the chapter, the most important aspect that came out is the need to offer thanks and appreciate other people who have done something good to use; on the other hand, the chapter reinforces the need to keep our promises with other people and suggest that people should have a way that they should remind themselves of the promises they made and keep them.
When reading the text, the most interesting thing that comes in my mind is how well the Christians with catholic faith have mastered the art of repenting and thanks giving however the question that lingered in my mind is how sincere the believers are?
Should Eucharist and thank giving offer them a leeway that they can behave unacceptable then repent to save their relation with God and keep their destiny alive?
On the positive side of it, the chapter was challenging me to look into the promises that I have made and consider if I have enacted adequate strategies to them work.
Doing the Truth in Love The religion of Christianity is called the religion of love; love is in the center stage of the religion as people are expected to love each other as they love themselves.
In chapter nine, the writer emphasis the need to do the right thing and be truthful in what they do, love should be the center stage when deciding how to treat someone or the measures to take in the case that an issue has arose.
We will write a custom Essay on Doing the Truth in Love by Himes, Michael Edition 95” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When reading the chapter the most interesting thing was to the extent that the bible requires people to love each other, the love should be as much as someone loves himself; the chapter seemed exaggerated however it is the bible that states so, thus Christians have no option than obeying the commandments.
The chapter was significance in the study and understanding of ethics in societies either among people or in businesses, according to the chapter, there is increasing need to have loved and thinking of the other person as you would like him to think about you. The thought will yield good result and develop the society as a whole (Himes 78- 145).
When reading the chapter, I was feeling a deficiency that I have to love and cherish others; it was challenging to adopt the levels that it seemed to advocate however the following questions arose as a result:
Is the love advocated among Christians practical?
Can someone be able love other people equally and treat them right always?
Are there no situations that love can fail to work?
Works Cited Himes, Michael. Doing the Truth in Love. New York: Paulist Press, 1995. Print.
Analysis of media coverage of president Obama’s activities Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Positive, negative neutral or biased coverage
Introduction The topic of Obama’s media coverage has sparked numerous debates in several media houses in America. Many of these arguments have taken a comparative study between the previous regimes, for instance the Bush and Clinton reign. A comprehensive research has been carried out and divided into three categories.
First was to establish if the media has been biased, secondly is to identify whether the media has taken a neutral stand and thirdly to establish if the media has taken a negative view.
Lastly, if the said research has been biased; it is imperative to note that the American media since the presidential campaigns in two thousand and eight has been in favor of president Obama.
Positive, negative neutral or biased coverage The media is expected to be fair and balanced but it is said to have grossly deviated from such norms. The gravity of the allegations of bribery was stated but none has so far been proved; hence confrontations and blame has been levied on the media houses up to the casting of the ballot when the democrat candidate took an early lead.
The media was labeled biased in its opinion polls even before the polls. The swearing into office of president Obama was highly captured by the media and accordingly the media had no option except covering the event for the sake of their faithful viewers and listeners.
It would be unreasonable to suggest or imagine less coverage of such an event since it would have had a negative commercial effect on the media further the fear of being termed the governments enemy couldn’t be ruled out at that stage (Calmes, p.40).
The only option seen as the last resort was to sufficiently cover such an event. It is without doubt to state that what happened in the campaigns was reflected in the white house when Obama took office.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This reflection by American media serves as a great detriment to America and the consequences are felt by the citizens who mainly rely on the media for first hand information. If the media feeds its respondents with one-sided stories it means that the truth will be kept hidden.
The only unfairness is to have the media which purports to be neutral and independent but instead it turns out to be the fourth arm of the government (Obama, p.47).
The media seemed to have given the Obama’s administration a positive coverage from the first day in office in what they famously called the hundred days in office. A policy started by the former American president Roosevelt who measured his achievement from the first day in power up to the hundredth day.
Compared to Clinton and Bush the Obama administration received a positive tone from the media. Editors are said to have positively covered Obama’s government as early as the first hundred years in office.
Media was said to give Obama, by then a democratic presidential candidate, more coverage than his republican counterpart John Mcain.This criticisms were strongly hurled on almost all media houses but much of the criticism was directed towards CNN (Phillips, P. 12).
However, many media houses can defend their positive image by stating that president Obama took power when America was experiencing tough economic crisis which president Obama seems to keenly take interest and positive response which was not the case in nineteen ninety nine when Clinton came into power and the two thousand and one during the Bush regime.
What appeared as a bad time for Obama to come into power gave him the admiration of the media.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of media coverage of president Obama’s activities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is no doubt that the popular nature of Obama than his predecessor has made him more irresistible by the media. His eloquence, charisma and sensitivity to the felt needs of the majority population of Americans.
The low and unfavorable coverage of President Bush gave Obama a savior admiration. Its should be remembered that Obama had to set aside some of his policies to build the image of America in the outside world which included the closure of the Guatanamo Bay and improving the American relation with the Arab world and more specifically the Iraq issue.
Obama’s move to withdraw American troops from Iraq to let the Iraq people form their government was highly welcomed by both American and Arabic media (Ahrens, P.8).
No wonder his favored coverage has been based on his policies and the mere believe that he is a symbol of change because he is the first black American president.
Media bias has been said to be one of the greatest contributor of Obama’s victory. For instance, it has been alleged that Obama is a smoker but the mainstream media has never stated that in their news.
The mainstream media has been blamed for handling Obama with kids gloves instead of perceiving him like any other politician who makes promises and can later break them. The independent investigative role of journalists is being quickly replaced by a worshipful media (King, p.54). Such biased coverage can be traced from the forty two million dollars on budget set for Bush inauguration.
This was criticized by the media bitterly but when such amount was set for the Obama’s inauguration it seemed to be accepted by the media and the media did not raise a finger to question that act; while during the time of the Bush he was said to remind the American population of the French extravagant Lois XVI.
We can not sit and wish away this partisan news presentation while it’s rumored that a photographer in Times Magazine works for both the magazine and for the white house. Such conflict of interest in the media will always lead to news being one-sided.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of media coverage of president Obama’s activities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The once respected voice of the needy and the opposition during the past regimes has now changed into a praising tool of the government. Still in the same economic crisis, troops still in Iraq and the rarely talked of Guatanamo bay Issue is pending.(Phillips, P.61).
There seems to have been a love affair between the press and Obama. In fact one journalist is said to have said that he had seen many presidents but he couldn’t find fault in president Obama and he didn’t know anyone who hates Obama.
The Whitehouse is criticized for choosing the journalists to ask questions in a press conference. The pro-government journalists are selected while others are left (Philips, p. 64).
On a critical point like the May first killing of Osama Bin Laden, the mainstream media wasted its time to promote its partial news reporting when they kept showing how the killing of Osama would boast Obamas popularity.
The media ought to have looked at that invasion of Pakistan as a serious breach of international law since that was a direct interference with another country’s sovereignty which will for sometime affect the relationship between America and Pakistan.
Furthermore the media should have cautioned the honorary American citizens of the dangers of a terrorist threat by Al Qaeda in a move to revenge the death of their leader.
Obama is enjoying a messiah treatment in Whitehouse and he must have learned the essential use of media in politics. He seems more smart instead of using force to get their support he instead manipulates them by inviting them for dinner.
For maintenance of checks and balances in any country, the government must respect the vibrant role of the press. This marriage of the press by the state can not facilitate a healthy state (Calmes, p.44).
Despite the major criticism against the mainstream media, the first hundred days contained in depth analyses of the issues ahead of the Obama’s presidential road. For instance, Fox news fully covered the hundred days in office in office by showing the priorities and the challenges facing the Obama’s administration.
The BBC world service seemed to make a neutral analysis by conducting an opinion poll to show the high hopes of the American relations being improved. The passing of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 was impartially covered with factual details on how the Act would help in American economic crisis.
It is important to state that at this point the media sufficiently covered the events in a more analytical way to give an educative role which assures a grain of hope in a neutral media (Reid, p.77).
The passing of the States Children Health Insurance Program also was faced with much scrutiny by the mainstream media. The direct comparison given of the earlier regimes health care programs portray less partisan mass media.
Furthermore, the Led Better law which erupted into major controversies was also considered in its distinct stages before it was passed into law.
The media has also taken a fore role to capture the Iraq issue putting a reminder on the Obama administration that the withdrawal of the American troops from the Iraq was to take part during the first hundred days of his coming into power a thing which Obama administration is depicted by the media as shifting the goal posts to be able to convince American citizens that they have not failed.
At this point we consider the act of the New York Times to cover the one hundred days achievement in a five days series containing a substantial framework of what was promised within the hundred days and so far what has been achieved (Reid, p. 79).
The few neutral media coverage has been seen as a drop of water in a sea considering the coverage of the ABC channel which has been dubbed “All Barrack channel” since the channel seems to have mainly taken a side of being pro Obama in all aspects which leaves the listener with a nagging question of whether the Obama government is all that perfect(MSNBC.com, Para 4).
When the prices of gas in U.S were going up during the Bush regime the media was very active in its criticism but a time like today when the gas prices are soaring high no meaningful scrutiny is taking place and the media has feigned blindness hence causing all levels of inference to be drawn on the exact role of the media.
The media while pretending to be liberal has tried to paint the obamas regime as facing a hard task hence playing and negotiating the role seeking sympathetic perception. Just like telling Americans to understand that the government cannot deliver since it is in a can’t-help situation.
The media is portraying the Obama administration as helpless as per the circumstances. Lots of strong sentiments have been put forward calling the Obama administration a manipulator of the media.
The sad story is that the mainstream media has been crippled and hence giving the Obama governmenment a chance to not only control the media houses but also divide and rule them.
We finally experience the shifting blame game between the different media houses. On the reality part of it, the citizens are forced to watch a media with two sides not knowing which side to support (Calmes, p.49).
Still shocked of how the Israel prime minister visited white house and left unmentioned. If the coverage was prohibited the media should have reported that to their listeners but of course it would have changed the view that the government has on the media; a thing that the media could not have risked doing.
They prefer breaching their relationship with the listeners rather than reporting what the government doesn’t approve. A decision is already made that if there is a conflict between the government and the interests of the citizens who are the listeners the government’s interest is to prevail.
To be critical enough, the much appraised tea demonstration coverage has presented a temptation to the effect that the media is unbiased but the twist awakes great surprise when we learn that the founder of the organization is a great ally of president Obama. It now leads to a very interesting conclusion of the media being the fourth branch of the government (Calmes, p.52).
President Obama seems to have gone against the very principles of freedom of speech and the independence of the media ideas he advocated for. Maybe they were sweet words said to win the audience and in turn translate into votes.
During his campaign trail he used the press conferences, a thing expected to be reciprocated after him taking office but it took everyone by surprise when he cut the conferences and begun selecting the journalists allowed to ask questions prior to him allowing such conferences.
In the recent gay rights demonstration which took part in the white house neighbourhood, the police were seen chasing the journalists and the reporters a thing not evident in the past. The lack of transparency and the move to suppress media coverage is very new.
Is the media trying to make whatever the Obama administration does right? The truth is if such an event occurred during the Bush days there would be much said. The media has been used and abused by the Obama administration and it doesn’t surprise anyone when the government passed laws to shamelessly prohibit and to fully limit the press covering the gulf oil spilling (Obama, p. 35).
Propaganda by the media about the recovery program has been aimed at showing not only that the program is effective but how it has already reached the recovery point. This is a great lie because the media impresses the government on a program which is on its knees.
The recession is greatly felt and it’s an insult to the American population to feed them with lies of economic recovery while the situation on ground is pathetic and unbearable.
President Obama seems to have smartly mastered some rules to play by for instance he followed the protocols of inviting the media at Oval office. His invitations to the press were to create a picture of transparency which is not there in the first place (Obama, p. 26).
The presentation of a global warming research with highlights of the dangerous economic times has been received with much praise and excitement from the usual media. Expected though but it is still unbelievable of how environmental issues were being taken lightly by the media.
The major controversies on the impact of global warming should at least have been considered and given the attention they deserve.
Presentation of the maps and chats from various government departments was supposed to be given a keen analysis to convey the real situation instead of praising the government’s effort while the effects of the environmental degradation are felt daily.
This present confusion as presented by the media is outrageous. Long before the Labor Department released their figures on the jobs created by the government, the mainstream media had given a full coverage of twenty thousand jobs created by the government for the hundred days in office.
This figure was highly questioned and when the department made its release, the results couldn’t match the ones earlier released by the press (Ahrens, p. 17).
A strong allegation on the Obama’s administration trying to shift the economic structure into socialism has been ignored by the media intentionally.
There has been a new tie between America and China and most importantly with Russsia.Does it means that the media is not aware of such a rumor? Why the loyal silence? The government of president Obama is highly protected and media happens to be the ruthless supporter of the government.
Creation of this propaganda and total denial of information can be a time bomb and the effects are tremendous. The recent uprisings in the Arab world have been occasioned by having a media which will not only sieve what to give to their listeners in favor of the government but also defend and follows everything said by the government religiously.
The results are devastating and it can take decades or eternity for a country to heal from the impacts of a revolution (Atlas, 248).
Much false hope has been implanted in the minds of the masses on the Obama administration and the media has perfectly enhanced that. After the victory of Obama it was thought to be the end of Iraq like scenarios but we can’t wish that when Libya has been invaded with a clear strategy of removing Gaddaffi from power.
The image that the Americans thought was to be improved has grossly been tainted. How does the bad leadership in Libya affect America?
It takes the world by surprise when it happens under the watchful eyes of a toothless partisan media. What the media does is to try to sharpen their criticism against another regime while their own regime is not different at all (Phillips, p. 23).
Conclusion Amidst much debate on the media coverage of president Obama’s rule, facts have beyond doubt proved that to a larger extent the media has positively covered president Obama.
It emanates from the campaign trail whereby the media was rumored to have favored him. The role taken by the press to behave as the fourth wing of the government should be condemned and the country should embark on establishing a fair, free and impartial mass media for full realization of progress in the country
Works Cited Ahrens, Frank ”Senate Passes Stimulus Bill, 61-37″. The Washington Post. 2009-02-10.
Atlas, John. Seeds of Change: The Story of ACORN, America’s Most Controversial Antipoverty Community Organizing Group. New York, Vanderbilt University Press, 2010.
Calmes, Jackie ”House Passes Stimulus Plan Despite G.O.P.Opposition”. The New York Times, January 28, 2009.
King, John, Second 100 days will be bigger test for Obama, CNN, MSNBC.com. “In First 100 Days, Obama Flips Bush Admin’s Policies, ABC News, Huma. Bush has reached an important milestone”. MSNBC.com. Microsoft.
Obama, Barrack ‘Dramatic Action’ Needed Now to Fix Economy”. The New York Times. 2009-01-17.
Phillips, Kate. “Senate Passes Stimulus Bill, 61-37”. The New York Times, 2009-02-10.
Reid, Tim “Barrack Obama lays plans to deaden expectation after election victory”. The Times, 2008-11-01.
Ways in which people are guilty of George Orwell’s complaints Research Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Instances of Orwell’s complaints in today’s political language
Introduction Political jargon is still one of the most confusing languages spoken. George Orwell’s observaions are just as true today as they were when he wrote the book “Politics and the English language’.
However, because these mistakes are based on context, then political language today has also varied. All the basic deviations exist; it is simply execution that has changed.
Instances of Orwell’s complaints in today’s political language One of the four issues Orwell talks about is the use of meaningless words. Modern writing is now characterized by words which add little to the overall meaning intended.
These are worsened by the piecing together of meaningless words to form vague paragraphs and phrases. Orwell (13) uses a well known verse from the bible to illustrate this argument.
He affirms that while the bible would state that “the race is not to the swift … nor to the strong… but time happeneth to all” (Orwell, 10), modern writers would say this: “contemporary phenomena compels the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity”(Orwell, 10).
He criticizes this modern translation because it is not arresting enough, it also dilutes the writer’s original meaning and lacks in concreteness. In fact, Orwell’s biggest objection to modern political writing is that it lacks images. Most writers are fond of using several long and unnecessary phrases.
These mistakes are still prevalent in today’s political scene. In fact, the 2008 political campaigns were full of them. When presidential candidate John McCain attended a political rally at Moon Township in Western Pennsylvania, this is what he said
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “You know, I think you may have noticed that Senator Obama’s supporters have been saying some pretty nasty things about Western Pennsylvania lately. And you know, I couldn’t agree with them more.
I couldn’t disagree with you. I couldn’t agree with you more than the fact that Western Pennsylvania is the most patriotic, most god-loving, most, most patriotic part of America, and this is a great part of the country” (Diakides, 15).
Senator McCain was guilty of the same misdeeds discussed in Orwell’s book. First, he contradicts himself by saying that he agrees with his opponents but then realizes the mistake he has made and corrects it in the second sentence by cliaming that he agrees with the voters.
He then affirms this in a third sentence by repeating what he said in the first sentence that he could not agree more with the audience. He did what many writers and speakers in the political environment tend to do; he chocked himself with his own words.
McCain landed himself in trouble because he used too many negatives in this quote. Instead of simply saying that he agrees with the Western Pennsylvanians, he negated his main verb by comparing it with something else but because he had not thought through that comparison then he ended up contradicting himself.
After going around in circles, the speaker then repeats the same phrase that he started with, in reference to the audience and not his opponents. Orwell (11) explains that most politicians have a tendency of piecing together meaningless words as phrases because it takes less time and effort to think about them.
The words “couldn’t agree with you more” could simply be substituted with “I agree with you”. Orwell (13) explains that this kind of English is particularly appealing to politicians because it is easier and quicker. One does not have to think about complementary words because they are already preset in these meaningless phrases.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ways in which people are guilty of George Orwell’s complaints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presidential hopeful was probably trying to think of a clever way of getting a negative message across without sounding so aggressive. These instances of clumsiness hurt McCain’s campaign as the public had satirized him for it.
He would have prevented all that by thinking about what he wanted to say, gathering the right words, piecing them up in the shortest way and avoiding as much “ugliness” in his speech as possible.
Another issue that George Orwell discusses in his book is the use of operators or verbal false limbs. Here, speakers replace simple nouns and verbs with phrases made of adjectives and nouns.
For example, instead of using the word ‘involved’ a politician would rather say ‘play a leading part in’. Furthermore, these kinds of speeches tend to avoid use of the un- formation and instead replace them with endings such as –ize. In the 2008 political campaign, another political leader committed the same sin.
Sara Palin was speaking at a fundraiser in Greensoboro and this is what she said:
“We believe that the best of America is not all in Washington, D.C…. We believe that the best of America is in these small towns that we get to visit, and in these wonderful little pockets of what I call the real America, being here with all of you hard working very patriotic, um, very, um, pro-America areas of this great nation.” (Eilperin, 7)
In the speech, Palin adds what Orwell calls a false limb to the noun America when she calls the people of Greensoboro ‘pro-American’. This term caused a lot of debate among opponents and supporters because they did not agree with her intended meaning in the sentence.
By calling other towns pro-American, the VP candidate was trying to say that certain parts in America were not American. In other words, to her, Washington lacked those crucial traits that she was talking about in her campaign. Palin seemed to have been in a tight spot; she was trying to look for the right words to thank her hosts but appears to have messed that up.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ways in which people are guilty of George Orwell’s complaints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Readers and viewers of the speech could have interpreted that false limb in a number of ways; some would have taken on racist stances in that those small towns have many majorities. Others may have assumed that small townspeople had better work ethic or were more productive than larger cities.
She used a noun (America) in the place of a more descriptive word so that she could avoid taking responsibility for her utterancesions. Orwell (13) explains that politicians spoil the English language because they are insincere.
He affirms that when one’s intended and stated aims are different then one is likely to cling to these long and ambiguous terms.
Palin’s intentions may have been racial so she use the false limb in order to avoid revealing them. Indeed, she revealed the fact that politics is an aspect that is full of maneuvers and evasions when contentions and disagreements abound (Nunberg, 5).
The third mistake that Orwell identifies in his writing is the use of dying metaphors. Writers sometimes use words that do not stir up readers in any way; a possible sign that they do not care about the information they are conveying.
Some of them may not fully understand the meaning of those metaphors while others may have confused meanings by twisting the metaphor around. In these circumstances, a writer may pervert it. Orwell (12) gives the example of the phrase ‘hammer and anvil’.
He explains that certain writers may give the implication that the anvil was worse off than the hammer yet this is not true. Orwell believes that if these writers simply thought through their utterances then this scenario would not arise.
A case of such distortions occurred during the October campaign when a reporter was writing about Obama’s half aunt. The title of the report was “The November Surprise?”.
He revealed that the then Presidential candidate’s aunt was illegal. The immigration department denied her asylum so she had been using public housing illegally.
The writer believed that the information had been leaked to the public by someone in the Republican campaign since it is illegal to reveal information about someone’s legal status when the case was still unresolved.
Furthermore, Benen (6) believed that this information had the capacity to influence presidential election hence his title “November surprise”. He even cliamed that when one voted for Obama then one would expect more of the same in the subsequent four years; an indication that the author himself hoped the public would be influenced by that new revelation.
However, if one examines the context and use of this phrase then one would realize that the author has actually perverted the metaphor. In the American political scene, people use the term October surprise to describe news events that have the ability to modify outcomes in elections in the coming month.
October was the month chosen because this is the month before November when national elections take place. It started in 1972 when presidential candidate Richard Nixon announced, just twelve days prior to the national election, that peace was at hand in Vietnam (Kissinger, 13).
This came at a perfect time because Nixon had not delivered on his promise to put an end to the war during his ending four year term in office. His popularity (which was already high) increased tremendously in those two weeks and eventually contributed to his victory in the election.
The surprising news took place on 26 October and became a phrase associated with last minute news prior to the election.
When Benen (6) talked about Obama’s aunt, he was referring to surprising news that had the capacity to affect election outcomes. Although, these revelations sprung up in the month of November, the writer was not obligated to change the phrase ‘October surprise’ to ‘November surprise’.
The public is already aware of the meaning behind the term October surprise. Any last minute event that can influence presidential outcomes is understood as such.
Even if the revelation occurred just one day into the month of November, it would still have the same effect as one that occurred in the previous month and people would have understood it. He therefore distorted the metaphor because he wanted to capture every precise detail of the new information in his phrase. What matters is the principle; not the details.
Conclusion As Orwell suggested, most politicians and political writers pervert language in order to hide their insincerity, their ignorance or their laziness. The three scenarios discussed in the essay reflect these underlying vices and are symptoms of a bigger problem in American politics.
In the first scenario, presidential candidate was guilty of laziness because he did not think of the right phrase to use. His VP candidate was guilty of insencirity because she meant one thing and said another.
Lastly, the Washington post author was ignorant because he did not think about the real meaning of the original phrase so he coined another one in order to make up for those differences as he went along.
Works Cited Benen, Steve. “November surprise?” November, 1, 2008. Washington Monthly. Web.
Diakides, Tasha. Mccain: Western Pa. ‘most patriotic’ part of the country. October 21, 2008. CNN. Web.
Eilperin, Juliet. “To avoid being depressed, Palin skimps on campaign news.” October 17, 2008. Huffington post. Web.
Kissinger, Henry. Ending the Vietnam War: A history of America’s involvement in Extrication from the Vietnam War. NY: Simon Schuster, 2003. Print.
Orwell, George. Politics and the English language. NY: Horizon Publishers, 1946. Print.
Nunberg, Geoffrey. “If it’s ‘Orwellian’, it’s probably not”. June 25, 3003. New York Times. Web.
Summer Work Programs and Internships Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents The benefits to the company
The benefits to the students
During summer and other vacations, students are expected to attend some internships and summer jobs preferable those that are in line with the courses they are studying in school. When in these vocational jobs, the students and the companies benefit from the short team contracts (Sides
Social Psychology Concepts Essay essay help online
Introduction In social psychology, scholars aim at analysing social situations as per the prevailing socio-cultural environments and influences. Everything which is said and done by people is deemed to have a meaning which may have either a literal or a qualitative interpretation.
This means that a single discourse like masculinity or femininity may be surrounded by several socio-cultural explanations or interpretations which may vary from one culture to the other.
In social psychology, the concepts of interpretative repertoire, subject position and ideological dilemma are used concurrently in sense making of a particular discourse. The concepts are more or less interrelated in that they may be applicable in a single discourse or account of a person about an event, or a reaction or a person(s) to a certain internal or external stimulus.
Discussion The concept of interpretative repertoire is used by social psychologists to refer to the coherent ways of explaining or talking about people, events and or practices in the real world. According to Margret, Stephanie and Simon, in the article titled “discourse analysis”, they describe interpretative repertoire as the “the building blocks of conversation’ (Wetherell, Taylor,
Connection between Child Maltreatment and Youth Violence Research Paper essay help: essay help
Abstract Background: The developmental relationships between child maltreatment, youth violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV) are well documented. However, very few studies document the relationship between child abuse/maltreatment and youth violence as separate entities. In the present study, the relationship between child maltreatment and youth violence is examined in the presence of other modifying socio-economic factors.
Method: Using a quasi-experimental design, the present study will examine the conduct/behavior of 14,000 participants drawn from different parts of the United States. Further, the researchers will collect data from three different waves of measurements using three various forms of questionnaires. Subsequently, the data will be analyzed using the STATA SE (Version 9) software application to evaluate the impact of different kinds of child violence on the development and perpetration of youth violence in later stages of lifespan development.
Results: Relative to non-victims, the results of the present study are expected to show a direct link between child maltreatment and youth violence in the presence of other modifying socio-economic factors. Furthermore, it is expected that the percentage probability that abused victims will perpetrate youth violence in the future is expected to be higher than that recorded in previous studies. Conversely, gender differences are also expected in the way males and females respond to different forms of child maltreatment in perpetrating youth violence in later stages of lifespan development.
Conclusion: From the study findings, it will be apparent that there is a direct link between child maltreatment and youth violence in the presence of other modifying socio-economic factors.
Qualitative Research: Rigour Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Definition of research rigour depends on the frame a particular research is based on. While undertaking case of critical research, researchers should maintain their focus on the objectives of the research being carried out. Rigorous research is excellent compared to other types of study; however, it is important to establish the motive behind each study.
Rigour is mostly constructed between a person carrying out research and another one reading it. In simple terms, it means that a rigorous research is one that suits the reader. In such cases, it is the readers who ascertain the criteria for classifying research works. This paper looks into different types of rigour, including theoretical, methodological, procedural, interpretative and evaluative rigours and explains how they can be achieved.
Theoretical rigour refers to congruence surrounded by epistemological and theoretical frameworks, and the methods used to conduct various researches. To achieve rigour, it is important that a researcher establishes a theoretical position in the management of a project. It is inappropriate to apply interpretative content to the objectivity or epistemology when conducting research.
To achieve harmony in research, various aspects of the study should harmonize with each other. To achieve the desired theoretical rigour, it is important that the theoretical framework, also referred to as the phenomenology, is drawn from a touch of symbolic interaction and hermeneutics perceptions of research. To achieve a good sense of rigour, the research should follow traditional chains of epistemology methods.
Methodological rigour is a combination of various methods. When several types of rigour are combined, a methodological triangulation is formed. Methodological rigour mostly depends on personal choice, which acts as a guide for scholars as they undertake research.
In order to achieve a method that best suits research conditions, a semi-structured method of viewing research methods should be employed. Methodological rigour utilizes explicit samples and employs an inclusion methodological approach to the sampling procedures. In qualitative research, sampling should be systematic, purposive and conclusive; it should be conducted in a manner that comprehensively covers all the research topics.
Interpretative rigour describes the reliability of research and represents interpreters’ comments concerning a particular study. This form of rigour is mostly associated with credibility. Interpretative research does not aim at making a credible account of the phenomena used; instead, it focuses on the interpretations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Triangulation is one way of creating interpretive rigour; it helps improve personal interpretation of the research. For researchers to ensure their research is reliable, they should analyze data and employ triangulation in their interpretations and conclusions. Interpretational rigour can also be attained using different sources to support all the interpretations that are made.
Triangulation of interpretations also improves interpretative rigour in research. Interpretative rigour compares information obtained from interview notes, journals and reflections, to that given by informants. Contradicting information is also important as it provides supplementary information to researcher and forms a basis for further research.
Evaluative rigour attempts to identify and name some of the challenges expected in research. Ethically challenging situations, in research, are some of the prime indicators of evaluative rigour. This implies that evaluation rigour can be attained through evaluation of the procedures, to be used to deal with individual challenges in a study. Evaluative rigour informs participants on the steps and strategies to be followed to come up with competent research procedures.
In conclusion, it is evident that all elements of research are intertwined. Similarly, all types of rigour are related to each another; when one of them fails, then the whole research process gets compromised. It is not easy to differentiate theoretical rigour from methodological rigour, since their elements are interconnected. Evaluative and interpretative rigours are technically related, in that they measure the efficiency of research.
Wal-Mart Learning and Growth Perspective Essay best essay help
Importance of learning and growth The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used by businesses, governments, and others organizations to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. It can be discussed under the following;
Mission – A manager is expected to know how well their product is running, and whether the organization’s products and services meet the customers demand. The mission of any organization has to be designed by those who understand the process well and have ideas since a mission should be a unique one which cannot be easily copied by the outsiders.
For any organization to achieve its missions, it must align the organizational functions with its objectives by centering on the staff and their roles in attaining the company’s objectives (Gumbus
Statistics for the Behavioral cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Parental involvement in their children education Introduction
Researchers have carried out various researches regarding parental involvement in education of their children, with many reports implying that increased levels of parental participation in the child’s education can improve the student’s academic achievements.
Generally, children are mainly educated by their parents and teachers throughout their lives. Parents play a very important role in education, by partnering with teachers and students to enhance running of the education systems effectively. In order to assist the parents to become aware of the effectiveness of their partnering in education, teachers should involve dialogue with the parents early enough to discuss about the parents’ hopes and aspirations for their child.
Their understanding of the child needs and their suggestions about the ways that the teachers can help allow the teachers to be able to highlight their limitations and invite parents to participate in their child’s education in definite ways (Nieto, 1996). For the child to perform well academically, it requires substantial support from parents.
Parents involvement in education of a child takes several ways including “good parenting, provision of a secure and stable environment, intellectual stimulation, parent-child discussion, good models of constructive social and educational values and high aspiration relating to personal fulfillment and participation in the school events, work and governance” (Desforges
Art Gallery’s Weak Points and Merits Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Lack of written explanations
Omission of artists’ names
Quality of works
Presentation of different cultures
Introduction An gallery refers to a collection of artistic works that have been compiled for various reasons. Most of the works that are contained in an art gallery is done by bare hands.
However, modern work galleries contain artistic works that are done through computerized and other mechanized techniques. This paper looks at one collection with an aim of appraising its strong points and criticizing its weak points.
Lack of written explanations There is a common saying that a single picture speaks a thousand words. This means that the message that is sent through a picture is valuable than many words. However, it is note worth that that understanding of people is not equal.
This is due to the differences that occur in the personalities. Some people will need a little words so as to understand the picture. The picture that are collected in the gallery have very little explanations which locks out a portion of people who could have benefited from the information that is contained in the picture(s).
More over, lack of explanations leaves the pictures with a lot of ambiguity. To explain this I state that different symbols and pictures are used differently at different contexts. The symbol of sun is used by some persons to denote life while other use it to denote sunrise.
Though both of the above mentioned usages are connected and interrelated, they mean a totally different thing. The collections leave the audience and prospect users wit open interpretations some of which may be misguiding.
Omission of artists’ names It is common for any artistic work to have the name of the artist written either at t5he footnote or at a visible position. However, the names of the artists in the gallery are not omitted for most of the pictures. This scenario brings about lack of recognition of the copyright of the artist towards his or her work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, it is common to have various pieces of art quoted in scholarly articles. In quoting such an item, the person quoting it is required to mention the name of the artist so ads not to contravene the laws of copyright.
Where such is not available, the users can use the data contained without being mat by sustaining evidence against such law bending should it occur.
Presentation There are different ways of presenting the artistic work. In choosing the mode of presentation to use the owner or the person in possession of the artistic work is faced by various reasons. One is the availability of the storage and presentation media.
Also considered is the ability of retrieving sections of that data directly without having to pass through other unwanted works. Apart from this cost of that presentation mode is another factor of consideration.
The mode of data presentation that has been used to present data in the above gallery can be faulted. The method is comparable to adobe and PowerPoint presentations which are more flexible.
In the above two modes of presentation, the user of data contained in a gallery is obliged to scroll through unwanted materials if he or she has targeted a certain data.
Timeliness Judging from the themes that are presented by the pieces of works in the gallery, the works can withstand various time based changes. These changes can only have a new meaning on the pictures.
We will write a custom Essay on Art Gallery’s Weak Points and Merits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though leaving of writings is condemned in other sections of this paper, they work towards the benefits of the gallery to beat the challenge of time. The feature of timeliness is further enhanced by the fact that the galley is available in soft copy. This implies that the information can be stored and used by later generations.
Quality of works One of the commendable things about the gallery is the quality of the pieces of art collected. The selection of colors that have been used in any of ten works and also the pictures that are presented in works are spectacular. This explains the experience and time consumed in coming up with such collections.
The other feature that stands out in the gallery is message presentation. Not withstanding the point that is raised in other sections of this paper, the massage that is presented by each picture can be explained by even an uninterested observer. This is with the exception of the group mentioned which needs words so as top understand the pictures.
Moreover, the arrangement of the pieces of art is well chosen. Most of the pictures that follow one another have relating themes. This brings about smooth flow and integration. Even though the last picture and the first picture present themes which are so different, the motion that is created from one picture to another makes it hard for the audience to realize.
Presentation of different cultures This is another area that gives credit to the gallery. In mist of other collections, most of the works can be directly linked to a certain tradition or even religion and in some instances both.
However, the pictures that are presented in this gallery are mostly multi cultured in nature. Even those which can be traced to a certain tradition they are not over reliant on the tradition but rather contain spots of other traditions.
Conclusion The gallery presents commendable works in general. The weak points that are mentioned in this paper are minimal compared to the merits that are accredited to the gallery. The gallery is that recommended for use by persons of many cultural backgrounds and by persons with different disciplines.
Recommendation It is recommended that the pieces of works that are presented in this gallery be accompanied by some wordings for explanations. This will work for the benefit of persons who have been mentioned in the paper as possessing low understanding capacity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Art Gallery’s Weak Points and Merits by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Also, it is recommended that the gallery be presented in more retrieval flexible means. As mentioned in this paper, PowerPoint presentation as well as adobe storage is more flexible.
How might the Telecommunication Industry in Australia affect the Rollout of National Broadband Network in Australia in 2011? Essay best essay help
Introduction The telecommunication industry in Australia is experiencing a massive and rapid economic boom with various reports showing a great value of performance orientation by its respondents in the industry. The industry is mainly made up of businesses that provide telecommunication services to the public either by cable, wire or radio.
The major activities of the telecommunication industry in Australia include internet services, operation of radio relay stations, telephone services, operation of television relay stations, teleprinter and telex services, network communication services, cable and communication channel services, and satellite communication services.
The industry is fundamentally event driven with diminutive execution of planning in areas other than finance or marketing.
The lack of planning is evident in contemporary Future Orientation with the conveyed desire for future orientation, but the introduction of intensive competition has recently promoted more product planning and the general business planning in the market.
However, elements such as size, novelty, and politics of the present-day industry environment has contributed in depicting planning less effective than otherwise expected.
The interference by such factors in the telecommunication industry has protected the free-to-air TV networks, and at the same time contributed to Australia’s holdup in rolling out high-speed internet access through the National Broadband Network initiative.
The ever changing market and technology has brought in a real forecast in the capitalization and elevation of Future Orientation, and this brings in the likelihood of Australia following the paradigm of America and other European countries in developing strategic mechanisms of capturing the market’s vast potential.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The growth and immense potential in this industry saw the planned roll out of the National Broadband Network (NBN) project, which is meant to take advantage of the existing economic and social opportunities in the digital sector.
While delivering an affordable, high-speed broadband to every corner of the Australian society, the project is projected to drive the country’s economy for decades to come by migrating from copper to the fibre optic network
When the Australian government went ahead with the privatization of Telstra, which is the country’s largest telecommunications company, there were major concerns on the contradictory role of the government as regulator and owner of the telecommunication giant.
Major concerns also remain in Telstra’s potential capability of abusing its monopoly power to impediment regulatory outcomes through belligerent use of its litigation. Delaying in making a satisfactory public bid for access to its network and inflating the prices of its wholesale services such as fixed and mobile network are some of Telstra’s alleged abuses.
In order to level the competitive telecommunication field, the Australian government instructed Telstra to separate its retail and wholesale arms for the NBN project. Telstra vehemently opposed this idea and the draft legislation that would separate its structures within its telecommunication network.
Regulatory and judicial proceedings still mar Telstra with numerous disputes with its competitors over access to its network rights. Despite this, various stakeholders have since entered the scene with ardent interest.
The NBN initiative is projected to create a network that will handle an assortment of data that is increasingly complicated, therefore amalgamating the media and the information technology industries with telecommunications.
We will write a custom Essay on How might the Telecommunication Industry in Australia affect the Rollout of National Broadband Network in Australia in 2011? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Media The media and communications industries has undergone through changes in its general corporate organization with mounting competition between media segments on the maximum gain and use of content being produced (Stuart Cunningham, Graeme Turner 4).
This means taking advantage of the capability to present and modify the same content on numerous platforms of delivery and distribution. By restricting concentration of ownership in broadcasting sectors, the ownership and control of media is regulated across the media.
Foxtel which has a substantial majority in the pay-TV market is half-owned by Telstra and the roll-out of the NBN project is seen to have rules and regulations that limit the number of providers, while shielding the incumbents against entry by neglecting diversity In Australia, all free-to-air television Programmes have a strict domestic content requirements through the Australian Broadcasting Services Amendment Act that require 10 percent of programme budgeting on new Australian drama programs (Ron Kirk 27).
Although traditional media has occasionally been warned on the radical changes they face with the development in the digital media arena, they have basically been absent from the debate surrounding the NBN project.
However, the National Broadband Network will generate new changes and options that will see media players taking leadership roles in search of trans-sector opportunities the NBN has to offer. They can possibly copy their archaic models onto the NBN brand via the wholesale services of a telco since they have a strong brand with millions of users.
Although it is not defined, foreign nationals seeking proposals that relates to portfolio shareholdings into the media industry are subjected to a ‘national interest test’ since foreign investment in the mass media is limited (Chang and Thorson 16).
Media stakeholders should therefore gear up to with mechanisms that will help them profit from their audiences with the convergence of media and internet-based technologies through high-speed broadband even as they continue to enjoy protection from outside competition. (Butcher 127).
Despite this projection, most media companies are still looking and grounded on their core competencies rather than stirring towards media innovation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How might the Telecommunication Industry in Australia affect the Rollout of National Broadband Network in Australia in 2011? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advantages of Public owned Telecommunications towards NBN Rollout.
The NBN initiative will produce and promote a prevalent network that is competent in handling both broadband and narrowband requirements with equal adept in managing interactive and broadcasting services.
One feature of this project is that it involves and embraces the elaboration of neo-liberal views and ideas of economic regulation.
In this view, public ownership of telecommunication infrastructure and services is seen as a central point for national pride and sovereignty with a common feeling of owning a piece of a vital national infrastructure (Fairbrother 52).
Public views and ideas would initially be ‘measured at heart’ for the NBN project and this would douse any thought of manipulation by ‘outside’ parties, and also bring public calm with general accountability to the project.
Public ownership would not cultivate into the current climate of crisis brought about by the free market that would dictate the wages and conditions of each and every Australian. Public ownership of the NBN roll-out would basically promote a unified and coherent platform for the whole initiative.
Disadvantages of Public owned Telecommunications towards NBN Roll-out.
Since there is never a conclusive concept from the general public, such ownership would only promulgate indecisions and slothfulness into the implementation and completion of the NBN initiative.
According to the 2010 report by the Business Council of Australia, ‘’ the public ownership of the NBN initiative would elevate investor uncertainty with various companies rescheduling or withholding investments, and would only impede new technologies from getting into the market with the country’s general output falling behind ( 4) ‘’.
Such a scenario would only create ambiguity over NBN’s future operations.
Advantages of Private owned Telecommunication Infrastructures towards NBN Rollout.
International communication through telecommunications is rapidly becoming the backbone of trade, productivity, and the general business activities which are the linchpins of a growing, healthy economy (Mody, Bauer and Straubhaar 53).
Privatization in the telecommunication industry is seen as a catalyst to development with a significant input. In this view, the streamlining of the telecommunications industry in Australia has made it impossible to find public-owned telecommunication carriers due to the concept of deregulation and privatization.
This model is highly important because it will redefine the NBN initiative into from the typical public good, to a more global-oriented project that is competitive both domestically and internationally with a customer-driven service.
The Telecommunications industry is quite complex in technology and operations, and the only way that consumers can be better served is if more providers are included in the field. Consumers will be offered more competing products, prices, and services in order to meet the ever more diverse demands.
Such private owned companies are also capable of responding quite better to consumer demands than the public-owned corporations that may not act imperatively (Cunningham 151).
Sometimes such projects do halt due to lack of funds that can be brought about by underestimation or even the changing tides in commodity prices, and the telecommunication companies which are private-owned can quickly accumulate for these funds.
This means that the NBN initiative will flourish under long-term macroeconomic relief, and also can carry on and meet deadlines rather than wait for the tedious process associated with the public owned companies.
Generally through private ownership, the NBN project will see a proficient financing and management with the inclusion of professionals who bring real sustainable efficiencies to the whole project.
Privatization is therefore the more efficient solution to the sorry nature of most state-owned of telecommunication infrastructures with its limit on resources and the changing technological know-how.
Disadvantages of Private owned Telecommunication Infrastructures towards NBN Roll-out.
Private ownership of telecommunication systems in Australia will only bring distrust to the fore since it’s a product of an intrinsic capitalistic motive, and will also spread the adage that any control of information leads to the control of both political and economic procedures and the NBN project has not fallen short of such perception.
Since telecommunications is an important industry that connects every sector of the Australian society, it might be used by a single entity or group of companies to create an oligarchy of economical information which can snatch power from the government.
Such a scenario would reduce the government to a mere puppet, while these private entities continue to violate their power in the NBN initiative and act in their own interest neglecting Australian’s welfare (Chhokar, Brodbeck and House 320-331). This will greatly hinder the roll-out of the NBN project since Australia is a society which has a fair history of distrust in private ownership of infrastructure.
Private ownership of the NBN roll-out would not put public interest into consideration and the individual private companies would only be interested in generating shareholder’s profits at customer’s expense.
Privatization would also encourage manipulation and cover-ups of various inconsistencies associated with the NBN initiative since such organizational setups detest public scrutiny.
Privatization will allow foreign competitors enter the telecommunication market indiscriminately and would endeavor to servicing only wealthy businesses and individuals who can afford their expensive services.
In this event, the NBN initiative would therefore leave its core policy of universal service unsettled. It’s hypothetical for privatization to take place without liberalization since such profit-driven enterprises do operate as a monopoly in its selfish achievements that can prove untenable for the government to contain(Leahy and Michael O’Brien 2-5).
Analysis Australia is tremendously relying on the NBN initiative to face out its obsolete copper telecommunications network. The pendulum of opinions surrounding the NBN roll-out is due to its importance for the country’s economy, future development, and international competitiveness.
The apparent stratification in the Australian telecommunication industry is quite higher than desirable and is derivative of the existing socio-political level of attitudes.
The rapid restructuring in the industry is significantly affecting collectivism and power expanses, especially with the differing view between those who do not have the slightest clue of the impending changes and those that are knowledgeable of what is to come with the changes.
Although there are calls for either private or public investment in the telecommunications industry, it’s unfortunate that the processes have represented a vicious circle of events that is detrimental to both the economic and political systems.
Conclusion The emerging picture from the NBN initiative and the general Australian telecommunications industry is the consistent socio-political values that underpin the economical importance of this project to the country at large.
If telecommunication laws are well designed implemented, it would reduce the general fear and uncertainty that accompany the dreary investment in the telecommunication sector. At the same time, Telstra and its competitors should learn in ways they can corporate and be diplomatic about their differences rather than the self-sacrificing we are now witnessing.
Even as the telecommunications industry undergoes through the intense process of change that seems endless, there is no doubt of the massive and infinite benefits that the NBN initiative will bring for generations to come.
Works Cited Butcher, John. Australia under Construction: Nation-building Past, Present and Future. Canberra: ANU E Press, 2008. Print.
Chang and Andrew, Thorson. A Legal Guide to Doing Business in Asia-Pacific. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2011. Print.
Chhokar, Brodbeck and Robert House. Culture and leadership, across the world: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.
Cunningham and Graeme Turner. The Media and Communications in Australia. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen
What is the Family? Definition Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the human perspective, a family is a group of persons connected by kinship, compassion, or sharing of residence. In a number of societies, the family is the basic unit for the socialization of children. A basic family unit is made up of a father, mother, and children, and is known as a nuclear family, however, this unit can be extended to include other relations to be known as an extended family.
The concept of the family has undergone a transformation and in today’s society, many people define the family structure as an arbitrary cultural set-up, a statement could be partially true. In ancient times, the family was a closely-knit, patriarchal clan consisting of a man, his wife or wives, and several children!
This has changed to include a monogamous parent taking care of the children. Besides, certain concepts of the family have broken with tradition within specific communities while some have been implanted through migration to thrive or else disappear in the new communities and societies.
Current debates and interest concerning the family have forced individuals to reassess themselves in a society driven by change and uncertainty. Because of its intricate nature, sociologists have not succeeded in coming with a universal definition of what family is and how is constructed. Rather, the definition is subject to individual interpretation and depends on the value a person attaches to being a member of a communal social group.
Objective The aim of the paper is to give a concise definition of family, and the context of family structures such as the traditional family; single parent family, blended family and cohabiting relationship families. The paper also examines the influences that have progressively shaped the concept of family from the past to the present day.
Critical Analysis A family is generally defined as a group of individuals who are linked by kinship or adoption, and who have a common residence. (Germov and Poole, 2011, 132). Kinship ties are connections or associations that link individuals through genealogy lines or marriage.
However, a few writers disagree with this concept. For instance, George Murdock, an American anthropologist, defines family as a social group that lives together, support each other economically, and raise children (Germov and Poole, 2011, 128).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the mid 20th century, sociologists defined family as a man living together with his wife and children, joined by blood, marriage or adoption. The couple had sex, procreated, and cared for the children jointly, besides bringing resources such as money and food together. The family members also guarded and supported each other.
Again, some writers have given a different perspective. Some asserted that previous definitions of the concept of the family should be altered as they are founded on ‘monolithic’ models that exhibit partiality towards a specific kind of family typified by gender discrimination and legal attachment, instead of gender fairness and patterns of care or emotional response.
Besides, modern reproductive methods have changed family associations and the definition of terms such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ gas considerably changed. For instance, women past their menopausal age can now have children through surrogate mothers. Consequently, an increasing number of studies are focusing on what really defines a family. This perspective overlooks the gender inclination of the couple and the legitimacy of the relationship, and centers rather on the patterns of caring and affection.
The concept of the family has been conventionally related to the traditional family setup, which can be defined as a relationship in the children live with both the biological parents with the father often at work while the mother stays at home (Germov
Classics of Moral and Political Theory Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Immanuel Kant’s Ideas: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals
Introduction The foremost thrust of morality erudition over the precedent years has exposed a propensity to an astonishing extent, to shift towards a distinct path. The superseding intention of philosophy has been to convey the sphere of ethics under the control of the coherent self.
Founded on philosophers’ notion of the individual as a self-directed representative and a freethinking conventional viewpoint, philosophers assert that every individual exist single-handedly as the maker of his or her principles and rationale.
It naturally follows that every person is prima facie gratis to consider his or her own reasoning with any measure of worth or disvalue he or she perceives fit. Such a cogent ethics, which people may conceivably easily label self-teleology, is apprehensive mostly to the prescribed necessities of truth telling and promise keeping (Roger and Colleen 138).
In this moral system, the prime depressing responsibility towards others is to abstain from intruding to their freedom whereas the critical constructive responsibility is to respect deals that have been liberally settled.
In ethics, this advancement interprets the rapport among individuals in contractual expressions and in performance, centers on a harmful program of avoidance of immoral infringement by some people upon other’s sovereignty.
This essay examines ethical significance of truth telling or promise keeping by focusing on the ideas of three thinkers. It compares the bases of their reasoning and reviews their knowledge in an attempt to identify whether they can apply in the contemporary society. Truth telling and promise keeping is something intrinsic in an individual. It is also through socialization that people acquire knowledge needed in promise keeping and truth telling.
Immanuel Kant’s Ideas: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals Kant’s ideas are breaking point in the modern metaphysics. He was aiming at appreciating science, review the role of metaphysics as well to place morality within the precincts of science. He developed the theory referred to as moral theory, which over time has been influencing the western philosophers in their works.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theory examines the difficulties of science, philosophy, ethics and religion in the contemporary world. Immanuel Kant suggested that moral laws and their important variations from each realistic cognition in an empirical subject rest entirely on its pure part. The laws give human beings a priori rule because they are rational beings.
The laws have the capacity of acquiring the power of judgment that is tailored by practices. Different people apply the laws differently as these laws are capable of influencing human behavior. He therefore suggested that metaphysics of morals are unavoidable by individuals because thrives of speculation pertaining to the origin of practical values are in charge of shaping our behaviors and not only motives but morals that are responsible for each kind of corruption.
What is perceived to be ethically correct conforms to moral law, but is never enough since it must be performed for the sake of ethical law. Orthodoxy is simply incredibly reliant and vague since the non-moral argument may perhaps now and then fabricate events that are inconsistent with the law. The ethical law in its transparency and authenticity can be sought nowhere except in a wholesome attitude.
Kant argues that there is an odd thing in the suggestion of the total worth of a simple will in which no report is taken of some valuable outcome. In the face of the entire accords acknowledged even from normal rationale, there must augment the notion that such thoughts may perhaps have its concealed root that is purely a number of pretentious beliefs and that individuals may have misinterpreted the rationale behind the principle of temperament in conveying to reason the prevalence of the will.
He further argues that in the ordinary establishment of structured being, no organ is to be initiated for some end except if it is the most fit and the best tailored for that end. The theorist established that the more an educated rationale dedicates itself to the endeavor of benefiting from life and contentment, the further do individuals move away from accurate gratification (Morgan 400). This is particularly so in the case of those who are the highly qualified in the utilization of rationale because after scheming for all rewards they draw from, they hitherto discover that they have in reality just obtained additional dilemmas to their skulls than they have added to cheerfulness.
Consequently, they appear to resent, rather than loathe the more general run of individuals who are nearer to the leadership of simple ordinary intuition and who do not permit their rationale much pressure on their conduct (Morgan 402). By this argument, Kant’s ideas suggest that truth telling is a duty, just like any other responsibility in life.
Mill: Utilitarianism This theorist starts by claiming that it is feasible for persons to turn out to be unresponsive to their own records and projections particularly when one had no ethical or human concern in societal things whereby persons only search for satisfaction of interest.
We will write a custom Essay on Classics of Moral and Political Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is no basis for the environment of things such as a sum of rational traditions adequate to offer an intelligent curiosity in things such as consideration should not be intrinsic to anyone natured in an enlightened realm. However, there is less natural requisite that some human beings should be egotistical, devoid of each sentiment or concern but those which hub in depressed personality.
Legitimate clandestine friendliness and a truthful attention in the public excellence are achievable. In a globe that there is so much curiosity and enjoyment, everybody who has reasonable quantity of moral and intellectual rudiments is competent enough to co-exist. This may be described as imaginable. Unless such an individual through terrible laws or subjection to the will of others is deprived of the right to exercise the resource of happiness within his reaches, he will not survive (Morgan 1002).
Mill further argues that it is in a defective condition of the world’s provision that any person can superlatively serve the happiness of others by complete forfeit of his own. As long as the earth is in that defective position, the willingness to build such surrender is the uppermost asset that can be established in individuals.
Not everything except perception can elevate an individual beyond the likelihood of existence by making him believe and allow fate and fortune do their nastiest. They have no influence to control an individual who when once experienced, is liberated from intemperance of nervousness pertaining to the tribulations of life. The contentment that generates utilitarian customary of what is true in behavior is not the representative’s own cheerfulness but that of everyone apprehensive. As between his or her pleasure and that of others, utilitarianism calls for an individual to be as sternly objective as a neutral and compassionate outsider.
Friedrich Nietzsche The real origin of the notion good is sought and set in the mistaken position by the theory. Good does not originate from those whom integrity is given but rather from the superior such as the dignified, influential, senior level and high-minded people. Wrong is related to all bottom, short psyches, widespread and offensive.
Individuals first took for themselves the freedom to generate ideals, to invent names for standards and not at all mind anything for convenience. The perspective of efficacy is as overseas and unfortunate as likely particularly in connection to a so hot and an outburst of maximum level arrangement and grade distinctive worth verdicts. From this, the word good does not automatically connect itself to un-egoistic measures, as is the fallacy of those genealogists of ethics (Morgan 1147).
Conclusion From the three theorists, it can be concluded that the morality of telling the truth and keeping promises is not homogenous. The scholars do not uniformly underscore it. While Kant seem to be arguing that truth and promise-keeping is a duty that should be faithfully observed, Mill views it as s functional unit of the society.
Mill observes that people should learn to be telling truth and always keep promises if they are to be good citizens. Nietzsche on his part postulated that truth and keeping promises is not an easy thing in the society. He observes that the whole problem lies with people’s perceptions. The majority views it as being foreign and can only function well in places that were crafted.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Classics of Moral and Political Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Morgan, Michael. Classics of Moral and Political Theory, 4 Ed. Indianaplis: Hacket Publishing Company, 2005.
Roger, Sider and Colleen Clements. Patients’ ethical obligation for their health, Journal of medical ethics, 10, 1984: 138-142
SWOT Analysis of Wal-Mart Stores Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In strategic management and planning examination of the internal and external factors is very important. These factors are categories in the SWOT analysis, which involves the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
The strengths and the weaknesses are the internal factors while the opportunities and threats from the internal factors. Through SWOT analysis a strategy can be developed and used in the marketing of the firm (Bohm 2). It can also be used in avoiding any weaknesses thus enabling it benefit from any opportunities in the future regardless of expected threats.
According to Boham (2) SWOT analysis is responsible for the offering of vital information that enables evaluation of the capabilities and resources of a firm against competitive background it operates from. This is used in strategy formulation as well as enhancing competition in the market. The paper gives a SWOT analysis of Wal-Mart stores, one of the leading retail stores in the world.
Background Wal-Mart is the leading retail store in the United States of America. It has several stores in the North America region that it solely owns and operates. It has its headquarters in Bentonville; Arkansas becoming the largest company that privately employs people (Blair 262).
It has 8,500 stores in 15 different countries. It operates under fifty five different store names although in the USA it operates on its own. In Mexico it operates as Walmex, in India as best price, in UK as ASDA, under its name in Puerto Rico, and as Seiyu in Japan. In Brazil, Argentina, Canada, UK and Puerto Rico it fully owns the operations.
Outside North America the investments had mixed results (Blair 262). It pulled out from Germany when its operations were rendered unsuccessful while in china the operations have been successful. During the 2010 financial year the company recorded $258 billion that translates to total sales of 63.8%. The competitors of Wal-Mart stores are many in the respective countries where it has the different stores
SWOT Analysis According to Kneer (2) when the Wal-Mart stores was founded in 1962 by Sam Walton the core values of the company were “respect for individual, service to the customers and striving for excellence”. All these core values have the objective of satisfying customers and believing that customers are important to the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the years the company has been operation with profits even in times of economic crisis because of its belief in customer satisfaction. The following is the SWOT analysis of the Wal-Mart stores where each are broken down and discussed in detail. They comprise the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which are the internal and external factors respectively.
Strengths These forms the resources of a company as well as capabilities applied in the market so as to develop the market competitive advantage. Wal-Mart stores phenomenal success has been as a result of the following strengths. It has dominated the American retail market (Kneer 2) because of its brand that is powerful.
The sale of huge merchandise in US and a “market share of more than 30% of health and beauty aids” demonstrate dominance of Wal-Mart (Pahl and Richter 21). It provides a variety of goods under one store making it convenient to many American families (Pahl and Richter 21).
The services offered by the company are worth the value of the money the consumers pay. The branding which is strong is based on a pricing strategy where prices are low with the aim of attracting and retaining a huge customer base. Kneer (2) observes that through the use of advanced technology the company is able to offer low prices because it has the strength to reduce operational cost.
Through the automated distribution links the chain store is able to control its expenses ensuring that low price offer is maintained. Deliveries in the Wal-Mart stores are faster because the technological system is interlinked thus ensuring time saving and efficiency (Kneer 2).The technological advancement and embracement has enable the company regulate the procurement and logistics department reducing any form of goods theft.
This is because the system can observe and monitor the movement of goods in and outside the stores. This has reduced the expenses of unnecessary losses. Over the years the company has over grown experiencing global expansion (Pahl and Richter 21). For example it has stores in the UK, Brazil, Argentina, and Puerto Rico as well as in china. Wal-Mart believes in human management and their development. This can be explained by the training it offers to its employees and having faith in them. This has boosted the performance of the employees making it a world class retail store.
Weaknesses These are viewed as the company’s problems that are internally manifested. Being the largest retail store in the world and in several countries it is faced with the weakness of controlling all the chains and branches. This is because technology has failures and cannot be 100% effective.
We will write a custom Research Paper on SWOT Analysis of Wal-Mart Stores specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The IT might not be always efficient and because its management is technologically driven and controlled, the slightest failure may cause problems in service provision. Wal-Mart sells variety of products under one roof making is likeable, but it may lack flexibility that some of the competitors operate using (Pahl and Richter 22).
Lack of focus can be seen as a weakness that is embraced by the Wal-Mart chain stores. Although Wal-Mart has stores in many countries it is not globally recognized. According to Kneer (3) competitors of the Wal-Mart may take the advantage of globalization and go internationally thus giving the company a global challenge. Its presence in few countries is the biggest weakness the company has.
Wal-Mart has the capacity of manufacturing goods, of which this can be seen as strength. However when the huge manufacturing investment hinders quick response to changes availed by environmental strategy can be seen as a weakness. This is because competitors can use this to their advantage affecting the Wal-Mart operations in the short run. Pahl and Richter (24) note that Wal-Mart dominance has negative effects in its operations.
For example, the supercenters that are to be opened will be closely located, this would allow internal completion that it impossible for some to gain enough balance costs. The issue of lowering prices to chase competitors saw a failure of 25% of the Wal-Mart stores in delivering the core values to its consumers (Pahl and Richter 22).
Opportunities These are the environmental external factors that a company may experience allowing them to grow as they make profits. According to Kneer (2) Wal-Mart has the opportunity of forming strategic alliances through merges with global retailers.
For example it can focus on the ready markets of Europe, India and china which have not been fully utilized (Pahl and Richter 22). Other than forming mergers or alliances there is possibility of opening stores in the emerging world economies like India and china which have large population hence large consumer base. These are opportunities that can see Wal-Mart expand its capital base as well as profits and growth.
This can exploit new markets through diversification by opening super centers, and malls. Opening of new stores gives Wal-Mart the opportunity to create employment thus reducing inflation because dependence ration is reduced. This changes the lives of many citizens who may not be necessarily Americans.
With the embrace of technology, Wal-Mart can take advantage of internet shopping that can reach a large populations clientele. Pahl and Richter (22) note that Wal-Mart has the potential of retaining its customers through low pricing. This creates customers loyalty which is important in development of a retail store like Wal-Mart.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SWOT Analysis of Wal-Mart Stores by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats These are caused by the unexpected or foreseen change in the external environmental factors which are threatening to the firms operations and productivity. Wal-Mart is the number one retail store meaning that it is seen as the target by competitors (Kneer, 2), who can be globally or locally.
Competition reduces the market share and any slightest mistake in customer satisfaction may be the start of a downfall. The retail store also faces the threat of price competition from other operators in the retail industry. This is because all the retail may decide to operate under a low price that the Wal-Mart’s and according to factors that determine demand price is one.
When the prices are low the demand increases and vice versa. The retail store faces the threat of being targeted by political enemies. This is being a globally recognized store political problems exposure are high (Pahl and Richter 24). The political woes and economic inflation and tax wars are huge threat to Wal-Mart.
This may affect the operations of the store hence failing in some countries. In low regions outsourcing is applied this reduces the cost of production. This according to Kneer (3) has led to price competition causing price deflation which is a threat to the operations of Wal-Mart.
It faces threat of innovation that other retailers may adopt before it does. Currently strategic planning and management are based on the idea of globalization and technological prowess. However Wal-Mart still operates under the old and outdated strategies that are not applicable in the 21st century.
This is a huge threat to the operations and future expansions of Wal-Mart. Pahl and Richter (24) note that Wal-Mart lack transitional strategy which makes it hard to adapt in locally based markets, have economies of scale, improve knowledge flow and locate its operations in locations that optimal. It faces the challenge of growing and establishing stores in foreign countries (Pahl and Richter 24). This was what led to fall of its stores in Germany.
Conclusion SWOT analysis deals with the external and internal environmental factors responsible for strategic planning. They also help in marketing and knowing the competiveness and capability of a company. The SWOT analysis of Wal-Mart stores is well explained in depth where different environment factors both internal and external have been examined. Although it has great and much strength the weaknesses and threats are also great.
Works Cited Böhm, Anja. The Swot Analysis. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009. Print
Blair, John D. Strategic Thinking and Entrepreneurial Action in the Health Care Industry. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI, 2007. Print.
Kneer, Christian. The Wal-Mart Success Story. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009. Print
Pahl, Nadine, and Anne Richter. Swot Analysis – Idea, Methodology and a Practical Approach. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009. Internet resource.
Technological Generations of Mobile Communications Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction The distinct life of the mobile communications has taken different phases. This can be traced from the 1G to the most rest 4G. G, 2G, 3G and 4G are a wireless phone or a cellular phone standard way of classification based on generations/ cellular phone evolution. This paper is a critical comparison of all these technological generations with an aim of tracking the trend that is followed in the developments.
Grandpa and Grandma 1G Grandpa and Grandma 1G was the very first generation of wireless technology that originated around 1980’s. The cellular phones of this time were big in size (handbag phones) and used a high power voltage. Communication in the first generation cellular phones was enhanced by use of analog radio waves/ signals; use of radio antennas (a radio transmitter on one end and receiver on the other end.
Analogue technology could only accommodate voice communication the passing of analogue signals. While this was the best technological developments at the time, it had a couple of limitations. The first generation wireless technology covered a relatively small area. Communication was only possible between parties of the same nation/within a nation’s boundary’s/ within the grounds of a particular nation (Fendelman).
This first generation wireless technology supports only one way communication at a time. For instance the intended recipient has to be calm till the sender finishes talking then he/she can begin answering incase he/she speaks before then, his/her message won’t be delivered.
All the above services are possible through a technology that interprets voice calls called circuit switching -Circuit switching is easily distorted by a simple physical noise thus destroying the quality of a conversation. All these limitations lead the players in the industry to look for more advanced technology which could fill the loopholes in communication (News from Rohde and Schwarz, 2002).
2G – The second generation of the wireless digital technology 1G was later thrown out/replaced by 2G that came with greater and better technological benefits like the additional data services. At this level people could send text messages on top of the voice communication they initially had.
The radio signals were digital and the conversations digitally encrypted unlike the initial analog. This therefore allowed the mobile phone services to be passed over a wider area (great service penetration levels).The wireless digital network use brings more voice clarity to the conversation being carried out.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This enhanced intercontinental communications, more privacy in communication as well as storage of communication. The messages sent through this technology could easily be referred to later.
The second generation phones are however, costly compared to the first generation wireless cellular phones. Unlike the first wireless technology where communications were only possible within a nation, 2G ventures into a wide area in terms of service coverage area due to the additional roaming facility.
3G – The third wireless telephone / cellular phone generation The second generation is however overthrown by this third cellular phone evolution which uses a wide band width. This big band width in turn came with a more clear voice communication that is almost perfect (very minimal distractions and cases of eavesdropping- a situation where the signals sent are lost to the surrounding environment).
Communication in this case is possible through a technology packet switching; a situation where data is addressed like the IP addressing then sent over and on reaching its destination, its again recollects in the order sent then decoded/ interconnected to have the conversation (News from Rohde and Schwarz, 2002)..
3G wireless services are widely spread and now almost in all parts of the world. 3G has an added advantage of the global roaming facility which allows communication across the world. One can send text messages, video conference, and chat, download 3dimentional games, and talk to any one and anywhere in this world without distractions like they are having real conversation (News from Rohde and Schwarz , 2002).
3G uses a higher band width also a wide band voice channel compared to the 1G and 2G generations which greatly attributes to high voice clarity and people can talk without any disturbance or with very minimal distractions.
There is an additional multimedia facility brought about by this third generation cellular phones like very fast communication (conversations and text messaging), video conferencing (hold video meetings with people in different locations), internet (surfing/browsing/online chatting), mobile television (watch television’s favorite programs on phone), video calls (like Skye), multi media messaging service (MMS) (sharing of photos and music), etc are now available on 3G phones (Arshad, Farooq, Shah, 2010)
We will write a custom Essay on Technological Generations of Mobile Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The 3G phones are costly compared to the first and second wireless cellular phone generation. Currently 3G is widely in use. Almost everyone is moving or has moved to 3G technology for its interesting features and high speed wireless service.
Despite the numerous advantages to using this kind of phone and very interesting features, 3G wireless telephones however have short battery life compared to the second and first generation phones. Thus the use of this technology is dependent on the proximity to power supply. In remote areas thus, persons are forced to use less advanced technologies to avoid frustrations.
However, some wireless technology users use both technologies concurrently (Arshad, Farooq, Shah, 2010). 3G technology is usually common for users who depend on the wireless communication in internetworking. Most of the service providers carry out promotional advertisements encouraging users to use the technology based on its speed and coverage.
4G – The fourth generation wireless telephones / cellular phone service also known as a complete 3G replacement. 4G operates more like 3G much as it is a step up from 3G. It appears to operate in a hopeful state, like providing its clients with very speedy wireless services. Being the new born baby this fourth generation wireless technology is availed in limited places/areas.
It’s not widely spread and only in use in very few regions like Japan. 4G is anticipated and designed to deliver very high speed internet and generally high wireless services. Also a high network capacity-allowing more people to operate/ access its resources simultaneously (Fendelman,).
They too have the multimedia added feature but with very clear voice and video output compared to the initial generations just like the normal television. The fourth generation cellular phones are damn expensive (high cost) compared to the previous generations. The costs mentioned here are the installation costs. However, the technological requires less maintenance costs.
Similarities All the above mentioned technologies are wireless technologies. They all are able to pass/enhance analog communication. They all can pass voice communications. The first and Second generation covers a relatively small area in terms of geographical boundaries. Each of the technological development has come with increased area coverage than the preceding development.
Both the first and Second generation use a narrow band width, while the third and fourth generation uses wide band width. Both 1G and 2G deal/ are good in voice calls and in the process need to utilize the maximum bandwidth provided (Ashiho, 2003)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Technological Generations of Mobile Communications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The technological development in the wireless communication has grown from one phase to another. As each phase is introduced, it leads to changes in other industries that depend on this technology for communication and other purposes. It is paramount to note that each of the above technologies has its own specifications.
Thus, there is always a need for any firm to have a technician who shall introduce the members of the institutions on how to operate the different technological developments. The ability of a firm to use the most modern technology is for its advantage as this leads to less maintenance costs. The only additional costs in the generational growth are the initial installation costs (Ashiho, 2003).
The developments that have been discussed in this paper have been enhanced by various firms and individuals. The need for the improvements has always rendered the players in the wireless communication busy with efforts of improving each of the development.
While the current technology is viewed by many as perfect, it is expected that a need will arise for the provision of services that it does not offer. Thus, it is arguable to conclude that the development in the wireless communication cannot be optimum.
References Arshad, j., Farooq, A., Shah, A., (2010) Evolution and Development Towards 4th Generation (4G) Mobile Communication Systems. Web.
Ashiho, L. S. (2003). Mobile Technology: Evolution from 1G to 4G. Web.
Fendelman, A. (n.d). Cell Phone Glossary: What is 1G vs. 2G vs. 2.5G vs. 3G vs. 4G? Web.
News from Rohde and Schwarz (2002). Measuring the Acoustic Characteristics of 3G Mobile Phones. Web.
Peter, K. (n.d). Analysis and Comparison of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G Telecom Services. Web.
The Great Wall of China Descriptive Essay custom essay help
Introduction The Great Wall of China is a long continuous wall which was erected with the sole intention of securing the Chinese border in the northern border against intruders (Man 103). The Great Wall consists of several walls which were built over a lengthy period of time.
The construction is claimed to have began during the dynasty of Emperor Qin Shi Huangi who ruled the country in the early 200 BC to the 16th century during the Ming dynasty.
The essay will take the form of an informative speech whose intention is to further shed light on who built the Great Wall of China, when it was built, the reason behind building it and how wide and long the wall is as well as how it has been built.
The Chinese were among the first countries to experience civilization in the world. During the civilization period, they acquired the art of building houses and other structures and this helped greatly during the construction of the Great Wall.
As early as 8th century BC, various states such as Wei, Qin, Yan, Qi, and Zhao constructed extensive walls in an attempt to defend their territorial borders from their warring neighbors (Yamashita and Lindesay 53).
However, all these efforts were better noticed during the reign of the Qin dynasty that after conquering the states which had been opposing him, he embarked on the building of the great wall so as to connect and enclose all the states that now belonged to him and protect them from external intruders.
During the Ming Dynasty, after the Oirats had defeated the Ming army in 1449 (in what was famously referred to as the Battle of Tumu), the Great Wall idea was revived.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Great Wall proved quite useful to the Ming Dynasty, especially towards the end of its reign because it ensured that the empire remained protected against possible invasion by the Manchu (this was around 1600).
At this time, the wall had a total length of 5,000 kilometers, starting at the Gansu Province in Linyao all the way to the Liaoning Province (Man 105). As we talk today, the great wall is estimated to stretch 4,163 miles (about 6,700 kilometers).
It starts in the Gansu Province at the Jiayuguan Pass and stretches all the way to the Hebei Province in the Shanhaiguan Pass. The wall runs through the large plains in the northern border of the country. Although people have come up with several discussions as to how the wall came to be, it is widely believed that it was the efforts emperor Qin that the wall was extensively built.
The construction formation of the Great Wall also differed at different historical periods. For example during the Qin dynasty the pass gates were not constructed using stone and the wall lacked any fortresses.
However, during the construction of the Han Greta Waal that passes through the Gobi Region, the main fortification was moats (Roland and Jan 67). A beacon tower was also constructed at intervals of 1.25 kilometers along these moats. The beacon towers were used during the time of war.
When one column was lit, this was a sign that the advancing troops were less than 500.When two columns were lit, it meant that the advancing troops were less than 3,000. By using the columns of smoke, the defenders were always aware on the magnitude of what to expect.
Laborers who took part in the construction of the wall included the common people, soldiers, and criminals (Waldron 18). Different construction materials found use during the constructions process of the wall, over the centuries. Compacted earth was used in the construction of the original Great Wall.
We will write a custom Essay on The Great Wall of China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Local stones were then used to surround the compacted earth. In a bid to ensure that the construction costs of the wall remained down, there was extensive use of local construction materials. In the later years, bricks were used to construct the Ming wall.
Where the Great Wall passed through the Rocky Mountains, builders made use of the stones found on these mountains. However, they were forced to use rammed earth in the planes, while juniper tamarisk and sanded reeds found use in the desert.
Scientists have now revealed that the remaining section of the Great Wall in the Gansu Province, consist of several layers of rammed earth (Waldron 18).
Between 202 BC and 220AD, during the Han Dynasty period, the most popular construction materials were crude stones and earth while between 1368 and 1644, during the Ming Dynasty, bricks had substituted stone and earth as the construction material of choice, thanks to their light weight and size; it was easier to make and carry them.
From statistical records, it is estimated that some 500,000 common people and 300,000 soldiers took part in the construction process of the initial Great Wall during the reign of Emperor Qin. Over 1,000 individuals are believed to have lost their lives in the process of constructing the Great Wall during the Din Dynasty.
The construction of another section of the great wall under the Northern Qi Dynasty took place in 555 A. D., and the entire section consisted of 450-kilometre. It started from Nankou, all the way to Shanxi, passing through Datong and Beijing.
During this time, the labor force is estimated to have been approximately 1.8 million people (Roland and Jan 71). The construction and living conditions were also extremely poor during this time and as a result, high number of workers lost their lives.
Works Cited Man, John. The Great Wall. London: Bantam Press, 2008. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Wall of China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Roland, Michaud and Jan, Michel. The Great Wall of China. New York: Abbeville Press, 2001. Print.
Waldron, Arthur. The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.
Yamashita, Michael and Lindesay, William. The Great Wall – From Beginning to End.
New York: Sterling, 2007. Print.
Critical Issues in Philippine Relations Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The 1896 to 1898 revolutions in the Philippines
Filipinos’ fight for independence
Introduction Negretos, Filipinos, who settled in Philippines approximately thirty thousand years ago, are the contemporary inhabitants of the land. Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, led the first Europeans who were in Spanish expedition to visit the Philippines in 1951(Bellwood 91).
Their visit to the Philippines opened the door for more Europeans, mainly Spanish, to go to there. The Spanish were the first Europeans to settle in the Philippines. However, the colonization of the Filipinos by the Spanish did not start until1564 when an expedition led by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi arrived at the Philippines.
It was the settlement and colonization of the Spanish in the land of the Filipinos that led them to interact with other nations on different basis until the Filipinos attained their independence on 5 July 1945.
While awaiting trial for treason, Jose P. Laurel said, “All of us were collaborationists, none of us were traitors” (Ileto
Applying Problem Solving Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Students get to solve various problems in class, which range from Mathematics to social issues. These problems help students to develop and apply problem solving techniques, which are essential in promoting their critical analysis of their environment along with its complexities.
Problem solving abilities are therefore very important in developing intellectuals for enrichment of the society. It transforms student learning techniques into participative rather than passive recipients when it comes to creation of understanding.
Students develop capacity to Apply problem solving skills whenever faced with unexpected occurrences or situations in a timely manner. Real world problems are usually different from class problems, this call on students to recollect and transform their problem solving skills into solution for real world problems.
This paper will explore two real world problems and provide persuasive as well as scientific thinking solutions to them (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Problem solving techniques are those skills used to solve life problems. They refer to an individual’s ability to reason both inductively and deductively, as well as be able to apply logic which can help that individual to infer problems, analyze and think critically.
These problems may require solutions arising from different elements such as persuasive thinking as well as scientific thinking, among others. Most problem solving processes involve the following stages; problem identification, analysis, generation of potential solutions, testing of solutions and evaluating the outcome.
In order to ensure that these methods are well applied, one needs to critically analyze the problem encountered. The following is an illustration of problems and their solutions (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem 1 Real world problems are numerous and people face them each day as they require instant solutions. In this part, we shall study a problem whose solution is based on persuasive thinking. For instance, environmental pollution has been an issue that demands solution.
Every green movement tries to make known to us the need for saving our environmental. This is a problem we encounter in every part of the world, with people disposing wastes anyhow. It is believed that human activities contribute more environmental pollution than other causes such as animal and plant wastes, among others.
These agents of pollution are many, ranging from fossil fuels that release greenhouse gases, which have been faulted for the depletion of the ozone layer.
Other agents include pollution of lake and rivers, deforestation, and charcoal burning, among others. It is also estimated by the Natural Resources defense council that global warming is set to increase by over 1o Celsius even before the completion of 21st century.
This problem poses threat to our lives and the lives of our children. It therefor requires solution and an immediate one to help reduce its risks (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Solution: Persuasive Thinking
In the situation above, the world is faced by an imminent disaster in global warming, because of increased environmental pollution. For persuasive thinking, one aspect that has to be defined is the problem, its causes, possible solutions, advantages and disadvantages as well as the choice or path taken.
The problem in this case is pollution of the environment; environment is continually getting worse with great effects already felt all over the world. The effects include unpredictable weather, Global warming, shortened life expectancy, famine, drought and increased spread of diseases, among others.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Applying Problem Solving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Its advantages include, making work easier for man in terms of transport, Machinery, and many more. When these effects are compared, we find that, the disadvantages are numerous and adverse to the survival of life, which includes the human race on earth. In essence, it has to be mitigated.
The next step is finding possible solutions, which include stopping the release of greenhouse gases, afforestation and conservation of our environment. Since human activities cannot stop as their lives also depend on it, the other possible solutions include investing on alternative energy sources.
Therefore solution to this problem out of persuasive thinking would be to conserve our environment. It starts with us and without action our survival is threatened (Poole, 2006, p. 1).
Problem 2 This part will study a problem whose solution is based on scientific thinking. For instance, a young couple that do not want children and yet they also never want to use protection.
Their reason for not wanting children is that they are still young and unstable financially to support one, however, in the future when they are stable they’ll need. So the problem is preventing unwanted pregnancy in a couple, and they require a scientific thinking to solve it (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Solution: Scientific Thinking
In the problem above, the issues are identified as ways of preventing unwanted pregnancies within a marriage setting. The first step involves understanding the problem and then gathering information and research on the same. For instance, a research from, women on waves, provides several researched solution to this problem.
These include, Total abstinence (100% protection), which is impossible for married couple, and use of contraceptives. The latter option is contraceptives, in which there are several methods with different rates of protection.
These include use of diaphragm-80% (type and estimated percentage effectiveness), Emergency contraceptives-75%, surgical sterilization-99%, Intrauterine device-99%, implant-99%, injection-99%, oral contraceptives-95%, female condom-79% and male condom-86%.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Applying Problem Solving by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These are methods that have been researched and proved medically, using scientific techniques. Since they need a child in the future, sterilization is out of question, they can then use oral contraceptives, implant or injection. And since oral contraceptives have been proved to have some side effects, then implant would be wise for the couple (Women on Waves, 2011, p. 1).
Summary Problem solving techniques or skills are very essential in aiding individuals to provide quick solutions to their everyday needs. These need critical thinking, inference and analysis which can only be mastered by intellectuals and critical think-tanks, Persuasive thinking involves the use of critical thinking to bring out logic on a problem.
The logic inferred should be used to persuade others to follow that idea. It also involves persistence, and this convinces people that you have faith and knowledge of the idea. Individuals pursuing persuasive thinking must provide the advantages and disadvantages of their solutions before deciding on it.
It is also imperative for that individual to provide concise and conclusive evidences on the advantages as well as the disadvantages of the chosen idea (Poole, 2006, p. 1).
In scientific thinking, we must have a thorough knowledge of the problem, study it, gather information related to it, analyze, explore possible solutions, and use credible sources along with researched ideas to decide on the best solution.
Since the couple do not want to use condoms, and they also require children in the future, implant would be their best option as it will be removed when they are ready (Women on Waves, 2011, p. 1).
Conclusion Every problem needs a solution, people face different problems in the world, and in most cases this requires transformation of learned skills into applicable problem solving skills. Most employers are after graduates who can solve real problems as fast as possible, and this can only happen with critical thinkers.
The two methods of problem solving are different although persuasive thinking may sometimes borrow ideas from scientific thinking to prove ideas (Harris, 2002, p. 1).
Reference List Harris, R. (2002). Problem Solving techniques. Virtual Salt. Retrieved from: https://www.virtualsalt.com/crebook4.htm