The Aurora Gun Issue Overview Essay Essay Help Online Free

Introduction The resilience with which the rights organizations in Colorado have been fighting to block the constitutional restriction on access to guns is perhaps to blame for the recent shooting in Aurora. Following the 1999 Columbine tragedy, most legislators and voters from the Colorado state rose to pass laws that would restrict the sale and carrying of unconcealed weapons.

This is a reaction paper on the shooting incident that took place in a multiplex in Denver on 19th July, 2012. The incident that turned fantasy into a real nightmare happened moments after midnight, when a crowd of fans were watching the film dubbed “the dark night rising.”

The Aurora Gun Issue Armed with an “assault riffle, a short gun and a hand gun”, James Holmes went on a shooting spree killing 12 people and critically injuring 58 others (Frosch


The Six Major Functions of the Government Essay a level english language essay help

Administration of justice; the government has the mandate of enforcing the rule of law. The government operates the system of courts and laws which make all mature citizens equal under the law and gives the citizens equal opportunities to achieve a just settlement of their civil disputes. It also ensures that fair treatment is given to the suspected or accused in the event of a criminal activity.

Common defense; it is the most important function of the government. A political society’s government, whether central or national, is liable for preserving the safety of that society from alien aggression according to Ethridge and Handleman (2009). As a result, the government upholds the armed forces which it utilizes during attacks and incursions by foreign authorities to provide protection of the country and the people it governs.

Domestic order; it is the duty of the government to govern and protect its citizens. Therefore, the government should uphold internal peace among the people and other groups in the society. In the constitution of the United States, domestic order or internal peace is known as domestic tranquility. The constitution was established to ensure domestic tranquility.

Protection of civil liberties; in a constitutional democratic civilization, the protection of civil liberties is the most significant function of the government. The government preserves and conserves the basic rights and liberties assured by the constitution to the members of the society.

Foreign diplomacy; the handling of foreign diplomacy is another crucial responsibility which in a sovereign state is done by the national or central government as stated by Dick, Blais and Moore (1996).

In a completely independent political culture, the central government sustains official diplomatic ties with a considerable number of other sovereign nations in the globe whose central governments formally recognize the independence of the particular political culture. It also maintains these ties with those sovereign societies willing to maintain diplomatic ties with its conventional existing central government.

Promotion of the general welfare; the government should endorse the universal good of all classes of citizens by ensuring laws safeguarding them equally are passed and that equal opportunities are provided. The general welfare encompasses transportation, education, public health and safety as sated by Noona (2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The human basic needs and interactions which are human rights, public service, allocation of resources, war and peace and physical environment are highly affected by how the government upholds its functions. The instability of the functions of the government has very adverse impacts on the most basic needs and the interaction of the citizens.

For instance, the allocation of resources can be impossible in a case where the domestic order is not maintained. Internal peace is very crucial to the survival and satisfaction of every individual and any rift in this can affect how resources are distributed.

In addition, the provision of public service in a democratic government is bound to be fair to all citizens. Therefore, the lack of justice in the provision of public service for instance in a court case, might cause enormity among citizens.

Foreign diplomacy is very important as it keeps the country secure from war and maintains peace according to Webel (2007). However, failure of the government to maintain good relations with foreign countries is likely to cause war and lack of peace among citizens.

The physical environment in which people live is very important and the government should provide enough defenses to that environment. In case of instability in military defense it can lead to insecurity of the environment in which people live since there is no strong defense.

Human rights are a major stake in the political process according to Poe and Souffrant (2008). It is the mandate of the political arm of the government to guarantee equal rights for all individuals and make sure that every individual enjoys their rights to the full capacity. Failure of the government to provide general welfare or maintain protection of civil liberties to all citizens leads to a case where some individual live much better than others hence it breeds indifferences among citizens.

References Dick, J., Blais, J.,


Processing of Intel and AMD: Chipset Technology Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Intel faces stiff competition from Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) in the manufacture of Central Processing Units (CPUs) which are a key component in computers. AMD produces a significant percentage of the total number of CPUs sold annually. The two chipmakers have been constantly advancing the technology employed in their chipsets to retain proper market share.

The frequent refining of chipset technology by the two companies aims at realizing optimum performance in terms of graphics, speed and power consumption among other features. These chipsets differ in their clock speed, host-bus speed and cache memory among other aspects. For example, while Intel employs the hyper-threading technology in its processors, AMD uses the hyper-transport technology.

In this regard, the market has witnessed fast changes in chipset architecture and price wars between Intel and AMD. For example, AMD was the first company to introduce a 64-bit processor clocking the gigahertz speed. In response, Intel introduced the EMT64 CPU. In addition, when AMD introduced the NX processor technology, Intel responded by introducing the XDB technology in its processors.

Advantages of AMD64 chips AMD chips are manufactured from pre-existing sockets until technological constrictions demand the upgrade to a new socket. This strategy considerably favours consumers regarding replacement and upgrading of chips. AMD processors support the backward-compatibility feature as seen with the introduction of the AMD64 processor that supports 32-bit software with optimum functionality. This provides a lot of flexibility for users unlike the equivalent Intel EMT64 CPU that has minimal 32-bit functionalities.

Furthermore, AMD bridge components are easy to mix and match unlike Intel chips whose design considers certain processor families. On the other hand, Intel chips releases occur too fast and consumers face difficulties associated with replacement or upgrading due to varying socket sizes accompanying new releases.

Regarding energy consumption, AMD CPUs operate at a low energy consumption of about 275 watts. An Intel processor with similar functionalities will operate a higher power consumption of about 400 watts. This variation in power consumption is crucial as it caters for the consumers economic aspects.

AMD chips support faster clocking and over-clocking while maintaining stability. The L3 cache memory located outside the CPU core supports this functionality. By varying the BIOS settings, a user can considerably increase the processor speed. This capability is essential in high-end graphics operations where a large L2 cache memory has minimal benefits. Such applications include gaming. Intel chips, on the other hand, demonstrate resistance to over-clocking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disadvantages over Intel Intel L2 cache memory has a higher performance compared to the L3 AMD processors cache memory, as it is located inside the processor’s core. Since the cache memory is the fastest accessible memory, Intel EMT64 chipset has a generally faster speed compared to AMD64 Athlon especially regarding small data applications. Computers running on Intel chipsets exhibit effectiveness in extracting and analyzing data during a single program operation.

The architecture of Intel CPUs ensures the execution of tasks occurs with minimal heat generation. In addition, they have advanced cooling features. In this regard, Intel chipsets are likely to last longer than AMD chipsets with equivalent functions as they normally exhibit higher heat generation.

This is a major setback for AMD equipped machines when dealing with heavy applications. While Intel manufactures their own system boards to support their processors, AMD relies on third parties to build system boards for their CPUs. This has the effect of dragging new releases of chipsets.


Successful Strategy of Resolving Conflicts Analytical Essay a level english language essay help

It is believed that a conflict can be effectively resolved only if people search for the solution that can benefit both sides. Furthermore, decisiveness is often viewed as a negative force that only harms a person involved in a conflict or dispute.

However, there are cases when decisiveness is the only morally responsible choice that an individual can take. This argument is applicable to those situations when a person has to compromise ones ethical values.

As a rule, this compromise will not yield the expected results. Moreover, it can limit the freedom of this individual. The discussion can be important for negotiators and people who try to resolve conflicts. They have to determine when and why decisiveness can be appropriate.

First of all, one should note that conflicts usually occur when people have opposing views, goals, values, or priorities. In most cases, such disputes can be explained by the fact that people have different perceptions of the same problem of question. For instance, a conflict can arise when co-workers propose different ways of achieving the same goal. Such disputes can also occur in a family when parents have different perceptions about the education of their children.

In such cases, decisiveness is not appropriate because it usually prevents people from finding the most optimal solution. As a rule, it will harm both sides of the argument. Moreover, an individual can make concessions without compromising ones ethical values. This is why decisiveness is often regarded as a negative phenomenon.

Nevertheless, there are circumstances when decisiveness is the only appropriate approach. In particular, one can refer to the situations when a person or organization is forced to abandon ones values, ideals and moral principles. The most eloquent examples of such situations can be found in history. In 1938 England and France consented to the demands of Germany and tried to appease the leadership of the Third Reich.

At that time, many people thought that this compromise had been the most optimal solution. However, it turned out that these concessions did not bring peace to Europe. More likely, they only contributed to the outbreak of the war. It seems that in that case, decisiveness was the only responsible approach but it was not adopted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, one can refer to the situation when a person is forced to make concessions that can limit his/her freedom and ability to take independent decisions. Very often people are made to withhold some of their rights. Such situations are widespread in the world of business, politics, and law.

It is possible to mention those cases when employees are not forbidden to disclose any information regarding the policies of a company. The problem is that sometimes these activities can run against the law or ethics. Workers, who accept these requirements of the employer, agree to limit their freedom.

Overall, negotiation and conflict resolution can hardly be possible unless both sides seek constructive or win-win solutions. However, there are exceptions to this rule. One of them is the necessity to compromise ones principles or restrict ones liberty.

A person who faces such situations should choose decisiveness, rather than the search of a compromise. It should be noted that negotiators can play a central role when resolving such conflicts. Their task will be to determine what kind of strategy a person should choose in order to succeed.


Comparative Ideologies Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Form of Government

Economic Policy

Nationalism and Internationalism

Civil Liberties/Political and Socioeconomic Rights



Introduction Different forms of governments are based on different ideologies. The ideologies are important as they shape the political, social and economic structures that are important in governance. These ideologies may be different but in some cases they intertwine in order to achieve good governance.

According to Mullins (1972), political ideology refers to a collective program that deals with actions which are focused on maintaining, altering or bringing forth a positive transformation in a society. Important to note is that positive transformation varies from one society to another. It is said to be collective because it comprises of beliefs, values and morals of that particular society (Hamilton, 1987).

Form of Government Ideology forms the core values of what a government wants to achieve. It forms the underlying principle against which policies and laws shall be formed. Most ideologies concepts are based on the social contract theory. This theory states that a government’s political legitimacy is derived from a social contract between the people and the ruling class.

Social contract theory allows the citizen to cede their rights to the ruling class in exchange for the protection by the same. The political structures that shall be put in place are those which will promote the political ideologies.

Economic Policy Political ideologies normally govern the economic shape of a country. The conservatives are normally concerned with the individuality of the economic rights (Ethridge


The Ottoman Empire’s Policies against Secessionist Minorities during the period of 1820-1918 Essay essay help online: essay help online

The Ottoman Empire controlled the territories occupied by different nationalities, and this situation was the result of the historic process. However, the problem was in the fact the authorities of the Ottoman Empire did not provide the ethnic minorities with any political or social rights accentuating the highest status of the Turks over the other nationalities and discriminating minorities.

The situation of a constant tension between the Turks and the representatives of the other ethnicities who lived in the Ottoman Empire was complicated by the religious question, secessionist ideas of the minorities and a lot of bloody conflicts which were triggered with the ethnic uprisings.

Although the Ottoman Empire was the multinational state and this situation was affected by the historic processes, the Turks followed the policy of exterminating any non-Turkish elements in the Empire and provided violent repression policies against the representatives of Greek-Balkan people, Armenians, and Assyrians who were Christians and against definite Muslim populations in order to ‘clean’ the territories from the minorities who rejected the principles of the discriminating strategy.

The authorities of the Ottoman Empire provided their repression policies during the whole century. To annihilate all the non-Turkish population, including Kurds and Arabs, and maintain the power of the Turks, the authorities developed a strict repression policy based on discriminations, massacres, and deportations (Goldschmidt, 2001). The discriminative measures depended on a lot of legal restrictions for the non-Muslims.

The Christians did not have the right to participate in the political life of the state, keep any arms, and their taxes were higher in comparison with the taxes determined for the Muslims. Any fact of the minorities’ opposition against the discriminative policy was discussed as the trigger for developing numerous massacres.

The bloodiest massacres were against Maronites in 1860, against the Armenians during 1894-1896 and in 1915, and against the Assyrians after World War I. The cause for these mass murders was to decrease the opposition and frighten the representatives of the other nationalities and religions (Quataert, 2005).

The specifics of the repression policies can be discussed with references to the problems of the Assyrians at the territories of the Ottoman Empire. To reduce the possibility of Christian rebellions during World War I, the authorities developed the strategy of the violent deportation of the Assyrians in the region of Mesopotamia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step was to kill the male population who could develop rebellions. The next step was to repress and arrest the representatives of the social and cultural elite in order to reduce the opposition of the other minorities’ representatives.

The last stage was the deportation of the Assyrians. As a result, women, old people, and ill persons were finally deported. These people had to walk several weeks, and many of them died. The other deported persons were challenged by the issues of starvation and poverty in new territories. These stages of the repression policies were used for discriminating all the representatives of the ethnic or religious minorities in the Ottoman Empire (Quataert, 2005).

Trying to preserve the Empire’s powerfulness and avoid its decline, the authorities of the Ottoman Empire were inclined to prevent any oppositions and rebellions of the minorities with the help of the further discrimination, massacres, and deportations. The efforts to ‘clean’ the Empire from the religious and ethnic minorities or non-Turkish elements resulted in developing repression policies and Genocide.

References Goldschmidt, A. (2001). A concise history of the Middle East. USA: Westview Press.

Quataert, D. (2005). The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. USA: Cambridge University Press.


Marketing Plan: Legacy Village Essay essay help online

Introduction Marketing plan is essential for companies or enterprises in order to reach their clients and establish a strong base of customers. It describes the strategies, which an organization intends to use to retain and attract customers (Berkowitz 127). Therefore, marketing plan is significant for success of an organization.

It is therefore, paramount for organizations to develop effective marketing plan. This helps in management and operational plans for the organization. In addition, marketing plan assists organization to accomplish the set goal. This report devises budget of one of products of Legacy Village and evaluates outcomes to measure the effectiveness of marketing plan.

Legacy Village is located in Layton. It a serene and convenient place that offers services such as retirement living, assisted living, rehabilitation, and memory care. Retirement living enables clients to interact with each other comfortably through learning and leisure activities. Assisted living entails providing services for senior people who are unable to manage themselves. However, these people do not require comprehensive and intensive daily medical care.

Memory care encompasses total management and assistance of senior people. Professionals in memory care help clients in grooming, bathing, and eating. Finally, rehabilitation at Legacy Village offers services such as recovery from surgical operations, strokes, injuries, or orthopedic cases of hospitalization (Legacy Village 1).

Legacy Village is extremely essential for helping seniors who have some disabilities as well as those in the recovery process. It is therefore significant for this organization to develop a marketing plan that enables it to achieve its goals. The following table indicates budget estimates for the retirement living. This is one of the products, which Legacy Village offers to its esteemed customers. The budget shows the costs of services such as an advertisement in both print and electronic media.

Table of Cost Estimates for Retirement Living at Legacy Village of Layton Type of Advertisement Cost Estimate (U.S Dollars) Daily Newspapers $2000 Television $1500 Online $2000 Social Media $3000 Exhibitions $5000 Publications/Articles/Brochures $8000 Telemarketing $2500 Grand Total $26000 Methods to Evaluate outcomes of Marketing Plan on Retirement Living It is highly prudent for Legacy Village to devise a method that evaluates the outcome of the marketing plan for retirement living. This is because evaluation of the plan is tremendously significant in establishing whether the organization has accomplished its set goals and objectives (Berkowitz 200).

This therefore means that the marketing plan should give tangible results for the success of Legacy Village. Some of the ways that the health organization in question can use include, bottom up approach, negotiated approach, and objectives approach.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bottom-up approach entails getting feedback from the consumers of the retirement living service. This will help the management at Legacy Village to have deeper knowledge of the demands of their customers. On top of this, organization will improve the quality of its services hence satisfaction to the customers.

Negotiated approach is a method that encompasses collecting comments from a big number of people. This will assist Legacy Village elicit and attract potential customers to use their products. This organization can create a strong database, which will enable current and potential customers to post their feedback.

A third method, which is sound for evaluation entails objective approach. The organization in question can use statistical data such as records and surveys (Berkowitz 195). This therefore calls the organization to keep the data of any transaction and activities safely. The three ways of evaluation, which this report has highlighted can benefit the Legacy Village in their mission to care for seniors.

Work Cited Berkowitz, Eric. Essentials of Health Care Marketing. New York: Aspen publishers, 2011. Print.

Legacy Village. Legacy Village, Layton. Web.


Chad Vs Libya Territorial Dispute Of the Aouzo Strip Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The Aouzo strip was a barren land between the border of Chad and Libya and both countries were claiming it. Chad was claiming the strip because the border was fixed by the treaty of friendship and good neighborliness between Libya and France but not between Libya and Chad.

Chad further alleged that the treaty included a formal acceptance by Libya’s France claims to the borders of its colonial possessions in Africa. The borders had been the subject of earlier agreements between Italy and Britain. Chad claimed that the 1955 treaty that recognized the validity of these previous colonial agreements still bound Libya.

Libya on the other claimed title not only to the strip but also to significance amounts of territory south of it, based on variety of assertions including the invalidity of the 1955 treaty which France illegally coerced Libya’s king into signing, the lack of any recognition in the treaty of the Chad –Libyan border in particular; the allegiance of Libya to various inhabitants of the region and prior title to the territory held by the Ottoman Empire and Italy, the predecessor colonial power to Libya.

Libya supported a rebellion by inhabitants of northern Chad against an already weak central government to assert its claims. After the central government lost control of the strip, local leaders allowed Libyan military personnel into the area, following which it set up a de facto administration of the region. Diplomatic negotiations through out the 1970s by OAU failed to reach a solution.

In 1980 when Chad’s civil war intensified, Libya invaded a large area of Chad out side the strip, captured the capital, N’Djamena and ousted the official government in favor of its pro Libyan rival. Libya and the new government even discussed the merger of the two states. OAU strongly condemned this invasion and threatened to cancel its scheduled summit to take place in Tripoli. It is then that Libya agreed to pull its trips out of much of the country.

In 1983, the Chadian government appealed to UN Security Council to demand Libya’s total withdrawal. The Soviet Union vetoed a UN resolution calling for withdrawal. Chad succeeded in ousting the Libyan military from northern Chad- except for the strip- in a lightning action in august 1987.

After two more years of OAU sponsored negation and mediation, the two states agreed to settle the dispute by political means within one year or if they failed to do so, to summit it for determination at the ICJ, in The Hague. In 1990, after negotiations failed, the two states asked the court to determine their mutual border in accordance with principles of international law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The primary actors in the Libyan Chad dispute are former colonial masters i.e. France, Italy and Britain who established the treaty of friendiship and good neighborliness. The 1955 treaty is also a primary actor because it recognized validity of previous colonial agreements. The secondary actors are the two countries in the conflict i.e. Chad and Libya.

The main governing legal instruments include the OAU and the ICJ in The Hague. The 1955 treaty of friendship and good neighborliness is also an instrument in this case because it provides the guidelines and principles which were to be adhered to by parties which entered the treaty.

A part from the OAU, the UN Security Council and ICJ no other institution or people were involved in arbitration. The ICJ relied heavily on a French colonial map of 1899. The line from the 1919 France- Britain agreement, combined with the line resulting from the France. Italy agreement determined the border, as Chad had claimed.

The court further considered the attitude of the two parties involved in the conflict. Before the matter got into international arena, Libya had not made any complaint. During this period France submitted reports of this territory to the UN General Assembly. The 1955 report showed the area of Chad’s territory as 1284000 km2 which expressly includes the Aouzou strip. Libya did not challenge the territorial dimension of Chad as set out by France. The ICJ ruled that Chad’s area was 1284000 which include the Aouzou strip.

Libya and Chad agreed to abide by the ruling and in April 1994 they reached an agreement on the practicalities of the Libyan withdrawal, removal of mines and demarcation of the border. A team of UN observers was called to monitor the withdrawal. On May 30, in accordance with the withdrawal schedule previously agreed upon, Libya completed its withdrawal and the UN certified the result.

The case rainbow warrior The Rainbow Warrior was a converted research trawler bought by an NGO called Greenpeace. Rainbow Warrior was used to publicize protests against commercial whaling practices, the dumping of nuclear wastes in the oceans and off shore oil and gas operations.

The rainbow warrior was bombed by members of the French Directorate General of External Security (DGSE) which docked in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. The ensuing explosion resulted in the sinking and total destruction of the ship and death of Fernando Pereira, a Dutch crew member. The vessel had been scheduled to protest upcoming French under ground nuclear testing in the Atoll.

We will write a custom Essay on Chad Vs Libya Territorial Dispute Of the Aouzo Strip specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sinking of the vessel made France to start restricting certain New Zealand exports to French and French territories. France also began to link the Rainbow Warrior dispute to the question of future access to the European community of New Zealand economy. In response New Zealand filled a formal complaint to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The contentious issue was the fate of major Mafart and captain Prieur. The ICJ ruled that the agents be taken to a military facility of French away from Europe for a period not less than 36 months. They were to stay to the island until both countries could give permission for them to leave. The court further stated that French should submit reports of the two to the government of New Zealand and UN General Assembly. The New Zealand government was free to visit the island with an agreed third party (Thomson 122).

France failed to comply by the ruling but manipulated the system and gave lame excuses to remove the two agents from the island before the end of their three year term they were supposed to stay on the island. The tribunal set to arbitrate on the case ruled that a financial kitty be established and France begins by contributing $2,000, 000 to enhance peaceful coexistence among the citizens of the two countries. France complied with this condition and donated the money.

The main actor in this conflict was an NGO called Greenpeace and the French government. New Zealand was a secondary actor in the case while the governing legal instruments used for deciding the case were the ICJ and the arbitral tribunal provided in paragraph 5 of Secretary General’s ruling. No other people/institution was involved in the process of arbitration a part from the family of Fernando Pereira that was compensated by the French government.

Comparison of the cases The two are different in terms of actors involved because the Libya-Chad case revolves around a stronger state (Libya) trying to undermine the territorial integrity of a weaker state (Chad) by taking advantage of civil unrest to claim parts of its geographical area. In this case also the government of Libya accepted to abide the ruling of the ICJ because of fear of international sanctions from the Security Council.

The channel of arbitration is also different because in Libyan – Chadian case the parties did not seek the indulgence of local courts to solve the dispute instead they relied on international bodies like the ICJ and OAU to solve their dispute. This could be based on the fact that the courts in these countries are not independent and prone to manipulation by the executive.

In the case of the rainbow warrior however, both countries had independent judicial systems but the difference was in the laws. The means of arbitration and the governing legal instruments are similar in both cases i.e. the use of the UN Security Council (Azevedo 58).

It is possible to consider the first case as representing a more traditional (classic) approach to international law because there was no difference in law over the issue but only a matter of proving that a territory belongs to the country. In this case Chad proved beyond doubt that the territory in question was hers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chad Vs Libya Territorial Dispute Of the Aouzo Strip by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second case can be considered a move towards more “contemporary” modus operandi to international law because the two countries had laws that contradicted each other over the issue of committing a crime on official orders.

Works Cited Azevedo, Mario. Roots of Violence: A History of War in Chad, New York: Rutledge, 1998. Print.

Thomson, Janice. Mercenaries, pirates, and sovereigns: state-building and extraterritorial violence in early modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Pres, 1996. Print.


Columbia Industries, Inc. by John Zerio Case Study scholarship essay help

In a quest for the leadership of the Columbia Industries, Inc., to address the safety and performance problems with the Hyster lift trucks formally presented by the head mechanic, a number of options were explored.

Crucial in the specifications to address the problems included maneuverability, safety, maintenance costs, and mast extensions that could reach 260 inches. The search for solutions was further reinforced by the failure of Columbia Industries Inc., to address in a timely manner the needs of their customers due to limited trucks, which impacted adversely on their customer base.

The procedure to purchase the lift tracks undertaken by Mr. Stuart West, the industrial engineer, Mr. Jacques Debre, the plant manager, and Ms Sandra Orgosky, the plant engineer followed a process where each of the 5 companies (Komatsu, Toyota, yale, Caterpillar, and Hyster) were provided adequate opportunities to provide demonstrations of their lifts for evaluation purposes.

Each of the salesmen of these companies provided their presentations and product offerings, but attempted to use means to influence the decision to have their lift trucks bought, with the exemption of Komatsu narrated about their lifts. Hyster relied on past business relationships and regular meetings with Mr West, Caterpillar and Komatsu extracted secrets about other companies, Toyota made little effort though they had reliable machines.

The company had settled on purchasing five weight lifts instead of seven as was the initial requirement therefore limiting the flexibility of addressing the concerns of the workers. However, Caterpillar was the company that completely addressed the needs of the buying center. That was because Yale offered relatively cheaper machine at $ 17, 380 and surpassed the safety and performance expectations.