Table of Contents Introduction
Demographical Comparison (Data)
Economic Analysis (Features)
Introduction The modern international system, states compete for economic and political power for them to be considered superpowers. Polarity is a term used in foreign policy analysis to refer to the centre of power meaning that a state must possess certain features to be powerful.
Scholars of foreign policy observe that a state must be able to influence the global society politically, diplomatically, economically, culturally, militarily, and technologically for it to be accepted as a superpower. Before the First World War, there were various centres of power, including Russia, Japan, the United States and Britain.
During this time, the international system was characterized by multi-polarity. Only two centres of power emerged after the Second World War, a situation referred to as bipolarity. The Cold War brought a number of changes because it led to the emergence of only a single centre of power, which was the United States. The Soviet Union was disintegrated after the changes that were Gorbachev introduced in early 1990s (Atkinson 884).
Recently, the international system is characterized by multi-polarity, but only economically because the US still dominates politically, culturally, militarily, technologically, and diplomatically. China, India, Russia, and Brazil are the emerging economies that pose a serious challenge to other developed economies, such as the United States, Japan, France, and Britain. These countries are referred to as the BRICS.
The BRIC countries are developing at a very high rate economically, but a majority of them are still lagging behind in terms of cultural and political development. In these countries, political reforms are never allowed because the state controls state resources.
In China, the state owns all major investments whereby an individual is the property of the state. The article analyzes the capability of the BRIC countries in terms of influencing the global affairs. In the article, it is noted that the countries have managed to influence economic issues, but not diplomatic and political.
Demographical Comparison (Data) China released the 2010 census report in April, which shocked very many people in the world. The media focused on the getting old before it gets rich theme, which is related to the iniquitous policy proving that an individual should have just a single child due to inadequate resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The policy was put in place sometimes back owing to the population pressure, which placed a lot of pressure to the government regarding provision of basic needs, such as education, security, healthcare, food, and many more. Even though China is showing a good economic prosperity, it has a serious problem that is related to population. However, population is not a curse to the Chinese government as is the case in other places, such as Africa (Lankhuizen 1402).
Therefore, the population plays a critical role in China because it serves as the consumer of finished goods and services. Many organizations around the world are always interested in investing in China because of stable market. Apart from providing the market for the finished industrial goods, the population offer labour. Studies suggest that China has semi-skilled, skilled, and unskilled labour. In this regard, cheap labour is readily available, which has played a major role in boosting industrial production.
The total population of China according to the 2010 census is 1.34 billion. India has a population of 1.21 while Brazil’s population is 190.7 million. The census report reveals that the population of the BRIC countries grow every decade, with China having a decadal growth of 74 million, which translates to 5.4 percent.
For every decade, the population growth of India is 181 million, translating to 17.6 while that of Brazil is 21 million, which translates to 12.3 percent. The census reports for these countries confirm that their rise to global power is attributed to population increase. China and India had to come up with a policy that forced individuals to accept family planning strategies.
In terms of gender, China has a male population of 51.3 percent while that of female is 48.7 percent. This shows that the ratio of men to women in the country is 105/100. Any population that is dominated by men has the potential of developing at a high rate because men can easily work in industries, unlike women who demand feminine jobs. India and China shares something in common, which is the gender of the population because India has ratio of 100 to 94.
This translates to 51.6 percent men and 48.4 percent women. In Brazil, women are slightly more than men are because they constitute 51 percent of the total population while men are 49 percent. Regarding the age ratios, the BRIC countries have able population because half of the population are men. Only 16.6 percent of the population in China is made of children while the old constitute only 13.3 percent. In India, only 13 percent are children while Brazil has children population of 24 percent.
In terms of the level of literacy, the BRIC countries have an educated population because the literate rate in China is over 96 percent while in India it is above 74 percent. Brazil has a literacy rate of over 91 percent. In China, 49.7 percent of the population lives in urban areas while 30 percent live of the population of the population lives in the urban areas in India. In Brazil, over 84.4 percent of the population are urban dwellers (Groot 507).
We will write a custom Essay on The BRIC Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The data presented above shows that the BRIC have the high chances of excelling economically because the number individuals who can engage in economic development is very high. In some countries, the population is an issue of concern because able individuals should be imported from other countries. The population below six years is reducing in India while the population between 15 to 64 years is increasing in China. This shows that these countries will never lack sufficient markets and labour.
Social Analysis In terms of social development, the BRIC countries are still facing a number of challenges because their governments are yet to formulate policies aiming at mitigating the various social challenges. However, the countries are putting up measures that would help their citizens in dealing with the challenges of globalization. Recently, the representatives of the BRIC countries met to deliberate on the ways through which the health of their citizens would be improved.
Moreover, the conference discussed some of the ways that would allow the old to access basic pensions, as well as social security. Therefore, it can be observed that the BRIC countries are concentrating on improving health, setting up pension plans, and extending social security to various individuals who might be in need. In a report released by ISSA titled social security coverage extension in the BRIC countries, it was noted that social security plays a critical role in improving the welfare of the majority in society.
Moreover, it was agreed that social security would be provided to individuals, given the fact that the countries host over 42 percent of the world’s population (Feenstra 78). The secretary general of ISSA was of the view that the BRIC countries have to take an initiative of understanding the social dimensions of developments in order to improve the living standards of citizens. The conference conducted an analysis of the ongoing projects related to social security and suggested new measures.
Nevertheless, the countries contracted an international social security organization to undertake an extensive research to establish the social needs of citizens in the four countries. The study found out that political good will was lacking in almost all the countries meaning that leadership is still a challenge as far as implementation of social policies are concerned.
The report however established that the countries had adequate economic environment that would support social policies. The leadership of ISSA observed with concern that economic objectives cannot be achieved in case the leadership of the BRIC countries do not take social development seriously.
For instance, a healthy population is needed for the production process to go on interrupted. In this view, all social institutions operating the BRIC countries have to be given adequate support to enable them resolve the many issues facing the population (Bosworth 51). The governments should set standards that will go a long way in helping people regarding their social safety.
Economic Analysis (Features) Research shows that Brazil is the largest economy in the South American region. The country has a developed agricultural system, mining industries, and manufacturing companies. Moreover, the service industries in the country are well developed meaning that the macroeconomic features of the country are very stable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The BRIC Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From 2003, the country embarked on a recovery mission whereby it was expected to attract foreign capital, decrease debt, prevent inflation of prices, and commit itself to financial tasks (Eichengreen 56). The recovery program was hindered by the 2007 global financial crisis, but the country recovered so fast The GDP level of the country returned to its initial figure, with the central bank reporting a 5 percent growth in 2010. The country relies heavily on the service sector followed by the industrial sector.
Figure 1: The GDP of Brazil from 2007 to 2009
Figure 2: Brazil’s per capita from 2007 to 2009
Russia is the world’s largest country in terms of geographical area because it borders fourteen countries. The country engages in trade with various partners, mainly those in Europe. In 2007, the economy of Russia almost collapsed because the stock market was performing poorly.
The economic crisis affected the prices of commodities given the fact that Russian products never had demand in the global market. Economic growth fell from 9.5 to 1.1. The country’s economy picked up in 2009, but at a low level. The increase in the prices of oil products boosted Russia’s economy since the country depends on oil. The country relies heavily on production and transportation given the fact that it owns one of the longest gas pipes in Europe referred to as Gazpromo.
Among the BRIC countries, India is the less developed, even though it has a huge population. The country boosts of a cost effective labour and economy because cheapo labour force is readily available. Many developed countries outsource their work to India mainly because of cheap labour. The country relies heavily on exports and manufacturing.
China is an economic powerhouse in Asia mainly because of the population, which provides adequate labour and market. The GDP growth of China was 10.456 percent in 2010, which amounted to $ 5745.13 billion. Financial analysts observe that this growth rate is expected to increase. The country opened up its economy by allowing the market to operate according to its own internal logics. However, China’s economic growth is only felt in the cities since the rural areas are still very poor (Amiti 12).
Political Analysis Politically, India is perceived as the most democratic among the four BRIC countries. Nevertheless, democracy in India does not measure up to the internationally recognized standards meaning that it has a long way to go in case it wants to embrace democracy.
This means that BRIC countries have serious problems regarding the rule of law, respect for human rights, media freedom, constitutionalism, and the existence of the civil society. For instance, the Chinese government does not allow political competition because it interferes with the position of the ruling class. In the BRIC countries, the gap between the rich and the poor is ever increasing meaning that economic gains are not distributed equally.
The media is highly controlled in China and Russia, which means that it only reports what the government wants. In Brazil, the opposition is never given a chance to participate in elections democratically. The system of checks and balances do not work in the BRIC countries. The president is always in charge of foreign and domestic policy implying that citizens are never involved in making major decisions that would their lives (Rodrik 89).
Works Cited Amiti, Freund. China’s Growing Role in World Trade. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. Print.
Atkinson, Salverda. “Top Incomes in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom over the 20th Century.” Journal of the European Economic Association, 3.1 (2005): 883-913. Print.
Bosworth, Collins. “Accounting for Growth: Comparing China and India.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22.3 (2010): 45-66. Print.
Eichengreen, Park. When Fast Growing Economies Slow Down: International Evidence and Implications for China. Cambridge: NBER Working Paper, 2011. Print.
Feenstra, Wei. Introduction of China’s Growing Role in World Trade. Cambridge: NBER Working Paper, 2009. Print.
Groot, Withagen. “Dynamics of China’s Regional Development and Pollution: An Investigation into the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Environment and Development Economics, 9.2 (2004): 507-537.
Lankhuizen, Linders. “The Trade-Off between Foreign Direct Investments and Exports: The Role of Multiple Dimensions of Distance.” The World Economy, 34.1 (2011): 1395-1416. Print.
Rodrik, Derick. One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions and Economic Growth, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2007. Print.
Birthed in the Same Year Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction In the early 1920s, American people were struggling to come into terms with various gender, cultural, and social norms that hindered success of some of members of the society. For instance, during this time, American women were fighting for their own sovereignty from male domineering. The climax for this fight was reached in 1926 when women were eventually accorded suffrage rights.
Later, absorption of women in formal employment tremendously increased so that, by the end of the Second World War, an incredibly large number of American women population could access formal employment functioning in the jobs competitively as their male counterparts.
The achievement means that early 1920s marked the beginning of the era in which women ceased to be predominantly accustomed to domestic chores as dictated by societal norms defining gender roles in earlier years. Literature works function to reflect changes in society by challenging and ridiculing certain societal norms, which the author of such works feels that they impair the collective development of the society.
This paper scrutinises Virginia Woolfe’s literary work To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand by Salvador Dali in the effort to dig out common themes that are reflective of the 1927 contemporary societal approaches to gender, culture, historical events, and representation of different types of people.
Comparative Analysis of Themes Gender
The novel To the Lighthouse by Woolfe constitutes three main parts namely the window, time pass, and the lighthouse. The novel’s part one setting is based in a summer home belonging to Ramsay located in isle of Skype in Hebrides. The piece starts by James being guaranteed by his mother, Mrs. Ramsay that, come the following day, the two would tour the lighthouse.
However, Mr. Ramsay is opposed to this decision by claiming that the weather would not be clear. Hence, the trip was impossible. This very incident draws much controversy between Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay. Indeed, in the following chapters, the discussion of the relationship between the two is discussed in the context of the tension created by the controversy. The controversy presents opposing and emerging new approaches to families on who would be the decision maker in the 1920’s.
Similarly, the painting figure of Dali is surrounded by women images. These metaphors are an illustration of the contemplation that runs across the brains of the device. From the proportionality of the painting, it is evident that the apparatus assumes the largest surface area of the painting while the female images take the lesser space, yet the similes are many.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguably, this strategy sends sound message that the apparatus is domineering and in control over the female images that surround it. The centrality of the apparatus in the painting also shows how effective its voice of command is on the surrounding images. In this sense, the painting portrays gender themes characterising the early1920’s American society in which men took central roles in the society with women being given minimal chances to make decisions.
Directly congruent to the manner in which the female images surround the main apparatus of the painting, women in this period were supposed to obey and respect the decisions and opinions of men, whether they were wrong or right notwithstanding. The fact that the creature is surrounded by many female images and that the images represent what is running in the minds of the apparatus implies that the creature was erotic. This argument perhaps justifies the polygamy nature of the early 19th century society.
Arguably, the argument also means that the creature is pleased by having many females around it. In this sense, the apparatus may be interpreted as believing that women are objects of pleasing it, which perhaps measures up to the early 19th century perception of held against women. They were supposed to remain at home and be involved in the familial chores. This life was highly dependent on the mercies of men who were accepted as the sole breadwinners.
The presentation of dominance of one gender in the early 19th century societies is also evident in To the Lighthouse. Mr. Ramsay does not consider the decisions of his wife to take a trip to the lighthouse with her children as right. He immensely opposes it. Both live within the same place. However, it seems that Mrs. Ramsay does not understand the fact that bad weather could impede the success of their journey due to lack of clarity. Does this mean that women are less endowed with the ability to evaluate the implication of their decisions?
While the above query would be dismissed in the cotemporary modern society, in Virginia Woolfe and Salvador Dali’s time, it was a subject of controversy. This case is evidenced by the fact the relationship of Mr. Ramsay and Mrs. Mr. Ramsay cites very good reason on why it would be impossible to visit the lighthouse.
However, it is arguable that Mrs. Ramsey treats the opposition of her decision as perhaps being based on the deep-seated cultural norms that men should dominate over women and that they are the overall decision makers in families. This argument is perhaps more evident in part one through consideration of the dominant believe that some jobs were only a reserve of men.
Consequently, women were less suited to such jobs. In the novel, Briscoe, among other colleagues and friends to Ramsey, joins their house. Briscoe is a young woman painter who is just starting her career. She is plagued by the Tansley’s ideologies that women cannot write or even paint. This belief is a significant indicator of the perception of males domineering in some fields since Tansley is an adorable admirer of the philosophical treatises of the Mr. Ramsay.
We will write a custom Essay on Birthed in the Same Year specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He was greatly impacted by Mr. Ramsay decisions not to take the trip because the weather would not be clear. While it is common knowledge that bad weather resulting in loss of vision clarity may impair navigation and sailing, from the presentation of Mrs. Ramsay, it is not common sense among women. This argument perhaps shows that women cannot make good decisions. They often put their lives in danger if men do not question their decisions.
Reflection of gender themes in the two works speak volumes of both authors’ attempt to explore gender oppression ideals held by the early 19th century society. In the To the Lighthouse, women appear unable to make substantive decisions. The right denied reminiscences the period preceding 1926 when woman were deprived of suffrage rights.
They would not be able to elect leaders who would be of help to the society just as Mrs. Ramsay would not understand that bad weather could be hazardous and often lead to the curtailing of her trip to the lighthouse midway. Female gender found itself in a bad situation in the early 19th century by consideration of presentation of women as objects for satisfying erotic desires of the central creature (apparatus) in Dali’s painting.
Historic Events Any literature work is based on the experiences of people as humanity moves from one generation to another. This argument also applies to Virginia Woolfe’s literary work To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand by Salvador Dali. For instance, the struggle for cognition of women as equal to men in social domains is a significant theme that recurs in both works.
At the time of Dali’s painting, it is evident that gender perceptions have enormously changed as evidenced by the posed female image placed on the right of the painting to “contrast the geometric simplicity of the centre image” (Moorhous 45). The existence of a female image, which is disjointed from other images that surround the main apparatus, shows that women have by far extent overcome the historical perceptions of erosion of their independence.
In To the Lighthouse, the theme of historical events is developed through categorisation of characters such as Mr. Tansley who still believes that, consistent with traditions, women still cannot perform certain tasks, which are reserved for men such as writing and painting. The analogy of this historical change is striking in the two works, which also happen to be written in 1927 since Dali’s painting also portrays an evolved 1927 woman ready to face competition with the apparatus.
Dali created his painting upon his return from war. As a historical event shaping human race from generation to generation, war often results to loss of life and other massive damages to societal fabrics. The degree of such loss is exemplified by the donkey creature in the painting, which is bounded by a mass of flies eating its tummy. This technique means that the donkey is undergoing the decomposition process, meaning that it is already dead.
Representation of People In both To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand, people are presented as resistant to change even in the light of the new dawn. For instance, in the painting by Dali, although women’s struggle during the 1920s yielded incredible fruits in appreciation of the significance of ensuring that they had equal rights with men, some women still clinched on the status quo.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Birthed in the Same Year by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Women who surrounded the apparatus exemplify this case yet a new breed of women was freely exercising its own rights as guaranteed to it through legislative enactments of 1920’s.
The historical experience of people is explored through the presentation of theme of war and its aftermaths. The section also digs into the perspectives of passing of time, existence of time absence in people’s lives, and the realities of death. In the ten-year historical timeline, the four years of suffering of humanity articulated to the First World War comes and finally ends.
Within the same ten years, Mrs. Ramsay also dies while Prue also succumbs to complications she encountered as she gave birth. Andre also dies during the wanton years. Tantamount to the first part, the roles of women in society are also addressed in the second part. The author argues that, following the death of Mrs. Ramsay, Mr. Ramsay has no one to comfort coupled with praising him in the days of fear and anguish relating to longevity of his much-adored philosophical work.
In the last part of the novel To the Lighthouse, following the events that took place in part one, some of Ramsay’s friends go back to their summer homes ten years later.
Although Ramsay was opposed to taking the journey to the lighthouse in the first part, he finally accepts the idea and requests his daughter and son, James and Cam respectively, to accompany him. Nevertheless, the two siblings protest for been forced to accompany their father but remain silent due to the immense fear they have for their farther. James manages to ensure that the boat sails smoothly.
In this journey, one comes to learn that men as presented in the first part were chauvinistic and harsh towards not only their wives but also their children. James evidences this assertion when the author informs that, during the journey; James anticipated harsh words from his father. However, instead, in the entire journey, he received words of praise, something that provided “a rare moment of empathy between father and son” (Woolfe 56).
It is also during this journey that Cam’s negative attitude towards her farther was altered from “resentment to eventual admiration” (Woolfe 43). Arguably, their journey also presents a change of events and acceptance of the fact that women can equally perform the tasks, which were traditionally perceived as men’s discipline because it is during the journey that Lily manages to complete her painting, which was otherwise only mentally painted throughout the novel.
In the two works, people are presented as unable to preserve their own experiences as they descend from one generation to another. This argument is perhaps also valid in the modern day. Dali’s painting still holds and carries the same message as its creator intended as it stands at the Salvador museum.
Comparatively, Mr. Ramsay deploys valid mechanisms of ensuring that life remains amply significant. In this effort, Mr. Ramsay is driven by his philosophical approaches to growth of people’s thoughts to ensure that their affiliations to various perceived norms remain relevant.
On the other hand, Mrs. Ramsay is incredibly guided by her experiences of her social interactions to attaching meaning to her life experiences. This comparison presents two people who seem to belong to different generations although living in the same era. One generation represented by Mr. Ramsay is guided by the developments of the power of human thought to construct and attach meaning to life while the other, represented by Mrs. Ramsay, is still deeply ingrained in the traditional approaches to life experiences.
Culture Culture is an important aspect of people’s life. The use of the term culture incorporates the artefact, which defines people’s way of life. In a broader context, culture defines also the deeply seated perceptions that are passed from one person to another within a society. Culture defines what all members subscribing to the ideologies of a given society ought to do and what they ought not to do. However, such ideologies are widely criticised by both To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand.
In the Apparatus and Hand, one sees liberated woman who violate the culture of overdependence on the gigantic and superior figures in society, men. Currently, the work is located in the Salvador museum at St. Petersburg in the state of Florida. The painting displays a well thought cultural geometric figure, which has a protruding red hand from its head. The figure is made of triangles and cones. As Moorhous informs, “Ghostly images of nude female figures and torsos superimposed on a blue watery dreamscape surround the structure” (17).
The interpretation themes and the intended message conveyed by the painting may be attributed to themes of historic war bearing in mind that Dali did the painting upon his coming back home from a nine-month long war during, which he was deployed for a military duty. Dali lived in the Freudian period. Therefore, his painting was highly inspired by Freud’s line of thought.
In To the Lighthouse, women have refused to subscribe to the culture that subverts their place and roles in society. For instance, Lily Briscoe does not desire at all to engage in matrimony.
Rather, she is committed in engaging in the formal work much similar to people like Mr. Bankes and Mr. Ramsay. Her independency from the cultural practices, which see women as inferior in society is made clear by her presentation as an independent woman who disregards chauvinistic perceptions held by Mr. Tansley that women are incapable of painting.
This idea coupled with the idea of refusing to give in her life to any man makes her unconventional woman in the context of the 1920’s American culture. A similar approach to cultural norms is also exhibited and echoed by Cam, Rose, and Nancy who believe that their mothers’ perception that women are limited to domestic work is overtaken by events.
Women who are at home with the culture of curving their lives are presented as open to disaster in the future. For instance, while Prue succumbs to childbirth complications, Mrs. Ramsay’s demise comes at a much early age in relation to people’s anticipations. Minta also suffers her marriage when her husband abandons her for another woman who does not comply with conventional culture subverting the place of women in the society.
Conclusion In the early1920’s, the American society was undergoing intensive progressive changes. It was in this time that the First World War was experienced where women succeeded in the fights for their rights including suffrage rights and incorporation in the formal employment similar to their male counterparts.
This means there were changes in the culture of the Americans. People began to be guided by the new insights of equality of all human beings irrespective of their gender or any other demographic factor. The above issues stand out well in the two texts that have been discussed in the paper.
Despite the time gap, any literature or history fanatic who is interested in getting a clear picture of issues as they unfolded in the 1920s will find the two works helpful. Any work of literature serves the principle function of recording historical experiences of a society coupled with offering criticism to some of the norms that an author feels are largely misplaced.
Therefore, the study argues that both To the Lighthouse, written by Virginia Woolfe, and Apparatus and Hand, written by Salvador Dali, depict themes such as recording of historical events, gender role subversion, cultural changes, and representation of people in various ways.
Works Cited Moorhous, Paul. Dali. New York, NY: PRC Publishing, 1990. Print.
Woolfe, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. New York, NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990. Print.
The Economic Performance of the United Arab Emirates Report college essay help online
The aim of this paper was to analyze the economic performance of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In particular, the paper focused on the effect of the decline in economic growth rate in 2012 and the fiscal policy that can be implemented to boost economic growth. The IMF predicted a reduction in economic growth of the country from 4.9% in 2011 to 2.3% in 2012. The country’s limited capacity to increase oil production is one of the factors that were expected to cause the decline in economic growth.
The findings of this paper indicate that the reduction of economic growth rate would reduce the country’s real output and increase unemployment in the long-run. Consequently, the government should implement an expansionary fiscal policy in order to stimulate economic growth. Moreover, the government should focus on controlling the inflation and the crowding-out effect associated with expansionary fiscal policy.
Summary of the Article According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the expansion rate of the economy of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was expected to reduce from 4.9% in 2011 to 2.3% in 2012. The reduction was attributed to the country’s inability to increase its oil production. Nonetheless, the economy was expected to maintain its recovery.
The 2009-2010 Dubai debt crisis adversely affected the country’s property industry. Consequently, Dubai World, which is a state-owned corporation, had to restructure its debts that were worth twenty five billion dollars. Nonetheless, the country was able to survive the crisis due to favorable oil prices and improved trade with Asia.
According to the IMF, the uncertainty of the performance of the world economy was a threat to UAE’s forecasted growth. Concisely, continued decline in the performance of the world economy would limit the ability of UAE’s state-owned corporations to replace their maturing debts with new ones. Despite the efforts made to restructure the debts, most state-owned corporations still required high refinancing. The IMF also believed that the government’s decision to consolidate fiscal policy was right.
Explanation of the Article based on AD-AS Model The economy of the UAE as described in the article can be explained in the framework of the aggregate demand (AD) and aggregate supply (AS) model. The model is made of up of three curves namely, the “aggregate demand curve (AD), the short run aggregate supply curve (SAS) and the long run supply curve (LAS)” (Rossana 81).
Figure 1 shows the short run equilibrium of the economy of the UAE. Aggregate demand includes consumption by private economic entities, investments, government expenditure, and net exports (Chamberlin, Linda and Yueh 241). In this regard, the factors that will cause a shift in the AD curve of UAE’s economy include foreign income, income distribution, and fiscal policy, as well as, anticipations concerning future output and prices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Foreign income refers to the income earned in UAE’s major trading partners such as the United States of America, Europe, and Asian countries. According to the article, the recovery of the global economy is uncertain. This implies that foreign income will reduce if the global economy continues to deteriorate. Thus, the demand for UAE’s exports such as oil will reduce. As a result, the earnings of UAE’s exporting firms will decrease.
This partly explains why the state-linked firms will not be able to rollover their debts if the performance of the global economy worsens. Overall, the decline in foreign income will cause the AD curve to shift to the left from AD0 to AD1, thereby reducing real output from Y0 to Y1.
Following IMF’s prediction of economic decline, producers expect demand for their products to reduce in future. Thus, they will reduce investments and production in order to avoid the losses associated with high variable costs and low demand (Rossana 126). Similarly, consumers will associate the expected economic decline with reduced future earnings.
Thus, they are likely to reduce consumption in order to save for the future. Consequently, the AD curve will shift to the left from AD0 to AD1, whereas real output will reduce from Y0 to Y1.
As firms reduce investments and production in response to the expected economic decline, the “distribution of income from profit earners to wage earners is likely to worsen” (Minford and Peel 329). Generally, wage earners allocate a larger portion of their income to consumption than profit earners.
Thus, allocation of income in favor of profit earners rather than wage earners will move the AD curve to the left. Finally, the government’s plan to consolidate fiscal policy is likely to involve a reduction in public expenditure. This will lower aggregate demand, thereby shifting the AD curve to the left.
The SAS illustrates the response of prices and real output to changes in aggregate demand in the short run (Romer 415). UAE’s short run supply curve will shift due to changes in productivity. The expected economic decline will lead to reduced productivity, thereby shifting the SAS curve in figure 2 to the left from SAS0 to SAS1.
We will write a custom Report on The Economic Performance of the United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, real output will reduce from Y0 to Y1. If the global economy continues to deteriorate, the prices of UAE’s exports will decline. This will discourage production among exporters, thereby reducing aggregate supply. Thus, the SAS curve will shift to the left.
The expected decline in economic growth will cause the aggregate supply curve and the aggregate demand curve to shift to the left. These shifts are associated with a reduction in real output from Y0 to Y1. As a result, the short run equilibrium of the country’s economy will shift from E0 to E1.
Description of the Economic Situation of the Market The expected decline in economic growth will affect both the goods and factor markets. In the goods market, the economic decline can have positive effects for consumers. This is because inflation usually declines when economic growth reduces (Rossana 112). Concisely, economic decline reduces demand for goods and services.
Thus, producers and sellers are likely to reduce the prices of their products in order to stimulate demand and to clear their stock of manufactured goods, thereby reducing inflation. In this case, the consumers will have a higher purchasing power than they had before the reduction of the prices. On the contrary, the price reductions will affect the producers negatively. This is because it will reduce their profit margins. In addition, some producers might sell their goods at a loss.
The expected economic decline will also affect prices in the factor market. As profits reduce, companies are likely to implement cost-cutting measures such as reducing their workforce. Moreover, companies are likely to reduce their investments in new equipment or borrowing in order to expand their operations (Minford and Peel 215).
In this regard, factor prices will fall. For example, wage rates are likely to reduce as companies layoff their employees. Similarly, interest rates, which is the cost of financial capital is likely to reduce as demand for loans declines. The reduction in factor prices will benefit producers by lowering their costs of production. Nonetheless, it will negatively affect suppliers of factors of production. For example, low wage rates will reduce workers’ disposable income and purchasing power.
The Right Fiscal Policy Fiscal policy refers to the use of “government expenditure, taxation, and borrowing to influence the level of aggregate demand, output, and jobs in an economy” (Chamberlin, Linda and Yueh 197). Fiscal policy enables the government to influence the pattern of expenditure and income distribution in its economy.
Thus, Keynesians believe that fiscal policy has a great impact on consumption, productivity, and job creation in an economy that has an excess capacity. Thus, the government of the UAE should implement an expansionary fiscal policy in order to prevent a recession. An expansionary fiscal policy refers to “the increase in government expenditure and or a decrease in taxes that usually results into an increase in budget deficit or a reduction in budget surplus” (Chamberlin, Linda and Yueh 210).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Performance of the United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Justification for Implementing Expansionary Fiscal Policy An expansionary fiscal policy should be implemented because it will enable the government to reverse the economic decline. Concisely, the policy will spur economic growth by stimulating consumption and demand. The unemployment rate in the UAE increased from 3% in 2008 to 4.2% in 2012 (Nyarko 4-15). On the contrary, the country’s inflation rate was as low as 0.7% in 2012.
The increase in unemployment rate, low inflation, and the expected reduction in GDP growth suggest that the economy is operating below its potential output. The government can push the country’s real output back to its near potential level by implementing an expansionary fiscal policy that involves an increase in public spending. Government “expenditure is one of the components of aggregate demand” (Rossana 47). Thus increasing it will result into an increase in aggregate demand.
Figure 3 shows the effect of an expansionary fiscal policy on real output. According to figure 3, a rise in aggregate demand due to an increase in spending by the government will move the AD curve to the right from AD0 to AD1. Consequently, the country’s real output will increase from Y0 to Yp. In this case, Yp is the potential output. As the economy moves towards its potential output, the rate of GDP growth is likely to increase.
How the Expansionary Fiscal Policy will affect the Economy First, the policy will lead to increased economic growth, thereby improving earnings in the private and public sector. Concisely, firms are likely to increase investments and to employ more people in order to increase their production in response to the expected increase in aggregate demand (Rossana 233).
In this regard, increased productivity will raise firm profits and the incomes earned by workers. The government can also create employment through the expansionary fiscal policy. For example, it can create thousands of jobs in the construction industry by constructing new roads and schools.
Second, an expansionary fiscal policy is likely to be inflationary. Figure 3 shows that prices will increase from P0 to P1 as real output increases after the implementation of the expansionary fiscal policy. A sharp increase in inflation is not desirable because it will reverse the benefits of the economic growth. Concisely, a high inflation reduces consumers’ purchasing power.
Thus, aggregate demand will reduce if wages are not raised in response to the increase in inflation (Minford and Peel 316). Similarly, a high inflation will raise the prices of inputs, thereby increasing production costs. If the producers are able to pass the high costs of production to consumers, the prices of various goods and services will increase, thereby reducing demand. However, producers will have to absorb the high costs of production if they cannot share them with the consumers.
In this case, firm profits will reduce in response to the high production costs. Nonetheless, the inflationary effect is not likely to be severe because the country’s inflation in 2012 was less than 1% (World Bank). Countries can increase their economic growth rate and create employment as long as they maintain a single digit inflation rate (Rossana 102). Thus, the inflation associated with the expansionary fiscal policy is not likely to be detrimental if it is less than 10%.
Third, the expansionary fiscal policy is likely to increase UAE’s public debt if it is financed through borrowing. In 2012, the country’s public debt as a percentage of its GDP was 40%. Thus, the country is likely to fall into a debt trap if it continues to increase its public debt. A debt trap is a situation in which the government has to borrow in order to pay the interests charged on its existing debts. Countries that have fallen into debt traps often have poor credit ratings due to their limited ability to repay their loans.
Thus, a low credit rating will limit the country’s ability to access capital from foreign lenders such as the IMF. High public debt is also not desirable because it involves a redistribution of income from taxpayers to holders of government debt securities (Romer 516). In this regard, it is likely to redistribute income from low-income earners who pay taxes to the rich who invest in government bonds. This is because the interests on government bonds are paid through taxes.
Fourth, an expansionary fiscal policy is likely to have a crowding-out effect in the economy if it is implemented through a large deficit spending. In this case, the government will have to borrow a large amount of financial capital from the public in order to implement the policy. Conceptually, the government will be competing with private firms for capital.
Consequently, interest rates will increase, thereby limiting the ability of private firms to access credit through the financial and capital markets. The government will have to increase taxes in order to repay the funds borrowed from the public. High taxes in the medium run will reduce consumers’ disposable income (Minford and Peel 117). The resulting reduction in consumption and demand, as well as, limited access to capital will lead to reduced investments. Thus, economic growth will decline.
The Fiscal Policy Tools The tools that should be used to implement expansionary fiscal policy are increased government spending and tax cuts. Increased government expenditure can be implemented in the following was. First, the government can increase its transfer payments. This involves increasing expenditure on social security programs such as unemployment benefit, state pension, and grants to students.
Transfer payments ensure that every citizen has access to some minimum regular income (Minford and Peel 391). Transfer payments will improve the purchasing power of the poor, thereby increasing aggregate demand and economic growth.
Second, the government can expand its current budget on recurrent expenditure. This involves increasing expenditure on public goods such as education and health care. In this regard, the government can increase employment in the education and health sector by hiring more teachers and nurses respectively. Additionally, the government can improve the salaries of workers in the sectors that provide public goods.
Provision of public goods also involves expenditure on consumables such as stationery. Thus, aggregate demand is likely to increase as the government increases its expenditure on public goods. This will lead to improved economic growth.
Finally, government expenditure can be increased through capital spending. This involves increasing investments on infrastructure such roads, schools, and hospitals. Capital spending has a great effect on aggregate demand and supply because it stimulates high consumption.
For example, construction of new roads will increase demand in the industries that supply construction materials. In addition, construction projects usually create thousands of employment opportunities. This will help the country to address the problem of persistent unemployment.
Taxes can be direct or indirect. Direct taxes are charged on employment income and profits. Indirect taxes are levied on spending. They include value added tax (VAT) and excise duties on goods such as petrol. Most residents of the UAE do not pay personal income tax. Nonetheless, corporate tax is charged in most of the emirates.
For example, nearly all companies in Dubai pay taxes on their earnings. In Dubai, corporate tax can be as high as 55% (Nyarko 4-15). Generally, most emirates levy corporate taxes on foreign oil companies, petrochemical firms, and foreign banks. These companies pay up to 55% of their operating profits as income tax to the government.
Even though most residents of the UAE are exempted from income tax, they usually pay several indirect taxes. For example, municipal taxes of between 5% and 10% are usually levied on revenue generated from entertainment services, hotel operations, and commercial premises (Nyarko 4-15).
In addition, most imported goods are subject to an import duty of up to 5%. Thus, the government can still implement the expansionary fiscal policy by reducing indirect taxes that are levied on consumption. For example, a reduction of taxes on entertainment and hotel rooms can lower the cost of staying in hotels.
Consequently, hotel occupancy will increase, thereby raising the income of hotel owners and securing jobs in the hotel and restaurant industry. In addition, the government can reduce the corporate taxes that are paid by foreign oil and bank companies in order to improve their earnings. Lower taxes will enable these companies to allocate a better part of their earnings to investments rather than paying taxes. This will increase their productivity, thereby promoting economic growth.
Impact of the Fiscal Policy Tools in the Economy Increased Government Expenditure
Increased government spending will benefit the economy in the following ways. First, capital spending will lead to an increase in the total assets of the state. In particular, it will lead to expansion of the infrastructure that is necessary for the growth of businesses in the country.
For example, the expansion of roads and railway systems will improve efficiency in transportation. The resulting reduction in the cost of transportation will reduce the overall cost of producing goods and services in the economy. According to figure 4, a reduction in the cost of production shifts the aggregate supply curve downwards, thereby increasing real output from Y1 to Y2.
This shows that investments on infrastructure that support economic activities will lead to high economic growth. Furthermore, foreign direct investments are likely to increase if capital spending is used to expand the country’s infrastructure. For example, more airlines are likely to operate form Dubai if its airport is expanded. This will create more jobs and spur economic growth through increased consumption.
Second, provision of public goods and services such as education and health care will have positive supply-side effects in the economy by improving the quality of the country’s human capital. For example, funding higher education through grants to students will enable more people to improve their technical skills. People with high academic qualifications are likely to be highly productive because they have the knowledge and skills that are necessary for achieving innovation (Al-Khateeb, Darrat and Elkhal 297-306).
Similarly, spending on youth apprenticeship programs will enable fresh graduates to gain adequate job experience, thereby improving their employability. Concisely, it will enable the government to improve the competitiveness of the youth in the job market in order to reduce unemployment in the country. Similarly, expenditure in the health care sector will improve the health status of the citizens, thereby improving their productivity.
Third, expanding social safety net programs is an effective way of improving the incomes of the poorest people in the country. By 2012, nearly 10% of the population of the United Arab Emirates was living in poverty (World Bank). Improving the income of the population living in poverty through transfer payments will boost consumption. The resulting increase in demand for goods and services will encourage producers to increase their output through new investments.
Transfer payments are also a means of income and wealth redistribution in the economy. This is because transfer payment programs are financed through taxes, which are often paid by the rich. The benefit of redistributing income from the rich to the poor is that it enhances equality in the economy. Additionally, reducing income disparity reduces the chances of social unrests, which can hinder productivity and economic growth.
Tax cuts will affect the economy in the following ways. To begin with, reducing corporate tax will enhance investment in the economy. The oil and gas sector contributes approximately 31.3% of the GDP of the United Arab Emirates (Nyarko 4-15).
Nonetheless, companies in this industry, especially, the foreign ones pay nearly 55% of their operating profits as taxes. This reduces the amount of funds that firms in the industry can allocate to investments and expansion. According to the article, reduced production in the oil and gas industry is one the factors that were expected to slow the country’s economic growth.
However, productivity in the industry can be improved by lowering taxes in order to enable firms to allocate a large portion of their earnings to investments. For instance, firms in the industry can focus on oil exploration, thereby increasing the country’s oil and gas output. Any small increase in productivity in the oil and gas industry is likely to have a great multiplier effect in the economy. This is because the industry employs thousands of people and supplies oil, which is the main source of energy for production in the country.
Lowering taxes is also likely to attract foreign direct investments in the country. Foreign investors often invest in countries that provide tax incentives so that they can improve their earnings. An increase in foreign direct investments will have a powerful demand-side effect in the economy. Concisely, the consumptions associated with new investments by foreign investors will increase the demand for various goods and services in the economy.
The increase in demand will encourage producers to increase their output, thereby increasing the country’s GDP (Rossana 88). Finally, reducing the level of compulsory pension contribution will improve the purchasing power of the citizens. Concisely, a reduction of the compulsory contributions will enable the citizens to have a high disposable income, which will enable them to purchase more goods and services.
Impact on Macroeconomic Indicators The article highlights three important macroeconomic factors, which have implications for the country. These include the expected reduction in GDP growth, planned fiscal consolidation, and uncertain performance of the world economy and financial markets. These factors will affect the country’s unemployment and output in the following ways.
The forecasted reduction in economic growth means that the country’s output (measured by GDP) expanded at a slower rate in 2012 than in the previous year. Expectations concerning future decline in economic activity usually influence production decisions.
Producers and investors associate a reduction in the rate of economic growth with a decline in profits or corporate earnings (Romer 477). Thus, they are likely to reduce their output in response to the expected decline in demand as the economy slows down. In this regard, expectations of a decline in future earnings will lower the country’s output.
The country’s output is also likely to decline if the global economic environment continues to deteriorate. Concisely, poor performance of the world economy will reduce the demand for the country’s main exports such as oil. Thus, UAE’s exporters will reduce their output in response to the low demand for their products. Similarly, uncertainty in the global financial environment will limit the ability of UAE’s firms to access credit from foreign markets. This will limit investments and reduce the country’s output.
Fiscal consolidation involves implementing strategies that enable the government to reduce its budget deficit and overall public debt (Rossana 121). Thus, fiscal consolidation involves a reduction in public spending by the government. Reducing government expenditure is essentially a contractionary fiscal policy. According to figure 5, a reduction in government spending will cause a shift in the aggregate demand curve to the left, thereby reducing real output from Y0 to Y1. Thus, fiscal consolidation is likely to reduce the country’s output.
Unemployment is a lagging macroeconomic indicator because it usually takes time to respond to a change in GDP growth. Thus, the country’s unemployment rate may not change significantly in the short run as the economy slows down.
Reducing the workforce in response to falling demand and hiring new employees as economic activity improves usually involves high costs. Thus, firms are likely to retain their employees in the short run even if the rate of GDP growth is reducing. In this case, the unemployment rate may not increase by a big margin.
Okun’s law suggests a negative long run relationship between unemployment and GDP growth (Chamberlin, Linda and Yueh 245). Thus, if the country’s economic decline persists for a long time, unemployment rate will increase. This is because firms will opt to reduce their workforce in order to avoid high fixed costs.
According to Okun’s law, the rate at which new jobs are created depends on the rate of GDP growth. Thus, a reduction in the growth of the country’s GDP will slow the rate at which new jobs are created. Hence, the problem of high unemployment will persist.
Conclusion The IMF expected the rate of GDP growth in the UAE to decline from 4.9% in 2011 to 2.3% in 2012. This decline was attributed to the country’s limited capacity to increase oil production and uncertain global economic environment. The country’s government can stimulate economic growth by implementing an expansionary fiscal policy.
In particular, it should increase public spending and reduce taxes. An expansionary fiscal policy is appropriate because the country has a low inflation rate, whereas its unemployment rate is high. Additionally, the policy will stimulate demand, thereby increasing the rate of GDP growth.
Nonetheless, an expansionary fiscal policy is likely to be inflationary. Moreover, it can crowd-out investments in the private sector and increase public debt if it is financed through large-scale borrowing. In this regard, the government should also implement policies that will prevent high inflation and the crowding-out effect.
Appendix Figure 1: AD-AS Model (shift in AD curve)
Figure 2: AD-AS Model (shift in SAS curve)
Figure 3: Effect of expansionary fiscal policy
Figure 4: Effect of reduced production costs
Figure 5: effect of fiscal consolidation
Works Cited Al-Khateeb, Faisal, Ali Darrat and Khaled Elkhal. “The UAE Growth Surge: Have Information Technology and Human Capital Contributed?” Studies in Economics adn Finance 24.4 (2007): 297-306. Print.
Chamberlin, Graeme, Linda Linda and Yi-Chuang Yueh. Macroeconomics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.
Minford, Patrick and David Peel. Advanced Macroeconomics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2002. Print.
Nyarko, Yaw. The United Arab Emirates. Business. New York: UNU-WIDER, 2013. Print.
Romer, David. Advanced Macroeconomics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
Rossana, Robert. Macroeconomics. London: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
World Bank. UAE Economic Indicators. World Bank Group, 31 Dec. 2012. Web.
Analysis of Macroeconomic Condition of Argentina Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Background Argentina is located in South America. Based on the area occupied by the country, it is the eighth largest state in the world. The country has a variety of terrain, such as tall mountains, deserts and striking waterfalls. It is divided into six main regions, which are Tierra Del Fuego, Patagonia and the Lake District, the Pampas, the Chaco, Mesopotamia and the Northeast, and Cuyo and the Andean Northwest. It boarders Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay and other lands.
As at 2010, the country had a population totaling to 40,091,359. The pillars of the economic growth of the country are export-oriented agricultural sector, well-educated population and rich natural resources. The manufacturing sector of the country is also well-developed. The main sectors are motor vehicles and food processing (Embassy of Argentina in Australia 1).
Economic history of Argentina There are a lot of literature on the economic history of Argentina because instead of having experienced robust economic growth in the 20th century, the country had a low economic growth. The condition is commonly known as ‘Argentine paradox’. The country has a comparative advantage in agriculture since it has rich fertile land. During the period lasting from 1860 to 1930, the fertile land had been highly exploited by the Spanish conquerors.
There was no clear economic system in Argentina during that period. In fact, the Spanish conquerors made use of the land for their own benefit. Despite acquiring the land against the will of the natives, the foreigners ensured that the proceeds from agriculture were used for the development of the country. During the same period, the country was experiencing robust economic growth and it performed better than other countries, such as Australia. The economy of the country started to decline in 1930.
This was attributed to the great depression and political instability. Between that year and 1970, the reigning leaders strived to attain self-sufficiency in industrial production. They implemented certain strategies such as import substitution. The aim of this strategy was to minimize the amount of money the country spends on importation of industrial product. The strategy led to the creation of some employment opportunities.
On the other hand, it resulted in a reduction of agricultural production. Since agricultural production forms the main component of GDP of the country, the strategy created a number of negative effects such as hyper-inflation, privatization, high unemployment rate, devaluation of Peso, and a large amount of foreign debt. The economy recovered in 2005 (The Central Intelligence Agency 1; International Monetary Fund 1; The World Bank Group 1).
Aim of the paper
The data exercise entails collecting and analyzing data for Argentina. The data analysis is carried out for a period of twenty three years that is between 1980 and 2012. Some of the data collected and analyzed are real GDP, inflation rate, and unemployment rate. Policy analysis is carried out on various issues noted during data analysis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overview of macroeconomic variables Gross domestic product
The gross domestic product is a useful indicator of the status of the economy of a country. Measuring GDP is a challenge for economists in all the countries because it is often difficult to quantify all the economic activities in the region. When analyzing the GDP of a country, it is important to distinguish between nominal and real GDP. Real GDP eliminates the effect of inflation. This section will analyze the real GDP of the country for the period of twenty three years.
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Real GDP 256.302 279.141 304.763 330.565 359.17 383.444 386.704 422.13 459.571 471.449 Source of data – International Monetary Fund 1; The World Bank Group 1
The GDP of Argentina is erratic. According to the table presented above, the GDP amounted to $205.646 billion in 1980. Its value then declined to $193.834 billion. Between 1980 and 1991, the value of GDP was quite erratic. This was attributed to political instability in the country that was caused by the invasion by foreigners and lack of political structures. Between 1991 and 2012, the country experienced steady growth in the value of real GDP.
The GDP increased from $201.819 billion in 1991 to $471.449 billion in 2012. The increase in GDP was as a result of implementation of policies such as import substitution and setting up structures in the government. The graph below shows the trend of the GDP for the past twenty three years (International Monetary Fund 1; The World Bank Group 1).
Consumer price index (CPI)
Inflation rate is a measure of the general rise in the price level in the economy. It is a significant measure since inflation has an impact on the purchasing power of individuals and all other macroeconomic variables. The CPI measures the price level of all new goods produced in the home country. An increase in the value of the CPI from one year to the other shows that there is an increased inflation.
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 CPI 146.554 160.221 174.357 197.787 225.916 269.038 296.179 341.547 400.363 465.674 Source of data – International Monetary Fund 1; The World Bank Group 1
The value of the CPI has been increasing over the years. The consumer price index in 1985 was 0.003. The value increased to $109.982 in 2000 and further to $465.674 in 2012. This shows a rise in the rate of inflation in the country. This has serious economic implication on the key players in the economy that are the households and the firms in the country.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Macroeconomic Condition of Argentina specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stability in the rate of inflation between 1989 and 2000 was as a result of a change of government from the Spanish conquerors to the natives. The persistent increase in the amount of the CPI index between 2001 and 2012 was as a result of implementation of strategies such as import substitution and privatization. These strategies distorted the currency of the country thus leading to inflation.
The graph above shows that the rate of inflation since 2001 has been increasing at an increasing rate. It is an economic issue that should be addressed.
Unemployment rate measures the number of people in a country who are not engaged in an economically productive activity even though they are willing and able to work.
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Unemployment rate 17.25 13.625 11.575 10.175 8.475 7.875 8.675 7.75 7.15 7.169 Source of data – International Monetary Fund 1; The World Bank Group 1
The unemployment rate of the country increased from 3% in 1980 to 22.45% in 2002 as a result of political instability that was caused by the Spanish conquerors. The maximum unemployment rate for the country was attained in 2002. After the year 2002, the government instituted a number of measures to curb the unemployment in the region. From 2003, the country has experienced drastic decline in the unemployment rate.
The value declined from 17.25% in 2003 to 7.169% in 2012. Through import substitution, the government instituted a number of industries. This led to a considerable decline in unemployment rate that was experienced in that period. The graph below shows the erratic trend of the employment rate for the past twenty three years.
Macroeconomic analysis of the economy
The discussion above reveals that the government has been able to manage the GDP and the unemployment rate. There has been a significant increase in the real GDP growth for the past ten years.
Similarly, the government also controlled the unemployment rates as there has been a significant decline in the recent past. Despite the world recession experienced in 2009, the country still reported improved performance in increasing the amount of the GDP and reducing the employment rates. On the contrary, it is clear that the country has a problem in managing the inflation rates.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Macroeconomic Condition of Argentina by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As indicated by the consumer price index, the inflation rate of Argentina has increased at a high rate in the recent past. As mentioned above, the high inflation rates weaken the economy since it distorts the interest rates, exchange rate, money demand, money supply, and foreign trade. Besides, it affects the consumer’s consumption pattern. High inflation rates also make investors and households lose confidence in the institutions’ set up by the government to control inflation.
There are policies that can be put in place to mitigate the increasing inflation rates. A number of both the contractionary fiscal and the monetary policies can be used to control inflation. Some of the fiscal policies entail reducing disposable income by increasing direct taxes, reducing government taxes as well as the amount of government borrowing.
The fiscal policies implemented will reduce the aggregate demand in the economy. In the AD – AS model, the aggregate demand curve will shift inwards as a result of the policies implemented. This causes the price level to decline, hence resulting in a reduction in the rate of inflation. The aggregate supply curve will not be affected. The impact on the AD – AS model is illustrated below.
Contractionary fiscal policies shift the AD curve from AD1 to AD2. This results in a decline in price level from P1 to P2. The GDP also declines from GDP1 to GDP2.
AD – AS model – contractionary fiscal policy
Apart from the fiscal policy, the government can also put in place monetary policies, such as raising the level of interest rate to mitigate inflation. An example of such a policy is increasing the interest rate. This will reduce the amount of money in circulation since high interest rates attract savings and investment.
So consumers will turn away from consumption and focus on investment. Similarly, the government can also carry out market operation by selling securities to the public. This will mop out excess money in circulation in the economy, thus making prices fall down.
Conclusion The paper carried out a data analysis of Argentina. The exercise entailed collecting and analyzing data for Argentina. The data analysis was carried out for a period of twenty three years that is between 1980 and 2012. Some of the data collected and analyzed are real GDP, inflation rate, and unemployment rate. Policy analysis is carried out on various issues noted during data analysis. The discussion above shows that the economy of Argentina is vibrant and has a bright future ahead.
It is for the reason that the country has a rich export-oriented agricultural sector, well-educated population, and rich natural resources. The manufacturing sector of the country is also well-developed. Thus, there is potential for a growth disaster. However, there are a number of issues that need to be resolved to facilitate the robust economic growth. First, the leaders of the country need to put in place well organized government structures. Also, the government should enhance political stability in the country.
This will restore the confidence of the investors. Thirdly, the government also needs to control and reduce the inflation rates. It is a key economic issue noted in the discussion above. In as much as the contractionary macroeconomic measures above might lead to slow economic growth, it is necessary to implement them as soon as possible. This will create a bright future for economic growth of the country.
Besides, it will also restore investors’ confidence in the country. Finally, the government should come up with and implement strategies that will not worsen the current rate of inflation. Thus, it is necessary for the government to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the economic status of the country so as to come up with policies and strategies that will spark a healthy economic growth of the country.
Works Cited Embassy of Argentina in Australia 2013, Argentina in Brief. Web.
International Monetary Fund 2012, Data and Statistics. Web.
The Central Intelligence Agency 2013, The World Fact Book. Web.
The World Bank Group 2013, Data. Web.
The Problem of the Racial Inequality in US Term Paper essay help
Introduction The United States is one of the nations where racial discrimination has been a common practice for a very long time. However, there has been a concerted effort in this society to fight this vice. This country is composed of people of different races. Many people from other nations around the world have acquired the citizenship of the US hence becoming a part of the nation.
Historically, there have been serious incidences of racial inequality. Although this is believed to have been reduced tremendously, there are still some elements of racial inequality and discrimination in several institutions. This research paper seeks to specifically explore the extent of racial inequality in schools and other learning institutions and its effects.
It is worth mentioning that a considerable part of the United States’ population has been going to school to a given level. Although a smaller percentage might not have got the opportunity to attend the formal learning institutions, they have had a chance to attend other technical institutions. In these learning institutions, several instances of racial discrimination have been reported. Several schools in American cities are full of Afro-American and Latino students, who are considered the middle class.
In addition, the same schools have an inexperienced staff that lacks knowledge and skills and is less diversified (Dubourdieu 47). Currently, schools for students from the Afro-American and Latino families are moved to the suburban district schools that are believed to be poorly equipped and less qualified teachers work there, while the students from the white families occupy the best-equipped schools with the most experienced staff.
This segregation in education has a very high impact on the performance of students from both sides. On average, the rates for graduation in public high schools differ.
For the whites it is 83%, for blacks 66.1% and 71.4% for Latinos. Comparing the number of students with bachelor’s degree within the age bracket of 25-29, the whites have the highest one with 39%, followed by the blacks with 20% and lastly the Latinos with 13% (Moore 47). These differences show that both the Afro-Americans and Latinos are highly disadvantaged in education and in the overall outcome, while the whites are advantaged.
In the United States, there are also different technical institutions for the whites and those for other groups. Due to their favoring education atmosphere, students from the white families end up getting the best results and hence the best employment positions in the nation unlike the blacks who end up performing poorly, which lead to their segregation in the job market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Street, apart from allocating funds to schools to do what is supposed to be done, there are three other core factors that influence the outcome of students (114).
These factors include families which students come from, the experience of the teaching staff and availability of other students to create a competitive environment. The above mentioned incidences of discrimination clearly show that the rate of racial disparities is very high. To create positive and equal outcome for all students in the United States, there is need to address this racial inequality in schools.
Ethnicity is very crucial for any grown or growing nation as it brings people with different ideas, talents, and abilities together. Combining these deferent efforts is resulting to competition hence a healthy nation. The researchers care very much about this racial inequality in the leaning institutions in the United States because of the following reasons. First, it is in schools where societies are molded. Talents and gifts, therefore, are developed in the learning institutions.
Bringing racial inequality in such a critical field in society means bringing the nation’s economy down since it is highly determined by the education sector. The second reason why the researcher cares a lot about this inequality is the desire to have unity and equal performance from students, no matter whether it is a white or a black person. The researchers believe that people have got different abilities despite the ethnicity.
An Afro-American student may have the best unique skill compared to a white one, and both should be given an equal opportunity to demonstrate it. To achieve this, anyone else should care and the society together with the nation should care at most, because achieving equity is not a one man’s battle. Hence, the society should put their hands together in fighting this vice.
Inequality Section Racial inequality is a vice that is highly practiced and felt in America. The whites, Latinos and Native Americans are greatly discriminated in many areas. Racial inequalities in other areas besides education result from their poor performances in schools. The 1992 study report in America shows that the racial family background contributes little to the education outcome of students (Moore 47).
Therefore, this shows that, it is the nature of an educational institution that determines the performance of students, in particular, the expertise of the teachers, availability of learning materials, and the competition atmosphere that a student is exposed. Having looked at the racial inequality in the field of education in the United States, the next question one should ask is what causes these racial inequalities, which can be answered by looking at the following key areas.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Problem of the Racial Inequality in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Historical
Naturally, racial inequality arises when there is a believe by people coming from a certain race that they do hold a better position and are better placed than other groups. In the historical sense, the United State of America used to kidnap children from their homes, after which the kidnapped children were sold for slave purposes.
The most common race suffering as a result of the US intrusion was the Africans. The same act was performed by the Europeans when they imprisoned or killed all those people who were considered as Native Americans and lived in reservations in the North America. This process took place for a very long time to an extent that even after the trade of slaves was outlawed, the European countries continued to practice it.
Even their children were taught to not associate with the non-whites as they were considered inferior. The Europeans also trained not to think of equal treatment with the inferior non-whites. There was a time in the United States in the 1960’s when it was stated in the law that the whites should not intermarry with the non-whites and by doing so one would be breaking the law, an offence that called for punishment.
These historic deeds and teachings led to the racial inequalities in the United States to date in a tremendous way. The cause of racial inequality in schools in this country has, therefore, historic grounds since the Caucasian people were taught not to even think of equal treatment with the non-whites in all grounds from their childhood.
The learners view political leaders as celebrities because they are the leaders of any given nation. In addition, political leaders have a great influencing power in the racial inequality. Whatever politicians do or say, they has got a direct or indirect influence on people in the addressed field. In the United States of America, political leaders have a lot of power and authority bestowed to them by the government. Once their speeches are announced it is at once noted whether they have any hints of racial discrimination.
In case they do, this fact directly leads to racial inequality up to the learning institutions’ level. A good example where political aspect can be seen to cause racial inequality in schools is a situation where a politician may decide to only provide a school of the Caucasians with the leaning materials or behave in a way to side and support only the students belonging to the white family against the Afro-Americans.
This action directly influences the racial inequality in school and among the students themselves. The former president and a politician George W. Bush argued that racial disparity was costing the nation a lot and there was a need to address the issue if Americans wanted to realize their dreams about a super power state.
In the past years, the United States had no legal consideration on legal inequalities. Due to this fact, the racial inequality was a normal thing, as it was then considered that the non-whites were inferior to the superior whites and the law did not allow the two groups to communicate in any way.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of the Racial Inequality in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are no legal grounds to address this issue of inequalities’ factor that largely contributed to the racial discriminations in the learning institutions in the present time. Currently, the United States has enacted polices that address matters emanating from education to avoid racial discrimination: At the same time, the acceptance and need for racial equity and integration as per the policies have been ignored and assumed in the state.
Social considerations From the social perspective, discrimination has had negative consequences in regard to the learners. For a long time, the American society has been embracing racial inequality in its social system. There were different social classes based on the skin color, which had a massive negative effect on the students, especially those who were discriminated against.
Policy Suggestion Several policies related to racial change have been enacted for the last five decades in this country. When the United States gained independence in 1776, the first constitution that was written by the founding fathers stated that all Americans were equal, both men and women, black and white, Hispanics and the Native Americans (Loury 56).
This clause in the constitution of this country was a guiding policy towards elimination of all forms of discrimination, especially the racial one. It is truly said, however, that the American society forgot these words very soon and as a result, there appeared rampant racial discrimination in the country. This fact necessitated enacting of other laws to help curb this vice.
In 1945, Alaska’s Anti-Discrimination Act was empowered to help curb this vice. Several other policies have been enacted to ensure that racial inequalities are eliminated in the educational institutions of the country. The leadership in these institutions has a role to play in fighting inequality of races. They have to ensure that there are policies within the schools’ charters that strictly bar any form of racial discrimination from any quarter within their institutions. These policies should be enacted and practiced within these institutions nowadays.
The prevailing political condition in the United States has given a new positive look at the state on racial inequality situation. The ‘Obama care’ has brought a new picture about racial equity. He introduced health care that is accessible, affordable, and available to everyone despite the race or color of skin, which has greatly helped fight racial inequality.
This was a clear indication that despite the existing laws that foster equality, the government still has an important role in fighting racial inequality in schools. Although this law was introduced in the health sector, it passed message to the entire society, including schools, that all Americans were equal, and had the right to be citizens of this country, hence should not be discriminated.
Another policy suggestion that should be considered as a way of eliminating discrimination in this country is to amend the constitution to reflect a more unified country.
Although the constitution of this country does not tolerate racial segregation, there have been some loopholes that have allowed discrimination at various societal to flourish. These loopholes should be eliminated. Another policy suggestion is to come up with affirmative action that would take care of the minority within this society. This will ensure that these minority populations will feel represented.
This will lower discrimination against the minority. Strengthening civil societies will also enhance reduction of discrimination in this society. This can come in the form of commissions focused on eliminating all forms of discrimination in the society. The commission will work closely with the government to ensure that no form of discrimination is witnessed in the country.
As an activist, I would consider coming up with a radical policy where there will be mass action when a government official or prominent person engages in an activity considered racial. To enforce this policy, there will be a lobby group that would lead in such mass actions.
Although the policy may meet resistance from the government, but cooperation of the public will be enough to support it. It may be true that enacting this new policy may bring problems such as looting during mass actions. However, when awareness is created among the demonstrators, such incidents will be eliminated.
Works Cited Dubourdieu, Elaine. Race and Inequality: World Perspectives on Affirmative Action. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006. Print.
Loury, Glenn. The Anatomy of Racial Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002. Print.
Moore, Wendy. Reproducing Racism: White Space, Elite Law Schools, and Racial Inequality. Lanham: Rowman
The Movie “Hotel Rwanda” Analytical Essay best college essay help
Introduction Hotel Rwanda is an American film that was produced in 2004 by Terry George. It is based on the events that took place in Rwanda in 1994 when the country faced a serious problem related to genocide.
Don Cheadle is presented as a proprietor of the hotel who endeavours to liberate his fellow citizens from effects of the genocide. The movie is referred to as the African schindler’s list. Nick Nolte and Sophie Okonedo are some of the main characters in the movie who play critical roles. Rusesabagina tries to save the lives of close family members, as well as other refugees.
Over a thousand refugees face different problems, as they do not have the means of travelling to secure places. Rusesabagina houses the refugees in a hotel by providing them with basic needs, such as food and clothing. The movie talks about the genocide that claimed the lives of close to a million people in Rwanda. Moreover, it highlights some of the problems that led to the massacre.
During the war, corruption and heightened ethnicity were some of the major problems that faced people since they had to save their loved ones. Finally, the movie looks at the consequences of the war whereby the producer claims that the country experienced a variety of crises just after the genocide since mistrust and hatred was so intense.
Synopsis The movie shows that tension between the two warring communities in Rwanda led to a large-scale war that shocked the whole world. The Hutus and the Tutsis engaged in armed conflict after a very long time of peace. The producer wonders why communities could rise against each other after living together for several centuries.
Before the war, corruption and bribery characterized the behaviour of many politicians. Rusesabagina was a Hutu while his wife was a Tutsi yet they lived peacefully for several years. During the war, Rusesabagina had problems convincing the Tutsis that he was supporting them.
Moreover, the Hutu extremists never trusted him since he was suspected of leaking critical information to the Tutsis. Rutaganda is presented as Rusesabagina’s friend who supplied goods to the hotel. Moreover, the supplier was the leader of Interahamwe, an organization that was formed specifically to exterminate the Tutsis. Rutaganda had problems with Rusesabagina since the hotel owner hosted the Tutsis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rusesabagina became helpless as tension between the two communities worsened. He witnessed the killing of his neighbours, as well as friends, but he did nothing. The situation exacerbated, which forced Rusesabagina to intervene by engaging in corruption and bribery to save his close friends and relatives.
He gave money to the Hutu extremists in order to spare his relatives. He did everything under his power to save his family. His behaviour was noticed after playing tricks for several weeks, something that attracted the attention of the army. He was warned not to prevent the Hutu militias from executing their assigned duties.
He decided to take his relatives to the hotel since they would be save there. As the situation worsened, many refugees joined Rusesabagina’s family at the hotel. The huge number of refugees overwhelmed the camp at the United Nations offices to an extent that the UN agencies could no longer support. The Red Cross and the orphanage homes were also unable to provide adequate help to refugees because of the increasing numbers.
Rusesabagina had several responsibilities, including diverting the attention of the Hutu militias, taking care of the refugees in terms of providing basic needs, providing leadership to the family and other refuges, and managing the affairs of the hotel. This was a challenging moment in the life of Rusesabagina since very many people relied on him for guidance.
The international community could not act effectively because of poor coordination and lack of cooperation from the government. The UN head of peace operations, Colonel Oliver (Nolte), failed to stop the genocide since the international law did not allow the UN to intervene militarily.
Employees of the diplomatic missions in the country were evacuated to safer places as the war entered a critical stage. All foreign nationals were advised to leave the country since the situation had become volatile. Unfortunately, the United Nations did nothing to salvage the lives of the Rwandese.
The Hutu militias were well organized since they understood the operations of the United Nations very well. When peacekeepers tried to evacuate Rusesabagina’s family from the hotel, they were ambushed and were forced to go back. Rusesabagina pleaded with the military generals to help him evacuate the family, but this did not work out. Corruption and bribery did not work as the war intensified.
We will write a custom Essay on The Movie “Hotel Rwanda” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rusesabagina was unable to bribe the military, something that forced him to change the strategy. He convinced the military generals to take him for trial as a war criminal only for his family to be safe. Finally, the military generals allowed the UN forces to evacuate his family in a convoy.
Realistic Intergroup Conflict Theory The theory observes that conflicts happen because of contradictory interests among groups. This means that various groups will always compete for resources in society, which results to serious problems, such as the ones witnessed in Rwanda.
In the Movie, the Hutus accused the Tutsis of controlling the state resources yet the majority of societal members were languishing in great poverty. Realistic group theory is always utilized in explaining tension among groups. Scholars supporting the theory are of the view that conflicts are usually rational given the fact that groups have varying interests, which are generally incompatible.
In many cases, competition is the order of the day whereby groups play a zero-sum game meaning that the loss of one group is the benefit of the other. Even though the theory applies to groups, it is as well used to explain individual interests. Realistic scholars are of the view that individual interests will always guide people hence an individual will act in a manner that would fulfil his interest in any relationship. One of the major tenets of the theory is rationality.
Rationality suggests that an individual uses logic when interpreting an event or when acting. The theory explains a conflict in economic terms meaning that people are simply interested in fulfilling their economic ambitions. In fact, many conflicts in the world are always related to resource distribution or allocation. The theory posits that human beings are selfish and will always aspire to maximize their profits.
The theory confirms that what is best for an individual might not be necessarily be the best for the group. The individual accepts to be part of the group just in case he notices that his or her interests will be fulfilled. Some of the individual interests cannot be fulfilled without forming groups.
Therefore, individuals develop a sense of consciousness to realize their dreams. An individual is always willing to be a member of the group even if the group is illegal. However, research shows that individual interests might sometimes be in conflict with group interests, but the relationship between the two is inescapable. For the case of Rwanda, Hutus noticed that they could realize their dreams by joining hands to exterminate the Tutsis.
The problem started when colonialists subdivided the country into various spheres of influence. Since colonialists had no numbers that would allow them to rule, they collaborated with local communities that embraced Christianity. They also formed strong relationships with minorities, such as the Tutsis. The Tutsi utilized this opportunity to accumulate wealth, which rendered the Hutus poor.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Movie “Hotel Rwanda” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The situation worsened when the colonial power surrendered power since the Tutsis controlled all major investments in the country. When opportunities presented themselves, all Hutus were willing to take part in exterminating the Tutsis since they had made them poor. Realistic theory would explain this scenario based on the economic situation of the Hutus. The only way to regain their lost glory was to eliminate all Tutsis and inherit their wealth.
In Germany, Hitler applied the same strategy to see off the Jews who had become a menace in the economy. Forcing Jews to live in the concentration camps was rationally justified, but it was not justice. Similarly, killing the Tutsis was rational as far as the interests of the Hutus were concerned. Realistic group theory explains the conflicts presented in the movie based on economic matters.
Concepts of No More Cheap Labor in China Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Source of China’s Cheap Labor
China’s Education and Working Conditions
Current State of China’s Manufacturers
Introduction China, one of the countries that are well known for their surging industries and cheap labor, has started going through a change that is likely to revolutionize its manufacturing industry. The country boasts a literacy level of over 90.9% and 1.9% of its GDP is dedicated to education.
In addition to this, this great Asian nation also boasts a modernized system of education, which to a larger extent runs on principles that are similar to those of the American education system (Library of Congress – Federal Research Division 11-12). Although in the past Chinese factories were known to offer their workers as little as 64 cents per hour, the trend is changing as most workers have started to demand more remuneration and improvement of their working conditions.
As a result of this, presently, most organizations have been forced to change their remuneration systems in order to accommodate the ever-changing needs and demands of their workers (Dooley, Folkerts-Landau and Garber 3-13). Therefore, as China is becoming a stronger economy as a result of the recent developments, cheap labor is disappearing slowly, and with time, there will be no more benefits of cheap labor.
Source of China’s Cheap Labor China is a land that is blessed with a very productive population of close to 1.6 billion people. With such great workforce, even graduates have been forced to work for minimum wages in order to survive. Although, over the recent past, the Chinese government has heavily invested in its education system in order to equip its populace with the required skills, still a great percentage of its people lack the kind of specialized skills that are required in the field.
However, with the changing trend as most Chinese have ventured into improving their level of education, the situation is bound to change drastically; hence, the idea of China offering cheap labor is likely to diminish completely (Liu 39-47).
China’s Education and Working Conditions Over the recent past, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of Chinese students who are presently attending universities, as more than 60% of high school leavers are presently attending higher learning institutions.
To a larger extent, this has been promoted by the recent increase of the starting salary of graduates, as compared to nine years ago when everything was stagnant. Additionally, with more than 127,000 Chinese students studying in America, China has been forced to review its salary structures to suit such students, as their quality of education is considered to be better (Litao and Sixin 1-15).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the labor industry, lately there has been a high staff turnover as compared to a few decades ago. Unlike in the past when most organizations attracted cheap labor, hence, could hire and fire workers as they wished, present technological advancements and change in labor laws have given workers a chance of getting lucrative employment opportunities and a chance to fight for their rights (Fan 105-107).
As a result of this, most organizations have been forced to change their employment strategies in order to limit chances of loosing workers with specialized skills (Fan 107-108).
For example, since the introductions of the Minimum Wage Bill of 2004, there have been numerous labor disputes between workers and employers, which have greatly helped to shape the labor industry (Estlund and Seth 9-29). Moreover, the introduction of the 20% wage bill by the government in 2010 forced numerous companies to review their salary packages, as most of them started to lose specialized workers to small farms with lesser amounts of work (56-57).
Presently, Chinese workers have more rights and gone are the days when they could be exploited beyond measure. A good scenario is when workers went on strike at the Honda Motor parts factory due to poor pay and working conditions. The strike forced the company to increase the salary of its employees by 24%; thereby, giving workers more bargaining power and consideration.
On the other hand, with China becoming a manufacturing force in the world, workers from all over the world are now seeking employment in Chinese cities. As of 2012, it was approximated that there were over 460,000 foreigners working in China. This is a clear indication that the idea of cheap labor is dying slowly in China (Estlund and Seth1-10).
Current State of China’s Manufacturers Due to labor shortages that companies are experiencing as labor costs have soared up to levels that most investors cannot afford them, most investors have opted to return to their home countries or venture into other nations to look for cheap labor. The biggest challenge for most manufacturers occurs during holiday breaks when millions of workers return to their rural homes to enjoy the holiday.
This unexpected reduction in production has put a great strain on manufactures, as most of them cannot produce to the required capacity. Therefore, with the increasing labor shortage, most companies are now being forced to include lucrative packages such as bonuses, while others are now offering cash incentives to lure new employees and to retain the ones they have (Banister and Cook 43-44).
We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of No More Cheap Labor in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Presently, as compared to the past when people eyed China for cheap labor, the search for cheap labor has been shifted to countries such as Thailand and Vietnam, which are now popular due to their low labor costs and easy access. Countries such as Japan have already set up their car factory in Indonesia, which is a country inhabited by close to 239 million people who offer cheap labor (The Economist Intelligence Unit 9-17).
In addition, due to wage stagnation in Mexico, the country has also created a favorable business environment for American companies as compared to China whose labor cost has increased alarmingly. Likewise, Myanmar, which is a country that has seen few developments in the past years, is now seen as a lucrative avenue for investments by western countries due to its cheap labor (42-44).
On the other hand, with the inception of robotics, presently companies are not dependent on human labor in their production processes. Such is the case because robots are fitted with artificial intelligence, which is capable of working faster and efficiently. Due to this and other developments, some western companies that have factories in China have reverted to the use of these robots, as they greatly help to reduce overall labor costs (Clive and Gorle 17-25).
Conclusion In conclusion, considering the numerous achievement and advancements that China has gained over the recent past, there are high chances of the idea of getting cheap labor in China becoming a thing of the past. Presently, this great Asian Nation is slowly moving from the bracket of “developing nations” to a new bracket of “developed nations’. Therefore, with such a transition, China is likely to be one of the most expensive nations to invest or start a business in.
Work Cited Banister, Judith and Cook, George. (2011). China’s employment and Compensation Costs in manufacturing through 208. Web.
Clive, Andrew and Gorle, Peter. (2011). Positive impact of Industrial Robots On Employment. Web.
Dooley, Michael, David Folkerts-Landau, and Peter Garber. (2004). Direct Investment Rising real Wages and the absorption of Excess Labor in the Periphery. Web.
Economist Intelligent Unit. (2012). Skilled Labor Shortfalls in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of No More Cheap Labor in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Estlund, Cynthia and Seth, Gurgel. (2012). A new Deal for China’s workers? Labor Law Reform in the Wake of Rising Labor Unrest. Web.
Fan, Cindy. “The Elite, the Natives, and the Outsiders: Migration and Labor Market Segmentation in Urban China.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92.1 (2002): 103-124. Print.
Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (2006). Country Profile: China. Web.
Litao, Zhao and Sixin, Sheng. (2008). China’s Great Leap in Higher Education: EAI Background. Web.
Liu, Mutian. (2010). Graduate Unemployment in China. Web.
Marketing and Promotional Techniques for Fruit Juice Essay cheap essay help
The product to be promoted is fresh fruit juice, extracted directly from fresh fruits through a blender. It can be taken either as a mixture of different fresh fruits extracts or from a single fruit. Different fruits have got different flavours, for example, mango, orange, pineapple, apple, water melon, peach and so on. A mixture of different flavours is normally referred to as juice cocktail. In the society today, fresh juice is a product seen by many people as healthy and one that has the capability of boosting one’s immunity.
Different customers will opt for different flavours and it is up to the seller to make them available. This necessitates product diversity and hence renders the products a longer product life circle. It is best taken when chilled. Since it is perishable, it is best to keep it refrigerated so as to maintain its natural flavour and also to preserve it. A glass of fresh juice is recommended especially for breakfast.
A target market that the business intends to sell its products to the customers. This refers to the individuals that are using the products. The suitable target market of the products includes children, teenagers and older persons. It is intended for use by the entire population.
As statistics shows that young children especially between the ages of 6 months and 8 years are very vulnerable to different diseases. Since fresh juice is an immune booster, this age bracket will find it inevitable to have a glass of the product daily as a part of their diet. The older generation will use the product as a refreshing drink.
Promotional mix involves a combination of promotional methods used for a product or service. According to Harrell (2008), the five main aspects of a promotional mix are:
Advertising – This involves the use of an identified sponsored medium to promote and present goods and services to potential buyers. This is mainly done so as to convince potential customers to buy the product or service. It is done through print, radio, catalogues, billboard, and online advertisement. For example, one can put up a billboard with a family enjoying delicious fresh juice.
Personal selling – This is the oral presentation of a product or service to a potential buyer with the aim of persuading him/her to buying the product or service. It takes place either through face-to-face selling or telephone. For example, sales agents can be used to promote the product on a door to door basis from one house to another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sales promotion – This is a short term promotional strategy that is intended to increase the demand of a product or service within the shortest time possible. Examples: price reductions, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, free product samples, and demonstrations. A strategy such as demonstration of the health benefits of the product can be used to boost the sales of the product.
Public relations – This involves the efforts to maintain an appreciative image between the organisation and its stakeholders, in this case, the customer. The organisation usually tries to maintain a positive image in the eyes of its customers, hence encouraging them to buy more of the products or services through newspapers, magazines, articles, charitable contributions, seminarsand speeches.
Direct Marketing – This is where businesses communicate directly to the customers using techniques such as email, postal correspondence and online web displays.
Reference Harrell, G. D. (2008). Marketing: Connecting with Customers. Chicago Education Press. p. 286. ISBN 9780979830402.
Legalization of Marijuana: Arguments For and Against Essay essay help online: essay help online
There have been arguments about marijuana for a very long time now with some people supporting it while others opposing its use in the society. People have proposed that marijuana is very addictive and can cause dire health effects to people who use it. On the other hand, marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes since historical times. Nevertheless, marijuana has destroyed people’s lives and made them totally irresponsible.
It has also helped reduce the excruciating pain that other patients undergo in various health facilities. The crux of the matter is whether marijuana should be made legal and its use accepted in the society or not. If marijuana is made legal, people will not be restricted on how to use it because getting it will be easy. On the contrary, illegalizing it ensures that its use is at least put under control and many of its effects are not large scale.
The medical use of marijuana goes back to ancient periods when it was smoked by people to reduce pain. Additionally, recent studies in the medical field have also depicted the importance of marijuana patients especially cancer patients. There are several patients who have testified that use of marijuana has had an impact on their pain.
Scientific research has also proved that marijuana can really help in pain alleviation. While scientists are really trying to ensure that efforts are made to enhance the quality of service that patients receive, they hit a dead end in their research due to legal restrictions (Goldberg 251). Debates about marijuana in the political arena have found their way into scientific studies thus hindering any progress that would have been made.
The government’s argument of illegalizing marijuana is to deter people from harming themselves. However, it is rather difficult to determine what is good or bad for a person. People should have the freedom of choosing what is right or wrong for their lives.
The government’s role should be to limit choices made by people if the choices endanger the person’s live or that of others. But if a patient chooses to use marijuana to alleviate the pain he or she is undergoing, the act is beneficial to the patient and the community at large (Ponto 1081). As a result, the patient should not be compelled not to have a choice where his or her own live is involved.
Moreover, the argument that illegalizing marijuana will be beneficial to the whole community is wrong. Tobacco and alcohol are legal and their effects are not any different from those of marijuana. On the contrary, nobody is campaigning against tobacco and alcohol though they are both responsible for destroying lives. Marijuana is addictive and so is tobacco and alcohol. Why should marijuana be treated differently?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently marijuana is illegal and yet many people still have access to it. Each year numerous people are arrested for using marijuana and sent to prisons.
These people strain the government facilities which are already overpopulated. The government has to provide for the basic necessities of this people while they are in prison. The law also requires the government to put in place measures that will ensure that any person found using marijuana is arrested.
In addition, the government spends money to ensure that distribution channels of marijuana are curtailed. All these require the government to spend a lot of money thus increasing public expenses. Despite all this expenses, marijuana still finds its way into the hands of its users. However, if marijuana was legal the government will not only safe the money it spends but would also increase its income through taxing marijuana (Rabin Par 1).
Lets think for a moment the effect that illegalization of marijuana has had to our community. Young people still get marijuana whenever they want without any hindrance. It is also not possible to associate illegalization of marijuana with reduction of its use. Various studies have shown that the number of people using marijuana has steadily risen over the past years. Given that marijuana is sold under great secrecy, it is easy for young people to get it than it is to get alcohol or tobacco.
Distributors of illegal commodities usually do not care who they sell the commodities to. People who are below the legal age usually get and use marijuana as they wish. All this show that illegalization of marijuana has not met the intended objectives of reducing its use in the community (Rosenthal and Steve 108). Therefore, it is worthless trying to implement a policy that does not have any positive impact to the society.
Our constitution outlines that people have freedom to exercise their religious practices. It is stated that people should not be discriminated against on grounds of their gender, religion, racial background or any other grounds. Christians are allowed to enjoy their freedom without any regulation from the government and so are some other religions.
In the latter and spirit of this requirement, no restriction should be placed on the religions that use marijuana (caulkins, Angela, Beau and Mark 58). There are religions especially the Rastafarians which use marijuana as part of their practices. Illegalizing marijuana is tantamount to restricting religious practices of these religions.
We will write a custom Essay on Legalization of Marijuana: Arguments For and Against specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, it can be proved that implementation of the law against marijuana is discriminative. There are many people who use marijuana in the United States of America and they are not restricted to the low economic class only. People from all economic classes as well as different racial backgrounds use marijuana.
However, people from the economically upper class are able to disguise themselves and slip the net of police. Consequently, it is people from low class and mostly the colored that are arrested and charged for using marijuana. The Whites usually find a way of getting themselves out of the hook.
However, there are people who are against the idea that marijuana should be made legal. As a result, they have forwarded several points to support their position. Firstly, the addictiveness of marijuana is not like that of tobacco or alcohol.
While addicts of alcohol and tobacco will stick to them even when it is hard to get them, addicts of marijuana will turn to other narcotics in case they are unable to get marijuana. Moreover, even when marijuana is available research has shown that marijuana users will be using other narcotics (Ponto 1082). It is therefore clear that legalizing marijuana will bring a lot of problems in regulating the use of other narcotics.
Secondly, the argument that marijuana is a good painkiller is insufficient to counter the negative impacts that the substance has to human life. So far the medical use of marijuana is not so common that it can make any impact in the medical field. Moreover, there are other pain relievers which are as effective as marijuana. On the same note, research can be done to come up with an alternative painkiller that would be effective but not addictive.
It is therefore not necessary to legalize marijuana solely on the reason that it has medical benefits (Rabin par 2). It is important to note that legalizing marijuana for medical use will open avenues for people to misuse it. Arguably, it would be very difficult to define what is meant by medical use. Furthermore, there is a possibility that people will fake different diseases so that they can be able to use marijuana. Additionally, cases of people taking too much doses than required would be very high thus leading to addiction.
It has been argued that illegalization of marijuana has not stopped illegal selling of the substance. But nobody has proved beyond reasonable doubt that legalizing it will do any good in reducing illegal trading.
As a matter of fact, legalization of marijuana on any grounds whether medical or otherwise will increase illegal trading because that will provide an excuse for illegal dealers to transport the substance. It will therefore be difficult to regulate the use of marijuana among young people and other unauthorized people if it is legalized (Goldberg 253). Consequently, abuse of the substance will be uncontrollable and this will lead to even dire negative effects.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Legalization of Marijuana: Arguments For and Against by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the same note, while other medical drugs are subjected to several stiff safety tastes before they are allowed to be used; it is difficult to subject marijuana to the same.
Of all the medical researches that have been done on marijuana, none has identified it as totally safe to be used for medical purposes. Moreover, legalizing marijuana would be tantamount to encouraging its smoking. It should be noted that marijuana has various negative effects to the health of people. Marijuana has been associated with tachycardia and motor impairment (Earleywine 76).
On the same note, research has shown that marijuana can lead to increased chances of one getting lung infections besides weakening the immune system. Moreover, continuous use of marijuana can cause fatal complication in older people. Similarly, marijuana has been depicted to cause negative effects to brain and nerve cells. All these negative effects of marijuana increases doubt on its benefits to society. It shows that there would be many negative impacts associated with the substance if it is legalized (Rosenthal and Steve 109).
There are those who have argued that illegalization of marijuana has had no effect to the society. The fact that marijuana gets its way into people’s homes and even high school children can get it cannot be swept under the carpet. But imagine for a second that there were no regulations on the use of marijuana.
Everybody in need of it could just go to the nearby shop and purchase it. More youth would be using marijuana than they do today. Cases of people dropping out of schools due to over indulgence in marijuana would be very high. The fear of being caught and imprisoned has reduced the quantity of marijuana that is distributed in the community. Legalizing marijuana will increase its availability leading to increased number of users both legal and illegal. Given the side effects marijuana has, this will spell doom to the society as a whole.
Though people are supposed to have freedom to decide what is good for their lives, other people’s affair should be put into consideration. Religion should not be an excuse for people to use harmful substances.
The effects of marijuana to secondary smokers should be minimized as much as possible. The side effects of marijuana are too many to be left unchecked. It is the role of the government to ensure the well being of all its citizens. In this regard, it is upon any government to ensure that any harmful product to people is not available for choices (Goldberg 249).
On the same note, it has been argued that legalization of marijuana will save a lot of money that is currently used trying to implement the policy illegalizing marijuana. The same argument proposes that there would be increase in government income from taxing marijuana. This argument is as wrong as it is misleading.
Research has shown that use of marijuana leads to increase in crime rates. When addicts of marijuana cannot get money to purchase the drug, they will turn to crime to get money. As a result, the government will still have to spend on keeping criminals in prison. Moreover, there should be some regulation to ensure that marijuana meets some specified safety standards before it is allowed into the market. The cost of implementing these regulations is likely to exceed the tax collected in the case of marijuana.
The social impacts of marijuana are also negative and many. To begin with, marijuana is known to make people violent. Therefore, many families will be marred with cases of violence thus leading to family breakdown.
Consequently, more and more children will grow up without proper parental care which will increase juvenile delinquencies. On the same note, it would be morally wrong to legalize a substance whose negative effects are well known to everybody. Moreover, legalization of marijuana will increase the chances of minors getting access to it.
This will not only increase cases of juvenile delinquency but also other economic problems. Similarly, marijuana is known to be addictive and makes people dependent on it (Rosenthal and Steve 107). Consequently, massive use of the substances will be problematic economically since most people will stop providing for their families just to have money to buy the substance. This will lead to low living standards.
Many people will give reasons why marijuana should be made legal. Alcohol and tobacco have been made legal so why is marijuana treated like it kills instantly. Some will argue that no study has directly linked marijuana with any of the health conditions it is suspected of causing. On the same note, it is a fact that marijuana is still being used even by high school students yet it is illegal.
Others will argue that it will be unfair and morally wrong to deny patients the chance of reducing he pain they endure by illegalizing marijuana. However, we should ask ourselves which option is better between getting alternative pain relievers and having a society where majority are addicts of marijuana. Clearly, if it was not for the regulation against marijuana, there could have been a disaster especially in schools.
It would be immoral to allow patients touse marijuana as a pain reliever knowing very well that the substance has dire impacts on their health. Consequently, legalizing marijuana will do more harm than good. In this regard, the subject of whether to legalize marijuana or not should be dropped.
Works Cited Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding Marijuana: Anew look at the scientific Evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Caulkins, Jonathan P., Angela Hawken, Beau Kilmer and Mark R. Kleiman. Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across the Spectrum. Stanford: Cengage learning.
Ponto, Laura L. Challenges of Marijuana Research. Oxford Journals 129.5 (2006): 1081-1083. Print.
Rabin, Roni C. “Legalizing of Marijuana Raises Health Concerns.” The New York Times 07 Jan. 2013. Web. .
Rosenthal, Ed and Steve Kubby. Why Marijuana Should be Legal. New York: Running Press, 2003. Print.
The Incredible Ray Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Notwithstanding the fact that Ray Charles Robinson was blind, he left a legacy that very few people without disabilities can hand down. This essay seeks to provide a biography of this musician in light of his achievements. The biography starts at his birth and then develops logically to his death.
Moreover, a section is dedicated to critically analyzing the factors that made the musician succeed as well as the impact of his success on society. For these purposes, a number of academic sources are consulted to provide the background information from which the discussion arouses.
Biography Birth and childhood
Ray Charles Robinson was born on September 23, 1930, in Albany, Georgia, in a poor family. His parents, Aretha and Bailey Robinson, were struggling to make both ends meet.
Aretha was a peasant farmer, and Bailey worked as a railway repairman. Soon after his birth, the family relocated from Albany to Greenville, a poor black neighborhood in West Greenville, Florida. As a child, Ray was interested in mechanics and spent a lot of time watching the men around him work on vehicles and other farm machinery. In the neighborhood, there was a man named Mr. Wiley Pit, who operated a restaurant called Red Wing Café.
From time to time, Pit helped Aretha take care of Ray’s younger brother, George, and it was at Pit’s place that Ray first showed interest in music, playing an upright piano that was at the café. George later drowned in his mother’s laundry tub. And that was the accident that was haunting Ray all his life as he had been to take care of his little brother.
At five years, Ray had developed glaucoma, which was unfortunately not treated and rapidly progressed. It resulted in complete blindness by the time he was seven. Because of his condition, Ray could not attend regular school, so he was enrolled at the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind between 1937 and 1945 (Sloate 87-89). During this period, Ray suffered another blow as he lost both his parents – his father died in 1941 and his mother pass way in 1946.
At school, Ray’s musical talent flourished, and even though the curriculum was focused on classical music, he developed an interest in jazz and blues (“The soul of Ray Charles” 99-100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the end of the week, Ray performed at gatherings held by the South Campus Literary Society. During Halloween and Washington’s Birthday, Ray played at assemblies organized by the Colored Department at the institution, and during those events, Ray had first been introduced to RC Robinson and the Shop Boys, a band that later played his jazz and blues compositions.
After the death of his mother, Ray left school at the age of 15 and relocated to Jacksonville, where he was put up by a family friend. “Having friends of the family living in Jacksonville made it easier for Ray to leave Greenville and the State School for the blind” (Beyer 28). He stayed there for over a year, playing the piano at the Ritz Theatre. He earned $4 per night, which was not a bad amount by the standards of that time.
Later, he had shifted to Tampa where he joined a band called Florida Playboys and also developed a habit of wearing sunglasses (Charles and Ritz 87). The desire to have his own band forced Ray to move to a bigger city. He had contemplated moving to either New York or Chicago, but after thorough consideration, he opted for Seattle, about which he was informed by a friend as the farthest city from Florida.
In Seattle, Ray made his first record with Down Beat records as part of a band called the Maxin Trio. The band consisted of guitarist G.D. McKee and bassist Milton Garrett. The first successful record was the 1949 release titled the Confession Blues which rose to the second place in the Rhythm and Blues charts.
In 1950, Ray moved to Miami, where he signed with Swing Time Records and released to hit singles, Baby, let me hold your hand and Kiss me baby. Swing Time shut down in 1952, and Ray moved to Atlantic Records. Under Atlantic Records, Ray adopted jump-blues and boogie-woogie style. He also recorded some slower blues, with the first hit, Mess Around, in 1953. In 1954, he released two more records, It should have been me and Don’t you know.
In 1954, the song, I got a woman, saw the light; it was composed by Ray himself and ascended to the top of the charts in 1955, having become his first song to occupy the top most position. This hit had a combination of gospel, blues and jazz elements, and Ray continued to use the same style for the records produced between 1955 and 1958. By 1989, Ray had made a name for himself, and was the star of all the African-American events, such as the Newport Jazz Festival (Ford 66).
The song titled What’d I say released under Atlantic records was a complex arrangement comprising gospel, jazz, blues and Latin music. The song was included in the top ten pop songs list. In 1959, Ray’s contract with Atlantic expired, and he entered into a contract with ABC-Paramount records that gave him unrivaled freedoms. Ray’s first single with ABC-Paramount, Georgia on my mind, turned him into a national sensation, and he even won a Grammy award for it.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Incredible Ray specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ray Charles later won another Grammy Award for the song, Hit the Road Jack, and with a proper funding, he expanded band and enjoyed well-covered tours. In 1961, Ray’s success almost hit a rock after police, having searched his hotel room in Indiana, had found heroin in his possessions. Lucky for him, the policemen conducting the search did not have proper warranty, and the case was dropped.
Ray Charles’ music continued to dominate the airwaves through 1964, but in 1965, he was arrested for the third time for using heroin. In order to avoid going to jail, Ray agreed to go to rehab at a clinic in Los Angeles (Hubbarb-Brown 73).
Alone, Charles reached a decision. He went to Joe Adams’ office and announced that he was checking into a hospital. He was done with heroine. (Hubbarb-Brown 74).
After he had emerged from parole in 1966, he released chart-topping hits including the R
Suitable Radiological Mobile Lab for United Arab Emirates Proposal college essay help near me
Executive Summary Determining the suitability of a radiological mobile lab involves various processes that would help compare cost and benefits of putting up the facility. The results of feasibility analysis of setting up a radiological mobile lab in the United Arab Emirates indicate that this lab is necessary in this country. The country has embraced development of nuclear energy to supplement other sources of energy.
This has necessitated development of nuclear power plants in various parts of the country. In order to ensure that these nuclear power plants are operating without posing any form of risk to the public and to its workers, a mobile radiological lab would be needed to detect any radiological emissions from the plant. The lab will be used for the normal running of the nuclear power plants, as well as to counter any form of emergency that may arise within the plant regarding radiological emissions.
Moreover, the facility will be utilized in detecting any radiation coming from industry radiography activities. It is clear that construction of this lab will be costly. The cost can increase or decrease depending on the size of the lab and the expected function. When the lab is expected to work in a larger jurisdiction, then probably a bus would be appropriate when choosing the right vehicle to fit the lab. However, when the jurisdiction is smaller, then a van would be appropriate.
The personnel who are expected to manage the lab while collecting data in the field should have relevant qualifications that would make them work as expected. The lab should be fitted with stationery equipments, equipments for field measurements, data collection and data transfer, and analysis equipments. With the right workforce, the cost incurred in the development of the lab would be recovered when the lab is finally put to task.
Introduction The United Arab Emirates is one of the fastest developing economies in the Middle East. This country has seen a sharp rise in business operations a fact that has seen rapid development of various cities across this country. The United Arab Emirates has been the focus of many international traders, especially in the developing countries. African countries and other developing nations are moving east when it comes to their importation and the United Arab Emirates is currently one of the most active business centers on the globe.
The country has also witnessed a sharp rise in the number of tourists who come to visit the country from all over the world. The United Arab Emirates has some of the best landmarks in the world that are attracting international tourists. For instance, Dubai city hosts the tallest building in the world. This is besides other beautiful sceneries that attract tourists.
This increase in population and activities within this country mean that there is a sharp rise in the need for energy. The United Arab Emirates is one of the leading exporters of oil, given its rich oil deposits. The energy from oil is sufficient in meeting various needs of the population. The country also has other sources of energy such as hydroelectric power, geothermal power, wind power, and other renewable sources of energy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has helped the country meet the demand for power. However, this developments taking place within this country means that the country must find a sustainable source of energy. The energy must be able to meet the constantly increasing cost of energy that has been witnessed in this country. Nuclear energy offers a solution to this. However, this comes at a cost. Nuclear plants are some of the leading sources of radiation release that is very harmful to the public (International Atomic Energy Agency 2013, p. 129).
This means that there must be mechanisms through which such emissions have to be managed in order to ensure that such plants do not have negative effect to the society. A mobile radiological lab may therefore be very helpful in addressing any possible incidents of radiological emission before the effect can spread to the public. It is therefore important to develop this mobile radiological lab would help assure the public of their security when these plants are in operations in the country.
Definition of Terms According to Miller (1993, p. 79), a piece of research is always very important not only to the policy makers, but also to learners and other authorities that may find the document relevant. This scholar says that for this reason, there is always a need to ensure that such a report uses terms that may be understood by nonprofessionals who may be lacking the technical knowledge about this field. However, it is also a fact given the scientific nature of this field, some terms cannot be changed from their technical names.
This may be because they are lacking a common name, or changing the name to a simpler one may distort the information. Despite this fact, the need to ensure that the relevant message is passed to the users of this document using terms that they understand. For this reason, the risk and safety officer ought to develop a list of all terms considered as technical in his or her own sense. Anyone reading this document can always refer to this page whenever there is a term that is not clearly understood.
GPS- geographic positioning system
Radiological mobile lab- a mobile laboratory specially design to respond to nuclear emergencies within a given region
NPP- nuclear power plant
Dose rates- The level of nuclear saturation (alpha, beta and gamma rays)
Mobile Radiological Laboratory Mobile radiological labs have gained popularity over the recent past. According to Kibonge (2008, p. 86), the government has considered developing mobile radiological labs in various sensitive areas within the country.
Although the venture may be expensive, the ultimate role of the lab and its benefit to the society far much outweigh the cost of putting up the structure. Swaminaran (2005, p. 110) says that setting up a suitable radiological lab would require a heavy investment that would help ensure that the lab is as effective as would be expected.
The above diagram shows an example of a mobile radiological lab. As can be seen, the lab is actually a classy van with the capacity to move at very high speeds whenever there is cause of alarm. Inside the van is a complete radiological lab, with various equipments that have capacity to detect radiological contamination from various locations considered high-risk areas.
We will write a custom Proposal on Suitable Radiological Mobile Lab for United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understanding the feasibility of this project is very important. As Remula (2007, p. 91) says, it is very important for an analysis to be conducted to determine the suitability of such a lab before financial commitment is made on such a project. This scholar emphasizes the fact that there should be a clear need for this facility before any commitments are made on developing it. The lab must have a function to perform because it is a possibility that after setting up the lab, it may lack any purpose.
It is a fact that United Arab Emirates is not safe from radiological substances that threatens the environment and humanity alike. This alone is a proof that this lab would be needed. However, a specific task that should be defined before its development should exist. This helps in conducting the feasibility of the project. This research focuses on the development of a suitable radiological lab for United Arab Emirates.
Aim and Objectives of the Research The aim of this project is to set up the suitable technical requirements and specifications to develop a mobile environmental laboratory to be used for routine operation of NPP and in case of NPP emergencies and other radiological emergencies in the UAE. This project will take into account justification of the work from safety, security, and safeguards prospective. The development of the mobile lab will follow the international standards and IAEA recommendations.
Georgina (2011, p. 45) says that objectives are subsets of aims. In this research, a number of objectives should be fulfilled upon the completion of this project.
To determine the level of need of a suitable radiological lab in the United Arab Emirates
To determine the feasibility of starting this project, and clearly state all the benefits, and possible negative consequences of developing the lab
To determine the current state of affairs in this country in dealing with radiological contamination from various sources
To determine the level of emission of radiological substances of various large manufacturing plants to the environment
Scope of the Research The scope in this research is limited to the United Arab Emirates. This research is conducted within this country, and this therefore, means that it is limited in scope to the political, social, and economic status of this country.
The feasibility of this project is based on the economic capacity of the United Arab Emirates, and applying this report in an environment with a different economic status may not yield the same result as the one given in this report. This research is also conducted based on the environmental condition of this country. The research covers all the relevant issues about this country concerning radiological emissions, as well as how they can be mitigated in the context of the United Arab Emirates.
The major task of the mobile radiological lab would be to detect some of the radiations that pose serious challenges to the health of citizens in the United Arab Emirates. Moreover, the lab would have a critical role to play as far as collecting samples of radioactive emissions to ascertaining their harm. For this to happen, the workers of the lab would be charged with conducting field surveys to obtain all the samples of the radiations that could be available in the surrounding.
The lab is limited to finding a solution to radiological emissions in the United Arab Emirates and any other application of the information in this research in a different context should be done with caution. The research was based on this context, and this partly explains the scope of this research. In the actual process of collecting relevant data, the researcher limited data collection to various locations in the United Arab Emirates because of the time and financial constraints.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suitable Radiological Mobile Lab for United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For this reason, although the report is applicable in the entire country, its best applied in the two cities where the research was conducted. It is therefore, important to take into consideration the scope stated in this section when using this research for the purpose of implementation, as a secondary material or for any other purpose that may be important.
The United Arab Emirates has been experiencing a massive development in various sectors, a sign that there is need for increased sources of energy. Nuclear power plants come as a solution to this. However, researchers have noted that this form of energy can be very dangerous if not managed properly.
This research therefore, focuses on how such plants can operate in this country without posing any serious threat to the society. Murume (2010, p. 54) says that when conducting a research, it is important to ensure that it is a justifiable research whose importance will outweigh the costs of conducting it. It is only through this that a research will be considered justifiable, and worth the expenditure that is invested in it.
Conducting a research on suitable radiological lab for the United Arab Emirates is not only a timely project, but also one, which will help ensure sustainability of the cities, and the entire country. In the current society, there is a rising concern over the threat that is posed to the environment by various human activities. Large manufacturing plants have been confirmed to emit a given amount of radiological wastes into the environment.
Hospitals and other facilities are also contributing to pollution and emission of radiological substances. Dumpsites where garbage is collected are also known to contribute to the pollution of the environment. However, there has not been enough mechanism put in place to help deal specifically with radiological emissions. The government has put a spirited fight to ensure that all harmful wastes are collected and are dumped as appropriate.
However, the United Arab Emirates as a country is yet to develop fully-fledged department that would deal with radiological wastes. The available literature clearly states the need for the government to step up the fight against radiological wastes within the cities (International Atomic Energy Agency 1996, p. 117). However, there are limited numbers of literatures on how radiological mobile lab may be a solution to this issue.
This research therefore, comes in with a comprehensive explanation of the relevance of mobile radiological in the United Arab Emirates. This research focuses on how the mobile radiological labs may be a solution to the environmental concerns raised by previous researchers. The research will not only be important to the policy makers in this country, but also researchers who would be interested in furthering this research.
Students in this and other related fields will also find this report very reliable. According to Jorim (1999, p. 112), research is a multifaceted process that do not just focus on one issue under investigation. A research will always look at the ripple effect that the issue under investigation will cause. As such, this research will be important to various other fields of study as long as the application is based on the scope defined in the section above.
General Information about the Lab A mobile radiological lab can best be defined in two sections. The first section is the definition of a radiological lab. A radiological lab refers to a laboratory that is meant to detect any radiological emissions from various sources using its special equipments. The laboratory has the capacity to detect and address such radiations as alpha, beta, and gamma rays.
The lab is referred to as a mobile lab because it is always fitted in a van that enables it to move from one location to another detecting any possible radiations in the environment. The contents of this lab are discussed in details in the other parts of this paper. The lab has various functions in the management of radiological emissions.
The mobile radiological laboratory is intended to respond to emergencies involving accidents of nuclear emission. According to Jorim (1999, p. 87), the radiological emissions that occur due to leakages may not have an impact to a larger number of people, especially those who are away from the site of the leak. However, the few people who will be affected will bear a massive impact, lasting for several generations.
The lab is also necessary in the normal operations of the nuclear power plants. Some of these facilities within the plant are known to emit alpha, beta and gamma rays, especially when there is a leakage. This means that there must be clear mechanisms through which such emissions can be managed in the normal running of the plant in order to be assured of the protection of the public. This lab has various other functions as discussed in the chapters below.
It is important to note that although the lab has various other roles, its main purpose is to ensure that there is general preparedness to deal with radiological emergencies within the country. The resent researches have indicated that there is a general lack of preparedness to deal with radiological emergencies in this country. There have been cases where radiological emissions take place without the knowledge of the relevant authorities.
In some extreme cases, the emission would affect a massive number of people, especially those working near the emitters for several days without their knowledge. Some may be aware of the emission but lack of emergency response system would result in a scenario where the accidents are not put to check as soon as may be needed. This results into a scenario where the accident would affect people despite the full knowledge of the relevant authorities.
This mobile radiological lab is meant to address this issue within the entire United Arab Emirates. This mobile lab is supposed to respond to any cases of emergency involving radiological emissions or any other cases of radiological emission within the United Arabs Emirates in various facilities in these cities.
This lab will be installed in a high-speed capacity van that will be expected to move within these cities with the focus on detecting any radiological emissions, especially in places that have been identified as high-risk areas. The lab also has the capacity to deal with any of the radiological emergencies, but within a limited scope. Accidents involving both sealed and unsealed radioactive materials, the radiation generators, and any transport accidents can be addressed by this laboratory.
The laboratory is equipped to respond to these scenarios within the desirable speed in order to curb any negative consequences. The laboratory also has the capacity to manage radiological emissions that may have been caused by acts of terrorism. Although this country has generally been considered safe from such acts of terrorism, this does not eliminate possibilities of terrorists attack. In such cases, this laboratory has the capacity to respond and manage such emergency.
However, it is worth noting that some serious cases of nuclear attacks may be beyond the scope of this laboratory. In such cases, this lab may need some backup in order to manage the situation. Also beyond the scope of this laboratory are cases involving accidents in large nuclear reactants.
Such cases may require larger capacity instruments that can manage the massive emission from such reactants. In such cases, this lab may only be used before the accident to detect abnormal radiations or after such an accident to determine the possibility of radiological elements. This facility is supposed to be managed by the federal authority for nuclear regulation. The leaders of this country are expected to work hand in hand in the management of this laboratory.
The mobile lab would always be on transit from one high-risk area to another, with the aim of detecting any radiological emissions that might not have been identified by the local authorities. In cases where it detects the emission, it would take corrective measures immediately. However, whenever the radiological emission is greater than its capacity, it would relay the message to the radiological management center for appropriate measures to be taken.
Equipments Necessary for the Mobile Laboratory The mobile radiological lab requires some special equipment that is necessary to ensure that the lab can perform its functions successfully. According to Jorim (1999, p. 117), there are cases where some mobile radiological lab have failed to perform their functions appropriately because of lack of an appropriate equipments. The following are some of the equipments that should be present in order to function appropriately.
The lab will need some of the general stationary equipments. Radiation detector is one of the equipments that would be utilized in detecting the x-rays, gamma particles, and neutron radioactive emissions. The equipment would be of great use in determining the quantities of alpha and beta particles in the samples collected. The radiation detector should be a fixed system with ability of detecting x, gamma, and neutron particles. The radiation detector must have the following components:
X and gamma radiation probe
Set composed of two sample supports that will allow measuring samples taken from the field in a fixed geometry
Internal computer system with connection interfaces for data acquisition and transmission
Data acquisition ports-the radiation transducers connect to the internal computer system via USB or RS232 serial interfaces
The internal computer will acquire data simultaneously from the four transducers.
Ethernet remote data transmission ports
Equipment for field measurement
The mobile radiological lab should have equipments that are necessary for the normal operations of this laboratory. According to Ray (2006, p. 72), it is always important to ensure that the equipments that are used in the field are of the right quality before going to the field with them.
According to this scholar, managing a mobile radiological lab may be a complex process that requires a lot of attention. Any misstep may lead to serious consequences on the individuals who are involved in managing the lab. The equipments for the field should be of standard quality, and with the ability to meet the demands of the process of detecting and managing radiological emissions. The following field equipments should be available.
Alpha (α) and Beta (β) Aerosol Monitoring: this is radiation-monitoring equipment used to detect the presence of radiological emissions.
High Sensitivity Gamma (ɤ) Area Monitoring: used for detecting, identifying and collecting of the gamma rays
Gamma (ɤ) Spectroscopy Facility: also known as counting labs, are meant for detecting and quantifying radioisotopes
NaI (TI) and HPGe: also known as high purity germanium detectors is always served by an automatic sample charger in order to facilitate management of large project
GPS Tracking System: used in giving the exact geographic position where the emission takes place
Weather Stations: this may be important in monitoring possible changes in weather
Tritium Monitors: a portable tritium air monitors will be responsible for measuring the air samples for presence of gamma rays
Survey Instruments: these instruments will perform various functions while in the field during data collection process
Contamination Monitors that are Portable: they are useful in high sensitivity measurement of alpha, beta and gamma contaminations.
The above equipments for field measurements should always be fitted within the mobile radiological lab whenever it is leaving for any task in the field. They include neutron detector which has digitized multi-channel analyzer, a remote controlled palmtop, a lap top will all the relevant software, a database and a GPS receiver, and LaBr gamma.
Before moving ahead to establish the availability of radiations in the samples, the workers will engage in sample collection before engaging in rigorous process of testing the samples. The major role of the workers will be to manage the samples before testing them. The workers will be charged with the responsibility of managing the samples since they might be containing dangerous radiations. In this regard, care should be taken to ensure that more harm is not caused to the population.
Processing and Information Transfer System
Most of the documents needed in this section have been indicated in sections above. However, more of the equipments that should be installed in this lab exist. They would ensure the efficiency of the lab. RanidPro100 LaBr3 detector shown in the diagram below is very important and it is always fitted next to the seat of the driver.
It serves a great purpose in ensuring that a spatial scrutiny of the site of the occurrence made possible miles away (International Atomic Energy Agency 2000, p. 57). The gamma detectors would help in detecting any presence of gamma rays, while the air sampler will determine the level of air contamination.
This would be recorded to determine the seriousness of such radiation, and if there is a need to manage the emissions immediately. Some other important data collection equipment in this lab is the two air samplers. The two are important in filtering the air as the car moves along the road. This equipment has gamma spectrometer, with a diameter of 76 millimeters that helps in the detection of the rays.
This equipment is shown in diagram 1 above (the two rods protruding at the top of the car). The vehicle should also have a LAN (local area network) connected to main saver. It is also appropriate to fit the van with 3 G-modem which would help in transferring the data from the detectors, and from the vehicle to the main server in an online mode.
UAE Geology Condition The United Arab Emirates is one of the leading economies in the Middle East region. The country borders The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the west, Oman to the northeast and southeast and Qatar to the northwest. The nation is comprised of a number of emirates, with the major one being Abu Dhabi, which accounts for approximately eighty percent of the entire area of the United Arab Emirates.
The country has a very large natural harbor in the city of Dubai along the Persian Gulf. The country also has several islands that have been disputed by such countries as Iran and Qatar. Some of these islands have existed without any of the countries resolving the disputes as their right ownership.
According to the records at the United Nations, most parts of United Arab Emirates is arid or semi arid land. Rainfall is rare in this region, making the country depend on the underground water that exists in the country. For instance, Abu Dhabi is known for its large mass of sand dunes, especially at Rub al-Khali. It is a fact that the barren region in Abu Dhabi has a number of oases, which are sufficient to supply water for farming and domestic use.
Some of the major oasis in this country include Liwa Oasis to the south (nearing the border with Saudi Arabia), and Al-Buraimi oasis on the other side of the border with the Oman. These two oases have helped in providing water for the purpose of cultivation and settlements. The cities that have emerged since this country gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1971 have heavily depended on these oases for provision of clean domestic water.
Abu Dhabi and Dubai (and even other smaller states) were known for the sand storms, especially during the dry windy seasons. Given the fact that the country experiences long periods of drought, cases where wind would weep off the soil were very common.
These were more common in the expansive Abu Dhabi, especially on the lands that were not cultivated. However, the government has come up with various measures to help manage this situation. Although the cases are still common, they have been significantly reduced, especially following the effort that the government has made to increase the agricultural production on the land.
Those areas that were previously uncultivated have been put on agriculture, reducing the amount of land that is left idle. The government has been keen on planting trees on the uncultivated land. This has not only helped in holding the soil together to resist wind erosion, but also reduce the speed of wind. Although eliminated, sand storms are experienced in some parts of this country, especially in the regions with large sand dunes.
The weather of the United Arab Emirates has been expressed as subtropical-arid with temperate winters and boiling summer. The months of July and August are perceived as the warmest of all the months, with hotness ranging as high as 40 degrees centigrade. On the mountains of Al Hajar, the heat is lower due to the height.
On average, the nation gets no more than 120 mm on the coastal area whereas in the hilly area this can go up to 250 mm. In the days following summer, rains would come in disparaging shape, always in violent flow, which would lead to overflow on the drier coastal cradles. On drier months, these coastal strips are prone to sudden violent dust storms (Lüsted
In what Ways Did American Culture Become More Democratic in the Early 19th Century Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Andrew Jackson was the most instrumental personality who transformed the course of democracy in America. He was credited as the only US president who championed democracy by expanding the democratic space for those who had been politically disenfranchised. For a long time, the American culture had been politically segregated since the common folks could not democratically participate in electoral process.
From 1820s up to mid 1850s, there was improved organization of political parties. The latter were used as instruments for airing the voices of the people. In addition, the right to participate in electoral processes was expanded among the white males. These two factors changed the American democratic system. Between 1820s and 1850s, more white males won the right to vote.
Besides, political parties became more organized. As a result, the face of American democracy changed. The national political parties were recognized more during this period. These parties also started taking part in partisan politics with limited restriction of their activities. It should be understood that before the onset of the 19th century, property ownership was used as the main qualification to take part in political engagements such as voting.
While the whites were enjoying an expanded political space, the African Americans were significantly excluded from participating in political processes bearing in mind that politics was made more restrictive.
However, the continued agitation for better democratic space led to improved active participation of both the white males and African Americans. By the end of 1840, white males had been permitted to vote in almost all the states except Louisiana, Virginia, and Rhode Island.
For the African Americans, they were excluded from voting in five states only. However, women were still not allowed to vote. During President Andrew Jackson’s reign, the two-party conflict was revived by political leaders. This conflict was a common feature during the era of Jeffersonian Republicans and the Federalists. The party politics and the associated conflicts became dominant especially when Andrew Jackson led his presidential campaign in 828.
New form of democracy was not merely created by the Whigs, National Republicans or the Democrats. There were several other smaller political parties that conducted their affairs in the most unique way. For instance, the Workingmen’s party took advantage of the urban centers located in New England and northeastern regions. This party also marketed itself as a labor movement and hence, it comprised of most of the craftsmen who were already skilled in various artistic works.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The party was keen in drawing the attention of workers who were facing the hard times of industrial revolution. Moreover, religion played a critical role in advancing the political space through reform agenda based on rights for women, abolishment of slavery, terminating prostitution and advocating for temperance. Religion was a major channel used by politicians to agitate for fairness in society.
Although religion was not supposed to be part and parcel of political and democratic reforms needed in America, the political class could not avoid passing their campaigns in political gatherings since such forums provided large numbers of people who could be addressed within a short time. Such democratic transformations continued even after the reign of President Andrew Jackson.
In spite of the contribution made by Andrew Jackson in the transformation of American culture towards democracy, the modern historians do not consider him worthwhile at all in the development of American democracy. They have indeed descried Jackson as a mere raging fanatic who only pursued personal political ambitions at the expense of advancing American democracy.
He has been bashed by the modern historical scholars. Some historians argue that Andrew Jackson created a trail of tears when he interfered with the original settlement of the Native Americans. This is the same experience which Jefferson went through in spite of his significant contribution in the political development of America. It is surprising that this type of negative criticism never existed six decades ago.
This implies that even though Andrew Jackson was a powerful figure in the cultural advancement of Americans, the contemporary historians have attempted to degrade him. One of the social ills that Jackson has been accused of by the modern historians is that he did not fight for the basic rights of the minorities such as Indians. Nonetheless, some historians have remained impartial when giving account of Jackson’s contribution in the cultural and democratic growth of the American society during the 19th century.
During the 1830s, white suffrage was heavily expanded in the northern states. This was also the time when the black males were finding their way into the political process through voting. These were the same years when Andrew Jackson was on the forefront campaigning for a higher political office. He even gave a lot of attention to white aliens who had become American citizens. In other words, Andrew Jackson merged all the diverse cultures by making sure that they were not disenfranchised.
Bibliography Wiebe, Robert. Self-Rule: A Cultural History of American Democracy, Part 4. London: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
We will write a custom Essay on In what Ways Did American Culture Become More Democratic in the Early 19th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes Robert Wiebe, Self-Rule: A Cultural History of American Democracy, Part 4. (London: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 17.
Language Barrier in Educational Mobility and Exchange Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction This paper explores the issue of language barrier in the advancement of academic exchange programs across the globe. Academic exchange programs have become common with the growth in the pattern of interactions between countries. The patterns of cross-national interactions in diverse fields are being enhanced as a result of globalization.
One notable area in global interactions is the growth in socioeconomic exchanges between countries. It is now common to find people of different nationalities spread in a number of countries around the world. The trends in the education sector denote growth in the academic exchange programs.
However, it should be noted that different countries have diverse lingual dimensions, which makes it hard to achieve the objectives of academic exchange programs. In this paper, it is argued that language is one of the main impediments to the efficiency and effectiveness of academic exchange programs between countries. The paper begins by expounding the problem of lingual variation in education. This is followed by the development of possible solutions to the problem of language in cross national academic exchange programs.
Kallen (12) observed that globalization has paved way for various developments. From the last quarter of the 20th century, exchange and the mobility of people have become a common phenomenon in the academic field. Among the most critical developments of globalization is the reduction in cross-national transactions.
One sector that has attained growth as a result of globalization is the education sector. The global education sector has largely expanded due to economic globalism. It is critical to note that the number of foreign students in the world today is higher than it has ever been recorded.
With academic institutions working to ensure that they put in place modalities of increasing efficiency in cross national education, the issue of language has come out as one of the main impediments to the attainment of the desired results in such programs. It is critical to explore the nature of problems that are brought about by lingual variations in the contemporary globalized world. The exchange and mobility in the academic realm is highly impeded by the difference in national languages (Kallen 14).
National languages have been restricted to people from given countries for a relatively long period of time. Most of the national languages that are spoken and used for making transactions in a substantial number of countries were derived from international migration and colonialism. These languages vary from one country to the other depending on the colonial master that colonized each country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nations that were colonized adapted languages from their colonial masters and use these languages as second languages, in spite of depicting the languages as national languages.
Therefore, the issue of the prevalence of diverse local dialects in a substantial number of countries is an impediment to the learning of national languages, and by extension a barrier to the learning and usage of international languages in communication. The existence of a lot of local dialects in the world adds to the complexity of language adoption in the global scene.
Language remains to be one of the critical factors in communication. Learning is highly based on the use of language to make meaning out of the different concepts that are passed across.
It can be argued that it becomes impossible to advance education without language. While the lack of coherence in language is a barrier to education, the presence and embrace of diverse languages in the world has also been cited as an impediment to the advancement of cross national systems of education. There are major languages today that are used in different countries and regions in the world today.
The major languages that are used in the world today include ‘English, French, Germany, Española, Italian Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, and Arabic’. These are termed as the international languages. Most countries use certain international languages as the official languages. This implies that the language that is chosen by a country as a formal language is used in making most of the formal transactions, among them teaching and education in general (Baker 419).
Variation in language is something that cannot be overemphasized. It is quite visible in the spectra of education and the challenges that are witnessed in advancing academic exchange between students and researchers from countries that use different languages. However, more students are registering to advance their academics in different countries in the world.
This is not a problem when it applies to students from countries that use similar languages. However, this is more problematic in cases where students are drawn from countries that use different languages. An example that can be given here is the academic exchange between an Arab speaking country and an Anglo speaking country. The variation between these two languages totally impedes free communication.
We will write a custom Essay on Language Barrier in Educational Mobility and Exchange specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Free communication and educational exchange can only be attained in cases where people from either of the countries have studied the languages to the level at which they can effectively use them in communication. Language is a defining factor for cultural adaptation, thus the difficulties in language learning or the language gap often prevent students from adapting to a given culture. This, in turn, makes it difficult for students to fit within the academic systems that are used in in foreign countries (Gonzalez 66).
According to Kallen (12), mobility in education is only easily attained in situations where the countries or regions involved in such mobility and exchange use similar language.
However, this does not imply that regions or countries that do not use similar national languages do not embrace academic exchange programs. Exchange programs happen in such situations, but on a very minimal scale. The rationale behind the observation is the existence of the greater variation that is brought about by the barrier in language between nationalities of the countries or regions involved. This expounds on the scale of the problem of lingual barriers on education in the globalized world.
Language has been termed as a push factor in as far as the mobility and exchange in education in the world are concerned. Language only acts as a pull factor in a restricted number of scenarios, such as the educational mobility between countries that converge on a single language; for instance the English speaking countries like USA, Australia and the European Union nations (OECD 278).
Diversity in languages has been found to impede the advancement of academic exchange programs since institutions are forced to put in place mechanisms of language compatibility, which is critical in facilitating the exchange of ideas in diverse academic institutions. On the other hand, it has been noted that students from the non-native countries still find it challenging to advance their academics because of having a poor background in the language that is used in education in the foreign country.
Therefore, they end up earning undesirable grades not because they do not comprehend concepts, but out of the mere fact that they cannot easily express issues in the foreign language. This case has commonly been reported in the academic mobility and exchange between the Arab countries and the Western countries. Students from the Arab world are often termed as victims of language gap in the Western academic institutions (Gonzalez 66).
The problem of language gap in the contemporary society is proving to be a real impediment in international access to education by millions of people across the world. There is need to address the problem of language gap in education since it has proven to be quite problematic in academic mobility and exchange in the contemporary globalized world.
It is important to note that several mechanisms have been activated in order to help bridge the lingual gap in educational mobility and exchange across the globe. The main concern is whether these efforts can fully iron out the lingual gap, bearing in mind that language learning is a process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Language Barrier in Educational Mobility and Exchange by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, an assessment of the mechanisms utilized has denoted a positive trend in language learning by both individuals and institutions as a way of bridging the lingual gap in academic mobility. There has been a significant growth in the number of internet software programs that are used in for learning different languages. The number of people who are using these programs is also rising at an accelerating pace (Rassool and Canvin 122).
This is a positive pointer in multilingual development across the globe. Taking advantage of the internet tool in advancing multilingualism is a critical move because a substantial number of people in the world today spend more time on the internet. Apart from the use of the internet for advancing the learning of international languages, educational policies are also geared towards advancing international language learning in the world (Gonzalez 67).
The other tactic that is being deployed by various academic institutions across the world entails the embrace of language speaking, learning and tests or the non-native speakers who have an interest in advancing their education in other countries. However, this is not an all-inclusive remedy. It is restricted to only the people who are interested in academic advancement in other countries.
An example of such a scheme is the ‘Top English Language Fluency Test’, which is programmed for students from the non-native English speaking countries. These programs are short and are used to sharpen the lingual skills of students so that they can easily adapt to the given foreign language that is used in education in the given country (Gürüz 136). Therefore, it cannot be taken as a comprehensive mechanism of bridging the language gap that prevails in the world and its impact on academic mobility and exchange.
Conclusion From the discussion above, it can be concluded that language is one of the main restricting factors in the mobility and exchange of education in the world.
Several efforts have been directed towards the improvement of international language learning in a substantial number of countries in the world. The efforts are replicated in the increase in the number of academic exchange programs in the world today. However, there is still a significant gap in language in the contemporary globe, which is still bound to affect educational mobility and exchange.
Works Cited Baker, Colin. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2011. Print.
Gonzalez, Virginia. Second Language Learning: Cultural Adaptation Processes in International Graduate Students in U.S Universities. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America, 2004. Print.
Gürüz, Kemal. Higher Education and International Student Mobility in the Global Knowledge Economy. Cambridge, MA: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 2005. Print.
Kallen, Denis. “New Perspectives on Academic Exchange between Eastern and Western Europe.” Higher Education in Europe 15.1(1990):12-22. Print.
OECD. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD, 2003. Print.
Rassool, Naz, and Maggie Canvin. Global Issues in Language, Education, and Development: Perspectives from Postcolonial Countries. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2007. Print.
Falling in love Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the two films demonstrate or negate negotiated intimacy
Introduction The research topic is the dominance of negotiated intimacy in modern love relationships. Casablanca and Mrs. Doubtfire are the two movies that reflect these themes. One was set in the 1940s when intimacy had little to do with negotiation and more to do with obligation. The other is a 1993 film that epitomizes this new phenomenon. The two movies will be critical in showing that intimate relationships are a product of cultural and sociological values.
How the two films demonstrate or negate negotiated intimacy Most sociologists agree that people enter a world that existed before them. Therefore, other people must teach them how to interact in this society; the process is known as socialization. One’s perception of reality is thus a socially constructed phenomenon. If a person participates in a romantic relationship, it is likely that the individual will adhere to the norms and expectations of his or her society. In the 1940s, different social norms governed the love relationship.
At the time, women had just begun participating in the labor market. They were not financially independent and most of them appeared bound to their husbands. These sentiments are reflected in the film Casablanca. Ilsa appears to tie her fate to her lovers and spouses. When she finds that Lazlo was alive, she sticks to her wifely obligations and abandons her first true love.
It is almost as though Ilsa’s partners are unwilling to consider her as part of the relationship. They have the power to decide whether she stays or leaves one country or the other. For instance, when she met Rick in Paris, it did not matter that she loved him dearly. She had to go back and tend to her husband’s needs because he was alive. Ilsa was a woman who was still bound by role constraints.
Conversely, the relationship between Miranda and Daniel is one that represents modern thinking. In the post traditional society, modern couples approach intimacy on a basis of understanding and knowledge. They expect that each party should derive mutual satisfaction from the relationship.
Failure to meet this goal could lead to termination of the union. This is exactly what occurs in the movie Mrs. Doubtfire. Miranda and her husband are at loggerheads because their relationship ceases to satisfy both parties mutually. Miranda feels that she is carrying too much of the weight in the relationship. Her husband seems lost in a juvenile world that imposes no obligations on its adherents.
He quit a job without thinking about the financial consequences of his actions. Furthermore, he gave his child an extravagant birthday gift irrespective of this new financial situation. By acting in such an immature way, Daniel violated the goals of the modern relationship. He acted in contravention of mutual knowledge and understanding. Miranda did not share his preference for extravagant celebrations and she was not even consulted about it. It is this failure to negotiate that led to the demise of the pair in Mrs. Doubtfire.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question of employment also affects love relationships quite seriously. In the 1990s, women were expected to participate in the breadwinning role. However, household responsibilities had to be negotiated between the two parties.
In instances where no mutual understanding exited concerning childcare, then women often took up the role. In essence, women had to juggle their jobs with household responsibilities and this took a toll on them. In the film, Mrs. Doubtfire, it is clear that Daniel and Miranda did not have this conversation. Miranda could not find the balance between her family and work because she was already doing too much for her family.
There was no mutual satisfaction in the relationship and she wanted out. No doubt exists concerning how loving Daniel is towards his children. However, he seems to embrace only the fun part while leaving the rest of the hard work to his wife. It is these divergent goals that lead to a split.
On the flipside, Ilsa’s profession is not quite clear. She does not have children that would somehow complicate her work roles. However, traditional society required married women to take care of their men like they would children. Therefore, minimal tensions arise to interfere with this role. Ilsa’s non participation in any meaningful work meant that she would not find it difficult to show her allegiance to her husband. Some stronger forces were at play in this scenario.
Societal expectations concerning marriage have altered tremendously over the years. Rigid rules do not apply anymore and individuals are not obligated to stay in unsatisfying relationships. In the 1940s, women were motivated to stay in love relationships out of a sense of obligation.
Since these women lacked a means of economic survival, they often sacrificed their personal happiness for their unions. For instance, Ilsa was married to the ultimate hero. He stood for a worthy cause and was a man of great status. Therefore, she had a lot to lose if she left him. It is this sense of obligation that caused her to sacrifice her romantic feelings for Rick. If Ilsa had ended her marriage in order to restart a relationship with Rick, then she would have abandoned a life of economic stability for uncertainty.
Rick was a wealthy man, but Ilsa was not his wife; she would have been nothing more than a lover. The financial security that came with the title of a wife was too much to be ignored. Conversely, Miranda was not bound to her husband for financial reasons. In fact, the reverse was true; after Daniel lost his job, it was his wife who took care of the family obligations. It is likely that this lack of economic ties to Daniel made divorce a viable alternative.
We will write a custom Essay on Falling in love specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miranda had no financial perks to lose if she divorced her husband, so she decided to leave him. Therefore, the post traditional notion of fewer obligations and more negotiation carried the day. Miranda could not find love in the relationship, so there was nothing else to keep her in it. Negotiation entails mutual benefit; if one party is not sustaining the other financially, then it is easy to leave.
A feminist analysis of the two relationships also reveals that a modern attitude towards relationships is affecting how people interact with one another. Feminists affirm that women were degraded and looked down on in the past. Society had a negative attitude towards the female gender, and women could do little to change that perception.
However, in the modern era, women are independent beings who have the freedom to enter or leave a love relationship as they wish. Feminists perceive this as an indication of the amount of progress that they have made. In the movie Casablanca, Ilsa cannot even be trusted to get herself to another country. She needs the assistance of men to achieve this.
Such an attitude indicates that women had minimal significance in that society. On the flipside, it does cause women to overlook certain trivialities in their relationships. They have to think of the long term consequences of their behavior before making the choice to leave. In Mrs. Doubtfire, the key female character appears to have a lot of power. Feminists would respect her initiative in the divorce as well as her performance during the custody hearings.
However, this freedom degrades certain institutions. It may be argued that female empowerment, as practiced in the modern era, has caused women to become uncompromising. Miranda divorces her husband for quitting his job. She then denies him parental visits because of his impersonation of an English nanny. It may be argued that Daniel had noble reasons for engaging in both types of conduct.
He quit his job because he did not like the message that his character was portraying (a smoking parrot). Furthermore, he impersonated an old lady in order to spend time with his children. If Miranda had been less eager to exercise her feminist rights, then she would have listened to her husband’s side of the story and compromised. This implies that modern couples are getting less tolerant of each other.
Conclusions Intimacies in lover relationships were obligatory and non negotiable in traditional societies like Casablanca. Ilsa loves Rick but her obligation to her husband; societal expectations concerning women and financial security cause her to stay with her Lazlo.
On the other hand, modern couples demand negotiation and mutual satisfaction in their relationships as seen in Mrs. Doubtfire. Miranda left Daniel because they lacked a mutual understanding on how to take care of the family. Furthermore, she had no economic ties to her husband, so a divorce was plausible for her.
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When Colors Are Caught in a Whirlwind: The True Meaning behind the Color Cast in Vertigo Essay essay help free: essay help free
Though it has been quite recently since movie industry switched from monochrome to color image, the latter has quickly become an efficient means to express the mood and atmosphere of the movie; Vertigo is one of the most graphic examples of how color can be used as an expressive tool. Although colors alone are often viewed as a means to convey the message, Hitchcock managed to turn colors into a thing in itself in Vertigo, therefore, assigning colors with specific roles and turning them into movie characters.
The first and the most obvious choice for the discussion of colors in Vertigo is red. Indeed, even the poster for the movie was drawn in the threatening and at the same time enthralling red color. It is worth noting that the red color appears mostly in the moments when the leading character interacts with Madeline. For example, when Scottie first tries to spy on Madeline, he enters a restaurant with blood red wallpaper.
The rest of Scottie’s encounters of Madeline/Judy are also often in the red setting. Hence, analyzing the relationships between Madeline and Scottie, one can conclude that the red color symbolized the passion between the characters. Though the given choice of symbolism can hardly be called original, Hitchcock still manages to introduce certain uniqueness into the role of color.
For instance, in the course of the conversation between Madeline and Scottie, the lights on the red wallpaper start glowing, making the tint of red more intense and, thus, stressing Scottie’s confusion. Some might argue, however, that the red color is supposed to put the emphasis on the female lead and, thus, expresses sexuality: “In two Hitchcock’s films, Vertigo and Marine, the colors of red and red on white take on persuasive meaning in relation to female sexuality” (Allen 242).
Such an interpretation of the red color would sound rather reasonable for an average movie; for the Hitchcock world, however, such interpretation is at least incomplete. It seems that Hitchcock also tries to incorporate the concepts of passion and death in red color (Allen 242). Therefore, the role of red color in Vertigo is at least two-fold.
Another color that is used recurrently in the movie is green. In fact, the Maestro himself explained the choice of green rather vaguely, tying the choice of color to the specifics of the leading character’s personality, at the same time drawing a parallel between the colors and the music:
You see, here you had a man who was really a necrophile, i.e., he was going to bed with a dead body, hence the green light. He was waiting for the girl to complete her hair and everything, and he was in love with a dead woman. So you want to help that, and the music helped it, because he was going to bed with a dead woman. (Gottlieb 103)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it can be considered that the green light was used in the movie to mark the line between the reality and the psychotic universe of the leading character. In the scene where July becomes Madeline, every single element of the movie including the actors remains relatively peaceful. The weird greenish, otherworldly color, however, almost shouts that something is going wrong – and, in fact, it is, since Scottie is obviously behind the breaking point at this moment: “Where is Judy?” (Hitchcock).
The blue color, which is also introduced at the very beginning of the movie, might be translated as an attempt to make a smooth transition between the scenes of tension and the “fillers.” It can be argued, however, that there are little to no fillers in Vertigo – each scene is intense in its own sense, and each has at least several thrilling seconds of tension between the characters or a moment of a self-reflection.
Finally, the violet color appears only two or three times throughout the entire movie yet leaves an indelible impression on the audience. The most memorable scene in violet is, perhaps, the scene in which Scotty has a nightmare. Violet, as a cross between the red and the blue, signifies a passage from the ordinary world into the world of madness and back.
As Allen put it, “in the context where blues and reds are combined in the film to evoke female sexuality in Vertigo, the color violet, as a cross between blue and red, is a variation of the theme” (Allen 242). However, it seems that Allen’s conclusion could be stretched even further; since red means passion, and blue represents the exact opposite, i.e., calm and stealth, violet can be described as a collision between the two and, thus, a descent into madness (Oliver 101).
Amazingly, the role of colors in the movie has changed once again from the means of marking the transgression between the moods and the scenes to actually influencing the leading characters. While in the previous scenes, red and green only served as a foil for the plot of the movie to unwind, in the dream sequence, they actually come to life. Swirling around Scottie, they drive him even crazier, if that is technically possible, and make him face his demons for once.
When it comes to the analysis of the colors in Vertigo, one might notice how hard it is to single specific colors out. Indeed, in the movie, they blend to create the necessary atmosphere; it is very rarely that one can see a single color, but when one does, the color becomes an integral part of the movie. Moreover, it helps create not only the atmosphere, but also a specific pattern, starting with teeth-grindingly bright red, then switching from dark greenish ad finally making the audience plunge into the world of crazy purple.
However, at some points, the colors switch fast to mark a dramatic moment; one of such scenes, the above-mentioned dream sequence is a perfect example of how colors can tell the story without the help of the actor or the narrator. As Scottie has his nightmare, the colors change rapidly as if he were in a kaleidoscope.
We will write a custom Essay on When Colors Are Caught in a Whirlwind: The True Meaning behind the Color Cast in Vertigo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the movie shows that Scottie is being thrown from one extreme to another, from a painful anguish to maddening fear. It is also crucial that the colors in Scottie’s dream almost never appear one by one; they mostly come in two or three, creating whimsical and at the same time
Although the effects in the movie might be considered somewhat dated, the choice of the colors remains brilliant. Creating a specific mood, these colors make the movie more dramatic and the plot more intense, each of the colors serves its purpose and brings logic into the creeping insanity of the movie. In fact, the color cast can hardly be judged on a regular basis – the colors look much like the scraps of someone’s dream, which already is very thrilling.
In addition, the fact that they actually match the mood of the characters and the atmosphere of the movie puts these colors on par with other nonetheless significant elements of the film, such as the plot, the setting and even the actors. In Hitchcock’s world, colors come to life and start playing a role of their own, which once again shows the brilliance of the author and the magnificence of the universe that he created.
Works Cited Allen, Richard. Hitchcock’s Romantic Irony. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2007. Print.
Gottlieb, Sidney. Alfred Hitchcock’: Interviews. Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi, 2003. Print.
Oliver, Kelly. Noir Anxiety. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, 2003. Print.
Vertigo. Ex. Prod. Alfred Hitchcock. Hollywood, CA: Paramount Pictures, 1958.DVD.
“Selfless Gene” by Olivia Judson and reasons for altruism Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help
Human nature and morals that people possess have been questioned for a long time. It is often debated where feelings of kindness or aggression come from and the biological theme has taken a few attempts to give explanations. The article “Selfless Gene” by Olivia Judson, provides biological bases for altruism and kindness but in fact, it is a mix of both human social cooperation and natural environment.
The study of genetics and DNA has led to some discoveries that help determine which particular biological mechanisms are responsible for the individual characteristics between people. But the reality continues to confirm that the study of social and psychological life can yield better understanding for the reason of why people love or hate.
Altruism is one of the qualities that can be traced to the animal world and baboons and chimpanzees have been closely studied to confirm the findings. It has been shown that cooperation in groups leads to better strength and health of the group and this can be connected to Darwin’s natural selection theory.
It is undoubtedly evident that a group is much stronger than one individual and communication and mutual goals will lead to better and faster results. The article cites Darwin when talking about war and that it might be the cause for people uniting, thus it would be beneficial for them to survive. This point met some opposition, as natural selection was not attributable here.
The general outline of natural selection is that an individual who is strongest will survive and transfer their strong genes to their kin. But it is possible to conclude that in time of war people are even more interested in preserving their genes. No matter how developed people in the past were, they understood that they will not be able to lead a war against a group of people by themselves.
The self-preservation instinct led them to look for people who would cooperate with that individual or several and join into a group of cooperating members. In the end, this would ensure a better chance that their own genes would survive within the protection of the newly formed community. The proposition that people will not join others, who are of different race or background, also seems somewhat limited.
It could have been possible that in the old days, when people did not have evolved communication and language, they would express fear towards other groups of people who seemed different. But it is absolutely clear that in the face of a common danger, a natural disaster or a wild animal attack, they would not take time to conflict with each because the common goal is to save the life from an immediate threat.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same can be seen in the modern times when people help each other in the face of a more consuming danger. A human being, naturally, realizes that there could be some communication and negotiation with another being of the same kind, whereas communication with flowing lava or an earthquake is impossible.
The modern evolution has given even more support to the fact that people of different races can live in harmony. The anti discrimination laws and human rights movement, have lessened the fear that people might have towards nations that are far away and unknown. Once people realize that the biology and social life of another race is the same, they tend to be more understanding and kind.
All of this leads into the point of altruism and the reasons for it. Biologists explain that being kind and caring to another person starts with relatives and people who are closest. According to the articles, kindness and altruism towards kin is very much understandable because the survival of someone in the family will lead to a greater chance of gene survival. All of this happens on an unconscious level and thus, cannot be analyzed as closely as conscious choice of individuals.
The voluntary decision that a person makes is much better observed and can be examined to determine the true reasons for kindness and help to a stranger. A quite reasonable and logical concept that everyone understands is that kindness will lead to better chances of self survival than a fight. When a person is involved in violence or war, they accept the possibility that there is a chance they might become a casualty. Right away, this understanding greatly decreases the expectance of the survival of one’s genes.
The avoidance of conflict is what will produce better results, even if the person simply pauses to arrange for back-up and members of the family or cooperating group. But even in this case, a violent conflict between two groups will have people realizing that there will be loss of life, which cannot be good for the transference of genes. But another important factor in altruism is that being kind can be traced to a subconscious level as well.
People might deeply believe that the fact that they will help someone, will lead to changes in that person, even if they are not related. People’s genes change not in the process of birth but during life. A person lives their life and the understanding that they acquire produces changes to the genes. This information gets transferred to the next generation. Biologists and scientists take an extreme focus on genetics and the connection between people who are related but evidence shows a different reason.
By helping a stranger, a person becomes somewhat “stronger” and more moral. This adds to their self-esteem which heightens the quality of their life and so, leads to better survival chances. Another major point is that by being altruistic to total strangers, a person creates a memory in that stranger that they were helped. Not only it instills thankful attitude in people globally but there is a chance that the two individuals will meet again, and the person who offered help will be in need themselves and so, the favor will be returned.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Selfless Gene” by Olivia Judson and reasons for altruism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This way a person creates friends among strangers and the more this behavior is repeated, the more potential friends there will be. This distinctly points to the fact that people strive to develop positive communication with as many people as possible. This can even be seen in gangs where people with a common belief make one unit, only their common belief is not kindness.
Biology is without a doubt a big part of human behavior and attitude but an equal part is based on social behavior and common good. People understand that by cooperation they will create better chances of survival for themselves and the rest of people, whereas violent competition and wars will only lead to lives and genes lost.
The Major Features and Theorists Views on Religion Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Views of Various Theorists
Features of Religion
Why People Choose to be Religious
Introduction Sociology of religion refers to the study of cultural beliefs, practices, and forms of organizations. Sociologists study religion through some of the established tools and methods. Some scholars employ quantitative research while others choose qualitative designs in studying how religion affects human behavior. In particular, the census system, content analysis, demography, and sampling are some of the methods employed under quantitative designs.
On the other hand, observation, the use of interviews, comparative analysis, and application of historical methods are some of the techniques employed in qualitative designs. In the study of religion, many issues arise, but the most fascinating ones include theoretical explanations of religion and the major features of religion. Therefore, this article will discuss the views of various theorists on religion, as well as the major features of religion.
Views of Various Theorists Emile Durkheim was the first theorist to make use of religion in comprehending human behavior. He undertook a study among Catholics and Protestants to ascertain the rates of suicide. The study was a milestone in the academic circles because it distinguished sociology from other disciplines such as psychology.
Durkheim carried out a methodical study of religion in society by employing a positivist approach (Johnstone 9). He was mainly interested in identifying the forces that hold individuals together in the modern society. Durkheim established that religion is indeed the major unifying factor in society.
In one of his works, he established that religion is not imaginary, as many would think. In his study, he noted that religion is existent because it affects human behavior in a number of ways. Religion brings out the realities of society. This would imply that each society has its own form of religion. A supernatural power exists in society, which controls human life. The supernatural power is too strong to an extent of forcing individuals to come together to define it.
In this case, Durkheim noted that religion is the expression of collective consciousness, which is the synthesis of individual awareness. This consciousness translates to a certain form of reality. To Durkheim, simple societies, such as the Australian Aborigines, have simple religious structures, which are simply associated with particular clans and families. However, complex societies have advanced religious structures that tend to embrace universalism.
In the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Max Weber offered an alternative explanation of religion. To Weber, religion is a perfect answer to human necessity for theodicy. He noted that human beings are troubled by the fact that some forces cannot be controlled through human efforts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, human beings try to resolve issues affecting them through the worship of the supernatural. In particular, individuals are troubled with the idea that some people might suffer for long before they succeed in life. Religion is the only consolation for individuals facing various problems in the world.
Through religion, individuals have an opportunity to escape from trouble meaning that they can be relieved from untold sufferings if they worship a supernatural being. In society, people pursue salvation in the same way they pursue wealth. To Weber, religion played a critical role in the rise of capitalism in Europe. In Europe, Protestants believed in predestination implying that the position of each individual in society is already determined.
Rational Choice theory is one of the theories supported by scholars such as Weber, which explains social and economic actions (Johnstone 36). The theory states that human beings should always strive to do things perfectly. In other words, the individual should always choose the most cost-effective method when accomplishing certain aims and objectives. In society, people try to achieve their objectives using the available means and techniques.
However, the most effective technique is usually chosen because of the constraints in life. In this regard, an individual conducts a critical review of available alternatives before arriving at the most cost-effective method. Weber noted further that the relationship between religion and society is very important to sociologists because it helps in explaining the behavior of individuals in a number of ways. Religion shapes human behavior because an individual would definitely behave in a way that his or her religion permits.
Religion is understood as a belief system, as well as a social institution. It is considered a belief system because it configures people’s viewpoints. In other words, it influences an individual’s understanding of the world. Given the fact that the world is full of tribulations and intricacies, Weber views religion as a social institution since it sets the patterns of social actions, which are structured based on the values and practices of society. Individuals evaluate their actions using the values and practices generated by religion.
Since it is considered an institution, it has an organizational structure that influences the behavior of individuals in any given society. Therefore, religion is very important in examining the social and cultural context of any given human action. Understanding individual religious beliefs is not of concern to sociologists, but instead they are interested in examining the collective behavior of individuals in society, as well as how religious beliefs influence behavior.
One of the most important reasons that forces sociologists to study religion is that it is related to other social factors, such as race, age, gender, and education. In complex societies, various theorists show that some religious beliefs are associated with certain races. In this regard, religion would define social stratification of a certain society.
We will write a custom Essay on The Major Features and Theorists Views on Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Members of society with similar religious beliefs would tend to identify themselves with certain behaviors. They would then tend to conduct themselves in a certain way, which would be different from the conduct of other races. For instance, a majority of members of the Arab society would be identified with Islam.
Through Islam, they have formed strong cultures that define their behavior in society. In particular, members from the Arabic race are not allowed to intermarry with other races without undergoing certain processes. In this regard, it would demand that a member from another race be converted to Islam for him or her to be accepted as a marriage partner.
Regarding age, religion influences people differently. Furthermore, age groups are affected differently by religion. Durkheim found out that youths are affected more by religion as compared to the old. This is why suicide rates are high among the youth and the middle-aged individuals as compared to the old. Equally, religion affects men differently as compared to women.
Religion is important to sociologists because it determines change in society. A religious society is reluctant to embrace new ways of doing things because change would interfere with the established customs and beliefs.
For instance, many people find it hard to utilize family planning methods, as well as the use of protection during sex because their religions do not permit. Some religious values suggest that people were created to multiply. This problem is common in the third world whereby people are still practicing beliefs associated with traditional religion.
Features of Religion One of the main characteristics of religion is that it is a group affair. Religion is considered a group phenomenon because of certain aspects that should be understood in sociological terms. In many societies, including western cultures, emphasis is always placed on beliefs, even though other aspects of religion are also important. In this case, religion is considered as a group phenomenon because it entails educating children on what constitutes the belief system.
For instance, children are always exposed to literature that exposes them to catechism, which is the testimonial that any believer should consent. In other communities, children are expected to study the scripture in a certain stage of his or her life, which would help such a child in giving a sermon. Islam and Judaism are some of the religions that encourage their children to learn the fundamentals of the belief system.
Christianity and Judaism insist on academic and formal belief system whereby children need to undertake religious courses to equip them with the basics of belief system. Other aspects of religion that makes it a group phenomenon include customs, religious experiences, and the sense of community. These facets do not refer to the individual religion, but instead they refer to the manner in which religious groups restructure themselves in society as far as focusing on shared meaning is concerned.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Major Features and Theorists Views on Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Religion is a group phenomenon in the sense that it has an indispensable cognitive feature. In other words, it shapes the knowledge and the skills of the believer in a number of ways. Sociologists observe that the skills and the knowledge gained through religious customs organize personal opinions into a certain system, which serve as the basis of action.
For instance, if an individual beliefs that some form of influential wicked spirits surrounds him or her, he or she would generate evidence regarding the presence of these spirits and would consequently adopt some measures to protect him or herself.
In particular, an individual would resort to prayer, which would be conducted in accordance to the religious customs. In western societies, beliefs are treated as mere opinions that do not have substantial effect on the third party. In such societies, people rely on empirical evidence that can be tested scientifically.
Empirical evidence is referred to as scientific knowledge. In this regard, the existence of evil spirits is only real to an individual who believes in the faith. This belief shapes an individual’s experiences and actions. Therefore, an individual who believes that spirits cause sickness and the other individual who believes that germs cause diseases are similar in the sense that they both base their arguments on a certain body of knowledge.
Religion is also viewed as a group phenomenon because of the rituals, which consist of figurative actions that distinguish spiritual meanings. A ritual is a ratification of the spiritual meaning while beliefs signify the cognitive characteristic of religion. It should be understood that the two are intertwined because they both offer a detailed meaning of religion.
Rituals are mainly employed to denote the unity of the group because it brings members of a certain group together. Scholars observe that rituals play a critical role in religious convictions because they help members in remembering some of the shared meanings.
Moreover, a ritual revitalizes the consciousness of the individual, which has a significant effect to the group, as well as the individual. For an individual, he or she is able to identify him or herself with a group while the group benefits because its commitment and sense of harmony is renewed. Religion is always considered a group phenomenon because it generates some religious experiences that signify subjective engagement with the sacrosanct.
Such experiences are usually confidential and personal, but people tend to share them with other group members through expression of beliefs and rituals. Through religious experiences, an individual would definitely belong to a religious community, which is a community of memory. Religious community refers to a group that shares collective memories regarding certain beliefs.
Why People Choose to be Religious People become religious in different ways, but most people find themselves subscribing to a belief system through birth and socialization. In fact, socialization is the main contributing factor to people’s religiousness. In some religions, such as Islam and Judaism, children are expected to adopt the religious culture through birth.
They are introduced to the basics of religious beliefs at the family level. An established education system is always established, which introduces children to religious beliefs and principles. In the Islamic religion, it is mandatory for children to study Islamic laws, which are derived from religion. Other factors that compel individuals to be religious include the fear of the uncertainty, need for validation, the desire for orderliness, and the need to belong.
People in the world have never explained the real cause of death. In this regard, people feel that they are safe when they belong to a certain religion. Moreover, people believe that religious organizations provide answers to numerous problems affecting humanity. In fact, religious organizations comfort those with problems. Regarding orderliness, it is generally believed that religion helps an individual to accomplish his or her missions peacefully.
Works Cited Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: Sociology of Religion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Political science in Nigeria Essay (Article) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Nigeria, a country in West Africa, has a large population comprising of more than two hundred ethnic groups. Historically, Nigeria has suffered several military coups since gaining its independence in the 1960s from the British imperial government.
The impacts of these military regimes devastated Nigeria’s development until recently, when the country had a robust democratic upheaval. The transformation of the political arena in the early 1990s saw the country embrace democracy and political expediency. It endeavored to begin social reforms while ensuring proper economic administration.
Critics of the Nigeria’s political system argue that the reinvention of the Nigerian governance in the 1990s was just a mirage used to attract international association, legitimization and financial aid. In this regard, unfounded democracy became a victim of non-representative regimes, which was inspired by non-liberal and bad governance.
At the time, the market-focused kind of politics led to the impoverishment of a country endowed with resources such as oil. The electorate was subjected to coercive state arms, while the judiciary was highly influenced by the incumbent politicians. In many cases, the rule of law became insignificant in the administration of justice and policy establishment.
The power to put leaders to their positions was often arbitrarily allocated to the people who controlled the state resources. At the same time, policies were implemented with disregard to need to balance distribution of state resources. This is evidenced by the Structural Adjustment Program, which had earlier been abandoned by the electorate but was upheld by the government despite the knowledge of its adverse effects on the economy and political stability.
Previous general elections were marred with malpractices as the ruling incumbents sought to lengthen their tenure with disregard to law, which governs the electoral process. The electorate was denied the right to exercise their democratic will, and this inherently, contributed to the post-election upheavals. The wielding of power by these corrupt leaders brought about the individualistic abuse of state apparatus and manipulation of the electoral results.
The Nigerian political regimes have been faced by various challenges such as voter apathy, impunity and corrupt politics. The results of the 2007 election portrayed the country’s inability to utilize its resources in order to achieve a salient political democratic rule. The challenges affecting the Nigerian politics have not been different from those affecting its African counterparts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corruption and culture of impunity have been the main challenges to democracy in most African states. The inability of electoral bodies to run credible elections has been a challenge to the electorate’s aspirations to wipe out corruption of the ruling elites. Money politics have come to play, which creates a tendency to negate democracy and militarize the political democratic space.
The liberal will and empowerment of the people has been the aim of political restructuring of the state systems in Nigeria. The unending effort to oust the corrupt and undemocratic leaders by the electorate has countered the terms of these political dictators. Most recently, the Nigerians used legal means to thwart the efforts of the incumbent president to prolong his rule.
Actions strikes and the rise of civil society organizations have championed the democratic rights of the citizens, and thus, securing the demands of the people, as evidenced in the President Yar Adua’s first month into term.
This brought about the minimization of corrupt policies such as the increased oil prices by the end of President Olesegun Obasanjo’s rule and the restructuring of the electoral processes. This means that the political arenas within the African context have to be leveled in order to obtain an impeccable democratic political rule.
Emotional Intelligence Impact on Organization’s Performance Report essay help site:edu
Formal Report on impact of Emotional Intelligence on Organization’s performance This report details reasons for existence of detailed connection between E.I. and I.Q. which influences ability on work performance and at the same time influences capability building as well as attentiveness towards every task performed. This research scrutinized some social competencies within work place which were used in determining the extent to which individuals utilize aspects of love amongst themselves. Emotional intelligence forms part of ethics within organizations hence reinforcing social cohesion.
However, there are cases where managers fail in the process of integrating work spirit and personal lifestyles, this leads towards bad relations amongst junior employees. Integrating spiritual focus within organizational management contributes some level of orderliness. Information used in this report was obtained through interviewing a number of organizations within the marketplace.
Attention should be paid on level of productivity realized from organizations applying EI/IQ programs in recruitment process and those using other methods. This is since spiritual concepts associated with EI guarantee both skills and purpose on performance.
Introduction There is necessity of investigation and explanation on employee experiences within work place context and the connection between their work accomplishment and spirituality. In such cases the concept of spirituality is drawn from the perspective of overall individual lifestyles.
Over the years there has been an indication on neglect and assumptions made concerning spiritual lives of employees, and this has led into imbalance between individual’s emotional, intellectual and spiritual aspects of daily lives. Equal importance should be attached on one’s emotional intelligence since it provides the basic point from which one can easily identify overall life purpose. Research reveals that excellence experienced in work performance and businesses are linked to individual spirituality.
However, in some cases there is always distinction between emotional intelligence, spirituality and performance where spirituality is only considered within theological contexts. There is the reality on the fact emotional intelligence plays an important role in articulation of workplace duties. This is since it contributes towards living a meaningful life. Emotional intelligence encompasses individual’s overall significance.
Purpose of the study This study seeks to establish connections between emotions, intellect as well as personal spirituality which contribute towards peaceful and productive environment within work place. Emotional Intelligence and I.Q. are therefore important aspects considered for purposes of efficient management within work place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such experiences as high level of connectedness and meaningful relations leads towards development of hospitable environments capable of motivating individuals towards performance. Additionally, ability of workers to identify themselves with organization’s principles and objectives depends on their level of emotional intelligence as well as I.Q. levels. Scope of the study
Indeed, there is adequate literature presented in this study on the relationship amongst employees within organizations in a defined industry. This is mostly based on nature of prevailing circumstances or EI applied during recruitment process especially in the field of strategic management.
There is limited effort capable of providing what has been learned and efficiently explored on the process of generating relationships amongst organizations within defined industry. For instance, whenever scholars explore on how firms form alliances to maximize payments, they only emphasize on just one specific merit connected to the alliance like bringing resources together, or maximizing on learning.
The main objective of applying EI at work place is for the purposes of exploring how firms are able to earn and preserve employee rates. It is important to consider relational view with regard to how organizations benefit from competitive advantage. The theoretical framework of such review adds to the knowledge within the field of relational view and firm’s competitive advantage.
Source and methods The study utilized use of qualitative method where data was collected through i-depth interviews. Focus groups were used in the process of obtaining information from students. In some instances secondary data was obtained from sources such as company websites, journals, newspapers and magazines.
Report organization The report discusses about the impact of emotional intelligence at work place. It will focus on main reasons as to why firms agree to utilize EI within their various programs. Then there’s conclusion based on overall findings of the study.
Emotional Intelligence and Intelligence quotient in the workplace Level of emotional intelligence is basically connected to level of integrity with which work is performed. There exists detailed connection between E.I. and I.Q. which influences ability to perform work and at the same time influence capability building as well as attentiveness towards every task performed. Social competencies within work place determine the extent to which individuals utilize aspects of love amongst themselves.
We will write a custom Report on Emotional Intelligence Impact on Organization’s Performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence forms part of ethics within organizations hence reinforcing social cohesion. However, there are times cases where managers fail in the process of integrating work spirit and personal lifestyles, this leads towards bad relations amongst junior employees. Integrating spiritual focus within organizational management contributes some level of orderliness.
Leadership and organizational success This serves the purposes of having capability on access and exploitation of new markets, this assists in boosting resource capabilities. Organizations in a joint venture can be owned by more than one parent company, making them so hard to manage. The parent companies owning such firms in joint venture may have conflicting goals or objectives, conflicting styles of management, and also competition for the scarce resources.
However, in such cases application of EI help firms with new business ideas hence assisting innovation of new products and services. Moreover, firms utilizing use of EI/IQ finds it easy to penetrate foreign markets based on rich professionalism amongst employees. Many organizations appreciate nature of contributions from joint ventures and have gone ahead to uplift barriers and restrictions which may limit smooth operations within organizations. Therefore, international joint ventures contribute heavily to foreign investments.
When a joint venture is owned by more than one parent firm, it is known as an equity venture. High level of employee Emotional intelligence boosts a firm’s ability to gain from complementary resources, thereby improving its economies of scale. In addition, the firm’s ability to come up with new products is boosted as it will be cheaper as compared when the firm is operating individually.
International joint ventures guide foreign firms in penetrating local markets which may look unfamiliar to foreign firms. In addition, the firm’s image is also boosted as many consumers want to be associated with creativity. There are other ways through which organizations access resources.
These include; licensing, signing of contracts, or forming alliances. Joint ventures are mainly preferred because they perform more than wholly owned subordinate firms. In addition, the success of a joint venture can be easily determined from the level of employee contributions. The amount of capital each partner contributes reveals level of professionalism amongst its employees. Joint ventures have distinct resources and capabilities that cannot be copied by competitors. This helps the joint venture to gain from economies of large scale.
Emotional intelligence and economic management Scholars in the recent past have conducted studies focusing on the relevance of applying E.I. to an economy. This creates signals that individual EI really contributes towards entire performance of global economy. Generally, joint ventures have attracted hundreds of researchers who have made many publications.
However, these studies sometimes provide contradictory commendations, mainly due to the fact that some joint ventures are composed of parent firms having diversified work force. It is very important for these studies to focus more on the management aspect of the joint venture. Before forming a joint venture, it is appropriate for a firm to evaluate the strategic rationality for coming up with the joint venture.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Emotional Intelligence Impact on Organization’s Performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The firm then should carefully select an appropriate partner. After selecting the partner, the firm will then negotiate and bargain the terms and conditions. Finally, the firm will sign the necessary documents and then proceed with the management of the venture. In fact, the decisions that firm managers make during the formation process of the venture will determine the future of the venture in terms of the level of performance.
These capital investments are transaction-specific and they foster product differentiation, thus, enhancing the quality of the products. Lastly, specificity according to human asset relates to the skills, expertise and talents which have been acquired as a result of long term relationships. For instance, the relationship created between a committed supplier and a dedicated buyer. Through constant interaction, alliances can be created; hence, the quality of the products will be enhanced in addition to the speed of completion of the processes.
The development of relation-specific skills between parties is very influential in enhancing competitive advantage and generating supernormal profits. In fact, the relation-specific investments and the performance of the firm are positively correlated. Creation of a healthy relationship between firms and their suppliers also has an effect on the overall performance of the firm; the performance is bound to increase.
The location of the firm also determines the overall performance of the firm; for instance, firms located next to one another will develop inter-firm cooperation, which will in turn improve the quality of their products. Great speed of product development, product differentiation, and reduced costs in the value chain enable relation-specific investments to give rise to relational rents. It can therefore be stated that higher relational rents are achieved when there is a good partnership between firms with regard to their investments.
Strategic management One of the factors that limit the ability of associated firms to generate sufficient rents is the period of time in which the governance is in place to regulate against improper business behavior. The relation-specific rents have the ability to create congruous virtual rents, therefore, these kind of investments need to be safeguarded.
When these safeguards are in place and are effective, the associated firms feel comfortable in proceeding with the investments. In addition, when a firm is engaged in relation-specific investment, for instance, when it is acquiring customized machinery, it is required to meet a certain cost in advance. Durable relation-specific investments such as customized plants, are often more expensive than non-durable ones like simple tools.
Due to the fact that a number of investments have a fixed cost, the group of firms working together need to assess and evaluate the expected returns on the investment after the number of years it is expected to pay back, or after the period of the contract elapses. For example Japanese automakers prefer investing in durable relation-specific assets because of duration and nature of contract.
On the other hand, there are also concerns in the United States whereby the suppliers are very reluctant investing in relation-specific assets having a longer length of contract. Therefore it can be deduced that when length of contract is long enough to care for opportunism, more relational rents are generated from the invested relation-specific assets, and vice versa .
The second factor that limits the ability of associated firms to generate sufficient rents is the scale and the scope of transactions that take place between such associated firms. This comes with the capacity of giving preference to specialized assets as compared to general assets. Large firms with greater economies of scale have the potential to raise the level of their production by preferring to work with specialized assets to general assets.
Partner firms also have a tendency of increasing the size of transactions between them, thereby improving the level of efficiency that is connected to the inter-firm interactions. When this interaction between the partner firms is continuous, a stable relationship between the firms will be created, thereby making the firms to invest in specialized relation-specific assets.
Therefore, it can be pointed out that the frequency and the size of interaction among the partner firms will determine their ability to make efficient relational rents, given their investing in relation-specific assets. In a nutshell, the length of the payback period and the size of interactions among the partner firms really influence the firms’ abilities to make relational rents.
Spirituality in the workplace Emotional intelligence is applicable within organizations through various ideas. Most researches done within this field focuses on leadership and quality of work within workplace. Workers capability to establish mutual trust and respect amongst other members are usually considered effective leaders. This is since such people are capable of providing solutions towards complex problems arising within organizations.
Adequate utilization of emotional intelligence also leads towards cost-effectiveness. Hiring staff based on emotional intelligence changes economic value of any organization according to research done by concerned bodies. For instance, the government Accounting office report to congress in the year 1998, revealed the nature of savings they accomplished when United States Force applied the use of Bar On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) in recruiting process.
Their success was eminent and at the same time saved over three million dollars on annual basis. Training employees in the areas touching emotional and social competencies results into more positive impact within implemented programs compared to other similar programs where such guideline is not followed.
Further research shows that emotional intelligence is powerful than I.Q is some instances. This led to the conclusion that predictive nature of I.Q. applied when performing task within workplace does not guarantee higher results.
However, research done by longitudinal studies attached more importance on emotional intelligence. Success of individuals, whether in school or at work place rather depends upon their ability to handle frustrations, emotions as well as close relations. This shows that emotional intelligence provides foundation for emotional competencies considered crucial in job performances.
Conclusion Innovations that happen in firms can be attributed to ideas from both the customers and the suppliers. A firm that constantly shares knowledge with partner firms, suppliers or customers is likely to innovate as compared to a firm that operates on its own. The process of knowledge transfer is therefore very instrumental in fostering innovation. Building a network is the first step to realize this process.
Firms dealing with biotechnology who do not have efficient networks find it very difficult to gain competitive advantage. Therefore, innovation requires a network for firms to be successful; otherwise it cannot be possible in just a single firm. The absorptive capacity of organizations can be greatly boosted when firms plan efficient inter-firm knowledge sharing routines.
This in turn increases the level of social communication and collaboration. The information sharing routines are very essential due to the fact that the transfer of information through technical know-how encompass a repeated process of information exchange. The exchange of information in such kind of set up is more successful when partners are directly connected and continuously engage in face to face communications.
Bibliography Beukes, Chantal
Sirius XM Radio Case Study college admission essay help: college admission essay help
History, Development and Growth David Margolese, born in Canada, is the pioneer of satellite radio enterprises (Jones and Hill, 2010). At the age of around twenty years, Margolese discontinued his studies and started a paging company.
David would later turn his concentration to cellular phone enterprise but failed to obtain funding from venture capitalists who failed to see any chance of growth in the cellular phone business (Jones and Hill, 2010). According to them, the cellular phones would remain a preserve of the rich, especially the Chief Executive Officers of large corporations and ambassadors.
Margolese fought on until 1980 when his efforts bore fruits. He brought in Ameritech who agreed to invest funds in Cantel, a company owned by Margolese. Later on, he joined hands with among others, Ted Rodgers of Rodgers Communications to start Rogers Wireless, the biggest telephony firm by 2001 in Canada. Margolese became a venture capitalist at the age of 31 when he traded his interest for $2 billion (Jones and Hill, 2010).
As a venture capitalist, Margolese met Robert Briskman, a former technician with NASA and the chief of operations at a fallen satellite-messaging firm called Geostar. Briskman and some of his former workmates at Geostar had started a company, Satellite Radio CD, but were short of funds required to commercialize the invention (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Initially, Margolese invested a paltry one million US dollars before making up his mind that his future lay in the satellite radio enterprise. He changed its name to CD Radio. As much as he liked the idea of satellite radio, he had to overcome several hardships.
It would be costly to set up a profitable radio enterprise, the Federal Communications Commission had to be persuaded to grant airwaves to satellite radio and it would be costly to purchase special receivers and the difficulty of converting potential clients to buy satellite radios yet they has the terrestrial radios. Advertising would be costly and risky too (Jones and Hill, 2010).
As earlier envisaged, it took long for the Federal Communications Commission to accede to CD Radio’s request. The delay resulted from the opposition from National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), which viewed satellite radio as a potential killer to local radio services. Overall, Federal Communications Commission agreed to auction the spectrum in 1997 and sold them to CD Radio and XM Radio (Jones and Hill, 2010). CD Radio changed its name to Sirius Radio.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both firms planned to offer over close to a hundred channels. Sirius Radio intended to dedicate 50 channels to commercial free music while the rest would offer advertising space on the rest of the channels. XM intended to offer between fifteen and twenty channels free of commercials and seven minutes per hour space for advertisements on the rest of the channels. In addition to commercials, the two stations introduced a subscription fee of between ten and twenty US dollars (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Sirius and XM Radios intended to put satellites in elliptical orbits at over 20,000 miles above the earth. The satellites would have a useful life of around fifteen years and with that in mind, both stations kept spare satellite in case of any failure by the existing ones. On 16 February 2000, the two companies signed a pact to design a unified standard for satellite that would enable customers to tune in to both stations from one radio. Such unified services kicked off in 2004 (Jones and Hill, 2010).
The two companies would later install repeaters in various cities and establish recording studios. XM established three such studios each in Washington, D.C., New York and Nashville. Sirius established its studio complex in New York City. XM got an exclusive pact with General Motors and Honda to have the satellite radios set up in new cars while Sirius collaborated with Ford and DaimlerChrysler.
General Motors committed to initially do 1,240,000 set ups and thereafter, 600,000 per year. Honda would ship 400,000 cars installed with XM Radios in 2005 (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Concerning capital, XM raised around 2.6 billion US dollars from investors as well as strategic partners in January 2004 while Sirius raised 2.5 billion US dollars by 2004. Much of the funds raised went towards setting up of infrastructure with XM spending 470 million US dollars for three satellites, 267 million US dollars for setting up repeaters systems and 130 million US dollars on control equipment (Jones and Hill, 2010).
XM Radio launched in early 2001, a year behind schedule, backed by advertising campaign worth over 100 million US dollars. XM Radio charged a fee of 9.95 US dollars per month per subscriber. Sirius launched its services in July 2002 and charged a subscription fee of 12.95 US dollars per month per subscriber with the justification that its services were free of commercial adverts.
XM Radio led Sirius Radio with a very big margin with XM Radio boasting of 347,000 to Sirius’ 30,000 by close of 2002. Sirius had installed 133 repeaters in 92 localities while XM had 800 repeaters in 60 areas at the close of 2003 (Jones and Hill, 2010).
We will write a custom Case Study on Sirius XM Radio specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More XM Radio maintained its leadership over Sirius Radio by surpassing the 500,000 subscribers mark in April 2003 and projected over one million subscribers by the end of the same year. Sirius had slightly over 100,000 subscribers by mid 2003 projecting 300,000 subscribers by end of the same year.
Concerning sales, XM was way ahead of Sirius thanks to General Motors aggressive selling (Jones and Hill, 2010). General Motors launched the satellite radio in 25 out of 57 models and intended to push the number to 44. The company had projected sales of 800,000 fitted with XM’s radio in 2004 and 1.1 million in 2005.
On its side, Honda sold 200,000 and 400,000 cars fitted with XM radios in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Toyota, Volkswagen and Audi also collaborated with XM and the radios were available as options in their cars (Jones and Hill, 2010). Overall, DaimlerChrysler committed to install 550,000 radios by mid 2007 while Ford planned to begin factory installations of Sirius Radios by end of 2007(Jones and Hill, 2010).
In 2001, Sirius suffered a blow when the CEO, David Margolese resigned abruptly. Luckily, though, Sirius converted 700 million US dollars in debt and 525 million US dollars in stock to equity. In addition, the company got a lifeline when three of its initial investors agreed to pump 200 million US dollars in cash (Jones and Hill, 2010).
In 2003 and 2004, both companies made milestones in their differentiation deals. Sirius brought in the National Football League for a seven-year deal to exclusively broadcast football matches costing Sirius 188 million US dollars in cash and 32 million US dollars more for warrants. XM signed a deal in 2004 signed an eleven-year contract worth 650 million US dollars with Major League Baseball granting exclusive rights to XM to air matches (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Internal Strengths and Weaknesses Since their take off, both stations realized continued growth in revenues. This is because they offered premium services, which found ready market by an audience that was yearning for a break from the tradition of terrestrial radio stations. The terrestrial radio stations had stuck to the same format and had a limited geographical radius after which the signal would fade.
Statistics revealed that 48 percent of the existing FM and AM stations used three formats in their program – country music, news bulletin and sports, and adult content for modern times. In addition, the number of programs was limited and this meant most artists could not get a chance for airtime (Jones and Hill, 2010).
The duopoly in the satellite radio systems created by the Federal Communication Commission comprising of Sirius Radio and XM Radio meant that most of the customers would either choose one of the other. In later process, the two merged to form Sirius XM Radio thus having the whole market. Handled well, the duopoly or monopoly could cash in and realize great sales. This is because the conventional FM and AM stations no longer appealed to the audience (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sirius XM Radio by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Deriving from the issue of the traditional television versus the cable television and premium movie channels, it was evident that subscribers were willing to pay for the premium services. Statistics showed that more than 69 percent of TV households subscribed to basic cable television and 20 percent who subscribed to satellite television (Jones and Hill, 2010).
The duopoly got able financial and strategic investors. XM landed an exclusive pact with General Motors and Honda while Sirius had an exclusive pact with FORD and DaimlerChrysler.
Such exclusive deals enhanced distribution of the two radios through the manufacturers who among other things agreed to either fit the radios or work with dealers for customers who chose the radios. XM reaped so much from the deal since General Motors fitted 1,240,000 radios initially and was to fit 600,000 radios per year from 2004 to May 2007 (Jones and Hill, 2010).
In addition to the exclusive deals, the radio companies got strategic investors and financial investors. XM had General Motors, Hughes Electronics, Clear Channel Communications, American Honda and Hearst Communications as strategic partners. Financial investors for XM included Columbia Capital, Madison Dearborn Partners, Baystar Capital and Eastbourne Capital. XM Radio raised 2.5 billion US dollars by 2004(Jones and Hill, 2010).
The companies landed exclusive deals from sports associations. In December 2003, Sirius signed a seven-year exclusive pact with the National Football League to air soccer matches, a pact that cost Sirius Radio 188 million US dollars in cash. In October 2004, Sirius signed another five-year exclusive deal with Howard Stern which cost Sirius Radio around 500 million US dollars (Jones and Hill, 2010).
In October 2004, XM Radio landed an eleven-year exclusive pact with Major League Baseball, which offered XM Radio exclusive rights to air matches through satellite. The matches included the famous World Series. During the same period, XM Radio started a channel for Opie and Anthony who had been off air due to profanities. This channel increased the revenues for XM Radio with 1.99 US dollars per month per subscriber (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Though the companies experienced delays in launching their satellite Radio, they adopted strong structures that were able to broadcast as envisaged. This gave the subscribers a reason to continue with the subscriptions because at no place does the case study point out to defective facilities (Jones and Hill, 2010). Sirius Radio solved some initial problems and business continued operating smoothly regardless of the time lost.
The number of subscribers continued to increase steadily for the two stations. XM Radio, which launched seven months ahead of Sirius Radio, had 347,000 subscribers by the end of year 2002. It hit the 500,000 mark the following year and projected one million subscribers by the end of 2003. Sirius projected a subscriber number of 300,000 by the end of the year 2003(Jones and Hill, 2010).
Internal Weaknesses In as much as the motor manufacturers provided a channel of distribution, the two companies over relied on them instead of looking for other ways from the beginning. As such, it became risky for the two radio stations when sales in cars went down.
The slowdown in sales turned out into a great crisis in 2008 as austere measures regarding credit in the United States of America led to a drastic fall in car sales. For instance, projections for 2008 forecast sale of 13.5 million cars compared to 16.1 million in 2007. Worse still, the forecasts for 2009 pointed at sales of 13.1 million cars (Jones and Hill, 2010).
The decrease in car sales meant decrease in sales of radios since the car dealers were the major distributors for satellite radios. This was a weakness for the two companies since they chose one major distributor (Jones and Hill, 2010).
The two companies concentrated so much on satellite radio and failed to engage in differentiation of their services. This is a weakness because customer preferences change with time and just as people got used to conventional FM and AM radios, they could still get bored with the satellite radios. Technology is changing rapidly as seen with the launch of internet radio and a possibility of the same on motor vehicles too (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Another weakness was in the penetration strategies. The use of auto dealers at the beginning yet people were yearning for satellite radio even in the homes was a bad move. The companies would have used more dealers to penetrate the ready market (Jones and Hill, 2010).
In comparison with the internet technology, satellite technology seems obsolete and stations entrenched in it might find it hard to continue in business in the near future. A combination of the two types of technologies would go a long way in assisting the satellite radio stations a chance of survival and growth.
It should also be important to note that the radio stations took too long to launch giving way to other innovations to launch. In fact, the satellite radios became a favorite of the middle-aged people as the young people preferred to listen to iTunes through their iPods (Jones and Hill, 2010).
After the merger, unfortunately, the share price fell from a high of 3.4 US dollars to a low of 0.40 US dollars per share as the market capitalization for the new firm went down to 1.2 billion US dollars. Such a trend could lead to a delisting from the stock exchange and this would make it extremely hard for the company to raise capital from the public (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Opportunities Although using auto manufacturers was as a risk, the company should have increased the number of manufacturers. Top among these were Nissan and Toyota companies. These two companies had initially granted XM Radio the dealer option for installation of the XM Radios while Toyota had given Sirius Radio the same option.
These two auto manufacturers are among the fastest growing in the industry and it would be prudent for the merged company to strike a pact with Toyota and Nissan for possible factory fitted radios (Jones and Hill, 2010).
The merger realized between XM radio and Sirius radio is an opportunity for the new firm to extend and expand its business since expenses for running the businesses as separate entities has gone down considerably. As such, funds previously used for recurrent expenditure like salaries could pay for advertising and other promotions (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Since the internet radio is a reality and a competitor to Sirius XM Radio, the company should venture into internet radio too and quickly utilize the Wimax technology for car radios. This will assist the company in retaining its customers as well as tapping the young generation, which does not prefer the satellite radio (Jones and Hill, 2010).
There is another opportunity of collaborating with the FM and AM stations that are so numerous in the United States of America. Sirius and XM Radios did it at some point in their history and it would be beneficial if they ventured even more. Sirius XM could offer to allocate some channels to the FM and AM stations for a fee and this would only mean more revenues of the new company, Sirius XM (Jones and Hill, 2010).
There exists another opportunity of working with companies like Apple to enable Sirius XM stream through the internet. In future, such collaboration would see Sirius XM extend its reach outside America to the whole world and reach the young adults.
Since there is no limitation for channels, Sirius XM can still come up with more premium programs like free music programs to retain the existing clients.
Threats Internet radio is a real threat to satellite radio since the era of smartphone offers subscribers more choices for radio other than the terrestrial and satellite (Jones and Hill, 2010). The digital age could also embrace internet radio more than the satellite radio. Internet radio is available in any region in the world unlike satellite, which is also limited by geographical distances. In addition, all a client needs is a computer and internet connection and proceeds to utilize the computer while listening to the radio at the same time.
Terrestrial radio is another threat for Sirius XM (Jones and Hill, 2010). Previously, it was not a real threat but with the entrance of consolidators like Clear Channel Communication, the battle is slowly shaping up. Clear Communications Channel has utilized economies of scale concept and designed a branded format for radio programs and its pop format is picking up so well. Terrestrial radios are in the process of moving towards digital broadcasting and this would really challenge Sirius XM Radio.
The emergence and development of satellite television and cable television systems is another threat to Sirius XM (Jones and Hill, 2010). These systems providers are offering digital radio programs as part of their normal offering of television services and the radio programs come at no extra cost.
Demography poses a threat. The young people are more inclined to digital products while the satellite radio appeals to the middle aged. This implies that the digital products have a longer future than the satellite radio (Jones and Hill, 2010).
SWOT Analysis Sirius XM, formerly two separate radio stations, has exhibited more strengths than weaknesses in their history. Federal Communication Commission’s decree of allowing only two companies to buy the spectrum granted them a duopoly and later a monopoly after the merger. Monopolies can thrive very well in business if there are proper structures and avoidance of complacency. The subscriber number continued increasing rapidly with the inception of the two companies and should continue rising if the management works on the weaknesses.
Sirius XM should harness the strength of the presence of strong strategic and financial investors well enough to sustain the business at all times. The company needs to seek for more deals to increase premiums for the business to grow. The company can turn its weaknesses into strengths as well. The issue of poor market penetration calls for trained sales and marketing team with proper coordination. The team should focus on opening up new markets and creating rapports with existing and potential distributors, as well as getting new customers.
They should have set targets against the company overall targets. The same team should enable the company overcome the weakness of over concentrating on auto manufacturers for distribution purposes as they acquire alternative routes for distribution. Sirius XM should upgrade the relatively obsolete technology to modern levels to compete effectively with other players in the industry.
Concerning differentiation as a weakness, the company can venture into other lines of business for stability’s sake. Such lines would involve coming up with clothing lines targeting the teams they work with like soccer leagues among others.
The weaknesses at Sirius XM are easily surmountable and this means that the company is still competitive and if proper strategies are in place, the company has a very high chance of becoming profitable. The issue of low share price needs adequate advertising coupled with the sales and marketing campaigns to convince potential investors to own the company through purchase of shares.
Concerning the threats the company is currently facing, with certainty, the company is able to turn threats into opportunities. The company should venture into internet radio too and harness the internet to promote the satellite services through advertisements on the websites.
The company should update its official website often to show any new feature on the satellite radio as well as the premiums charged to create awareness. The company should also engage Wimax technology to provide radios to cars for the generation that is not comfortable with the satellite radios.
Sirius XM should engage the cable television and satellite television providers for a possible collaboration in their programs. For instance, Sirius would sign an agreement with cable television in which the cable television would air Sirius XM’s programs at a fee paid by Sirius XM so that the programs remain free to the clients purchasing the cable television systems. Sirius XM radio would better engage the satellite television for putting up their advertisements through the satellite television.
Terrestrial radios are a threat to Sirius XM but these are potential partners in the business. The companies have a chance of getting their programs broadcast through the satellite radio as they do advertisements for Sirius XM (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Turning those threats into opportunities combined with the existing opportunities show that the company should engage in designing strategies for better business. The opportunities are numerous and include the presence of strong strategic and financial investors, more auto manufacturers like Toyota and Nissan, and differentiation of services.
Corporate-Level Strategy Corporate level strategy refers to strategies that deal with the wide and long term investigations of the type of business the firm is in or wants to be and how it wants to get where it intends (Business Dictionary.com, 2013). To accomplish its goals, a firm may decide to venture into new line of business, or boost the current performance through various ways, merge or acquire related companies or coming up with priorities on how to invest the available resources (Business Dictionary.com, 2013).
Sirius XM Radio is a satellite radio firm based in America, with over 100 radio channels. The company delivers its programs through 800 plus gadgets including car radios, home radios and office radios (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013). Currently the company’s broadcasts are available through the internet at the company’s website: Sirius.com and through the Sirius XM Internet Radio (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
Sirius XM’s mission is to acquire maximum subscribers and maximum possible revenues. Its goals include influencing people’s attitude towards subscribing for radio services. The company endeavors to convince people why it is worth to pay premium for radio programs in the best possible way.
The second goal relates to enhancing the client experience so that the client gets better services all through (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013). The company also aims at increasing the number of conversions from trial customer to subscribers. Overall, the company targets to minimize the number of subscribers who disconnect the company’s services by stopping their subscriptions (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
Sirius XM works in all ways to enhance revenue accruing per client as well as minimizing costs accruing from marketing. In other words, the company aims at reducing overall costs as it increases revenues from clients (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
The company aims at communicating with the customer from the day the customer subscribes to the rest of their subscriptions with Sirius XM to create and sustain a rapport that depicts that Sirius XM understands the customer throughout the client’s full cycle with the company (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
To accomplish this, the company will afford the appropriate offer to the appropriate client at the appropriate time while at the same time avoiding the equating of offer to change in prices. The second way is to have a deep understanding of the clients by getting a 360-degree outlook of the client’s relationship with Sirius XM Radio (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013). Lastly, the company shall collect and use improved client knowledge to prognosticate points of change and keep the customer’s history intact.
Sirius XM pursues related diversification as its corporate strategy. This resulted mainly from the competition the company faced from terrestrial radio, internet radio, cable television and satellite television (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013). As such, they have currently taken up to providing broadcasting through the internet, and applications such as Apple App and through cellular phones that have the Android software (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
This is related diversification because the company sticks to the same business of broadcasting but uses different modes other than the satellite broadcasting (Business Dictionary.com, 2013).
This strategy is advantageous in that, it enables the company to stick to its core business while at the same time keeping up with the competition of the day. Since the company is experienced in the field, adopting new methods becomes relatively easy. It is a multi-business system, which provides information through broadcasting and also manufactures and sells radios through various agents.
As per the SWOT analysis, it is possible and already happening at Sirius XM. They have diversified into internet radio, and provision of broadcasts through cellular phones. They have strong financial and strategic partners who are willing to pump more finances into the business even when the business is not doing well which shows the level of confidence in the business.
The primary modes of distribution through the auto dealers should increase by bringing in other auto companies. The company is already doing so with companies like Toyota and Nissan and it is possible to negotiate with other companies like Audi (Jones and Hill, 2010).
Broadcasting and selling of satellite radios is broad enough and tasking and as such, Sirius XM is in a better position if it sticks to its core business and diversifies in related services instead of venturing into completely new businesses. As earlier, observed, signing exclusive deals with companies and athletics groups is better still.
The merger between Sirius and XM Radios was a good move since they consolidated the resources that each had. There are some teething problems like depreciation of the share. The remedy for such a problem is thorough sales and marketing campaigns and advertisements. In future, Sirius XM should try to acquire some terrestrial radio stations that would provide more local reach and enhance the awareness of the company.
Business Strategy There are three types of business strategy, which include cost strategies, differentiated products and services strategies and focus strategies (Business Dictionary.com, 2013). Successful companies use cost strategy. It involves selling goods or providing services at relatively low prices a benefit, which accrues from taking advantage of economies of scales. Consumers benefits from savings realized from the economies of scale.
However, a firm relying on this strategy must retain some of the savings to boost its profits. Differentiated products and services strategies involves adding special features to an already existing product or service and charging customers for the extra features. Differentiation leads to increased profits that accrue from the premium charged (Business Dictionary.com, 2013).
Focus strategies is a combination of cost and differentiation strategies. As such, the firm engages in both cost strategy and differentiation strategy depending on the type of clients in a particular market. The firm must understand the market well before applying this strategy as it is risky if the market is complex. This strategy targets the urban middle class clients by providing such clients with a near perfect combination of cost savings and differentiated goods (Business Dictionary.com, 2013).
Sirius XM employs differentiation strategies as seen in its adoption of internet streaming and broadcast through applications like Apple App and android cellular phones (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013). This strategy aims at solving the various threats that the company has faced in the past. Such threats include that of demography where the satellite systems did not appeal to the young but to the middle aged only. This would have denied the company a future.
As such, Sirius XM differentiated into internet streaming. Secondly, the threat from cable television too pushed Sirius XM to differentiate to collaborate with Apple Incorporation to provide such streaming through their application and this too would assist to capture the young people (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
Sirius XM has also opened up different radio channels to cater for different tastes by different audiences. Such channels include comedies, talk shows, sports news, commercial free music channels and news bulletins.
Differentiation is what the company needed most to overcome the threats in the industry, which mostly came from the terrestrial radio stations, cable television, satellite television and internet radio. The strategy has worked well for Sirius XM because the company can now compete with any company in the same industry. They have a say in the latest internet radio technology and are available online throughout the world.
Further, the company is in a position to adopt focus strategy; it can combine both cost and differentiation strategy. The company can collaborate with cable television to offer their programs through the free programs that cable television provides to customers. Sirius XM would pay some fees to cable television so those customers who are not able to subscribe to the premium-programming can use the cable television to tune in.
In addition, the company would develop exclusive programs to already existing clients at a premium. Comedy shows and talk shows hosted by famous people like Oprah are likely to retain customers even at an extra fee as long as the company develops such programs even further. The Opie comedy show can be made more interactive to attract a greater audience but at an extra fee.
Structure and Control Systems at Sirius XM Sirius XM Radio has five top management staff including the Chief Executive Officer, Executive President and Chief Content Officer, Executive President Sales and Operations, Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer, Executive Vice President and General Counsel and the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (Sirius XM Satellite Radio, 2013).
The above corporate structure is lean and efficient. The presence of a Chief Executive Officer depicts a hands-on officer since this is an employee hired by the board of directors and is not one of the owners. As such, the Chief Executive Officer position is merit based and the board cannot easily manipulate him. It would have been different if a managing director, who would have been one of the owners chosen by the others to manage the business with limited or no skills for the job, headed the structure.
The business strategy adopted by Sirius XM of differentiation requires a person who does not have any conflict of interest and most Chief Executive Officers do not have such interests. Below the Chief Executive Officer is an Executive President who is in charge of content. Sirius XM is a broadcasting company and having such a senior person in charge of content shows that the company is ready to pursue the strategy from the top.
This person plans for broadcast programs. In addition, the officer also influences differentiation of products and services. This includes addition of new channels, improvement of existing ones as well as bringing in new programs on existing channels.
The presence of another Executive President this time for operations and sales is a show of commitment to the growth of the business. Any content designed by the content president and team needs to reach the potential and existing clients to advise them on such things as rates, the new programs, channels and so on. This team would work closely with numerous marketing relationships that already exist.
Again, the presence of an executive president is a clear indication that Sirius XM is committed to its strategy. There exists a department dealing with business development. This department is very crucial in any business and more so to Sirius XM Radio. Guided by an executive president, the department can really enhance business by coming up with new content and channels.
The department of human resources is a pointer to the fact that Sirius XM takes the issue of its employees with seriousness. However, the board should create another position to deal with systems on a technical level so that the content so improved does not lack structures for dissemination. This position would require a qualified technician who would double up as the coordinator for systems maintenance and work closely with companies that collaborate with Sirius XM to manufacture the radios.
This would ensure that such things as systems breakdown do not occur. In addition, such a department or person would also keep the company informed on the latest subcomponents that would make the system better. The same person would be in charge of all technicians in the industry with several assistants under him/her.
Sirius XM rewards its employees relatively well as well as its managers. This arises from the fact that the staff turnover rate is quite low. The management too rarely suffers from high turnover. With this in place, it therefore means that control systems at Sirius XM are intact and that the salary gap between the management and the employee is fair.
Recommendations Sirius XM is a viable and profitable business, which can even be more profitable if the company puts certain measures. Concerning the inherent weaknesses of the company, it is proper that the company should continue engaging every available marketing relationship and avoid concentrating on any one of the m. as seen earlier, over reliance on auto manufacturers for distribution of radios suffered greatly during the 2008 financial meltdown as it led to lower sales of the cars.
The sale of cars especially from General Motors, Honda, and DaimlerChrysler as well as FORD affected the number of radios from the then separate entities of Sirius Radio and XM Radio. This was a bit risky for the company. Therefore, there is need to constantly spread risk through acquisition of several marketing relationships.
Secondly, the management at Sirius XM should seek exclusive deals with sports club to increase their justification for premium charges on their broadcast programs. Many young people who like sports are likely to subscribe to the company’s programming.
Sirius XM should keep pace with the unfolding Wimax technology, which enables subscribers to receive internet streaming through their car radios. In addition, the company should carry out research on how to enhance the internet radio to reach clients outside Unites States of America
Lastly, Sirius XM Radio needs to keep on updating its satellite technology and blend it with the internet infrastructure so that the young can accept to subscribe to their programs.
References Business Dictionary.com. (2013). BusinessDictionary.com. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/corporate-strategy.html
Jones, G. and Hill, C. (2010). Theory of Strategic Management with Cases. 9th ed. Thomson South-Western: China, pp.173-185.
Sirius XM Satellite Radio. (2013). Corporate Overview. Web.
Corporate Welfare in the US Essay essay help
Origin of corporate welfare in the US The corporate welfare in the US came about during the beginnings of the first congress established in 1794 when farmers in the state of Pennsylvania ganged up and complained about the unfair taxes that they were paying to the government. This led to a situation where the government started manipulating tariffs as a way of offering subsides to manufacturers.
The government also made a move to partner with private banks in order to come up with a national bank (Federal Bank) which was to serve the government and the economy in general. This therefore means that corporate welfare in terms of government handouts began a long time ago the only change is the fact that the amount keeps getting bigger with time. It is important to note that these handouts are taken from the treasury and is funded by taxpayer money (Huff
Fossil Fuel Bubble Report essay help free
Thesis: The use of fossil fuel products elicited concerns over its benefits and impact of environment, which has resulted in the search of effective solutions.
Relationship of Geography and History Geography refers to the study of humankind and its relationship with other species and features in the earth. It involves the analysis of land, its inhabitants, and the features within the environment. The discipline is related to history in different ways with respect to the presentation of life and the environment.
As such, geography is the elemental nature of matching plants and animals, which have mutual relationship. The plants make food through photosynthesis while animals feed on plants. During the process of photosynthesis, plants produce oxygen that is required by the animals. On the other hand, animals release out carbon dioxide that is used by plants to make their foods. When plants and animals die, the cycle of natural balance is repeated since the death of fauna and flora forms the earth fossils (Robbs 1).
Geography has an impact on the history of evolution of the earth. The evolution of the human species, Homo sapiens, is believed to have taken place over a thousand years. The history of fossils shows that human species shifted from one region to the other in search of favorable conditions. The migration from one environment to the other led to alteration of features that existed in the regions as well as development of adaptations for the region.
Some of the geographical and historical events that relates to humanity are addressed in the Ice age, domestication and the agricultural development, which was in line with the human species evolution. During the agricultural era, farmers produced surpluses from their farm production. The agricultural revolution led to emergence of merchandise products, which contributed to development of trade in all levels of classes.
At first, humans cultivated plants before they could tame animals since plants offered the required food. On the other hand, the animals could contribute to the environment through production of manure necessary for increasing nutrients in the soil. For this reason, it can be concluded that the mutual relationship between plants and animals has been significant from the ancient times, and as such, it has led to formation of fossils.
Process of economic growth When the fossil fuel bubble stimulated the economic growth, the class structure was hierarchical. The priests and military leaders occupied the upper class, and for that reason, they enjoyed all privileges and controlled other people. The middle class were the merchants and artisans, who had valuable skills for growth and development of the communities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lowest class included the farmers, who had the biggest population, and in most cases, served other groups of the society. The specialization in agricultural activities led to production of farm surpluses, which allowed economic growth. Through surplus production, the agricultural revolution led to increase in population and emergence of class structures, which enhanced profitability due to specialization in the entire economy.
The level of status and prestige attributed to an individual during the economic growth was essential since conflicts between communities were common, and for that reason, the conquerors enslaved other classes (Robbs 1). The specialization in trade also enabled the successful classes to be profitable, which enhanced their control and influence. At the same time, the military leaders and priest played a significant role in resolving conflicts and protecting the artisans and farmers.
World population growth since 1650 The growth of world population is influenced by productivity intensity and accessibility of food. During 1650, the population was estimated to be 500,000 million. In the 17th century, a timeline of 1600 – 1699, which was a time of changes in philosophy and science, population drastically rose.
By 1900, the population had risen to 1.6 billion, which marked a three times increase in comparison to the previous stage. This was facilitated by the civilization and technological advancement of the world. In the year 2000, the population had still risen to 6.1 billion after a century. The population of humans was big, and as such, it had negative impacts on other species.
During the 2010 statistics, the global population was estimated to be 7.0 billion. The enlargement in the growth rate of human population is attributed to the improvement of standards of living. Consequently, labor has become cheap while business cycles continue to influence economies. However, the governments are also involved in the regulation and management of industrial activities. The population growth since 1650 to 2010 is shown on the table below.
Year Population Estimate % increase 1600 500,000 0 1900 1.6bilion 68.8 2000 6.1billion 73.8 2010 7.0 billion 12.8 During the 20th century, the population growth was very high. Population grew because of the food availability while the surplus was directed to trade. Essentially, trading centers had high population density. In the last decade, labor reduction and high standards of living has stabilized the population. However, initiatives are still needed to control the growth rate of population.
Fossil fuel bubble and its relationship to the Industrial Revolution Fossil fuel bubble is the excessive accumulation of fossils beneath the earth surface for over millions of years. Some of these fossil fuels include coal, oil and the natural gases, which are created as the earth’s rocks rest on the remains of death plants and animals. The inflating time of fossils cannot be measured but it is estimated to be over a thousand of years.
We will write a custom Report on Fossil Fuel Bubble specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fossil fuel was essential for the industrial revolution since they were a major source of energy. In the 21st Century, the population growth is very high and industrialization is crucial in the entire world. Most sources of energy are coal, oil and the natural gases. For this reason, fossil fuels increases productivity, which leads to low costs of production and improved standards of living.
Over time, fossil fuels have been utilized in industries to meet the needs of people. It is known that coal energy has been significant in the replacement of wood fuel. On the other hand, oil and natural gases have contributed immensely to the depletion of natural resources since they are highly demanded in the world.
These forms of energy form a crucial component of the economy since it influences productivity. In the 21st Century, the consumption of the fossil products has reached its peak because most industries rely on them. However, it is crucial to reduce their impacts on the environment (Robbs 1).
Relationship between the fossil fuel bubble and climate change Fossil fuel bubble was used in the industrial growth period to produce energy for production processes. The utilization of the source of energy had some impacts on earth with respect to climate change, land destruction, and depletion of natural resources.
Before the introduction of fossil fuel, wood fuel was used to produce energy through burning. The destruction of forests caused shortage in rainfall, and thus, caused climate change. For this reason, people were forced to look for alternative sources of energy to meet their ever-rising needs.
Prior to industrialization, humans utilized their physical strength and animals to undertake agriculture and transportation activities. On the other hand, wood, wind, and water were later harnessed to produce energy required for economic activities.
These energy sources were readily available to meet the needs of a relatively small population. The sources of energy could be regenerated in a short period. However, Industrialization led to the consideration of fossil fuels as an important source of energy. Initially, coal was adopted since it was an effective source of energy compared to wood in the economy.
Wood was needed for homes and transportation especially for sea vessels and trains. Although there was adequate coal for exploitation, the ground water limited the capacity to mining it. Consequently, people were forced to look for alternative sources of energy that were locally available and friendly to the environment. As a result, it led to the development of steam energy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fossil Fuel Bubble by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The utilization of fossil fuel causes emission of greenhouse gases, which leads to climate change. The long-term solution to the climate change is alternatives sources of energy such as solar energy, geothermal, hydroelectric or wind energy, which are renewable and environmental friendly.
In the western civilization, it is vital to incorporate the alternative sources of energy to minimize global warming. On the other hand, the alternative sources of energy are affordable and sensible in utilization of natural resources. As a result, the environment would be protected while the economic activities would flourish. At the same time, the negative effects of energy through radioactivity can be minimized.
The implications for the future of western civilization The western civilization represents the educative time that altered the traditional practices and infrastructure. Through use of creativity and innovation, new technologies have been developed for industrial growth. The first source of energy that was used in the industry was coal.
However, steam engines were later incorporated, which drove the turbines to produce energy. The world civilization in the 21st century set stage for invention of the nuclear energy. Despite the energy producing safe carbon dioxide, the future risk of poor storage of the energy will lead to radioactivity, which is very dangerous to the whole world.
Although nuclear energy is environmental friendly due to lack of greenhouse gases emission, it presents many problems, which indicates that it is not a sensible alternative to fossil fuels. Over time, there have been chief events that clearly portrayed nuclear energy is not a safe source of energy. Some of incidents that portrayed its disastrous consequences include the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania, the hydrogen explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear facility in Russia, and the interruption of the Japan by a tsunami.
The lack of proper storage of nuclear energy in the western civilization can lead to catastrophic radioactive emissions. Energy is an important element in all aspects of life, and for that reason, there are different types of energy in the history of the world, which have been salient since industrialization to the civilization of the world.
The fossil fuel bubble was the important source of energy in the evolution of the world activities. In this regard, they have been significant sources of energy for over thousands of years that have not been fully exploited.
Works Cited Robbs, T. “Fossil Fuel Bubble .” Sources of Energy 1 (2011): n. pag. Web.
Importance of Use the Race-Based Medicine Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Race is a Sociological and Not a Scientific Concept
Doctors Just Want to Pick the Right Drug for the Right Patient
Don not Avoid a Drug that could Save Your Life
Introduction Nations and individuals will do everything within their abilities to ensure human health is given the first priority. Wellness is an important human need that must be taken care of despite all other challenges like poor economy, availability of food and security. People cannot do constructive work when they are unhealthy; therefore, it is an indispensable aspect in life (Dreifus 2).
Consequently, various organizations have established departments to conduct research and present ways of improving human life through nutrition, treatment and measures to prevent diseases. One of the most controversial ways of managing diseases is through race-based medicine. This paper supports the argument that scientists and doctors should develop and use race-based medicine.
Definition Race-based medicine refers to all drugs and prescriptions given to individuals based on their skin color and area of ancestral origin (Isaac 3). Scientists and doctors use these distinctions to determine the prescription to give an individual. Even though, this issue has faced a lot of criticism from sociologists it still remains a viable option for treating chronic diseases. The following reasons support this argument.
Race is a Sociological and Not a Scientific Concept Even though, people define race according to the skin color of individuals this has been amplified by sociologists to mean other factors. The origin of racial discrimination dates back to the age when slavery used to thrive and people used to manage their issues with reference to racial considerations.
In addition, colonialism played a significant role in promoting racial stereotypes that have played significant roles in creating racial disparities (Isaac 64). For instance, most people born before the 21st century experienced various forms of oppression based on racial preferences.
This period was marked by an increase in the gap between whites and blacks as the former sought to outdo their counterparts in various issues. There was a serious struggle between these two races as they tried to seek identity and own various resources (Dreifus 4). This period is know to have developed the origins of racial discriminations and laid a fertile future for conflicts between these races.
Therefore, mass actions and protests gained a different face and people mistook this for racial differences. However, diseases do not recognize that an individual is white or black. They attack everybody who is exposed to them and patients must seek medical attention irrespective of their races (Isaac 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Race-based medicine ensures that scientists develop effective remedies for treatment of various diseases that affect human beings. Recent research has established that some races are prone to some diseases and this call for different approaches to manage these conditions. Therefore, this medicine should be developed to ensure these diseases are managed.
Doctors Just Want to Pick the Right Drug for the Right Patient A significant medical principle recognizes the need for patients to consult medical practitioners before taking drugs. Doctors will examine them and prescribe drugs that will help them to recover their health (Dreifus 2). This means that all physicians have knowledge and skills regarding different diseases and their cures. Patients go to hospitals because they do not have adequate skills to identify what is good for them. However, doctors have trained on various diseases and have adequate experience to treat different ailments (Isaac 72).
This means they are better placed than any other people to handle different ailments. A parent takes his child to school to ensure he gets quality education and becomes a productive person in the future and a broken car is taken to a mechanic to be repaired. The teacher and mechanic have experience, skills, knowledge and education to manage the problems presented to them. In the same way, it does not matter what the doctor prescribes to an individual provided it works to alleviate the problem.
The development and research conducted on the effects of a controversial drug called BiDil revealed that it reduced the number of deaths of the black Americans in a significant way than their counterparts (Dreifus 3). This means that instead of using this drug to cure the disease of the white Americans it should be used in their counterparts.
This will minimize unnecessary expenses in treating diseases that will not be cured. In addition, the research opened ways for scientists and doctors to continue doing research to identify what will be effective in treating heart conditions of the white Americans. This narrowed down their research to base on issues that were not considered in the previous research.
Race-based medicine is the best approach of handling chronic diseases that have different presentations in different races. Therefore, doctors must be given opportunities to use their knowledge to treat these diseases. People have never complained about the dosages prescribed to them by doctors since they trust that the drugs will cure them (Isaac 102).
This means there is no need to argue about race-based medicine developed to cure diseases. In addition, the process is aimed at helping the sick people to recover from their conditions and not to worsen them. Therefore, they should be given opportunities to explore all possibilities available in race-based medicine as a remedy for alleviating the effects of chronic ailments.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Use the Race-Based Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Don not Avoid a Drug that could Save Your Life Death is an irreversible occurrence and this makes many people to fear it. They will do anything and pay any amount of money to ensure they are alive for a very long time. People have traveled to different places to look for cures for their diseases. At the moment HIV/AIDS is a very challenging condition since it does not have a cure.
When the cure for this condition will be discovered people will cure for long hours and spend a lot of money to get it (Dreifus 4). This means that people are ready to do all it will take them to get well. Scientists conduct research that will offer answers to the problems that people face in their daily lives.
This means that they will sacrifice their lives and conduct risky experiments to develop cures for different diseases. This means that they are motivated by the need to save lives at the expense of their lives (Dreifus 3). Patients should appreciate these efforts by taking drugs developed to cure their disease. It is very unwise to refuse a drug because it was developed on a racial-based research.
Conclusion Race-based drugs are specifically developed to cure diseases of patients from different racial groups. Therefore, it should not be viewed from a sociological perspective since it is a good development towards managing chronic diseases like diabetes and blood pressure. In addition, scientists and doctors cannot develop or prescribe drugs that will affect human life but instead they will struggle to save people from diseases. Patients should never ignore drugs that will help them even if they are based on racial issues.
Works Cited Dreifus, Claudia. A Conversation with Troy Duster. A Sociologist Confronts ‘The Messy Stuff’. New York Times 18 Oct. 2005. Print.
Isaac, Lydia. Race, Ethnicity, and Health: A Public Health Reader. New Jersey: Jossey – Bass, 2012. Print.
Fictional Narrative Philosophy Essay college essay help near me
There were two twins, John and Peter, who were passionate about truth and knowledge. After high school, their dad enrolled them in a philosophy class so that they gain knowledge into what knowledge is. After many days of debates on basis for truth e.g. coherence, correspondence, evidence, common sense and pragmatism, the tutor asked the twins to discuss and write an essay either supporting or discrediting the assertion that ‘Truth is always more than the idea on our mind.’
The twins went home and, past bed time, the father could hear them arguing bitterly. Worried that their arguments could degenerate into a fist fight, the father went to them to help sought their squabbles. The father inquired what the boys were arguing about instead of sleeping.
John replied that ‘It is Peter who is very naive. He insists that the ideas on our minds are true to the extent they were formed based on an experience and that only knowledge acquired through the use of our senses should count’. Peter defended himself by saying ‘I am not naive; it is you who is just being thick. How can you insist that ideas are just abstracts and that reality is not the same as ideas thus need to doubt even ideas acquired by the help of our senses?’
‘There, there boys’, the father intervened. ‘I think I understand what your problem is. Yesterday, I was at the offices of some charity organization that helps blind children. The teacher, to the blind children, asked me to describe for the children what a cow is and what a Cat is. John how would you help a blind child to know what a cow is? Peter, how would you help a blind child to know what a Cat is?’
John started and gave the following description. A blind child has never seen a cow. However, the child must have drunk milk at some point. I would tell the child that a cow is a big animal from which milk comes.
At this point, Peter interjected and retorted, ‘the child would ask you how a big animal looks like and what milk is’. John was quick to reply. He explained that a big animal is one that is huger than a human being. He explained that he would use the child to quantify the size of what a big animal is. As for milk, John explained that he would bring a jar of milk and let the child taste what milk is.
Peter was about to ask John a question but the father asked him to give his own answer. Peter narrated that to help a blind child know what a cat is, he would go fetch a Cat and bring it to the blind child so that the child familiarizes with the cat through touch, smell and hearing. At this juncture, John quickly asked how Peter would deal with the situation if there were no Cat to give to the child.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To this, Peter replied that he would tell the child that a Cat is a tiny domestic animal that purrs, meows and loves to curl around people. John asked Peter, how he would describe the tiny animal so that the child understands how tiny a typical Cat is. To this Peter explained that he would have to use an object close to the child to demonstrate how tiny a typical Cat is.
After some back and forth in argument between John and Peter, the father cleared his throat and they all sat back attentive. The father thanked them for their good answers. Then he started explaining to them the process of idea acquisition. He explained to them that reality is a given but our experience of reality is always dependent on how we look at it and interpret what we look at.
A human being has enormous capacities and one such capacity is imagination. Based on ideas in the mind, a person can by the power of the mind to imagine create new ideas. The ideas in the mind are real and one may even be tempted to imagine that such a thing represented by the idea in the mind exists in actuality.
At this juncture, John interjected wondering whether it is possible for something to exist in the mind and not in actuality. The father continued by explaining that in our brains there are two types of ideas i.e. ideas that are purely the creation of our minds and ideas that result from encounter with reality.
However, even the ideas that are purely a creation of the mind must have had some basis in other ideas formed based on experience or interaction with others. A blind person helps demonstrate very well that reliable ideas are those formed based on interaction with reality out there. However, even if we interacted with reality out there, there is need to exercise due diligence such that we do not deceive ourselves due to failings of our organs.
The father continued by explaining that cow and cat are both ideas. A blind child hearing them for the first time only gets words or symbols that register on his mind. If such a child asks those around him about the Cat or Cow, they will give him or her long descriptions. These descriptions will help the child create a picture in his or her brain in terms of what a cow looks or how a cat actually looks.
The pictures or images of cow that the child creates are based purely on the creative powers of the brain that relates the concepts already in the mind of the child that are offered in the descriptions. For instance, if you say a cow is an animal that produces milk, then the child must already understand milk or will need further explanation to understand what milk is.
We will write a custom Essay on Fictional Narrative Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In knowing, even for those that have power of sight, it does not always follow that the ideas they have on their mind is a true representation of what is real out there. However, if one has sensory organs that are functioning well, he or she must trust that what he or she experiences is truly what is.
The blind child who holds a cat and smells, touches and listens to it is more likely to have a better idea of what a Cat is than one who just receives a description of a cat. Therefore, not all ideas on our minds are representations of things as they are out there. Some ideas are creations of the mind based on other ideas already on the mind.
The Study of Grammar: An Overview Summary Essay essay help: essay help
For many years, English has clearly dominated the world stage. Business, politics, and social media are just a few reasons why people all over the world study the English language. English is a language with incredibly diverse grammar rules depending on origin and upbringing.
English grammar rules vary depending on the country, region, society, and state. However, there have been many initiatives to teach English grammar in an instructive manner. In my case, English is a second language. There are three forms of grammar: prescriptive, descriptive, and structural styles, yet, none is superior to the others. There is no single effective method of teaching English grammar; all grammar styles have a special role to play.
In grammar books and grammar classes, lessons tend to focus on parts of speech, their definitions, and rules for combining them into phrases and clauses. Emphasis is also laid on sentence exercises demonstrating grammatical errors to avoid (Kolln and Funk 78). Many people may experience considerable difficulty learning English.
It may be complex and confusing for many learners. For me, understanding all the rules and ways to avoid grammatical errors was difficult; primarily, due to the fact that there are many exceptions to the rules. In general, there are eight parts of speech in English. One has to connect the parts in a logical manner when constructing a sentence (McArthur 126). A different arrangement may convey a different message. This is a problem affecting mainly those learning English as a second language (ESL).
However, the rules are not universal. In other regions, rules for combining parts of speech may be different. This gives rise to a situation in which one sentence may convey two separate messages. Therefore, learners should be informed of this fact at an early. This is to enable them adapt to various situations they find themselves in.
One style of grammar originated from an English philosopher in 1693. This style of grammar is seen as a traditional form of grammar. It is described as prescriptive grammar. Prescriptive grammar is based on the premise that everything is in black and white. It is followed by preordained rules on how English should be and will be spoken and taught (Chambers 1).
As a rule, when English is taught in the classroom, it is taught in the prescriptive grammar form. Prescriptive grammar focuses on the traditional language structure. This tends to ignore the fact that language should be about communication but not rules. There are many situations in which native speakers use grammatically incorrect sentences, yet they manage to communicate well. Language is dynamic and imposing strict grammar rules may not be the answer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A more modern approach to language education, however, is guided by the work of linguists, who look at the way the language is actually used (Kolln and Funk 89). Descriptive grammar is a recent form of grammar. Instead of focusing on rules and sentence structures, descriptive grammar focuses on a day-to-day usage. It is a constantly evolving form of grammar. It enables both teachers and learners to look at grammar in the context of either country or region of origin.
Descriptive grammar experts look at how language is used and then try to come up with rules and regulations inherent in the language (Pullum, “Power and linguistics” 12). This enables learners and teachers to appreciate that some forms of grammar are correct even though they are not acceptable in a traditional grammar setting. However, care must be taken when approaching grammar this way.
It may alter the language confusing both the native and English as second language speakers (Pullum, “50 years” 3). On the other hand, it is important to note that language is not static. The English language has evolved to its current form over centuries. It has undoubtedly undergone numerous modifications. Other languages have exerted their influence on it.
Structural grammar is based on the analysis of a language structure. Like the anthropologists studying the speech of Native Americans, the structuralists also recognize the importance of describing language on its own terms (Kolln and Robert 46). It describes the structure of language as a standalone phenomenon.
It attempts to give a detailed analysis of the language in terms of sentence structure, usage and origin. In my opinion, structural grammar is more difficult to describe. This type of style is depicted as more of an analysis than a grammar style. By far, structural grammar is more technical than any other style. It is a difficult method of instruction.
Grammar styles and structure are constantly changing. Therefore, there should be a way of effectively instructing language. The methods of instruction used should be instructive and meaningful to the learner. Because of the varied forms, grammar does not need to be taught in a rigid way. Yet, care should also be taken not to profoundly alter the language. The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has addressed a number of questions in a document called “Students’ Right to Their Own Language” (Kolln and Robert 42).
The issues tackled in the document have enabled grammar teachers to teach in a manner that is respectful and accepting of the different language styles. Prescriptive and descriptive forms normally exist together. In most informal works, it is common to find both forms of grammar in use. For example, newspapers and magazines are often written in the widely used form of language. Therefore, this is an indication that in future language will be used depending on the context.
We will write a custom Essay on The Study of Grammar: An Overview Summary specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More English will continue to dominate the world stage. No other language has been taught in more classrooms than English. All grammar structures, from traditional to modern, have an equal and important part to play in the dynamic and exponential growth of the English language. To be successful on the international stage, one has to have a basic understanding of the language. This is due to the fact that English is widely spoken in the world. Those who speak the language have an advantage over those who rely on interpreters.
This paper analyzed the different forms of grammar and their relevance in English language instruction. Prescriptive style focuses on the grammar rules. It judges the spoken language using laid down rules. It is a rigid method of studying the language. Descriptive style describes language on the basis of context, region, and country.
In this style, emphasis is laid on how language is used as opposed to rules. Structural grammar focuses on the analysis of language structure. This is a complex method of studying language. This form is more of a theoretical framework than a form of grammar. Both prescriptive and descriptive styles often exist together. Language is dynamic and no form of grammar is superior to the other. The English language has evolved over a long period of time.
Works Cited Chambers, Neal. 2010. Descriptive English Grammar vs Prescriptive English Grammar. PDF file. Web.
Kolln, Martha and Robert Funk. Understanding English Grammar (9th ed), Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2012. Print.
McArthur, Tom. The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. Print.
Pullum, Geoffrey. 2004. Ideology, Power and Linguistic Theory.PDF file. Web.
Pullum, Geoffrey. “50 Years of Stupid Grammar Advice.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2009. Web.
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The Possibility of Metaphysics Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
There can be a few doubts as to the fact that Immanuel Kant did contribute to the development of Western philosophical thought rather immensely. Nevertheless, in light of recent discoveries in the field of neurology and psychology, many of his analytical insights, concerned with the justification of the idea that the metaphysical mode of cognizing the surrounding reality is indeed legitimate, appear thoroughly outdated. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the earlier suggestion at length.
The line of argumentation, in defense of metaphysics, deployed by Kant throughout the course of his work Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, initially aimed at exposing the fallaciousness of David Hume’s empiricist/agnostic philosophy.
According to Hume, experience is the starting point of just about any form of a rationale-based cognition. In its turn, experience consists of impressions and ideas/judgments, which are the cognition’s actual instruments. This, of course, presupposes that there is no possibility for people to be able to come up with thoroughly objective judgments as to the essence of a particular emanation of the surrounding reality.
After all, once we assume that all analytical judgments derive out of experience, there can be very little logic to considering them analytical per se. The reason for this is apparent – individuals’ experience-related judgments are necessarily subjective because it is specifically people’s endowment with the sensory apparatus, which allows them to perceive the world, in the first place.
However, given the fact that our sensations often turn out to be grossly misleading, there is no good rationale to think that our experience-based analytical judgments/decisions can be thought of in terms of a ‘pure reason’. In its turn, this presupposes that people are incapable of attaining an insight into ‘things in themselves’, by definition.
Kant addresses Hume’s argument, in this respect by pointing out to the fact that just about all the rationale-based judgments can be categorized as analytical, on the one hand, and synthetical, on the other.
Analytic judgments are those that presuppose a universally recognizable truth-value of provided definitions to a particular phenomenon/subject matter in question: “When we have reason to consider a judgment necessarily universal… we must consider it objective also, that is, that it expresses not merely a reference of our perception to a subject but a quality of the object” (Boylan and Johnson 182).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The following is the example of an analytical judgment – a square has four corners. Analytic judgments are always based on the ‘law of association ’. That is, they either affirm or negate the referenced state of affairs with the concerned subject matter.
This is the reason why all analytical judgments are necessarily the a priori ones – in order to be able to come up with them, one does not need to have had the experience of having been affected by the referenced subject/phenomenon. In analytical statements, the meaning of the judgment’s predicate derives out of what appears to be the objective quality of the referenced subject.
Synthetic judgments, on the other hand, are those that presuppose that, while coming up with them, individuals necessarily add an additional meaning to the discursive quality of the subject matter in question. The provided definition implies that the element of experience plays a crucial role, within the context of how people formulate their synthetic judgments.
According to Kant, these are the a posteriori synthetic judgments. Nevertheless, there are also the so-called a priori synthetic judgments, which imply that in order to come up with them; people must be capable of exercising their ability to reason ‘purely’ (without any references being made to experience).
In its turn, this indirectly proves the de facto existence of a ‘pure reason’. A priori synthetic judgments commonly take place within the context of people indulging in mathematical reasoning. For example, even though that the formula 4 3=7 may appear, as such, that is best tackled within the conceptual framework of an analytical inquiry (based upon the ‘law of association’), this is far from being the case.
After all, the formula’s predicate does not derive out of what both added numbers are, as ‘things in themselves’, but rather out of the very process of adding. That is, in order for an individual to be able to solve this formula, he or she will need to abstragise from the qualitative implications of both numbers, while constructing an essentially new discursive subject matter – 12.
What it means is that, contrary to what Hume was suggesting, there is indeed a good rationale in believing that the very reason why people are able to operate with utterly abstract categories, is that they are endowed with the sense of a ‘pure reason’. This sense is not being affected by the functioning of their sensory apparatus and presupposes the possibility for people to be able to perceive, before experiencing.
We will write a custom Essay on The Possibility of Metaphysics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the discursive significance of the Kantian concept of an intuition-fueled understanding: “The concept of cause… is a pure concept of the Understanding, which is totally disparate from all possible perception and only serves to determine the representation subsumed under it, relatively to judgments in general, and so to make a universally valid judgment possible” (183).
Apparently, Kant considered his line of reasoning, in regards to the nature of a priori synthetic judgments, as such that does in fact validates the metaphysical form of cognition: “The judgments, which the Understanding forms alone from sensuous intuitions, are far from being judgments of experience. For (these judgments)… must express what experience in general, and not what the mere perception contains” (184).
According to the philosopher, this suggests that, contrary to the provisions of philosophical agnosticism, it is indeed possible for the manner, in which people go about assessing the surrounding reality, to contain the elements of ‘trandescent reasoning’, without the legitimacy of the obtained analytical results being undermined, as a result. Kant’s point of view, in this respect, establishes the supremacy of ‘consciousness’ over ‘matter, while indirectly confirming the soundness of the Descartian ‘body-mind’ dualism.
Nevertheless, as it was mentioned in the Introduction, despite the fact that the conceptual premise, upon which Kantian metaphysical philosophy is based, does appear logically sound, it is being inconsistent with what today’s psychologists/neurologists know about the actual mechanics of consciousness.
For example, Kant’s conceptualization of a ‘pure reason’, outlined earlier, presupposes the possibility for people’s sense of a priori intuition (or Understanding) to be discussed in terms of a ‘mental energy’, the qualitative subtleties of which remain unrelated to what happened to be the physiologically predetermined aspects of their sense of self-identity and their memories of the past. During the course of the 18th century, this idea was considered fully legitimate.
Nowadays, however, this can no longer be the case. This is because, as of today, biologists possess a plenty of proofs, as to the fact that, despite being endowed with an ability to operate with highly abstract categories, the representatives of Homo Sapiens species are nothing but ‘survival machines’ for genes that define both: people’s physical appearance and their cognitive inclinations.
As Dawkins pointed out: “We are survival machines – robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes” (2). In its turn, this suggests that we cannot discuss ‘intuition’ (Understanding) outside of how it increases the chances of people’s physical survival – at least until the time when they pass their genes to the representatives of next generations.
Therefore, ‘intuition’ (Understanding) is nothing but people’s ability to choose in favor of a circumstantially appropriate behavioral pattern while facing a particular challenge. It is needless to mention, of course, that formally speaking, one’s ‘intuition’ has very little to do with what were his or her personal experiences of the past. However, the experiential essence of ‘intuition’ becomes quite apparent, once we assess the discussed subject matter from an evolutionary perspective.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Possibility of Metaphysics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to understand that genes do not ‘think’ – they simply contain information, concerned with the multitude ‘behavioral matrixes’, the triggering of which is done automatically. What it means is that, when intuitively deciding in favor of a particular course of action, while facing a cognitive challenge, people do not take an advantage of their de facto ability to indulge in ‘pure reasoning’.
Rather, their unconscious psyche prompts them to act in the most circumstantially justified manner. In its turn, the subtleties of how our unconscious psyche causes us to act, reflect what used be the experiences of our predecessors having dealt with similar circumstances – all the necessary information, in this respect, is contained in genes. What it means is that, contrary to what Kant does, there can be very little reason to think of ‘intuition’ (Understanding), as being of clearly non-experiential essence.
Even though that it indeed appears to people that, while thinking in abstract terms, they do attain a new ‘synthetic’ knowledge, this is nothing but a perceptional illusion. ‘Intuition’ (Understanding) is consciously repressed memories of the past. In other words, the very laws of nature deem cognition secondary to experience, which in full accordance with what Hume used to suggest, presupposes the conceptual fallaciousness of a metaphysical approach to cognition.
The fact that there is no ‘pure reason’, as Kant defines it, can also be illustrated in regards to the non-existence (or, rather to the relativistic existence) of what this philosopher used to refer to as ‘noumenons’ (universally applicable and yet non-experiential categories of logic/cognition).
The validity of this statement can be shown, in relation to the ethnographic studies of Lucien Levy-Bruhl. While traveling through the remote/rural areas of South-East Asia, Africa and Australia, he realized that the actual reason why he often used to experience communication problems with natives, was not due to the lack of his proficiency in these people’s language, but rather due to the fact that, as compared to himself, the subjects of his ethnographic research were differently ‘wired’, in the psycho-cognitive sense of this word.
For example, while being asked to define a qualitative difference between the notions of fruit, meat and fish, on the one hand, and the notions of spear, fishing rod and rifle, on the other, these people could not quite do it. This is because, unlike what it happened to be the case with Westerners, endowed with the ‘Faustian’ (analytical) mentality, the natives could not help but thinking ‘holistically’.
This is the reason why it would never occur to them to assess the semiotic meaning of the referred notions in terms of an abstract logic (by categorizing them as ‘raw materials’ and ‘instruments’). Instead, these people cognized the earlier mentioned notions within the context of the notions’ perceived ‘usefulness’ (De Laguna 556). Because the mentioned notions are equally associated with the idea of usefulness, there could no difference between them.
In addition, Levy-Bruhl realized that the questioned natives were quite incapable of cognizing the concepts of space and time in the similar manner with Westerners. For example, instead of saying ‘after tomorrow’ they would prefer saying would say ‘in two days from now’, which in turn suggested the concerned people’s lack of comfortableness with the concept of time, as such that could be ‘stretched’ or ‘condensed’.
This, of course, points out the fact that, contrary to Kant, a priori ‘noumenons’ cannot be discussed as ‘things in themselves’, regardless of what happened to be the essence of people’s associative experiences. It is specifically people’s exposure to external circumstances, which prompts them to indulge in one or another mode of an ‘imperative’ thinking, and not the sheer strength of the applied mental effort, on their part, to think outside ‘empiricism’.
It is rather ironic that, while striving to ‘revive’ metaphysics, Kant contributed the most towards the eventual decline of this particular philosophical method. One of the reasons for this is that, despite the sheer sophistication of Kantian metaphysics, there can be very little practical value to it.
Apparently, while elaborating on the subject of analytical and synthetic judgments, Kant remained unaware of the fact that philosophy must serve the purpose of helping people to be in the full control of their lives – not prompting them to begin hating the very concept of philosophy with passion.
This is because, as it happened to be the case with just about any science, philosophy is best conceptualized in terms of an ‘informational model’, which more or less adequately describes the surrounding reality. What Kant did, however, was ‘disassembling’ this reality down to its elemental components for the sake of being able to ‘assemble’ it back. However, after he did it, the ‘reassembled’ reality ceased emanating liveliness.
I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that Kant’s promotion of metaphysics (as a fully valid philosophical method) can no longer be considered conceptually valid, entirely correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.
This is because, throughout the course of the centuries, following Kant’s death, the development of Western empirical sciences attained an exponential momentum, which in turn resulted in people being freed of idealistic illusions, in regards to the actual purpose of their existence. As of today, only perceptionally arrogant/euro-centrically minded/religious individuals continue to believe in the existence of non-experiential knowledge, accessible only to self-reflecting and often behaviorally inadequate philosophers, such as Kant used to be.
This idea, however, contradicts what even mildly intelligent people know about the actual mechanics of the universe’s functioning. Therefore, even though Kant’s philosophy will continue being referred to as such, that represents an undisputed historical value; there can be very little rationale in trying to find any wisdom of a practical value in it.
Works Cited Boylan, Michael and Charles Johnson. Philosophy: An Innovative Introduction: Fictive Narrative, Primary Texts, and Responsive Writing. Boulder: Westview Press, 2010. Print.
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.
De Laguna, Frederica. “Levy-Bruhl’s Contributions to the Study of Primitive Mentality.” The Philosophical Review 49.5 (1940): 552-566. Print.
The Use of Fine Art and Architecture in Advertising Essay college essay help online
The use of fine art and architecture in advertising and other media has a long history. Fine art has lent its aura of respectability and elite sophistication to all sorts of promotional material, movies, and television for generations.
Whether by endowing a product with greater status or credibility (Boston College), enhancing brand recognition, or simply displaying a time tested, and pleasing combination of colors, line, form, space and texture, fine art is useful. Like architectural landmarks, famous works of art also help the viewer to determine where the product, actor, or action, is located in time and space.
They may also provide clues to the character’s social background. However, the advertising industry and the fine arts world have for decades been engaged in a continuing discussion of what constitutes fine art. This has accompanied an ongoing examination of how to distinguish fine arts from images or objects created exclusively for promotional purposes. Recent research has also investigated and quantified what constitute the most appropriate and effective uses of fine art in advertising.
Fine art has long been the standard against which most visual media have been judged. It is usually defined as including objects created for their beauty (Merriam Webster). Student observers might say that what distinguishes fine art from, for example, craft, or other useful created items is that it can be appreciated on its own. In other words, it is compelling even when viewed apart from its original purpose, application, or setting.
To understand how advertisers use fine art, it is helpful to know how advertising developed in the first place. It is also helpful to know what the place of fine art occupied from the beginning of advertising.
Fine art has always included examples that conveyed a narrative. Much of religious art actually depicted Bible stories for non-literate viewers. Thus, even some of civilization’s greatest treasures fulfilled an illustrative function. For millennia, artists created whatever they were commissioned to create, exactly as advertisers do today (Bogart 8).
The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of the phenomenon of the independent artist. This artist made art for art’s sake; expressing exclusively personal feelings. The era of painting for patrons or for God, or both, was largely past (Bogart 18)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Central to the development of advertising was fairly recent development of art explicitly created as illustration. Modern illustration should be distinguished from, for example, the illuminations of the medieval period. It was enabled by increased use of mechanized printing of books, and periodicals for mass distribution. The reproduction en masse of items such as wrappers, boxes, or posters enriched with fine art images further transformed fine art into ephemera, for the first time.
Mass production of printed materials also, as McClintock points out, altered public access to fine art dramatically. For example, advertising posters featuring artwork (in addition to text) permitted images that in an earlier era might have remained the intimate visual property of their commissioning patron, or at most, a modest population of worshippers or elite viewers of a piece of art, to become nearly everyone’s property (McClintock 511).
However, as Bogart notes, the relation between fine art, illustration, and advertising art, has been fluid (Bogart 17). The relationship has evolved from near unity, to divergence.
The mid-1800s witnessed the development of advertising as a specialized occupation. It included fine arts from the start. One of the first readily recognizable advertising efforts was the Pears Soap campaign, initiated by the entrepreneur Thomas J. Barrat (McClintock). He bought the rights to a painting, titled Bubbles, by a well-known artist, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood adherent John Everett Millais (Millais).
The painting depicted a lovely young boy gazing up at a floating bubble (a symbol of transience as well as an object of geometric perfection and iridescent beauty, difficult to capture in two dimensions). Barrat modified it by the insertion of a cake of Pears soap (McClintock 510). This thereby created, arguably, the first instance of product placement.
McClintock argues that Barrat’s modification and subsequent widespread distribution of the image created what she terms a “visible aesthetic space” around a commodity (i.e., soap). She notes that this achievement was unprecedented, and far-reaching in effect (McClintock 511). She further argues that Barrat and subsequent imitators were tapping into the non-verbal, non-rational, perhaps not ordinarily permitted feelings and ideas that art can so powerfully evoke; “its unique powers of communication” (Boston College).
The aim, however, was to make the viewer buy, buy, buy (McClintock 511). This distinguished the Pears campaign from creative efforts to help the viewer achieve salvation or to submit to a ruler, as many previous works of art were doubtless meant to accomplish.
We will write a custom Essay on The Use of Fine Art and Architecture in Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 1: Bubbles by Millais, John Everett. Note that, as far back as art can be identified, there is usually some attempt to sell an idea. The ancient world’s giant stone deities and sovereigns are clearly public relations projects. Thus, distinguishing between creative output that is fine art versus creative output that is merely advertising is neither simple, nor straightforward, and possibly not always useful.
For artists born in the late 1800s such as Norman Rockwell, art school was the training needed for both fine art and illustration. However, by the early years of the 20th century, advertising had become more of an industry of its own, as opposed to being just one activity among many of an entrepreneur or business.
Although it was an outgrowth of both the arts of printing and typography as well as illustration, advertising still looked a great deal like fine art. However, an idealist such as Rockwell might take an oath to eschew doing advertising work (later broken, clearly) in the same way that other young aspiring people might have taken the temperance pledge (Bogart 72). His work, by ironic happenstance, was, of course, advertising gold, and helped to sell millions of copies of The Saturday Evening Post.
Today’s advertisers have access to centuries of fine art, much of it digitally imaged, and thus, digitally modifiable in a huge range of ways. However, in many ways their uses of fine arts do not differ dramatically from Millais’ exploitation. Many similar elements can be identified from current and recent advertising campaigns.
Pears Soap, for example, used a painting that was gracefully composed. Thus, it would please even an unfavorably disposed viewer. Current research suggests that, if used with care, fine art retains its power as art. If used carelessly, however, customers judge it as an illustration (Boston College).
As an example of a current image that exploits formal principles of contrast, proportion, variety, harmony, and movement, consider the Boysen Paint advertisement (Salomon).
Figure 2: Print Advertisement Design by Lukas Solomon. This, for many observers, might evoke the nearly abstract floral studies of the American painter Georgia O’Keeffe (O’Keeffe). The O’Keeffe Jack in the Pulpit series apparently uses a similarly limited number of colors, provides movement vertically, and leads the eye to finish the flower although it is only suggested.
This is parallel to what the Boysen Paint image accomplishes, using only splashed paint, captured in motion by photograph. Even if one does not even recognize the brand name or associate it with paints, this image is, as a result, gorgeously pleasing to the eye.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Use of Fine Art and Architecture in Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 3: Jack in the Pulpit series by Georgia O’Keeffe. Figure 4: The Pears Soap by Jeralyn Merritt. The Pears Soap campaign also selected a work by a respected and well-known artist. A parallel example would be the frequent use in media of The Last Supper (da Vinci). A recent obvious reference in advertising to the distinctive composition of this fresco was banned in Milan (Merritt). The authorities found it offensive.
This was because, among other things, it substituted women for men, and included a semi-naked figure where St. John would be. It was perhaps also inflammatory because it equated the fashionable clothing line of Marithé and François Gribaud with the serious topic of the last days of Christ.
Like the 19th century entrepreneur, Marithé and François Gribaud have selected an artist to borrow from who is exceedingly well-known and well-respected as an artist and an innovator, still today.
Like Millais, and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in England, Leonardo da Vinci was trying ou t new directions in art, as well as proposing inventions in other fields as well, such as manned air flight. Thus, until the ad was banned (Merritt) the fashion house could borrow from da Vinci the exciting aura of being multi-talented, cutting-edge, and individual.
Many people, even those who have not taken an art appreciation course, probably have heard of his bold choices for everything from his painting media (ultimately disastrous in the case of this fresco) to his shockingly human depiction of these iconic characters from the Biblical narrative. The completely uninformed may not know these facts, but they are perhaps not the target audience for the high-end sportswear. They could have chosen a contemporary media darling as well, with similar results (Gibbons 133)
Movies also use fine art and architecture to great advantage. While those who have not visited Rome may not know the names of all the background monuments and buildings and fountains in the 1953 film, Roman Holiday (Hepburn and Peck), they are highly recognizable. Such valuable pieces of set dressing are available conveniently without construction and without a sound stage (Hoffman 76) .
The art and architecture provides immediately identifiable atmosphere, and places the tale in Rome or its equivalent instantly. What could otherwise be a lightweight tale of a confused and spoiled girl becomes mysterious and elegant by its background associated with the grandeur of tourist, classical, Rome.
Figure 5: Stafford. Thus, in all popular media for centuries now, fine art has been a source of inspiration, fodder for parody and satire, and helpful visual cues for the viewer. Ads have used the expert eye of the artist to help them set up appealing compositions, whether seriously or in humorous homage.
They have used the high status and respectability or innovativeness of the artist as a source of borrowed characteristics and prestige. Moviemakers have used art and architecture to give credibility to their stories and instant depth and richness of detail to their scenes. All of these uses can be traced to the earliest applications of fine art to the selling of a commodity. Further, it could be suggested, much of art has been selling something, whether religious or political, since the first artist applied themselves to the earliest media.
Works Cited Bogart, Michele H. Artists, Advertising, and the Borders of Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Web.
Boston College. “Fine Art in Advertising Can Backfire.” 2011. Science Daily. Web.
da Vinci, Leonardo. The Last Supper. Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan. Fresco.
Gibbons, Joan. Art and Advertising. London: I.B.Tauris, 2005. Web.
Hoffman, Barry Howard. The Fine Art of Advertising. New York: Stewart, Tabori
“Death” Thomas Nagel Essay best essay help: best essay help
In his essay on “Death”, Thomas Nagel analyzes the issue of death and how people think of it. He examines if people are afraid of it and why, as well as what specifically it is and what sort of condition it brings about.
First of all, Nagel defines what death is and what characteristics he will be attributing to this state. He decides to look at death as becoming a state of non-existence without further immortal continuation of life, individual or soul. This point is extremely valid because many people believe that death brings about a darkness that is not followed by anything. Usually, these are people who do not believe in God and do not follow any religion, as all religions suppose continuation of life in another form.
Thomas Nagel’s point is rather valid, as it looks at one possible condition. No one has been able to prove or show that there is some form of existence after death, so it would be logical and reasonable to examine all possible outcomes. Nagel goes on to say that death is not welcomed by most people, as it deprives an individual of all the enjoyable things in life but also of life itself. Even if all the bad things are considered, people still prefer to be alive than not.
Thomas Nagel mentions that even if all the good and bad qualities of life are taken away and life is viewed as being neutral, people would still choose life. This is very true because people prefer life to anything else. No one is aware of what will follow and this lack of knowledge and uncontrollable imagination creates pictures that are both positive and negative.
No matter how much a person tries to imagine Heaven or another beautiful world, the conscious mind still reminds about the chance for suffering or total darkness. Everyone has respect and feelings towards their personality and when they think that it will disappear they feel sad and sorry for themselves.
A counterargument made by Nagel to this, is that before people are born there is also non-existence and total darkness but people are not afraid of that. This happens because a person is not able to have imagination and reasoning prior to being born and the darkness that was before they came to life they do not remember.
In a way, it can be seen as a positive darkness because it leads to life and existence, whereas death will lead to absence of life and non-existence. Nagel compares this to create a perspective in people, “If death is a disadvantage, it is not easy to say when a man suffers it (Nagel, 3), hoping they realize that absence of feelings, imagination and ability to realize this absence is not evil or fearful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another major point Nagel discusses is the human perception and understanding of what is good or bad in life. He gives an example of a person who has suffered brain damage and returned to a state of a 3 month old infant. The fact that the brain is unable to realize the loss of intellect means that the individual does not really suffer. Everyone else, his friends and relatives, suffer due to the fact that the person who existed before is no longer in existence.
This makes pleasures and suffering very relational to personal circumstances and time. Nagel then leads into the argument about the quality of a feeling that a person will have if they compare the “negative” aspects of being deprived of life by death, to the time before birth and what was the future person deprived off. “I confess to being troubled by the above argument, on the ground that it is too sophisticated to explain the simple difference between our attitudes to prenatal and posthumous nonexistence” (Nagel, 8).
The human inability to imagine what it would be like to lack consciousness and a state where an individual is deprived of all “benefits” of life is what limits the possibility of answering to this paradox. The life a person experiences is defined and framed by what they feel and see. Someone who was born blind would not truly feel deprivation of sight, if all the conditions for their comfortable existence were created.
They would not be able to compare what sort of stimuli and visual experiences they have lost, so the fact that other people have the ability to see, would not truly life determining. Thomas Nagel ends with a comparison between a person dying at a young and of old age. The deprivation of future possible experiences and life is what is most devastating. The fact that a person might go on living, thus receiving more positive and negative sensations, is a reality everyone strives towards.
But then, the difference in perspective reencounters with a personal experience, in relation to an individual’s understanding of time, good and evil and existence. Nagel ends saying that: “if there is no limit to the amount of life that it would be good to have, then it may be that a bad end is in store for us all” (Nagel, 10). In a way, this contradicts his above reasoning that if there is no one to experience the loss of good life, then the absence of suffering and realization is not bad at all.
Fine art in advertising Essay custom essay help
Fine art is used in all sorts of ways that are neither for public nor private viewing. Advertisers cheerfully plunder visual images from the whole history of art explicitly, and implicitly, and to achieve a variety of effects. Movie makers and television producers also freely utilize visual art and architecture, and the settings in which these items are displayed.
They use them as props, elements in the plot, and handy backdrops for the action. Their reasons are as varied as the movies themselves, but art and architecture are almost always positive elements when used in other media. This generally positive aura that clings to fine art and famous architectural monuments is true for advertising as well.
Advertisers have long been borrowing from fine arts. Works of fine arts and architecture offer many strong advantages. They are often well known. They carry with them the atmosphere of history, if they are old. If they are modern, they carry with them the idea of newness, innovation, and being in the know (Gibbons). They are, if they are well, known, probably composed and executed in a way that appeals to many viewers. They are also often free of copyright restrictions that would make their use more expensive.
Their familiarity a and the fact that many works of fine arts are well known mean that the advertiser can convey a message in the brief interval that is permitted.
Ads of any kind must compete with other stimuli in the environment for the viewer’s attention. There are other ads, street signs, articles in a magazine, programs on television, web content, and other such media also trying to get the consumer’s attention at any given moment.
There is additionally the press of life. Consumers are concerned with being safe, with getting their meals, with getting to work, and with taking care of kids and pets. Everyone is spending a significant portion of their time and mental energies on getting (and keeping) themselves clean, clothed, and prepared for work and school.
In the midst of all these activities, advertisers are simultaneously trying to alert consumers that they could accomplish all of the above better, faster, more efficiently, cheaper, more ecologically, and with better style, if they would just buy the advertiser’s product! This is a massive challenge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The consumer’s time and attention may be measurable in seconds or fractions of seconds. Displaying an instantly recognizable image or portion of an image, or even a reference to such a well-known image saves the advertiser time. Part of their work – that of explaining themselves ‘is already done, accomplished, achieved when a very familiar work of art is shown or referenced. The advertiser’s job of getting across whatever impression or message they intend is given a major shortcut to the crucial synapses in the consumer’s brain.
An example of such a short-cutting image is the Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci (Da Vinci). Although painted in the 1500s, this work is still recognizable today. For many Western-educated people, the image of the serenely smiling Florentine lady instantly evokes some sort of response, if only to note that is a famous painting. As such, it offers great scope for parody, as by the Dadaist artist Marcel Duchamp in the first years of the 20th century (Duchamp).
While this defacement or enhancement of the original image was not advertising anything except the iconoclastic orientation of the Dadaists, this spawned subsequent re-purposed uses of La Giaconda. Any advertising presentation of the Mona Lisa evokes both the original work, and Duchamp’s satire, for most visually literate observers. Her fame is one reason that she is such a popular element for advertisers, according to Hoffman (Hoffman 60).
As one among many possible examples, Thomas Hoving, the former director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, chose to use the Mona Lisa the front cover of his guide to art for amateurs (Hoving). This suggests that even the Mona Lisa would benefit from reading this book. Anyone considering purchase will know this image, and associate it with art.
The observer will also possibly associate it with things that are venerable. This venerability suggests that the item has the characteristics of being potentially wise or learned. In the example noted above, the art work is intended to convey the message that this book could make the reader learned as well.
Cover of Art for Dummies, by Thomas Hoving (Hoving)
Additionally, the composition has for 400 years been associated with serenity and restfulness. Even for those viewers who are not familiar with the painting, the girl who posed for the painting is still attractive enough to be a cover model (although better nourished than a Kate Moss). The composition is simple and unobtrusive so it works, again, even if the viewer has no prior experience with da Vinci. Finally, the image is un-copyrighted, and its use is free.
We will write a custom Essay on Fine art in advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For movie and television producers, art serves a variety of purposes as well. Sticking with the Mona Lisa, the movie The Da Vinci Code takes Leonardo da Vinci’ s paintings as the basis for much of the plot (Hanks).
The mystery surrounding this particular painting (who is she and why is she smiling?), the artist himself, his genius, and the obscure way he recorded his inventions all help to support the plot. Linking the search for unknown, hidden secrets, which is the main action of the movie, to the works of a known genius, helps to add credibility to plot elements which might otherwise seem silly.
Other movies use the nicely laid out rooms of museums as handy sets. They are designed to be looked at, so they are architecturally ready to serve as backgrounds for human actors. An example is How to Steal a Million. This includes an attempt to slip into the Claybell Laffette Museum after hours (Hepburn, O’Toole and Wallach). It also includes an artist’s studio and all the works of art being forged there. These are all scenic settings for a lovely actress.
The use of art or notable architecture also situates a character in place and time, and very importantly, class. This is the case in The Thomas Crown Affair (Brosnan). A theft of money or a car by a bored, spoiled handsome fellow might seem heinous. However, when the heist involves a painting, as it does in this film, theft just seems a bit classier.
Furthermore, the movie was shot at least in part against the gorgeous backdrop of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This gives the viewer a chance to vicariously experience the delights of being in New York, near such great cultural institutions. It also adds credibility to the story. Making the theft from some boxy featureless place would be less exciting and perhaps not worth the risk, the viewer is led to believe.
The movie also includes other recognizable architectural monuments in New York City. These are conveniently built and in place already, relieving the producer of creating elaborate sets from scratch. These locations send messages to the viewer that these characters move and operate in an elite world where everyone knows and appreciates art.
As an example of how art in the movie setting might be used to opposite effect, imagine a movie set in a store or home displaying mass-produced paintings on velvet of kittens or Elvis. This would convey a very different impression of the intellectual and cultural sophistication of the residents, occupants, or customers of such a shop or home.
Television shows, with their smaller budgets, use famous architecture and art work as well to save money and convey a powerful impression. The television show It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia uses the distinctive architecture of South Philadelphia row-homes (Howerton, McElhenney and Day). These buildings, shown in establishing shots throughout the show, add plausibility to the notion that these grotesquely amoral misfit characters are representative of the residents of the city.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fine art in advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The show uses real Philadelphia buildings from the mid-1800s, with the characteristic three steps up, the basement windows, and narrow width with no more than two or three tall windows on the first floor front. The interiors are less plausible because they are so expansive. They also use the iconic public architecture of the city from time to time.
In this context, the directors can safely stage plots that are generally extreme, shocking, and quite insulting to the actual residents of the city. The visual referencing of the homes of the middle class provides a believable setting for the funny, pitiable, and largely unbelievable actions of the protagonists.
Works of art, like architecture, also lend themselves to television productions. The use of artwork to provide a sense of place and a lived-in atmosphere is very important. Without artwork, the bare walls look like a set and not like a home or even an office of an upscale organization.
This has become such a major part of creating settings that a new procedure for licensing art for use has been created. This is meant to make the process of getting art for sets a faster process (Fine Art America). (Of course, using works of art that have no copyright issues is also helpful.)
The great works of art and architecture, and even colloquial architecture, have served advertisers and the producers of media for many years. They have exploited the familiarity of the public with the images of famous works to access the customer or viewer’s memories and impressions directly.
The use of fine art can save time for the advertiser, and associate their product with the positive aspects of the piece of art. In film, art can serve as a subject that adds status to a plot. Art used in a movie can help the viewer to figure out swiftly what the education and intellectual level of the character is. It also offers ready-made settings.
This is true as well for television. Architecture, especially when it is distinctive and characteristic of a time, place, or demographic group, provides a shorthand for establishing a setting quickly in the compressed time format of TV. This is actually generating an increasing market for art work. In all these uses, art and architecture add a positive and powerful set of signals for the viewer/consumer.
Works Cited Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. Pars: The Louvre. Oil.
Duchamp, Marcel. Mona Lisa with Mustache. 1919 version. Paris: Private collection, Paris, on loan to the Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. Printed Postcard and Pencil.
Fine Art America. “Fine Art America Sample Licensing Agreement.” 2013. Fine Art America. Web.
Gibbons, Joan. Art and Advertising. London: I.B.Tauris, 2005. Web.
Hoffman, Barry Howard. The Fine Art of Advertising. New York: Stewart, Tabori
Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) Essay essay help online free
Introduction Understanding of the ecology of animals is very interesting. According to Humphreys (1997, p. 121), many of wildlife habitat encroachment has been reported worldwide. This has mainly happened due to the general increase in population. Increased population leads to high demand for food and other resources that led many to convert the animal habitats into poaching grounds and agricultural areas to feed the hungry population.
Panther Leo or Lion species is predominantly found in Africa where they have faced tremendous interferences from poachers who have different interests (Firouz 2005, p. 91). Some hunt the animal for skin while others do it for revenge reasons when they attack humans. Lion belongs to the genus Panther with other animals like the Tiger, Jaguar and leopard also. Lions are referred as a ‘king of beasts’ in the wilderness. This research focuses on the analyzing the life of a lion.
Geographic Distribution of the Species Triefeldt (2008, p. 56) noted that lions are largely found in Africa and in some parts of Asia. The species is reported to be endangered in these areas. Some of the remnants are known to reside in Indian National park, the Gil forest.
From the historic perspective, some of the lion species are believed to have moved away from south west of Asia and North Africa. Until the recent past, lion was the most widespread mammal seconding humans. In India, the habitat of lions is in both the forests of dry savanna and the dry forests of deciduous scrub. In Africa, the lion species is found in grasslands of savanna where there are acacia trees. In the 480BC, lions were believed to be common in Greece.
They attacked a Persian king during his reign and were reported to be rare by 300BC. Most of the lions were eradicated on the arrival of firearms during the 18th century. Later in the 19th and 20th century, lions started becoming extinct in Southwest of Asia and North Africa. In most parts like India, lions have become extinct. Generally, lions are known to live mostly in the shrubby and forested areas. The picture below shows a lion in its habitat
Pattern of distribution of the species within its geographic range According to Lions (1996, p. 58), different lion species are found in different environments depending on the geographical region. However, Africa is commonly known to harbor many lion species, their distribution pattern vary from one location to another within the continent.
In some parts of Africa, for example the Eastern part has a considerably high number of lion species compared to the number of the same species in other parts of Africa. In the Asian region, the most commonly found species is the P.L persica. In Africa, researches show that there are five different sub-species found within different geographical regions. These lion species include, the Panther a Leo senegalensis that is found in the parts of Western Africa and P.I.azandica found in the Northern East of Congo.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Followed by the P.I.bleyenberghi, a species that is found in Angola and southern parts of Congo, and the Panther a Leo krugeri also known as P.I. verneyi that include the lion species from Kalahari and P.I krugeri, which is found in southern Africa. In the Eastern Africa, there are the P.I nubica, the lion species that are categorized into Masai, Somali, Serengeti, and Congo lions.
Individual distribution Lions are well organized. Based on their sexes, there is division of roles or duties. The animals due to their form of organization rarely live in isolation. Female lions giving birth at the same time have a shared responsibility of bringing up the cubs (Riley 2008, p. 79). A part from hunting for these cubs, lioness would breastfeed them irrespective of the specific cub mothers.
The male lions’ big responsibility is to protect the female lions and the young ones. Lions therefore live in groups or prides. A pride on average can comprise 13 lions, both males and females. They also do the hunting in a group and in very rare occasion, a lion will go hunting individually.
Major habitats that the species occupies Hunter (2005, p. 46) says that the lion’s habitation varies. Their habitats include plains, forests, and grasslands. Quite a good population of lion species is known to reside even in the semi-arid and at high altitude areas except within the tropical rainforests and extremely desert areas. In fact, a lion species is known to live in Ethiopian Bale mountains that are 4,240 m. African lions are commonly found in savanna habitations or in plains.
These areas are believed to have a high prey base. Lions in Asia found in Gir forest India. The lion prides which constitute both sexes range from two to 40. Within the pride, male lions are usually more than their female counterparts are. In most instances, lions are found in groups, an adaptation that helps in increasing their efficiency when hunting and in guarding their territorial boundaries against other animals.
Important habitat components According to Humphreys (1997, p. 127), lions inhibit a wide range of habitats. Mostly they prefer inhibiting in areas that are forestry and shrubby. As seen earlier, these animals like hunting in the darkness in order to hide from the prey. They also like a habitat with some kind valleys to make the hunting easier for them since such areas help them hide from the prey aimed.
As discussed earlier, lions live not in isolation but in groups. The female do most of the hunting especially hunting the light prey like gazelles and wild beasts. On the hand, male like hunting huge animals like zebras and buffalos. Both male and female lions have different preferences for prey hunted.
We will write a custom Essay on Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of this species as seen from the discussion above, in Africa they are mostly found in Kalahari. This place is full of scattered acacia trees. They like such a place because they shelter under these trees during sunny seasons. Female lions also give birth under trees or under shade.
Foods eaten According to DeGraaf (2000, p. 28) lions are predatory and carnivorous animals. The lion’s prey range from the small sized to the large sized animals. Their diet is mainly comprised of birds, rodents, buffalos Zebras and many other small and big animals. The lion as said earlier has the dominion over almost all other animals in the wilderness.
Lion, the king of the Jungle, is able to straggle and kill animals like Rhinos, Antelopes, Zebra, and many others to obtain food. The animal is very cunning .After killing other animals; lions ensure that they do not share their kills and do chasing away other predators. The figure below shows a lion carrying away its prey.
McGuire (1989, 40) says that in most of the occasions, the female lions do the hunting. Hunting activity is usually individually and in prides also. The prides just like female and male lions, differ in food preference. Female lions prefer hunting preys like antelopes while their male counterparts prefer large animals like buffalos (Mitra 2005, p.125).
The hunting is normally done in groups and at night. Lions are much slower compared to the speed of most of their prey. Although they can also run fast, most of the preys they hunt are faster hence, hunting at night helps them in concealing their presence against the animals they hunt.
Timing and pattern of reproduction Marshall (2010, p. 114) observes that lions are polygamous in their breeding. The gestation period of lions is around 110 days. Their breeding is throughout the year. By the age of four years, most lionesses are ready for reproduction. Mating takes place at specific times of the year among the lion, which can take several days (Mitra 2005, p.35).
A female lion, when on heat can mate with several different males. When giving birth, the female lion isolates to a sheltered place away from the rest of the pride. Some researches show that lions breed well in protected area such as game parks. A lioness on average can give birth from two four cubs per each attempt. After birth the female does not immediately mate again, it takes some time, usually about two years. The cubs are usually blind at birth. Their eyes open roughly after a week. The diagram below shows lions mating.
Olney (1994, p. 89) says that the mother lioness hunts for its young ones and protects them from predation until they are able to support themselves. In a situation where many lionesses have given birth at the same time, they share the responsibility of rising as well as feeding the young ones. Cubs’ mother isolates from the rest of the pride for a maximum period of 8 weeks. Weaning of the young lions can start from the seventh month.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Normally, at the age of 3 years, a male lion riches maturity and at the age of 5 years, they are in a position to defend other pride members. The female lions mature so fast and from the age of 4 years, they are ready for procreation. The male lions rule the prides and always fight for their chances to take over the ruling position in a pride (Feldhamer 2003, p. 56). There is therefore a continuous competition between female lions and males over their social structure.
Conservation or Pest Status According to Skinner and Chimimba (2005, p. 118) most lion species live in Southern and Eastern Africa. It is reported that despite the breeding ability of lions, their number is decreasing each day. Estimations indicates that about 23,500 lions are in African protected areas against the 100,000 lions present a century before (Olney 1994, p. 119). The main pest affecting the lion species are the humans. Poaching of lions and human encroaching the lion’s habitats, has been on rise.
There increased cases of human-wildlife conflicts, a factor that is facilitated by loss of habitats for these animals hence migrating to human habitations. Due to habitats loss and poaching, the population of the remaining lion species lives in isolation, a factor that encourages inbreeding leading to decrease in genetic diversity. Interference of the lions habitats buy humans as posed a serious impact on species conservation (United Nations Environment Programme 2008, p. 113).
There is need to create awareness to the public on the importance and need for conserving lions and wildlife in general. A part from humans, lions also face predation from other animals. Although lions are serious carnivores, they are predated upon by animals such as cheetahs, hyenas and leopards which are commonly known in killing the lion young ones and the aged lions.
Population Management According to Fleagle (1999, p. 81), after the realization that the population of lion species is decreasing every day, a number of coordinated measures has been put in place to manage the remaining population. This plan was started in 1982 for those lions in Asia, but since the lions in this region were discovered impure genetically, the plan was suspended (DeGraaf 2000, p. 78).
The plan of lion population management in Africa started a year later focusing mainly on the subspecies in the southern Africa. This plan has been faced by a series of challenges. Most of the captive lions are from an unknown origin and diversity, a factor that makes population management based on their genetic diversity difficult. Amongst the pride, lions have a way in which they manage their population.
Lions after giving birth always like staying with their young ones in the same pride so that they can continually watch over them. This process continues up to around 40 lions, which is the maximum number for a pride. After acquiring the maximum number, that a pride can support, the incoming extra lions split and shift to a different region for easy management and foraging. This avoids competition over resources like food, water, and shelter.
List of References DeGraaf, R 2000, New England wildlife: Habitat, natural history, and distribution, University Press of New England, Hanover.
Feldhamer, G 2003, Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, and conservation, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Firouz, E 2005, The complete fauna of Iran, Tauris, London.
Fleagle, J 1999, Primate adaptation and evolution, Academic Press, San Diego.
Humphreys, P 1997, The lion and the gazelle: The mammals and birds of Iran, I.B. Tauris, London.
Hunter, L 2005, Cats of Africa: Behaviour, ecology, and conservation, Struik, Cape Town.
Lions, J 1996, Lions’ commentary on Unix 6th edition: With source code, Peer-to-Peer Communications, San Jose.
Marshall, C 2010, Mammal anatomy: An illustrated guide, Marshall Cavendish, New York.
McGuire, L 1989, Lions, Aladdin Books, New York.
Mitra, S. (2005). Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion. New Delhi: Indus.
Olney, P 1994, Creative conservation: Interactive management of wild and captive animals, Chapman
The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract The aim of this paper was to report on the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE (Gherkin) in London and how a similar skyscraper would be constructed in modern times. The Gherkin was designed by the Foster and Partners and constructed by the Skanska group from 2001-2003.
The building occupies the former site of the Baltic exchange that was destroyed in 1992 by a bomb explosion. The Gherkin is one of the environmental friendly skyscrapers of the 21st century. However, the construction of a similar skyscraper today would entail more modification such as the use of recycled glass.
Introduction The built environment has undergone tremendous changes in the twenty first century. A number of appealing contributions have been made to the built environment. For instance, modern cities around the world have constructed modern structures such canals, subway systems, bridges, and skyscrapers by the use of modern technology. The advancement in the built environment is attributed to superior cultures and civilizations, which have emerged over the years.
In the twenty first century the Western culture and civilization has greatly influenced the type of buildings constructed in Europe, United States of America and other parts of the world. For instance, the city of London boasts of having one of the magnificent skyscrapers known as the 30 St. Mary AXE or the Gherkin. The 30 St. Mary AXE is “located in London’s financial district and stands on the site formally occupied by the Baltic Exchange, which was destroyed in 1992 by a bomb explosion” (Yudelson 46).
The architects of the 30 St. Mary AXE were Norman Foster and Partners while the main constructor of the skyscraper was Skanska. The building was constructed from 2001-2003 after which it was commercialized in 2004. The 30 St. Mary AXE has 40 floors and a height of 591ft. This paper explores how the Gherkin was constructed, the civilization and culture prevalent during its construction, as well as, how a similar skyscraper could be constructed today.
Place, Period, and Size of the 30 St. Mary AXE The destruction of the Baltic Exchange in 1992 by an explosion led to the need to reconstruct the site that the Baltic Exchange had occupied. The government of the United Kingdom had hoped to reconstruct the site because “the Exchange hall was a celebrated fixture of the ship trading company” (Yudelson 46).
However, this dream was never to be realized following the extensive damage that the 1992 explosion had caused to the Baltic Exchange. As a result, in 1995 the Baltic Exchange sold the site to the Trafalgar House, which proposed the construction of the Millennium Tower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the plan to construct the Millennium Tower was “dropped because it was totally out of scale with the city of London and the building would also disrupt flight paths for both the City and Heathrow airports” (Wells 30-31). Therefore, in 1997 the Swiss Re managed to acquire the Baltic Exchange site after which the Swiss Re sought the service of Foster and Partners to design a building that would maintain the traditional streetscape of London City (Wells 30).
After the authorization of the Foster and Partners design, the Skanska embarked on the construction of the building in 2001 at the Baltic Exchange site. The construction of 30 St. Mary AXE took a period of three years. The Gherkin was opened the following year on 28 April 2004 with the Swiss Re as the primary occupant (Yudelson 46). The building has forty floors and a height of 180 meters (591ft).
The Gherkin consumes less energy as compared to other skyscrapers of similar size. The lower floors of the building are broader whereas from the sixteenth floor the sizes of the upper floors gradually reduce. The unique design of the Gherkin makes it to have a slender outlook as compared to skyscrapers of similar size. Additionally, the design of the 30 St. Mary AXE makes it more suitable to its location.
The lower floors of the building mainly function as offices while the top most floors act as private dining rooms, restaurant, and a bar that serves the tenants and guests. The top most floors enable guests and tenants to have a full view of the city of London. Similarly, the building is “visible over long distances, for instance, the building is visible from M11 Motorway and from the statue of George III in Windsor Great Park” (Wells 32).
Due to its enormous size the building has twenty three lifts, which are categorized as follows: “sixteen passenger lifts (6 high rise, 5 mid rise and 5 low rise), two lifts for goods, two fire fighters lifts, two shuttle lifts for top floor, and one car park lift” (Wells 34). The lifts are very efficient because they can carry more than 300 people at a particular time.
However, “the main lift for the building reaches the 34th floor while the push-from-below lift provide service to users up to the 39th floor hence creating a room for a bar at the 40th floor” (Wells 35).
The Prevalent Civilization and Culture during the Construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE Civilization refers to “the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor” (Solomon 128). However, the term civilization has been viewed as controversial because it can be used to refer to superiority or inferiority. Similarly, the term civilization may also refer to culture of a particular group of people.
We will write a custom Essay on The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of factors such as transportation systems, political structures, urbanization, and architecture indicate the level of civilization of a particular society. The Western culture and civilization has remained dominant in the 21st century. A number of architectural structures in the 21st century have resulted from innovations brought about by Western civilization and culture. Therefore, Western civilization and culture was prevalent during the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE.
Western civilization is a term, which “broadly refers to a heritage of social norms, ethnical values, traditional customs, beliefs systems, political systems, and technologies that originated from Europe” (Solomon 130).
Due to globalization Western culture and civilization has spread to different parts of the world, thereby influencing socio-economic, political, and technologies in various parts of the world. For instance, in most cities around the world architectural structures depict elements of Western culture and civilization such as straight lines, simple, and undecorated planes (Solomon 156-157).
One of the structures that clearly emphasize the characteristics of Western architecture is the skyscraper such as the 30 St. Mary AXE in London. A skyscraper refers to “any building that protrudes beyond its built environment and changes the overall skyline” (Richards 79-81). However, over the years the heights of skyscrapers have greatly increased due to modern techniques of construction.
A good number of cities of the twenty first century are characterized by skyscrapers of similar size as the Gherkin, which distinguish them and define the cities’ identities. In most cities around the world, skyscrapers are constructed because they are economical in terms of space, thereby ensuring optimum use of space within city centers where there is limited land.
The need to conserve space influenced the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE building, which is one of the magnificent pieces of Western architecture. Fazlur Rahman Khan, who is a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer, is credited to have developed an engineering principle known as tubular design, which has influenced the construction of skyscrapers (Wells 17-19).
Since 2000, several cities such as Chicago, New York, London, Shanghai, and Dubai have registered increase in the number of skyscrapers. This has been made possible due to the tubular design technique. The principle of tubular design is both economical and efficient because it reduces the quantity of construction materials used, as well as, enabling buildings to have several floors.
The construction of skyscrapers should ensure safety of occupants against calamities such as earthquakes, wind, and fire (Yudelson 18). Skyscrapers ought to be accessible and fitted with facilities that enable occupants to operate with a lot of ease.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The construction of most skyscrapers entail the use of “steel frameworks from which curtain walls are suspended rather than load bearing walls used in conventional construction” (Richards 137). The steel frameworks help in the construction of tall buildings with windows of large surface areas.
The use of steel frames in construction emerged during the industrial revolution, which begun in the 19th century in Europe. Therefore, the concept of skyscrapers like the 30 St. Mary AXE emerged because of Western civilization characterized by industrialization in various fields. As a result, Western civilization and culture led to the invention of more efficient and effective building techniques and construction materials, which have enabled the construction of buildings such as the skyscrapers.
Therefore, the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE that depicts elements of Western architecture made a significant contribution to the built environment. The unique design of the building makes it to stand out from the surrounding buildings. The innovation of the design team has proved that with the new technologies and techniques of building, a number of structures can be constructed without interfering with a city’s layout, thereby positively contributing to the built environment.
The Construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE The 1992 explosion that destroyed the Baltic Exchange center created a need for reconstruction of a similar building in order to maintain London’s cultural heritage of shipping technology.
However, the reconstruction of the Baltic Exchange proved futile after the United Kingdom government authorities realized that the destruction caused by the explosion was massive. Therefore, attempts were made to design a building that would suit the former location of the Baltic Exchange. Consequently, the Swiss Reinsurance Company commissioned Foster and Partners to design a suitable building for the site.
Fortunately, the government endorsed the design created by Foster and Partners due to its unique and spectacular design. In 2001, the Skanska constructors embarked on the construction process. Being a skyscraper of the 21st century, its construction entailed new technologies and techniques of construction. Additionally, the materials used were sophisticated and modern.
The 30 St. Mary AXE was constructed using steel frames joined together at triangular nodes in order to provide support for the weight of outer part of the structure. In order to ensure the success of using the steel nodes in the construction of the building, the designers conducted a number of tests through mock-up structures and computation (Wells 35).
The design allowed for continuity of the interior parts of the building while connecting the floors in a manner that would ensure maximum ventilation in the entire building. Similarly, the egg shape design of the building enables it to reduce wind intensity at the lower floors while at the same time ensuring that there is adequate air circulation in the building. The designers also provided for gaps in every floor to provide natural ventilation of the building.
The gaps left in every floor create shafts, which allow cool air to be drawn inside the building, as well as, warming the building through fitted passive solar gain (Richards 113). “Blinds located within the cavity of the ventilated double skin façade intercept solar gain before it enters the office environment after which the intercepted heat is reclaimed or rejected depending on the requirement for heating or cooling” (Yudelson 46).
Therefore, the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE ensured that the building would have maximum natural ventilation that saves energy use by approximately 50% lower than buildings of similar size. The various systems within the building use gas as the major source of energy and supplemented by electricity.
The construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE also entails a double wall system whereby the outer walls of the building consist of several glass windows of triangular shapes whereas the inner walls have sliding glass doors. The building’s façade is composed of a column casing of aluminum, glass screen, which is operable and a façade frame made of extruded aluminum.
Floors that mainly serve as offices have a double-glazed outer layer whereas the inner layer has a single glazed screen. On the other hand, the space between the layers has a central ventilation system that regulates the amount of heat and coldness in the building depending on the season.
The cladding system of the building majorly consists of non-curved glass despite the building’s egg shape. The glasses used in cladding are arranged in diamond triangular panes. The all-glass cladding system enables occupants of the building to benefit from maximum sunlight exposure necessary for their operations, thereby enabling the occupants to save energy (Richards 145-148). The building was also fitted with an effective and efficient plumbing system.
The building has an electric heat tracing system that ensures circulation of hot water throughout the building. The electric heat tracing system is advantageous in several ways. For example, the system helps in conservation of energy and maintenance cost as compared to conventional plumbing systems that uses re-circulation.
Due to the several floors that the building has, the construction consumed much glass, steel, concrete, and energy. For instance, in order for the constructors to lift the building materials to the upper floors much energy was required. Similarly, the construction process entailed skilled labor force that ensured the construction was a success. As compared to the earlier centuries, the construction of the Gherkin benefited from the upsurge of skilled labor force in the architectural field.
For example, the architects were experts who created the unique design of the building by exploiting new technologies and methodologies that have emerged in the architectural field over the years. Therefore, the labor force that participated in the construction of the building was not only skilled but also creative. Consequently, the labor force ensured that the building stood out as a splendid piece of architecture from the buildings that surround it.
However, despite the skilled work force that led to the realization of the project a number of shortcomings have been recorded about the building, which may have resulted from the construction process.
For example, a year later (2005) after the opening of the building for public use, “the press reported that a glass panel had fallen to the plaza beneath the building” (Solomon 197-199). Fortunately, there were no serious injuries reported because of the glass panel that had fallen off. Consequently, the incident led to the closure of the plaza and several other windows as the investigations over the incident went on.
Reports made concerning the incident shows that one of the window’s opening device had worn out. Additionally, a number of critics have considered the design of the Gherkin uneconomical in terms of space due to the various facilities fitted in the building such as the light wells and the central lift.
The critics also argue that the floor design of the Gherkin does not favor confidentiality especially in businesses that entail discussions with clients. As a result, some tenants have partitioned their offices in order to enhance their confidentiality, thereby hindering natural air circulation and lighting. Similarly, the light wells encourage transfer of sound between the floors.
Despite some of the shortcomings associated with the construction of the Gherkin, the building has attracted numerous tourists and defined London’s skyline. The construction of the Gherkin has inspired the construction of environmentally friendly buildings not only in London but also in other parts of the world where attempts have been made to construct similar skyscrapers. The sleek design of the building has also provided a plaza for public use, as well as, reducing wind deflection.
Based on some of the shortcomings of the construction of the Gherkin, a number of changes and improvements can be made if a similar structure was constructed today. However, this does not dispute the fact that the Gherkin is a magnificent piece of architecture of the 21st century.
Due to advancements in technology in construction today, a similar building as the Gherkin would use recycled glass panels in order to promote environmental conservation. Additionally, a similar skyscraper would have several roof gardens fitted for the purpose of environmental conservation. In order to enhance space and confidentiality the floors would have opaque demarcated offices and the natural lighting enhanced by artificial lighting powered by solar panels especially during summer.
This would help to enhance conservation of energy and help to reduce air pollution because solar energy is environmental friendly. The construction of a similar building as the Gherkin today, would entail a water recycling system that promote conservation of water. Additionally, the building would have a swimming pool fitted in the 39th or the 40th floor, as well as, gym facilities, which would provide the tenants and their guests with a variety of recreational facilities apart from the bar.
Since the main aim of constructing skyscrapers is to maximize the use of space within the building, a similar skyscraper as the Gherkin in modern time would have a sky lobby to enhance movements between the floors. A sky lobby refers to “an intermediate interchange floor, which enables the users of an elevator system to change from an express elevator that only stops at the sky lobby to a local elevator that stops at every floor within a segment of the building” (Richards 87).
The sky lobby would have a number of facilities that serve the tenants. For instance, the sky lobby would have dry cleaner services for the tenants, mailboxes for companies operating in the building, library facilities, a relaxing zone, and a polling center where the tenants can vote during elections.
These facilities are crucial because they enable the tenants to save time because they will have access to a number of services within the same building. Construction of the Gherkin in modern times would also entail facilities such as a double-deck elevator that allows users to use the elevator simultaneously, thereby reducing traffic caused by lifts that stop at every floor.
Conclusion The advancement of construction methodologies and technology in the architectural field has led to the construction of various skyscrapers around the world. The Gherkin is one of the magnificent skyscrapers in London. The unique design of the building has made it a tourist attraction, as well as, an inspiration for other nations to design similar buildings that would protect the environment.
The design of the Gherkin enables it to maximize the use of natural lighting and clean gas energy. Despite the shortcomings associated with the building, the Gherkin still standout as one of the significant pieces of architecture of the 21st century. Therefore, cities around the world should shift their attention towards construction of skyscrapers that promote environmental conservation. Architects of modern skyscrapers should utilize modern technologies in order to promote green building trends.
Works Cited Richards, Brent. New Glass Architecture. London: Lawrence King Publishing, 2006. Print.
Solomon, Nancy. Architecture: Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future. New York: Visual Reference Publications, 2008. Print.
Wells, Mathew. Skyscrapers: Structure and Design. London: Lawrance King Publishing, 2005. Print.
Yudelson, Jerry. Green Building Trends: Europe. London: Island Press, 2009. Print.
Adjustment in Psychology: Stress Research Paper college essay help near me
Introduction Many are the times when people have complained about feeling stressed. In this day and age, there are various pressures that are exerted on individuals as they go on with their day-to-day activities, for instance, work related issues as well as family issues (Singh, 2009).
When one experiences stress, they are experiencing their body’s response to some form of demand (Lloyd, Dunn
Coca Cola: History of the Company and Its Changes Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents The Profile and History of Coca Cola Company
Major Changes in the Company
The Impact of the Changes Made
The Profile and History of Coca Cola Company Coca Cola is one of the most famous companies worldwide. It has been a symbol of the American life for decades. The company has managed to produce and promote its products all over the world. It is estimated that over one billion servings of Coca Cola are drunk a day (Ferrell, Fraedrich
Columbus discovered America in 1492 and how it impacted the history of America Report college application essay help: college application essay help
When Christopher Columbus discovered America towards the end of the 15th century, the historical significance of this discovery could not be established immediately. However, historians postulate that the 1492 discovery left behind significant trails of historical impacts in America. As a matter of fact, the history of America was greatly shaped after the exploration by Columbus. This essay offers a brief account of how the American history has been modeled by the discovery.
To begin with, it is profound to note the contemporary civilization being experienced in America was mainly triggered by the Columbus’ discovery of 1492. While some historians may argue that the American civilization was bound to take place even in the absence of Columbus’ discovery, it is definite that the discovery of America gave a major impetus to the rate of growth in civilization that the continent has enjoyed up to date.
The history of American civilization since the classical era was a product of the Columbus’ discovery. Some of the major areas of civilization included politics, social life and economic empowerment. It should be understood that America (especially North America) was opened up to the rest of the world. Therefore, it created an open platform through which other explorers could visit America and spread their influence.
The geographical knowledge of America was also expanded as a result of the Columbus’ discovery. Initially, American land was a secluded continent that the rest of the world did not understand. The fact that the disciplines of history and geography are closely interrelated; the geography of America has been an integral part of its historical past.
For instance, the colonization of North America was made possible by its geographical knowledge. Moreover, the presence of trains, valleys, mountains and landmark water bodies in the American continent are significant when exploring the history of this continent. Historians are also quite categorical that solutions related to challenges of geography in America were obtained as a result of the discovery of the continent.
When America was known to the rest of the world, it facilitated the growth and development of commerce. Traders from distant lands travelled to America in search for markets for their products. On the same note, the colonial powers scrambled for raw materials and markets for their industrial products.
Some of the products included phonograph, telephone, electric generation, electric lighting, telegraph, metallurgy, steel mills, printing press, road building, canals, sewing machine, cotton gin, textile mills, locomotive, steam boat, and steam engines. Such activities culminated into massive entrepreneurial spirit that is still being used in America today. The emergence of the early American urban centers was also witnessed during the same era.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the positive impacts of the 1492 discovery by Christopher Columbus, it is also worth to appreciate that some native tribes suffered immensely on the hands of the foreigners. A case in point was the Indians.
Historians believe that their small population in North America was occasioned by oppression and myriads of infections from foreigners after America was discovered. Europeans brought major infections in America when they came to colonize the region. Some of the maladies included whooping cough, pneumonia, small pox, measles, malaria, and yellow fever.
The Europeans were already immune to most of these diseases. However, the infections turned out to be major pandemics to Indians. The same Indians were sold as slaves. In any case, slave trade started when Columbus forcefully took some slaves to Spain. The history of slave trade is indeed a broad subject of the American past. The practice of buying and selling slaves was widespread during the pre-independence era of America and as such, it cannot be erased from the face of this continent.
The spread of the European culture and goods took place after the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. There is a significant cultural mix between that of the Europeans and Americans. This was occasioned by the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. Some of the foreign crops that were introduced in America by foreigners include rubber, sugar and tobacco.
The current system of agriculture that is practiced in America is believed to have been largely borrowed from the visiting foreigners. America was not the only beneficiary in this process. Some of the dominant North American crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, beans, cocoa, cayenne, and corn were exported to other continents such as Europe and Asia.
A section of historians still contend that death, exploitation and conquest were the major attributes of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus contrary to the popular belief that there was great accomplishment on the part of America. Nonetheless, it is profound to note that the American history borrows a lot from the history of Christopher Columbus. The cultural identity of the Native Americans before the 1492 discovery changed almost completely due to the influence brought about by the foreigners.
In some instances, the Americans were compelled to conform to the European standards especially when the process of colonization was in full force. It is believed that thousands of Americans suffered as a result of colonization. It is against this backdrop that the American and European powers became foes to each other even after the dark ages. This was also manifested during the First and Second World Wars as well as during the Cold War era.
We will write a custom Report on Columbus discovered America in 1492 and how it impacted the history of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Fiske, John. The Discovery of America, Volume 1. New York: The Echo Library, 2009.
Hume, Robert. Christopher Columbus and the European discovery of America. Herefordshire: Fowler Wright Books, 1992.
Footnotes John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Volume 1. (New York: The Echo Library, 2009), 9.
Robert Hume, Christopher Columbus and the European discovery of America. (Herefordshire: Fowler Wright Books, 1992), 49
John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Volume 1. (New York: The Echo Library, 2009), 54.
Social Factors that Motivate People to Travel (in Tourism Industry) Essay essay help free
Introduction Tourism is used as a revenue generator in many countries. With an increased world population, tourist population has grown accordingly. People travel because of different reasons, some of which are personal, while others are job oriented. Beard and Ragheb identify the various push and pull reasons that people base their decisions on for traveling.
The push and pull reasons are usually personal, and they vary depending upon a person. He also adds that the push factors usually stimulate a person to travel, while the pull factors are the ones that contribute to the choice of the destination. Further, they identify other factors that influence people’s choice to travel, namely, the reason to meet friends and family’s members, tourism experience and, in general, aesthetic satisfaction (Beard,
“A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty Essay online essay help: online essay help
“A Worn Path” written by Eudora Welty is a short story which is full of symbolism. It is possible to find a variety of symbols concerning most important issues. This is a story about love and devotion, about aging and illnesses, and it is a story about racial discrimination in the USA in the 1930s. Each of the topics highlighted are worth volumes. In this paper, I will focus on racial discrimination in the US society of 1930s.
It is possible to find a variety of symbols which stand for racial discrimination. Some of these symbols are the path itself, the absence of support and the hunter. Admittedly, these are only a few symbols. For instance, the name of the main character is also a suggestive symbol of hope. However, the symbols mentioned above are more comprehensive as I believe each of these symbols represents a facet of African Americans’ life in the USA.
One of the first symbols to be discussed is, of course, the “worn path” (Welty n.p.). The path African Americans had to walk was a really “long way” which was also very difficult (Welty n.p.).
The path was full of dangers and “trials” like thorns which were doing their “appointed work” and “never” wanted “to let folk pass” (Welty n.p.). Of course, the ‘thorny bushes’ were all over African Americans’ way. The word ‘worn’ is also very suggestive. Thousands and millions of African Americans had to make the same journey and endure the same ‘worn’ obstacles.
To make the matters worse, the woman is all alone on the dangerous road, just like African Americans did not have anyone to support them. Thus, the old woman falls and she is unable to stand up, she sees someone and reaches her hands but “nothing reached down and gave her a pull” (Welty n.p.).
Likewise, African Americans had to face lots of constraints and there were few people who were ready to help. In the 1930s, African Americans were discriminated in all spheres of their lives and it was uncommon for a white person to help an African American. Notably, even those attempts made were rather ineffective, as any advance or help was followed by even more horrible conditions. Thus, the fact that the woman has the hallucination stands for the futility of some attempts to help African Americans in the 1930s.
Finally, the conversation between the woman and the hunter is also very symbolic. The man helps the old woman stand up, but, at the same time, he is rather disrespectful and he teases the woman with his gun. In a single phrase, the woman reveals the sufferings of slaves, “I seen plenty go off closer by, in my day, and for less than what I done” (Welty n.p.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The slaves were treated like undeserving creatures and were punished even without a reason. Unfortunately, little changed in the 1930s and African Americans were tortured and humiliated. The entire conversation is the symbolic representation of the roles available for whites and African Americans in 1930s. The whites were still ‘patronizing’ African Americans who were regarded as inferior.
On balance, it is possible to state that the short story is a symbolic representation of the life of African Americans in the 1930s. The old woman’s path stands for the long journey African Americans had to endure to have the life they had in the 1930s. Such symbols as the path, the woman’s hallucinations and the conversation between the man and the old woman reveal the inequality in the USA in the 1930s.
Works Cited Welty, Eudora. A Worn Path. 2001. Web. .
Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems Term Paper essay help
The variety of the educational systems in the world depends on the number of countries and cultures round the globe. The educational systems of different countries are developed to respond to the needs of the definite society and state.
Nevertheless, the globalization process makes people pay more attention to the comparison of the educational systems in different countries in relation to their effectiveness to provide the well-educated young people with the strong knowledge and developed skills and abilities. Modern young people use the education as the effective start for their further career. The problem is in the fact that there is the significant difference in opportunities provided for the students in developed and developing countries.
The comparison of the educational systems of Vietnam and Belgium presents the evidence to state that the educational system of Belgium is more developed, and it provides young people with the opportunities to use the received knowledge during their further career when the educational system of Vietnam is based on the outdated curriculum and traditional approaches of teaching.
The Educational System in Vietnam Education is an important element in the social and economic development of a country. The formal education includes basic education. The whole period of the basic education is twelve years. During this period, the majority of the school age children are enrolled in school. Despite the efforts made by the Vietnamese government regarding the full enrollment of children in schools, there are issues and challenges associated with the country’s education system.
The main problem of the public schools is the lack of the governmental funding. The economy of the country is not developed, and this fact influences the social development (London). Many children who are in their school age do not attend schools because of the poor conditions of their families.
The overall quality of education in the country is low in comparison with the other Asian and European countries. The governmental educational standards are not correlated with those ones required in the developed countries. The outdated curricula are used in schools and in the sphere of the higher education.
The school curriculum of the secondary level is rather compulsory, and it includes a wide range of disciplines such as literature, mathematics, and technology. Vocational education provides courses that should develop students’ practical skills. 1-3 and 2-3 year vocational programs that train individuals in technical education with the quality being monitored by the government are implemented (London).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, students do not receive the necessary knowledge on the modern communication technologies, and no technologies are used in teaching. Teachers are oriented to use the outdated approaches and methods of lectures to conduct a lesson. As a result, students do not develop the necessary skills, and the education process in schools and institutes is not connected with the professional practice.
To improve the quality of education, the Vietnamese government focused on teacher training. Definite programs are developed to establish learning institutions that can contribute to promoting the academic achievement along with focusing on the emotional, physical and psychological development of students because many students feel uncomfortable within the learning environments. The specific of teacher-student and student-student relations is based on the principles of Confucianism (Cargo).
Education in Belgium The educational system of Belgium is developed in relation to the needs of the Flemish, French, and German speaking communities. The basic principles of these communities’ school systems are similar. In Belgium, the start of the pre-school education is associated with the age of three years. It is not compulsory for persons to take a child to pre-school institutions. Children start to attend the primary school at the age of 6, following the next six years of basic education.
Reading, writing and arithmetic classes are typical for the primary school. The secondary education is divided into four sections that are the humanities, technical disciplines, arts, and professional disciplines. The secondary education has an objective to prepare students for the university education with the professional section allowing students to choose the profession they would like to pursue in their life (“A Report on Belgian Education”).
All the financial questions associated with the education are regulated by the local communities. The country spends 6.3% of the GDP on education. The level of enrollment in tertiary education is 27% of the population while enrollment in secondary level education is about 88% (Capron).
The local communities pay much attention to the development of the educational systems in order to educate the highly-qualified human resources who can compete within the developing human resources market. From this point, the equality of access to education is important as well as the quality of the education provided.
The educational system of Belgium can be discussed with references to Functionalism theory because the accents are made on the practical significance of the received knowledge. Students are expected to use the knowledge and received skills in their everyday work practice in order to contribute to the community’s welfare. Much attention is paid to the technical education because this sphere of knowledge responds to the global demands.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The curricula according to which the educational systems work are developed in relation to the interests of the communities. The concept of ‘digital divide’ is relevant to discuss the educational system of Belgium. Innovative communication technologies are used in schools and universities in order to create the necessary conditions for the students’ effective study (“A Report on Belgian Education”).
Similarities and Differences in the Educational Systems of Two Countries It is necessary to determine several factors according to which it is possible to compare the educational systems in Vietnam and Belgium. The first factor is equality of access to education. In Belgium, education is available for all children and young people because the government guarantees that every child is able to attend school regardless the financial state or belonging to the minority group.
The situation is different in Vietnam where poor children cannot afford attending schools, and moreover, many public schools are also not funded appropriately.
The next aspect is the practical importance of education. The secondary education in Belgium prepares students for university education as well as career life, and it is divided into four sections that address these concerns (“A Report on Belgian Education”).
The professional aspect deals with the ability of students to identify their careers early in life, and it is closely linked to the technical aspect of Belgium’s education. However, the secondary education in Vietnam is not oriented to the same purpose. Students begin developing their skills only in institutes. Therefore, the education system in Belgium produces more skilled employees in comparison with the education system in Vietnam.
Students in Vietnam and Belgium overcome the similar socialization processes and face similar risks while being enrolled in the new school environment. However, the principles of Confucianism help teachers in Vietnam regulate these processes (Cargo).
All the modern technological communications are available for students in Belgium when students in Vietnam can not have the access to the necessary books and learning materials.
Education in Belgium is characterized by setting clear goals, the adequate funding, using quality academic programs, developed parent involvement. Moreover, the accents are made on high expectations from students and adequate school facilities along with productive school climate when the situation in Vietnam is quite different (Ballantine and Hammack).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Impact of Differences on Students and Educators The negative consequences of differences discussed earlier are associated with the educational system in Vietnam. Thus, students do not receive the necessary education for developing their career, and the rate of unemployment in the country increases because young people have no developed practical skills to start working.
The next negative consequence for students is the obscure chance to compete effectively within the global human resources market. Today, the Vietnamese government develops the alternations for the educational system in order to focus on teaching the English language in the country as the first step to meet the international requirements.
Moreover, Confucianism as the social philosophy used in the education practice prevents a lot of Vietnamese students from taking the independent decisions and from participation in the debates. As a result, the Vietnamese students are passive in relation to their career and further life.
The processes of socialization in the Vietnamese schools are based on the behavioral patterns according to which students can interact with each other and teachers. The social control limits the independence of the students’ thinking, but it contributes to increasing the role of the teacher’s authority.
In Belgium, teachers cooperate with students, and the process of teaching is the student-centered one. As a result, students develop their skills and abilities in relation to the career path which can be chosen by them even in the early school age. In spite of the usage of the more democratic style of communication within the classroom, the quality of the education in Belgium is higher than in Vietnam, and students have more opportunities to receive their higher education and develop career in the future.
The governmental control and funding in Vietnam also do not provide the opportunities for teachers to perform effectively. They suffer from the lack of financing, and they are responsible for teaching according the outdated curricula with the lack of the necessary education materials.
The educational systems of Vietnam and Belgium have a lot of differences and few similarities, and this fact can be explained with references to the culture of the countries, the situation in societies, and economic development of the countries. Referring to the example of Belgium, it is possible to conclude that the economic development and the well-organized structure of the educational system can guarantee the higher quality of education and its practical importance for the young people’s further career.
The current state of the educational system of Vietnam does not provide opportunities for the social and economic development of the country because these processes are interdependent. The educational system in Vietnam requires significant reforms to modernize it according to the global standards and with references to the cultural heritage.
Works Cited A Report on Belgian Education. 2006. PDF file. Web.
Ballantine, Jeanne, and Floyd Hammack. The Sociology of Education. USA: Pearson, 2011. Print.
Capron, Henry. The National Innovation System of Belgium. USA: Springer, 2004. Print.
Cargo, Duncan. Rethinking Vietnam. USA: Routledge, 2004. Print.
London, Jonathan. Education in Vietnam. USA: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. Print.