The Benefits Of A Cohesive Organisational Culture Report Best College Essay Help

Introduction This assignment is a case study on the importance of a cohesive organisational culture. The case study is based on a large manufacturing organisation known as BSG Ltd, which is faced with management challenges.

The challenges have led to the decline of profits, low levels of job satisfaction and organisational commitment by employees, low levels of trust between management and employees, poor team work and a belief by many employees that there is little opportunity for advancement. Staff turnover is an issue because it increased by 15% in year ending 2010.

This case study is based on the literature on organisational culture and management theories. The aim of the case study is to highlight the changes which need to be implemented by the management of the organisation and give some recommendations on how best to effect the changes with little or no resistance by the employees.

The case study starts with a definition and exploration of the topic of organisational culture and the importance of a cohesive organisational culture. Afterwards is a discussion of the changes which need to be effected by the organisation and the recommendations on how to implement the changes based on theories of change management. At the tail end is a conclusion which highlights the key points in the discussion followed by a list of references used in the discussion.

Executive summary The purpose of this report is to explore the topic of cohesive organisational culture by looking at the benefits of the same to organisations. The report is based on a case study of BSG Ltd, which is a large manufacturing organisation.

The organisation is faced with management challenges, which have led to a decline in profits, low cohesion among employees and poor relationships between the employees and top management as well as problems of increased turnover and pilfering in both warehouse stocks, and stationery supplies.

The report identifies the possible changes which should be undertaken by the management of the organisation so as to deal with these problems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such changes include increasing employees’ remunerations and replacement of the rule based culture with a human relations approach to management which encourages employees’ creativity, team work, innovativeness and flexibility. It is also recommended that the management should consider providing employees with additional benefits like taking them for holidays and provision of various forms of insurance cover.

The recommendations for implementing these changes are based on Lewin’s model of organisational change management which constitutes of three stages namely unfreezing, changing and freezing. This model is a procedural approach to organisational change aimed at minimising resistance to organisational change by employees.

Body and Recommendations

Organisational Culture

An organisation is a group of people who work together with coordinated efforts to achieve certain objectives or goals. Organisational goals and objectives are of various categories and it is this variation of the goals and objectives which classify organisations into three main categories namely profit making, service based and social responsibility based organisations (Murray, Poole, and Jones, 2006. pp.45-69).

The study of organisations is made possible by the use of organisational theoretical models or approaches. These theoretical models are mainly used to explain organisations in terms of structure and culture. Organisational culture refers to shared beliefs, values, norms and practices which characterise an organisation.

Organisational structure refers to how the organisation is structured, how power and authority to make decisions are distributed along the structure of the organisation, and who should take what direction or instructions from whom and when (Robbins, 1996).

Organisational culture is a very important aspect in any organisation which aspires to realize its vision and mission. This is because organisational culture determines whether the organisation is able to work together towards the realization of the vision.

Organisational culture is closely related to organisational structure in that the manner in which decisions are made by the top management influences the relationship between the top management and the other employees, which consequently determines the culture of the organisation (Brown, 1998).

We will write a custom Report on The Benefits of a Cohesive Organisational Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An organisational culture is learned implicitly through interaction within the organizational setting. The employees learn it through imitating others who they find in the organisation. This imitation happens unconsciously due to the human instinct to adopt behaviours which make him or her fit in the social environment which he or she finds himself or herself in. Through communication and interaction with each other, employees may coin some terms or codes which are unique to the organisation.

Employees also learn organisational culture through conditioning and reinforcement. For instance, if certain behaviour is rewarded by the management of an organisation, the employees will tend to perfect that behaviour which eventually becomes part of their culture. Likewise, if certain behaviour is negatively sanctioned by the management, then the employees will tend to avoid it, thus becoming one of the don’ts in the organisation.

A strong organisational culture is found in organisations in which the employees are committed to their work and discharge their duties with little or no supervision while a weak organisational culture is found in organisations in which the employees have little commitment to their duties and are closely supervised so as to discharge their duties effectively (Brown, 1998).

There are various models of organisational culture. One such model is the power culture which is characterized by centralization of power to some few people within the organisation. This person(s) is usually very influential in the organisation and therefore everybody else tends to foster a good relationship with the person(s).

In this culture, employees are motivated to the degrees into which they emulate that central person(s). In this type of culture, decisions are made easily because there are no many hierarchical positions in the structure of the organisation (Gordon, DiTornaso and Farris, 1991.pp.18-23).

There is also role culture, which is characterized by doing things as per ones position, meaning that an employee only cares for what is of concern to him or her or what lies under his or her docket. This culture is also characterized by rigidity in decision making because of the bureaucratic nature of the organisational structure which leads to inefficiency (Fey and Denison, 2003.pp.686-687).

Task culture is characterized by the formation of groups which are composed of people with some expertise or knowledge to perform some specific tasks. In this type of culture therefore, group work is very important and authority as well as supervision play little or no role because the teams are trusted by the management with their tasks (Murray, et al, 2006. pp.45-69).

Lastly, there is person’s culture which is characterized by a feeling of superiority among the employees, who think that they are very valuable to the organisation. In such a culture, unity and cooperation among the employees may be rare because each employee thinks that he or she is the best and therefore not ready to share what he or she knows with others without extra remuneration by the organisation for the same (Murray, et al, 2006. pp.45-69).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Benefits of a Cohesive Organisational Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organisations vary greatly in terms of their mission, vision, objectives, resource base philosophy and coverage. Due to this, each and every organisation must cultivate a culture which is unique to itself so as to achieve its mission and objectives.

This means that what may be considered as values or norms in one organisation may not be considered as such in another organisation. However, despite these variations and differences, there is the importance of having a cohesive organisational culture regardless of the organisational structure, mission and objectives (Bakar, 2001.pp. 64-69).

One reason is because organisations are run by people for the benefit of people. All employees in all organisations are social beings complete with needs, feelings and emotions. In many countries for instance, it is almost impossible to separate personal life and work among employees, which calls for an integration of employees lives with their work environment so as to make work both satisfying and enjoyable as well as a means of realizing happiness and fulfilment in one’s life (Bakar, 2001.pp. 64-69).

This argument is based on the human relations model of organisational theory pioneered by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1928, which brought a radical shift from the classical management theories pioneered by Taylor, which emphasised on scientific management of employees as if they were machines to be operated by their managers (Cooke and Lafferty, 1987).

But what is a cohesive organisational culture? Many organisational researchers agree that a cohesive organisational culture is the one in which all members of an organisation hold to similar beliefs and values which glue the organisation together. These beliefs and values may be implicit or explicit to the organisation, meaning that they may be or not be publicly declared in the organisational core values.

In this kind of a culture, it does not matter the organisational structure but what matters most is the commitment of each and every member of the organisation to these believes and values. For example, an organisation may value hard work, honesty and team work and believe in transparency, utmost good faith, ethics and morality. A cohesive organisational culture has got many benefits (Keshavarzi, 2007).

One benefit is that it leads to high motivation among the employees because they share common believes and values. When employees are highly motivated, there is minimal use of resources in their supervision which in turn increases their productivity because to them, what matters most is the good of the organisation as a whole but not personal good.

Another benefit of cohesive organisational culture is that it facilitates the alignment of organisations for the achievement of their objectives, mission and vision without much difficulty. This is because the employees are not only fully aware of the mission, vision and objectives, but have also internalised them thus making them to work hard to achieve them. This makes them more motivated to accomplish the set organisational gaols, targets or objectives (Martins and Terblanche, 2003.pp.64-65).

Strong organisational culture also boosts organisational efficiency because of the internalisation of what is required of each and every employee when and where.

The sharing of values and beliefs creates a good working environment free from any kind of confusion, ambiguity or lack of understanding among the employees, which apart from increasing efficiency also saves on time wasted when things seem not to move in the right direction because the employees are able and free to consult each other without the fear of victimisation or intimidation especially by the senior managers.

Employees also portray good behaviour at work because they know what is right to be done and what is not right (Martins and Terblanche, 2003.pp.64-65).

Furthermore, strong organisational culture leads to cohesion among various departments of an organisation which leads to harmonisation of all organisational procedures, policies and practices in each and every department.

This cohesion leads to proper utilisation of organisational resources without sabotage as well as sound, logical and relevant polices on how to coordinate organisational activities in a manner that would maximise the organisations’ chances of realizing their mission and vision.

Cohesion among various organisational departments also leads to the sharing of information by various departments which increases the employees’ levels of understanding of how various departments work.

This is very important because it enables employees to multitask especially in times when staffs in some departments are not available. For example, the understanding of administrative issues in the organisation by the head of accounting departmental may make him or her work on behalf of the head of the administration department when he or she is not present ( Mathew, 2007.pp.677-678).

Strong organisational culture enhances control, good coordination and consistency within an organisation. This is because the employees and the management are in good terms and thus are able to agree informally on various procedures and practices without compromising the quality of the organisational practices and objectives.

This saves on time because employees implement the changes which they find necessary without having to wait for bureaucratic board meetings and discussion to approve even the slightest change in procedures or practices ( Mathew, 2007.pp.677-678).

Lastly not the least, cohesive organisational culture enhances team work, group leadership and collaboration of the employees in various tasks. This is of crucial importance to organisations because it opens the room for employees’ creativity, innovativeness and openness to positive criticism which makes work not only enjoyable, but also enriched with a multiplicity of ideas.

This in turn leads to increased achievement levels by the organisation as opposed to situations in which employees’ creativity and innovativeness are not entertained by the management of the organisations.

Changes That Need To Be Implemented By Management to Address the Issues Outlined

As outlined in the introduction, the organisation is faced with real challenges which if not addressed may lead to deterioration of the situation. This calls for nothing else except implementing some changes so as to arrest the situation and return the organisation back to its glory of high productivity, increased employee motivation and low turnover rates which it enjoyed before. One of the changes which the management must implement is the introduction of team work in the organisation.

The management should give the employees the leeway to divide their work into small achievable tasks, which should be undertaken by a group of employees. The idea is to replace the Person’s culture which is characterized by a feeling of superiority among the employees, who think that they are very valuable to the organisation with Task culture which is characterized by the formation of groups of people with some expertise or knowledge to perform some specific tasks (Lundy and Cowling, 1996).

The other change which the management should make is the introduction of a system of working in which the employees are less supervised, but encouraged to be responsible, flexible creative and innovative in their duties. The organisation should also do away with any rules and regulations which emphasise more on procedures and regulations and replace them with rules which emphasise more on the end product of work irrespective of the means and procedures used to arrive at a particular end result.

The management should also consider revising the remunerations of the employees upwards so as to increase their motivation. Studies show that the productivity of employees is based on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. One of the extrinsic motivations is the rewards which the employees get from the work, including good payment.

This would reduce employee turnover which is very costly especially in terms of recruitment. More so, turnover means that the organisation is losing on what it invests in training and coaching the employees who end up leaving the organisations with the knowledge and training (Shim, 2010. pp.847- 849).

Also to be considered by the management is the work environment, which should be improved in terms of ensuring that it is more conducive and attractive for the employees.

For instance, the organisation should introduce some social benefits schemes like payment of various forms of insurance like medical cover, provision of loaning system for advancement of employees’ education, career and training as well as other benefits like provision of leave allowances or taking the employees for paid holidays.

These would increase the employees’ loyalty and commitment to the organisation and consequently reduce the turnover rates (Furnham and Gunter, 1993. pp.233-234).

Recommendations for successfully implementing the changes

There are various theoretical models of change management which the management may rely on to successfully implement the above changes. I would recommend the management to use the Kurt Lewin’s approach to change management which falls under the category of teleological model of change. Lewin came up with what he called three stage theory which involves three stages or steps namely unfreezing, changing and freezing (Cummings and Worley, 2008).

In the first step of unfreezing, the organisation is supposed to be motivated and prepared for the change. The management must engage the employees and create a state of discontentment with the prevailing conditions in the organisation. While doing this, it should also ensure that it sets out deadlines for the new dispensation (Cummings and Worley, 2008).

Basically, this stage is about doing a cost benefit analysis about the proposed change and weighing whether the pros of the change outweighs the cons, then creating the necessary motivation for the change. This stage is therefore the preparatory stage and is very crucial because it determines the success of the change if effected. When people are highly motivated to change, the resistance to change is minimised and vice versa (Cummings and Worley, 2008).

The next stage is the change stage, which is also known as the transition stage and involves implementing the change. This is the hardest stage in change implementation because people are always reluctant to move out of their comfort zones despite any motivation. During this stage therefore, employees need to be guided and encouraged to undertake the change.

In order to realize a smooth sailing through this stage, employees need to be given the necessary training for them to acquire the knowledge and skills which would enable them navigate successfully during the transition stage (Cummings and Worley, 2008).For example, employees may be trained on group dynamics so as to adequately work in groups.

The final stage is the freezing stage, which is also known as refreezing stage. During this stage, the organisation has successfully sailed through the change process and is now leaving in a new dispensation. There is therefore the need of creating a new culture in the organisation which is in line with the new organisational dispensation (Cummings and Worley, 2008).

Conclusion This report has discussed the topic of cohesive organisational culture and its importance in organisations. The report is on BSG Ltd, which is a large manufacturing company faced with management challenges.

In the discussion, various benefits of cohesive organisational culture have been discussed as well as the changes which the organisation should make so as to adequately deal with the problems it’s faced with. Also discussed are the recommendations on how to implement the changes successfully, where it has emerged that the organisation should use the Lewin’s model of organisational change management to sail through this change process successfully.

My opinion about the topic is that the organisation should consider replacing the rule based culture with a human relations approach to organisational culture which encourages employees’ creativity, flexibility and innovativeness as they discharge their duties. The organisation should also consider revising the remunerations and improve the working environment so as to deal with the problem of high turnover rates.

Reference List Bakar, A Z. (2001). Success Factors to Systems Integration implementation: More Technology Oriented than Human Related. Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, 14 (2), pp. 64-69.

Brown, A. (1998). Organisational Culture. London, UK:Pitman Publishing.

Cooke, R. A., and Lafferty, J. C. (1987). Organisational Culture Inventory. Plymouth, MI: HumanSynergistics.

Cummings, T.G and Worley, C.G. (2008). Organization development

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The Importance of Becoming an Independent Learner at University Essay best essay help

University education is unique since student-learning process is partly guided by the academic staff, with most of learning responsibilities lying with the student as an independent learner. Independent learning is described as “autonomous learning, independent study, self-directed learning, student initiated learning, project orientation, discovery and inquiry, teaching for thinking, learning to learn, self instruction and life long learning” (Kesten 1987, p9).

Independent learning can also be described as “learning strategy that fosters self-improvement through planned independent study by students under the guidance or supervision of an instructor, can include learning in partnership with another individual or as part of a small group, possible instructional methods used include: reading, viewing, and assigned questions” (Nathenson, 1984).

Many scholars have defined independent learning in various ways, thus, independent learning is a concept that has no universally agreed definition. Independent learning has been receiving tremendous interest from governments, industrialists, and academics in the advancement of higher learning education strategies, since it is capable of producing lifelong learners, skilled, and self-motivated people who are pivotal to the future of any nation.

All definitions or concepts on independent learning are based on the learner taking control of their studies. Since the university students are adults, they are expected to achieve a balance between learning, work and their other attachments. For successful independent learning, the students must organize their learning through time and resources management, and prioritizing their tasks and structure of their schedule to achieve mutual balance between study and other activities.

A departure from dependent learning, independent learning is viewed as a tool that transforms education by enhancing many qualities such as the habits of mind that improve critical, analytical and reflective thinking skills, and also improve and shape students’ personality by enhancing self-reliance, self-confidence, and critical thinking skills (Najoua, et al., n.d).

Academic skills and independent learning All academic learning processes are supported by more than one academic skill. Academic skills are mainly composed of reading, writing and study skills, thus, any independent learning should encompass these skills. Therefore, it is important for an independent learner to develop these skills in order to achieve a successful independent learning outcome.

Studies have revealed that most students who join tertiary education institution without the requisite practical study skills for academic success often experience learning challenges not because of their lack of aptitude in their academic subject, but rather, because of lack of abilities in project, time, and self-management (Nathenson 1984, p281). Hence, the most suitable academic skills that a student needs to develop for independent learning include self-assessing skills, time management skills, and writing and study skills.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though there are many study skills resources such as web sites and books, students in need of them mostly do not access them due to lack of self-motivation or the knowledge on how they are accessed.

To combat this challenge, it is important for the students and education facilitators to focus on development and implementation of assessment of independent learning skills. To achieve this, it is important for all stakeholders in independent learning to focus on improving students’ self-management and self-reflective skills that can eventually improve their study skills.

This should be an on-going initiative in all independent learning set-ups with the ultimate goal being equipping independent learners with the much needed study skills for lifelong learning. Studies have revealed that there are several simple techniques that support the development of self-management and self-reflective skills, with such techniques including things like learning journals that contain ongoing reflection which is useful for supporting planning, problem solving and creative thinking activities (Pickford

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Savannah technical college Essay essay help free: essay help free

Savannah technical college is an American private institution that focuses on advancements of persons, employers and social groups in the areas of education, economic, labor through training based on market needs.

The savannah technical college is run through financial aid provided by savannah technical foundation in addition to about one-third support from Georgia government. The institute provides certificate, diploma and degree programs in there various institutions, through correspondence and distance learning. Based on market needs the institute mostly concentrates in the disciplines of economic, health and industrial technology that stimulates economic growth.

The management of savannah technical institute works closely with all stake holders for finances and to come up with programs that meet the demand of the fast growing economy. Through constant consultation between the management of savannah technical college and partners, a very strong team has been formed that helps to run the institution in an effective and efficient manner.

With modern facilities and equipments, the institute is able to come up with more accurate research work, which is able to meet the challenges of economic developments, as well as providing the student with job opportunities. From these efforts the savannah technical college has been able to be the leading labor development centre in the state of Georgia.

The institute makes follow up of former students in their places of employments to find out if the training offered is being utilized for economic advancement, this includes warranty to employers on the graduates. If the employer finds the employees performance wanting and notifies the savannah technical college management within two years upon graduation they recalls the student for a free retraining.

This noble action has instilled confidence to the employers, who prefer graduates from this institute as well as making partners feel obliged to offer more support towards providing this highly skilled work force with ability to drive fast the economy.

The department of office institution effectiveness evaluates quality of services and performance as well as offering long term planning strategies. The institute’s faculty senate comes up with advice and presents its proposal to the president for assent part of which becomes the training guide principle. Some of the suggestions entails administration, recruiting, students welfare and education curriculum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Savannah technical institute put student’s service first with the aim of ensuring their students excel in academics and in the job market. The department of student’s affair centre deals with entrance of new students, financial support and finding job for its students.

To ensure high level of discipline and conduct is maintained among student the institute provides strict regulations that prohibits students from possessing weapon of any kind, from carrying alcohol or consuming alcohol and cigarettes within the institute encumbrances. In any case, where the student is found to violate this rule the funding agency should be furnished with this report on time and a punishment is given, which includes summary dismissal from the college.

The management ensures all students are conversant with the college attendance and punctuality regulations, whereby the student must commit him/herself before registration. This is important because the students get enough time to train and get the necessary academic requirements to go to the next level .Savannah technical college runs an e-learning program, which mostly helps to reach their former students for refreshing courses, and new technologies, which make then more competent in their fields of work.

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Myths and Misperceptions of the Disability Expository Essay best college essay help

Misconception is defined as a mistaken notion about something or someone. Disability is lack of ability to handle a certain responsibility in the manner that is expected for a normal person. Some forms of disabilities are either permanent or just transitory in nature. Most of the time, people have been limited to handle some challenging situations due to different disabilities.

Illness is a status of having poor health due to several reasons that include poor diets, infections, or genes (Wagner 123). It is normal for human beings to fall ill in the course of their lives. There are forms of illnesses that are minor, while others are serious, and requires one to be hospitalized. The bodies of human beings are capable of fighting simple illnesses, while others require one to seek for medical attention.

There are several myths and misperceptions concerning disabilities and some illnesses among various people in the society. For instance, some people have a perception that disability is a ruining personal tragedy. The truth about the disabled people is that, their lives are not tragic.

Disability cannot really be conceived as a ruining factor in one`s life because, people acquire it mostly through attitudes and the environment that they live and work in (Beauttah 203). Another misperception about disability is that most deaf people can lip-read. This is a misperception because for a deaf person to communicate effectively, he or she should be provided with sign language interpreters or lip speakers for audience to understand what they are saying.

According to some of the information provided by researchers concerning the disabled, people tend to think that the disabled are unable to have relationships. This is false because just like non-disabled persons, they have the ability to make personal choices about whom they would like to spend their future with. Countless disabled people have managed long-term relationships and have their own children.

In addition, there is a misperception that disability is interrelated with illness. This is evident that just like any other normal person, the disabled are prone to illnesses in the same manner. Not unless they are helped, the disabled cannot do anything on their own, to some extent, disabled people would sometimes require to be assisted on some matters due to their inadequacy. Some things may be too complex for disabled people to handle, hence the reason that they need to be assisted (Beauttah 210).

However, they are not always dependent as they also strive to be independent to keep their lives moving. Sometimes, it is not the fault of people to place such misperceptions about disability and illnesses, but it is what they found their fore fathers saying and they also believed. Some of these misperceptions are cleared by education, as people are still acquiring knowledge on why some things happen in life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a group of people that believe that the disabled are very courageous in their actions and in their ways of approaching issues. Every individual has his or her own way of coping up with life, especially when faced with challenges.

Disabled people likewise, have the same potential like the non-disabled in ways of coping up with life, and they are not in any manner exceptional (Wagner 187). Unless someone has some mental disability, any other type of disability does not deny an individual such a capability nor does it add anything to the courage of that person.

Disabled people are uneducable; this is also another misperception of some people. Several studies have proved that disabled people have the same academic abilities just like any other normal person. This is proved by the availability of disabled people in the world with high qualifications, and some others taking care of high-level jobs.

The worst and most common type of misperception is that students with disabilities are not intelligent. The presence of the word disability brings the idea of such students not able to learn. The fact that the word disable implies not able, makes people to create a very negative perception about those people who are disabled.

The fact about these people is that they can learn, but in a different way. Mostly in our cultural context, people define and classify intelligence depending on the academic performances of an individual (Wagner 105). Just because people with disability perform poorly in school, does not mean that they are not intelligent.

Most of such people have demonstrated some excellent skills and abilities, but unfortunately, such skills are not tested in school. When given an opportunity and some form of encouragement, people with disability can prove to be intelligent in some other fields though not necessarily in school work.

Moreover, most of people have a serious misperception about mental illness. This has resulted to patients who suffer from such disorders be afraid to seek for assistance because of fear of stigmatization. Religious sectors have the biggest percentage of people with misperception of such illness (Wagner 90).

We will write a custom Essay on Myths and Misperceptions of the Disability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some people claim mental disorders to be because of one being possessed with demons, or rather a punishment from God. The media has tried a great deal to change and shape the misperceptions of such people, by making them understand that such an illness is just like any other disorder.

There are so many misperception about illness that have been there for a long time, but the spread of knowledge through education, media and other aspects, people are becoming enlightened. Most of parents who have disabled children have suffered a great deal due to stigmatization brought about by misperceptions.

For instance, some people insult such parents by telling them that their children are suffering due to poor parenting. Such parents even fear to seek for treatment of their loved ones, as they also tend to believe what other people are saying. This is false because children from well up families are also victims of such illness in the same rate as children from poor families.

Moreover, those patients who suffer from mental illness, people tend to think that their disorders are because of stress (Wagner 312). To some extent, stress may trigger such conditions, but the real causes of such conditions are proved biologically. There are several patients, who do not have any history of stress, and they are later diagnosed with mental illness. People who have lived admirable lives free from stress, with good jobs and healthy families are also found suffering from mental disorders.

In conclusion, it has become a responsibility of all people with knowledge to enlighten others, who totally believe in such misperceptions (Beauttah 225). This act of judging things wrongly has caused fear and stigmatization to innocent people. Some parents are found even to keep their disabled children indoor due to stigmatization. It is the high time people stop applying these misperceptions in the real life and work on the reality.

Works Cited Beauttah, Trender. Myths and Misperceptions of Mental Illness. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.

Wagner, James. Myths and Misperceptions on Disability. Michigan: Cengage Learning, 2006. Print.

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Neorealism and Traditional Realism Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Overview of Neorealism

Differences between Neorealism and Traditional Realism

Weaknesses of Neorealism

Strengths of Neo-realism

References

Overview of Neorealism In the 1980s, there were emerging debates especially in the field of international relations focusing on world politics. Kenneth Waltz is credited for coming up with the Theory of International politics whose main focus is to initiate international theories of a scientific nature that have elicited the debate which has been witnessed hence giving birth to neo-realism.

Neo-realism is prevalent in studies related to security matters. It pays close attention to the importance attached to international system structures and the vital part it plays in shaping the state behavior. There are some differences between neo-realism and the earlier strains of realist thinking (WordPress, 2007).

Differences between Neorealism and Traditional Realism The first difference between neo-realism and traditional realism is that traditional realism looks at behavior of the state as being determined by the self-interest facet. On the other hand, neo-realism argues that the conduct or the behavior of a state is directed by the structure. In most cases, the structure of a political system is expressed in terms of the principles for organization used. In such a structure, individual states have the same survival interests in the end.

The other principle that defines the structure of an international system is the ability of the units to follow their interests. There are some differences where individuals with high capability become the leaders and create challenges that the rest have to contend with. This unequal distribution traditional realism argues it results in a balanced power behavior for the state (Clinton, 2007).

Neorealism and traditional realism do not view power the same way and this brings about the second difference between the two. According to the traditional realists, power to them was looked at as the means as well as the end. To them state behavior that was deemed rational comprised of amassing the most power one could amass. However, in neorealism, power is more than just having a wealth of resources and using the resources later to gain tutelage over other nations (WordPress, 2007).

The third difference between neo-realism and traditional realism is on the basis of how both treat and react to anarchy. According to traditional realists, anarchy is a characteristic of systems and how nations react is determined by the values held by leaders. On the other hand, neo-realists say that the system is defined by anarchy and the reaction of states to anarchy is dependent on the power and capability of the state (Waltz, 2003).

Weaknesses of Neorealism Neorealism has been criticized by a number of scholars due to its weaknesses. This theory has been criticized for its inability to make a difference between places and times which has resulted in numerous flaws in the theory. Neorealism looks down upon the changes that exist in the magnitude of interactions among systems. Instead, it makes an assumption that unit differentiation can be eliminated as a feature of the international system structure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For some duration of time, nations may be dominant in some performances but this may change later. At the end, there may be resurgence of concepts such as territoriality to portray the generative changes. The weakness of neo-realism is that it cannot explain such changes because of its static nature. This necessitates the application of other concepts to explain these changes (WordPress, 2007).

Another weakness of neo-realism is that though some of its tenets such as its assumption of rationality among states, it still has some contradictory concepts. For instance, the idea of seizing maximum power and power balancing by states has neer been absolutely clear.

This is because states whose endeavor is to preserve themselves have no business maximizing their power when they are not facing anything dangerous. Neorealism is therefore weak in explaining change and more so where the change emanates from states’ domestic structures.

Strengths of Neo-realism One of the strengths of neorealism is that it does not use the perspective of human nature in coming up with an explanation of the prevalence of conflict. Instead, the theory relies on international system state structure.

The reason why states get into conflict is not because of the human nature, but because the environment provides a suitable avenue of engaging in conflict. The existence of states is characterized by anarchy which occasions a state of uncertainty in the security matters. Neorealism has a close semblance of the theory of natural selection advanced by Darwin.

Most states are interested in security as opposed to glory and power since the ultimate goal is survival. Neorealism is an important theory because it puts states in a wider perspective and gives details of the advantages and disadvantages of the structure. This makes it possible to predict the behavior expected of states. The human nature is put aside in neorealism and instead what takes centre stage is the emphasis of impersonal state being the most critical in affairs of the world (WordPress, 2007).

The other strength of neorealism is that it is systemic. This is because the theory can make predictions and explanations in describing behavior without having to consider first image or even second image variables. Neorealism explains the behavior of states and the impact on the international system by using third image variables or structural variables whose level of operation is the same. This makes the approach systemic in the way it operates (Freyberg-Inan, 2004).

We will write a custom Essay on Neorealism and Traditional Realism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Clinton, D. (2007). The realist tradition and contemporary international relations. Washington: LSU Press.

Freyberg-Inan, A. (2004). What moves man: the realist theory of international relations and its Judgement of Human Nature. New York: SUNY Press.

Waltz, K. (2003). Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory. Web.

WordPress. (2007). International Politics as Social Science: Neorealism and Neoliberalism. Web.

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The Abolitionist Movement Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction The Abolitionist movement remains one of the most popular objects of historical analysis. Surrounded by political and social controversies, the Abolitionist movement exemplified the triumph of the new racial mentality and a call to end slavery in America.

Needless to say, the abolition of slavery was the turning point in the history of America. The entire story of the American way to prosperity could be roughly divided into two parts: before and after the abolition of slavery. Yet, like everything else in this world, the Abolitionist movement was not perfect.

Not all participants and leaders wanted to have the American society racially integrated. Many others used the Abolitionist movement as an instrument of socialization and self-fulfillment. Nonetheless, the Abolitionist movement in America was the first step in the country’s fight for racial equality – the fight, which seems to have no finish.

The Abolitionist movement gained momentum in the 19th century.[1] That was when many white Americans, including political and social leaders, joined the abolitionists and created a new, Abolitionist movement. At that time, the Abolitionist movement had two principal goals: first, to abolish slavery and, second, to racially integrate the American society.[2]

The latter was an extremely controversial task, since not all leaders were committed to anti-racist values. As the Abolitionist movement was reaching its culmination, the gap between anti-slavery and anti-racial moods became even more pronounced; many abolitionists were willing to eliminate slavery without giving Blacks sufficient self-development opportunities. Just a few, like John Brown, dared to fight for multi-racism and multiculturalism in America.[3]

The lack of political agreement was not the only problem faced by abolitionists. Most abolitionist leaders were of Northeastern origin, brought up in faith and piety, and educated in the best traditions of political conservatism.[4] They had fervor to lead but could not find any followers.[5] They entered the Abolitionist movement with a hope to realize their personal and political ambitions.

The movement of such scope and magnitude would enable them to reassert themselves with their traditional values and beliefs.[6] As a result, abolitionism turned into a movement, created to end slavery and, simultaneously, add meaning to the strivings and lives of the then social elite.[7]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Could the Abolitionist movement achieve all those purposes? Hardly so; rather, the complexity of the social meanings and principles caused confusion among leaders and their followers. For example, Frederick Douglass had to part with his lifetime ally, William Lloyd Garrison, on the premise that the latter refused to open and support a black-run newspaper.[8] Simultaneously, those controversies could not reduce the historical significance of the Abolitionist movement.

For the first time in the American history, slavery became a serious impediment to the cultural and social evolution among the states. Abolitionism as a means of self-expression caused profound influences on the structure of social relations in America: in a pursuit of challenge, young abolitionist leaders opened schools for blacks and invited them to their weddings.[9] In the meantime, restoring the traditional values of the social elite became one of the abolitionists’ top priorities.[10]

Abolitionism helped to personify the pain of social displacement and empowered young leaders. Abolitionism was the starting point in the subsequent evolution of the American society toward racial and social integration. It was also “an anguished protest of an aggrieved class against a world they never made”.[11] Although abolitionism never achieved the goal of racial integration, it became a starting point in the country’s fight for racial equality – the fight which seems to have no finish.

Conclusion The Abolitionist movement remains one of the central objects of history research. Much has been written and said about abolitionism and its implications for history. The importance of the Abolitionist movement cannot be overstated.

For the first time in the American history, slavery became a serious impediment to the cultural and social development among the states. Abolitionism was the starting point in the subsequent evolution of the American society toward racial and social integration. It became a starting point in the country’s fight for racial equality – the fight which seems to have no finish.

Bibliography Derman-Sparks, Louise, Patricia G. Ramsey, and Julie Olsen Edwards. What If All the Kids Are White? Anti-Bias Multicultural Education with Young Children and Families. New York: Teachers College Press, 2006.

Donald, David. “Toward a Reconsideration of Abolitionists.” In Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War, edited by David Donald, 19-36. New York: Random House, 1956.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Abolitionist Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes Louise Derman-Sparks, Patricia G. Ramsey, and Julie Olsen Edwards, What If All the Kids Are White? Anti-Bias Multicultural Education with Young Children and Families, (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006), 94.

Ibid.

Louise Derman-Sparks, Patricia G. Ramsey, and Julie Olsen Edwards, What If All the Kids Are White? Anti-Bias Multicultural Education with Young Children and Families, (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006), 96.

David Donald, “Toward a Reconsideration of Abolitionists”, in Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War, ed. David Donald (New York: Random House, 1956), 34.

Ibid.

Ibid., 35.

Ibid.

Louise Derman-Sparks, Patricia G. Ramsey, and Julie Olsen Edwards, What If All the Kids Are White? Anti-Bias Multicultural Education with Young Children and Families, (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006), 94.

Louise Derman-Sparks, Patricia G. Ramsey, and Julie Olsen Edwards, What If All the Kids Are White? Anti-Bias Multicultural Education with Young Children and Families, (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006), 94.

David Donald, “Toward a Reconsideration of Abolitionists”, in Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War, ed. David Donald (New York: Random House, 1956), 35.

Ibid.

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Michel Foucault Research Paper essay help

Michel Foucault was a famous and influential French philosopher. He was the leading individual who changed the idea of human body being a biological or physiological figure to a concept of sociology. He managed to change people’s mentality in the sense that the society normal or ordinary state of thinking and people’s perceptions changed significantly.

Foucault was also thought of as the greatest and most intellectual scholar and philosopher who lived until the time of his death in 1984(Fenves 369). He came up with very important theories that are still used today and have changed the outlook of society in many ways (Adomo 470). For example, he observed that criminal justice system was not working or performing well as per the expectations of society. As a result, he came up with the Panopticon principle that transformed the way jails and discipline for offenders was being perceived by society.

Interestingly, this principle has remained firm in place bearing in mind that the entire face of criminal justice system was gradually reshaped with the adoption of this principle. Foucault focused more on human sexuality as well as the concept of power and human discipline. He was also very much involved in the gay community in San Francisco.

Michel Foucault was born in Poitiers, France on October 15, 1926. His father and grandfather were physicians and although he was a brilliant student, he resisted his family and native country and traveled overseas when he fully came of age.

When he was 20 years old, he was accepted into the EcoleNormaleSuperieure (ENS) in Paris (Adomo 470). He was a student of philosophy and psychology. For a while he was a follower of communism, but later in life he changed his views. He graduated from ENS in 1952, and started his career immediately.

His career was known to be both intellectual and professional. He performed his roles with consistency and purpose. Foucault started his career as a teacher at University of Lille in France. From 1955 to 1960, he served as a cultural attaché in Uppsala, Sweden; Warsaw, Poland; and Hamburg, Germany. Later on in 1960 to 1966, he served as a professor at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France, (Bouchard 117). While he was there, he wrote his early monograms, which received attention, but only from a small audience.

In 1966 however, things turned around for him when he published Les Motset les chosestranslated in English to The Order of Things. After the publication of the latter, he attracted a much larger audience. As a result, he was considered an original and controversial thinker of his time. At this point, Foucault decided to become a professor at the University of Tunis in Tunisia from 1966 to 1968(James 340). He then went on to become the director of the philosophy department at the University of Paris, Vincennes for two years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970, he was given a seat in the history of systems of thought at the College de France (Adomo 470). It is imperative to note that this is one of France’s most prestigious institutions. This opened up the door to Foucault for conducting intensive research which lead to writings of his later works. Over the next thirteen years, he wrote quite a number of works, including his volumes on sexuality and Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison,as well as various essays.

He continued to travel throughout the rest of his life and managed to extend his reputation to places like Italy, Canada, Japan, Brazil, and the United States, where he spent relatively long periods of time. He also became a visiting lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley for several years, before his death in 1984. It was alleged that he died of HIV/AIDS which was then an emerging infection (Fenves 377).

The fourth volume of his history on sexuality was never completed. Foucault focused most of his research on finding out how to create some methodology on discipline that would be effective in society for purposes of controlling and regulating behavior that needs disciplining the body. He used the term disciplinary practices to describe institutions such as schools, churches as well as prisons which, to a large extent, assist in controlling and regulating any given society (Adomo 470).

These institutions are strategically placed in society to teach people how they are supposed to act or think, or when someone goes against societal rules, these rules and regulations are supposed keep them out of society by being locked behind bars. They are changing constantly to come up with new ways to make sure they can keep control and regulate how people act in society.

One of the easiest and most common ways to do this is by using surveillance (Bouchard 113). The constant monitoring of bodies and disciplining if necessary by these social institutions make people stay in line and behave how they are supposed to for fear of being disciplined. When people know or feel like they are being monitored, they act differently than they would if they were in their home or somewhere where there is no threat of punishment (Bertaux 366).

This has lead to what Foucault refers to as docile bodies which are produced through improvement of individuals’ behaviors through discipline, use, subjugate, discipline by various procedures and techniques of discipline (Adomo 470). A good example of this would be the way teachers and parents expect children to sit quietly and do their work or pay attention for long periods of time. We are always telling children to be quiet and listen or to keep their hands to themselves.

Eventually, they learn that they are supposed to be quiet when a teacher or fellow student is speaking, and that hitting is not appropriate (Adomo 470). I work at a children’s fitness center, and although the main focus of our classes are to help these children work on fitness, we also stress the ability to stay in line and wait for their turn, or listen when the teacher is explaining the game they are going to play.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Michel Foucault specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I have noticed that many children come into the program without ever having been in a structured setting before, and they have a hard time listening and doing what the rest of the class is doing, but after a few weeks, they sit nicely on their line and listen when they are supposed to (Bouchard 123).

This proves that institutions really do use techniques to control and improve the way people act, and to show children the appropriate social norms they will need for the rest of their lives. One of Foucault’s most influential theories is the Panopticon principle.

This theory is focused around the way prisons are run and how they keep control of inmates. The Panopticon is a large area with a tower in the center with rows of buildings surrounding it (Adomo 470). With this set up, each inmate can be monitored constantly, so they are under surveillance twenty-four hours a day. The inmate knows that he might be under watch, but he never knows if at any given moment he is being supervised, because they cannot see inside the supervisor’s room.

Knowing that they could possibly be under watch makes them maintain some form of control and act appropriately largely due to the fact that they fear going through a disciplinary action g should they get caught breaking some of the clearly set rules and regualtions (Bertaux 360).

Another example of this would be the way someone acts in a super market if they know that there are cameras in the store. Many store owners put cameras up that do not really work, but the sight of them makes shoppers believe that they are being taped. As a result, they are less likely to shoplift because they fear they will get caught (Adomo 470). A good real life example would also be the installation of cameras on school buses.

When I was young, my fellow school mates would sometimes run out of control while riding in school bus and as such, they could not listen to the bus driver. She got a camera installed in the front of the bus, and told us that the principal could see the feed. These made all the children in the bus to sit nicely and quietly in their seats. From that time onwards, the problem never persisted. The children were afraid since they developed some fear that someone in authority was keenly watching them, and therefore, they acted appropriately.

An explanation of his ideas in panoptical principles In a bid to fully understand and embrace modern forms of regulation in social field, many scholars have adopted the conceptual examples and principles of Michael Foucault’s panopticon theory. His ideas in the theory have compelled readers and analysts to contemplate that there is a possibility that panoptical theory has an explanatory frame that is useful, especially on contemporary practices of surveillance (Faubion 165).

In the panopticon theory, Foucault focuses on vital factors that include disciplinary actions via systems of social control and the concept of power-knowledge. In his ideas, he strongly believed that through observing others, individuals were able to gain control, power and become knowledgeable (Adomo 470).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Michel Foucault by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through it, all events that are taking place would be recorded, and every form of movement supervised. His theory has been lauded as a one that brought transition and transformation in disciplinary power seen from threats of discipline that creates a normalization of sorts (Hitchcock 124). Furthermore, from his ideas on panoptic discipline, an understanding that internalization of fear that an individual is being watched and the need to conform is created, and this achieves a positive response in behavior change that would not fully be achieved by total surveillance (Bertaux 354).

The question that begs is how this works. By building on Foucault’s principle, power comes from observation. The behavior and actions of an observer are based upon what he sees exhibited on a monitor (Bouchard 113). This knowledge combined with observation ensures that individuals are fabricated in social order. However, some analysts argue that this is one way that Foucault’s principle in limiting the freedom of others and oppressing them.

They further argue that this oppression comes from the threats and fact that a few individuals or groups manipulate others through control knowledge. While defending his principle, Foucault does not see the danger and oppression analysts are seeing (Adomo 470). Conversely, Foucault argues that through control knowledge, the repressions in social order created by individuals are minimized or reduced as panopticon fabricates individuals into social order.

On the issue of power, who does not have it and who has it, Foucault’s idea was not to create a situation where others dominate or rule subjects, but he intended to create a system that will ensure that leaders or those who wish to create order find a ;suitable way of solving conflicts and resistance. Additionally, in his wisdom, Foucault did not give physical weapons that individuals could use to create order. Instead, his idea provided a powerful instrument of analysis.

His idea has been adopted by many in urban public spaces, schools and offices where individual are induced to transform and conform to social order through surveillance. This has aided inn reducing pervasiveness and resistance to change in the society.

His ideas have not received full support especially from a cross section of opposers of Foucault’s principles who think this is a violation of individuals’ right by use of intrusive electronics to control and modify behavior. The issue of freedom and security has plagued Foucault’s theories since his ideas are being seen as ways of incarcerating individuals who are in workplaces, public places and those going about their businesses (Faubion 158).

It is imperative to underscore the fact that Foucault’s ideas make sense. This can be supported by the fact that unlike the former society that preceded contemporary one, resistance to change and conformity has tremendously increased( Fenves 369). The structure of the contemporary society has grown worse and become different since it lacks power to transform, instead, as Foucault puts it, relies on enlightenment reforms that bear inherent dangers inasmuch as they are made for and intended to correct barbarity (Bouchard 114).

The latter, is intended to be corrected via enlightenment reforms that seeks to create order in the society via constructing learning institutions, modernizing medicine and elimination of dungeons (Adomo 470). In his ideas, Foucault claims that even with reforms, the issue of power and surveillance will be included since changes cause disturbance and the latter calls for order exercised through control and power. Moreover, the idea fronted by Foucault is based on carceral culture rather that the normal culture of spectacle.

In it, he argues that formerly, and this is true in some societies today, the forms of discipline included obliteration, dismemberment and body torture. Other forms of discipline, especially in the aforementioned obliteration, rehabilitation occurs as well as internalization through a constitution. In his idea, creating reforms requires adoption of panopticon theory (Bertaux 354). For instance, in a prison set up, ensuring that there is order in the cells, creation of a surveillance tower would effectively control and monitor every movement.

Creating on at the centre of a prison facility makes prisoners to feel that an individual is watching them inasmuch as they can not determine whether a person is in the tower (Bouchard 119). Adopting the prison example, Foucault claims that this can be used in both capitalist and democratic societies to maintain order. He believes that to create order, the populace must at all times know that someone somewhere is watching them.

The advantage of this would be that the populace will police themselves through internalizing their own panoptic surveillance towers (Adomo 470) . The knowledge of being watched and the power of constraint aid individuals in taking responsibility in their actions. As such they play both the roles of subjection to internalized surveillance and power over their behavior.

Today, governments and federal agencies have adopted the idea of Foucault and modernized it through modern technology whereby they track the behavior .and movements of the populace with systems of control such as surveillance cameras in public places, credit cards, ATM’s, the census, social security numbers, cell phones, telephones and the internet.

The use of Panopticon is a carceral culture and idea that has been diffused to affect urban planning through discouraging concealment and monitoring movements. Additionally, it is used in learning institutions, factory architecture and hospitals.

The idea of ponopticon schema and its application is polyvalent. Foucalt argued that it has been used to induce idlers and beggars to work, supervise workers, confine the insane, instruct school children, and treat patients and reform prisons (Bouchard 113). Through it, intervention and instruments of power are defined, power is channeled and disposed to its powers, and hierarchical organizations as well as distribution of individual are tracked and located.

His idea was to have a society in which its functions are generalized. This is evident today in the manner in which the contemporary society has become a part of the panoptic mechanism. As a matter of fact, Foucault’s idea has been used today to internalize regulations and rules to bring conformity.

Societies such as the American society that is fond of committing violence to innocent subjects just for the sake of following authorities (Adomo 470). Internalizing rules aids in contesting unjust rules through naturalizing them. Additionally, rather than the crude, old-fashioned, unusual and cruel punishment that many societies in the nineteenth century and even today apply to rehabilitate law breakers, the use of ponopticon would be a normal way of creating reforms.

Early reform methods have been considered to be inhumane to the insane and prisoners. For instance, Foucault argues that the use of torture affects the private aspects of individuals’ lives. The idea of using ponopticon in effect acts as a judge everywhere such that social workers, educators, teachers and every other individual will feel that someone is watching them and ready to judge them for their actions(Faubion 148).

Other important aspects of the theory are that through the ponopticon, specialization of workforce in an organization increases, efficiency is built and value placed in organizing individuals and data to effect dissemination of information and goods as wel as to effect mass production despite injustices or exploitations.

An analysis of his theories To understand social regulation and its modern forms, it is imperative to adopt the conceptual exemplar of the panopticon metaphor created by Michel Foucault. In the field of surveillance and in a post-panoptic world, the use of panopticon has drawn critical reactions and questions on its relevance. During the practice of contemporary surveillance, determining the usefulness of panopticon requires analyzing its course using an explanatory frame (Fenves 369).

Readers and analysts of Foucault’s ideas and who seek to determine the possibility of a panopticon to work effectively in light of complex situations have been compelled to contemplate on how they can go beyond the conceptual boundaries of this multifaceted and rich concept to the implications of its manifold functions (Adomo 470). Critiques have blamed the idea of surveillance technology to interference with individuals’ freedoms and security.

Monitoring and tracking individual who are not incarcerated doing their normal daily activities through surveillance cameras claiming to modify or control their behavior is a violation of their rights. They further argue that the intrusive electronic society formed by the panoptic mechanism is in itself pervasive and hence cannot manage the information that it is collecting and tracking.

In analyzing his theories, it is important to find answers to a number of issues that includes the possibility of mobilizing a counter- power to manage the power systems in the society, create a power that resists existing powers or surrender and allow individuals to be controlled and be manipulated by forces endeavoring to manage people from afar(Bertaux 354).

Some of the core themes that are instructive and solid found in the study of surveillance includes visibility, subjectivity, resistance, normativity and power. His idea has been adopted by many in urban public spaces, schools and offices where individual are induced to transform and conform to social order through surveillance.

This has aided inn reducing pervasiveness and resistance to change in the society (Adomo 470). His ideas have not received full support especially from a cross section of opposers of Foucault’s principles who think this is a violation of individuals’ right by use of intrusive electronics to control and modify behavior. The issue of freedom and security has plagued Foucault’s theories since his ideas are being seen as ways of incarcerating individuals who are in workplaces, public places and those going about their businesses.

It is imperative to note that Foucault’s theories such as that of governmentality and panopticon have raised controversies among analysts. This has been observed in the manner at which individuals have felt that like in the former society that preceded this contemporary one, resistance to change and conformity has tremendously increased (Faubion 149).

As already mentioned, the structure of the contemporary society has grown worse and become different since it lacks power to transform, instead, as Foucault puts it, relies on enlightenment reforms that bear inherent dangers inasmuch as they are made for and intended to correct barbarity (Adomo 470).

The latter, is intended to be corrected via enlightenment reforms that seeks to create order in the society via constructing learning institutions, modernizing medicine and elimination of dungeons. In his ideas, Foucault claims that even with reforms, the issue of power and surveillance will be included since changes cause disturbance and the latter calls for order exercised through control and power (Fenves 369).

These themes and their key problematics are nuanced by Foucauldian interpretations or by alternative theoretical frameworks. On the other hand, since most studies have focused on the negative aspects of surveillance, it is imperative to critically focus on the epistemological way forward. Looking at it in a determistic and dystopian way, sociologists argue that surveillance offers moral governance through monitoring programs.

The ideas of Michel Foucault have over the years led to significant developments of the surveillance systems (Faubion 357). However, research studies have indicated the various limitations in the foundational concepts of panopticon claiming that the explanations that Foucault has given in his ideas on surveillance are insufficient. This is observed in how it functions.

By building on Foucault’s principle, power comes from observation. The behavior and actions of an observer are based upon what he sees exhibited on a monitor. This knowledge combined with observation ensures that individuals are fabricated in social order (Bertaux 354). However, some analysts argue that this is one way that Foucault’s principle in limiting the freedom of others and oppressing them.

They further argue that the oppression comes from the threats and the fact that a few individuals or groups manipulate others through control knowledge. While defending his principle, Foucault does not see the danger and oppression analysts are seeing. Conversely, Foucault argues that through control knowledge, the repressions in social order created by individuals are minimized or reduced as panopticon fabricates individuals into social order (Adomo 470).

On the issue of power, who does not have it and who has it, Foucault’s idea was not to create a situation where others dominate or rule subjects, but he intended to create a system that will ensure that leaders or those who wish to create order find a ;suitable way of solving conflicts and resistance. Additionally, in his wisdom, Foucault did not give physical weapons that individuals could use to create order. Instead, his idea provided a powerful instrument of analysis.

The ideas of Michel Foucault have over the years led to significant developments of the surveillance systems. However, research studies have indicated the various limitations in the foundational concepts of panopticon claiming that the explanations that Foucault has given in his ideas on surveillance are insufficient (Fenves 369). Analysts observe that the argument on Foucault’s principle that power comes from observation betrays the suitability of panopticon the best in contemporary surveillance dynamics.

Inasmuch as the behavior and actions of an observer are based upon what he sees exhibited on a monitor, it alters the metaphor of panopticon with complex perspectives beyond panopticon such as seen in foucault’s governmentality theory such as models of assemblage, social sorting and concepts of hyper-control. This knowledge combined with observation critics depicts his ideas induces and fabricates individuals into social order (Bertaux 354).

Additionally, some analysts argue that this is one way that Foucault’s principle in limiting the freedom of others and oppressing them. They further argue that the oppression comes from the threats and the fact that a few individuals or groups manipulate others through control knowledge. Moreover, other analysts are of the opinion that through control knowledge, the repressions in social order created by individuals are minimized or reduced as panopticon fabricates individuals into social order (Faubion 148).

On the issue of power, who does not have it and who has it, Foucault’s idea was not to create a situation where others dominate or rule subjects, but he intended to create a system that will ensure that leaders or those who wish to create order find a ;suitable way of solving conflicts and resistance. Additionally, in his wisdom, Foucault did not give physical weapons that individuals could use to create order. Instead, his idea provided a powerful instrument of analysis.

The growth of panoptic surveillance has been regarded as a form of oppression that is spread by Foucault’s theory of governmentality. The knowledge of being watched and the power of constraint threaten the security of a populace.

As such they play both the roles of subjection to internalized surveillance and power over their behavior (Bertaux 353). Today, governments and federal agencies have adopted the idea of Foucault and modernized it through modern technology whereby they track the behavior .and movements of the populace with systems of control such as surveillance cameras in public places, credit cards, ATM’s, the census, social security numbers, cell phones, telephones and the internet (Adomo 470).

The use of Panopticon is a carceral culture and idea that has been diffused to affect urban planning through discouraging concealment and monitoring movements. Additionally, it is used in learning institutions, factory architecture and hospitals.

Works Cited Adomo, Theodor. Parataxis: Zur spaten Lyrik Holderlins.Noten zur Literatur. 1(2005) :447-494. Bertaux, Pierre. Was Holderlin mentally Ill? Philosophy Today 37.4 (2007): 353-368.

Bouchard, Donald. 2009. Language Counter-Memory–Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, translated by Donald Bouchard

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Debate of Abortion Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Body of the Essay

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Abortion is defined as the termination of the life of a fetus while still in the mother’s womb. The practice is not a new phenomenon in human life since many contemporary societies engaged in it in the past. Women have been in record for making decisions to carry out abortions or experiencing it under the influence of other individuals for a long period of time. In modern society, it is a controversial and hard subject to deal with.

Questions have been raised about who is most responsible in making the decision of procuring an abortion. Some people say that it is individuals who make the decision to carry out an abortion while others argue that it is the state. There are also questions regarding the circumstances that may lead to the procurement of an abortion. The practice continues to take place in developing countries under medical conditions that have been described as demanding.

However, the increase in technological advancements and changes in social set ups has led to the incorporation of abortion in modern health provisions. The practice has also been a source of political debate in some communities leading to lack of agreement on the place of a woman in the society and the freedom of an individual to make decisions without influence (Free dictionary 1). Abortion should be discouraged because it denies innocent children a chance to live.

Body of the Essay It is shocking that approximately forty two million abortions are procured in a year with more than one hundred thousand taking place every day (Edlin

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Social Construct of Codes Essay essay help

Green building advancement dates back to the late nineteenth century when it started with the concepts of environmental conservation and preservation, and public health protection. The idea at that time was opposed because the public felt that it contradicted social norms that defined how a private home should be constructed for the good of the public. It was later accepted as a measure of environmental conservation and at the present, green building programmes are fully established departments in various counties in the United States.

Home builder associations and non-governmental bodies have taken the collective responsibility in advocating for green building. Many people now believe that these programmes reflect a paradigm shift in the cultural perspective, in view of public health and environmental conservation (Moore, and Nathan 51).

Building codes in the United States were adopted as a result of understanding and acceptance of the present day crisis where some individuals misuse the freedom and put up substandard buildings that pose danger to public health and safety. The legislation of the law may have received political scrutiny that could have led to delay of implementation were it not for the devastating fires of nineteenth century that destroyed eleven cities.

Moreover, it is clearly evident how urbanization and industrialization processes have degraded the environment by polluting both air and water. There have also been reported cases where industries deliberately spilled their waste products into conduits that drained into clean water springs thus compromising the public health of people who depend upon this springs for clean water.

Such acts have made the Government to urgently develop building codes in order to resuscitate the environment that is already degraded. Proper disposal of wastes not only by industries, but also the general public has been emphasized. For instance, the codes stipulate that any developer should never construct buildings on top of drainages. In addition, all houses should have proper drainage systems and septic tanks.

The inception of building codes has shaped the path followed in this industry. For instance, it has pushed away constructors from the use of paints with volatile organic compounds to those without. Also building using wood is being discouraged because cutting of trees has led to destruction of environment.

The codes have also called for the use of technologically developed building materials like tiles that does require painting as well as pvc pipes that do not rust. All these measures are geared towards preserving the environment by reducing air pollution and thus safeguarding public health (Moore, and Nathan 57). Of equal importance, the use of non volatile paint and avoiding wood in construction has greatly helped in prevention of fire.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism holds the opinion that private homes either add to or reduce public wherewithal. With reference to industries, two types of damages are observed. The first one is air pollution resulting from oil refinery. The second type of damage is water pollution by disposal of waste products into clean water sources.

The point of view held by the utilitarian theory is that the private property freedom should be minimized and closely monitored in order to reduce government revenue spent in rehabilitating the environment. As a result the cost maintaining the economy may reduce. In their opinion, green building codes promotes the general welfare of the public (Moore, and Nathan 60).

In conclusion, the green building programme should be understood as an attempt to find a lasting solution to environmental problems that have resulted from construction industry, especially in real estate development. Standardization of the codes that to cut across the construction industry will ensure that environmental conservation is upheld by ensuring that buildings are put up using the highest possible standards.

Green building can therefore be defined as a new social good that is within the jurisdictions of politics (Moore and Nathan 69). Lastly, green building program represents building codes as cultural and social standards that are based on collectively derived values targeted at public good.

Works Cited Moore, Steven A., and Nathan Engstrom. “The Social Construct of ‘Green Building’ Codes.” Sustainable Architectures: Cultures and Natures in Europe and North America. Ed. Simon Guy and Steven A. Moore. New York: Spon Press, 2005. 51- 70. Print.

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Kool-aid’s Market Segmentation Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Introduction In defining market segmentation, one can say that it is a section of a market comprising of people or institutions with the same characteristics that cause demand for same products. A good segment should be able to meet its specific needs and be unique to other segments. In addition, another criterion that should be evident is being homogenous in that, it should have common needs of the market. Lastly, a good market segment should be responsive to the market stimulus and be accessible at any point in time (Nelson, 2001).

Kool-aid This is a soft drink powder that is made using water; it is rich in Vitamin C and it is available in different fun flavors, which are good for kids as they keep them hydrated. Kool-aid retails at a third the cost of regular soda with a third less sugar content (Kool-Aid, 2011)

Market segmentation

In segmenting markets, there are important considerations that need to be in place which include

To better, the consumer needs through creating of different offers in each of the segments thus providing the customers with a variety of solutions that they can choose. In this regard, Kool-aid has a variety of different flavors that kids can choose.

Increased profit margin for the business; this is attributable to the fact that customers have different income disposal ways hence they become sensitive to the pricing of the products. Kool-aid has a pricing that is three times lower than most sodas thus making much more sales.

Improved growth opportunities; a good example to this is when customers are introduced to certain products and encouraged to them through their low price hence building on the business sales in return.

Helps in retaining customers; this can be done through marketing of products that appealing to the customers in different stages in life.

Helps in targeting market communications; this can be justified through reaching of more targeted customers more often at minimal cost (Doug, 2007).

Demographic segmentation In demographic segmentation, division of markets into groups is done taking into consideration variables that are associated to the family setup. These variables form the most popular bases in market segmentation. This is due to the fact the customers’ needs revolves around variables like income and age. Another feasible reason is the availability of data for the process of demographic segmentation (Tutor2u, 2011)

Age

In order to market a product, one has to consider the consumer wants since they change with age. There is a need to design and market a product depending on the age group of the target market. Thus to this example in order to market the Kool-aid product in Australia, one has to consider that it is a product for kids hence should be suited for kids.

Gender

Segmentation in demographic view in terms of gender is widely applicable in marketing geared towards the consumer. This can be done by making the Kool-aid drink packages in pictures that reflect on gender parity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Family size

This demographic segmentation variable considers how big the family size is. This affects the consumption or usage rate of a product. In a family with most members being kids, Kool-aid will be marketable in these families since the target market selection is right.

Income

In segmenting a market in terms of income, focus should be on the income of the consumer. When marketing a product, affluent consumers should be targeted with luxury goods and convenient services. Kool-aid can retail mostly in affluent families who like going for outings.

Education

This is marketing of a product based on the market segment depending on education level or status of the target market. In an example of the Kool-aid product, it can be designed to be educative since it is meant for kids.

Family life cycle

The consumers’ lifestyles or lifecycles adversely affects the demand of products in the market. In winning new markets, many marketing agencies design and advertise their products in many different styles and categories depending on the consumer needs.

Occupation

In segmenting a market according to occupation, the market is divided into different segments according to activities associated with the segment. Since kids like playing, Kool-aid is a good product for them since it is for fun.

Religion

This is done by grouping of market segments into different groups in regards to religious backgrounds of the target markets.

Nationality

Different nations use different products hence it is a good practice in marketing to know what type of products appeals to different nations.

We will write a custom Assessment on Kool-aid’s Market Segmentation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Geographic segmentation This type of segmentation divides the target market into different units according to geographical settings. Geographic segmentation is important when dealing with multi-national or global products. In the market niche required for a product, there is need for regional marketing programs depending on geographical units. In marketing Kool-Aid, consideration has to be on what different flavors appeal to each geographic region (Michman, 1991).

Region

This segmentation is done according to regions that can be an expanse of a country or an area such as a metropolitan city or town.

City size

This is done in regard to clusters in population. The segmentation considers population within a certain range or to a specific level.

Density

In this type of segmentation, consideration for the target market is on the population density within the area.

Climate

In segmenting a market in terms of climatic area, one should consider area such as northern area or southern area. This will enable marketing of the product easier and will reach more target market.

Psychographic segmentation This type of segmentation is based on behavioral relationship of the customers towards a product and this gives insight on how to relate with the segments. The products and marketing of the products should be customized to appeal to the specific customers. In this scenario, Kool-aid packaging can be done in such a way that it can appeal to kids through making it more colorful and attractive (Gupta and Donald, 2005).

Life style

In terms of lifestyle, Kool-aid is generally for kids hence to reach this market segment there is need to include things like cartoons on the drink.

Personality

This type of segmentation covers the general personal traits of a customer in terms interests.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kool-aid’s Market Segmentation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Status

This type of psychographic segmentation covers the customer social status in the market segment.

Socioeconomic

This type of market segmentation is all about combining market variables such as income, education, and occupation in deriving segments that can be easily reached.

Behavioral segmentation In segmenting a market in terms of behavioral, the customers are divided into groups that are categorized depending on their response on a new product.

Occasions

A product is marketed depending on its time of consumption or purchase. This can be explained by example of cereals, which are traditionally marketed as breakfast product (Russell, 2001).

Benefit sought

This is an important base of segmentation in terms of behavioral segmentation. In this segmentation, the marketers need to understand the customers’ needs towards a product and what sort of benefit it has to them. An example to this is a market for toothpaste, which derives four main benefits. These benefits include economic, cosmetic, taste and medicinal. Thus in marketing Kool-aid consideration has to be on the benefits it offers to the target market (Yankelovich, 2006; Meer, 2006).

Loyalty status

In segmenting a market in terms of the loyalty status, more attention should be on the loyal customers as being of great value to the business. It is better to segment a market into groups of loyal customers who are easy to retain than those who rarely display loyalty to a product (Kaul andTomaselli, 1999).

Buyer-readiness stage

In segmenting a product, consideration has to on how ready the target market is for the said product.

Usage rate

This type of segmentation considers dividing the markets in regards to the ratings of the users of the product. This can grouped into light users, medium and heavy users.

Attitude towards product

This type of segmentation tends to justify how the customers react to products in the market. In case of the Kool-aid product, it can explain how the kids react to the drink (Biennial, 1997).

Conclusion Market segmentation is a concept in marketing that is a broad idea and helps the marketers in applying more or their energy towards getting a market niche. In implementing market segmentation, a business can achieve brand positioning in the market for the products. Segmentation helps a business have a template for their product development. All these benefits put across justifies that market segmentation is a valuable asset to a business hence all businesses should be encouraged to practice market segmentation (Croft, 1994).

References Biennial, F., 1997. Household Spending: Who spends How Much on What. Ithaca, N.Y: New Strategist Publications.

Croft, J., 1994. Market Segmentation: A Step-By-Step Guide to Profitable New Business. London: Routledge.

Doug, G., 2007. What is Customer Segmentation. New York, NY: MindofMarketing.net.

Gupta, S. and Donald, L., 2005. Managing Customers as Investments: The Strategic Value of Customers in the Long Run. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education/Wharton School Publishing.

Kaul, C. and Tomaselli, V., 1999. Statistical Handbook on Consumption and Wealth in the United States. Phoenix, Ariz: Oryx Press.

Kool-Aid, 2011. Affordable and fun to drink. Web.

Michman, R., 1991. Lifestyle Market Segmentation. New York: Praeger.

Nelson, C., 2001. Market Segmentation. Web.

Russell, C., 2001. Best Customers: Of Consumer Demand. Ithaca, NY: Strategist Publications.

Tutor2u, 2011. Market segmentation: Introduction. Web.

Yankelovich, D. and Meer, D., 2006. Rediscovering Market Segmentation. Harvard Business Review.

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Comparison of Ethnicity and Racism in “Country Lovers” and “The Welcome Table” Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion of the similarities between the two literary works

Discussion of the differences between the two literary works

Conclusion

References

Introduction In this analysis, the paper explores literary comparison of two pieces of literature that share thematic similarities yet differentiated in some literary facets. The discussion introduces “Country Lovers”, a story written by Nadine Gordimer and “The Welcome Table” by Alice Walker. In spite being written by two different literary authors, both works have devoted their contribution towards depicting racism as the main thematic outfit.

In a nutshell, Nadine’s story is set in South Africa during the post-colonial apartheid rule that woefully drew racial lines while defining the privileged white class and the underprivileged majority blacks. On a separate literary entity, Walker’s “The Welcome Table” is set in an American modern society experiencing social revolution under civil rights movements. She represents the plight of an old and rural African- American woman who fails to use the advantages of the freedom gained to struggle for her share of social rights.

The analysis further offers literary elements used in representing racism and ethnicity through a critical synopsis. The discussion will entail language, style and form as used in both pieces and how they have been instrumental in qualifying the similarities and differences in connection with their literary content. Such elements will include tone, symbolic representations, dramatic irony, and allegory narrative.

In its entirety, the paper will seek to bring forth the main theme of racism and ethnicity as depicted by both works while taking advantage of the contemporary elements that serve to unite both texts through a comparative analytic approach.

Discussion of the similarities between the two literary works The first element that depicts a similarity between these two texts is the use of contrast as a literary style. Taking the work of Alice Walker, she employs descriptive language as she narrates the condition of the black woman, “beaten by king cotton and the extreme weather”; the condition of her clothing items (Walker, 1984).

The other forms include, “a long rusty dress adorned with an old corsage, long withered, and the remnants of an elegant silk scarf as head rag stained with grease from many oily pigtails underneath” (Walker, 1984). Looking at these descriptions, the author puts through the reader through a voyage to understand and actualize the suffering of the old black woman.

To illustrate the similarity, Nadine’s description of the condition at school between the whites and the blacks exemplifies this. She points out the scenario where they begin calling their mates who are a little older “missus and baasie – little master”. This situation is later reinforced in the entire text. This attributes exhibited by use of similar language technique has been sustained throughout the both texts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same length, the language used has also depicted the way in which the authors bring out the differences that define these two sets of people within a similar setting. This contrast brought out is one of styles that both writers have capitalized on to vividly highlight the racial divide that exists within their areas of interest.

The second feature that unites the two writings is the use of Narration as a literary element. Narration Alice walker fully employs a narrative in form of parables which she uses to display the abstract message that points to some literary meaning. In doing this, she depicts the church’s reaction to the woman as a moral teaching to the readers through her parabolic representations.

An instance that point to this is when a question is posed, “could their husbands have expected them to sit in church with that?” (Walker, 1984). The husbands’ move to eject her from the church was a moral teaching embedded in form of a parable. Similarly, Nadine uses a narrative to show the trendy movement of Thebedi’s life as she falls in love with Paulus up to the last moment varying (Gordimer, 2002).

Putting together their bits of the story through an organized tale or narration forms proses that give a similar image to both works.

The other strict similarity is the choice and use of a major a character who is a female protagonist. In both cases, the texts have devoted their concerns to the plight of a black female who is deposed off her meaning within the realms of the society. As a result, the protagonists all play a role of fighting the existing injustices and who represents their thematic concerns of racial inequities.

In all the texts, the female character struggles with discrimination due to the color of their skin. According to both stories.this suffering can equally be experienced by any average human but more dramatic representations are created from the continued suppression within this appalling state.

Thirdly, they both detest the situation on a rather protesting tone throughout their entire narrations for instance, in Walker’s story, the woman says “I’m going to sit at the welcome table, shout my troubles over, walk and talk with Jesus, tell God how you treat me, one of these days!” (Walker, 1984).

We will write a custom Essay on Comparison of Ethnicity and Racism in “Country Lovers” and “The Welcome Table” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This statement is a clear show of the harsh tone that clearly exhibits itself through her choice of words and the character’s manner of showing protest and dissatisfaction with the kind of treatment she receives from the other set of “people”. During the court case, Nadine uses her character Thebedi to show her a furry and anger about the outright racial injustice of the day as the case is dropped against Paulus as she cries out before the court varying (Gordimer, 2002).

These stories continue to depict the appalling state in which an African black woman thrives from childhood to maturity through trauma of discrimination and racial prejudice. In both the literary works, it is clear that they point at the devastating effects of the trendy racial representation in a post-colonial era (Gordimer, 2002). In Nadine Gordimer’s story, the text is attuned to the injurious consequences of planned differentiation and division within an Afrikaner dominated society is the understanding of Nadine Gordimer’s story.

To justify this situation the Immorality Act of 1950 is an asset in understanding of her protesting voice against the condition. The Act illegalized all sexual relationships between people of varying (Gordimer, 2002).

Further analysis shows how irony has heavily been amplified in both stories with all writers trying to show how opposite the situations are contrary to how they should be. Taking for instance the irony that is eminent in the title, it showcases an African-American woman wondering in some sort of absent-mindedness entering a white church. As the woman tries to approach the church, the reverend refers to her as “Auntie you know this is not your church” as he tries to discourage her entry into the church.

It is rather dramatic irony as the reader does not expect the reverend that is in fact related to the woman to turn her away. To her surprise, she finds no welcome which becomes even much shocking (Porter, Hayes, Michael,

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Foreign Workforce in Malaysia Essay best college essay help

The rapid economic growth in Malaysia in recent years can be partially linked to positive role of foreign workforce that accounts for about 20% of the entire human resource base (Bedi, 2008, par. 4). Moreover, continuous influx of both skilled and unskilled workers in this country has reversed myriad of negative economic effects by narrowing labor scarcity gap.

Essentially, foreign workers in Malaysia are widely spread across most sectors of the economy but most importantly, they dominate industries that accommodate unskilled labor force such as manufacturing, construction and agriculture (Kadir et al., 2005, p. 42). Foreign workers who mostly originate from Indonesia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, India and Vietnam flood into Malaysia lured by the promise of decent employment which is often absent in their own countries (Bedi, 2008, par. 6).

However, the positive perception on significant role played by foreign workers is slowly changing with time (Bedi, 2008, par. 2). The fact that foreign workers in Malaysia play significant role in nation building is not disputable. However, the big question is whether the perceived benefits surpass cost. This essay explores both the positive and negative attributes of foreign workers in Malaysia.

At some point during 1980s, construction industry in Malaysia was hard hit by acute shortage of labor due to the rapid pace of development (Karim, Abdullah

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Product Proliferation Qualitative Research Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Product proliferation concept

Challenges associated with product proliferation

References

Introduction Given the great implications, either negatively or positively that product proliferation has on a firm as outlined in this observation it is paramount that firms understand the dynamics resulting from proliferation of their products.

Besides, the concept of product proliferation has other implications related to logistics, marketing and overall product management among others, while opting not to proliferate also has its implications. It is these pros and cons of product proliferation and an analysis of this very concept that this paper intends to discuss; additionally this paper will review the challenges faced by firms during product proliferation in order to arrive at a fair conclusion regarding its suitability.

Product proliferation concept The concept of product proliferation in business is attributed to three major outcomes; one, it increases the product demand and ultimately boosts sales, secondly, because of increased demand the distributions costs consequently increases as well as other logistics and finally for strategic purposes (Gruca, Sudharshan and Kumar, 2001). This in general summarizes all the implications that product proliferation has on firms and the market at large and is the basis upon which we shall also base our arguments.

Thus, because firms are for one reason or another motivated to undertake proliferation strategy based on these reasons, it is essential that they be aware of the downside of this strategy. In essence product proliferation is portrayed by three key characteristics; “large number of new product introductions, wide product variety, and long product lines” (Bayus and Putsis, 1999).

Most often, product proliferation strategy is largely pursued by firms for two broad reasons; to increase sales and as a barrier to entry strategy for other firms that are interested in entering the industry (Bayus and Putsis, 1999).

Unfortunately in doing so, the flipside of it is increased costs and other managerial challenges that incidentally emanate from that very strategy; thus it becomes necessary for firms to undertake sort of a cost-benefit analysis that analyzes the end benefits that it hopes to reap by considering these other factors. As it would seem, based on current evidence it appears that product proliferation has in fact less benefits than is always thought to be the case; it is this evidence that we shall review in the following section.

Challenges associated with product proliferation No doubt that one of the critical factors that informs product proliferation is the need by a firm to bar new entrants from entering the market, but in doing so this strategy inherently increases production costs of the same products, which is one of the major determinants that shapes the outcome of competing firms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, the empirical evidence to support this has existed for long when this observation was first noted by Hauser and Shugan (1983) who are attributed for developing the Defender Model which addresses the most viable options that firms should pursue in deterring new entrants from their industry (Cited in Gruca et al, 2001).

Not surprisingly, the Defender model suggests a strategy to the incumbent firm that “reduces price and decreases market spending” (Gruca et al, 2001): both these strategies are not consistent with product proliferation concept.

Now this strategy as advanced in this Defender Model makes sense when you consider that lowering product price when faced by a new market threat will influence customer’s choice and thereby spur sales to the disadvantage of the new entrant.

But this is not the case when product proliferation is pursued as a strategy since it increases the overall overhead costs, distribution logistics and a myriad of other costs that emanates from such a strategy such as promotional materials, personnel training, sourcing for variety of raw materials, inventory costs and advertising costs among others (Berman, 2011).

Furthermore, product proliferation most often results to reduced production rates, complicates the process of supply chain management and at times requires customization of the manufacturing process; all these have cost implications. No better is this cost implications exemplified than in Pepsi Company which incurs various costs due to its product proliferation as documented by one study in which it states

“For us, every time we change a flavor let’s say we go from Pepsi to Diet Pepsi to Mountain Dew we have a sanitation process we go through. So, we’re losing between 12 and 15 minutes downtime when we’re doing this. Over a day’s time, if we run eight different flavors, we’re losing two hours of production time” (Berman, 2011).

This implies that firms have to ensure that resulting costs are superseded by the benefits and increased profits that such product proliferation offers. A very recent study by Berman (2011) which sampled a total of 424 CEOs in which it investigated the cost-benefit analysis of product proliferation in their companies concludes that this strategy had “approximately 50% of the respondents stated product portfolio complexity has a ‘negative or somewhat negative’ impact on a firm’s cost competitiveness and lead time”.

We will write a custom Essay on Product Proliferation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This indicates that product proliferation has indeed less benefits overall compared to associated costs; in fact on a comparative basis the study states that product proliferation has “negative or somewhat negative impact on capital efficiency (45%), profitability (35%), product quality (32%), sales effectiveness (29%), and customer service/satisfaction (24%) (Berman, 2011).

While the incumbent firms may justify their product proliferation strategy by deterring new entrants in the market, the long term gains for adopting this strategy maybe lost due to accumulating costs necessary to sustain such a strategy, and because the bottom line for any firm is to maximize profit then this strategy becomes questionable.

In any case, barring new entrants to the industry nurtures oligopolistic market behavior which means that competition is suffocated, this leads to two adverse implications; one, because of the oligopolistic in the market, lack of competition results which means that such firms can increase prices on their products beyond what can be considered normal since there are no other players in the market to guide against such price hikes.

Secondly, because such firms even if not oligopolistic constantly require to sustain their strategy of product proliferation means that they have to pass the resulting costs to customers through their products pricing which means customers do not benefit from fair prices.

So in essence the customer neither benefits from low price gains nor product quality that they will expect by paying more. Additionally, as much as the firms may also justify the need for product proliferation on satisfying customer’s diverse tastes and unique requirements, current evidence indicates that there is a limit upon which such gains can be made, beyond which customer confusion occurs.

At least two research studies by Drummond and Rule (2005) and Soo et al (2004) documents the evidence of confusion and stress caused by product proliferation where both studies observes that increased variety of product choice translates to customer confusion and is a source of stress to sizable number of customers who get torn between products and are thereby unable to make a definite choice finally.

In conclusion, of all the benefits that firms expect to reap from the strategy of product proliferation, it would appear that only minimal gains can be achieved while related costs can only soar with each addition of product type.

Considering that product proliferation is in fact half the time not even motivated by profit or even the need to secure market, then the use of this strategy by firms as a long term business strategy becomes even more questionable. This is because factors such as inability to prune products and manage product life cycles for instance which in one way or another also lead to product proliferation are actually organizational weaknesses that are not based on the need to boost a firm’s sales or profits.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Proliferation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact of the three major categories of factors that facilitate product proliferation i.e. competition based, channel based and internal organization based (Berman, 2011) only one category of Channel based that is not defensive or pressured by other factors which is the only one that can justify product proliferation.

The other two are either defensive or ill informed since they are motivated by factors such as deterring new entrants which should be healthy and encouraged in a liberalized market and the need for instance to avoid layoffs, prune products, occupy sizable shelf space and as a response to other firm internal pressures all of which are not good reasons to undertake product proliferation.

References Bayus, B.

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Sappho as an agent of change Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Biography

How and why Sappho the Greek poet is an agent of change.

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction In the Greek history includes major contributions of change through art. Poetry made a major contribution to change. Among the poets who made change through poetry is Sappho. An examination of Sappho’s life as a poet shows her contribution to change. This essay will give a biography of Sappho and explain how and why she acted as an agent of change.

Biography Sappho was the Greek poet who lived in Lesbos and wrote poems between 610-580 B. C. According to Lewis (1), the poems were published but they were later los. For this reason, her poems were obtained as quotes from other publications. The poems had been recorded around 300-200 B.C. in ten books. During her time, women would gather and share the poems they had written. Most of her poems’ center of attention was relationships of women.

Thus, it is argued that Sappho was a proponent of homosexuality while others argue that it was in order in that era for women to express feeling for one another. She was from an aristocrat and is believed that she had a daughter. She was also married by a wealthy man. Although there lacks certainty, it is believed she died after throwing herself on a rock after losing a lover.

How and why Sappho the Greek poet is an agent of change. Sappho is believed to have written the poems to her fellow women and possibly her daughter about relationships with other women. According to Lewis (1), Sappho’s love poems address women from Lesbos; an island where the women would meet. The name lesbian was coined with reference to the Island.

Sappho may be viewed as an agent of change due to her ideas on freedom of women. Her poems and ideas have made contributions towards legitimizing the female desires and glorified beauty and love among women. She lived in a society that was dominated by men and women had no place in the society. She therefore wanted freedom as a woman.

The Greek poet was able to share her views about the human rights concerning women during the meetings she had with the women in Lesbos Island. Other than her poetic literature, Sappho also shared with women the social skills and even religious views (Greeka.com 1).

Sappho advocated for education of women prior to getting married. She was a proponent since she had gathered a group of women to support the notion. She taught the young women her poems and even made bridal odes for them at the time of marriage. Besides, she was also a good writer of songs and hymns.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the time men were allowed to travel long to get educated while information about women travelling to get educated is absent. It is not certain from her poems weather women too travelled. However, by teaching groups of girls her poems, she made change and played a part in the development of women’s right to education.

Sappho believed in change because she had witnessed the position of women in her society in her time. Roles were distributed according to gender as revealed by Williamson (1). A woman would only gain status after she gets married. Her duties included, among others, bearing children and domestic work. Sappho in her poems emphasized the beauty of women and their desires. She believed women had greater potential.

Greeka.com (1) indicates that Sappho is an agent of change because she insists on the recognition of women. In her poetry she recognizes the skills of the women and notes their efforts of maintaining beauty and peace. She notes that women only travelled long due to marriage and to gain status. What is more is that she was a mentor to women.

Lewis (1) mentions that the works of the Greek poet were abandoned and later segments of the poems have been found in other works. The lesbians have therefore based their arguments on the origin of their movement with the Greek poet.

Sappho concentrated much on personal and emotional aspects in a poem. However, she also contributed to changing religion. She composed devotional songs. Her poems also suggest that she was presiding over a religious group which sang the devotional songs. Moreover, the songs have been linked with a Greek festival. Her contributions to change went hand in hand with those of the other poets who wrote for religious and non religious purposes (Williamson 1).

Conclusion Sappho is an agent of change and has contributed to the development of women rights. Her contributions to change are revealed in the poems as she glorifies the women. She pays attention to emotions and personal matters than politics and religion. She teaches young women her poems and shares social skills with them as she mentors them into marriage.

She is believed to have impacts on the freedom of women through her writing about women relationships and is believed to be a proponent of lesbianism. She also emphasizes the need to appreciate women and recognize their skills. She points out the marginalization of women in education as well as in other aspects of life. She is a mentor to the young women.

We will write a custom Essay on Sappho as an agent of change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Greeka.com. Sappho the Greek poet, 2011. Web.

Lewis, Jone. Sappho of Lesbos, 2011. Web..

Williamson, Sappho. Sappho’s Immortal Daughters, 2011. Web.

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Can you study paranormal scientifically? Essay a level english language essay help

Paranormal is an event that occurs when human beings develop perceptions that are beyond scientific explanation. It is an element experienced beyond conventional principles of science (Smith 9). Hence, these perceptions cannot be explained using ordinary scientific concepts. Examples of such phenomena include telepathy, clairvoyance, reincarnation, psychometric, prophecy, levitation, precognition and telekinesis (Smith 20).

Indisputably, psychologists assert that it is impossible to study phenomena that are related to paranormals. According to Bryan and Sherme (7), the study of paranormal phenomena falls beyond mainstreams of science. According to researchers, paranormal phenomena are beyond scientific knowledge. In some instances, science has failed to prove and evaluate the legitimacy of some phenomena in laboratories thereby making it impossible to study them.

Additionally, it is evident that paranormal phenomena are not constant and they vary in degrees from one individual to another. Furthermore, the inability to recreate evidence in a controlled environment or setting makes science to fail in justifying whether such phenomena exist or not (Smith 23). It is beyond doubt that though science can explain human anatomy, it is difficult to explain inner feelings especially in peoples mind unless they tell it out themselves.

Human thoughts, feeling and altitudes are unique and vary with time making it difficult to predict them (Bryan

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Two Industries in Different Market Structures Qualitative Research Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction An industry consists of many closely related firms offering differentiated goods and services. These firms offer similar products with minor modifications that make them different. The modifications are in terms of shape, size, or form of the products that make them different. Before starting a company, it is crucial to determine the industry structure within which the company lies.

An industry structure refers to the number of firms in an industry and their size. If an industry comprises of small size firms in relation to the size of the industry, this form is a fragmented industry. On the other hand, a consolidated industry has a few small firms having a large market share.

There are various types of industry structures depending on the concentration ratio. This ratio indicates the relative size of firms in relation to the whole industry (Scherer, 1996, p. 298). It shows if an industry consists of a few large firms, or several small firms.

Therefore, the industry structure could be a perfect competition, a monopoly, a monopolistic competition, or an oligopoly. In a perfect competition market structure, no firm dominates the other. The firms sell similar products and the prices are set through the market forces of demand and supply.

In a monopoly structure, there is only one firm in the industry. This firm sells high value products and sets the price in the market. A monopolistic competition is different from monopoly; it is an imperfect market consisting of many suppliers who sell differentiated products. These suppliers decide to set prices in the market. Finally, an oligopoly is a market structure that has a few suppliers with barriers to entry (Porter, 1979, p.15). This article analyses two industries in different market structures.

Industry A Definition

Industry A has 20 firms with a Concentration Ratio (CR) of 30%. This industry falls under a perfect competition market. In this type of industry, many firms sell similar products and services without one dominating the other (Porter, 1979, p.11). This industry has a CR of 30% meaning that, the largest firms in this industry own only 30% of the market share.

Therefore, the industry is extremely competitive with a number of the 20 firms competing fairly. No firm dominates the other in this industry through owning a large market share. In this industry, the firms sell identical products, and they take the price set by market forces of demand and supply.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Characteristics

This industry, being a perfect competition, has several characteristics. It consists of a many small firms that sell identical products. These firms have little influence on the price of the products. The market forces of demand and supply determine the price charged in this industry.

This industry also consists of many buyers who are price takers. Their purchase of the products does not affect the price. The products sold are similar; therefore, the consumers are indifferent when purchasing these products. They can purchase from any supplier without affecting other suppliers.

In this industry, there are no barriers to entry or exit in the industry. Firms are free to join and leave the industry without restrictions. Technological, social, legal, or economic barriers are not characteristic of this industry. Firms can choose to start or end production of their products at any time they wish.

In this industry, firms and buyers do not incur any transactional costs in their operations. The firms aim at maximizing profits at the break-even point where “marginal revenue is equal to marginal costs” (Oster, 1994, p.231). There is perfect information in the industry, and all stakeholders are aware of the price charged in the market. If a firm raises the price, consumers shift to other sellers who sell at the prevailing market price. Consumers know the prevailing market price producers know the costs and workers know their wages and salaries. This way, there is free flow of information in the market.

Adjustments

The forces of demand and supply influence the price in this industry in different ways. If demand increases, price goes up, and if supply increases, the price reduces and the vice versa is true. These adjustments have various implications in both the short-run and the long run. In this scenario, if demand increased prices will go up.

In the short run, it is possible for an individual firm to make profits. This phenomenon is possible because the firm can continue selling its products without incurring extra costs. However, in the end, this firm may not sustain the profits. According to Sheth and Sisodia, the industry will adjust itself by having many firms entering the industry (2001, p. 451).

They do this in an effort to take advantage of the profits that the single firm was making because, in this industry, there is free entry of firms to the market. The price will then reduce because of the many firms in the industry, and this will benefit consumers in the end. This adjustment will affect the concentration ratio of the industry. It will reduce the CR for the industry because of the many firms in the industry. The industry becomes less competitive, and some firms may again start leaving the industry.

We will write a custom Essay on Two Industries in Different Market Structures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industry B Definition

Industry B has 20 firms and a Concentration Ratio of 80%. This industry is an oligopolistic industry because it has a high concentration of 80%. Few large suppliers dominate this industry and the leading firms take a large section of the market share (Lee, 1998, p.71). Firms in this industry compete fiercely through advertising in an effort to lead the market. Firms control the operations of the industry with restrictive terms, such as restricting the amount of production. Industry B has the characteristics of an oligopoly.

Characteristics

Firms in this industry aim at maximizing profits, where the marginal revenue and marginal costs are equal. The firms set the prices to charge in this market by having total control. There are barriers to enter in this industry. These include barriers related to economies of scale, access to costly and expensive technology.

Few large firms control the entire industry. These firms are large compared to the entire industry size. Firms in this industry produce either similar products or differentiated products. In an identical product oligopoly, firms produce inputs for other industries. On the other hand, a differentiated product oligopoly produces products for final consumption according to the needs of buyers.

This industry has three pricing models. The kinked demand asserts that if a particular firm raises its price, other firms will not follow that trend. In contrast, if the firm reduces its price, competitors enter the market. In collusive pricing, a cartel controls the price for their benefit. Finally, there is price leadership where a large firm dominates the others and sets the price for others to follow.

Description

Industry B has a high concentration ratio than industry B because the industry consists of few large firms that control the market. These firms have a large market share; therefore, the concentration in the industry is high. In contrast, industry A has a low concentration ratio because of the many firms in the industry. These firms do not have any influence in the industry. The industry has competitive firms that are price takers hence the low CR.

It is not possible for small firms to thrive in industry B because, this industry has a high concentration and only large firms are able to control the market. Smaller firms will have little or no influence, and their market share is relatively small (Sheth

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“Critic’s Notebook: Debate? Dissent? Discussion? Oh, Don’t go There” by Michiko Kakutani Report essay help site:edu

Written by Michiko Kakutani and published in March 2002, the article Critic’s Notebook: Debate? Dissent? Discussion? Oh, Don’t go There is an account of the participation of dwindled students in debates. Whether aesthetic or any other form of debate, their peculiar inclusions as part of the dining glamour no longer seems to get ardent consideration in the modern days, as it used to be in the past.

To present his claims successfully, Kakutani borrows Neil Howe and William Strauss’ observation in the book Millennials Rising, that less rebellion, self-centeredness and the deployment of more practical approach to issues amongst others characterize people born in the 1980s and later years.

He gives incredible concerns to values, as a way of supporting the proposition that points the modern generation as more action-oriented rather than linguistic. A change of the characteristics of students has the capacity to transform the former noisy classrooms into grave silent ones, as observed in the modern days. As a repercussion, flourishing of debates cannot be conspicuous in such an environment.

Previous debates encompassed the unveiling and deployment of self-internal knowledge of which the modern generation largely remains silent to the level of reducing its plan of exposing it. Consequently, the modern debates seem less noisy and involving. In addition, submissiveness and compliant with rules and regulations emanating from the authorities: be it parental, administrative or professional, make debates more resilient since they provide no room for counter arguments to the dictation of commands.

The article articulates the inability of the modern day events that acquire international concerns, as a subtle contributor of the reticence students’ participation in debates. For instance, he points out events such as Afghanistan war or perhaps the September 11 US attacks that hardly give the same dissent that characterized issues surrounding other events that occurred in the years preceding 1980s such as the Vietnam War.

Among the modern students, the meaning and public appeals of debates have negatively transformed to the extent of reducing them to a form of nonintellectual bullying opposed to the anticipations of debates: creating conducive environment for democracy deliberations. These perhaps are the reasons as to why majority of the current students refer events that seem likely to prompt the emergence of debates to as ‘abstract’ and thus not much concerned about them.

The author reports on how the philosophical approaches coupled with the incorporation of theories in the modern education critically play a pivotal role in reducing the involvements in debates among the modern students community: something that ends up penetrating in the entire societal cultures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The principle of subjectivity encounters fragmentation with a consequence of deterred intent to seek out far reaching truths dominant in contestation-oriented cultures. Political identity interrogatives and concerns of multiculturalism further exceed the fragmentation of principle of subjectivity, which in their actual sense tend to impair the realization of realities of the past. The period of 1990s saw the emergence of cultural wars that rendered subjects such as literature and history political.

However, over the recent years, college students seem more affiliated to lesser and narrower concerns, despite the remaining of political identity and multiculturalisms realizations and legacies. In one way, the acquisition of philosophical knowledge has greatly aided in inculcating tolerance values. Nevertheless, the tolerances have resulted to the unwillingness to hold any emotional debate that countless baby boomers memorize on or after their seminary.

The manner in which people argue today results to some sort of conclusive remarks that indicate disagreements accompanied by non-willingness to challenge the grounds on which the party involved disagrees. While still incorporating the ability to provide homage to other people’s views, there is much preaching of the support for ideologies of self-esteem by various television shows around the globe.

The author pinpoints one particular example, the ‘Oprah show’, which he believes brought forth a massive number of egocentric folks that he refers to as ‘niche cultures’ that comprise of groups of one mind exchanging their ideas with others of the same caliber thereby discouraging anything that might interfere with what they say. The effect turns out to be the conception of dwindled “dispute disease”, which by itself has far-reaching consequences such as full negligence of inter and intra interaction with the world.

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Meaning of Literature Essay custom essay help

Introduction According to Baym 2007 in the book, “The Norton anthology American literature: Beginnings to 1865”, literature is defined as written, spoken, or observable material that holds some meaning that can be interpolated or offer information, explanation about anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific work. Life on its very nature can be defined as part of literature; elements of literature that are observable in human social life include culture, language, symbols, signals, poetry, songs, and dances.

In academic circles, literature author’s messages are decoded by readers to get meaning and an in-depth understanding of what the writer wanted to convey using literary theory, using a mythological, sociological, psychological, or historical methodologies.

Literature has relevance in human life as it communicate to individuals, societies, its universal and has an impact on human life (Baym, 2007). This paper takes a look at the meaning of literature; it will focus on the issues brought about in the book ““The Norton anthology American literature: Beginnings to 1865.”

Newspapers and literature Newspapers and periodical can be classified as literature when considering that they address a certain topic in the social, economic, and political arena that talks about the human life, their community and has an impact on their life. Print news are information gotten from paper printed news that come out periodically; in the context of news, the most used print news articles are the newspapers that are produced daily reporting matter of the last 24 hours and sometimes offering some reviews to older news and information.

Other than newspapers and other dailies, there are a number of weekly and monthly articles that are being produced reflecting on certain matters that transpired in the last week or month; in most cases the articles may be looking at certain aspect in the community say politics, economies, sports or other social happenings (Baym, 2007).

The Back of a cereal box literature With changes in culture and generations, the world is facing a new wave of generation that seems to have little relevance to written literature or they are not willing to have written literature. Generation Y is fulfilling their surveillance needs in the most efficient manner in terms of access, costs, and availability; with the above characteristics, free news media has seen a niche market where it can sell its products and services.

Free news media offer news in simplified form that is formatted to attract the attention of its target market who happens to be the youth in the current generation as they prepare to grow with the population to their old age. On the other hand, the print news media has maintained a conventional news presentation format that seems give preference to national and international news on different matter; they have the space and the time to offer in-depth analysis and sometime experts’ opinion on certain issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The format as adopted by print media is more informative than the one addressed by the free news media, however the current generation of youth seems not to be very concerned on quality but consider their personal interests when choosing the material they are going to use for information (Baym, 2007).

The situation on the ground portrays that print news media no longer command an increasing market; however their demand is decreasing for the good of free news media.

Why are some writings chosen to be in the book and others not When reading the article, (The norton anthology American literature ) book, we note that human beings have diverse cultures and live in different areas in the globe; this has made them to talk, pronounce, have an accent and stress words differently. Linguistic anthropology concerns itself with the relationship between language and culture of human beings.

There are various aspects of human life that language just like any other factor that influence the life of human being touches/ can be used to explain, these areas are participation, reflexivity, voice and chronoscope, circulation, identities, gender

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Peter Paul Rubens Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents The artist’s background information

The eye – catching aspects in the artist’s work

Conclusion

References

The artist’s background information Baroque era describes the period between 1600 and 1750. It is derived from Portuguese word that whose meaning implies a pearl that is flawed or one that is irregular in shape. The term was used to imply strangeness, abnormality and extravagance, mainly in music. It is only recently the term has been used cover large scope of art (Lambert, 2004, p. 1-3).

Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577 at Cologne during the times of saints Peter and Paul. He lived l between 1577 and 1640. He is one of the famous artists of Baroque period (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2009, p. 451). He fled to Germany with his family escaping religious persecution. At a very tender age, he went back to Flanders after which he was devoted to religion. He trained under local master artists. By 1598 He had become a master in arts.

Since Flanders was under the influence of Spain by then, the State and the Catholic Church are the two entities that supported artists. Rubens benefited from this sponsorship and was trained for eight years. He studied renaissance art in Italy. He got regency appointment to become a court painter, and this way he improved massively on his art career. He owned a large studio at Antwerp. This studio is known to supply Europe with popular, noble paintings.

A part from being a master in Painting, Rubens also played a diplomatic role in the 17th century European politics. He became a diplomat who was highly regarded by the Spain and England kings. His physical attributes have been explained to be very charming and attractive. He is also explained to have had a tall stature with regular faced rosy cheeks, and sparkling eyes that were restrained (Magister, 2010).

The eye – catching aspects in the artist’s work His art work is known to have an exuberant Baroque style. It emphasizes movement, emotion, color and sensuality. An example is what is depicted in one of his works: The Horrors of War (Wright, 2007, p. 104). His memory lies in his counter-reformation altar – pieces, portraits, landscapes and history paintings with nobility. One of his famous paintings is “The history is the raising of the cross” a triptych, painted in 1609-1610.

His painting resembles the works of the artist Michelangelo (1475-1564). His art work expresses passion, outrageous technical skill and very inspirational. “The history is the raising of the cross” art piece portrays bravely strong, muscular bodies. It reveals immense power. It builds up dramatic tension with the happenings or rather scenes of the moment. Just like Caravaggio, his works greatly capture the figure of Jesus Christ.

Rubens’ artistic skills have developed an effect on the viewers’ eyes through the painting. From the painting on the left side, draws a high contrast lighting of Christ’s body, and brings out the emotions just as those developed when a person reads a certain Bible verse. Finally, through the presence of the rope and figure, our attention is stil captured by Christ. The artistic talent of Rubens is stil revealed through his works throgh the paintings on each side of his figures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The essay has effectively addressed the Baroque period works in light of what was done by Peter Paul Rubens. Generally, the works of Rubens are characterized by emotion, movement, color and sensuality. They evoke religious emotions and remind me of the many emotional instances that I have encountered in my life especially with respect to religious undertakings.

References Duiker, W.J., and Spielvogel, J.J. (2009). World History: Volume 1. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Lambert, G. (2004). The return of the Baroque in modern culture. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Magister, S. (2010). Art Renewal Center: Web Gallery of Art. Web.

Wright, C. (2007). Listening to Western Music. NY: Cengage Learning. Web.

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Virginia Teacher Holds Mock Slave Auction Argumentative Essay essay help

Slave auction refers to the events whereby slaves are sold to donors in an auction style. This means that the highest bidder becomes the ‘owner’ after close inspection of the slave he/ she is interested in. The purchaser pokes, prods and forces the slave to open the mouth for appropriate scrutiny. The Virginia teacher demonstrated civil war by placing black students and mixed race students up for a slave auction. The white children proceeded to bid for the black and mixed race students who were being auctioned (Ricks 12)

Demonstration is a good teaching technique that makes lessons interesting and easily understandable but the extent of demonstration should be considered to avoid exposure of its disadvantages which include accusations of being biased , incompetent and the psychological effects it had on the black students .

The black and mixed race students should consider this as any other ordinary class demonstration aimed at making them understand the topic of civil war better. Demonstration could also help in making such events seem real. The teacher was objectively keen on fulfilling her duty. Since they were in two groups they should understand that the other group that comprised of white students could also have been placed on auction for demonstration purposes and that the chance of either group being put for slave auction was 50/50.

The parents of the black and mixed race students were concerned because their children were placed on a slave auction and in their view this is an act of racism and mockery. Despite the demonstration being without any ill motive there was poor timing.

This is because the day (Tuesday, 1st April) of the lesson came just two weeks before the 150th anniversary of civil war. The school was named after one of the civil war’s bloodiest battles and therefore there were still some fresh memories of the battle. The demonstrations and exercises of the Virginia teacher were untimely and off-limit.

After a careful review of both sides’ opinions, I believe that demonstrations are a way of making the content of the lesson easily understandable. It showed the teacher’s inventive approach and good intentions to boost performance of her students by making the lesson on civil war easily understandable among all the students.

The teacher could have however demonstrated the civil way differently. For example, by randomly handing over two different colored papers say blue and red that the students would then pick randomly. The group with either color could then represent either the blacks or the whites to demonstrate a similar situation without raising feelings and making either group feel uncomfortable and inferior. The students could then switch sides to see a very impartial circumstance without either side feeling segregated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the lesson was properly planned to meet the instructional objectives of civil war and the teacher had the freedom to make the content of her lesson understandable to all students. This, she did by use of demonstration using black students as auction slaves and the white students as the buyers of the ‘slaves’. Despite the teacher’s demonstration being good, she acted with bias, prejudice and her execution was narrow sighted, poor and unsatisfactorily timed.

Works Cited Ricks, Mary. Escape on the Pearl: the Heroic Bid for Freedom on the Underground Railroad .New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. Print.

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Operations Management in FedEx Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Operations management at FedEx

FedEx Global Strategy

Conclusion

References

Introduction The company to be considered in this paper is FedEx. FedEx is a company that specializes in “overnight delivery of high-priority packages, documents, and heavy freight” (FedEx Corporation, Par. 2). This company is considered to be “the leading transportation company in the world that provides fast and reliable delivery to each and every US address” (Denton, 1992, p.12). This paper is going to consider operations management at FedEx and its global strategy.

Operations management at FedEx The FedEx Company has been making the necessary efforts to ensure it effectively carries out its operations without much inconveniences (Operations Management – FedEx 2011),. The company has realized that delays in delivery can bring in detrimental effects. For instance, in the year 2002, the company went in to partnership with NASA in order to offer its ramp tower facility for “Metron Aviation’s Surface Management system, in an effort to reduce delays and optimize its operations in Memphis” (Customer case Study, n.d, p.1).

On basis of the ‘surface Management System’ performance, this company carried out its operations with Metron Aviation to organize and boost the system to offer a wider scope, which encompassed the inclusion of “new data feeds like TMA (‘Traffic Management Advisor’) for sequencing arrivals” (Customer case Study, n.d ,p.1).

The surface system of Metron Aviation offered the FedEx Company with, as pointed out, “real-time and forward-looking information that improved surface resource allocation, allowing strategic decisions to be made for arriving aircraft as much as 30 minutes prior to touchdown” (Customer case Study, n.d p.2).

Beginning from the year 2004, a time when the system was deployed at the ‘FedEx Ramp Tower’, this system has gone up to the level that offers support to the “Memphis airport Authority” and a large number of other FedEx users. These include, “the Hub Control Room, Aircraft Service Attendant, Global Operations Center, Gate Desk, Line Maintenance, Crew Bus Dispatch, Flight Coordination and Corporate Aviation” (Customer case Study, n.d, p.2).

FedEx Global Strategy This company pursues a global strategy. This strategy matches the company’s operations since they offer delivery services worldwide. “The FedEx global network spans 210 countries, broken down in to four express networks”( FedEx, 2010, Para. 1). The company does not necessarily have to engage in customizing its service and this is because it is standardized. This is in line with the company’s “low cost structure approach that ties in to a typical global strategy” (FedEx, 2010, Para 1).

For the reason that the company doesn’t have to increase the costs for service customization, this makes it possible for the company to utilize the cost advantage it has for an aggressive pricing strategy in which success is attained. FedEx is in a position to; instead, engage in the spending of the resources on technology, keeping focus on “the cutting edge and ability to deliver, rather than on customization” (FedEx, 2010, para. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This company is making use of the global strategy in the right way and this is for the reason that it has a “a low cost structure, global standardized services, and a few key locations in 210 countries” (FedEx, 2010, Para. 1).

Conclusion The FedEx Company provides delivery services to various parts of the world. It is considered a leading company in this industry. The company has been carrying out appropriate measures in regard to operations management in order to avoid delays. It pursues a global strategy and it does this correctly following it low cost structure, ‘global standardized services’, and a few key locations in more than two hundred nations.

References Customer case Study. Surface operations management. Web.

Denton, K., (1992). Keeping employees: The Federal express approach. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 57 (3), pp. 10 – 13.

FedEx, (2010). Global strategies. Web.

FedEx Corporation, (2011). Company perspectives. Web.

Operations Management – FedEx, (2011). Web.

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The Evolution of Woman’s Work From the 19th Century Expository Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Women are critical constituents in any population and their presence cannot be undermined under any circumstances. They play a role in the society and various things would not go on as expected without them. Their roles range from family related duties to economy associated roles.

They take part in various income generating activities that uplift the economy in one way or another. They are however undermined in some cases and deprived of the chance to put their potentials into action (Brooks 280). This piece of work gives a critical analysis of a woman’s work in the19th century and the evolution experienced. Different modules will be used to enhance our understanding of the topic.

Discussion As stated earlier, women were engaged in various activities such as domestic work, teaching and education, working as merchants, factory workers, performers and artists, helping in war among other tasks (Demos 12). This assignment will discuss what women in the 1800s were involved in. Much emphasis will be given to domestic work, teaching and education as well as their engagement in factories.

In the 19th century, women were highly involved in domestic work. This was very tiring and time-consuming and mostly done out of necessity rather than choice. It was the responsibility of a women to undertake household chores for instance soap making, gardening and taking care of livestock, candle dipping, cooking, weaving, cleaning and washing, butter churning as well as chopping wood among other duties.

The most common activities in which women were involved in include washing clothes, sewing, spinning as well as knitting. Some did this solely while others combined domestic chores with other occupations (AAS).

Teaching and education is another field where women were involved. As the need for literacy increased following American Revolution, women became involved in the education sector both as students as well as teachers. Girls were encouraged to undertake various literacy courses and girls’ schools were opened.

The learning environment was conducive with some privileges so as to attract women. Women were advised to take courses such as machine sewing and economical housekeeping. Manual labor was also encouraged. Most women also found pleasure in teaching, for instance, in Sabbath schools (AAS).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women also worked in big mills and small factories. Some made clothes in mills using machines. There were factories that offered boarding facilities for women who could not be able to commute from their homes to the factories. This shows the significance that was attached to the women as a source of labor in the mills.

Paper milling was common where they produced paper used to make books and other products. Fruit picking from the farms and canning was also done by women in the mills. Although working at the factories was very time consuming and a bit cumbersome, it paid relatively well (ASS).

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that women play a great role in the society. This is through being involved in various activities, both domestic as well as income generating, all aimed at supporting their families and the society at large. Women, in the 19th century, found great involvement in domestic chores, factory work, teaching and education among other sectors of the economy. For this reason, women cannot be underemphasized in the society.

Works Cited American Antiquarian Society (AAS). “A Woman’s Work is never done: Teaching and Education.” American antiquarian, 2004. Web.

American Antiquarian Society (AAS). “A Woman’s Work is never done: Domestic Work.” American antiquarian, 2004. Web.

American Antiquarian Society (AAS). “A Woman’s Work is never done: Factory Workers.” American antiquarian, 2004. Web.

Brooks F. James. “This Evil Extends especially…to the Feminine Sex’’: Negotiating Captivity in the New Mexico Borderlands. Feminist Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2 (summer, 1996), pp. 279-309.

We will write a custom Essay on The Evolution of Woman’s Work From the 19th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Demos, John. The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story From Early America. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.

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Company Analysis: Apple Computer Report argumentative essay help

Abstract This paper is about the analysis of the Apple Computer Company. The company overview has been given and the SWOT analysis of the company has been carried out. In addition, focus has been put on the application of behavioral sciences and theories in regard to Apple Computer.

Company Overview The main activities that Apple Computer carries out include designing, manufacturing as well as marketing of the personal computers and also the related software. It also provides related services, peripherals as well as the networking solutions. In addition, apple computer engages in the designing, developing and marketing “a line of portable digital players along with related accessories and services including the online distribution of third-party music, audio books, music videos, short films and television shows” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.5).

The selling of the company’s products is carried out globally and the company does this through the company’s retail stores, “direct sales force”, online stores, as well as, as pointed out, “third-party wholesalers and resellers and carries out the management of its businesses basically on a geographic basis” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.5).. The company’s operations are carried out via 5 operating segments. These segments include; “Europe, Japan, Americas, retail and others” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.5).

The reportable segments which include Japan, Europe and the Americas do not encompass those activities that are linked to the retail segment. Considering the Americas segment, this consists of South as well as North America. More so, the European segment consists of countries in Europe and also those countries in Africa and the Middle East. “Each reportable geographic operating segment provides similar hardware and software products and similar services” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.5).

Looking at the retail segment, this one carries out operations of the retail stores that are under the ownership of the company in the United Kingdom, the United Sates, Japan and Canada. The company’s retail stores that are located in the United States are more than 233in number and there are more than 84 international stores.

It has also been found out that “the ‘others’ operating segment focuses on Asian-Pacific, which includes Australia and Asia except Japan; and the company’s subsidiary, FileMaker” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.5).FileMaker carries out the development, publishing and distribution of “desktop-based database management application software for Mac Os and Windows-based systems” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.5).

The company’s headquarters are located in California (in Cupertino). The total number of employees is over fourteen thousand. The company’s revenue that was recorded in the year 2005 (end September) was 13,931 million U.S dollars and this was a 68.3 percent increase as compared to the previous year (2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increase was attributed to the raise of the iPod sales that went up by 409 percent. The company’s net profit during the fiscal year 2005 was 1335 million dollars and the fiscal year 2004, the net profit was 276 million U.S dollars.

SWOT Analysis Strengths

One of the strengths that this company has is the global presence. It is present in the Americas, the Asia Pacific and EMEA. More than half of the income comes from the markets that are set up outside the United States which is its home market. It is reported that “a balanced presence in mature as well as emerging markets has enabled the company to record a steady revenue growth” (Datamonitor, 2006, p. 18). In the course of the last ten years, the company has realized a strong growth.

The margins of Apple Computer in the period between 2001 and 2005 were greater than the industry average and this were boosted by strong growth in all its markets (Datamonitor, 2006). It has been established that “the company’s operating performance makes its market position strong and it raises the level of investor confidence as well” Datamonitor, 2006, p.18).

The other strength of this company is the brand image. The company’s brand image is well regarded among a large number of consumers. It controls the brand image it has in order to ensure differentiating its product offerings and boosts sales.

The strong brand of Apple Computer “enables it to set up entry barriers in the market and this also makes it possible for the company to command a premium pricing for its products such as iMac and iPod, giving it a competitive edge over regional as well as other global competitors such as IBM and Sony” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.19).

The third strength of Apple Computer is synergistic portfolio. This portfolio is “a portfolio that is highly synergic in nature” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.19). The broad portfolio brings down the level of the company’s reliance on any single product line and following this, it brings down the level of the company’s business risks. Moreover, it as well boosts the company’s “cross-selling opportunities” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.19).

The fourth strength of the company is the strong media content. Some of the company’s products such as the iPod and iTunes turned out to be a big success story of the company. For instance, as it is pointed out, in 2006 during the month of February, “iTunes downloads topped one billion songs” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.19).

We will write a custom Report on Company Analysis: Apple Computer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The “iTunes Music Store” makes it possible for the users to buy, in a legal manner, and download music as well as videos online. “The iTunes Store features over 3500 music videos, Pixar and Disney short films, a variety of hit TV shows, 35,000 podcasts, 16,000 audiobooks and more than two million songs from the major music companies and independent record labels” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.19).

Weaknesses

One of the company’s weaknesses are the low returns. It realized weak returns on assets as well as on investment in course of that few years. For instance, it is reported that in the course of between the year 2001 and 2005, the company recorded average RoA of about 4.7 percent which represents a figure that is lower than the industry average (5.8 percent. In the course of the same period the average RoI stood at 6.7 percent which also below the industry average (13.8 Percent).

A similar trend was followed by the “return on Equity” (RoE) during the same period and it stood at 7.4 percent and this was below the industry average (18.5 percent). Having a weak RoA as well as a weak RoE can wash away the confidence of the investors and can paralyze the growth plans that the company has put in place.

The second weakness is the dependency for key components .The company is prone to a supply danger for the key components. In a market in which speed to market is crucial, the Apple Computer Company’s dependency for key components could expose the company to a competitive disadvantage.

Opportunities

The possibility that there will be an increase in demand for “connectivity and networking” products in the future offers an opportunity. The company is inclined to capitalize on this opportunity for the reason that it has already been giving out several offerings in the same area. An example is given of the AirPort which is the Apple Computer’s “wireless technology network” which enables the users to set up a computer network and carry out connection to the internet without using cables, networking or extra phone lines (Datamonitor, 2006).

It is pointed out that, “based on the IEEE 802.11b wireless standard and Wi-Fi certified, AirPort allows high-speed wireless communications within a radius of approximately 150 feet from an AirPort base station” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.20). Raising the level of “wireless hi-speed internet” taking on would serve to augment the top line development of the corporation.

The other opportunity is offered by the new digital platform. The Apple Computer Company is putting focus on the transformation of the company’s Mac platform in to a “digital hub that combines iTunes video content to customers’ television screens and portable devices”( (Datamonitor, 2006, p.20). This stage would boost the company’s “digital content” business that is on the increase at a higher speed. owth in the long run.

The third opportunity results from the MP3 player market. In the United States, the MP3 market share of the company went up to 78 percent in the month of December, the year 2006 from 71 percent at the end of the year 2005 (December). Yet, the market share of this company in the international markets stays below the level of market share in the United States. This implies that the penetration of the company outside the United Sates has a great potential for growth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Company Analysis: Apple Computer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats

One of the threats that the company faces is the presence of strong competition in the industry in which it carries out its operations. This industry goes on to be characterized by “fast advancement in technology in software and hardware development, which has remarkably raised the level of applications and capabilities of the products, and have resulted in the frequent introduction of new products and significant price, feature, and performance competition” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.21).

In the course of a number of years that have passed, there has been stiff competition in the industry on the basis of price. The competitors of the Apple Company have been cutting down prices to increase their market share. Unless appropriate measures are taken by the company, this may go on affecting the company negatively in the future.

The third weakness follows the slow Eurozone economy. Such a slow down took place in the year 2005 and this went hand in hand with increased oil prices as well as higher levels of lack of employment. Europe is among the main markets of the Apple Company and if the slowdown goes on in the Eurozone, it could bring down the level of spending on the It products and negatively affect the company’s revenues.

The fourth threat is linked to the lawsuits. The company is subject to particular legal proceedings. It is reported that “Apple faces several lawsuits related to patent infringement, false advertising, and unfair business practices” (Datamonitor, 2006, p.21). Such issues can have a material on the company’s financial situation on top of the company’s brand image.

Apple’s approach towards employee behavior The company makes use of personal control as it has expectations of its employees to carry out their activities in an efficient manner, not hiding any information, and sharing experiences. Apple thus targets at influencing as well as shaping the employee behavior through promoting its objectives and values in the daily face to face interaction and also through the great eagerness and motivation skills of the company’s management which is supposed to influence all the employees.

In addition, the company is also “engaged in terms of behavior control, as the firm aims at generally directing the actions and behavior of its employees through certain rules like the code of business ethics” (Hill

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Pepsi Company Overview Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Company background Pepsi Company is the world’s second largest beverage and food processor. It was formed through a merger between Frito-lay and Pepsi Cola in 1965 (Anon., 2009). Today, the company offers wholesome and enjoyable products to consumers all over the world. It has undertaken mergers and acquisitions with Quaker Oats and Tropicana. Besides, it has acquired PepsiAmericas and Pepsi Bottling Group which are two well established bottlers.

This acquisition has tremendously boosted its transactions and significantly strengthened its position as a beverage company in Europe and northern America. Under Indra Nooyi who is the Chief Executive officer and chairman, Pepsi has employed over 300,000 workers globally (Anon., 2009).

Additionally, annual revenue from sale of its products and services is approximately $60 billion dollars (Mohanty, 2011). Besides, an estimated 49% of its annual revenue comes from foods and snacks while 51% is derived from sale of beverages (Mohanty, 2011).

In terms of earnings from regions, 47% of its annual revenue comes from conducting business internationally while the remaining revenue is tapped from sale of products in Canada and USA. Moreover, Pepsi company has a corporate structure that is made up of several business units including PepsiCo Africa, middle East and Asia, PepsiCo Europe, PepsiCo Americas foods (PAF), as well as PepsiCo Americas beverages (PAB) (Anon., 2009).

Customer segments Developing and delivering services that keeps customers attracted and satisfied is the main goal of PepsiCo. This goal aims at maintaining customers’ loyalty and satisfaction towards increasing its profitability, market share, customer equity and revenue. Its food and beverage products mainly target primary, secondary and emerging markets (Carrigan, Marinova

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Effective Compensation Strategy Research Paper college admissions essay help

A compensation strategy is a long-term pay plan. It details the rewards earned by employees in return for their labor. The most effective compensation strategy is one that develops a clear link amongst the three basic elements of compensation. The first item is the work expected from an employee; that is, the job description.

The other item is the work an employee performed as shown in the performance evaluation and finally, is the pay provided to the employee determined through external survey and internal equity. The interrelationship among these three items provides an appropriate compensation strategy. This paper expounds on the link between these three items for a human resource manager.

A human resource manager is a highly qualified and experienced individual that oversees employees’ affairs. The manager takes care of employee needs since they are a valuable resource to the organization. A human resource manager’s work is dynamic.

The manager performs the entire recruitment process, which involves job advertisement, short listing, and interviewing (Fitz-enz, 2001, p.154). After getting the right employees, the human resource manager engages them in training programs. The training orients the new employees to their positions in an organization. The human resources manager conducts motivational sessions for the employees and appraises their performance.

In addition, the manager deals with salary negotiations for the employees. Salary negotiation is a sensitive area and the human resource manager works with the accounts department to determine it. The manager also deals with employee promotions and other benefits for employees. The human resource manager keeps all employee records for reference (Kleiman, 2000, p.71). In addition, the manager handles employees’ complains and resolves disputes arising among them.

Performance evaluation is a significant process that measures the actual performance against potential performance. There are four classes for evaluating the performance of a human resource manager (Milkovich,

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Knowledge of Organizational Management Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Primary Leadership Theories

Applications of Various Leadership Theories in Business Settings

Strengths and Weaknesses of Contemporary Leadership Models

Conclusion

References

Introduction Leadership in profit making and non-profit making organizations has been under study for the past one century. As a result, there have been various theories explaining effective leadership in profit and non-profit making organizations. Leaders have been defined as being individuals with lots of impacts on others to act in a manner that will ensure attainment of organization’s goal or objective.

However, there has been no enough information explaining the application of such leadership theories in business setting. In addition, the strength and weaknesses of contemporary leadership models have not been exploited fully. As a result, this easy critically demonstrates an application of my knowledge of organization management by synthesizing the information from different readings and class work into work and life experience in organization management.

Primary Leadership Theories According to Yuki (1994), “the main primary leadership theories used in profit and non-profit organizations are Trait Theory, the Behavior Theory and the Contingency Theory. Current leadership theories being researched are Transformational and Servant Leadership.” (Yukl, 1994)

Trait Theory: this theory assumes that people are born already having traits which are inherited from generation to another in their lineage. There are some traits which are suited for leadership while others are not. As a result, proponents of this theory try to differentiate different traits in leaders who have been perceived as being great.

They have tried to research on physical traits like the leaders’ height as well as psychological like temperament. At long last, their studies have proved the fact that there exist no universal traits of such leaders. However, there are some traits which were found to be of much significance for any leader. Such traits include “Adaptable to situations, Alert to social environment, Ambitious and achievement-orientated, Assertive, Cooperative, Decisive and Dependable,” (Science.jrank.org 2011) among others.

On the other hand, the theory identifies various skills required by any leader in order to be termed as great. Such skills include, “Clever (intelligent), conceptually skilled, Creative, Diplomatic and tactful, Knowledgeable about group task, Organized, Persuasive, and socially skilled.” (Science.jrank.org 2011)

Behavior Theory: it has been stipulated that, behaviors are significant for any leader. This is because; it has been assumed that, behaviors are very important as compared to physical characteristics or mental traits. Studies have found that “Two types of behavior correlate with great leaders, according to the theory: the ability to organize a task and the ability to express consideration for subordinates.” (Rowe 2007)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Contingency theory: according to this theory, the most significant quality of any great leader is his or her capability to respond to any contingency that he or she is faced with. Some of these significant contingencies include “respect level, kind of trust felt by workers for the leader, the level at which the leader can organize any task ahead of him or her, as well as the control over reward and recognition processes for his/her subordinates.” (Science.jrank.org 2011)

Servant and Transformational Leadership Theory: this theory states that, “leaders who are transformational have the ability to impact their subordinates by being examples and much inspiration by him/her-self.” (Jago 1982) Such leaders usually motivate their subordinates to an extent that they end up performing above and even beyond their job stipulations.

Servant leadership on the other hand denies leaders the privilege position, by giving them a responsibility position. This gives them the responsibility of achieving best possible results for the organization they are working for, the subordinates as well as customers or clients.

Applications of Various Leadership Theories in Business Settings There exist no single leadership theory that has been applied in business, but in case there is a single application of leadership theory, no matter the process, leaders have brought success in business. However, the difference comes in the processes under which one brings such success. Successful business operations depend much on leadership theories. Such theories have been applied in casting visions, motivating employees as well as positive change implementation.

Leadership theories like transformational and behavior theories have been applied directly in the development

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What is Applied Management Science? Definition Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Decision-making encompasses all aspects of human life. However, the problem is how to ascertain whether one has the required skills and knowledge to make optimal decisions. This led to the emergence of Applied Management Science as an important field in various sectors of learning. Applied refers to making practical application of something that is not theoretical.

Management on the other hand refers to the control of activities within the set guidelines and policies for the achievement of specific objectives. Science is the identification, observation, investigation, and explanation of theoretical phenomena. Applied Management Science therefore refers to the science of solving business problems. It assists business managers in making optimal, informed, and satisfactory decisions.

Business managers face complex and dynamic challenges that not only demand forethought, but also call for optimal and informed decisions making to provide solutions to business challenges on daily basis. This calls for developing complex scientific models capable of analyzing the situations and providing indicators that assist managers in decision-making.

Applied Management Science therefore ensures that decisions made by business managers are products of strategic thinking processes and are aimed at improving operations. In other words, it offers practical information in decision making that is an indicator to success in business.

The process of mainstream decision-making has not received mainstream attention because of the dynamic and evolving nature of business challenges. The development of a universally accepted decision making model becomes a big challenge because business decisions change and remain unique within the each business set-up and culture.

Despite the fact that business, education, and psychology communities embrace decision aides, the public may not adopt the application of these aides. This is because most decisions made by the public are personal and may not demand complex processes to determine their levels of accuracy.

Indecisiveness has been a major problem to psychologists because it does not translate to anything good in life. The inability to make a decision and pursue a course presents unwanted challenges within career and family. Human beings must have a determination in life and to move ahead with ambitions, there must be the component of decision-making on what and where one is moving. Indecision in career, family, and general life translates to failure, confusion, unfulfilled ambitions, and frustrations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To entrench the character of courage and instill ambition on an individual, it is imperative that decision-making skills be taught in high schools. This is because of its implications on an individual and in society. Skills in decision-making and right judgment should be enhanced on an individual from early age.

From the discussions, it is seen that management science is a form of applied decision-making in organizations, and business problem solving. This is because it enhances the capacity of business managers to make rational and satisfactory decisions that not only solve problems in business, but also ensure improvement in operations.

Whereas some schools of thought posit that management science make decisions, the reality is that management science equips managers with the skills in making satisfactory decisions. These involve a combination of qualitative techniques, hypothesis formulation, and analysis to find solutions to complex management problems.

Quantitative analysis for management problems has become more widely used in the past years because it employs scientific and systematic techniques and procedures in seeking solutions to management problems.

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Effect of Ethnocentrism on an Individual and Society Essay essay help

Defined as a universal syndrome of attitude and behaviour that entails the tendency to view the world from the perspective of one’s culture (Brown, 2003), ethnocentrism has profound impact on individuals, society and multinational corporations.

This is because an entrenched belief in one’s cultural superiority over the others determines the forms of relationship an individual extends towards people of different cultures. However, research abides in the fact that everyone is ethnocentric and it is almost impossible to avoid being ethnocentric.

After watching Dream keepers: A Spirit Journey into Aboriginal Australia by Harvey Arden, what rings into the mind is the effect of ethnocentrism on an individual and society. Total neglect and marginalization encompass the daily lives of the aborigines because of the ethnocentric belief that their culture are not only inferior, but they are not fit enough to join the Australian mainstream society.

The effect of ethnocentrism on an individual is precipitated by false assumptions about cultural differences. It reinforces wrong assumptions and premature judgements on people of different cultures and therefore gives a vague feeling of superiority. Through such a wrong evaluation, an individual misses important aspects of life because ethnocentrism tends to evaluate others by what we are best at.

According to Sanders (2002), “membership in an ethnic group is typically evaluated in terms of one or more observable characteristics (such as language, accent, physical features, or religion) that are regarded as indicating common descent.” Furthermore, it affects interpersonal relationship an individual develops with a person of a different culture.

At the society levels, ethnocentrism deters the interaction among people of different cultures, ethnic groups, gender and age. Chirot and Seligman (2001) indicate that ethnocentrism has impacted largely on ethnic conflicts, wars and patterns of voting. It is pointed out as a major impediment to societal cohesion and peaceful co-existence among people of different cultures.

According to Rogers and Laitin (1998), “ethnocentrism can be in-group favouritism or out-group hostility.” This is a pointer to the fact that societal problems such as ethnic cleansing, colonialism and racism are products of ethnocentrism of out-group hostility. Multiple forms of discrimination against members of different societies have denied people their human rights and fundamental freedoms. Furthermore, governmental neglect and group marginalization are directly linked to ethnocentrism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In multinational corporations, ethnocentrism presents the biggest challenge in diversity management and is a determinant to consumer choice. In the understanding that appreciating diversity in organizations demand that each individual form a bigger part of the business entity and must work together knowing that their objectives and goals are far greater than their differences, ethnocentrism deters collective appreciation and the sharing of common purpose.

Despite being a major component of an organization’s life and forms the very foundation of organization’s stability, diversity management remains a challenge to multinational firms because of the premature judgment of an individual’s or group’s superiority. Furthermore, it negatively effects communication, which is as a key success factor in organizational climate and it has been directly linked to job satisfaction, performance, and overall organizational effectiveness.

Consumers have become complex the choices of their products. Driven by cultural beliefs and ethnocentrism, consumers would easily shun a product because of perceived cultural inferiority of country of origin. A car manufactured in China would definitely not expect good reviews in the United States. In summary, it can be discerned from the above discussions that knowingly or unknowingly, ethnocentrism plays a critical role in the relationship we develop and the choices we make.

References Brown, D.E. (2003). Ethnicity and ethnocentrism; Are they natural? In Race and ethnicity: An anthropological focus on the United States and the world (ed.) R. Scupin. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Chirot, D. and Seligman, M.E.P. (2001). Ethno political Warfare: Causes, Consequences, and Possible Solutions. Washington DC: American psychological Association

Rogers, R. and Laitin, D.D. (1998). Ethnic and National Violence. Annual Review of Sociology. 24:423-452.

Sanders, J. M. (2002). Ethnic Boundaries and Identity in Plural Societies. Annual Review of Sociology. 28:327-57.

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Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction The author candidly extracts into the rich and expanse history of the world’s principal religions which are; Taoism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Judaism. Intentionally, the author avoids digging into the simple but complex minutiae detectable in religious history.

This includes evading the attempts of explaining why religion was exploited as a vehicle of destruction. As the author observes “The sanctioning theological as well as metaphysical genuineness of the world’s creeds are . enthused. Institutions – religious establishments categorically included – are a different story.” (Smith 188) .

The author thus kicks off with a watchful and clear prose supported with witty details for the best reflection of all seven influential religions. And this includes their fundamental beliefs and intrinsic beauty.

The books presentation shows that the author is a genius in regard to correlation. More so, the unfamiliar, disputably, fantastic religious abstractions are cleverly summed up. Take, for instance, the Christian teachings of the Trinity, “It holds that whilst God is entirely one, God is as well three. The second half of this declaration compels the Jews and Muslims to question if Christians are truthfully monotheists, but Christians are convinced that they are (Smith 100).

Analysis The book is a must read. The way religious dynamics are explored forges a strong ground for nurturing respect for both individual and religious beliefs .This has been achieved through the elaborate explanation of the ostensibly incompatible religious configurations.

The scope and extents of Taoism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Judaism are intricately handled. The author achieves this task by giving these religious systems a profound analysis. In essence, the book is made superb by the simple integration of wisdom carried in religious sayings. Hence, the book offers a candid insight into the nature of man and religion. Thus, it can be argued that the book is for anyone interested in exploring the world of religion.

What the author has done is to cover all the major religions giving the reader a deep and profound understanding of religious dynamics. Also the book stands as one of the few meaningful and insightful works on religions. This concept is supplemented by the author’s insightful discussion surrounding the historical interlude in which each religion was founded or the issues that contributed to the birth of each.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another notable feature of this book is that it incorporates both religious and cultural attributes that are significant to each religion. And this is well illustrated by the deep explanations and comparisons of all the seven religions. For instance, if one is interested in understanding the concepts of Roman Catholicism along the path of Protestantism, the book provides a wealth of information in such areas abundantly.

For those who have never read this book, it is a classic exploration of religions; it is an examination of religions dynamics and configuration in the world. Also diverse features have been added such as the indigenous philosophies allied to Native Americans, Pacific Islanders and Australians. However, the authors influence and style of presentation gives the book a strong appeal that reflects the core tenets and philosophies of each religion covered .

It is on that respect the author states that the aim of this book is to stand as an exploration of diverse religious ideas and beliefs. Also, he warns that the book is not a balanced narration of its perceived subject rather it is anchored on the foundation of values. With the author’s suggestions at the end of each chapter, the book can be said to be a rich source in regard to understanding the world religions.

In essence, the book plays a fundamental role in highlighting the conflicting trends related to the world religions. Given the immensity and the abundance of information gathered in this book, it would be instrumental to assert that it satisfies the broader requirements of understanding the fundamentals of human and religion interaction.

Also, the book examines the emerging religious trends such as Baha’i beliefs, Mormonism, as well as the scope of Scientology. Thus, by investing ones time in reading this book can be instrumental in understanding the genesis of world religions. Including the pivotal roles they have played in bringing man closer to God.

Conclusion The book is easy to read. It is not a documented history of major world religion or a rigorous analysis of comparative religion. It is a superb and successful endeavor to put the fundamental wisdom of the major world religions in one book. The beauty of this book lies in that it has managed to bring together the differences that are evident in the global religions.

More so, the author has established that no religion is superior or greater than the other. Also by following the cultural trends in examining the scope and extents of all major global religions, he has shown that each community and nation has abundant but diversified opinion on religion.

We will write a custom Report on Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man. New York: Harper

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Hate Crime and Society Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

A hate crime is a crime which is perpetuated against an individual based on his or her membership to a certain group of people in the society. Hate crimes may include things like assault, murder, harassment and injuries. The grounds under which hate crimes may be committed include race, ethnicity, gender, age, nationality, political association, religion and one’s social status.

Hate crime has got its history in the times of Nazism in which many Jews were exterminated in what has been explained by many international relations analysts as the worst genocide ever. After the World War II, hate crimes continued to persist, with the United States having the greatest number of cases of reported hate crimes mostly due to its diverse culture.

The typical individual who commits hate crimes is usually motivated by prejudice and bias against a certain group of people depending on their characteristics which I have mentioned above. The individual is usually guided by innate hatred towards the victims, based on what he or she has learned or how he has been socialized to perceive the victims.

Such an individual who commits hate crimes is usually different from the victims, especially in terms of colour, race, ethnicity and religion. The person is motivated by his or her prejudicial perception of the victims to commit the crimes against them. The perpetrator is also motivated by jealousy, ill intent, malice, jeopardy and the spirit of Nazism, which makes people have the feeling of wanting to eliminate those who are different from them.

In the United States where the rates of hate crimes are high, the targets of hate crimes are the Black Americans followed by Hispanic Americans. This is because of racism, which portrays the Black Americans and Hispanic Americans as the minority. The hate crimes take the forms of violence, murder, harassment as well as discrimination in employment and leadership. In the United States, hate crimes also take the form of domestic violence mostly involving Black American woman married to husbands of the white race (Myrdal 17).

One of the key causes of hate crimes is discrimination. Most of the crimes involve elements of hatred based on ones characteristics. Prejudice is also another key cause of these crimes and it makes the perpetrators view their targets as incomplete humans, who do not deserve any space in their territory. These causes are however not based on facts, but on mere hatred without any factual basis (Foucault 43).

One effect of hate crime is a feeling of lowered self-esteem among the victims, which interferes with their psychological stability thus exposing them to the risks of suffering from mental disorders like depression. Hate crime also makes the victims vulnerable to social and political risks like discrimination based on social class and political violence which target specific groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hate crimes may be reduced by integrating the education systems, so that all students would get an opportunity to study together irrespective of their socio-cultural, economic, racial, religious and ethnic backgrounds. This would enable them to learn to stay with people who are different from them from childhood.

The rationale behind this argument is that the socialization process plays a very crucial role in shaping the children’s perception of others. If the children begin to study with others who are from different backgrounds from early age, then they will learn to appreciate them instead of hating them. The gap between the rich and the poor also needs to be addressed, so as to minimise discrimination based on social class.

Works Cited Foucault. Discipline and punishment: The birth of the prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979:43.Print.

Myrdal. An American dilemma: The Negro problem and modern democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996:17.Print.

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The Mind’s Eye Review Essay writing essay help

Introduction Oliver Sachs thesis is based on the neuroscience sensory areas of the brain. Through his interactions with several blind people and reading their memoirs he has come to the conclusion that there is a rich interconnectedness and interactions of the sensory organs of the brain.

One cannot really explain that anything in life is purely visual and that another object is purely auditory. The sensory modalities therefore cannot be considered in isolation at all. The blind people have the ability to build highly descriptive visual images from the information that they receive from other sensory organs such as speech and sound. Language can cause a blind person to visualize and describe landscapes so beautifully yet he has never seen the place.

A blind person can describe landscapes with colors so beautifully that a sighted person even wonders who between the two of them is blind. He therefore concludes that visual capabilities are not simply dependent on the physical eyes. The mind of an individual has an eye which is capable of generating and holding images. Both the sighted and the blind have visual capabilities though they are different. The title of the essay, “Mind’s Eye” is therefore very appropriately used by Sach’s in writing down his findings of his research.

The blind and sighted people therefore according to Sachs both use their visual senses. He had believed previously that the brains of the people who had lost visual or hearing capabilities had gone through an adjustment process. For blind people, the visual capabilities had been reallocated or transferred to other sensory capabilities such as sound and smell. Blind people had heightened sound and smell capabilities.

This was demonstrated by the interaction Sachs had with Dennis Shulman, a clinical psychologist. Dennis had become very alert after becoming completely blind. He could recognize patients by their smells. He could also sense the moods that a patient was in when he or she came to see him.

He would immediately sense when the person became tense or anxious. He had realized that sighted people relied too much on visual appearances of an individual yet it was so easy for an individual to camouflage and present a fake picture of his character and his feelings. He felt that the smells and the sounds of people revealed much clearly people’s depths in who they actually were.

It was with this view of reallocation of the brain sensory organs that Sachs approached the study on adjustment after blindness in adults. However his view changed after the study. He interacts with several blind people who have different experiences in adjusting to life after blindness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oliver read the memoirs of John Hull who had lost vision in his left eye gradually from the ages of thirteen to seventeen. The right eye became completely blind at forty eight. It had started becoming weaker from the time he was thirty five. Hull lost his visual memories and imagery. Concepts such as the appearances of people and objects were no longer applicable to him (Hull, 1992, pg 23). He started to rely more on other senses especially hearing.

Oliver proposes that the reason for this could be that his blindness was gradual. Zoltan Torrey, on the hand, a psychologist who had lost his sight immediately through an accident had different experiences from Hull. He had been advised to switch from visual to an auditory mode of adjustment however he refused to do that (Torrey, 2004, pg 45).

Instead he worked to develop the inner eye and sharpen his visual imagery as much as possible. He is skilled in generating and manipulating images in his mind. He constructed a visual image world in his mind that resembled the real world so much such that he was able to even do repairs of his roof in the middle of the night. Oliver Sachs suggests that the visual abilities of Torrey were possible due to the rich childhood that he had.

While growing up, Torrey grew up in an intellectual environment of writers and artists. His father, a film studio owner, brought him scripts regularly to read when he came home from work. From a young age he learnt to work his imagination by visualizing stories, plots and characters. When he became blind he decided to hold on to light and visual sight as much as possible.

Oliver Sachs also interacted with SabriyeTenberken, a blind woman who had different experiences after becoming blind. While Hull and Torrey had been concerned with their mental adaptation after loss of sight, Sabriye had acquired great passion to help blind people after becoming blind.

She had travelled all over Tibet establishing schools for the blind and providing systems for the integration of these graduates back into the community. The people of Tibet generally do not treat the blind people well. They lack equal opportunities to excel in academics and professional careers.

For Sabriye, she had impaired eyesight from birth. Till the age of twelve, she could make shapes of people and landscapes. Twenty years after losing her sight completely,

We will write a custom Essay on The Mind’s Eye Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More she has strong pictorial and synesthetic abilities. She has the ability to give deep verbal descriptions of landscapes. Her descriptions are so vivid they even astonish her listeners. She still possesses her visual memories. Oliver Sachs writes that her visual prowess can be traced to the fact that when she was as young as age five she had been fond of painting and colors.

Her attraction to colors is so intense that words and figures can represented in her mind in connection with specific color shades. The number four to Sabriye is represented as gold. At the end of the day Sachs finds that the way an individual will life his life after being blind may depend on such factors such as the age total blindness occurred, whether the blindness was gradual or immediate and the experiences the individual had gone through prior to the blindness.

The common factor among the blind people was that the cornea was more sensitive to signals from the other senses after the person become blind. The question though is the role of sight senses in the lives of the individual. Sachs summarizes his view on his interactions with the blind people by saying that Torrey’s visual prowess was due to his upbringing. Torrey was visually inclined from the time he was young.

He could come up with highly visual stories whose plot was based on the scripts his father brought him to read. Torrey as an individual was already skilled in visual imagery and manipulation of the imagery even before he lost his sight (Sachs, 2010, pg 55) Sachs in explaining why other blind people had different experiences from Hull says that

SabriyeTenberken had several physiological factors different from Hull. From the time Sabriye was young, she was attracted to painting and the different colors that artists used. Even before she became blind, her brain was able to look at letters and numbers and associate them with certain shapes and colors. Her visual cortex already had a great relationship or connectivity with language and sound. When such an individual as Sabriye goes blind, the visual imagery will continue and even in several cases be heightened (Sachs, 2010, pg 55 )

After reviewing the three experiences, Oliver Sachs concludes that there is no such term as a “typical blind experience. He met Dennis Shulman, a clinical psychoanalyst who thirty five years later after gradually losing his sight in his teens had different experiences from Hull.

Shulman viewed the world from a visual standpoint. He has visual images of his wife and kids though he has never seen them. He even saw his Braille notes which he used for lecturing as visual images. An elderly woman, Arlene Gordon, who is seventy years old had strong visual images. She could “see” her hands when she moved them about. While listening to audio books she felt like the spoken words were actually printed

Finally, Oliver Sachs He compares the accounts of the blind people in his essay and is struck by how different the experiences are when it comes to visual images and memories. Hull had no visual memories or images, over time they had disappeared. Torrey had determined to concentrate on visual imagery in his life daily and it had paid off. Sabriye was blessed highly with visual imagery. Sachs therefore supports his thesis or argument well. There is a high interconnectedness in the sensory organs of the brain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Mind’s Eye Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Hull, John. Touching the Rock: An Experience of Blindness. New York: Vintage publishers.1992. Print.

Sachs, Oliver. The Mind’s Eye. New York: Knopf publishers. 2010. Print.

Torrey, Zoltan. Out of Darkness. Australia : Pan Macmillan publishers. 2004. Print.

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Hate Crime and Society Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

A hate crime is a crime which is perpetuated against an individual based on his or her membership to a certain group of people in the society. Hate crimes may include things like assault, murder, harassment and injuries. The grounds under which hate crimes may be committed include race, ethnicity, gender, age, nationality, political association, religion and one’s social status.

Hate crime has got its history in the times of Nazism in which many Jews were exterminated in what has been explained by many international relations analysts as the worst genocide ever. After the World War II, hate crimes continued to persist, with the United States having the greatest number of cases of reported hate crimes mostly due to its diverse culture.

The typical individual who commits hate crimes is usually motivated by prejudice and bias against a certain group of people depending on their characteristics which I have mentioned above. The individual is usually guided by innate hatred towards the victims, based on what he or she has learned or how he has been socialized to perceive the victims.

Such an individual who commits hate crimes is usually different from the victims, especially in terms of colour, race, ethnicity and religion. The person is motivated by his or her prejudicial perception of the victims to commit the crimes against them. The perpetrator is also motivated by jealousy, ill intent, malice, jeopardy and the spirit of Nazism, which makes people have the feeling of wanting to eliminate those who are different from them.

In the United States where the rates of hate crimes are high, the targets of hate crimes are the Black Americans followed by Hispanic Americans. This is because of racism, which portrays the Black Americans and Hispanic Americans as the minority. The hate crimes take the forms of violence, murder, harassment as well as discrimination in employment and leadership. In the United States, hate crimes also take the form of domestic violence mostly involving Black American woman married to husbands of the white race (Myrdal 17).

One of the key causes of hate crimes is discrimination. Most of the crimes involve elements of hatred based on ones characteristics. Prejudice is also another key cause of these crimes and it makes the perpetrators view their targets as incomplete humans, who do not deserve any space in their territory. These causes are however not based on facts, but on mere hatred without any factual basis (Foucault 43).

One effect of hate crime is a feeling of lowered self-esteem among the victims, which interferes with their psychological stability thus exposing them to the risks of suffering from mental disorders like depression. Hate crime also makes the victims vulnerable to social and political risks like discrimination based on social class and political violence which target specific groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hate crimes may be reduced by integrating the education systems, so that all students would get an opportunity to study together irrespective of their socio-cultural, economic, racial, religious and ethnic backgrounds. This would enable them to learn to stay with people who are different from them from childhood.

The rationale behind this argument is that the socialization process plays a very crucial role in shaping the children’s perception of others. If the children begin to study with others who are from different backgrounds from early age, then they will learn to appreciate them instead of hating them. The gap between the rich and the poor also needs to be addressed, so as to minimise discrimination based on social class.

Works Cited Foucault. Discipline and punishment: The birth of the prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979:43.Print.

Myrdal. An American dilemma: The Negro problem and modern democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996:17.Print.

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God and Holy Scriptures Expository Essay essay help online free

The sacred has always been the opposite of profane. The profane views show that the existence of humans is totally a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, the holy scriptures of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam exhibit the sacred as all-powerful that has complete power over all humans, humans have to obey God, and they cannot do anything without his will.

Human mind is incapable and insufficient to understand the existence of God. Based on the evidences from the texts of the Holy Scriptures, this essay demonstrates some indicators, which differentiate God from humans and present God as a sacred reality. It also shows how God is portrayed in the sacred scriptures, and how is it different from the traditional philosophies.

The dichotomy between the sacred and profane are not new, both are opposite from each other. The traditional philosophies presented by Kant (1854) in his book called “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” have suggested that the nature of God is similar to that of the humans.

Moreover, if the humans have weakness, disorder and disturbance than the nature of God is also not free from these weaknesses. Kant’s book “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” questions that if God is the one who puts everything in order, than who puts God in order.

Other traditional philosophies about the idea of God suggest that human existence in this world occurred because of a coincidence. Darwinian philosophy is one such example, who believes that humans are going through biological evolution. Cunningham and Kelsay, suggest that there are some factors, which indicate the sacred as real. They argue that the features of the God are “Specially Distinctive” from that of the humans. God is distinctive from the human nature because he controls the humans.

The prime reason that the God is distinctive from others is that he is the creator. Even the creation of a very minute thing needs a maker, and it is not possible that things come in complete harmony without God. Humans are also creators but only of their own social world, their creation is finite and they could not provide any thing to others without the help of God. This is the theology mainly demonstrated in the Holy Scriptures.

Holy Scriptures shows that God is distinctive because he has the supernatural powers he is infinite, and in complete harmony. The Book of Genesis maintains that God send a ram through his angle from the sky when Abraham was about to sacrifice his son (Genesis: 22, 13). Similarly, when the God was about to descend on Mount Sinai there was a thick cloud over the mountain and there was a loud thunder and lightning (Exodus: 19, 16).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More God is also beyond the volitional control of human beings. Although, the traditional philosophies could argue against it, the Holy Scriptures form the major faiths of the world show that God is beyond human aspirations. One such example could be found in ‘The book of Genesis’.

In order to test the faith of Abraham, God ordered him to sacrifice his only son (Genesis: 22, 1-20). Of course, this was against Abraham’s will, because why would anyone want to sacrifice his only son. Abraham succeeded in sacrificing his son Isaac, God greatly approved his act, and told him that he only wanted to test his faith.

It is proved in the example that God loves those who succeed in sacrificing their beloved for the sake of God. However, no one can go against his intention. The God wants humans to obey his commands. The book of Exodus also expresses that if the humans obey his command, and will work according to his intentions, then God will render his blessing over him. God does not want anyone to cross the limits of his commands. The humans are powerless before God (Exodus: 20, 1-24).

Cunningham and Kelsay have also suggested that God is also concerned with the welfare of the humans. God through his providence provide guidance to the humans so that they could live with peace in the world. God called Moses on Mount Sinai and passed down the guidance for the Israelites, known as the “Ten Commandments.”

If the context of these commandments is explored, one could indicate that they are so well defined in terms of welfare of the human beings that if humans only conform to these ten rules provided by God, there will be a complete peace in the world. These commandments prohibit murders, adultery, and theft and so on. God also asks to honour the father and mother, and ask not to make any other god beside him (Exodus: 20, 1-24).

Similar, the idea of the reward and the punishment of the God is also related to the welfare of the humans. If there is no punishment for the wrong actions of the humans, there will be complete chaos in the world. Similarly, the reward is also necessary. All the scriptures of the major faiths of the world show that God rewards his beloved in the form of blessings. In addition, God promises reward for them in the after world.

God is determinative of human existence. God arranges the livelihood of the humans, he provides him food and shelter, and if he wishes, he could withhold it from them.

We will write a custom Essay on God and Holy Scriptures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Quran, the example of Joseph is provided, their brothers plotted against Joseph. Initially they succeed, and they removed Joseph from his parents. However, in the longer run they failed. Because God provided Joseph was provided with power to control the wealth. It is written in Quran that God established Joseph in Egypt and gave him knowledge and wisdom when he reached his youth.

In the end of Joseph’s story, he was in possession of the wealth of whole of Egypt, at a time when the whole of Egypt was facing drought. His brothers were completely helpless as they asked mercy form Joseph without realizing him as their brother. Quran suggest that this story is provided as an example that God has complete control of all the possession and the wealth of the world and provide it to only those he wishes (Quran: 12, 1-111).

Holy scriptures present God as sacred reality. Humans have very limited powers in the world and they could not do anything in this world without free will. On the other hand, God is free from all kind of bounds. God could use his power with free will. God is the determinative of the human existence, and provide humans with guidance for their welfare, and God rewards those who fulfil his wishes. Hence, the Holy scriptures present the reality of God as completely different from the traditional philosophies.

Works Cited Cunningham, Lawrence S. and John Kelsay. The Sacred Quest An Invitation to the Study of Religion. Prentice Hall, 2009

Hume, David. “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.” Ed. Kemp Smith. 1854.

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Analysis of “The Dubious Rewards of Consumption” Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Insatiable Nature of Human Consumption

Excessive Consumption and Environmental Degradation

Excessive Consumption and Wars/Conflicts

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Allan Durning, in his piece “The Dubious Rewards of Consumption”, argues against the unchecked consumption in the developed world. As a researcher on the social aspects of increased consumption characteristic of western societies such as the US and the UK, he cautions that the pursuit of happiness by individuals in such societies should not be tied to materialistic gains.

By offering research findings on the level of contentment by people in different societies, he shows that monetary benefits and acquisition of material wealth are not related to increased happiness; on the contrary, such unbridled pursuit for wealth and unchecked consumption contributes to environmental degradation, wars and conflicts, and exacerbates such phenomena as global warming.

Insatiable Nature of Human Consumption The author argues that although the general feeling amongst many people is that they would achieve a higher level of happiness if only they could increase their income, such a notion is untrue. Durning quotes Aristotle by stating that, “the avarice of mankind is insatiable” (770). According to research findings presented in the article, the levels of happiness for people in higher income groups compared to those of lower income groups are not different (Durning 773).

The author’s aim is to show that the belief in a notion that happiness is commensurate to increased income is merely a psychological belief similar to the notion ‘the grass is greener on the other side’, even when this is never the case. The author therefore, argues that understanding the insatiability of human desires, greed and wants is the beginning of liberation from the extreme desire for material gains characteristic of citizens of western nations.

Excessive Consumption and Environmental Degradation Excessive and unnecessary consumption prevalent in many western societies have a negative impact on the environment. According to the author, since the year 1940, Americans have consumed more resources than all previous generations of the world combined (Durning 771).

This startling statistic opens a window of analysis of the effects of such a ‘culture of consumption’ in the world’s resources. Consumption and acquisition of goods such as cars and other gadgets and appliances in the home inevitably leads to higher energy needs. Factories and industries created to produce these machines and appliances for home use are the biggest contributors to global warming. More vehicles on the roads also emit carbon fumes that worsen an already pathetic situation.

Excessive Consumption and Wars/Conflicts Furthermore, as energy needs fuelled by consumption rise, the limited natural resources that service this need continue to dwindle. The over-reliance on oil as the chief source of energy by most western nations has directly contributed to the many wars that have been fought in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf – region with some of the world’s largest known oil reserves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More American interest in the Persian Gulf is exclusively due to the presence of oil reserves, and with oil as the chief source of energy for the average American consumer, successive American governments have been willing to wage war in order to secure the oil fields in this region.

Conclusion Excessive consumption amongst individuals in western societies creates a sense of dissatisfaction in people, contributes to environmental degradation and fuels wars and conflicts related to securing natural resources. Therefore, western nations would do well to take cognisance of these facts, and undertake policies that limit excessive consumption and utilise more sustainable energy sources that reduce conflicts.

Works Cited Durning, Allan. “The Dubious Rewards of Consumption.” In Bill McKibben (Ed.),

American Earth: Environmental Writing since Thoreau (pp.770-780). New York: Library of America, 2008.

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Self-actualization and Self-transcendence Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Self-actualization is a concept that people have advocated for ages. In creating the hierarchy of need, Abraham Maslow placed the concept on the apex of his tier, as a tremendously vital element, which points out how man comes to realize the need for others after he has managed to provide for all his other superficial needs.

Many people conform to this principle. It is even evident in contemporary music with lyrics such as “…when I grow up, I want to be famous…I want to be a movie star” (Steven 23), which reflect the mentality of most people. However, at the end of his life, Maslow made a crucial revision to his hierarchy. Sad enough, it did not capture the attention of many people. He added another tier above self-actualization, which was for ‘self transcendence’.

Whereas self-actualization is the way to go about in gaining wealth, self-transcendence is the principle to apply during the retention, utilization, and building of such wealth while still enjoying the above processes and finding reasons to continue living.

Maslow’s change of heart from self-actualization, as the highest achievement one can have, to self-transcendence was triggered by a realization that even after amassing excessive quantities of wealth, knowledge power and other desirable qualities, man does not have what it takes to live a contented life.

Instead, this is only possible if one engages actively in the fulfillment of service to someone greater than one is, or other than self. It is no longer enough to live and die as the richest man alive. Whereas this may be acceptable in one’s youth, it becomes evident that, with time, it is no longer enough just to be rich. That is when people go different ways. Some seek out fame and celebrity status, which serves as a confirmation or reaffirmation of their wealthy status.

In turn, this makes them contented, knowing that they are ahead based on most people’s standards. When the excitement of fame wanes, they seek more challenges and some venture into drugs now because they cannot seem to find any contentment in their normal livelihood or the pressure that comes with trying to keep up with society’s expectations is too much for them to handle.

While growing up, many people have but one paramount goal in their life: to become rich. They do not specify the method they intend to apply to get rich. They just set it as the destination. This vision could be counterproductive. This follows because when they are aging, they feel that their clocks are ticking. Most people will employ whatever method they deem necessary to become rich. If they become rich, without any plan on what they intended to do with their wealth, they end up becoming arrogant and prideful (Whitney 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They acquire a need for recognition for whatever little contribution they make. Such a person becomes petty and greedy. He/she loses grip on reality. That is why most of the world’s richest men die undignified deaths such as drug overdosing or DUI accidents. It is because somewhere along the way, they had made so much money, and they still had the potential to make more, but they lost their zeal towards life. Their driving force died.

They went on looking for other ‘interesting’ things to spend their money on. That is what happens when self-actualization is the sole goal of an individual. However, when one desires to become rich so that they can use their wealth to serve fellow human beings, thereby leave a legacy, they acquire sufficient drive to remain diligent and committed to their wealth generation and utilization endeavors (Whitney 90).

The need to transcend one’s self keeps one fueled for more growth efforts, regardless of how much one has already achieved because there will always be opportunities to provide service. This means that one will never lack the desire to learn more, generate more wealth, serve more, and outdo his / her last success.

Self-transcendence enables one to make realistic plans for the future. It puts these plans in perspective, making it even harder to lose focus. Moreover, the joy that comes with seeing the appreciation that the less fortunate have for one’s efforts keeps one going.

When a person who lived through poverty in his / her youth makes it in life and manages to create jobs for people in a similar situation as he / she was growing up, it is exceedingly gratifying for their morale. Most wealthy people who have discovered this secret are investing billions in charities and other nonprofit adventures.

Oprah Winfrey is a superb example who invested billions in an initiative to promote girl-child education in Africa with impressive results. It is also intriguing to note that most of these famous people who are seeking self-transcendence rarely get involved in public scandals, unlike their counterparts who are obsessed with fame and amassing wealth for personal benefits; they are rarely sued for engaging in inappropriate businesses, as most rap musicians appear (Steven 65).

Examples of such musicians include Clingy, Lil Wayne, and Snoop Dog, who have all served time in jail for one felony or the other. Their quest for fame and wealth to self-actualize blinds them from acting ethically.

We will write a custom Essay on Self-actualization and Self-transcendence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They involve themselves in illegal selling and possession of ammunition, shady drug smuggling deals, competitive assassination of more successful counterparts in the music industry, and the production of violent and obscene records. Others, especially politicians and first-time leaders involve themselves in shoddy get-rich-quick schemes, which ultimately end up ruining their careers and breaking up families.

Whereas it is not set in stone, it is evident that to master self-transcendence, one requires self-discipline and integrity, characteristics that one perfects by attaining sufficient education in the correct principles.

The fact that most universities and other educational institutions enjoy the benefits of a scholarship program me that is mostly usually funded by an alumni who benefitted from similar support and succeeded in life supports the principle that self-transcendence begets itself.

It is also true that the educated people in society are responsible for starting most of the existing charitable organizations. This is because they probably understand the principle of self-transcendence and they can see beyond self-actualization.

Ignorance and illiteracy perpetuate the notion of self-actualization because most of the poor people just want to get out of their poverty and the way to do so is through getting rich. Lyrics such as, “I want to be a billionaire …so …bad, buy all of the things I never had…” (Steven 65) portray the desire to attain wealthy status among the less privileged. However, a greater purpose for of the less fortunate is usually to help their ‘still incapacitated’ colleagues, and this can reap more fulfilling results.

Works Cited Steven, Covey. First Things First: To Live, To Love, To Learn, To Leave a Legacy. London: Simon

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Anthropogenic Climate Change Argumentative Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Scientific Debate

The Opposing Views

Supporting Views

Conclusion

References

Introduction Human activities have been gaining significant attention in climate studies for they contribute to climate change, particularly global warming.

The prime cause of anthropogenic climate change is the release, into the atmosphere, of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons by varied human activities. According to Rahmstorf (2008), exponential anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases poses a severe threat to stability of earth’s climate. Subsequently, this threat affects humanity, flora, and fauna negatively (p. 35).

The major challenge that climatologists are grappling with is global warming, which is the main cause of climate change across the world. Since anthropogenic climate change occurs due to the cumulative effect of greenhouse gases, it requires both immediate and long term attention because its consequences are particularly grave and irreversible. Thus, various stakeholders need to consider having both short and long-term intervention measures aimed at reducing levels of greenhouse gases and mitigating their impacts on climate.

Scientific Debate Since anthropogenic climate change occurs due to the cumulative effect of greenhouse gases, it is imperative that climatologists focus on both immediate and long term interventions to avert future crises of global warming that seem to threaten the existence of humanity and other forms of life on earth.

Scientific debate has been raging as to whether global warming is a natural occurrence or an anthropogenic consequence, but there is indisputable evidence that temperature of the earth has been continually rising for centuries. Rahmstorf (2008) argues that climatologists expect that by the 22nd century, temperature of the earth will rise by 5 oC or more globally, while regionally, it will be more than 10 oC (p.36).

Given the current trends of human activities, the rise of temperature will continue for more centuries to come if immediate and long term interventions are not put in place to regulate the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. The fact that temperature of the earth has been increasing for centuries clearly indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are responsible for climatic change, which seems to threaten the existence of life on earth.

Immediate and long-term interventions are essential in reducing anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, because climatic crises due to global warming have grave impacts on the existence of life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increase in levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere indicates that, global warming is real and is gradually becoming worse each day if necessary interventions are not put in place to reverse the trends. Although greenhouse gases are many in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide contributes considerably to climate change because of its abundance in the atmosphere and sources of emissions.

Rahmstorf (2008) argues that, preindustrial levels of carbon dioxide were about 280 parts per million (ppm), but the current level of carbon dioxide is over 380 ppm (p.36). It, therefore, means that increasing the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the cause of global warming. Hence, both immediate and long term interventions are critical in reducing emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by human activities.

Climatologists hold that, with the current trends of anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide, it is predictable that by the 22nd century, the levels will be about 1000 ppm. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers carbon dioxide levels of between 400 to 600 ppm to be particularly dangerous.

Surprisingly, currents levels of carbon dioxide stand at about 380 ppm, while levels of total greenhouse gases are about 450 ppm. Furthermore, there has been increased emission of greenhouse gases recently because virtually all countries across the world rely on fossil fuel as the source of their energy. Such trends are quite alarming because it depict that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming and subsequent climate change.

According to Erin (2011), most countries have ratified the United Nation’s recommendation of steadying greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and reducing anthropogenic interference (Para.9). Thus, to avert climate change, immediate and long term measures such as developing and relying on renewable sources of energy is imperative.

Although greenhouse gases come from various sources, carbon dioxide emissions are mainly due to anthropogenic sources. It is currently evident that the main cause of drastic increase in carbon dioxide levels is due to increased utilization of fossil fuel.

Given that the amount of fossil fuel used correlates with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, Rahmstorf (2008) reasons that, the apparent increase in carbon dioxide levels form about 57% of total emissions because ocean and biosphere, which acts as carbon sinks, have absorbed approximately 43% (p.36).

We will write a custom Essay on Anthropogenic Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that, had it not been for the carbon sinks, which absorb a significant percentage of carbon dioxide, there would be a high percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which consequently could have caused severe climate changes due to global warming. It is estimated that oceans alone have absorbed approximately 30% of anthropogenic emissions making marine environment become acidic.

Therefore, anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide does not only cause global warming but also acidify marine environment, thus threatens the existence of marine life. Hence, both immediate and long term interventions are essential in reducing anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide.

The Opposing Views Opponents of anthropologic climate change argue that global warming is a natural process that does not need any immediate or long term intervention. Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are the main cause of climate change and global warming, Patterson argues that global warming is a myth because some scientists refute the claim that human activities are responsible (Para.2).

The scientists view that natural processes mainly contribute to accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide is one of the gases that form significantly larger percentage of volume in the atmosphere and thus is the main cause of global warming that has been occurring for centuries.

However, a recent study indicates that temperature increase has stagnated in spite of increase in the use of fossil fuel across the world. Kaufmann, Kauppi, Mann, and Stock (2011) argue that, between 1998 and 2008, there was negligible increase in temperature and decline in surface temperature by 0.2 oC in years between 2005 and 2008, yet their anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide increased tremendously (p.1).

Inconsistency in the amount of carbon dioxide emitted and increase in temperature beg a question as what is the real cause of global warming. Disconnect between emission of carbon dioxide and global warming implies that there may be other factors apart from carbon dioxide that contribute to global warming.

Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and fluctuating temperature increase indicates that there are other confounding factors that significantly influence global warming. More study carried by Kaufmann, Kauppi, Mann, and Stock (2011) shows that, in the year 2000, water vapor decreased by 10% in the stratosphere and slowed temperature increase by 25%, contrary to expectations of what would have occurred because of high concentration of greenhouse gases (p.2).

Expectations were that global temperature would have risen due to decrease in water vapor because they absorb latent heat of vaporization and bring about cooling effect on the surface of the earth. However, abnormal decrease in temperature in spite of exponential increase in anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases tends to disapprove that human activities are the leading causes of global warming.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Anthropogenic Climate Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Critics of anthropogenic climate change argue that, parameters that scientists use to measure the number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and increase in temperature are not reliable since they are subject to many confounding factors.

Rahmstorf (2008) asserts that, temperature measurement originated from proxy data such as tree rings, corals and ice cores that have a link with local temperatures and other parameters that influence real temperature variation (p.45). Local and regional temperatures can be significantly higher than global temperatures because of variation in causes that may not necessarily reflect global warming.

Moreover, critics argue that the use of satellites in measuring temperature of the earth through radiations is unreliable since it is subject to atmospheric radiations of the sun. Short life span of satellites also affects the accuracy of data collected due to variation daily temperature and calibration of satellites. Thus, temperature of the earth is fairly constant and subject to other environmental factors other than anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases.

Supporting Views Climate change mainly results from human activities that emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere and create the greenhouse effect that shields radiations from the earth surface from escaping into the atmosphere, thus increases the temperature of the earth.

Therefore, the argument that global warming is a natural process of the earth does not give sufficient evidence since it only presumes that temperature is a variable factor that varies from one place to another and from one year to another.

Moreover, critics of anthropogenic argues that despite an increase in the use of fossil fuel and the temperature of the earth remained relatively constant and dispute that human activities are the cause of global warming. According to Kaufmann, Kauppi, Mann, and Stock (2011), apparent increase in global temperature for the last 50 years is due to a measurable increase in anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (p.3).

There was insignificant rise in global temperature between 1998 and 2008 because sulfur emissions brought about cooling effect, which cancelled out warming effect of greenhouse gases. Therefore, although anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases causes global warming, there are other factors that mediate occurrence of global warming in the universe.

Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are the cause of global warming. Given that human activities emit a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, they contribute significantly to the occurrence of global warming.

Therefore, anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide is easily quantifiable because the amount of fossil fuels used correlates directly with the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. During the preindustrial period, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere was about 280 ppm, but currently, the concentration is about 380 ppm.

Plausible explanation for the huge increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is an anthropogenic emission, which occurred due to industrialization. Industrialization led to increased consumption of fossil fuel and concomitant emission of carbon dioxide.

Rahmstorf (2008) contends that the total amount of carbon dioxide emission that is in the atmosphere forms about 57% of the emissions because oceans and biosphere absorbs about 43% (p.37). Hence, if it were not for oceans and biosphere to absorb about 43% of carbon dioxide, global warming would have caused drastic climatic changes that threaten the existence of life on earth.

Although critics of anthropogenic climate change argue that parameters of measuring global warming are unreliable, climatologists have used numerous parameters and models to enhance consistency of data collected.

Since there is significant disparity in temperature at local and global levels, consistency of variability is quite evident to suggest that anthropogenic activities in certain places relates with temperature of specific locations. Thus, proxy data collected from tree rings, corals and ice cores give an overall picture of occurrence of global warming.

Critics further assert that satellites are not reliable in measuring due to prevalence of confounding variables and short life span of satellites. However, Rahmstorf (2008) argues that, satellite has effectively shown that since 1979 to present, about 20% of Arctic sea ice cover has shrunk due global warming, which makes it melt (p.44). Hence, melting of ice and rising sea levels are indisputable effects of global warming that occur due to anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases.

Conclusion For centuries, there has been a raging debate as to whether global warming results from natural or anthropogenic processes. Numerous studies support that anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, water vapor, methane and others causes global warming and subsequent climate change, thus threatening the existence of life on earth.

Increasing concentration of these gases in the atmosphere correlates with global warming, meaning that human activities are responsible for climate change that is threatening humanity and other forms of life on earth. Therefore, since anthropogenic climate change occurs due to the cumulative effect of greenhouse gases, it requires both immediate and long term attention to avert grave consequences of global warming.

References Erin, S. (2011). Canberra Times: The future is Lean and Green. Financial Times Limited. Web.

Kaufmann, R., Kauppi, H., Mann, H.,

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Steps by the Local and Military Officials to Prevent the Spread of Avian Flu in Okiwan Term Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Strategies/Recommendations in Regard to Okiwan

Conclusion

References

Recently, there have been qualms over the spread of Avian Flu among the local nationals in Okiwan. Avian Flu is a communicable disease that is commonly associated with birds, though it frequently develops other strains that human beings are not immune to(Capua et al., 2002; Lin et al., 2000; Stegeman et al., 2004; Tweed et al, 2004). So far, 238 cases of human infection by H5N1 have been established in 10 countries, with the largest numbers of infection being found in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam (Fouchier et al., 2004, Li et al., 2004; Peiris et al., 1999; Tran et al., 2004; Ungchusak, 2005; Yuen et al., 1998).

More than half of the established human cases have resulted to death of infected persons (Kurtz et al., 1996; Puzelliet al., 2005; Webster et al., 1981). The military officials have been identified as a group that is highly at risk of contacting the virus. Thus, a review of the steps that the local and military officials are taking in preventing avian flu is essential.

So as to discuss this topic, I shall discuss; the issues that should be addressed in emergency management by use of examples; the steps that the local and military officials in Okiwan are taking; and make a conclusion that summarizes the key points discussed. I shall also give a final statement of opinion in the conclusion part.

There are three issues that must be considered while planning emergency management. These include: preparedness and communication; surveillance and detection; and response and containment (Liem

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Product Proliferation Qualitative Research Essay essay help: essay help

Product proliferation refers to a situation that arises when a specific organization markets almost similar products but introduces slight variations to increase its market share (Berman, 2010). These products are only differentiated through aspects like color, shape and product size. Product proliferation has both positive and negative effects with regard to the market.

One of the strategies employed by companies that adopt product proliferation is a broad product line, which is perceived to translate to increased overall demand. Secondly, an extensive product line in relation to supply has been known to affect the market through increased costs. Lastly, an extended product line, especially by large scale manufacturers, mostly deters other players from joining the market. This will translate to increased prices by the incumbent firm (Barnett and Freeman, 2001).

Although there is no clear-cut study that has been done to assess the three aspects given above empirically, it is crucial to mention that it has been suggested from previous studies that product proliferation strategies have no uni-dimensional explanation in relation to decision making as product proliferation has an impact on both demand (market share) and supply (price).

The market outcome is determined in terms of product proliferation by competitive structural factors that influence product line decisions in a firm (Bayus, 1999). Product proliferation is used as a means to curb rivalry within an industry as competition is based on product differentiation rather than price.

Product proliferation facilitates competitiveness, which is based on perceived uniqueness of the product, quality and lastly performance of the product. Some critiques argue that product proliferation has led to wastage of resources as it works well when there is a boom in the market. When a recession hits, even powerful companies experience major stability problems. This is directly linked to excessive investment costs.

Most car makers churn out various models of vehicles, a practice that has led to immense competition between car makers. This has translated to increased demand for iron and aluminum which are the raw materials for the automobile manufacturing industry. To reduce cannibalization of these products, there is a need to intuitively target the changing customer needs by building a full contact through watching and questioning those creative market segment.

The other aspect of minimizing cannibalization of products is by coming up with ways of out-innovating other competitors by expanding the product line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This comes in the way manufacturers plan their innovation to incrementally change to capitalize maximally on previous developments and modern ones to absorb common parts and other components that would otherwise go to waste. The other means through which cannibalization of products by product proliferation can be reduced is by critically adopting the continuous improvement approach.

Many traditional industries are known to instinctively operate within quad rum of pure quality concerning cost model, where any slight modification in design, quality or even features will translate into increased prices. Most prestigious car manufacturers have adopted this model of trade-off curve like BMW and Mercedes-Benz brands. In more than one way, product proliferation leads to wastage of economic resources

Product proliferation has gained momentum with the rise of a middle-class section of the population, which is the main proponent of consumerism. This middle-class mentality is centered on getting custom-designed products that are affordable and act as a source of prestige. This is worsened by established businesses which have a culture of demanding for private brands or labels which are mostly put in display and promotional packs.

This has been made easy by the rise of globalization where products must adhere to specific requirements such as labels that are translated in different languages. Other negative aspects arise with product proliferation. For instance, due to its dynamism, it is practically impossible to manage product proliferation. In recent times, most of the large scale manufacturers have resulted in pruning their products rather than coming up with new ones.

What this means to those manufacturers coming into the market is that they cannot compete as the veteran companies will determine the prices of products that are offered in a particular industry. This is made complex by the unpredictable change of the landscape of consumer demands. As new consumer demand rise so will the companies attempt to meet these demands and maintain the existing market share.

Measures Associated With Product Proliferation Capacity Control

Capacity control emanates from industry players producing too much output to caution against making tremendous losses, and manufacturers result from cutting on prices. Other players respond similarly and reduce their prices causing a price war.

Although excessive production may result from too much output from manufacturers other factors like a shortfall in demand due to a recession may also cause excessive output in the market. Paradoxically, the effort of each industry players to outperform the other results in overcapacity which bites them all.

We will write a custom Essay on Product Proliferation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Design as a Strategy

Design as a strategy has been adopted as a means towards enhancing product proliferation in a market; one of the latest companies to take this strategy is Thomson Consumer Electronics (TCE). The company is a manufacturer of different brands of TV sets. As noted by Aguirregabiria and Mira, (2007), design as a strategy entails aspects such as the product’s feel, look, touch, and ergonomics.

For many manufacturers, the design is not merely cosmetics add-ons, but a corporate identity that separates them from other manufacturers. A company’s product design is synonymous with the quality of the product. The design has been used by various companies like house furnishing where it acts as the company label or the brand. Design goes beyond styling. It conveys quality and also improves margins.

There are various enhancements that design puts on a product. One is the aesthetic quality which causes appeal of a product; the design also increases the safety of a product making it pleasing to touch and use. Thirdly, the design ensures a product is easy to operate, clean, handle and install. The most crucial aspect of the design is that it should be economical to manufacture and also recycle (Aguirregabiria and Mira, 2007).

Innovation as a Strategy

Innovation serves as the basis for product proliferation as it curves a niche for a company and places it as a guru in industrial breakthrough.

Some of the companies that have come up with unique innovations in recent times include companies such as Apple which came up with the icon-based personal computer; Michelin came up with its radial tire, Pilkington which also came up with the floating glass process. All these innovations have placed their companies in great heights. Innovation as a strategy is challenging to maintain and thus very risky. Most companies see innovation as not a sustainable competitive strategy.

This has translated to increased product proliferation as there are no new products, but the only modification of the previous inventions. It is critical to mention that the period sustained by new design roughly translates to how fruitful one’s venture will be in the form of profit as the market becomes an oligopoly. This consistency of being always on the lead ensures a loyal customer base.

Innovation in product proliferation takes two distinctive approaches, either by nature and trust, where innovation trickles from management downwards, or it may be characterized by innovation rising from bottom-up. The bottom-up approach originates from the workers, and their suggestions are passed through the organizational hierarchy to the management.

This approach has been hailed by Bayus and Putsis (1999) as it promotes ownership of the innovation which further translates to success as far as market penetration and future product success is concerned. This means that innovation is spontaneous throughout the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Proliferation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Service as a Strategy

Lastly, in product proliferation, service as a strategy translates to how much a company will succeed than the other. Most manufacturers do not consider service as being important. Generally, it is the product that receives much attention since it’s a source of competitive advantage.

Service, on the other hand, is seen as a necessity that is incurred, rather than an added value. In product proliferation, there is an immense need to have an efficient and sufficient service delivery since there are various similar products in the offing. It is estimated that companies lose 15-20% of their customers on an annual basis.

Now for a market that is oversupplied, there is a need to keep a strong customer base, and this can only be achieved through customer satisfaction. Swift and effective handling of complains and inquiries together with friendly customer approach will always keep customers coming back.

Reference List Aguirregabiria, V. and Mira, P. 2007. Sequential Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Games. Econometrica, 75 (1) Pp.1–53. Web.

Barnett, W., P., and Freeman, J. 2001. Too Much of a Good Thing? Product Proliferation and Organizational Failure. Organization Science. 12(5). Pp. 539-558. Web.

Bayus, B., L., and Putsis, W., P. 1999. Product Proliferation: An Empirical Analysis of Product Line Determinants and Market Outcomes. Marketing Science. 18(2) Pp. 137–153. Web.

Berman, B. 2010. Products, Products Everywhere: Do companies really need to sell so many varieties of similar goods? No. Wall Street Journal. Issue. Web.

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The Use of the Cell Phone While Driving Essay cheap essay help

Popular culture is the sum of a society’s actions, beliefs, traditions, and other such similar engagements that define a given society and its people. Although sometimes is described as an expression of the people occupying the lower classes of a society, as opposed to those occupying the higher classes, popular culture effectively encompasses a society’s wholesome activities and expressions.

Since the turn of the 21st century, the use of cell phones has increased tremendously all over the world, and more specifically in the United States. Unfortunately, the use of the cell phone while driving has also increased, posing a danger both for the driver and other road users.

Currently, the use of cell phones for reading or writing text messages while driving causes a significant number of road accidents in the US, leaving victims emotionally traumatised, maimed and even dead. Insurance claims arising, and healthcare needs for these victims puts unnecessary and avoidable strain on the economy. Currently, nearly half of the states in the US have passed laws, or are in the process of passing laws declaring the act of texting while driving illegal, with fines and jail terms of various degrees for the offenders.

The theory of progressive evolution states that popular culture is an expression of inherent and intrinsic activities of a society. Accordingly, the act of cell phone texting while driving – however dangerous – would be an expression of an aspect of the American lifestyle, a part of its intrinsic identity. Indeed, many of the culprits of this dangerous practice are teens and the youth, ordinarily the most ardent expressers of popular culture in a society. Adults, too, use their cell phones while driving, but to a comparatively lesser degree.

Another theory of popular culture that expresses the act of texting while driving is the theory of the culture industry, where consumer needs for gadgets such as the cell phone is the principal contributing factor of the high presence of cell phone amongst Americans, with its use in texting while driving being a logical consequence. The cell phone, according to this theory, is portrayed as a must have communication tool, leading many Americans to acquire it.

Heroes in American society are highly regarded and respected. In the American society, heroes belong to both the past and present times, and are given near mythical attributes (Browne, 2005, p.35). American heroes include former presidents such as Washington and Lincoln, or adventurists such as Charles Lindbergh. Celebrities are more numerous and easily identifiable in today’s celebrity-obsessed American popular culture.

Oprah Winfrey is one such celebrity, and her fame and philanthropic deeds make her a veritable American heroin. Oprah has been the face of the campaign to stop the practice of texting while driving. Because celebrities command a large following, and their followers tend to respect their word, the campaign by American celebrity and heroin, Oprah Winfrey, and other like-minded celebrities has the greatest potential of stopping the practice, especially amongst teens for whom such celebrities are highly adored and respected.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, by understanding the concept of popular culture, and subsequently applying the two popular culture theories to the topic of texting while driving, the concept of heroes and the cult of celebrities ties into the entire thread when the influence of these celebrities and heroes in curbing the practice of texting while driving is applied.

The insight of applying the influence of heroes and celebrities in positively changing one negative aspect of American popular culture (texting while driving) is attained through the application of the two theories of popular culture.

Reference Browne, R. B. (Ed.). (2005). Profiles of Popular Culture: A Reader. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

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Titus Andronicus as a Classic Tragedy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Titus Andronicus is a classical tragedy from the beginning to the end. For instance the introduction of the characters to the play shows a clear picture of a classical tragedy. In this play, the characters are introduced by bringing them on stage without any prior notification and at the same time, at certain point, the characters are introduced by other characters at the stage (Greenblatt 98).

The play starts up with minor characters whose roles in the play are not of much importance, these characters are used to introduce the more important characters. For instance, the play starts after the death of the roman emperor and his two sons.

The conflict is created at the beginning of the play, whereby the two sons Saturninus and Bassianus were disagreeing on, who will succeed their dead father. The act of the two sons conflicting on who will rule is an aspect of the author to bring out the need of identifying oneself with the hero (Greenblatt 250).

The roman emperor was a hero, and the two sons wanted to be identified with this hero. The aspect of identifying oneself with a hero is a good example of a classical tragedy. The conflict between the two sons turned to be violent until when the tribune came up with a final solution of making the emperors brother Titus to be his fathers successor.

In addition, at a certain point in the play, Aaron is seen persuading Demetrius to plan the murder of Bassianus, so that they can have a good opportunity of raping Lavinia. The play acts of characters planning to kill other characters and barbaric acts of raping others brought the emotional response in the play.

Unlike the comedies that does not show any aspect of emotional such as fear and pity, a classical tragedy like this one demonstrates much pity and fear in most of the incidences throughout the play. There is a sense of fear when Bassianus is murdered and his body dumped. Lavinia undergoes a painful process of a violent rape in a forest. Lavinia suffered a great deal, as the rapists cut her tongue and her hands to prevent her from telling the truth.

The act of human suffering is another aspect demonstrated in a classical tragedy. In Titus Andronicus play, human suffering is a major theme especially what Lavinia underwent. For instance, during the celebration party that took place in Titus house, Saturninus advised Titus that it was possible for a father to kill his raped daughter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shortly, Titus decided to murder his daughter, by breaking her neck and revealed the secret of rape to Saturninus. The play moves with a lot of solemnity and foreboding (Greenblatt 103). The play ends with rigid finality, whereby Titus murders Tamora, and Saturninus kills Titus.

After killing Titus, Saturninus is killed by Lucius out of anger of past memories of his father’s death, he did that purposely to revenge. Moreover, due to continuous murders of the characters, Lucius gets an opportunity of becoming an emperor, being a ruler, he commanded his people to give Saturninus a state burial (Greenblatt 156).

On the other hand, he ordered Tamoras body to be thrown away for the wild beasts to feast on him. Lucius the emperor ordered Aaron to be punished by hunger and thirst until his death. To Aaron that was not a big issue as he did not repent even at the end, and he wished to have done more evil in his life.

Work Cited Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton Shakespeare Based on the oxford Edition. New York: W.W Norton

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Forgetting Women in Popular Culture Essay college essay help near me

The journal article by Catherine Strong, titled “Grunge, Riot Grrrl and the Forgetting of Women in Popular Culture,” depicts women in history as being forgotten. The author uses the Grunge era of the 1990’s in her analysis as the point of reference. The survey makes a clear reference to the Australians that were living in the era at the time. Additionally, the author makes a string reference to the articles and media sources that existed, in an endeavor to unearth why many women rockers were forgotten.

From the article, the Grunge era was characterized by anti-sexism and gender neutrality. As noted, many female musicians apart from Courtney Love were regarded as “Riot Grrrls”, a situation that made it difficult to remember individual female artists.

The author attributes this behavior of female discrimination to the idea that people do not regard females as dedicated and serious, regarding them as sexual objects. The people’s belief in addition makes the media, which is supposed to market them and announce their popularity, look down upon them as they mostly compare them with the male counterparts.

Additionally, many female rockers have been forgotten because of their desire to be liberal and non-sexists. The media mostly directs its attention on the new females in rock, other than concentrating on the established women rockers. Any female who decided to join a male’s band was given the role of a bassist, making them get devalued and in turn worsening the situation.

The “Riot Grrrl” movement as presented was one of the feminists groups in the Grunge area. Additionally the movement was involved in politics and was supported by male artists such as Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain. Many females were actively involved in the music industry during the Grunge era.

The women openly declared their rights and desires in the music and were very confrontational. They felt suppressed and thus obviously made their anger known to the society through music while rejecting any offer to speak publicly through the media. This however made it difficult for them to keep any records as documentation was almost non-existent and the possibility of future remembrance completely destroyed.

The society either does not support any women rockers and as noted, many of the interviewed people were insensitive indicating the presence of masculine society. Various people brought up Kurt Cobain and Eddie Vedder and other mentioned female artists, including Courtney Love and L7. All regarded females as “eye candy” and the bands were male dominated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Grunge era thus regarded women as people who should be seen and not heard. The era indicated a time where women were not regarded as rockers and their role into music was limited. Men who had women in their bands despite having stronger vocal were bassists, thus ensuring that they were almost concealed from the rest of the audience.

Neither did the society recognize their role especially in music nor in the vocals and most of them became known stars only after joining the feminist clubs such as the Riot Grrl and later rising to the 21st century in them. The same transpires in the contemporary world for women who mostly engage in certain forms of music such as rap and hip hop. Thus one has to feature a renowned musician in the genre to succeed. In every endeavor to advance such genres of music independently, it takes time to rise.

These include the likes of Missy Elliot. In any collaboration done, women are allowed to bring the vocals of the soft parts and live the hip hop parts to the likes of Lil Wayne and other established hip hop male artistes. Women are more appreciated if they engage in soft genres such as blues, thus the likes of Beyonce. Unpredictably, men who take into such soft genres are regarded as being all-round and very successful, for instance Michael Bolton, West Life, Justin Timberlake and others.

Other than the awareness that was advanced at the time, famous female artists were forgotten. The article by Strong (2011) thus encourages the reader to clearly analyze the society and critically think the role women play in the society. Various policies have been advanced that would have assisted to fight gender inequality but many times they are ignored.

As noted, change is like rest. To date men and women are still not regarded as equal, mostly in the employment sector to various professions which are referred to as male dominated jobs such as architecture, engineering and other sciences. Women are only made to feel as if they belong to a certain moment and have no relevance in the future.

The journal additionally makes it clear that if any woman has to be remembered, the process will only arise if she has for instance freed slaves, or has been married to a famous man, or has to be identified as one who stood for her rights; a situation which in the era was closely related to deviance. For a man however, to become famous and probably leave a legacy behind, one had only to make up some edgy music and later die from a drug overdose.

Reference Strong, C. (2011). “Grunge, riot Grrrl and the forgetting of women in popular culture.” Journal of Popular Culture, 44(2): 398-416.

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Race, Ethnicity and Crime Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Racism and ethnicity are one of the social evils that pose a big danger to the society. These are the main factors that have been contributing to crime in the contemporary world. Racial discrimination in America has a significant implication on crime in the region. Most of the racism in America has been between the whites against the blacks and vice versa. There are a number of incidences that has resulted into crime in the United States.

Discussion In many cases, most criminal activities in the United States are characterized by racism. Racism has resulted in a number of crimes, which has threatened security and peaceful co-existence among the people. There are a number of opposing issues concerning racism and disparity that has led to complication in the discussion of the issue of racism in the Criminal Justice System. For instance, there are economic differences among the people that have led to crime in the United States.

It is possible to have people from different race on low income group and also on the high income groups. The larger the differences between the poor and the rich, the high are the chances of crime. We also have differences in terms of biological heredity, psychological and other factors that may influence ones tendency to engage in crimes.

Racial differences have also led to crime in the United States. This can be explained through the discrimination that the vice has cultivated among the people. For instance, the idea that members of a certain group like the African Americans are more likely to commit a certain crime can lead to difficulties in fighting the vice. Similarly, the fact that the reason for doing so is psychological can also lead to serious difficulties.

This is because they tend to propose the inability of the public policy to solve these problems. This is unlike the social explanations where an individual can change through the public policy. From previous statistics, the results showed that the rate of arrests for the African Americans were higher than those in the other Americans (Anonymous, 2011).

There are several historical incidences that can clearly illustrate the issue of racism in America. One of this was the racism against African Americans through the institution of slavery. During this period, African Americans were enslaved and treated like property (Randall, 1998). This incident led to undermining and persistent racism against Africans.

Another incident in the history that can be used to demonstrate racism in America took place after the Mexican- American War in 1948 (Greenhaus and Parasuraman, 1990). During the period, Zoot Suit Riots clearly demonstrated the racism against Latinos. The Latin Americans were usually composed of people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds. This made them more prone to racism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recently, the issue of racism has raised major concerns in the study of the criminal justice. In America, there are a significant difference between the number of the black Americans and the white Americans arrested and prosecuted for various crimes. This has raised concerns on the criminal justice practices.

There are a number of areas that differ in terms of races, a thing that may lead to differences in the criminal justice. One of these differences is the level of unemployment. Through racial discrimination, there is a significant difference in the level of unemployment in different racial groups. When the level of unemployment is high, the level of poverty is also high and therefore there are high chances of committing crimes. For instance, unemployed person may engage in stealing due to lack of livelihood.

Race may also lead to differences in political orientation. This leads to differences in the views among the people from different races. In some cases, some members from a certain group may feel that they are not properly represented. In such a situation, differing views may lead people to engage in criminal activities.

The issue of the race and crime can easily be understood through the analysis of the criminal etiology or the breaking of law. Breaking of the law can either be explained from individual or social perspectives. From the individual perspective, the crime is caused by the characteristics that an individual possess. These include heredity defects, intelligence, and body type among others (Heaven and Hudson, 2011). On the other hand, crime is seen to be caused by social or psychological reasons.

In my opinion, I believe that racism is of great importance in the criminal justice. This is because it has helped in explaining the patterns of crime in the society. Most of the criminal activities in the United States are rooted in the issues related to race. As already noted, previous statistics have revealed that certain groups of people in America are more likely to commit crime than others.

It is therefore necessary to study in terms of race differences. People from a certain race may have varying social psychological differences. This can significantly influence the conduct of individuals. For instance, there are some tendencies that are common in a particular racial group but not prevalent in others.

The concept of race has a significant implication on my future career as a police officer. To begin with, this may affect me through prejudice. As already seen, the past record has clearly revealed that there is more proportionate cases of criminals arrested and prosecuted from one racial group than the other (Lafree and Russell, 1993).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race, Ethnicity and Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the past data has revealed that there are more cases of the African Americans engaged in crime. This may lead to a temptation of prejudice or bias in the process of executing duties. Due to intensification of the issue of racism in the society, I may also face the problem of undermining others. The citizens from other racial groups may be tempted to think that I am biased towards my race.

Another way through which race can affect my future profession is through career advancement. In most cases, racism has been integrated in the work place. For instance, the senior managers are tempted to promote only those employees from their racial group. Racism may therefore affect me in my career as a police officer.

Conclusion In summary, race and ethnicity has a significant implication on America’s criminal justice system. Racial differences have significantly affected the crime patterns among the people. For instance, there are more reported cases of criminals from a certain group arrested and prosecuted in court. This can be explained from both the personal and the social perspective. Individual’s personal differences can increase the possibility of engaging in a certain form of crime. Social and psychological factors can also increase the chances of engaging in crime.

Reference List Anonymous. (2011). Race and Ethnicity – Race in U.S. Legal History, Native Americans, Black Americans and Crime, Policing and Minorities.

Greenhaus, J. and Parasuraman, S. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Azcademy of Management Journal. 1990, Vol. 1, pp. 64-86.

Heaven, O. and Hudson, B. (2011). ‘Race’, Ethnicity and Crime. Web.

Lafree, G. and Russell, K.K. (1993). The Argument for Studying Race and Crime. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. 4, 273-289.

Randall, K. (1998). Race, Crime, and the Law. New York: Vintage Books.

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Skills of CEO at Bay View Inc. Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Bay View Corporation

Line of Operations

Management trainee

Skills necessary to be a CEO

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction Multinational companies face various challenges that require managers to endure as well as maintain high levels of integrity. This is mainly because these corporations have branches throughout the globe, which target a highly dynamic market. It is also quite important to note that employees in these corporations usually come from varied cultures.

This poses another problem whose solution lies in a good organizational culture. It is every employee’s dream to take charge of duties in their areas of work. Different lines of operations pose varying challenges to managers. Moreover, these challenges require different leadership skills to solve. It is therefore very essential for managers to have a thorough understanding of the business’s line of operation. This way, he/she can apply different skills to get desired results.

High technology companies, for instance, requires a manager with massive wealth of experience in production and marketing of the product. Since companies encounter varying challenges at different times and places, it is quite important for the manager to possess both individual skills as well as those that can be employed to realize success. This paper will consider skills required for a management trainee to become a CEO at Bay View Inc.

Bay View Corporation Bay View Inc. manufactures framostats, which are supplied throughout the world. Framostats is a propriety item in high demand. Bay View employs more than 50000 workers all over the globe and adds to its number by 10, annually. In addition, the company is sole in manufacturing of these product.

The products are useful parts in automotive machinery such as motor vehicle and airplanes, among others. Moreover, Bay View Corporation has branches throughout the world. In essence, it monopolizes manufacturing and supply of framostats all over the globe. This is quite essential because the company has to deal with constant demand for their products. The chief executive officer therefore has a very significant role to play in this corporation.

For instance, he/she has to link with a team of managers that operate the branches all over the globe. In addition, the manager has to ensure that these products are made in their right shape and quality before supply. This cannot be done without prior knowledge of skills in production and use of the product. A chief executive officer (CEO) can be defined in relation to the type of organization. For instance, in corporations, the CEO is answerable to company’s board of directors.

On the other hand, in sole proprietorship, the CEO is answerable to him/herself. In this regard, CEOs should have vast knowledge of skills and qualities of leadership. The CEO is charged with responsibility of executing company’s strategic plans as well as policies. Therefore, to manage such a huge company as Bay View, one must rise through the levels of its operations to improve its efficacy. Therefore, management trainees form the best candidates as potential CEOs and managers in this corporation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Line of Operations The company deals in manufacture of framostats. This product is in high demand as it forms part of automotive machineries. As a management trainee, the first three weeks involves orientation, understanding of company’s organizational culture, and structures. Others include understanding the number of branches, products, and their uses, possible opportunities, and work ethics, among others.

Trainees should have a good understanding of the company’s organizational structure. In fact, those who hope to be CEOs in the corporation must understand its internal structure, chain of command, tasks, and responsibilities of each individual as well group ethics. These are very significant in developing an individual’s managerial skills for betterment of the corporation.

Management trainee Trainees are usually hired to be imparted with skills that can enable them fit the requirements of a corporation. This enables them to have a clear understanding of all levels of work in the corporation. Moreover, it helps develop an organizational culture in them. This is mainly because candidates are drawn from various parts of the world with varied cultures.

The corporation should therefore try to impart relevant elements with ability to develop their human capacity for efficacy. The first three weeks will therefore involve elements such as orientation, understanding of company’s organizational culture, and structures.

Others include number of branches, products, and their uses, possible opportunities, and work ethics, among others. Orientation is important as it provides individuals with the mastery of workplace. Another aspect of great importance to development of trainees is interaction with company staff and managers. This enables them to learn organizational culture of the corporation (Gibbons 1).

Skills necessary to be a CEO To become a CEO that manages a large multinational corporation such as Bay View, one needs to poses the following skills as well as be ready to improve on them. These can be divided into two main groups, those that are result oriented and individual skills. The latter include an individual’s ability, most of which are noticed during recruitment.

They include analytic intelligence, creativity, which should be developed during training. Trainees should possess urgency, openness, empathy, drive, and endurance, willingness to work in any given role as well as have high integrity. Others include ability to identify problems, interpersonal skills, neutrality, and ability to lead as well as have vision for the company, among others.

We will write a custom Report on Skills of CEO at Bay View Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Result oriented skills include knowledge of customer and market, comprehensive knowledge of the technology, championing as well as articulation of vision, ability to strategies, and realize objectives. Still, other include identification, support and deployment of essential competencies, removal of obstacles, emphasis on profitability, ability to focus on short and long term basis, promotion of learning, and early identification of problems as well as their solutions, among others (Gibbons 1).

Clearly, these objectives cannot be achieved within the first three weeks of class. However, they are developed in a continuous manner. Ideally, candidates should be able to develop more than one skill at a time and progressively development their human capacity. Therefore, as much as the first three weeks majors on orientation, organizational culture, business structure, product and its usage, among others, skills must develop simultaneously with acquisition of new ideas (Gibbons 1).

Conclusion Trainees are usually hired to be imparted with skills that can enable them fit the requirements of a corporation. This enables them to have a clear understanding of all levels of work in the corporation. Moreover, it helps develop an organizational culture in them. Possible candidates for the post of CEO should possess variety of skills, which must be developed during training.

These include those that are result oriented and individual skills. Therefore, since the first three weeks majors on orientation, organizational culture, business structure, product, and its usage, among others, skills must develop simultaneously with acquisition of new ideas.

Work Cited Gibbons, Fred. “CEO Skills Inventory”. stanford.edu. 24.01.2007.11.09.2011. https://web.stanford.edu/class/ee353/ceo.htm

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The United States Constitution Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu

Introduction The United States’ constitution has stood the test of time since its adoption in late 18th century. During 17th century, Americans were under colonial rule that denied them rights and powers to govern themselves. Then, Americans fought for their independence gradually by demanding their recognition and inclusion into the colonial government that had oppressed for quite some time.

Colonialists flooded the US in early 17th century from various parts of the world, majorly Europe because they were escaping religious persecution and in search of expansive land for agriculture. Under oppression, Americans made several initiatives in a bid to emancipate themselves and these initiatives culminated into independence in 1776.

According to Garrett, in 1765, 13 colonies met to discuss the violation of fundamental rights and in 1774 and 1775, first and second continental congress respectively resolved to have independence (12). In 1776, the United States got its independence and adopted a new constitution in 1787. This constitution has become the legal basis for the present government. Despite the fact that the formulation of the United States’ constitution dates back to more than 230 years ago, it is still remarkably viable in the modern government.

The preamble of the United States’ constitution envisages a perfect union of diverse states based on common defence, liberty, justice and tranquillity. Even though the preamble dates back to more than two centuries ago, it formed the basis of federal form of government that still exists today.

American government has a federal model of government that other countries are trying to emulate for it is a perfect union of diverse states. Garrett argues that the United States’ constitution has stood the test of time because it established federal government as it exists currently (19).

The existence of the federal government reflects viability of the United States’ constitution in modern governance. Therefore, current union of states has its basis in the United States’ constitution, which envisaged perfect union and how federal government functions and relates with central government.

The United States’ constitution is still viable in modern governance because it has an elastic clause that makes it flexible and adaptive to modern changes, which are consistent with new forms of governance. According to Section 8 of Article I, Congress has powers to make necessary amendments that are essential and consistent with the United States’ constitution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States’ constitution is a legal framework that anchors several amendments and provisions in view of evolving legal issues of governance in the modern world. Wedes argues that, the elastic clause is particularly relevant to modern governance because it does not only give power to Congress to conduct necessary and appropriate amendments, but also ensures that the constitution is in tandem with dynamic needs of governance (p.1).

For instance, Congress has made several amendments in modes of taxation, regulation of commerce and security issues with regard to terrorism. Thus, elastic clause has made the United States’ constitution remain viable and reliable in current governance.

Moreover, the amendment process of the United States’ constitution is decidedly stringent to protect it from undue mutilation and changes that would make it lose its viability over time. The United States’ constitution has the first ten amendments that form basis of human rights, which are inalienable.

From independence, the first ten amendments have remained and are truly viable as they are provisions that stipulate inherent and immutable rights of every citizen in America. For instance, the first amendment to the United States’ constitution provides and guarantees freedom of expression, religion, association and petition. The first amendment assured Americans that the federal government will protect and secure their rights for posterity.

In addition, Garlinger states that, the fourteenth amendment to the United States’ constitution forbids any state from making or enforcing any law that restrict the privileges or deprive life, liberty and property (p.32). Hence, in spite of numerous attempts to amend the constitution, the amendments to United States’ constitution are central to human rights and have become the cornerstone in advocacy of human rights, thus still viable in the present government.

Supreme Court of the United States also has powers to review the constitutionality of statutes, amendments and treaties that congress makes to guarantee their consistency with the constitution. According to Prakash and Yoo, Marbury v. Madison (1803), did set a precedent, which gave powers to Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of congressional statutes and amendments (890).

Currently, Supreme Court still has powers to review and determine the constitutionality of statutes and amendments of the Congress. Thus, Supreme Court has a considerable role in ensuring that the United States’ constitution remains viable and consistent across all ages except few amendments that enhance its application in modern governance.

We will write a custom Assessment on The United States Constitution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Although the United States’ constitution is over 200 years old, it is still highly relevant in modern society. The constitution provides a legal framework, which anchors several provisions and amendments that occur over a period.

The legal framework of the United States’ constitution has relatively remained constant for over 200 years, and is still relevant and viable because it is flexible in adopting new judicial and governing reforms. It is quite evident that the United States’ constitution been stable for a long period because of federal form of government, elastic clause, stringent amendment process and judicial review, all of which attest its viability and relevance in the modern United States.

Works Cited Garlinger, Paul. “United States Constitution: The Amendments.” New York University Law Review 2.4 (2009): 30-34.

Garrett, Sandy. United States History, Constitution and Government. New York: Harcourt Publisher, 2005.

Prakash, Saikrishna, and Yoo, John. “The Origins of Judicial Review.” Chicago Law Review, 2003: 887-933.

Wedes, Samuel. “A Living Constitution, the United States Constitution: Does It Stand The Test of Time?” Government, 2006: 1-33.

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The Fear’s Explanation Essay essay help free: essay help free

Fear is a natural emotion prevalent in human beings as a result of anticipation of danger. It could have both positive as well as negative impacts in the life of an individual depending on a situation. It for instance puts individuals in a better position in regard to responding to danger and threats.

Nonetheless, fear could grow to an extent where it becomes unhealthy thus causing abnormal and violent behavior among individuals. This piece of work looks at the aspect of fear as illustrated in the article “Fear” by Phil Barker. The article is very informative giving various aspects that are related to fear. According to the author, there is some form of fear that is understandable and advantageous to an individual while there is also some fear that accounts for conflicts that result in war. Fear can occur in different stages.

There is real fear which is based on a real situation for instance when you get hurt or experience some pain out of a certain happening, it is automatic that you develop fear of such a happening even in future. Realistic/ possible fear on the other hand is the fear that is natural and can be seen as in individual’s effort towards avoiding threats through all means, for instance, avoiding walking at night for safety reasons.

The third form of fear is what is considered dangerous and could lead to violence and war. Barker asserts that the fear that brings about conflicts which in return lead to war or violence is the exaggerated or emotional fear. This entails a person not only remembering past fears and happenings but also associating it with current occurrences. It is closely associated with conflict as it determines an individual’s capability of handling danger or threat related situations (Barker par 2).

The author gives an elaborate explanation of the issue of fear through providing various perspectives of fear as well as the attributes associated with it including the causes, why fear matters as well as how fear can be handled. Through the information given, I strongly think that the author’s explanation is a reasonable way of enhancing our understanding on the issue of historical violence in relation to the concept of fear.

This is because the author gives a clear relationship between fear and violence and how history plays a critical role. The author first states that conflict is fuelled by unfulfilled needs and desires and the fears associated with the needs. Identity is usually a very essential aspect in every individual. For this reason, any chance of losing identity and security could result in fear for instance that related to extinction and oppression.

History has been depicted to be very crucial in creating fear especially that which is connected to violence. This is because historical or past experiences play a great role of shaping how individuals and groups of people perceive and respond to threats and any form of danger.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It therefore follows that if a person or a group has been wounded or hurt over the past, the experience affects their status today and also in future in terms of how they view fear as well as how they may tend to handle it. A good example that the author has given us is that of the tension that exist between the Palestinians and the Israelis. All the happenings that occurred between these groups often rejuvenates among the people and it has created some form of fear in the people making it difficult for them to relate in a friendly manner.

This is despite the fact that things could have changed. History creates some form of fear cycles. This is for example where a certain group is mistreated causing fear and the feeling of weakness and for this reason; they become susceptible to further discrimination or mistreatment as they believe that since they were hurt or done wrong in the past, the probability of the same happening in future is very high.

This is however exacerbated by the fact that those who endured some pain out of any occurrence tend to feel betrayed and bitter and instead of trying to accept the situation and to look for strategies of coming out of it, they stay withdrawn thus making chances of being hurt once more high.

In order to enhance our understanding on the concept of fear and how it is related to violence and war, I will give some examples. As noted earlier, historical memories play a great role in shaping an individual’s life for instance through how he or she perceives things and people. A person who was hurt in the past is more likely to be bitter and have an urge to revenge. This is usually done through violence which is connected to fear.

During childhood, there occurred some war in my hometown and I witnessed policemen arrogantly hurting people whom I considered innocent. Although we as children were not affected, the memories of the happenings are still fresh in my mind. I not only developed fear towards policemen but also some form of hatred. Up to now, I do fear them and try as much as possible not to cross my lines and have an experience with them although in the real sense, they ought to solve problems.

Another example is the historical violence that existed between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. This is evident even today where there is some way people from either group treat the others as a result of fear brought about by occurrences that transpired between the two. It is very hard to see a Catholic being comfortable among the Protestants and vice versa. This is because there is some form of fear and each group values itself to be more superior to the other hence the tension.

It is evident that fear entails a lot, not just what can be thought of at the mention of the word. Fear could be useful, for instance, in helping an individual to be more prepared concerning responding to threats and dangers. It could also be dangerous where it goes to the extreme and causes violence.

We will write a custom Essay on The Fear’s Explanation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this reason, there is dire need of leaning on the strategies of dealing with fear in an effort to avoid instances of exaggeration where it could cause negative effects not only to the victim but also to those around him or her.

Some of the strategies ought to be personal while others could be initiated by the responsible people for instance relatives and counselors. Generally one should be aware of the fear and the consequences linked with it, accept it, and identify ways to express the fear, determine the factors that contribute to fear and more so, implement strategies that could in one way or the other reduce fear.

Works Cited Barker Phil. “Fear”. Beyond intractability, 2003. 7 September 2011

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Assessing Quality of the Products and Services Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Products and services have a collection of features that enable a customer to rate quality of the goods and services for satisfaction. The views to determine the overall quality of product and service include product design, services delivery, and the overall process of delivering product or services. This paper focuses on assessing product and service quality.

According to Lewis et al (2007, p. 447) there are many factors for rating a products quality, but it depends on the type. For example, I went to a beauty shop to buy a face cream for removing blackheads, which I thought could be effective after some time but did not see any improvements. The factors which I used to gauge the product include the brand name, products ingredients, its effectiveness and price. The product contained a trusted brand name and I thought that it was effective and hence, I rated it at 9 out of 10.

The product also had many ingredients, which appeared to be natural and so I rated it at 5 point. Since the product was not effective as expected, I rated it at 1 because there were no changes after applying it. Due to the products’ ineffectiveness, and despite the high price, the products rating were at 4 point. I discovered that it is not always true that the higher the price of a product, the better it is as compared to those with lower costs.

Based on the results of the rating, the brand name was at 9 point, ingredients at 5, and effectiveness of the product at 1, and the price at 4. Hence, the total number of all the ratings was 19. I got the average of the total points by dividing the total by the four factors and a rating of 4.75.

In service quality, I used many determinants when I visited a national library, but did not get the best services. First, there was no proper responsiveness whenever I needed assistance in locating my books of interest. The rate of responsiveness was of 4 out of 10. In addition, there was no ease of accessing the reading materials because they were mixed up in the shelf, thus the rating was 5 out of 10. At the main entrance the library staff was not courteous and polite to customers, thus courtesy rating was at 3 out of 10.

The library also lacked competent staff because I noticed that they did not have the proper skills and knowledge for providing the services when I tried to enquire more about the library, hence competency rating was at 2 out of 10. It was not easy to communicate since there were no staffs ready to listen to the customers and thus, communication rating was at 4 out of 10.

Similarly, security of the bags and other items left at the shelf was not guaranteed because some of the shelves did not have number tags and we left the bags without being assured of their security: it is possible for another customer to pick a bag that does not belong to him hence the security rating was at 6. The staff did not bother to understand individual customer needs and hence, the rating was at 5.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based at all the service ratings, the responsiveness had 4 points, ease of accessing had 5 points, and courtesy was at 3 points, staff competency was at 2 points, communication was at 4 points, security was at 6 points and finally understanding customer needs was at 5 points. The ratings were all out of 10 and thus, when I added all of them the result was 29. I got the overall average service rating by dividing the number of points by the number of factors and the average was at 4.14.

In conclusion, it is important for companies and organizations to focus on customer satisfaction by providing the best services and giving quality products. Wirtz (2003) suggests that to determine the customers’ perception of a product and a service, businesses should seek to understand the customers’ experience when using the product or getting the service, and what they say about them because the final financial results are based on customer satisfaction and quality.

References Lewis, P. S., Goodman, S. H., Fandt, P. M.,

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How to Effectively Train for a Marathon Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Physical Training

Physiological Training

Psychological Training

Conclusion

References

Introduction Training for a marathon is exceptionally demanding because it requires physical, physiological, and psychological preparation. Usually, athletes undergo rigorous training that prepares them to endure the hard challenges associated with marathon. Training programs for marathon aim at enhancing performance and endurance by improving effective utilization of energy and oxygen.

Moreover, training enhances performance by increasing muscular structures and promoting effecting coordination of neurons throughout the body. According to Tinsley (2005), training theory perceives that effective training is only achievable if athletes incorporate nutrition, physiological, physical, and psychological factors into their training programs (p.1).

These factors are critical in marathon training, for they offer comprehensive training to athletes so that they can not only endure fatigue, but also enhance their performance and improve their health. Fundamentally, marathon training requires comprehensive training since marathon can potentially cause serious injurious, thus quite dangerous for a novice athlete.

Given that marathon can potentially cause grave injurious if an athlete does not train well, it is imperative for training programs to be effective and comprehensive. Thus, effective training for a marathon should encompass physical, physiological, and psychological aspects of training.

Physical Training Physical training for a marathon aims at building strong muscles that are essential in enhancing physical fitness. Rigorous exercises that novice athletes undergo enable them to build appropriate muscles and acquire physical fitness that form basis of training.

Moreover, rigorous exercises are particularly beneficial in burning excess fat and promoting circulation of oxygen in the body. Tinsley (2005) reasons that, running a marathon causes considerable physical changes in the body because; it can result into utter exhaustion, severe injuries, and extension of muscles (p.3).

These changes can be extremely grave if a novice athlete attempts to run a marathon, yet his/her body is not physically ready and accustomed to extensive and intensive running. Inadequate preparation for a marathon has severe consequences because it predisposes the body muscles to more injurious than usual. Thus, for an athlete to build strong stamina and develop resilience of running a marathon, rigorous physical exercises are imperative.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective marathon training requires athletes to wear proper shoes and clothing. Proper shoes cushion legs and body from undue friction and shock experiences of a marathon run. For effective training, legs should accustom to a given type of shoes because changing of shoe design during training predispose one to injury.

Tinsley (2005) explains that, appropriate shoe design and cushioning enhances springing and reduces the occurrence of injuries on legs (p.4). Thus, athletes need to consult shoe specialists to enable them choose the right design of shoe before embarking on rigorous exercises of marathon. In addition to shoes, athletes also need appropriate clothing that suit their training needs and environment.

When training during cold weather, athletes need clothes that keep them warm while at the same time allows removal of sweats from the body. During hot weather, athletes need light clothing that bring about cooling effect and reduce the rate of sweating, thus conserve a lot of water in the body. Athletics’ attire has significant influence on marathon training and consequently determines athletic performance.

Physiological Training Physiological training entails aspects of nutrition and rest. Physiological mechanism of the body highly depends on nutrients obtained from diet that athletes take. Poor nutrition interferes with physiological mechanism of the body that deals with generation and regulation of energy, thus negatively affect effective training for a marathon.

Without stable physiological health, athletes are not able to perform their rigorous exercises, which are essential in building stamina and resilience. Hamilton (2007) advises that, even if an athlete is mentally determined and physical strong, neglect of nutrition has a detrimental effect on health and can cause illness or physiological injury to vital organs in the body (p.78).

Thus, for athletes to train effectively for a marathon, they should ensure that they take balance diet. Since marathon requires a lot of energy, a diet needs to contain about 60% of carbohydrates. Additional, the body needs a lot of water to prevent dehydration of cells because more water is lost through sweats during training.

Even though more exercises are essential for one to gain appropriate physical fitness, resting is also imperative to allow restoration of over-stretched physiological processes. During the period of rest, physiological processes replenish used energy and regenerate exhausted muscles, making them stronger again.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How to Effectively Train for a Marathon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cormier (2009) argues that, high intensity training should precede tapering period, which refreshes the body and the mind in preparation for a marathon (p.10). The tapering period should entail a two-week period where intensive training reduces to about 50%, to allow the body to rejuvenate for a race.

Psychological Training Although marathon race may seem to be more of physical than psychological activity, it has become evident that psychology plays an integral role in motivating athletes. Cormier (2009) contends that, physiological ability of an athlete determines how one covers the first 30 kilometers, while psychological aspect of willpower determines one’s ability to cover remaining 12 kilometers (p.13).

Studies have further suggested that about 40% of runners surrender after covering about 30 kilometers because they lack willpower that motivates them to finish. Psychology influence running because the brain in conjunction with central nervous system coordinates movement of limbs, use of fuel reserves, regulation of water and oxygen utilization by the body. Thus, athletes need to develop willpower during their training so that they can cope with the challenge of exhaustion, endurance, and surrendering.

Thus, effective psychological training of marathon involves training with other athletes to obtain emotional support, acceptance of hardship, interaction with mentors and coaches, and running as an explorative activity. Hamilton (2007) posits that, long runs are essential in training, for they make the mind and body adapt to the strain of viewing marathon as a long distance event that requires endless steps (p.76).

The strain associated with marathon training has made many athletes lose hope and surrender in the course of their running because they have insufficient psychological preparation. Thus, for athletes to train marathon effectively, they need to acclimatize their psychology to long runs, hardships, different routes and derive pleasure in marathon.

Conclusion Marathon training is quite demanding because it requires physiological, physical, and psychological preparation for athletes to perform well. Partial training does not only result into poor performance but can cause severe injuries. Injuries that athletes usually experience occur due to poor training.

Thus, novice athletes must undergo rigorous and comprehensive training to avert predisposition to injurious that occur because of insufficient training. Comprehensive training for marathon needs to involve physiological, physical, and psychological training, because they are integral factors that determine performance in marathon. Therefore, for athletes to train effectively for a marathon, they should not overlook or assume essence of physiological, physical, and psychological training.

References Cormier, S. (2009). Marathon Training: Nutritional Strategies, Pre-race Taper and Psychology. Marylebone Physiotherapy and Sports Medicine, 1-22.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Effectively Train for a Marathon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cormier’s article asserts that marathon training must be systematic to prevent undue injuries and futility of training. In the article, Cormier notes that haphazard training of marathon is to blame for poor performance and high rates of injuries. Thus, he recommends comprehensive training of athletes for them to perform outstandingly in marathons.

Hamilton, A. (2007). Marathon Training Plan: Tackling the Big One. Fit Runner, 74-78.

In this article, Hamilton argues that running a marathon is not fun because it is very demanding in that, it requires both extensive and intensive training. Moreover, the article outlines basic principles that are essential for effective training, which include long runs, cross training, rest, and nutrition amongst other principles. Ultimately, the article concludes that marathon training should entail physiological, physical, and psychological aspects.

Tinsley, H. (2005). Principles of Training Theory. International Association of Athletics Federations, 1-14.

This article reflects the recommendations of International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) in training of athletes. IAAF recommends that training of athletes must entail social, philosophical, nutrition, anatomy, physical, psychological, and physiological knowledge. Tinsley observes that wide conception of marathon training enhances effective training and promote performance.

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The Stock Market Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Stock market refers to marketing environment whereby issuing and subsequent trading of shares and securities takes place (Wyss 12). The market is also referred to as equity market and it is very crucial in economic growth bearing in mind that by issuing specific percentage of their shares to investors, companies are able to raise the much needed capital to facilitate growth and expansion (Wyss 16).

The term stock market does not necessarily refer to a specific place (Wyss 18). However, stock exchange market such as the New York Stock Exchange and other exchanges around the world are situated in specific locations.

On the same note, stock market provides a platform through which individuals can buy or sell stocks, bonds and securities. Wyss (18) elucidates that there are several securities which are traded in stock markets such as shares, derivatives, unit trusts and bonds. Most stocks are sold or bought through stock exchanges which are either physical or virtual. At physical exchanges, buyers and sellers decide on pricing level through an auction method which is moderated by a specialist (Wyss 64).

The final price is arrived at by establishing an equilibrium price whereby both buyers and sellers are willing to make a transaction (Wyss 72). Once an equilibrium price is reached, a transaction is concluded. A similar situation is experienced in virtual exchanges. The only difference is that in virtual exchanges, dealers are interlinked digitally. Moreover, brokerage dealers regulate the stock market through continuous bids which are within a certain price range (Wyss 66).

Additionally, Wyss (28) distinguishes between two types of stock market namely primary and secondary. The primary market is whereby companies issue their securities for sale to the public in the stock market through Initial Public Offer (IPO) (Wyss 28).

On the other hand, subsequent trading of previously- issued securities by investors is referred to as secondary market (Wyss 28). On the other hand, primary market trading is a onetime event but secondary market is the core of stock market since it is continuous almost on a daily basis (Wyss 29).

Prices in the stock market fluctuate every minute and it is imperative for traders to establish how shares are performing at certain times (Wyss 66). This is accomplished by use of stock indexes such as Dow Jones and S

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Cultures around the World Descriptive Essay scholarship essay help

Culture is the way of life of a given people. It entails how people behave and perceive different life issues. It includes aspects like religion, customs, language, beliefs, food among others. Culture varies from one place to the other depending on the circumstances surrounding a place such as climate and environment and how people perceive things.

The difference between cultures brings about the issue of culture shock. Culture shock is experienced differently by various people and is believed to be temporary. In this assignment, I will give my experience and how culture shock affected me.

It was last year when I decided to have a change of environment; after having a very tight school schedule. I held the idea that spending my summer on a farm far away from the busy city life would be a relief to me. Since childhood, I had spent my life in the city and hence I was used to city life and all the attributes that go along with it. This made the countryside look so different for me in regard to various aspects including the environment, the customs, the food taken, the values and beliefs among other things.

The first thing that gave me problems was the environment and climate in the new place. Initially, I found it interesting due to the fact that it was free from congestion and pollution and everything seemed cool.

It was however very cold, which made me to clad in warm clothing so as to put up with the weather. Communication is another concept that was so different. Unlike in the city, respect in the countryside was a key issue especially when interacting with people who are much older. I had to be taught the words I would use when addressing older people.

Although it sounded awkward, I had no choice but to learn. Shaking hands was also important since you had to show concern to the other person. People had to engage in lengthy conversations whenever they met differing to the city life where they just say hello and leave. Food and how meals were taken was also amazing. Most of the food offered to me was very unfamiliar; some tasting okay while others were just unbearable. Meals were taken many times a day and people took time together.

This is unlike in the city where everyone is rushing and taking a meal together as a family is rare. Some customs in the countryside also seemed unbearable, for instance, having to work hard for specified duration of time and having resting hours. It is a relaxed experience compared to the busy lifestyle in the city. Generally, some of the feelings that I experienced as a result of culture shock include feeling out and misunderstood, frustration, anxiety, homesickness and worse still developing a negative attitude towards the new culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is evident that culture shock is a reality that people have to face from time to time as they encounter different cultures that are markedly different from theirs. This is mainly because of the differences that exist in regard to values and beliefs. All in all, culture shock is temporary and requires just some time before one adjusts and thus move away from the confusion.

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